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Sample records for group goal orientation

  1. Understanding the emergence of state goal orientation in organizational work groups: the role of leadership and multilevel climate perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Lisa

    2005-11-01

    This article attends to a broad range of practically significant employee motivations and provides insight into how to enhance individual-level performance by examining individual-level state goal orientation emergence in organizational work groups. Leadership and multilevel climate processes are theorized to parallel each dimension of state goal orientation to cue and ultimately induce the corresponding achievement focus among individual work group members. It is argued that the patterns of leader behavior, which elucidate the leader's achievement priority, shape group members' psychological and work group climate to embody this priority. Resulting multilevel climate perceptions signal and compel group members to adopt the ascribed form of state goal orientation. The quality of the leader-member exchange relationship is viewed as a means to clarify leader messages in the formation of group members' psychological climate and internalize these cues in the emergence of state goal orientation. Considerations for future research and practice are discussed. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Diversity in goal orientation, team reflexivity, and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Anne Nederveen; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Ginkel, Wendy P.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent research highlights the role of team member goal orientation in team functioning, research has neglected the effects of diversity in goal orientation. In a laboratory study with groups working on a problem-solving task, we show that diversity in learning and performance orientation a

  3. Diversity in goal orientation, team reflexivity, and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Anne Nederveen; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Ginkel, Wendy P.

    Although recent research highlights the role of team member goal orientation in team functioning, research has neglected the effects of diversity in goal orientation. In a laboratory study with groups working on a problem-solving task, we show that diversity in learning and performance orientation

  4. Teachers' Goal Orientations: Effects on Classroom Goal Structures and Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prior research has shown teachers' goal orientations to influence classroom goal structures (Retelsdorf "et al.," 2010, "Learning and Instruction, 20," 30) and to also impact their emotions (Schutz "et al.," 2007, "Emotion in Education," Academic Press, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). However,…

  5. Teachers' Goal Orientations: Effects on Classroom Goal Structures and Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prior research has shown teachers' goal orientations to influence classroom goal structures (Retelsdorf "et al.," 2010, "Learning and Instruction, 20," 30) and to also impact their emotions (Schutz "et al.," 2007, "Emotion in Education," Academic Press, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). However,…

  6. Multiple Goal Orientations and Foreign Language Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Roy, Laura; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai; Ploisawaschai, Suthee

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines Thai college students' motivational goals for learning the English language. Thai student volunteers (N = 1387) from two types of educational institutions participated in this survey study which combined measures of goal orientations based on two different goal constructs and motivation models. Results of two-step…

  7. Using goal orientations to understand motivation in strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Todd A; Chow, Graig M; Ewing, Martha E

    2008-07-01

    Despite the importance that today's athletics place on strength training, research exploring the motivation of athletes in this arena is sparse. It is known that not all athletes will use the same motivational cognitions as inspiration, and these differences can be explored through achievement goal orientations. Through questionnaire data and semistructured interviews, the present study investigated how collegiate athletes maintain high levels of motivation over a period of time during strength training and explored relationships among five goal orientations: task-orientation, self-enhancing ego-orientation, self-defeating ego-orientation, social-approval orientation, and work-avoidance orientation. Subjects (N = 133), comprising 90 men and 43 women, were current varsity collegiate athletes from 15 different sports at a major Midwestern university. In addition, using a screener survey to assess achievement goal orientations, 15 subjects from the sample group who demonstrated a stronger inclination to only one achievement goal orientation were interviewed to gain a more in-depth understanding of their motivation cognitions in strength training. Results showed that the strongest achievement goal orientations reported from all athletes were task-orientation and social-approval. Additionally, five higher-order themes (significant others, improvement, competitive demands, being stronger than others, and miscellaneous) were consistent among the interviewed athletes when describing how they stay motivated during strength training. Whereas all athletes were able to describe at least one motivational strategy they employed during strength training, the dominant achievement goal orientation of some athletes influenced their motivational strategy. By employing the T.A.R.G.E.T. model (), strength coaches can foster adaptive achievement goal orientations and thereby enhance intrinsic motivation for athletes engaging in strength training.

  8. Promotion of students' mastery goal orientations : does TARGET work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal orientations are important for students' ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students' mastery goal orientation.

  9. Promotion of students' mastery goal orientations : does TARGET work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal orientations are important for students' ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students' mastery goal orientation.

  10. Self-Determination and Goal Orientation in Track and Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ngien-Siong; Khoo, Selina; Low, Wah-Yun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender, age group and locality differences in adolescent athletes’ self-determination motivation and goal orientations in track and field. It also examined the relationship between the self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. A total of 632 (349 boys, 283 girls) adolescent athletes (aged 13–18 years) completed the Sports Motivation Scale and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences between gender on intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation (t(630) = 4.10, p intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation and ego orientation. A significant difference was found between age groups on task orientation (t(630) = 1.94, p intrinsic motivation. Task orientation was related to intrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p extrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p intrinsic motivation (r = 0.30, p extrinsic motivation (r = 0.36, p intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation accounted for 30.5% of the variances in task orientation. PMID:23486244

  11. Parietofrontal circuits in goal-oriented behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medendorp, W.P.; Buchholz, V.N.; Werf, J. van der; Léoné, F.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Parietal and frontal cortical areas play important roles in the control of goal-oriented behaviour. This review examines how signal processing in the parietal and frontal eye fields is involved in coding and storing space, directing attention and processing the sensorimotor transformation for saccad

  12. Parental goal orientations for their kindergarten children: Introducing the Nuremberg Parental Goal Orientation Scales (NuPaGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marold Reutlinger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the Nuremberg Parental Goal Orientation Scales (NuPaGOS which were designed to measure kindergarten children’s parents’ goal orientations for their children. The postulated four goal orientations are learning goal orientation, performance goal orientation, well-being goal orientation and fear of over-demanding orientation. We expected that the four factors underlie a g-factor. The hypothesis concerning the structure of the goal orientations was confirmed in a study with 203 parents of kindergarten children. Correlational analyses with validation variables provide initial evidence for the concurrent and discriminant validity of the NuPaGOS.

  13. Self-determination and goal orientation in track and field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ngien-Siong; Khoo, Selina; Low, Wah-Yun

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated gender, age group and locality differences in adolescent athletes' self-determination motivation and goal orientations in track and field. It also examined the relationship between the self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. A total of 632 (349 boys, 283 girls) adolescent athletes (aged 13-18 years) completed the Sports Motivation Scale and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences between gender on intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation (t(630) = 4.10, p < 0.05) and ego orientation (t(630) = 2.48, p < 0.05). Male students reported higher intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation and ego orientation. A significant difference was found between age groups on task orientation (t(630) = 1.94, p < 0.05) and locality on ego orientation (t(630) = 1.94, p < 0.05). Older athletes showed significantly higher task orientation. Rural athletes had higher ego orientation whereas urban athletes have higher intrinsic motivation. Task orientation was related to intrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01), extrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01), but weakly related to amotivation (r = 0.10, p < 0.01). Ego orientation was related to intrinsic motivation (r = 0.30, p < 0.01), extrinsic motivation (r = 0.36, p < 0.01) and amotivaion (r = 0.36, p < 0.01). Task orientation was related to ego orientation (r = 0.29, p < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation accounted for 30.5% of the variances in task orientation.

  14. Goal-oriented Data Warehouse Quality Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Cachero, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Requirements engineering is known to be a key factor for the success of software projects. Inside this discipline, goal-oriented requirements engineering approaches have shown specially suitable to deal with projects where it is necessary to capture the alignment between system requirements and stakeholders' needs, as is the case of data-warehousing projects. However, the mere alignment of data-warehouse system requirements with business goals is not enough to assure better data-warehousing products; measures and techniques are also needed to assure the data-warehouse quality. In this paper, we provide a modelling framework for data-warehouse quality measurement (i*DWQM). This framework, conceived as an i* extension, provides support for the definition of data-warehouse requirements analysis models that include quantifiable quality scenarios, defined in terms of well-formed measures. This extension has been defined by means of a UML profiling architecture. The resulting framework has been implemented in the E...

  15. Relations between Classroom Goal Structures and Students' Goal Orientations in Mathematics Classes: When Is a Mastery Goal Structure Adaptive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Federici, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test possible interactions between mastery and performance goal structures in mathematics classrooms when predicting students' goal orientations. More specifically, we tested if the degree of performance goal structure moderated the associations between mastery goal structure and students' goal orientations.…

  16. GOAL: A Goal Oriented Command Language for Interactive Proof Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Henneman 1972, Goldstein 1973, Bundy 1973]. Given the large amount of work required to program a theorem prover, this is not a desirable state of affairs... translator for such a language can be implemented fairly straightforwardly. The results obtained with this approach to theorem proving are encouraging. We... translated Into UCI-LISP. • t7... * Extending GOAL. 48 4.4.3. Status checking. A proved goal has a structure totally different from that of an unproved

  17. Instruction in mastery goal orientation: developing problem solving and persistence for clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Elaine A

    2006-09-01

    Individuals with a mastery orientation are more motivated to persist and increase their competence. Although studies have demonstrated the usefulness of explicitly teaching mastery goal orientation, no interventions have been used in nursing education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mastery goal orientation could be rapidly acquired by nursing students via a short-term educational intervention. Nursing students from five programs participated in a 3-week intervention. Participants were matched by demographic profile and pretest goal orientation scores before being randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Goal orientation was measured before and after the intervention. Students in the experimental group increased their mastery orientation significantly, while reducing their performance orientation somewhat. They persisted to solve problems, while students in the control group gave up more easily when faced with a difficult task. Early development of mastery goal orientation that promotes problem solving and persistence for clinical settings can be a powerful adjunct to undergraduate nursing education.

  18. Modern psychometrics for assessing achievement goal orientation: a Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Krista R; Winne, Philip H; Edwards, Ordene V

    2009-09-01

    A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire (AGQ, Elliot & McGregor, 2001) and the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS, Midgley et al., 2000) to provide an in-depth analysis of the two most popular instruments in educational psychology. For Study 1, 217 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty-four were male and 181 were female (two did not respond). Participants completed the AGQ in the context of their educational psychology class. For Study 2, 126 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty were male and 95 were female (one did not respond). Participants completed the PALS in the context of their educational psychology class. Traditional psychometric assessments of the AGQ and PALS replicated previous studies. For both, reliability estimates ranged from good to very good for raw subscale scores and fit for the models of goal orientations were good. Based on traditional psychometrics, the AGQ and PALS are valid and reliable indicators of achievement goals. Rasch analyses revealed that estimates of reliability for items were very good but respondent ability estimates varied from poor to good for both the AGQ and PALS. These findings indicate that items validly and reliably reflect a group's aggregate goal orientation, but using either instrument to characterize an individual's goal orientation is hazardous.

  19. Primary Mathematics Teachers' Goal Orientations and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throndsen, Inger; Turmo, Are

    2013-01-01

    Primary mathematics teachers' (N = 521) personal goal orientation and instructional practices were examined based on questionnaire responses. The teachers (grades 2 and 3) were oriented towards mastery goals and mastery approaches to instruction, and reported high teaching efficacy. Strong positive relation between performance orientation and…

  20. Goal Orientations, Coping with School Failure and School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Ingrid; Rijavec, Majda; Loncaric, Darko

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between goal orientation, coping with school failure and school achievement. Two questionnaires. Goal Orientation (Niemivirta, 1996a) and The School Failure Coping Scale (Rijavec & Brdar, 1997), were administered to 1057 high school students (aged from 15 to 17 years). The first goal of this study…

  1. A motivated action theory account of goal orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShon, Richard P; Gillespie, Jennifer Z

    2005-11-01

    Rapid organizational change is increasing the pressure on employees to continually update their skills and adapt their behavior to new organizational realities. Goal orientation is a promising motivational construct that may explain why some individuals adapt to change better. Unfortunately, the current goal orientation literature is in a state of conceptual and methodological disarray. This presentation reviews the goal orientation literature and identifies numerous conceptual ambiguities, including definitional inconsistencies, dimensional inconsistencies, and inconsistencies in the conceptualization of stability. These conceptual ambiguities result in a confusing array of goal orientation measures and manipulations and ultimately an incoherent empirical database. A dynamic self-regulation model of goal orientation, termed motivated action theory, is presented to integrate the various conceptual perspectives and to provide guidelines for future goal orientation research.

  2. The Role of Goal Orientation in Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeest, David; Brown, Kenneth G.

    2011-01-01

    Goal-orientation theory and research offer a lens to better understand the mechanisms of experiential learning in developmental assignments for managers. This study presents a research model that depicts how goal orientations influence the development of leadership skills from experience. The model indicates how individual and situational…

  3. The Role of Goal Orientation in Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeest, David; Brown, Kenneth G.

    2011-01-01

    Goal-orientation theory and research offer a lens to better understand the mechanisms of experiential learning in developmental assignments for managers. This study presents a research model that depicts how goal orientations influence the development of leadership skills from experience. The model indicates how individual and situational…

  4. Perfectionism and Achievement Goal Orientations in Adolescent School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Lavinia E.; Stoeber, Joachim; Negru, Oana; Baban, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Perfectionism has been shown to predict individual differences in achievement goal orientations in university students, but research on perfectionism and goal orientations in school students is still very limited. Investigating 584 adolescent school students in a cross-sectional correlational design, the present study examined how self-oriented…

  5. Goal Orientations Predict Academic Performance beyond Intelligence and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Bipp, Tanja; Spinath, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Goal orientations are thought to be an important predictor of scholastic achievement. The present paper investigated the joint influence of goal orientations, intelligence, and personality on school performance in a sample of N=520 11th and 12th graders (303 female; mean age M=16.94 years). Intelligence, the Big Five factors of personality…

  6. [Perceptions of classroom goal structures, personal achievement goal orientations, and learning strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kaori; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2005-08-01

    We examined the relations among students' perceptions of classroom goal structures (mastery and performance goal structures), students' achievement goal orientations (mastery, performance, and work-avoidance goals), and learning strategies (deep processing, surface processing and self-handicapping strategies). Participants were 323 5th and 6th grade students in elementary schools. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of classroom mastery goal structures were associated with students' mastery goal orientations, which were in turn related positively to the deep processing strategies and academic achievement. Perceptions of classroom performance goal stractures proved associated with work avoidance-goal orientations, which were positively related to the surface processing and self-handicapping strategies. Two types of goal structures had a positive relation with students' performance goal orientations, which had significant positive effects on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that elementary school students' perceptions of mastery goal structures are related to adaptive patterns of learning more than perceptions of performance goal structures are. The role of perceptions of classroom goal structure in promoting students' goal orientations and learning strategies is discussed.

  7. Correlates of Achievement Goal Orientations in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2003-01-01

    Achievement goal theory suggests that the motivational processes operating in achievement settings such as PE are dependent on the achievement goals manifested in that setting. In this paper, research is reviewed examining the motivation-related correlates of task and ego (approach) goal orientations in physical education, namely (a)…

  8. Goal Orientation and Commitment to Working of MBA Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mary L.; Ekstrom, Ruth B.

    The goal orientation and commitment to working of 89 women beginning MBA studies was examined. Approximately 75% have defined career goals. Presence or absence of goals is affected by work experience, prior graudate training, interruption of academic training, age, marital status, full versus part-time program status, and selected attitudes toward…

  9. Goal Orientation in Teams: The Role of Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nederveen Pieterse (Anne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations make increasingly use of teams as their basic structure, making it more and more important to determine what enables optimal team functioning. Over the past decades, the goals people focus on in achievement settings (i.e. goal orientation) is shown to be highly important fo

  10. Leveraging MSLQ Data for Predicting Students Achievement Goal Orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Liaqat; Hatala, Marek; Gašević, Dragan; Winne, Philip H.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how students’ motivated strategies of learning and their achievement goal orientations relate to their academic behaviours and performance in the context of online leaning systems. The study also develops and validates a relational model between students’ learning strategies and achievement goals.

  11. Leveraging MSLQ Data for Predicting Student Achievement Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaqat; Hatala, Marek; Winne, Phil; Gaševic, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how the learning strategies and achievement goal orientations of students relate to their academic behaviours and performance in the context of an online learning system. The study also develops and validates a relational model between student learning strategies and achievement goals.

  12. The Role of Goal Orientations for Adolescent Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Tran D.; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Duncan, Greg J.; Domina, Thurston

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association between personal goal orientations and mathematics achievement within the trichotomous goal framework. Participants comprised approximately 2000 seventh and eighth grade White, Hispanic, and Vietnamese students in a low-income urban school district in California. Regression analysis with classroom fixed effects…

  13. Goal Orientation in Teams: The Role of Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nederveen Pieterse (Anne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations make increasingly use of teams as their basic structure, making it more and more important to determine what enables optimal team functioning. Over the past decades, the goals people focus on in achievement settings (i.e. goal orientation) is shown to be highly important

  14. Relations of goal orientations and expectations on multidimensional state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, M; Duda, J

    1995-12-01

    This study examined the relationships among task and ego orientation, expectations for success, and multidimensional state anxiety in a competitive sport situation. Subjects (N = 107) enrolled in a tennis skills class were gender- and ability-matched and asked to play an eight game pro-set. One week prior to the match goal orientations were assessed. Immediately prior to competition multidimensional state anxiety and performance expectations were measured. Multiple regression analyses predicting multidimensional state anxiety revealed that somatic and cognitive state anxiety were only predicted by performance expectations. Also, lower ego orientation and positive match expectations were predictive of state self-confidence. Results are interpreted in light of goal perspective theory.

  15. Academic Goal Orientation and Cardiovascular Reactivity in a Performance Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Helmut K; Gramer, Margit; Paechter, Manuela; Wimmer, Sigrid; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Papousek, Ilona

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated whether students' academic goal orientation (learning goals, performance goals, work avoidance) and their individual competence beliefs (their academic self-concept) can predict motivation-related cardiovascular activation patterns in a demanding performance situation. A sample of seventy-two undergraduate students rated their academic goal orientation as well as their competence beliefs and completed a mental arithmetic task. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure, pre-ejection period (PEP) as well as cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance were monitored continuously during rest and task exposure. Students scoring higher on work avoidance showed smaller increases in HR and CO, and a smaller shortening of the PEP. A lower academic self-concept was associated with attenuated CO reactivity and a smaller shortening of the PEP. Learning and performance goals were unrelated to cardiovascular activity. The attenuated cardiac activity observed for work avoidance and competence beliefs was interpreted in terms of reduced task engagement resulting from lower success importance.

  16. Academic resilience in education: the role of achievement goal orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAHRAM JOWKAR

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the past 2 decades, research findings established achievement goal theory as a powerful framework for conceptualizing difference in the quality of student’s engagement, persistence on task, and academic resilience. So the present study examined the relationship between achievement goal orientations and academic resilience. Method: Participants were 606 students (307 girls and 297 boys selected from Shiraz high schools. They completed the Achievement Goals Questionnaire and Youth development Module Scale (RYDM. To analyze the data, the relationships between variables were examined, using Pearson product– moment correlations. Also simulanteous multiple regression was performed to investigate the prediction of academic resilience by achievement goal orientations. To examine the reliability and the validity of measures Cronbach alpha coefficient and factor analysis method were applied, respectively. Results: Simultaneous multiple regression of achievement goal orientations on academic resilience showed that “mastery-approach” was a significant positive predictor of the “home care/high” and “peer care” subscales. Also, “performance-approach” was a significant, positive predictor of “home care/ high”, and “school/community meaningful” was predicted by “performanceavoidance” positively. Conclusion: According to the findings, it seems that achievement goal orientation has a critical role in students’ academic achievement. Implications of the results are discussed in more details.

  17. Development of anticipatory orienting strategies and trajectory formation in goal-oriented locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonti, Vittorio; Cioni, Giovanni; Berthoz, Alain

    2013-05-01

    In goal-oriented locomotion, healthy adults generate highly stereotyped trajectories and a consistent anticipatory head orienting behaviour, both evidence of top-down, open-loop control. The aim of this study is to describe the typical development of anticipatory orienting strategies and trajectory formation. Our hypothesis is that full-blown anticipatory control requires advanced navigational skills. Twenty-six healthy subjects (14 children: 4-11 years; 6 adolescents: 13-17 years; 6 adults) were asked to walk freely towards one of the three visual targets, in a randomised order. Movement was captured via an optoelectronic system, with 15 body markers. The whole-body displacement, yaw orientation of head, trunk and pelvis, heading direction and foot placements were extracted. Head-heading anticipation, trajectory curvature, indexes of variability of trajectories, foot placements and kinematic profiles were studied. The mean head-heading anticipation time and trajectory curvature did not significantly differ among age groups. In children, however, head anticipation was more often lacking (χ2 = 9.55, p children, while it became consistently lower in adolescence (χ2 = 78.59, p spatial and kinematic variability all followed a decreasing developmental trend (R (2) > 0.5, p children under 11 do not perform curvilinear locomotor trajectories as adolescents and adults do. Anticipatory head orientation and trajectory formation develop in late childhood, well after gait maturation. Navigational skills, such as path planning and shifting from ego- to allocentric spatial reference frames, are proposed as necessary requisites for mature locomotor control.

  18. Goal Orientation of Adult Students Towards Learning Strategies: The Malaysian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Hee Ong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the goal orientation of adult students in the Malaysian context. The finding of this study shows that mastery goal orientation registered the highest mean among the adult students. Therefore, the adult students were found to have adopted mastery goal orientation in their learning process. The analysis of t-Test and One-Way ANOVA indicates that there were no significant group differences in the mean scores of mastery goal orientation among gender, age group and years of experience of the respondents. In addition, this study also attempts to offer the higher education institutions to understand the students’ learning strategies by knowing their goal orientation. It provides information on how deep learning strategies can be integrated with mastery goal orientation so that they are in line to produce better learning outcomes. It is recommended in this study that deep learning methods such as flexible learning and problem-based learning can be used to encourage students to take greater responsibilities for their learning outcomes. In this respect, they will be able to interact with the facilitator on the course material in a more practical and analytical manner. In terms of future research, this study provides validated measures of goal orientation which can be used by future researchers in the similar research setting.

  19. The Negative Impact of Goal-Oriented Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    The phrasing of task instructions can facilitate or hinder the learning process. In this study, three groups of participants (N = 526) performed a foreign vocabulary memorization task, with modified instructions for each group. The instructions were either learning oriented, encouraging participants to improve their abilities; outcome oriented,…

  20. Teaching Reform of DSP Curriculum Group Goal-oriented by Abilities Training on Hierarchy Model for IT Majors%分层能力目标导向的IT专业DSP课程群改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芬; 王晓东; 章联军; 彭宗举; 严迪群

    2016-01-01

    针对目前高校IT专业DSP(Digital Signal Processing)课程群技术革新快、知识覆盖面广、课程难度大、综合性实践环节缺失等问题,探索了“能力本位教育”理念下进阶式分层培养的DSP课程群教学改革。构建了分层能力目标导向的 DSP 课程教学体系和实践能力培养体系,明确了各能力层级的教学任务和能力培养目标。尝试了工程素养融合培养的教学模式改革,探索应用了行业真实项目驱动下的 PBL 教学法、线上线下混合式教学法改革。教学实践结果表明,DSP课程群改革具有一定成效,学生创新意识与工程应用能力提升显著,得到行业用人单位的认可。%This paper aims to consider the teaching reform of DSP curriculum group oriented by abilities training based on hierarchy model in the perspective of Competency Based Education (CBE) to tackle the pressing issues of IT major students in universities, such as the rapid DSP technology innovation, wide and difficult literacy in curriculum group, and inadequate abilities training of DSP technology. It focuses on the construction of the DSP curriculum group system and the practical ability training system to be goal-oriented by abilities training based on hierarchy model for IT majors students. The sub-goals of abilities training and the teaching tasks of each ability level are divided clearly, to cultivate students’ DSP applied abilities and engineering quality. Driven by real industrial projects, teaching methods of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and Blended Teaching online and offline is explored. The reform of DSP curriculum group for IT major students based on the hierarchy abilities training has been proven to effectively improve graduates’ innovation skills and DSP engineering applied abilities recognized by peers and employers.

  1. Student Goal Orientation and Interest: Effects on Students' Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhaw, Katherine; Abrami, Philip C.

    2001-07-01

    This study examined how goal orientation and interest together affected students' use of learning strategies. Ninety-three Grade 11 students participated in this study. This study was a 2 x 2 between-groups factorial using a post-test-only control group design. There were two independent variables, Goal orientation and Interest. There were three dependent variables: Total Main Ideas, Use of Other Cognitive Strategies, and Metacognition. There were significant main effects for Interest and Goal Orientation on the main-idea selection measure: high-interest students selected more main ideas than low-interest students, and rewarded students outperformed learning goal-oriented students. There was a main effect for Interest on Metacognition: high-interest students reported using more metacognitive strategies than low-interest students. Interpretation of these results is discussed from a theoretical perspective and practical applications are offered as well. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Predicting Undergraduate Leadership Student Goal Orientation Using Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Kevan W.; Sheikh, Emana; Carter, Hannah S.; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2017-01-01

    Finding strategies to increase the motivation of students, their connection with the material, and retention of the content, has been very important within leadership education. Previous research studies have shown that personality traits can predict desired outcomes, including goal orientation or motivational disposition. However, there have not…

  3. Core Self-Evaluation and Goal Orientation: Understanding Work Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael Lane; Messal, Carrie B.; Meriac, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dispositional factors related to work stress. Specifically, previous research has demonstrated a relationship between core self-evaluation (CSE) and general life stress. This article extends past research by examining the relationship between CSE and work stress, and includes goal orientation as a potential mediator of…

  4. Predicting Undergraduate Leadership Student Goal Orientation Using Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Kevan W.; Sheikh, Emana; Carter, Hannah S.; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2017-01-01

    Finding strategies to increase the motivation of students, their connection with the material, and retention of the content, has been very important within leadership education. Previous research studies have shown that personality traits can predict desired outcomes, including goal orientation or motivational disposition. However, there have not…

  5. Core Self-Evaluation and Goal Orientation: Understanding Work Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael Lane; Messal, Carrie B.; Meriac, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dispositional factors related to work stress. Specifically, previous research has demonstrated a relationship between core self-evaluation (CSE) and general life stress. This article extends past research by examining the relationship between CSE and work stress, and includes goal orientation as a potential mediator of…

  6. Achievement Goal Orientations and Subjective Well-Being: A Person-Centred Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Niemivirta, Markku

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether students with different achievement goal orientation profiles differ in terms of subjective well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, school-related burnout, and educational goal appraisals). Six groups of students with unique motivational profiles were identified. Observed differences in subjective well-being…

  7. Goal-orientation, goal-setting, and goal-driven behavior in minimalist user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der Hans

    2007-01-01

    This paper opens with a summary of minimalist design strategies that aim to optimize user instructions. Next, it discusses three recent research efforts to further improve these strategies. The common focus in these efforts is the attention to people’s goal-related management and control of attentio

  8. Motivation, goal orientation, coaching, and training habits of women ultrarunners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouse, Rhonna Z; Ransdell, Lynda B; Lucas, Shelley M; Pritchard, Mary E

    2011-10-01

    Ultrarunners participate in running events that exceed the 26.2-mile marathon distance (e.g., 50k, 50-100 miles). Very little research exists on ultrarunners, especially women. This study is a descriptive study detailing the motivation, goal orientation, demographic characteristics (e.g., age, job demands, family structure), training habits (e.g., hours per week of training), and coach utilization of women ultrarunners. Participants (N = 344) were recruited via the Ultra List serve and 4 popular ultrarunning websites, and they completed a questionnaire on motivation, goal orientation, training, and coaching using Survey Monkey. General health orientation (mean ± SD) (4.71 ± 1.06) and psychological coping (4.71 ± 1.03) were the 2 strongest motivational factors. Participants were higher in task orientation (1.38 ± 0.68) (e.g., finishing the race or accomplishing various goals) than ego orientation (3.38 ± 1.01) (e.g., placing in the top 3 overall or beating an opponent). Women trained an average of 12.49 h·wk(-1) and spent 64% of their time training alone. Training information came from their own experience, blogs, websites, and the Ultra List Serve. Over three-fourths of the participants (80%) did not use a coach because of cost and a perceived lack of necessity. Women ultrarunners in this study were task oriented, internally motivated, health, and financially conscious individuals. With additional information about women ultrarunners, coaches will be better prepared to work with this population and ultrarunners can improve their performance by learning about current participants' practices.

  9. Multisensory guidance of goal-oriented behaviour of legged robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Manoonpong, Poramate; Tuxworth, Gervase

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems often combine cues from two different sensory modalities to execute goal-oriented sensorimotor tasks, which otherwise cannot be accurately executed with either sensory stream in isolation. When auditory cues alone are not sufficient to accurately localise an audio-visual target...... the strength of the acoustomotor coupling to adjust turning speed of the robot. Our experiments demonstrate improved orientation towards the audio-visual target emitting a tone of frequency 2.2kHz located at an angular offset of 45 degrees from the robot....

  10. From Goal-Oriented Requirements to Event-B Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Benjamin; Arenas, Alvaro E.; Bicarregui, Juan; Ponsard, Christophe; Massonet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In goal-oriented requirements engineering methodologies, goals are structured into refinement trees from high-level system-wide goals down to fine-grained requirements assigned to specific software/ hardware/human agents that can realise them. Functional goals assigned to software agents need to be operationalised into specification of services that the agent should provide to realise those requirements. In this paper, we propose an approach for operationalising requirements into specifications expressed in the Event-B formalism. Our approach has the benefit of aiding software designers by bridging the gap between declarative requirements and operational system specifications in a rigorous manner, enabling powerful correctness proofs and allowing further refinements down to the implementation level. Our solution is based on verifying that a consistent Event-B machine exhibits properties corresponding to requirements.

  11. MORAL ORIENTATION AND GOAL ORIENTATION AS MEANS OF PREDICTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIORS IN HANDBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ath YANNAKOS; M. PROIOS; L. PAPASTERGIOU

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between aggressive behavior and dimensions of moral orientation and goal orientation of handball players. Another aim of this study was to investigate the percentage used to display each type of aggression per area during a game. The participants were 18 young athletes aged 19 to 21 years of the Greek National Team, who participated in the World Handball Championship held in Thessaloniki in 2011. They filled the Moral Orientation in Ph...

  12. A Digital Tool Supporting Goal-Oriented Teaching in Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard;

    2015-01-01

    and objectives for their teaching; these form a challenge and a basis for developing a digital tool for mediating between curriculum and pedagogical practice. The motivation for revising the national curriculum and developing digital tools that support teaching is partly based on evidence that the previous......his paper presents a newly developed tool for supporting goal-oriented teaching and develops a framework for discussing design intentions when developing such tools. The tool was developed in relation to a recent curriculum reform for the Danish primary and lower secondary school system, which...... transformed the national curriculum into a number of competences that were further divided into pairs of knowledge and skills. Together with this curriculum reform, there is a government initiative to promote goal-oriented teaching and a complementary need to support teachers’ more concrete plans...

  13. Goal-oriented requirement engineering support for business continuity planning

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Alvaro; Massonet, Philippe; Ponsard, Christophe; Aziz, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Business continuity is a key management process that aims to maintain and rapidly recover an organizations key business functions in the face of serious incidents. The resulting business continuity plan must identify the key business functions that must be resilient, define recovery of critical business functions and define contingency measures when recovery is not possible. This paper argues that the process of business continuity planning can be efficiently supported by a goal-oriented requ...

  14. Goal-oriented reduced basis approximation for linear elastodynamic problems

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Khac Chi; Bordas, Stephane P A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study numerically the linear damped second-order hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) with affine parameter dependence using a goal-oriented approach by finite element (FE) and reduced basis (RB) methods. The main contribution of this paper is the "goal-oriented" proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-Greedy sampling procedure within the RB approximation context. This proposed procedure makes use of the information of the solution of the associated dual (or adjoint) problem and the primal residual similarly to the well-known dual-weighted residual (DWR) technique developed earlier. First, we introduce the RB recipe: Galerkin projection onto a space $Y_N$ spanned by solutions of the governing PDE at $N$ selected points in parameter space. This set of $N$ parameter points is constructed very optimally by the proposed goal-oriented POD-Greedy sampling procedure. Second, based on the affine parameter dependence, we make use of the offline-online computational procedures: in the offline ...

  15. On the nature of motivational orientations: implications of assessed goals and gender differences for motivational goal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Tapia, Jesús; Huertas, Juan A; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2010-05-01

    In a historical revision of the achievement goal construct, Elliot (2005) recognized that there is little consensus on whether the term "goal" in "achievement goal orientations" (GO) is best represented as an "aim", as an overarching orientation encompassing several "aims", or as a combination of aims and other processes -self-regulation, etc.-. Elliot pointed also that goal theory research provides evidence for different models of GO. As there were no consensus on these issues, we decided to get evidence about the nature and structure of GO, about the role of gender differences in the configuration of such structure, and about relations between GO, expectancies, volitional processes and achievement. A total of 382 university students from different faculties of two public universities of Madrid (Spain) that voluntarily accepted to fill in a questionnaire that assessed different goals, expectancies and self-regulatory processes participated in the study. Scales reliability, confirmatory factor analyses, multiple-group analyses, and correlation and regression analyses were carried out. Results support the trichotomous model of GO, the consideration of GO as a combination of aims and other psychological processes, showed some gender differences and favour the adoption of a multiple goal perspective for explaining students' motivation.

  16. [Goal analysis and goal operationalisation: a group intervention for the enhancement of work motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Rana; Fiedler, Rolf G; Dietrich, Hilke; Greitemann, Bernhard; Heuft, Gereon

    2010-08-01

    Work motivation, mental well-being and competencies of self-regulation are linked to successful job-related reintegration after rehabilitation. Based on the Diagnostical Instrument to assess Work motivation (Diagnostikinstrument für Arbeitsmotivation DIAMO) and existing training programs, a new group intervention, the goal analysis and goal operationalization, was developed and evaluated. The objective of this intervention, designed for participants of a rehabilitation program was to enhance work motivation and volitional control processes (self-regulation and self-control), to encourage job-related goal orientation and to thereby increase the probability of goal achievement. In a quasi-experimental longitudinal design 207 patients (111 experimental group/96 control group) were tested. The experimental group took part in the job-related training (ZAZO) in addition to the usual rehabilitation. The evaluation was conducted through various scales at t0 (beginning) and t1 (end of the training). Scales for the measurement of work motivation, mental well-being, status of rehabilitation, competencies of self-regulation and the subjective prognosis of the ability to work were used. As direct effects of the training an enhancement of work motivation and of an improved subjective prognosis of the ability to work were expected. Accordingly, a positive influence on the subjective well-being as indirect effects, were anticipated in the long run, the experimental group should also show an enhanced job-related reintegration. Participants of the experimental group showed significantly higher values on particular scales of the Diagnostical Instrument of Work motivation as opposed to the control group (curiosity motive, attitudes to work and contact motive). Most notably, significant interactional effects could be found on the scale for the subjective prognosis of the ability to work, which is a highly reliable instrument and important predictor for prospective job

  17. Goal oriented requirements engineering in data warehouses: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Cravero Leal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data warehouses provide historical information about the organization that needs to be analyzed by the decision makers; therefore, it is essential to develop them in the context of a strategic business plan. In recent years, a number of engineering approaches for goal-oriented requirements have been proposed, which can obtain the information requirements of a data warehouse using traditional techniques and the objectives of the modeling. This paper provides an overview and a comparative study of the treatment of the requirements in the existing approaches to serve as a starting point for further research.

  18. A Digital Tool Supporting Goal-Oriented Teaching in Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2015-01-01

    transformed the national curriculum into a number of competences that were further divided into pairs of knowledge and skills. Together with this curriculum reform, there is a government initiative to promote goal-oriented teaching and a complementary need to support teachers’ more concrete plans...... and objectives for their teaching; these form a challenge and a basis for developing a digital tool for mediating between curriculum and pedagogical practice. The motivation for revising the national curriculum and developing digital tools that support teaching is partly based on evidence that the previous...... national curriculum was not used to any particular extent by teachers (Danish Evaluation Institute 2012). Hence, the curriculum has been rebuilt based on recent trends in school development and curriculum research suggesting the importance of a competence framework, learning goals, and the aggregation...

  19. How Do Young Adults Orchestrate Their Multiple Achievement-Related Goals? Associations of Achievement Goal Orientations With Identity Formation and Goal Appraisals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flunger, Barbara; Marttinen, Elina; Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2016-01-01

    Young adults strive for multiple achievement goals. Frameworks for achievement goal orientations, personal goals, and identity formation have emphasized the role of goal-specific exploration and commitment in the interpretation of goals. However, researchers have yet to combine these different persp

  20. Correlation between academic achievement goal orientation and the performance of Malaysian students in an Indian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkur, Rajashekar Rao; Govindan, Sreejith; Kamath, Asha

    2013-01-01

    According to goal orientation theory, achievement goals are defined as the terminal point towards which one's efforts are directed. The four academic achievement goal orientations commonly recognised are mastery, performance approach, performance avoidance and work avoidance. The objective of this study was to understand the goal orientation of second year undergraduate medical students and how this correlates with their academic performance. The study population consisted of 244 second year Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal campus, Manipal University, India. Students were categorised as high performers and low performers based on their first year university examination marks. Their goal orientations were assessed through a validated questionnaire developed by Was et al. These components were analysed by independent sample t-test and correlated to their first year university examination marks. Confirmatory component factor analysis extracted four factors, which accounted for 40.8% of the total variance in goal orientation. The performance approach goal orientation alone explained 16.7% of the variance followed by mastery (10.8%), performance avoidance (7.7%) and work avoidance (5.7%). The Cronbach's alpha for 19 items, which contributed to internal consistency of the tool, was observed to be 0.635. A strong positive correlation was shown between performance approach, performance avoidance and work avoidance orientations. Of the four goal orientations, only the mean scores in work avoidance orientation differed for low performers and high performers (5.0 vs. 4.3; P = 0.0003). Work avoidance type of goal orientation among the low performer group may account for their lower performance compared with high performer group. This indicates that academic achievement goal orientation may play a role in the performance of undergraduate medical students.

  1. Design for a goal-oriented telerobotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, R. W.; Sliwa, N. O.

    1986-01-01

    Robotic systems will play an increasingly important role in space operations. This paper describes the objective and design of a proposed goal-oriented telerobotic system for space operations. This design effort encompasses the elements of the system executive and user interface, and the distribution and general structure of the knowledge bases, the displays, and the task sequencing. The objective of the design effort is to provide an evolutionary structure for a telerobotic system, i.e., one that can progress from strictly teleoperated through phases of serving as an assistant, a colleague, and an expert, to eventually serve as a truly autonomous unit, requiring only minimal supervision. A preliminary design for such a system involving 'mixed initiative', or the flexible shared control between the human operator and the software system, is complete and described in this paper.

  2. Teachers' Influence on Goal Orientation: Exploring the Relationship between Eighth Graders' Goal Orientation, Their Emotional Development, Their Perceptions of Learning, and Their Teachers' Instructional Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, William Dee; Jones, Jeanneine P.; Hancock, Dawson R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how students' perceived learning relates to emotions, motivation, and goal orientation. Finds that students significantly reported more negative emotions than positive emotions, thus indicating that the emotions of the learner were more negative, the motivation was more extrinsic and the goal orientation of the learners could be…

  3. Role Orientation of Shanghai World Expo Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Reporter: What is the development goal for Shanghai World Expo (Group) Co., Ltd.? Mr. Chen Xianjin: Our goal lies in 2 aspects: one is how to hold a successful world expo; the other is how to achieve World Expo Group into a 1st-class enterprise in China with most competitiveness. The 2 goals take overall development of Shanghai into consideration, while Shanghai Expos

  4. Goal-oriented rectification of camera-based document images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Nikolaos; Gatos, Basilis; Pratikakis, Ioannis; Perantonis, Stavros J

    2011-04-01

    Document digitization with either flatbed scanners or camera-based systems results in document images which often suffer from warping and perspective distortions that deteriorate the performance of current OCR approaches. In this paper, we present a goal-oriented rectification methodology to compensate for undesirable document image distortions aiming to improve the OCR result. Our approach relies upon a coarse-to-fine strategy. First, a coarse rectification is accomplished with the aid of a computationally low cost transformation which addresses the projection of a curved surface to a 2-D rectangular area. The projection of the curved surface on the plane is guided only by the textual content's appearance in the document image while incorporating a transformation which does not depend on specific model primitives or camera setup parameters. Second, pose normalization is applied on the word level aiming to restore all the local distortions of the document image. Experimental results on various document images with a variety of distortions demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed rectification methodology using a consistent evaluation methodology that encounters OCR accuracy and a newly introduced measure using a semi-automatic procedure.

  5. The effects of goal orientation on job search and reemployment: a field experiment among unemployed job seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, Edwin A J; Noordzij, Gera

    2009-11-01

    Because unemployment has detrimental effects on the well-being of unemployed people, it is important that unemployed individuals move back to work. The present study aimed at improving the understanding of the job search and reemployment process by applying goal orientation theory to job seeking. Using a 3-group field experimental design among 109 unemployed job seekers, the authors examined the effects of situational learning and performance goal orientation on participants' job search intentions, job search behavior, and reemployment status. A situational focus on learning goals was found to be beneficial for the job search process, leading to more search intentions, more search behavior, and higher reemployment probabilities. These effects seemed to be independent of people's dispositional goal orientation. Findings indicate that goal orientation is a promising construct for both science and practice in the field of job seeking.

  6. Use of local visual cues for spatial orientation in terrestrial toads (Rhinella arenarum): The role of distance to a goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneri, M Florencia; Casanave, Emma B; Muzio, Rubén N

    2015-08-01

    The use of environmental visual cues for navigation is an ability present in many groups of animals. The effect of spatial proximity between a visual cue and a goal on reorientation in an environment has been studied in several vertebrate groups, but never previously in amphibians. In this study, we tested the use of local visual cues (beacons) to orient in an open field in the terrestrial toad (Rhinella arenarum). Experiment 1 showed that toads could orient in space using 2 cues located near the rewarded container. Experiment 2 used only 1 cue placed at different distances to the goal and revealed that learning speed was affected by the proximity to the goal (the closer the cue was to the goal, the faster toads learned its location). Experiment 3 showed that the position of a cue results in a different predictive value. Toads preferred cues located closer to the goal more than those located farther away as a reference for orientation. Present results revealed, for the first time, that (a) toads can learn to orient in an open space using visual cues, and that (b) the effect of spatial proximity between a cue and a goal, a learning phenomenon previously observed in other groups of animals such as mammals, birds, fish, and invertebrates, also affects orientation in amphibians. Thus, our results suggest that toads are able to employ spatial strategies that closely parallel those described in other vertebrate groups, supporting an early evolutionary origin for these spatial orientation skills.

  7. Insight into error hiding: exploration of nursing students' achievement goal orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Karee E

    2014-02-01

    An estimated 50% of medication errors go unreported, and error hiding is costly to hospitals and patients. This study explored one issue that may facilitate error hiding. Descriptive statistics were used to examine nursing students' achievement goal orientations in a high-fidelity simulation course. Results indicated that although this sample of nursing students held high mastery goal orientations, they also held moderate levels of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goal orientations. These goal orientations indicate that this sample is at high risk for error hiding, which places the benefits that are typically gleaned from a strong mastery orientation at risk. Understanding variables, such as goal orientation, that can be addressed in nursing education to reduce error hiding is an area of research that needs to be further explored. This article discusses the study results and evidence-based instructional practices for this sample's achievement goal orientation profile.

  8. The Functional Role of Resignation Orientation on Goal Engagement, Self-Esteem, Life Satisfaction, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kenichi; Ishimura, Ikuo; Kodama, Masahiro

    2014-11-06

    Several studies in Europe and North America have highlighted the importance of resignation or giving up. Research has shown that resignation is as important as goal attainment. Hence, this study examines, using path analysis, the effect of resignation orientation on goal disengagement and reengagement. Furthermore, this study attempts to clarify the implication of resignation orientation for elements of mental well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 261 Japanese college students. Results showed that proactive resignation orientation promotes reestablishment of alternative goals while negative resignation orientation encourages disengagement of the unattainable goals. The findings help explain the functional role of resignation orientation and can inform the development of treatment for resignation-related depression.

  9. The Intertwined Nature of Adolescents' Social and Academic Lives: Social and Academic Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Eliyahu, Adar; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Putallaz, Martha

    2017-01-01

    The relations of academic and social goal orientations to academic and social behaviors and self-concept were investigated among academically talented adolescents (N = 1,218) attending a mastery-oriented academic residential summer program. Results supported context effects in that academic mastery goal orientations predicted academic (in-class…

  10. Goal Orientation, Deep Learning, and Sustainable Feedback in Higher Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitz, Gerry; Brinke, Desirée Joosten-ten; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Relations between and changeability of goal orientation and learning behavior have been studied in several domains and contexts. To alter the adopted goal orientation into a mastery orientation and increase a concomitant deep learning in international business students, a sustainable feedback intervention study was carried out. Sustainable…

  11. Goal Orientation, Deep Learning, and Sustainable Feedback in Higher Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitz, Gerry; Brinke, Desirée Joosten-ten; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Relations between and changeability of goal orientation and learning behavior have been studied in several domains and contexts. To alter the adopted goal orientation into a mastery orientation and increase a concomitant deep learning in international business students, a sustainable feedback intervention study was carried out. Sustainable…

  12. Social loafing and identifiability: the mediating role of achievement goal orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, A

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if differences in the tendency to exhibit social loafing is a function of achievement-goal orientation and identifiability. Ninety-six males drawn from 10th-grade physical education classes responded to the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1992) prior to completing a 30-meter sprint task under three separate conditions: as an individual, in a team with individual performance identified, and in a team with individual performance not identified. Following a median split of the task and ego values reported, subjects were divided into high and low groups for both orientations. Sprint times were compared by means of a 2 x 2 x 3 ANOVA (task x ego x sprint condition) with repeated measures on the third factor. Findings revealed that individuals with a combined low task/high ego orientation were significantly slower in the nonidentifiable team condition than in the other two conditions, whereas high-task/low-ego-oriented individuals demonstrated consistent performance across all three conditions. While confirming that identifiability of performance is an important situational variable, the findings suggest that the dispositional factor of achievement orientation may interact to provide a more detailed explanation of the social loafing phenomenon.

  13. Personal goal orientations and subjective well‐being of adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MARTTINEN, ELINA; SALMELA‐ARO, KATARIINA

    2012-01-01

    .... In the context of the person‐oriented approach, 1144 17‐year‐olds (565 girls, 579 boys) filled in the revised Little's personal project analysis, school burnout, depression, life satisfaction, and self‐esteem inventories...

  14. Self-Regulation and Problem Solving Ability in 7E-Learning Cycle Based Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono; Noor, N. L.

    2017-04-01

    Goal orientation differences between mastery goals and performance goals can be a cause of high and low self-regulation and problem-solving abilities. To overcome these problems applied 7E-learning cycle in which students learn and develop ways to optimise the power of reason through the learning phase elicit, engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate, and extend. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of learning by 7E-learning cycle and describe self-regulation and mathematics problem solving based on goal-orientation after the implementation 7E-learning cycle. This study used mix method design with research subject is graders XII sciences MA NU Nurul Ulum Jekulo Kudus which divided into goal orientation is mastery goal and performance goal. The independent variable of this research is learning model, while the dependent variable is problem solving and self-regulation. Then, collecting data using scale, interviews and tests. The data processed with the proportion of test, t-test, paired samples t-test, and Normality-gain. The results show problem-solving abilities of students through 7E-learning cycle the average of mathematical problem-solving capability class, self-regulation at 7E-learning cycle is better than the traditional model study. The problem-solving skills at 7E-learning cycle are better than the traditional model study, there is an increase in self-regulation through 7E-learning cycle of 0.4 (medium), and there is an increased problem-solving ability through 7E-learning cycle by 0.79 (high). Based on the qualitative analysis, self-regulation and problem-solving ability after the implementation of 7E-learning cycle students of a mastery goal group are better than the performance goal team. It is suggested to implement 7E-learning cycle to improve self-regulation and problem-solving ability as well as directing and fostering mastery goal on the student in the learning process.

  15. Perfectionism and Goal Orientations among Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Positive and negative perfectionism as well as four goal orientations were assessed in a sample of 315 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. These students tended to endorse positive perfectionism more than negative perfectionism and prefer learning and social goals over performance and avoidance goals. Learning and social goal orientations…

  16. Orientation and Mobility Training Using Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgerty, Moira Jane; Williams, Allison Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a group training program for sighted trainee orientation and mobility (O&M) instructors in South Africa, where the need for O&M instructors is great and the availability of services is limited. The outcome was positive and encouraging and provides the initiative for the findings to be more broadly applied and for…

  17. A Digital Tool Supporting Goal-Oriented Teaching in Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2015-01-01

    of classroom data for efficient teaching (Earl and Fullan 2003). Learning goals are supposed to support the students’ pace and sense of progression, inform classroom decisions, structure teachers’ planning, and support the dialogue between teachers, students, and parents (Hattie 2009). Based on these concerns......, we have developed a technology called “The Goal Arrow.” The Goal Arrow aims to support teachers in creating lesson plans, setting associated situated learning objectives, relating these to the national curriculum, and specifying indicators of learning and progression. The objectives and specific...

  18. A goal-oriented requirements modelling language for enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Engelsman, Wilco; Jonkers, Henk; Sinderen, van Marten

    2009-01-01

    Methods for enterprise architecture, such as TOGAF, acknowledge the importance of requirements engineering in the development of enterprise architectures. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. Current modelling techniques for enterpris

  19. A goal-oriented requirements modelling language for enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Engelsman, W.; Jonkers, Henk; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for enterprise architecture, such as TOGAF, acknowledge the importance of requirements engineering in the development of enterprise architectures. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. Current modelling techniques for

  20. Association of goal orientation with work engagement and burnout in emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaenssens, Jef; De Gucht, Veronique; Maes, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Goal orientation is a mindset towards the achievement of work-related goals, and it has been found to be related to occupational well-being. This study explored to what extent the 4-dimensional model of goal orientation adds additional variance to the explanation of burnout and work engagement in emergency nurses, after controlling for demographics, job characteristics and organizational variables. Self-report questionnaires including the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire for Nurses, Goal Orientation Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were completed by 170 out of 274 emergency nurses from 13 secondary Belgian hospitals (response rate 62%). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Goal orientation explained 14 and 13% of the variance in burnout and work engagement respectively. Job control was predictive of both outcomes. Job demands was a predictor of burnout, and social support predicted work engagement. Reward was related to work engagement. The mastery-approach goal orientation was strongly related to an increase in work engagement and to a decrease in burnout. The performance-avoidance goal orientation was strongly related to a decrease in work engagement and to an increase in burnout. The performance-approach and mastery-avoidance goal orientations were not predictive for the two outcome variables. Goal orientation explains additional variance in burnout and work engagement over and above work characteristics and organizational variables. A mastery-approach goal orientation appears to be beneficial while a performance-avoidance goal orientation is not. Hospital management should therefore invest in personal involvement and growth of ER-nurses and in a rewarding organizational culture.

  1. Situating Students' Motivation in Cooperative Learning Contexts: Proposing Different Levels of Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Myoungsook; Svinicki, Marilla D.

    2012-01-01

    The present studies aimed to reexamine college students' achievement goal orientations by situating their motivation in a cooperative learning context. The authors proposed and validated a scale of 3 levels of trichotomous achievement goal orientations. In Study 1, confirmatory factor analyses supported that, in laboratory cooperative learning…

  2. Achievement Goal Orientation for Athletic Training Education: Preparing for Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This review of literature presents the theoretical framework of goal orientation and student achievement from a pedagogical perspective while providing practical applications and implications for integrating goal orientation into athletic training education programs. Data Sources: Selected literature derived from EBSCO, Education…

  3. Investigation the Relationship between Goal Orientation and Parenting Styles among Sample of Jordanian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between goal orientation and parenting styles. Participants of the study completed 650 goal orientation and parenting styles questionnaires. Means, standard deviations, regression and correlation analysis were used for data in establishing the dependence of the two variables. Results…

  4. Investigation the Relationship between Goal Orientation and Parenting Styles among Sample of Jordanian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between goal orientation and parenting styles. Participants of the study completed 650 goal orientation and parenting styles questionnaires. Means, standard deviations, regression and correlation analysis were used for data in establishing the dependence of the two variables. Results…

  5. The Relation between Prospective Teachers' Goal Orientations and Academic E-Dishonesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicak, Ali; Arslan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between prospective teachers' goal orientations and academic e-dishonesty behaviors, and also the effects of their goal orientations on academic e-dishonesty behaviors. This research was conducted with correlational method. Participants of the study were 669 prospective teachers attending at…

  6. Role Ambiguity and Self-Efficacy: The Moderating Effects of Goal Orientation and Procedural Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated variables that moderated the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy. Results of a field study found support for the moderating role of learning goal orientation, such that the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy was weaker when learning goal orientation was high. In addition, we found…

  7. Chinese Students' Goal Orientation in English Learning: A Study Based on Autonomous Inquiry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Goal orientation is a kind of theory of learning motivation, which helps learners to develop their capability by emphasis on new techniques acquiring and environment adapting. In this study, based on the autonomous inquiry model, the construction of Chinese students' goal orientations in English learning are summarized according to the data…

  8. Goal orientations of health profession students throughout the undergraduate program : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, Ada; Mainhard, Tim; Brekelmans, Mieke; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The achievement goal theory defines two major foci of students' learning goals (1) primarily interested in truly mastering a task (mastery orientation), and (2) striving to show ones competences to others (performance orientation). The present study is undertaken to better understand if

  9. Goal orientations and the seeking of different types of feedback information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Onne; Prins, Jelle

    2007-01-01

    Based on the goal orientation model of feedback-seeking behaviour, goal orientations are proposed to influence employees in the type of information they seek from knowledgeable others in the work environment. As hypothesized, a survey conducted among 170 medical residents of a Dutch university hospi

  10. Goal orientations and the seeking of different types of feedback information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Onne; Prins, Jelle

    Based on the goal orientation model of feedback-seeking behaviour, goal orientations are proposed to influence employees in the type of information they seek from knowledgeable others in the work environment. As hypothesized, a survey conducted among 170 medical residents of a Dutch university

  11. Goal orientations and the seeking of different types of feedback information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Onne; Prins, Jelle

    2007-01-01

    Based on the goal orientation model of feedback-seeking behaviour, goal orientations are proposed to influence employees in the type of information they seek from knowledgeable others in the work environment. As hypothesized, a survey conducted among 170 medical residents of a Dutch university hospi

  12. Relationship between Learning Strategies and Goal Orientations: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Motivation plays an important role in explaining students' academic achievement. In an effort to explain students' purposes for learning and the reasons they engage in a learning activity, different achievement goal models (dichotomous, trichotomous, and 2x2) have been proposed over time. The present study aimed to extend…

  13. The functional role of resignation orientation on goal engagement, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Asano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in Europe and North America have highlighted the importance of resignation or giving up. Research has shown that resignation is as important as goal attainment. Hence, this study examines, using path analysis, the effect of resignation orientation on goal disengagement and reengagement. Furthermore, this study attempts to clarify the implication of resignation orientation for elements of mental well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 261 Japanese college students. Results showed that proactive resignation orientation promotes reestablishment of alternative goals while negative resignation orientation encourages disengagement of the unattainable goals. The findings help explain the functional role of resignation orientation and can inform the development of treatment for resignation-related depression.

  14. Values, achievement goals, and individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motivations among Chinese and Indonesian secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Nie, Youyan

    2008-10-01

    This study examined how values related to achievement goals and individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motivations among secondary school students in China (N = 355) and Indonesia (N = 356). Statistical comparisons showed the Chinese students endorsed more strongly than the Indonesian students on self-direction and hedonism values, individual-oriented achievement motivation, and mastery-approach goals. Conversely, the Indonesian students endorsed more strongly than their Chinese counterparts on security, conformity, tradition, universalism and achievement values, social-oriented achievement motivation, and performance-approach and mastery-avoidance goals. Values explained a significant amount of the variance in almost all of the dimensions of motivation. Etic and emic relationships between values and achievement motivations were found.

  15. Relationships between cooperation and goal orientation among male professional and semi-professional team athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameiras, João; Almeida, Pedro L; Garcia-Mas, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    In team sports, athletes' goals may focus on the task (enhancing performance, developing better skills, etc.) or on ego (being better than the others, achieving superiority, etc.). This study investigated the relationships between athletes' goal orientation and their tendency to cooperate with teammates and coaches. 158 professional men (M age = 24.1 yr., SD = 4.6) who played on various sport teams participated in this study. Goal orientation was measured with the Portuguese version of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, and cooperation was measured with the Questionário de Cooperação Desportiva. Cooperation was positively correlated with task orientation, and negatively correlated with ego orientation. Overall, the findings support that in sports, directing the players' focus on task may promote prosocial behavior.

  16. Association of goal orientation with work engagement and burnout in emergency nurses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adriaenssens, Jef; De Gucht, Veronique; Maes, Stan

    2015-01-01

    .... This study explored to what extent the 4-dimensional model of goal orientation adds additional variance to the explanation of burnout and work engagement in emergency nurses, after controlling...

  17. How Learning Goal Orientation Fosters Leadership Recognition in Self-Managed Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yih-Teen; Paunova, Minna

    2017-01-01

    Defined as a mental framework for how individuals interpret and respond to achievement situations, learning goal orientation (LGO) has received increasing attention in organisational research. However, its effect on leadership, especially in contexts absent of formal leadership, remains understud...

  18. A Structural Equation Modeling of EFL Learners' Goal Orientation, Metacognitive Awareness, and Self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Zafarmand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to examine the relationship between EFL learners' goal orientation, metacognitive awareness and self-efficacy in a single framework. One hundred fifteen EFL students from two universities of Mashhad, a city in north-eastern Iran took part in this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM was utilized to examine the hypothesized relations. The results of SEM demonstrated that among goal orientations, mastery goal is a positive and significant predictor of metacognitive awareness. It also positively and significantly predicts self-efficacy. Furthermore, it was found that metacognitive awareness has a positive and significant role in self-efficacy. The results of correlation between subscales of metacognitive awareness and mastery goal indicated that the highest correlations were found between mastery goal, planning and monitoring. Identical analysis for performance goal revealed that there are significant but weak correlations between performance goal and declarative and procedural knowledge.

  19. Overcoming asymmetric goals in teams: the interactive roles of team learning orientation and team identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Venkataramani, Vijaya

    2015-05-01

    Although members of teams share a common, ultimate objective, they often have asymmetric or conflicting individual goals that shape the way they contribute to, and pursue, the shared goal of the team. Compounding this problem, they are frequently unaware of the nature of these goal asymmetries or even the fact that such differences exist. Drawing on, and integrating, social interdependence and representational gaps theories, we identify 2 emergent states that combine interactively to enable teams to overcome asymmetric goals: team identification and team learning orientation. Using data from long-term, real-life teams that engaged in a computer simulation designed to create both asymmetric goals and representational gaps about those goals, we found that teams were most effective when they had a high learning orientation coupled with high team identification and that this effect was mediated by teams' ability to form more accurate team goal mental models and engage in effective planning processes. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  20. [Emotional and instrumental orientations in interpersonal attraction and their relationship to group norms in a group-work setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, J

    1996-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between group norms and interpersonal attraction in group work setting. It may be assumed that interpersonal attraction, like group functions, has two conflictive orientations: instrumentality and emotionality. Relationship of the two orientations in interpersonal attraction to group norms was examined in two experiments. Results of Experiment 1, with 66 female university students, suggested that specific contents of group norms influenced both instrumental and emotional attraction. Experiment 2, with 60 female university students, indicated that emotional attraction had normative influence on task selection and goal setting. Conflicting dynamics of the two orientations in group-work setting are discussed.

  1. The effects of self-criticism and self-oriented perfectionism on goal pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Theodore A; Koestner, Richard; Zuroff, David C; Milyavskaya, Marina; Gorin, Amy A

    2011-07-01

    Five separate studies examined the associations of self-criticism and self-oriented perfectionism with goal pursuit across a variety of domains. Although self-criticism has previously been shown to be related to diminished goal progress, a controversy remains regarding the potential association between aspects of "positive perfectionism," such as self-oriented perfectionism, and enhanced goal progress. The results of the five studies demonstrated a consistent pattern of negative association between self-criticism and goal progress. The results also showed a positive association between self-oriented perfectionism and goal progress when self-criticism was controlled. The important role of self-criticism for understanding the impact of perfectionistic concerns is highlighted by these results. Implications for the debate concerning the possible positive effects of perfectionistic strivings are also discussed.

  2. Goal orientations, beliefs about success, and performance improvement among young elite Dutch soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Duda, Joan L.

    1999-01-01

    Extending past work testing goal perspective theory in sport, one purpose of this study was to examine, via a longitudinal design, the relationship of goal orientations to the beliefs about the causes of success in the case of elite male Dutch soccer players. A second purpose was to determine the re

  3. Epistemic Beliefs and Achievement Goal Orientations: Relations between Constructs versus Personal Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir; Weinstock, Michael; Kaplan, Avi

    2017-01-01

    Research has found students' epistemic beliefs to predict their achievement goal orientations. Much of this research emerged from the dimensional approach of epistemic beliefs, which hypothesized a relationship between particular independent dimensions of epistemic beliefs with different achievement goals. Research in this approach has primarily…

  4. The Achievement Goals Orientation of South African First Year University Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain; Ramaila, Sam

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the achievement goals orientation of first year physics students at a South African university. The mixed methods design involved a quantitative survey of 291 students using an achievement goals questionnaire and individual interviews of selected participants. Results showed that the students perceived they have a stronger…

  5. Motivational climate, goal orientation and exercise adherence in fitness centers and personal training contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingi Petitemberte Klain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the relationships hypothesized by the Achievement Goal Theory in predicting adherence to exercise. The study participants were 405 individuals exercising in fitness centers with a mean age of 35 years (SD = 17 and 183 individuals exercising with personal trainers with a mean age of 43 years (SD = 16, that answered the Portuguese versions of the Goal Orientation in Exercise Measure and Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire. The hypothesized structural equation model showed that the mastery motivational climate had a positive impact on task orientation goals, which in turn had a positive impact on exercise adherence. However, performance motivational climate had a positive impact on ego orientation goals, which in turn had a negative impact on exercise adherence.

  6. Age, Action Orientation, and Self-Regulation during the Pursuit of a Dieting Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennecke, Marie; Freund, Alexandra M

    2016-03-01

    Two studies tested the hypotheses that (1) action orientation (vs. state orientation) is positively correlated with age across adulthood and (2) action orientation aids the self-regulation of one's feelings, thoughts, and behavior during the pursuit of a dieting goal. Hypotheses were partly confirmed. In Study 1, N = 126 overweight women (age: 19-77 years) intended to lose weight by means of a low-calorie diet. In Study 2, N = 322 adults (age: 18-82 years) reported on their action orientation to replicate the association of age and action orientation found in Study 1. Study 2 corroborated only the expected positive association of age and decision-related action orientation. In Study 1, decision-related action orientation predicted higher affective well-being during the diet as well as less self-reported deviations from the diet; failure-related action orientation predicted lower levels of rumination in response to dieting failures. Action orientation partially mediated the negative effects of age on deviations and rumination (see Hennecke & Freund, ). Weight loss was not predicted by action orientation. We discuss action orientation as one factor of increased motivational competence in older adulthood.

  7. Integrating cognitive and motivational factors in depression: initial tests of a goal-orientation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, B M

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to predict depression from a strictly cognitive perspective have met with limited success. A goal-orientation model is proposed that integrates motivational and cognitive factors in attempting to explain and predict depression. The model proposes that people differ in their goal orientation, with some people being more validation seeking (VS) and others being more growth seeking (GS). The model predicts that compared with GS persons, VS persons will show greater anxiety in anticipation of a stressful event and greater self-esteem loss, task disengagement, and depression after a negative event. A goal-orientation measure was developed (Study 1), and the predictive validity of the model was tested (Studies 2-5). Findings suggest that the explanatory and predictive power of the cognitive theories can be enhanced, and the arsenal of the cognitive therapist enlarged, by integrating motivational and cognitive approaches to depression.

  8. A goal-oriented reduced basis method for the wave equation in inverse analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Khac Chi; Bordas, Stephane P A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the reduced-basis methods developed earlier for wave equations to goal-oriented wave equations with affine parameter dependence. The essential new ingredient is the dual (or adjoint) problem and the use of its solution in a sampling procedure to pick up "goal-orientedly" parameter samples. First, we introduce the reduced-basis recipe --- Galerkin projection onto a space $Y_N$ spanned by the reduced basis functions which are constructed from the solutions of the governing partial differential equation at several selected points in parameter space. Second, we propose a new "goal-oriented" Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)--Greedy sampling procedure to construct these associated basis functions. Third, based on the assumption of affine parameter dependence, we use the offline-online computational procedures developed earlier to split the computational procedure into offline and online stages. We verify the proposed computational procedure by applying it to a three-dimensional simulat...

  9. Building an e-portfolio learning model: Goal orientation and metacognitive strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis S.Y. Tzeng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent wide acceptance of e-Portfolios has occurred because researchers believe it helps promote students’ learning in higher education. This study uses goal orientation theory to investigate the relationship between goal orientations, metacognitive strategies, and enjoyment when students use e-Portfolio. This paper contributes to research by goal orientation, metacognitive strategies and enjoyment to explain student learning behavior when using e-Portfolio to providing further evidence. A sample of 219 university students took part in this research to verify the proposed model. The study employs structural equation modeling with the LISREL to explain the model. The results show that students’ mastery goals for using e-Portfolio have a positive effect on their metacognitive strategies and enjoyment. Performance-approach goals have a negative effect on metacognitive strategies and a positive effect on enjoyment. Performance-avoidance goals have a positive effect on metacognitive strategies. Students’ enjoyment has a positive effect on their metacognitive strategies, and mastery goals can predict metacognitive strategies through enjoyment. This paper also discusses study findings and implications for future research.

  10. Goal-orientation, epistemological beliefs towards intrinsic motivation among engineering students: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlahcene, Abderrahim; Lashari, Sana Anwar; Lashari, Tahira Anwar

    2017-08-01

    An aspect that has been exhaustively researched in the motivation of the higher education discipline is the engineering students’ process of goal-orientation, epistemological beliefs towards intrinsic motivation. However, the focus of those researchers as commonly the influence of goal orientations and epistemological beliefs on intrinsic motivation; they have not combined the two factors and examined relationships among goal orientation, epistemological beliefs, and intrinsic motivation. Therefore, although there is a plethora of research on the matter in related disciplines, the researchers commonly do not have consensus on a term that could be used to discuss how engineering students are motivation. This paper identifies literature whose characteristics have focused on the concept of motivation. Attempts were made to retrieve related lietarure empirically examined motivation, extrinsic motivation, Goal orientation, Epistemological beliefs, and intrinsic motivation to gain insight information. It is believed that the present study may help educators in organizing content, preparing curriculum, and evaluate student tasks, so that students can begin to develop more mature and effective epistemological beliefs and design their proper goals for their learning process.

  11. Goal-oriented robot navigation learning using a multi-scale space representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llofriu, M; Tejera, G; Contreras, M; Pelc, T; Fellous, J M; Weitzenfeld, A

    2015-12-01

    There has been extensive research in recent years on the multi-scale nature of hippocampal place cells and entorhinal grid cells encoding which led to many speculations on their role in spatial cognition. In this paper we focus on the multi-scale nature of place cells and how they contribute to faster learning during goal-oriented navigation when compared to a spatial cognition system composed of single scale place cells. The task consists of a circular arena with a fixed goal location, in which a robot is trained to find the shortest path to the goal after a number of learning trials. Synaptic connections are modified using a reinforcement learning paradigm adapted to the place cells multi-scale architecture. The model is evaluated in both simulation and physical robots. We find that larger scale and combined multi-scale representations favor goal-oriented navigation task learning.

  12. Factor Analysis of Teenage Athletes’ Goal Orientations and Sports Participation Motives in Leisure Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshin Benar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify the most important goal orientations and sport participation motives among teenage athletes in leisure time. In addition, these variables were prioritized and associations between all constructs have been studied. For this purpose, 376 Iranian teenage athletes were singled out by cluster–random sampling, and responded to Task and Ego Orientation Sport Questionnaire (T.E.O.S.Q, and Participation Motivation Questionnaire (PMQ. The results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA showed fit model indexes for twosome dimensions of sport goals, and five motives of sport participation (RMSEA ≤ .06; χ2 / df ≤ 3; Goodness Indexes≥ .90. Based on CFA and loadings, goals of task-orientation (r= .93 and ego-orientation (r= .43 were identified for sport goals, and motives of energy release (r= .94, status (r = .76, fitness (r= .48, team atmosphere (r= .46, and skill development (r= .26 obtained for teenagers’ sport participation, respectively. In general, the findings of the present study provided the adequate understanding for sport managers, coaches, physical educators and their parents by how sport motivation of teenagers, via satisfying teenager’s motives specially motives of energy release and status, provided their satisfaction and gratification during long life.

  13. Chinese Mindset: Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation and Academic Achievement in Hong Kong Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Wong, Yi-Lee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between theories of intelligence and goal orientations, and their joint connections to students' academic achievement in the Chinese cultural context. A total of 418 university students in Hong Kong participated in the present study. The survey was administered to collect information…

  14. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem-solving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A.; Dreu, C.K.W. de; Vaart, T. van der

    2002-01-01

    In a study of 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation - as a personality trait - increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern, combi

  15. Weak Ties and Self-Regulation in Job Search: The Effects of Goal Orientation on Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, John-Paul; Yamkovenko, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the relationship between the self-regulatory variable of goal orientation and the extent to which job seekers reach out to and use weak ties in their job search. Weak ties, as defined by Granovettor, are connections to densely knit networks outside the individual's direct contacts who could…

  16. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem-solving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A.; Dreu, C.K.W. de; Vaart, T. van der

    2001-01-01

    In a study in 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation – as a personality trait -increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern, combin

  17. Linking Failure Feedback to Individual Creativity: The Moderation Role of Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yimin; Yao, Xiang; Wang, Shuhong; Caughron, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The sense-making theory of creativity is extended by identifying failure feedback as a process that shapes creative interpretations and actions. We also consider the moderating effect of goal orientation on the relationship between failure feedback and individual creativity, according to the sense-making theory. A 2-waves survey data from…

  18. The Impact of Within-School Autonomy on Students' Goal Orientations and Engagement with Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Colin; Muir, Tracey; Callingham, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    School autonomy has been identified as having an impact on a school's performance, yet less has been reported about the effect this has on students' goal orientations and engagement with mathematics. In a national study conducted in schools across Australia, measures of school autonomy were collected from teachers and school leaders, along with…

  19. Goal-Orientation and Teacher Motivation among Teacher Applicants and Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between goal-orientation, intrinsic/extrinsic motivation for the teaching profession, previous achievement and entrance scores was investigated among teacher applicants (Study 1; N=230), and student teachers (Study 2; N=114). Utilizing path-analyses the following relationships were found in both studies, between: (a) mastery goals…

  20. Fostering Creativity in the Classroom: Effects of Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation, and Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunsook; Hartzell, Stephanie A.; Greene, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships of teachers' epistemological beliefs, motivation, and goal orientation to their instructional practices that foster student creativity were examined. Teachers' perceived instructional practices that facilitate the development of multiple perspectives in problem solving, transfer, task commitment, creative skill use, and…

  1. A Relational Goal-Oriented Model of Optimal Service Delivery to Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a Relational Goal-Oriented Model of Service Delivery to Children with physical or mental health difficulties and their families. This research-informed and practice-relevant model provides a broad understanding of what effective service provision entails and requires from practitioners and service organizations. The model…

  2. The Roles of Competence Beliefs and Goal Orientations for Change in Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinath, Birgit; Steinmayr, Ricarda

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated 3 theoretically plausible explanations for changes in school-related intrinsic motivation. A sample of 348 German 11th-grade students was followed for 1 year. At 2 measurement occasions, students completed self-reports regarding their school-related intrinsic motivation, goal orientations, and competence beliefs. In…

  3. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem-solving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A.; Dreu, C.K.W. de; Vaart, T. van der

    2002-01-01

    In a study of 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation - as a personality trait - increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern,

  4. Perceived Competence and Autonomy as Moderators of the Effects of Achievement Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, YoonJung; Weinstein, Claire Ellen; Wicker, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of two moderators--perceived competence and perceived autonomy--in the relationships of achievement goal orientations with a broad range of learning-related variables, including interest, effort, learning strategy use and academic achievement. Perceived competence and autonomy played…

  5. Self-Efficacy, Goal Orientations and Learning Strategies as Mediators between Preceding and Subsequent Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Age

    2011-01-01

    High school grade point average (HSGPA), self-efficacy, goal orientations, learning strategies, and examination grade were measured in a sample of Norwegian undergraduate psychology students in order to investigate motives and strategies as mediators between preceding and subsequent academic achievement. Correlation analysis showed strong…

  6. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self-Reported Study Strategies as Predictors of Online Studying Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Zhou, Mingming; Nesbit, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether achievement motivations influence the adoption of learning strategies and learning strategies influence studying behavior in an online learning environment. The Goal Orientation Questionnaire was used to measure achievement motives, and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was…

  7. Work Engagement: Antecedents, the Mediating Role of Learning Goal Orientation and Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Aamir Ali; Buckley, Finian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aims to explore the effects of state (trust in supervisor) and trait (trust propensity) trust on employees' work engagement. Furthermore, it seeks to investigate the mediating role of learning goal orientation in the relationship between work engagement and two forms of performance: in-role job performance and innovative…

  8. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem-solving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A; De Dreu, CKW; Van der Vaart, T

    In a study of 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation-as a personality trait-increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern, combined

  9. Student-teacher relationships and achievement goal orientations : Examining student perceptions in an ethnically diverse sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, J.T.; Fleischmann, F.

    2015-01-01

    Among an ethnically diverse sample of 803 preadolescent students (ages 9-13 years), the present study examined the associations between students’ perceptions of the student-teacher relationship and their achievement goal orientations. Multilevel analyses showed that students who perceived more close

  10. Linking Failure Feedback to Individual Creativity: The Moderation Role of Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yimin; Yao, Xiang; Wang, Shuhong; Caughron, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The sense-making theory of creativity is extended by identifying failure feedback as a process that shapes creative interpretations and actions. We also consider the moderating effect of goal orientation on the relationship between failure feedback and individual creativity, according to the sense-making theory. A 2-waves survey data from…

  11. The Relationship Between Goal Orientation, Social Comparison Responses, Self-Efficacy, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, Carmen; Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Peiro, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether social comparison responses (identification and contrast in social comparison) mediated the relationship between goal orientation (promotion and prevention) and self-efficacy, and whether self-efficacy was subsequently related with a better performance. As expected

  12. Individualism-Collectivism and the Role of Goal Orientation in Organizational Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Altovise; Spitzmueller, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    This research examines how individualism-collectivism and goal orientation impact training effectiveness through study of an internationally diverse sample of engineers who were undergoing technical training. In light of contemporary views of individualism-collectivism, we argue that collectivism will moderate the influence of learning and…

  13. The Relationship Between Goal Orientation, Social Comparison Responses, Self-Efficacy, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, Carmen; Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Peiro, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether social comparison responses (identification and contrast in social comparison) mediated the relationship between goal orientation (promotion and prevention) and self-efficacy, and whether self-efficacy was subsequently related with a better performance. As expected

  14. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self-Reported Study Strategies as Predictors of Online Studying Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Zhou, Mingming; Nesbit, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether achievement motivations influence the adoption of learning strategies and learning strategies influence studying behavior in an online learning environment. The Goal Orientation Questionnaire was used to measure achievement motives, and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was…

  15. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations. PMID:28197109

  16. Within-Group Differences in Sexual Orientation and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roger L.; Reynolds, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine within-group differences among self-identified sexual orientation and identity groups. To understand these within-group differences, 2 types of analysis were conducted. First, a sample of 2,732 participants completed the Sexual Orientation and Identity Scale. Cluster analyses were used to identify 3…

  17. Within-Group Differences in Sexual Orientation and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roger L.; Reynolds, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine within-group differences among self-identified sexual orientation and identity groups. To understand these within-group differences, 2 types of analysis were conducted. First, a sample of 2,732 participants completed the Sexual Orientation and Identity Scale. Cluster analyses were used to identify 3…

  18. The Impact of Perceived Loafing and Collective Efficacy on Group Goal Processes and Group Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey; Klein

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents two studies investigating the influence of social perceptions (perceived loafing, collective efficacy, and cohesion) on group goal processes (difficulty and commitment) and group performance. The role of group goal processes as mediators of the relationships between social perception variables and group performance was also tested. The first study involved a sample of 247 college students in 59 groups working on a team interdependent, divisible academic task. Results supported all but one hypothesis. The mediation hypothesis was not supported as both group goal and social perception variables related similarly to group performance. The second study employed a different design to address some limitations of the first study and to extend those findings. Results from the second study, using 383 college students in 101 groups, were consistent with Study 1 with two exceptions. First, the mediation hypothesis was supported in Study 2, replicating the findings of Klein and Mulvey (1995). Second, anticipated lower effort and the sucker effect, additional intervening variables examined in Study 2, partially mediated the relationship between perceived loafing and collective goal difficulty as hypothesized. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  19. The Relationship between Goal Orientations, Motivational Climate and Selfreported Discipline in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan A; Sicilia, Alvaro; Cervelló, Eduardo; Huéscar, Elisa; Dumitru, Delia C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model on the links between situational and dispositional motivation and self-reported indiscipline/discipline based on the achievement goals theory. The model postulates that a task-involving motivational climate facilitates self-reported discipline, either directly or mediated by task orientation. In contrast, an ego-involving motivational climate favors self-reported indiscipline, either directly or by means of ego orientation. An additional purpose was to examine gender differences according to the motivational model proposed. Children (n = 565) from a large Spanish metropolitan school district were participants in this study and completed questionnaires assessing goal orientations, motivational climates and self-reported discipline. The results from the analysis of structural equation model showed the direct effect of motivational climates on self-reported discipline and provided support to the model. Furthermore, the gender differences found in self-reported discipline were associated with the differences found in the students' dispositional and situational motivation pursuant to the model tested. The implications of these results with regard to teaching instructional actions in physical education classes are discussed. Key pointsA task-involving motivational climate predicts self-reported discipline behaviors, either directly or mediated by task orientation.An ego-involving motivational climate favors self-reported undisciplined, either directly or mediated by ego orientation.A significant gender difference was found in the motivational disposition perceived climate and self-reported discipline.

  20. Norwegian Football Academy Players-Players Self-Assessed Competence, Perfectionism, Goal Orientations and Motivational Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Nerland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded in the theoretical framework of achievement goal theory and perfectionism theory, the purpose of this study was to examine how self-assessed perceived abilities covariance these variables among Norwegian football academy players. 140 adolescent football players participated, representing three football academies. Perceived competence was reported as equivalent to or better than others. Perfectionism scores showed personal standards as the highest of the dimensions of perfectionism, while perceived parental pressure was lowest. In contrast, mean task orientation and perceived mastery climate were higher than ego orientation and perceived performance climate. The correlation analysis showed that perceived competence correlated positively with personal standards. Personal standards correlated positively with the rest of the perfectionism dimensions as well as ego orientation, perceived mastery- and performance climate. Concern over mistakes was positively correlated with ego-orientation. Overall, findings suggested that personal standards correlate with perceived competence, while these variables also relate to other perfectionism dimensions, goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Therefore, coaches should highlight the importance of high personal standards, as a potentially maladaptive function on talent development.

  1. The impact of within-school autonomy on students' goal orientations and engagement with mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Colin; Muir, Tracey; Callingham, Rosemary

    2017-03-01

    School autonomy has been identified as having an impact on a school's performance, yet less has been reported about the effect this has on students' goal orientations and engagement with mathematics. In a national study conducted in schools across Australia, measures of school autonomy were collected from teachers and school leaders, along with students' perceptions of the mastery and performance goal orientations of their classrooms and personally using surveys. Schools were identified as having high or low levels of autonomy on the basis of school leaders' responses. For the study discussed in this paper, a subset of 14 schools for which matched student and teacher data were available provided students' responses to a variety of variables including goal orientations. The findings suggested students in high-autonomy schools were less likely to hold a personal performance approach and avoidance goals than their peers in low-autonomy schools. Fifty-five case studies conducted in 52 schools provided evidence of some of the practical aspects of these findings, which have implications for systems, schools and teachers.

  2. The impact of goal-oriented task design on neurofeedback learning for brain-computer interface control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, S R; Tremblay, A; Boe, S G; Bardouille, T

    2017-07-08

    Neurofeedback training teaches individuals to modulate brain activity by providing real-time feedback and can be used for brain-computer interface control. The present study aimed to optimize training by maximizing engagement through goal-oriented task design. Participants were shown either a visual display or a robot, where each was manipulated using motor imagery (MI)-related electroencephalography signals. Those with the robot were instructed to quickly navigate grid spaces, as the potential for goal-oriented design to strengthen learning was central to our investigation. Both groups were hypothesized to show increased magnitude of these signals across 10 sessions, with the greatest gains being seen in those navigating the robot due to increased engagement. Participants demonstrated the predicted increase in magnitude, with no differentiation between hemispheres. Participants navigating the robot showed stronger left-hand MI increases than those with the computer display. This is likely due to success being reliant on maintaining strong MI-related signals. While older participants showed stronger signals in early sessions, this trend later reversed, suggesting greater natural proficiency but reduced flexibility. These results demonstrate capacity for modulating neurofeedback using MI over a series of training sessions, using tasks of varied design. Importantly, the more goal-oriented robot control task resulted in greater improvements.

  3. Goal-oriented Balancing: a New Model of Contemporary Sales Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars-Johan Åge

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the substantive area of sales management and it suggests that the main concern of a sales manager is to reach the sales and economical goals of the sales organization. The social process by which this main concern is resolved is called goal-oriented balancing and it describes two complementary organizational dimensions, frame development and individual development that are continuously balanced against each other. That is, the sales manager must establish effective organizational processes and structures as well as find the keys to maximum individual performance. These two processes have to be in balance and supportive of each other.

  4. Motivational climate, goal orientation, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment within Finnish junior ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, T; Ntoumanis, N; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations among situational motivational climate, dispositional approach and avoidance achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment in Finnish male junior ice hockey players. The sample comprised 265 junior B-level male players with a mean age of 17.03 years (SD = 0.63). Players filled questionnaires tapping their perceptions of coach motivational climate, achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment. For the statistical analysis, players were divided into high and low perceived sport ability groups. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed an indirect path from task-involving motivational climate via task-approach goal to enjoyment. Additionally, SEM demonstrated four other direct associations, which existed in both perceived ability groups: from ego-involving motivational climate to ego-approach and ego-avoidance goals; from ego-approach goal to ego-avoidance goal; and from task-avoidance goal to ego-avoidance goal. Additionally, in the high perceived sport ability group, there was an association from task-involving motivational climate to enjoyment. The results of this study reveal that motivational climate emphasizing effort, personal development and improvement, and achievement goal mastering tasks are significant elements of enjoyment in junior ice hockey. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Relationship Between Perceived Coaching Behaviors, Collective Efficacy and Goal Orientation among fencer players in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Turhan TOROS,; Ahmet DUVAN

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the perceived coaching behaviors, the goal orientation, the the relationship of the collective efficacy among fencer players in Turkey.In this research, the fencer players who played in the fencing teams in 2009-2010 league season and moreover, the ones who took parts in the teams participated into the Turkish National Championship were included. 141 fencer players who participated into the Turkish National Championship were included. In collecting the data, Leaders...

  6. A cognitive map model based on spatial and goal-oriented mental exploration in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Wang, Rubin; Wang, Ziyin

    2013-11-01

    The rodent hippocampus has been used to represent the spatial environment as a cognitive map. Classical theories suggest that the cognitive map is a consequence of assignment of different spatial regions to variant cell populations in the framework of rate coding. The current study constructs a novel computational neural model of the cognitive map based on firing rate coding, as widely appears in associative memory, thus providing an explanation for formation and function of the two types of cognitive maps: the spatial vector map, responsible for self localization and simultaneous updating of detailed information; and the goal-oriented vector map, important in route finding. A proposed intermediate between these two map types was constructed by combining the spatial vector and goal-orientation maps to form an effective and efficient path finding mechanism. Application of such novel cognitive map based path finding methods to a mental exploration model was explored. With adaptation as a driving force, the basic knowledge of the location relationships in the spatial cognitive map was reformed and sent to the goal-oriented cognitive map, thus solving a series of new path problems through mental exploration. This method allows for rapid identification of suitable paths under variant conditions, thus providing a simpler and safer resource for path finding. Additionally, this method also provides an improved basis for potential robotic path finding applications.

  7. Instructional characteristics in mathematics classrooms: relationships to achievement goal orientation and student engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarides, Rebecca; Rubach, Charlott

    2017-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined relationships between student-perceived teaching for meaning, support for autonomy, and competence in mathematic classrooms (Time 1), and students' achievement goal orientations and engagement in mathematics 6 months later (Time 2). We tested whether student-perceived instructional characteristics at Time 1 indirectly related to student engagement at Time 2, via their achievement goal orientations (Time 2), and, whether student gender moderated these relationships. Participants were ninth and tenth graders (55.2% girls) from 46 classrooms in ten secondary schools in Berlin, Germany. Only data from students who participated at both timepoints were included (N = 746 out of total at Time 1 1118; dropout 33.27%). Longitudinal structural equation modeling showed that student-perceived teaching for meaning and support for competence indirectly predicted intrinsic motivation and effort, via students' mastery goal orientation. These paths were equivalent for girls and boys. The findings are significant for mathematics education, in identifying motivational processes that partly explain the relationships between student-perceived teaching for meaning and competence support and intrinsic motivation and effort in mathematics.

  8. Development of expert thinking: The role of goal-oriented practice and practicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaić Zora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exceptional achievements, expert masteries, masterful performances and creative products can be attained only after a number of years of guided and well-devised practice or goal-oriented practicing. We are dealing with a long-term, systematic and carefully guided training which gradually, step by step, leads towards developing expertise and producing supreme achievements and performances in different areas of human activities. This paper explores the role of goal-oriented practice in the development of expert thinking in science, its characteristics and levels of development. Expert thinking in science is defined as the competence developed through learning and practicing of a certain scientific discipline within systematic education and training as an integral part of artificial development. The goal-oriented practice takes place in phases. Its important feature is a gradual and carefully guided progress and enhancement of abilities that is achieved through meaningful tasks and relevant activities suited to age and the level of expertise in a particular domain, along with constant improvement of activities based on feedback provided by mentors. On the path of development of expertise and expert thinking in science, as one of the forms of manifesting giftedness, an individual needs to be ready to invest efforts, set aside the time and be dedicated to work, as well as to have the possibilities and opportunities to pursue scientific research. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  9. When big brother is watching: goal orientation shapes reactions to electronic monitoring during online training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Aaron M; Foster Thompson, Lori; Rudolph, Jane V; Whelan, Thomas J; Behrend, Tara S; Gissel, Amanda L

    2013-07-01

    Web-based training is frequently used by organizations as a convenient and low-cost way to teach employees new knowledge and skills. As web-based training is typically unproctored, employees may be held accountable to the organization by computer software that monitors their behaviors. The current study examines how the introduction of electronic performance monitoring may provoke negative emotional reactions and decrease learning among certain types of e-learners. Through motivated action theory and trait activation theory, we examine the role of performance goal orientation when e-learners are exposed to asynchronous and synchronous monitoring. We show that some e-learners are more susceptible than others to evaluation apprehension when they perceive their activities are being monitored electronically. Specifically, e-learners higher in avoid performance goal orientation exhibited increased evaluation apprehension if they believed asynchronous monitoring was present, and they showed decreased skill attainment as a result. E-learners higher on prove performance goal orientation showed greater evaluation apprehension if they believed real-time monitoring was occurring, resulting in decreased skill attainment.

  10. Goal Orientation among Boys and Girls in Higher Secondary Schools of Kerala: How Parenting Styles Influence It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Kurukkan, Abidha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relation between parenting style and goal orientation among boys and girls in higher secondary schools of Kerala. Four types of parenting style and five categories of goal orientation. The sample comprised of 467 girls and 365 boys from higher secondary school in Kerala who were selected through…

  11. TOEFL iBT Speaking, Goalorientation and self-assessment a study of Iranian EFL learners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamed Ghaemi; Forough Barzgarn

    2017-01-01

    .... This study explored the effect of self-assessment on EFL learners’ TOEFL iBT speaking score, goal orientation as well as scrutinizing the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' goal-orientation and their speaking scores in TOEFL iBT test...

  12. Attributed Goal-Oriented Analysis Method for Selecting Alternatives of Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuma; Saeki, Motoshi

    During software requirements analysis, developers and stakeholders have many alternatives of requirements to be achieved and should make decisions to select an alternative out of them. There are two significant points to be considered for supporting these decision making processes in requirements analysis; 1) dependencies among alternatives and 2) evaluation based on multi-criteria and their trade-off. This paper proposes the technique to address the above two issues by using an extended version of goal-oriented analysis. In goal-oriented analysis, elicited goals and their dependencies are represented with an AND-OR acyclic directed graph. We use this technique to model the dependencies of the alternatives. Furthermore we associate attribute values and their propagation rules with nodes and edges in a goal graph in order to evaluate the alternatives with them. The attributes and their calculation rules greatly depend on the characteristics of a development project. Thus, in our approach, we select and use the attributes and their rules that can be appropriate for the project. TOPSIS method is adopted to show alternatives and their resulting attribute values.

  13. Outperforming whom? A multilevel study of performance-prove goal orientation, performance, and the moderating role of shared team identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bart; van Knippenberg, Daan; Hirst, Giles; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D

    2015-11-01

    Performance-prove goal orientation affects performance because it drives people to try to outperform others. A proper understanding of the performance-motivating potential of performance-prove goal orientation requires, however, that we consider the question of whom people desire to outperform. In a multilevel analysis of this issue, we propose that the shared team identification of a team plays an important moderating role here, directing the performance-motivating influence of performance-prove goal orientation to either the team level or the individual level of performance. A multilevel study of salespeople nested in teams supports this proposition, showing that performance-prove goal orientation motivates team performance more with higher shared team identification, whereas performance-prove goal orientation motivates individual performance more with lower shared team identification. Establishing the robustness of these findings, a second study replicates them with individual and team performance in an educational context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Does Goal Orientation Matter for Trait Anxiety, Self-Efficacy and Performance? An Investigation in University Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, goal orientations have been examined in their relationship with other potential determinants of athletic performance. The relevant research showed that task orientation, compared to ego orientation, is linked to more adaptive outcomes (Behzadi, Hamzei, Nori and Salehian, 2011; Duda and Whitehead, 1998; Roberts, 2001; Biddle, 2001;…

  15. Medical group management: a marketing orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, K D; Allcorn, S

    1986-09-01

    This article considers the pragmatic aspects of conducting a situation/marketing audit for group medical practices. This audit is a key component in the formulation of a competitive strategy and the development of a marketing program. Given are a series of questions that may be used by medical groups to guide assessment of the opportunities and threats present in the environment as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the organization in meeting the environmental challenges. Furthermore, the article provides a framework for thinking about strategy and the variables that should be considered and aligned to achieve effective implementation of strategy. Finally, the parameters are outlined for deciding on a marketing program: the mix of marketing tools (service design, distribution channels, pricing and promotion) that should be employed to offensively and/or defensively position the medical group in the competitive marketplace.

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOAL ORIENTATIONS, MOTIVATIONAL CLIMATE AND SELF-REPORTED DISCIPLINE IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Moreno-Murcia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model on the links between situational and dispositional motivation and self-reported indiscipline/discipline based on the achievement goals theory. The model postulates that a task-involving motivational climate facilitates self-reported discipline, either directly or mediated by task orientation. In contrast, an ego-involving motivational climate favors self-reported indiscipline, either directly or by means of ego orientation. An additional purpose was to examine gender differences according to the motivational model proposed. Children (n = 565 from a large Spanish metropolitan school district were participants in this study and completed questionnaires assessing goal orientations, motivational climates and self-reported discipline. The results from the analysis of structural equation model showed the direct effect of motivational climates on self-reported discipline and provided support to the model. Furthermore, the gender differences found in self-reported discipline were associated with the differences found in the students' dispositional and situational motivation pursuant to the model tested. The implications of these results with regard to teaching instructional actions in physical education classes are discussed.

  17. The Effect of Goal Setting on Group Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleingeld, Ad; van Mierlo, Heleen; Arends, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    Updating and extending the work of O'Leary-Kelly, Martocchio, and Frink (1994), with this meta-analysis on goal setting and group performance we show that specific difficult goals yield considerably higher group performance compared with nonspecific goals (d = 0.80 plus or minus 0.35, k = 23 effect sizes). Moderately difficult and easy goals were…

  18. Analysis of self-determined motivation in basketball players through goal orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, Manuel; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Abraldes, J Arturo; Rodríguez-Suárez, Nuria

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. Firstly to examine the relations between the different constructs that defines Nicholls' Achievement Goal Theory and Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory. Secondly to analyse the differences that exist between them with respect to the socio-demographic variables gender and age. A sample of 292 federated basketball players from the Region of Murcia (Spain) with ages between 14 and 18 years old was used. In addition, Castilian versions of The Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ) and the Sports Motivational Scale (SMS) were administered. Three statistical analyses were employed, a descriptive analysis, a correlation analysis and a regression analysis. The results showed a positive relation between ego orientation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation. The motivational relations between both theories and the differences with respect to gender and age are discussed. We have found out that mainly gender and also age differences are strong predictors of ego orientation, extrinsic motivation of external regulation and amotivation. We can also confirm that extrinsic motivation of external regulation positively predicts ego orientation and a decrease of task orientation. The results ratify the use of the Spanish version of the SMS to measure different types of motivation within the sports context.

  19. Goal-oriented sensitivity analysis for lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Katsoulakis, Markos A

    2014-03-28

    In this paper we propose a new class of coupling methods for the sensitivity analysis of high dimensional stochastic systems and in particular for lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). Sensitivity analysis for stochastic systems is typically based on approximating continuous derivatives with respect to model parameters by the mean value of samples from a finite difference scheme. Instead of using independent samples the proposed algorithm reduces the variance of the estimator by developing a strongly correlated-"coupled"- stochastic process for both the perturbed and unperturbed stochastic processes, defined in a common state space. The novelty of our construction is that the new coupled process depends on the targeted observables, e.g., coverage, Hamiltonian, spatial correlations, surface roughness, etc., hence we refer to the proposed method as goal-oriented sensitivity analysis. In particular, the rates of the coupled Continuous Time Markov Chain are obtained as solutions to a goal-oriented optimization problem, depending on the observable of interest, by considering the minimization functional of the corresponding variance. We show that this functional can be used as a diagnostic tool for the design and evaluation of different classes of couplings. Furthermore, the resulting KMC sensitivity algorithm has an easy implementation that is based on the Bortz-Kalos-Lebowitz algorithm's philosophy, where events are divided in classes depending on level sets of the observable of interest. Finally, we demonstrate in several examples including adsorption, desorption, and diffusion Kinetic Monte Carlo that for the same confidence interval and observable, the proposed goal-oriented algorithm can be two orders of magnitude faster than existing coupling algorithms for spatial KMC such as the Common Random Number approach. We also provide a complete implementation of the proposed sensitivity analysis algorithms, including various spatial KMC examples, in a supplementary MATLAB

  20. Goal-oriented sensitivity analysis for lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Katsoulakis, Markos A.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose a new class of coupling methods for the sensitivity analysis of high dimensional stochastic systems and in particular for lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). Sensitivity analysis for stochastic systems is typically based on approximating continuous derivatives with respect to model parameters by the mean value of samples from a finite difference scheme. Instead of using independent samples the proposed algorithm reduces the variance of the estimator by developing a strongly correlated-"coupled"- stochastic process for both the perturbed and unperturbed stochastic processes, defined in a common state space. The novelty of our construction is that the new coupled process depends on the targeted observables, e.g., coverage, Hamiltonian, spatial correlations, surface roughness, etc., hence we refer to the proposed method as goal-oriented sensitivity analysis. In particular, the rates of the coupled Continuous Time Markov Chain are obtained as solutions to a goal-oriented optimization problem, depending on the observable of interest, by considering the minimization functional of the corresponding variance. We show that this functional can be used as a diagnostic tool for the design and evaluation of different classes of couplings. Furthermore, the resulting KMC sensitivity algorithm has an easy implementation that is based on the Bortz-Kalos-Lebowitz algorithm's philosophy, where events are divided in classes depending on level sets of the observable of interest. Finally, we demonstrate in several examples including adsorption, desorption, and diffusion Kinetic Monte Carlo that for the same confidence interval and observable, the proposed goal-oriented algorithm can be two orders of magnitude faster than existing coupling algorithms for spatial KMC such as the Common Random Number approach. We also provide a complete implementation of the proposed sensitivity analysis algorithms, including various spatial KMC examples, in a supplementary MATLAB

  1. Goal orientations in sport: a causal model Orientaciones de Meta en el deporte: un modelo causal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P. Holgado

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on research work relating goal orientation in sport with contextual variables and personal variables. The sample was 511 professional athletes. A “causal” model is proposed in which task and goal ego orientations are the dependent variables. A hypothetical model is obtained using structural equations modelling, supporting that: a athletes who find satisfaction experimenting mastery, who perceive a motivational climate that rewards hard work and who believe that success depends on their effort, develop task goal orientation; and b athletes who get satisfaction demonstrating greater capacity than the rest, who live a motivational climate that leads them to be better than the others and that only rewards the best players, and whose main motive for practising sport is to achieve certain social status and popularity, will have an ego goal orientation. Este trabajo parte de las investigaciones que relacionan las orientaciones de meta en el deporte con variables contextuales, como el clima motivacional percibido, y con variables personales, tales como la satisfacción con los resultados deportivos, las creencias relacionadas con los factores implicados en la obtención del éxito y los motivos por lo que se practica deporte. La muestra está compuesta por 511 deportistas profesionales. Se llevan a cabo análisis de regresión múltiple y se propone un modelo causal en el que las variables a predecir son las orientaciones de meta, a la tarea y al ego. Con ecuaciones estructurales se contrasta un modelo hipotético, que presenta un ajuste adecuado, y que defiende que: a el deportista que encuentra la satisfacción experimentando maestría, que percibe un clima motivacional que premia el trabajo duro y que cree que el éxito depende de su esfuerzo, desarrolla una orientación de meta a la tarea: y b que el deportista que obtiene satisfacción demostrando mayor capacidad que los demás, que vive un clima motivacional que le conduce a

  2. The Role of Self-Regulated Strategies and Goal Orientation in Predicting Achievement of Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia KITSANTAS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the predictiveness of self-regulated learning strategies and goal orientation of elementary students’ academic achievement. Eighty one (n = 81 fifth graders were asked to respond to two scales. It was hypothesized that student achievement would be predicted by prior achievement, use of self-regulation strategies, and goal orientation. Results showed that prior achievement and use of self-regulation strategies accounted for a significant amount of variance in students’ academic achievement. Overall, goal orientation was not a significant predictor of students’ outcomes measures across different subject areas. Areas for future research are explored and implications for school personnel are provided.

  3. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males;...

  4. A posteriori error estimation of goal-oriented quantities for elliptic type BVPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotov, S.

    2006-07-01

    In practice the process or object under analysis is usually modelled by means of a selected mathematical model, whose approximate solution is computed with a help of a certain computer code. This approximate solution necessarily includes various errors related to the approximation itself, special features of the particular method used, round-off errors, etc. Therefore, it inevitably rises the question about the reliability of the computed approximations. In the present paper we describe and test numerically the new effective computational technology designed for a control of the accuracy of approximate solutions in terms of goal-oriented quantities (or goal-oriented criteria). Such quantities are to be chosen by a user depending on solution properties that present a special interest. The technology proposed is applicable to the elliptic type boundary-value problems and leads to effective computer codes aimed to control errors of approximate solutions obtained by the finite element method which presents nowadays the main computational tool in industrial software. Various numerical tests confirming high effectivity of this technology are presented.

  5. Generational differences in young adults' life goals, concern for others, and civic orientation, 1966-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Freeman, Elise C

    2012-05-01

    Three studies examined generational differences in life goals, concern for others, and civic orientation among American high school seniors (Monitoring the Future; N = 463,753, 1976-2008) and entering college students (The American Freshman; N = 8.7 million, 1966-2009). Compared to Baby Boomers (born 1946-1961) at the same age, GenX'ers (born 1962-1981) and Millennials (born after 1982) considered goals related to extrinsic values (money, image, fame) more important and those related to intrinsic values (self-acceptance, affiliation, community) less important. Concern for others (e.g., empathy for outgroups, charity donations, the importance of having a job worthwhile to society) declined slightly. Community service rose but was also increasingly required for high school graduation over the same time period. Civic orientation (e.g., interest in social problems, political participation, trust in government, taking action to help the environment and save energy) declined an average of d = -.34, with about half the decline occurring between GenX and the Millennials. Some of the largest declines appeared in taking action to help the environment. In most cases, Millennials slowed, though did not reverse, trends toward reduced community feeling begun by GenX. The results generally support the "Generation Me" view of generational differences rather than the "Generation We" or no change views.

  6. The Exclusive Group - Expatriates Working against Corporate Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    as destructive towards overall corporate aims to internationalise and develop managerial and organisational competencies. Specifically excluding behaviour and cultural boundary creation of the expatriate group hindered the necessary cross-cultural communication and thereby working against corporate strategy...

  7. Motivational Regulations and Goal Orientation in Division III Basketball Players: Gender and Playing Status Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri J. Hepler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in motivational regulations and goal orientation based on gender and playing status.  Method:  Two hundred and fourteen Division III basketball players (92 males, 112 females completed the Sport Motivation Scale-28 and the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport.  Based on average playing time per game, participants were classified as starters (over 20 minutes, n = 80, substitutes (6-20 minutes, n = 65, and benchwarmers (5 minutes or less, n = 63.  Results: Results indicated that males scored higher than females on external regulation, substitutes scored higher than starters on all 3 dimensions of extrinsic motivation, and benchwarmers expressed the most amotivation.  Task orientation was positively related to all types of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Conclusion: While coaches should strive to enhance the intrinsic motivation in all of their athletes, special emphasis should be placed on promoting intrinsic motivation of male athletes and substitutes.   Keywords:  motives, playing time, sex differences

  8. Differences in Learning Strategies, Goal Orientations, and Self-Concept between Overachieving, Normal-Achieving, and Underachieving Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Juan L; Gilar, Raquel; Veas, Alejandro; Miñano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications.

  9. Differences in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving, and underachieving secondary students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN LUIS CASTEJON

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1,400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications.

  10. A Goal Orientation Analysis of Teachers' Motivations to Participate in the School Self-Assessment Processes of a Quality Assurance System in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Carmen; Madrid, Romina; Fernández, María Beatriz; Ahumada, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the goal orientations that could be inferred from how teachers from six municipal schools in Chile described their understandings, emotions, and behaviors during their participation in the assessment phase of the School Management Quality Assurance System. Content analysis of focus group interview transcripts evidenced…

  11. Social exclusion: the interplay of group goals and individual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cameron B; Hitti, Aline; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2014-08-01

    Past research has shown that adolescents justify social exclusion based on concerns for group functioning, and yet, to date, no study has evaluated whether group functioning justifications shift or remain stable across different exclusion contexts. In this study, we systematically manipulated exclusion context (i.e., competitive or noncompetitive soccer groups) and individual characteristics of the target of exclusion to test the nature of the interaction between these factors during exclusion judgments. Adolescents' (N = 201; 61% Female) exclusion judgments differed across contexts only when an individual's ability was under consideration. Intergroup (i.e., gender, nationality) and interpersonal (i.e., aggression, shyness) characteristics overwhelmed contextual considerations. Results indicate the complexity of factors weighed by adolescents when making exclusion judgments, and suggest the need for extension of the present findings to understand more fully the interaction between the context of exclusion and individual characteristics in exclusion judgments.

  12. Self-regulation in learning: Application of strategies and roles of orientation towards goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkov Snežana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents different views on self-regulation in the process of learning. What is shown is the model in which self-regulation is treated as the interaction of processes connected to personality, behavioral and contextual processes. The regulation processes are organized in several phases, and within each phase self-regulatory activities are structured in different fields. Special attention is paid to the application of strategies - cognitive, meta-cognitive, motivational and strategies of resource management. As a critical component of self-regulation, the monitoring and the steps it consists of were discussed in more detail. The emphasis is on the role of feedback in monitoring, as well as on the wider significance it has for self-regulation in the process of learning. Since orientation towards the goal is considered an essential aspect of self-regulation, what was performed was the analysis of the results and implications of different researches of the relation of pupils’ orientations towards the goals with regulation of the process of learning. The possibilities for encouraging self-regulation in the tuition process were considered. By enabling pupils to make decisions, set their own goals, perform the choice and plan and organize their activities, the development of self-regulation and autonomy is encouraged. The guidelines for planning the training aimed towards the development of strategy behavior in pupils are stated. What is presented are the different methods which are applied within the model and interventions in tuition directed towards encouragement of self-regulation.

  13. Goal-oriented searching mediated by ventral hippocampus early in trial-and-error learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruediger, Sarah; Spirig, Dominique; Donato, Flavio; Caroni, Pico

    2012-11-01

    Most behavioral learning in biology is trial and error, but how these learning processes are influenced by individual brain systems is poorly understood. Here we show that ventral-to-dorsal hippocampal subdivisions have specific and sequential functions in trial-and-error maze navigation, with ventral hippocampus (vH) mediating early task-specific goal-oriented searching. Although performance and strategy deployment progressed continuously at the population level, individual mice showed discrete learning phases, each characterized by particular search habits. Transitions in learning phases reflected feedforward inhibitory connectivity (FFI) growth occurring sequentially in ventral, then intermediate, then dorsal hippocampal subdivisions. FFI growth at vH occurred abruptly upon behavioral learning of goal-task relationships. vH lesions or the absence of vH FFI growth delayed early learning and disrupted performance consistency. Intermediate hippocampus lesions impaired intermediate place learning, whereas dorsal hippocampus lesions specifically disrupted late spatial learning. Trial-and-error navigational learning processes in naive mice thus involve a stereotype sequence of increasingly precise subtasks learned through distinct hippocampal subdivisions. Because of its unique connectivity, vH may relate specific goals to internal states in learning under healthy and pathological conditions.

  14. The Role of Self-Regulated Strategies and Goal Orientation in Predicting Achievement of Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia KITSANTAS; Sam STEEN; Faye HUIE

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the predictiveness of self-regulated learning strategies and goal orientation of elementary students’ academic achievement. Eighty one (n = 81) fifth graders were asked to respond to two scales. It was hypothesized that student achievement would be predicted by prior achievement, use of self-regulation strategies, and goal orientation. Results showed that prior achievement and use of self-regulation strategies accounted for a significant amount of variance in studen...

  15. Prediction of information seeking behavior of Shiraz University graduate students based on the dimensions of goal orientations and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ebrahimy

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion :to attention on existence of positive and meaningful relationship between goal orientations, dimensions of creativity with information seeking behavior and possibility of prediction of information seeking behavior of graduate students by aforesaid psychological variants, can explain that success or un success in information seeking behavior of students and access to information and optimum work on researching functions are not only productive of students specially skills but also are impressible of psychological issues like goal orientations and creativity.

  16. Emotions in work groups as moral orientation guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Brinkmann, Svend

    2010-01-01

    We argue that emotions in groups can best be studied qualitatively and act as moral orientation guides. This article argues first that the normativity of particular practices is at play in any rational empirical investigation of emotions in workgroups and second that moral values must be studied...... in order to understand emotions in work groups...

  17. Social Goal Orientations, Interpersonal Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescents in Japan: A Test of the Diathesis-Stress Model Using the Trichotomous Framework of Social Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yuji; Sakurai, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether depression among early adolescents (aged 12-14 years, N = 116; 65 girls) can be predicted by interactions between social goal orientations and interpersonal stress. Based on Kuroda and Sakurai (2001), this study applied Elliot and Harackiewicz's (1996) trichotomous framework of achievement goals to…

  18. An Investigation of Task and Ego Oriented Goals of the Students Majoring at the Faculty of Sport Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Emre

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the task and ego oriented goals of the students majoring at the Faculty of Sports Sciences at Ataturk University. For data collection, "The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire", which was developed by Duda (1) and adapted into Turkish by Toros and Yetim (2), was used in the current study to…

  19. The Beamed Energy Technology Working Group, Programs and Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV; Smith, W. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A brief description of the Beamed Energy Technology Program will be given. Its relationship to the overall Advanced Technology Program at Marshall Space Flight Center will be discussed. A summary description of the known potential benefits and technical issues remaining in the development of a viable system will be presented along with program plans for a NASA Research Announcement in FY03 to begin development of relevant technologies and systems concepts. The results of workshop activity by the Beamed Energy Technology Working Group will be provided.

  20. On Goal-Oriented, Hydrogeological Site Investigation: A Holistic Approach (Henry Darcy Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Yoram

    2016-04-01

    UQ (for Uncertainty Quantification) is a critical element of groundwater management and by extension, of hydrological site investigation. While it is clear that UQ is an important goal, there is ambiguity as to what the target of the UQ should be, and how to make UQ relevant in the context of public policy. Planning for UQ (meaning what measurements to take, where, how many, what frequency, etc.), one could consider environmental performance parameters (EPMs, such as concentrations or travel time) as the targets of site investigation. But there is a need to go beyond EPMs, and to consider the uncertainty related to impacts such as enhanced cancer-risk due to groundwater contamination or, more generally, to decisions facing regulators. In any case, UQ requires site investigation, and decision-makers, who end up paying for it, are not really interested in EPMs: they care about making operational decisions that are defensible legally and justified from the perspective of public good. The key to UQ, whether considering EPMS or operational decisions concerning the public good, is defining a suitable strategy for site investigation. There is a body of published works on relating site investigations with EPMs, but much less is known on how to support operational decisions with strategies for site characterization. In this lecture, I will address this issue and I will outline a comprehensive approach for addressing it using a statistical formalism that couples hypothesis testing with Bayesian statistics. I refer to this approach as goal-oriented site investigation. I will show how site investigation strategies, with specifics such as which measurements to take and where, could be related to goals lined with operational decisions. This includes (1) defining the relevant goals; (2) formulating hypotheses; (3) defining alternative strategies for site investigation and (4) evaluating them in terms of probabilities for making errors in accepting or rejecting the hypotheses.

  1. Pre-admission academic predictors of the goals of a primary care-oriented medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, R J

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of two widely-used preadmission academic predictors (undergraduate grade point average and the Medical College Admission Test) to a sequence of four goals for a primary care-oriented medical school. Graduates from the first four classes of a new medical school (n = 237) were used in the study. Correlation and multiple regression analysis were performed. It was concluded that pre-admission academic variables (undergraduate GPA and MCAT) are useful in screening for academic success in medical school (especially for preclinical courses) and licensability (especially NBME Part 1 and 2). Furthermore, no useful predictor of residency performance or choice of a primary care specialty was identified. Provisos related to the conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  2. Solution verification, goal-oriented adaptive methods for stochastic advection–diffusion problems

    KAUST Repository

    Almeida, Regina C.

    2010-08-01

    A goal-oriented analysis of linear, stochastic advection-diffusion models is presented which provides both a method for solution verification as well as a basis for improving results through adaptation of both the mesh and the way random variables are approximated. A class of model problems with random coefficients and source terms is cast in a variational setting. Specific quantities of interest are specified which are also random variables. A stochastic adjoint problem associated with the quantities of interest is formulated and a posteriori error estimates are derived. These are used to guide an adaptive algorithm which adjusts the sparse probabilistic grid so as to control the approximation error. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the methodology for a specific model problem. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  3. A goal-oriented field measurement filtering technique for the identification of material model parameters

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2009-05-16

    The post-processing of experiments with nonuniform fields is still a challenge: the information is often much richer, but its interpretation for identification purposes is not straightforward. However, this is a very promising field of development because it would pave the way for the robust identification of multiple material parameters using only a small number of experiments. This paper presents a goal-oriented filtering technique in which data are combined into new output fields which are strongly correlated with specific quantities of interest (the material parameters to be identified). Thus, this combination, which is nonuniform in space, constitutes a filter of the experimental outputs, whose relevance is quantified by a quality function based on global variance analysis. Then, this filter is optimized using genetic algorithms. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Lower limb preference on goal-oriented tasks in unilateral prosthesis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Charla; Wallace, Chris; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lower limb preference in 31 prosthesis users and 19 able-bodied controls on 11 goal-oriented tasks in free-standing and supported conditions. The action leg used in 6 or more tasks was considered the preferred leg. We hypothesized that the prosthetic leg in amputees would be used as the preferred leg as often as the dominant leg in controls. For prosthesis users in the free-standing condition, 65% used the prosthetic leg as the preferred leg. This was significantly different (p<0.003) from able-bodied controls, where 100% used the dominant leg as the preferred leg. This discrepancy became even more pronounced in the supported condition and was overall more prevalent among those who used prosthesis for more than 10 years. These findings may have implications for therapy and gait training.

  5. The Effect of Tertiary Teachers' Goal Orientations for Teaching on Their Commitment: The Mediating Role of Teacher Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiying; Yin, Hongbiao; Wang, Wenlan

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effect of tertiary teachers' goal orientations for teaching on their commitment, with a particular focus on the mediating role of teacher engagement. The results of a survey of 597 Chinese tertiary teachers indicated that teacher commitment was positively predicted by ability approach, mastery and relational goals, but was…

  6. College Students' Achievement Goal Orientation and Motivational Regulations in Physical Activity Classes: A Test of Gender Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoxia; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students' 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students' scores were fully…

  7. A Group Oriented Cryptosystem for the Vector Space Access Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chun-xiang; MA Hua; ZHOU Jun-hui; XIAO Guo-zheng

    2006-01-01

    A group oriented cryptosystem for the vector space access structure was proposed. This cryptosystem adopts self-certified public keys. It allows the participants of an authorized subset to cooperatively access an en crypted message. All data delivered in the cryptosystem are public. Therefore it does not need a partial decrypting results combiner and any secure communication channel. The security of the group oriented cryptosystem is based on the intractability of the discrete log problem and difficulty of factoring large integers. The suspected attacks can not break it.

  8. [Job performance in work organizations: the effects of management by group goals and job interdependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Hisataka

    2015-04-01

    cThis study examined the interactive effect of management by group goals and job interdependence on employee's activities in terms of task and contextual performance. A survey was conducted among 140 Japanese employees. Results indicated that management by group goals was related only to contextual performance. Job interdependence, however, had a direct effect on both task and contextual performance. Moreover, moderated regression analyses revealed that for work groups requiring higher interdependence among employees, management by group goals had a positive relation to contextual performance but not to task performance. When interdependence was not necessarily required, however, management by group goals had no relation to contextual performance and even negatively impacted task performance, respectively. These results show that management by group goals affects task and contextual performance, and that this effect is moderated by job interdependence. This provides a theoretical extension as well as a practical application to the setting and management of group goals.

  9. Goal orientation by geometric and feature cues: spatial learning in the terrestrial toad Rhinella arenarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, María Inés; Bingman, Verner Peter; Muzio, Rubén N

    2015-01-01

    Although of crucial importance in vertebrate evolution, amphibians are rarely considered in studies of comparative cognition. Using water as reward, we studied whether the terrestrial toad, Rhinella arenarum, is also capable of encoding geometric and feature information to navigate to a goal location. Experimental toads, partially dehydrated, were trained in either a white rectangular box (Geometry-only, Experiment 1) or in the same box with a removable colored panel (Geometry-Feature, Experiment 2) covering one wall. Four water containers were used, but only one (Geometry-Feature), or two in geometrically equivalent corners (Geometry-only), had water accessible to the trained animals. After learning to successfully locate the water reward, probe trials were carried out by changing the shape of the arena or the location of the feature cue. Probe tests revealed that, under the experimental conditions used, toads can use both geometry and feature to locate a goal location, but geometry is more potent as a navigational cue. The results generally agree with findings from other vertebrates and support the idea that at the behavioral-level geometric orientation is a conserved feature shared by all vertebrates.

  10. Modeling the Imprecise Relationship of Goals for Agent-Oriented Requirements Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOKun; LIUZongtian

    2004-01-01

    Agent concepts have been used in a number of recent approaches of requirement engineering (RE),such as KAOS (Knowledge acquisition in automated specification), i* and GBRAM (Goal-based requirements analysis method). And the modeling languages used in those approaches only permit precise and unambiguous modeling of system properties and behavior. However, some system problems, particularly those drawn from the agentoriented problem domain, may be difficult to model in crisp or precise terms. There are several reasons for this. On one hand, the lack of information may produce the uncertainty of the class to which an object belongs. If we have enough information or if we are considering sufficient attributes,we should be able to make a precise categorization. On the other hand, uncertainty may also arise from some natural imprecision in requirement describing itself, such as soft goal describing and uncertain concepts describing. In the second case, the classification into precise classes may be impossible, not because we do not have enough information, but because the classes themselves are not naturally discrete. In this paper, we start with a discussion of the uncertainty in agent-oriented requirement engineering. Then we propose to handle the uncertainty using fuzzy sets. Finally we refine this proposal to integrate a fuzzy version of Z with the KAOS method. This integration is illustrated on the example of the mine pump. In the conclusion part,we compare the advantages of our approach with those of the classical KAOS approach.

  11. A meta-analytic examination of the goal orientation nomological net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephanie C; Youngcourt, Satoris S; Beaubien, J Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The authors present an empirical review of the literature concerning trait and state goal orientation (GO). Three dimensions of GO were examined: learning, prove performance, and avoid performance along with presumed antecedents and proximal and distal consequences of these dimensions. Antecedent variables included cognitive ability, implicit theory of intelligence, need for achievement, self-esteem, general self-efficacy, and the Big Five personality characteristics. Proximal consequences included state GO, task-specific self-efficacy, self-set goal level, learning strategies, feedback seeking, and state anxiety. Distal consequences included learning, academic performance, task performance, and job performance. Generally speaking, learning GO was positively correlated, avoid performance GO was negatively correlated, and prove performance GO was uncorrelated with these variables. Consistent with theory, state GO tended to have stronger relationships with the distal consequences than did trait GO. Finally, using a meta-correlation matrix, the authors found that trait GO predicted job performance above and beyond cognitive ability and personality. These results demonstrate the value of GO to organizational researchers.

  12. Analysis of the project synthesis goal cluster orientation and inquiry emphasis of elementary science textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.; Bay, Mary

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine selected units of commonly used elementary science texts, using the Project Synthesis goal clusters as a framework for part of the examination. An inquiry classification scheme was used for the remaining segment. Four questions were answered: (1) To what extent do elementary science textbooks focus on each Project Synthesis goal cluster? (2) In which part of the text is such information found? (3) To what extent are the activities and experiments merely verifications of information already introduced in the text? (4) If inquiry is present in an activity, then what is the level of such inquiry?Eleven science textbook series, which comprise approximately 90 percent of the national market, were selected for analysis. Two units, one primary (K-3) and one intermediate (4-6), were selected for analysis by first identifying units common to most series, then randomly selecting one primary and one intermediate unit for analysis.Each randomly selected unit was carefully read, using the sentence as the unit of analysis. Each declarative and interrogative sentence in the body of the text was classified as: (1) academic; (2) personal; (3) career; or (4) societal in its focus. Each illustration, except those used in evaluation items, was similarly classified. Each activity/experiment and each miscellaneous sentence in end-of-chapter segments labelled review, summary, evaluation, etc., were similarly classified. Finally, each activity/experiment, as a whole, was categorized according to a four-category inquiry scheme (confirmation, structured inquiry, guided inquiry, open inquiry).In general, results of the analysis are: (1) most text prose focuses on academic science; (2) most remaining text prose focuses on the personal goal cluster; (3) the career and societal goal clusters receive only minor attention; (4) text illustrations exhibit a pattern similar to text prose; (5) text activities/experiments are academic in orientation

  13. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  14. Keep It Positive: Using Student Goals and Appraisals to Inform Small Group Work in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Donetta, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    In teaching science, small group work is often recommended and frequently used. In this study, we asked 130 students about their personal goals and views (appraisals) of small group work in science. We found significant relationships between students' personal goals and their views of doing science in small groups. We discuss the practical…

  15. Goal orientation, perceived task outcome and task demands in mathematics tasks: effects on students' attitude in actual task settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegers, Gerard; van Putten, Cornelis M; de Brabander, Cornelis J

    2002-09-01

    In earlier studies, it has been found that students' domain-specific cognitions and personal learning goals (goal orientation) influence task-specific appraisals of actual learning tasks. The relations between domain-specific and task-specific variables have been specified in the model of adaptive learning. In this study, additional influences, i.e., perceived task outcome on a former occasion and variations in task demands, were investigated. The purpose of this study was to identify personality and situational variables that mediate students' attitude when confronted with a mathematics task. Students worked on a mathematics task in two subsequent sessions. Effects of perceived task outcome at the first session on students' attitude at the second session were investigated. In addition, we investigated how differences in task demands influenced students' attitude. Variations in task demands were provoked by different conditions in task-instruction. In one condition, students were told that the result on the test would add to their mark on mathematics. This outcome orienting condition was contrasted with a task-orienting condition where students were told that the results on the test would not be used to give individual grades. Participants were sixth grade students (N = 345; aged 11-12 years) from 14 primary schools. Multivariate and univariate analyses of (co)variance were applied to the data. Independent variables were goal orientation, task demands, and perceived task outcome, with task-specific variables (estimated competence for the task, task attraction, task relevance, and willingness to invest effort) as the dependent variables. The results showed that previous perceived task outcome had a substantial impact on students' attitude. Additional but smaller effects were found for variation in task demands. Furthermore, effects of previous perceived task outcome and task demands were related to goal orientation. The resulting pattern confirmed that, in general

  16. Predicting motivational regulations in physical education: the interplay between dispositional goal orientations, motivational climate and perceived competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2003-08-01

    In this study, we examined the main and interactive effects of students' goal orientations, perceived competence and perceptions of the motivational climate on the motivational styles advanced by self-determination theory. The participants were 328 British secondary school students aged 13.6 +/- 0.6 years (mean +/- s). Moderated hierarchical regression analyses revealed task orientation, perceived competence and perceptions of a mastery climate to be positive predictors of self-determined styles of motivation. Perceived competence in physical education was negatively associated with amotivation. Significant interaction effects for mastery climate x task orientation and for ego orientation x perceived competence emerged. The results indicate that: (1) for students endorsing a high task orientation, the perception that the class climate was high in mastery cues was associated with increased intrinsic motivation; and (2) for students high in ego orientation, the belief that one was competent increased, while perceptions of incompetence attenuated intrinsic motivation. Additionally, a three-way interaction between ego orientation, performance climate and perceived competence emerged. In light of achievement goal and self-determination frameworks, we propose that studying the potential interplay between both individual and situational goal perspectives and the moderating effect of perceived competence may further enhance our understanding of motivation in physical education.

  17. 从面向对象到面向目标的需求分析%From Object-Oriented to Goal-Oriented Requirements Analysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程勇; 袁兆山; 等

    2001-01-01

    Software requirements are the basis of software design,test and maintenance. The trend that future software should be intelligent and distributed and the changing software environment challenge the Object-Oriented methodology that is a primary technology to build software system currently. GoalOriented requirements analysis is discussed in detail in this paper. Goals are more powerful logical mechanism to identify,organize and justify software requirements than objects. This methodology provides convincing supports to build high quality software system in the future.

  18. Intrinsic motivation, performance, and the mediating role of mastery goal orientation: a test of self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasoli, Christopher P; Ford, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Although intrinsic motivation has been linked repeatedly to performance and outcomes, the causal relationship between the two has remained unclear. To explain the link, this study considered the focusing influence of mastery goals. Using a three-wave panel study and hypotheses drawn from self-determination theory and achievement goal theory, the current study sought to clarify the relationships between intrinsic motivation, mastery goal orientation, and performance. Specifically, the current study hypothesized and found that mastery goals mediated (explained) the relationship between intrinsic motivation and performance.

  19. Goal orientations and sport motivation, differences between the athletes of competitive and non-competitive rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumpoula, M; Tsopani, D; Flessas, K; Chairopoulou, C

    2011-09-01

    The present study examines the sport motivation and the goal orientations in the competitive and non-competitive structure of rhythmic gymnastics. Participation of individuals in one or the other structure of the sport differs in line with the goals they want to achieve and possibly also with respect to the factors that impulse them to take part in one or the other. The purpose of this study is to examine how individuals who participate in different structures of the sport of rhythmic gymnastics differentiate with regard to the type of motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic, amotivation) and goal orientations. The study involved 98 young female rhythmic gymnastics athletes (aged 14 years and up), out of which 40 were athletes of competitive clubs or members of national teams, and 58 were athletes of non-competitive clubs. For the evaluation of motivation and goal orientations the following tools were used: the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) and the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). Descriptive and inductive statistical data analysis was conducted. The results showed that the athletes of the non-competitive structure presented higher levels of introjected regulation (extrinsic motivation), amotivation and lower levels of ego orientation (Pgymnastics athletes' (regardless of the structure of the sport) presented high level in task orientation while the high levels of task orientation is positively associated with high levels of intrinsic motivation regardless of the levels of ego orientation. The intrinsic motivation of athletes participating in rhythmic gymnastics runs at high levels. The amotivation of rhythmic gymnastics athletes' is a phenomenon which is also presented in the the non-competitive sport structure. It is important that the two different structures of sports be determined with accurate criteria.

  20. Goal oriented soil mapping: applying modern methods supported by local knowledge: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Oliva, Marc; Estebaranz, Ferran; Depellegrin, Daniel; Novara, Agata; Cerda, Artemi; Menshov, Oleksandr

    2017-04-01

    In the recent years the amount of soil data available increased importantly. This facilitated the production of better and accurate maps, important for sustainable land management (Pereira et al., 2017). Despite these advances, the human knowledge is extremely important to understand the natural characteristics of the landscape. The knowledge accumulated and transmitted generation after generation is priceless, and should be considered as a valuable data source for soil mapping and modelling. The local knowledge and wisdom can complement the new advances in soil analysis. In addition, farmers are the most interested in the participation and incorporation of their knowledge in the models, since they are the end-users of the study that soil scientists produce. Integration of local community's vision and understanding about nature is assumed to be an important step to the implementation of decision maker's policies. Despite this, many challenges appear regarding the integration of local and scientific knowledge, since in some cases there is no spatial correlation between folk and scientific classifications, which may be attributed to the different cultural variables that influence local soil classification. The objective of this work is to review how modern soil methods incorporated local knowledge in their models. References Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Oliva, M., Estebaranz, F., Depellegrin, D., Novara, A., Cerda, A., Menshov, O. (2017) Goal Oriented soil mapping: applying modern methods supported by local knowledge. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Munoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B. (Eds.) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management (Elsevier Publishing House) ISBN: 9780128052006

  1. Enriched goal-oriented error estimation for fracture problems solved by continuum-based shell extended finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-jia LIN; Zhuo ZHUANG BU

    2014-01-01

    An enriched goal-oriented error estimation method with extended degrees of freedom is developed to estimate the error in the continuum-based shell extended finite element method. It leads to high quality local error bounds in three-dimensional fracture mechanics simulation which involves enrichments to solve the singularity in crack tip. This enriched goal-oriented error estimation gives a chance to evaluate this continuum-based shell extended finite element method simulation. With comparisons of reliability to the stress intensity factor calculation in stretching and bending, the accuracy of the continuum-based shell extended finite element method simulation is evaluated, and the reason of error is discussed.

  2. Making time for learning-oriented leadership in multidisciplinary hospital management groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Sara J; Hayes, Jennifer E; Gray, Garry C; Kiang, Mathew V

    2015-01-01

    Although the clinical requirements of health care delivery imply the need for interdisciplinary management teams to work together to promote frontline learning, such interdisciplinary, learning-oriented leadership is atypical. We designed this study to identify behaviors enabling groups of diverse managers to perform as learning-oriented leadership teams on behalf of quality and safety. We randomly selected 12 of 24 intact groups of hospital managers from one hospital to participate in a Safety Leadership Team Training program. We collected primary data from March 2008 to February 2010 including pre- and post-staff surveys, multiple interviews, observations, and archival data from management groups. We examined the level and trend in frontline perceptions of managers' learning-oriented leadership following the intervention and ability of management groups to achieve objectives on targeted improvement projects. Among the 12 intervention groups, we identified higher- and lower-performing intervention groups and behaviors that enabled higher performers to work together more successfully. Management groups that achieved more of their performance goals and whose staff perceived more and greater improvement in their learning-oriented leadership after participation in Safety Leadership Team Training invested in structures that created learning capacity and conscientiously practiced prescribed learning-oriented management and problem-solving behaviors. They made the time to do these things because they envisioned the benefits of learning, valued the opportunity to learn, and maintained an environment of mutual respect and psychological safety within their group. Learning in management groups requires vision of what learning can accomplish; will to explore, practice, and build learning capacity; and mutual respect that sustains a learning environment.

  3. Cognition- and affect-based trust and feedback-seeking behavior: the roles of value, cost, and goal orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byoung Kwon; Moon, Hyoung Koo; Nae, Eun Young

    2014-01-01

    We examined how subordinates' cognition- and affect-based trust in supervisors influences their feedback-seeking behavior (FSB) by considering the different cost/value perception of FSB and goal orientation (i.e., learning and performance goal orientations). Using data from 194 supervisor-subordinate dyads in South Korea, we conducted multiple regression analyses to test our hypotheses. The results showed that, whereas subordinates' cognition-based trust in supervisors positively influenced their FSB through increasing the perceived value of feedback received from supervisors, their affect-based trust in supervisors positively influenced their FSB through decreasing the perceived value of FSB. Additionally, we found that, when subordinates had high levels of learning goal orientation, the increasing influence of cognition-based trust on the value of feedback was stronger; in contrast, when subordinates had low levels of performance goal orientation, the decreasing influence of affect-based trust on the cost of FSB was stronger. The theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research were discussed.

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Goal Orientations for Teaching of Tertiary Teachers and Their Teaching Approaches in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiying; Yin, Hongbiao; Wang, Wenlan

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses a paucity of research into teacher motivation in higher education by exploring the relationship between tertiary teachers' goal orientations for teaching and their approaches to teaching in China. A questionnaire gathered responses from 262 Chinese tertiary teachers, and the results showed these teachers reporting higher…

  5. Does Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect Always Exist? Investigation of Goal Orientations as Moderators in the Hong Kong Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; McInerney, Dennis M.; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

    2014-01-01

    The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) posits that students with the same ability will have higher academic self-concepts when they are in low-ability classes than in high-ability classes. Our research puts the BFLPE under scrutiny by examining goal orientations as the moderators that may affect the size of the BFLPE. We collected data on…

  6. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  7. The Role of Self-Regulated Strategies and Goal Orientation in Predicting Achievement of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsantas, Anastasia; Steen, Sam; Huie, Faye

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the predictiveness of self-regulated learning strategies and goal orientation of elementary students' academic achievement. Eighty one (n = 81) fifth graders were asked to respond to two scales. It was hypothesized that student achievement would be predicted by prior achievement, use of self-regulation strategies, and…

  8. Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Goal Orientations, and Participations in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Hasan; Yazici Bozkaya, Mujgan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the pre-service EFL teachers' self-efficacy beliefs, goal orientations, and participations in an online learning environment. Embedded mixed design was used in the study. In the quantitative part of the study, the participants were 186 senior pre-service EFL teachers and data were collected on two scales and a questionnaire.…

  9. Investigating Predictive Role of 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientations on Learning Strategies with Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltaninejad, Mehraneh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between achievement goal orientations and Learning Strategies. The sample of study consists of 350 public high school students (135 males and 215 females, mean age: 17 ± 0.65) from two high schools in Kerman province of Iran selected by random multistage cluster sampling method. In this…

  10. Influence of Perceived Parenting Styles: Goal Orientations and Career Aspirations of High School Science Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable research interest into the relationship between the parenting styles of Asians, and student motivation and achievement. The investigation presented in this paper contributes to the literature in this area by examining the influence of perceived parenting style on goal orientations and career aspirations of a sample of…

  11. Enhancing Peer Acceptance of Children with Learning Difficulties: Classroom Goal Orientation and Effects of a Storytelling Programme with Drama Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-kum; Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Tam, Zoe W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Peer acceptance is an important facilitator for the success of inclusive education. The aim of the current study is twofold: (1) to examine how classroom goal orientation is associated with children's acceptance of peers with learning difficulties; and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of a storytelling programme with drama techniques on…

  12. The effects of a learning-goal orientation training on self-regulation: A field experiment among unemployed job seekers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, G.; van Hooft, E.A.J.; van Mierlo, H.; van Dam, A.; Born, M.Ph.

    2013-01-01

    Finding reemployment after job loss is a complex and difficult task that requires extensive motivation and self-regulation. This study aimed to examine whether improving unemployed job seekers’ cognitive self-regulation can increase reemployment probabilities. Based on the goal orientation

  13. An explanatory model of academic achievement based on aptitudes, goal orientations, self-concept and learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano Pérez, Pablo; Castejón Costa, Juan-Luis; Gilar Corbí, Raquel

    2012-03-01

    As a result of studies examining factors involved in the learning process, various structural models have been developed to explain the direct and indirect effects that occur between the variables in these models. The objective was to evaluate a structural model of cognitive and motivational variables predicting academic achievement, including general intelligence, academic self-concept, goal orientations, effort and learning strategies. The sample comprised of 341 Spanish students in the first year of compulsory secondary education. Different tests and questionnaires were used to evaluate each variable, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to contrast the relationships of the initial model. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all the hypothesised relationships were significant. General intelligence was the variable most able to explain academic achievement. Also important was the direct influence of academic self-concept on achievement, goal orientations and effort, as well as the mediating ability of effort and learning strategies between academic goals and final achievement.

  14. Attachment theory and group processes: the association between attachment style and group-related representations, goals, memories, and functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Eldad; Mikulincer, Mario

    2003-06-01

    Four studies examined attachment-style differences in group-related cognitions and behaviors. In Studies 1-2, participants completed scales on group-related cognitions and emotions. In Studies 3-4, participants were divided into small groups, and their performance in group tasks as well as the cohesion of their group were assessed. Both attachment anxiety and avoidance in close relationships were associated with negative group-related cognitions and emotions. Anxiety was also related to the pursuit of closeness goals and impaired instrumental performance in group tasks. Avoidance was related to the pursuit of distance goals and deficits in socioemotional and instrumental performance. Group cohesion significantly moderated the effects of attachment anxiety. The discussion emphasizes the relevance of attachment theory within group contexts.

  15. Effects of goal orientation and perceived value of toughness on antisocial behavior in soccer: the mediating role of moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardley, Ian David; Kavussanu, Maria

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we examined (a) the effects of goal orientations and perceived value of toughness on antisocial behavior toward opponents and teammates in soccer and (b) whether any effects were mediated by moral disengagement. Male soccer players (N = 307) completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Structural equation modeling indicated that ego orientation had positive and task orientation had negative direct effects on antisocial behavior toward opponents. Further, ego orientation and perceived value of toughness had indirect positive effects on antisocial behavior toward opponents and teammates which were mediated by moral disengagement. Collectively, these findings aid our understanding of the effects of personal influences on antisocial behavior and of psychosocial mechanisms that could facilitate such antisocial conduct in male soccer players.

  16. Collective action control by goals and plans: applying a self-regulation perspective to group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    In celebration of the 125th anniversary of The American Journal of Psychology, this article discusses a seminal publication by Marjorie Shaw (1932) on small group performance in the rational solution of complex problems. We then propose an approach for the effective regulation of group goal striving based on the collective action control perspective. From this perspective, group performance might be hindered by a collective intention-behavior gap: Groups fail to act on their intentions despite being strongly committed to the collective goal, knowing what the necessary actions are, and being capable of performing them. To reduce this gap, we suggest specific if-then plans (implementation intentions) in which groups specify when, where, and how to act toward their collective goal as an easily applicable self-regulation strategy to automate collective action control. Studies in which implementation intentions improved group performance in hidden profile, escalation of commitment, and cooperation task paradigms are reported and discussed.

  17. The Relevance and Application of Goal Theory to Interpreting Indigenous Minority Group Motivation and Achievement in School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; And Others

    The goal theory of achievement argues that the goals stressed by schools have dramatic consequences for whether children develop a sense of self-efficacy, or whether they avoid challenging tasks, giving up when faced with failure. It is commonly believed that the goals stressed by Western-oriented schools are inappropriate to indigenous minority…

  18. Global self-esteem, goal achievement orientations, and self-determined behavioural regulations in a physical education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Hagger, Martin S

    2007-01-15

    We examined a theoretical model of global self-esteem that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. The model hypothesized that self-determined or autonomous motives would mediate the influence of achievement goal orientation on global self-esteem. The adapted version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (Mullan et al., 1997), the Perception of Success Questionnaire (Roberts & Balague, 1991), and Rosenberg's (1965) self-esteem scales were administered to 634 high school students aged 11 - 15 years. A structural equation model supported the hypotheses and demonstrated that autonomous motives mediated the effect of goal orientations on global self-esteem. The results suggest that generalized motivational orientations influence self-esteem by affecting autonomous motivation and is consistent with theory that suggests that experiences relating to intrinsic motivation are the mechanism by which global motivational orientations are translated into adaptive outcomes like self-esteem. The findings suggest that physical activity interventions that target autonomous motives in physical activity contexts are likely to enhance young people's general self-esteem.

  19. Examining the relationship between task-and ego-oriented goals and life satisfaction (a study of people doing mountaineering sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turhan Toros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between task-and ego-oriented goals and life satisfaction in the people doing mountaineering sports. 85 sportsmen who do mountaineering sports and whose average of age is 25.15±6.37 years participated in the study. The goal orientations of the mountaineers were determined by means of “the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire Scale” and “Life Satisfaction Scale”. Descriptive statistics and the statistical techniques of correlation analyses were used to analyze the data.The findings of the research showed that there is no significant correlation between task-oriented goals and life satisfaction (0,254; p>0,05. It was found out that there is no significant correlation between ego-oriented goals and life satisfaction (0,352; p>0,05.The important findings supporting the goal orientation theories in achievement motivation were acquired in this research.In conclusion, so many factors can affect the relationship between life satisfaction and task and ego orientation.Key Words: Mountaineering, goal orientation, task-oriented goals, ego-oriented goals, life satisfaction

  20. Newcomer conformity: How self-construal affects the alignment of cognition and behavior with group goals in novel groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Täuber, Susanne; Sassenberg, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present research is the first to examine the impact of self-construal on newcomers’ motivation to conform with the goals of a novel group.We argue that when social identity (i.e., individuals’ concern for a specific group) has not yet been developed, newcomers rely on self-construal (i.e., indiv

  1. Newcomer conformity: How self-construal affects the alignment of cognition and behavior with group goals in novel groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Täuber, Susanne; Sassenberg, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present research is the first to examine the impact of self-construal on newcomers’ motivation to conform with the goals of a novel group.We argue that when social identity (i.e., individuals’ concern for a specific group) has not yet been developed, newcomers rely on self-construal (i.e.,

  2. Motivational Effects of Feedback and Goal-Setting on Group Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Carol

    In studies examining the impact of performance information on motivation, both feedback and goal setting have been found to improve performance. To explore the generalizability of E. A. Locke's (1968) theory of task motivation to groups, 180 male masters of business administration (MBA) students were randomly organized into 60 three-person groups.…

  3. A low-cost, goal-oriented ‘compact proper orthogonal decomposition’ basis for model reduction of static systems

    KAUST Repository

    Carlberg, Kevin

    2010-12-10

    A novel model reduction technique for static systems is presented. The method is developed using a goal-oriented framework, and it extends the concept of snapshots for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to include (sensitivity) derivatives of the state with respect to system input parameters. The resulting reduced-order model generates accurate approximations due to its goal-oriented construction and the explicit \\'training\\' of the model for parameter changes. The model is less computationally expensive to construct than typical POD approaches, since efficient multiple right-hand side solvers can be used to compute the sensitivity derivatives. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on a parameterized aerospace structure problem. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. GOAL: A software tool for assessing biological significance of genes groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famili Fazel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern high throughput experimental techniques such as DNA microarrays often result in large lists of genes. Computational biology tools such as clustering are then used to group together genes based on their similarity in expression profiles. Genes in each group are probably functionally related. The functional relevance among the genes in each group is usually characterized by utilizing available biological knowledge in public databases such as Gene Ontology (GO, KEGG pathways, association between a transcription factor (TF and its target genes, and/or gene networks. Results We developed GOAL: Gene Ontology AnaLyzer, a software tool specifically designed for the functional evaluation of gene groups. GOAL implements and supports efficient and statistically rigorous functional interpretations of gene groups through its integration with available GO, TF-gene association data, and association with KEGG pathways. In order to facilitate more specific functional characterization of a gene group, we implement three GO-tree search strategies rather than one as in most existing GO analysis tools. Furthermore, GOAL offers flexibility in deployment. It can be used as a standalone tool, a plug-in to other computational biology tools, or a web server application. Conclusion We developed a functional evaluation software tool, GOAL, to perform functional characterization of a gene group. GOAL offers three GO-tree search strategies and combines its strength in function integration, portability and visualization, and its flexibility in deployment. Furthermore, GOAL can be used to evaluate and compare gene groups as the output from computational biology tools such as clustering algorithms.

  5. A new approach for goal-oriented analysis of healthcare processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Maria; Henkel, Martin; Zdravkovic, Jelena; Johannesson, Paul; Rising, Inger; Krakau, Ingvar; Koch, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The development of efficient e-services for patient-centered healthcare requires insight into concrete problems in administrative and clinical work processes as well as an understanding of the strategic goals that should guide these healthcare processes. However, considering both concrete process related problems and high-level strategic goals during process analysis and solution design can be problematic. To address this, we propose a structured approach for analyzing both high- and low-level goals in a healthcare process and relating these to identified problems. Thereby proposed solutions for each problem in form of, e.g. e-services can be connected to strategic goals. The approach consists of five steps; process modeling; process-based problem identification and classification; process goal identification; mapping to strategic goals; and solution proposal. The approach is illustrated by examples from a case study of Swedish stroke care. In conclusion, the approach enables analysis of high- and low-level goals in a healthcare process by relating these to identified problems. The results thereof form a basis for redefinition of current care processes, as well as for design of supporting e-health solutions.

  6. Alone against the group: A unanimously disagreeing group leads to conformity, but cardiovascular threat depends on one's goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Mark D; Gabriel, Shira; Lupien, Shannon P; Shimizu, Mitsuru

    2016-08-01

    A long history of research in psychology has studied the consequences of when individuals face a group that unanimously disagrees with them. However, relatively little research has attempted to understand individuals' internal reactions to such disagreement while it is experienced. Psychophysiological measures are particularly well suited for this purpose. We used the perspective of the biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat to test whether and under what circumstances expressing one's political opinion to a disagreeing group led to a cardiovascular threat response (high total peripheral resistance, low cardiac output). We hypothesized that, when participants were provided with a goal to fit in with the group, a disagreeing group would elicit cardiovascular responses consistent with greater threat than an agreeing group, but that this effect would disappear if not reverse when participants were provided with a goal to express their individuality. Results supported hypotheses and further revealed a divergence between cardiovascular responses and conformity behavior, such that a disagreeing group fostered conformity regardless of goal condition. These findings suggest that (a) facing the prospect of a disagreeing group need not necessarily result in the negative experience of threat (reflecting evaluating low resources/high demands), and (b) conformity behavior can mask a range of internal states.

  7. Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: a multiple-groups analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Estrada, Yannine; Howard, Christina; Davis, Dalelia; Zalapa, Juan

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the academic interests and goals of 223 African American, Latino/a, Southeast Asian, and Native American undergraduate students in two groups: biological science and engineering (S/E) majors. Using social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), we examined the relationships of social cognitive variables (math/science academic self-efficacy, math/science outcome expectations), along with the influence of ethnic variables (ethnic identity, other-group orientation) and perceptions of campus climate to their math/science interests and goal commitment to earn an S/E degree. Path analysis revealed that the hypothesized model provided good overall fit to the data, revealing significant relationships from outcome expectations to interests and to goals. Paths from academic self-efficacy to S/E goals and from interests to S/E goals varied for students in engineering and biological science. For both groups, other-group orientation was positively related to self-efficacy and support was found for an efficacy-mediated relationship between perceived campus climate and goals. Theoretical and practical implications of the study's findings are considered as well as future research directions.

  8. A goal-oriented approach to identify and engineer ;and use systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a formalized approach to identify and engineer future-oriented land use systems. Such land use systems can be used to explore options for strategic decision making with respect to land use policy and to do ex-ante assessment of land use alternatives to be further tested or

  9. Data warehouse model for monitoring key performance indicators (KPIs) using goal oriented approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammed Thajeel; Ta'a, Azman; Bakar, Muhamad Shahbani Abu

    2016-08-01

    The growth and development of universities, just as other organizations, depend on their abilities to strategically plan and implement development blueprints which are in line with their vision and mission statements. The actualizations of these statements, which are often designed into goals and sub-goals and linked to their respective actors are better measured by defining key performance indicators (KPIs) of the university. The proposes ReGADaK, which is an extended the GRAnD approach highlights the facts, dimensions, attributes, measures and KPIs of the organization. The measures from the goal analysis of this unit serve as the basis of developing the related university's KPIs. The proposed data warehouse schema is evaluated through expert review, prototyping and usability evaluation. The findings from the evaluation processes suggest that the proposed data warehouse schema is suitable for monitoring the University's KPIs.

  10. Turning vice into virtue - when low self-control states facilitate goal-oriented behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, T.T.L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite having good intentions, people often fail to exercise self-control to act in line with their long-term goals. Research shows that even mundane circumstances such as ego-depletion, mental distraction, and hunger could all hamper self-control performance. Considering these circumstances are

  11. Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering and Enterprise Architecture: Two case studies and some lessons learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsman, W.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Regnell, Björn; Damian, Daniela

    An enterprise-architecture (EA) is a high-level representation of the enterprise, used for managing the relation between business and IT. [Problem] Ideally, all elements of an enterprise architecture can be traced to business goals ad vice versa, but in practice, this is not the case. In this paper

  12. The Relationship between Goal Orientation and Academic Achievement--The Mediation Role of Self Regulated Learning Strategies--A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediation role of self regulated learning strategies in relationship between goal orientation and Academic Achievement. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), study strategies (metacognitive, deep cognitive, surface cognitive and resource…

  13. PRE-SERVICE EFL TEACHERS’ SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS, GOAL ORIENTATIONS, AND PARTICIPATIONS IN AN ONLINE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    ucar, hasan; Mujgan YAZICI BOZKAYA

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the pre-service EFL teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs, goal orientations, and participations in an online learning environment. Embedded mixed design was used in the study. In the quantitative part of the study, the participants were 186 senior pre-service EFL teachers and data were collected on two scales and a questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected in form of one-on-one interviews from 2 pre-service EFL teachers, the most representative of the population, to unders...

  14. Examining a negative halo effect to anabolic steroids users through perceived achievement goals, sportspersonship orientations, and aggressive tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal, Yves; Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Schiano-Lomoriello, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the social image of anabolic steroids (AS) users grounding our analysis on the achievement goal theory of Nicholls. Our main goal was to explore how an athlete's acceptance of AS use would impact on the way that athlete will be perceived by others. Non-AS-using participants reacted to one of two scenarios portraying a male athlete either accepting or refusing to engage in drug use behavior. The results suggested that the acceptance of anabolic steroids yielded an unfavorable social image--perceivers inferred a predominant ego orientation to characterize the AS-user's motivation as well as weaker sportspersonship and a stronger proclivity for reactive aggression than instrumental aggression. Moreover, the analyses did not yield significant gender or interaction effects. Finally, those findings are commented in view of methodological shortcomings and of the perspectives that they may offer for future research concerning the motivational aspects of the social perceptions of drug use in sport.

  15. Long-Term Use and Perceived Benefits of Goal-Oriented Attentional Self-Regulation Training in Chronic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic-Agopian, Tatjana; Binder, Deborah; Rossi, Annemarie; Rome, Scott; Murphy, Michelle; Chen, Anthony J.-W.

    2017-01-01

    Primary Objective. To investigate the long-term use and perceived benefit(s) of strategies included in Goal-Oriented Attentional Self-Regulation (GOALS) training (Novakovic-Agopian et al., 2011) by individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) and chronic executive dysfunction. Research Design. Longitudinal follow-up of training. Methods and Procedures. Sixteen participants with chronic ABI participated in structured telephone interviews 20 months (range 11 to 31 months) following completion of GOALS training. Participants responded to questions regarding the range of strategies they continued to utilize, perceived benefit(s) of strategy use, situations in which strategy use was found helpful, and functional changes attributed to training. Results. Nearly all participants (94%) reported continued use of at least one trained strategy in their daily lives, with 75% of participants also reporting improved functioning resulting from training. However, there was considerable variability with respect to the specific strategies individuals found helpful as well as the perceived impact of training on overall functioning. Conclusions. GOALS training shows promising long-term benefits for individuals in the chronic phase of brain injury. Identifying individual- and injury-level factors that account for variability in continued strategy use and the perceived long-term benefits of training will help with ongoing intervention development.

  16. The relationship of value orientations in older adolescents with high status position in a student group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Kuteynikova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present study results of social and psychological characteristics of group and individual value orientations in older adolescents. We considered the main criteria to be content and orientation of values, and level of value-oriented student group unity. The study involved 86 high school students of IX-XI grades of Moscow schools. We used a set of socio-psychological methods and instructional techniques: sociometry, referentometry, a technique of defining the informal intragroup power structure in a contact community, "Values and orientation of the individual" method by L.N.Silantieva, a method of determining the degree of value-orientation of group unity. The results obtained show that in high school there is a relationship between the student's status in the group and his system of individual and group value orientations. The most significant differences among students with different status position were detected in the content and direction of value orientations.

  17. Goal-Oriented Self-Adaptive hp Finite Element Simulation of 3D DC Borehole Resistivity Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2011-05-14

    In this paper we present a goal-oriented self-adaptive hp Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) with shared data structures and a parallel multi-frontal direct solver. The algorithm automatically generates (without any user interaction) a sequence of meshes delivering exponential convergence of a prescribed quantity of interest with respect to the number of degrees of freedom. The sequence of meshes is generated from a given initial mesh, by performing h (breaking elements into smaller elements), p (adjusting polynomial orders of approximation) or hp (both) refinements on the finite elements. The new parallel implementation utilizes a computational mesh shared between multiple processors. All computational algorithms, including automatic hp goal-oriented adaptivity and the solver work fully in parallel. We describe the parallel self-adaptive hp-FEM algorithm with shared computational domain, as well as its efficiency measurements. We apply the methodology described to the three-dimensional simulation of the borehole resistivity measurement of direct current through casing in the presence of invasion.

  18. Selection of head and whisker coordination strategies during goal-oriented active touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Joseph B; Ritt, Jason T

    2016-04-01

    In the rodent whisker system, a key model for neural processing and behavioral choices during active sensing, whisker motion is increasingly recognized as only part of a broader motor repertoire employed by rodents during active touch. In particular, recent studies suggest whisker and head motions are tightly coordinated. However, conditions governing the selection and temporal organization of such coordinated sensing strategies remain poorly understood. We videographically reconstructed head and whisker motions of freely moving mice searching for a randomly located rewarded aperture, focusing on trials in which animals appeared to rapidly "correct" their trajectory under tactile guidance. Mice orienting after unilateral contact repositioned their whiskers similarly to previously reported head-turning asymmetry. However, whisker repositioning preceded head turn onsets and was not bilaterally symmetric. Moreover, mice selectively employed a strategy we term contact maintenance, with whisking modulated to counteract head motion and facilitate repeated contacts on subsequent whisks. Significantly, contact maintenance was not observed following initial contact with an aperture boundary, when the mouse needed to make a large corrective head motion to the front of the aperture, but only following contact by the same whisker field with the opposite aperture boundary, when the mouse needed to precisely align its head with the reward spout. Together these results suggest that mice can select from a diverse range of sensing strategies incorporating both knowledge of the task and whisk-by-whisk sensory information and, moreover, suggest the existence of high level control (not solely reflexive) of sensing motions coordinated between multiple body parts. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Greek pre-service physical education teachers’ beliefs about curricular orientations: Instrument validation and examination of four important goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolis Adamakis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The way people interpret reality is influenced by their mental constructions, their cognitive abilities and their beliefs. Physical Education (PE students have a wide range of formed beliefs concerning the purposes of PE, which cannot be easily modified, even during undergraduate studies. OBJECTIVE: This study validated the scores from a previously constructed questionnaire and investigated the Physical Education students’ belief systems toward the Greek curricular outcome goals. METHODS: Students (N = 483; males = 259, females = 224 from a Greek Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science shared their beliefs about curricular outcomes. They completed the Greek version of the four factor instrument “Attitudes/beliefs toward curriculum in physical education”. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for the validation of the instrument and MANOVAs followed in order to control for group differences. Finally, a profile analysis was run in order to determine if PE students considered each goal to be equally important. RESULTS: The validation of the instrument confirmed the proposed four factors dependant model. Both internal consistency and the confirmatory factor analysis fit indices produced valid and reliable scores. The profile analysis was significant, indicating that students did not view the outcome goals as equally important. The leading goal was physical activity and fitness, followed by self-actualization, social development and motor skill development. MANOVA results for comparisons between sub-groups revealed significant differences only between genders. CONCLUSIONS: Between groups similarities and differences are discussed, focusing on the classification of the four important outcome goals. Currently, Greek Physical Education students consider physical activity and fitness outcome goal as the most important, while motor skill development is considered the least important one.

  20. Examining the relationship between task-and ego-oriented goals and life satisfaction (a study of people doing mountaineering sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turhan Toros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between task-and ego-oriented goals and life satisfaction in the people doing mountaineering sports. 85 sportsmen who do mountaineering sports and whose average of age is 25.15±6.37 years participated in the study. The goal orientations of the mountaineers were determined by means of “the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire Scale” and “Life Satisfaction Scale”. Descriptive statistics and the statistical techniques of correlation analyses were used to analyze the data.The findings of the research showed that there is no significant correlation between task-oriented goals and life satisfaction (0,254; p>0,05. It was found out that there is no significant correlation between ego-oriented goals and life satisfaction (0,352; p>0,05.The important findings supporting the goal orientation theories in achievement motivation were acquired in this research.In conclusion, so many factors can affect the relationship between life satisfaction and task and ego orientation.

  1. The relationship between perceived coaching behaviors, goal orientation, team cohesion, perceived motivational climate ve collective efficacy among basketball players before and after the tournament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turhan Toros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the perceived coaching behaviors, the goal orientation, the team cohesion, the perceived motivational climate and the relationship of the collective efficacy among basketball players before and after the tournament. In this research, the young male basketball players who played in the young male basketball teams in 2005-2006 league season and moreover, the ones who took parts in the teams participated into the Turkish National Championship were included. The only 12 teams(144 players of the total 16 teams who participated into the Turkish National Championship were included. In collecting the data, Leadership for Sport Scale-LSS, Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire-TEOSQ, Group Environment Questionnaire-GEQ, Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire- PMCSQ and Collective Efficacy Scale-CES were used. The data were calculated with The Analysis of the Descriptive Statistical Techiques, Partial, Part and Pearson Correlation Analysis. Results revealed significant relationship with task orientation and autocratic (r=.195;p<.05 social support (r=.664;p<.05 before the Turkish National Championship. revealed significant relationship with mastery climate and training and instruction (r=.174; p<.05 after the Turkish National Championship. In conclusion; There is a relation between over the course of a season, the pre-tournament and after the tournament.

  2. The language barrier?: context, identity, and support for political goals in minority ethnolinguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Andrew G; Manstead, Antony S R; Spears, Russell; Bowen, Dafydd

    2011-12-01

    In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that not having a potentially group-defining attribute (e.g., in-group language) can affect social identification and support for group goals (e.g., national autonomy). Focusing on the Welsh minority in the UK, Study 1 provided evidence that Welsh language fluency predicted Welsh identification and support for national autonomy, and that identification accounted for the language-autonomy association. Study 2 extended this by (1) examining British and English as well as Welsh identification; and (2) quasi-manipulating the surrounding context (Welsh speaking vs. non-Welsh speaking). As predicted, low Welsh language fluency predicted stronger British and English identification, but only where language was criterial (Welsh-speaking regions). British identification, in turn, predicted lower support for national autonomy. Implications and prospects for future research are discussed. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  3. The TF1 Radio Astronomy Working Group in the Andean ROAD: goals and challenges for 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro Molano, G.

    2017-07-01

    Since the creation of the Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) of the International Astronomical Union, one of the main goals has been to foster a scientific culture of radio astronomy in countries of the central and northern Andes (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, and Venezuela). For this reason, Andean ROAD Task Force 1 (Research and Education in Universities) created the Radio Astronomy Working Group to set a path along which collaborative endeavors can grow and yield scientific results. The first official meeting of the Working Group took place in Bogotá, Colombia during the 2nd Astronomá en los Andes Workshop (2015) where scientists actively developing projects in radio astronomy set goals for the near future, such as improving mobility for researchers and students, developing collaborations in related areas such as engineering and data science, and building transnational collaborations aiming at developing VLBI across the countries of the Andean ROAD and beyond. In this poster, I present current projects and associated research groups (ROAS - Perú, SiAMo - Colombia, Alfa-Orion UTP - Colombia, RAIG - Chile) and discuss goalposts and current challenges in the development of transnational radioastronomical projects. As a case study, I present the development and early astronomical results of the privately funded UECCI 4m Radio Telescope for 21 cm line observations in Bogotá, Colombia.

  4. The effects of different goal orientations on exercise self - efficacy%不同目标定向对锻炼自我效能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 许昭; 程静静; 张继忠

    2014-01-01

    目标定向理论是社会认知理论之一,其研究主要集中于确定哪些行为因素会影响人的主观能力,这种主观能力又如何影响人的后继行为。目标定向理论将目标定向分为两类,一类是任务定向,即在完成一项任务的过程中,强调的重点是任务本身,自己和自己比较;一类是自我定向,考虑的主要是个人能力水平,自己和他人比。为了考查不同目标定向对锻炼自我效能的影响,本研究选取60名低体育活动者,按性别、目标定向干预内容分为4组,采用混合实验设计。因变量为锻炼自我效能,组间变量为不同目标定向(任务定向、自我定向)干预方式、性别,组内变量为时间间隔(每隔5分钟对被试实施目标定向干预)。研究结果显示:1)任务定向干预比目标定向干预有利于提高体育活动参与者的锻炼自我效能,并促进锻炼的参与性及坚持性;2)至少实施干预5次,才能显现干预效果;3)目标定向的干预效果不存在性别差异。%Goal orientation theory is a social cognitive theory,which focuses on what factors decided a person’s subjective ability,and how the subjective ability influences the next behavior. There are two orientations involved in the theory. One is task orientation and the other is ego orientation. Task - oriented individuals feel most successful when they experience personal improvement that they believe is due to their hard work and effort. An ego orientation is associated with the belief that success is a function of how well a person performs relative to other people. In order to study the effects of different goal orientations on exercise self -efficacy,60 lower physical activity participants were selected and divided into 4 groups by gender and intervention style. The dependent variable is exercise self - efficacy. The between-group variables are intervention styles and gender. The within

  5. Learning Processes of Students in Pre-Vocational Secondary Education: Relations between Goal Orientations, Information Processing Strategies and Development of Conceptual Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Maaike; Den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Teune, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge of pre-vocational secondary education students (n = 719; 14 schools). Students' preferences for certain types of goals and information processing strategies were examined using questionnaires.…

  6. Learning Processes of Students in Pre-Vocational Secondary Education: Relations between Goal Orientations, Information Processing Strategies and Development of Conceptual Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Maaike; Den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Teune, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge of pre-vocational secondary education students (n = 719; 14 schools). Students' preferences for certain types of goals and information processing strategies were examined using questionnaires.…

  7. Distributed orientation agreement in a group of robots

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Oiza, Iñaki; Matía Espada, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a method for the agreement of a set of robots on a common reference orientation based on a distributed consensus algorithm is described. It only needs that robots detect the relative positions of their neighbors and communicate with them. Two different consensus algorithms based on the exchange of information are proposed, tested and analyzed. Systematic experiments were carried out in simulation and with real robots in order to test the method. Experimental results show that...

  8. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the

  9. The Goal of the IAU/IAG Joint Working Group on the Theory of Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandiz, J. M.; Gross, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and the International Astronomical Union (IAU) initiated a process to establish a Joint Working Group (JWG) on theory of Earth rotation with the purpose of promoting the development of improved theories of the Earth rotation which reach the accuracy required to meet the needs of the near future as recommended by, e.g. GGOS, the Global Geodetic Observing System of the IAG. The JWG was approved by both organizations in April 2013 with the chairs being the two authors of this paper. Its structure comprises three Sub Working Groups (SWGs) addressing Precession/Nutation, Polar Motion and UT1, the Numerical Solutions and Validation, respectively. The SWGs should work in parallel for the sake of efficiency, but should keep consistency as an overall goal. This paper offers a view of the objectives and scope of the JWG and reports about its initial activities and plans.

  10. The Goal of the IAU/IAG Joint Working Group on the Theory of Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandiz, J. M.; Gross, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and the International Astronomical Union (IAU) initiated a process to establish a Joint Working Group (JWG) on theory of Earth rotation with the purpose of promoting the development of improved theories of the Earth rotation which reach the accuracy required to meet the needs of the near future as recommended by, e.g. GGOS, the Global Geodetic Observing System of the IAG. The JWG was approved by both organizations in April 2013 with the chairs being the two authors of this paper. Its structure comprises three Sub Working Groups (SWGs) addressing Precession/Nutation, Polar Motion and UT1, the Numerical Solutions and Validation, respectively. The SWGs should work in parallel for the sake of efficiency, but should keep consistency as an overall goal. This paper offers a view of the objectives and scope of the JWG and reports about its initial activities and plans.

  11. Mastering social and organization goals: strategy use by two children with Asperger syndrome during cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha

    2010-11-01

    Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (daily) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning daily occupations. This case study explored the pattern of Global Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies (DSS) use, the type of guidance, and dimensions of time on task used by two children with AS (aged 10 and 12 years) in addressing social and organizational goals during the CO-OP intervention. Coding of the videotaped CO-OP sessions suggested that both children (a) utilized all the Global strategies, particularly "understanding the context” and "plan"; (b) used six common DSS, namely transitional supports, affective supports, attending, task-specification, task modification, and supplementing task knowledge, with task-specification being most prominent; (c) required minimal guidance while "doing"; and (d) engaged in considerable time "talking about the task.” The results provide initial insights into strategies that may enable children with AS to achieve social and organizational goals.

  12. An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Orientation on Consensus and the Quality of Group Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Robert Mark

    The qualities of small group communication and interaction were tested in this study, which specifically measured group consensus and the quality of group decision making. Fifty groups of five members each were used. One member of each group was trained to exhibit either high or low "orientation," knowledge of the procedures the group performed.…

  13. Individual Differences in Trait Motivation: An Exploration of the Relative Influence of Motivational Traits and Goal Orientation on Goal Setting Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, Tanner

    2009-01-01

    Very little empirical evidence exists linking the motivational traits portion of the motivational traits and skills framework to goal setting processes. The present study explored relationships between motivational traits, task-specific self-efficacy and self-set goal level during a computer-based task. Along with direct assessment of these relationships, we assessed whether task-specific self-efficacy mediates relationships between motivational traits and self-set goal level. In the current ...

  14. A daily-life-oriented intervention to improve prospective memory and goal-directed behaviour in ageing: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, Christina; Rochat, Lucien; Blum, Anaëlle; Emmenegger, Joëlle; Juillerat Van der Linden, Anne-Claude; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in the execution of goal-directed behaviours, and particularly their prospective memory component, can arise in ageing and have important consequences for autonomy. The first objective of this article is to present an intervention that trained older individuals who reported prospective memory or goal-directed behaviour problems to use "implementation intentions". This technique, which has been shown to improve different aspects of goal-directed behaviour enactment, consists of establishing a mental (verbal and/or visual) link between the action that must be performed and the situation in which it must be performed. Our programme proposes exercises of progressively increasing difficulty that are targeted at daily life situations. Our second objective was to test the programme in small groups of older adults. Preliminary data regarding the programme's feasibility and its initial efficacy show a significant improvement in the main outcome measure, a questionnaire assessing goal-directed behaviours in everyday life. The participants also reported being significantly less bothered by their difficulties, although there were no significant changes in quality of life, self-esteem, anxiety or depression. Two participants with different psychological profiles, who benefited differently from the intervention, are then presented in more detail.

  15. Broadcast group-oriented encryption secure against chosen ciphertext attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunbo; Ao Jun; Li Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    A novel broadcast encryption scheme for group communication scenarios in distributed networks is presented. In the scheme, anyone is allowed to encrypt a message and distribute it to a designated group. Each member in the designated group has the ability to independently decrypt a ciphertext. In contrast to traditional broadcast encryption, all the valid receivers in the proposed scheme compose the designated group. To take advantage of this property, a tab for the group is set and the matching private key for each member is generated.In addition, before decrypting a ciphertext, anyone in the scheme can verify the ciphertext, to ensure that the ciphertext is correct. This property is very important for large-scale group communication, as the gateway can filter incorrect ciphertext and alleviate the receiver's workload. Finally, a proof in the random oracle model is given, to show that the proposed scheme is secure against the adaptively chosen ciphertext attack.

  16. Formation Tracking with Orientation Convergence for Groups of Unicycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime González-Sierra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents three trajectory tracking control strategies for unicycle-type robots based on a leader-followers scheme. The leader robot converges asymptotically to a smooth trajectory, while the follower robots form an undirected open-chain configuration at the same time. It is also shown that the orientation angles of all the robots converge to the same value. The control laws are based on a dynamic extension of the kinematic model of each robot. The output function to be controlled is the midpoint of the wheel axis of every robot. This choice leads to an ill-defined control law when the robot is at rest. To avoid such singularities, a complementary control law is enabled momentarily when the linear velocity of the unicycles is close to zero. Finally, numerical simulations and real-time experiments show the performance of the control strategies.

  17. Student Orientation to Grammatical Aspects of Interaction in Group Work

    OpenAIRE

    アリン, デビッド; 細田, 由利; Aline, David; Hosoda, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    Using the framework of Conversation Analysis, this paper examines the interaction found in task-based group work, and explores the effects of interaction on second language acquisition. For this study 26 hours of conversation by 23 small groups of Japanese university students were audio taped. A close analysis of the students' interaction in the group discussion revealed the students' competence in managing grammatical problems through self-repair and peer-assistance. The data show some of th...

  18. Research on Goal Orientation of Students of Physical Specialty in College of Xinjiang%新疆高校体育专业学生目标定向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚南; 李燕

    2011-01-01

    Goal orientation occupies governance position in nowadays research of sport motivation.Goal orientation norms individual of behavior motive mode, different motive model trains different individual comprehensive character.Taking students of sport specialty of four colleges in Xinjiang as respondents, this paper studies the status of goal orientation in physical teaching of different groups.The result shows: Task orientation score is higher than ego orientation; there is extremely significance between them.Schoolboys' task orientation score is lower than the average score.Schoolgirls' task orientation score is higher than the average score.Schoolboys' task orientation score is lower than schoolgirls.Ego orientation score is opposite.Students of different resources have significant difference in task orientation score and ego orientation score.There are no significant difference in task orientation and ego orientation among three grades.%目标定向在当今体育运动动机的研究中占据统治地位.目标定向规范着个体的行为动机模式,而不同的动机模式造就不同的个体综合素质,以新疆四所高校的体育专业学生为调查对象,主要调查了不同组别学生在体育教学中的目标定性情况,结果表明:新疆高校体育专业学生的任务定向得分高于自我定向得分,两者之间存在极其显著性.体育专业学生男生任务定向得分均值低于总体均值,女生任务定向得分高于总体均值,男生的任务定向得分低于女生.自我定向相反.不同生源体育专业学生在任务得分和自我得分上有非常显著差异.三个年级的学生在任务定向与自我定向得分各个年级之间不存在显著性差异.

  19. Goal Oriented Activity Towards Life Skill Training: Preliminary Indications of a Task-intensive Approach to Manage Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumen Gupta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To devise a viable programme of intervention for older people with Cerebral Palsy (CP. Methods: Using focus group interviews, a ‘top down’ model of intervention was devised among older children and adolescents with CP. Ten participants volunteered and a custom tailored approach was employed, in keeping with the participants’ goals. Results: The outcomes are described qualitatively. Conclusions: There are preliminary indications that the programme is versatile and feasible. Further trials must be conducted before conclusive comments can be made.

  20. Goal-oriented space-time adaptivity for transient dynamics using a modal description of the adjoint solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Francesc; Parés, Núria; Díez, Pedro

    2014-08-01

    This article presents a space-time adaptive strategy for transient elastodynamics. The method aims at computing an optimal space-time discretization such that the computed solution has an error in the quantity of interest below a user-defined tolerance. The methodology is based on a goal-oriented error estimate that requires accounting for an auxiliary adjoint problem. The major novelty of this paper is using modal analysis to obtain a proper approximation of the adjoint solution. The idea of using a modal-based description was introduced in a previous work for error estimation purposes. Here this approach is used for the first time in the context of adaptivity. With respect to the standard direct time-integration methods, the modal solution of the adjoint problem is highly competitive in terms of computational effort and memory requirements. The performance of the proposed strategy is tested in two numerical examples. The two examples are selected to be representative of different wave propagation phenomena, one being a 2D bulky continuum and the second a 2D domain representing a structural frame.

  1. THE EFFECT OF PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES ON WORK GROUP PERFORMANCE: A RESEARCH ON JEWELLERY INDUSTRY IN ISTANBUL

    OpenAIRE

    Erenel, Fahri

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who embraces one of the leadership styles of Path-Goal Leadership Theory which is one of the leadership theories, can be succesful at making the work group effective, for these leadership styles enables leaders to assess needs and clarify goals.Looking at studies in Turkish literature, it is noticed that leadership behaviours were examined in the terms of Path-Goal Leadership Theory however the relationship between leadership styles in this theory and work performance were not exa...

  2. THE EFFECT OF PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES ON WORK GROUP PERFORMANCE: A RESEARCH ON JEWELLERY INDUSTRY IN ISTANBUL

    OpenAIRE

    ERENEL, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who embraces one of the leadership styles of Path-Goal Leadership Theory which is one of the leadership theories, can be succesful at making the work group effective, for these leadership styles enables leaders to assess needs and clarify goals.Looking at studies in Turkish literature, it is noticed that leadership behaviours were examined in the terms of Path-Goal Leadership Theory however the relationship between leadership styles in this theory and work performance were not exa...

  3. Effects of Gender and Communication Content on Leadership Emergence in Small Task-Oriented Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Katherine W.

    A study examined the role played by gender and communication content in the leadership emergence process in small, task-oriented groups. Six hours of transcribed group interaction from a sample of the group deliberations of 6 mixed-sex groups of college students (n=27) engaged in a 4-month-long decision-making project served as the database for…

  4. Ericksonian hypnosis in chronic care support groups: a Rogerian exploration of power and self-defined health-promoting goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Dorothy M

    2007-10-01

    This Rogerian study examined how traditional and Ericksonian hypnotherapeutic support groups facilitated self-defined health-promoting goals and power as knowing participation in change for 49 participants with chronic physical illness. The participants were randomly assigned to either a traditional support group or an Ericksonian hypnotherapeutic support group. Measurements of power and self-defined health-promoting goals were obtained seven times over a 10-week period. The results indicated that both the traditional support groups and the Ericksonian hypnotherapeutic support groups experienced significantly enhanced power and progressed significantly toward their health-promoting goals. Correlations for the self-defined health-promoting goals and power progressively and significantly increased through time. This study supports Barrett's claim that power relates to health.

  5. CenteringPregnancy-Africa: a pilot of group antenatal care to address Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Crystal L; Abrams, Elizabeth T; Klima, Carrie; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Leshabari, Sebalda C; Vonderheid, Susan C; Kamanga, Martha; Norr, Kathleen F

    2013-10-01

    severe health worker shortages and resource limitations negatively affect quality of antenatal care (ANC) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Group ANC, specifically CenteringPregnancy (CP), may offer an innovative approach to enable midwives to offer higher quality ANC. our overarching goal was to prepare to conduct a clinical trial of CenteringPregnancy-Africa (CP-Africa) in Malawi and Tanzania. In Phase 1, our goal was to determine the acceptability of CP as a model for ANC in both countries. In Phase 2, our objective was to develop CP-Africa session content consistent with the Essential Elements of CP model and with national standards in both Malawi and Tanzania. In Phase 3, our objective was to pilot CP-Africa in Malawi to determine whether sessions could be conducted with fidelity to the Centering process. Phases 1 and 2 took place in Malawi and Tanzania. Phase 3, the piloting of two sessions of CP-Africa, occurred at two sites in Malawi: a district hospital and a small clinic. we used an Action Research approach to promote partnerships among university researchers, the Centering Healthcare Institute, health care administrators, health professionals and women attending ANC to develop CP-Africa session content and pilot this model of group ANC. for Phases 1 and 2, members of the Ministries of Health, health professionals and pregnant women in Malawi and Tanzania were introduced to and interviewed about CP. In Phase 2, we finalised CP-Africa content and trained 13 health professionals in the Centering Healthcare model. In Phase 3, we conducted a small pilot with 24 pregnant women (12 at each site). participants enthusiastically embraced CP-Africa as an acceptable model of ANC health care delivery. The CP-Africa content met both CP and national standards. The pilot established that the CP model could be implemented with process fidelity to the 13 Essential Elements. Several implementation challenges and strategies to address these challenges were identified

  6. Goal Setting during Early Childhood Parent-Teacher Conferences: A Comparison of Three Groups of Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2013-01-01

    Parent-teacher communication and partnerships are important in children's early years. This study compared goal setting, conducted in English, during Head Start parent-teacher conferences with native Spanish speaking, Latino bilingual, and native English speaking parents and their children's teachers. To understand conference goal-setting…

  7. An Analysis of Training Focused on Improving SMART Goal Setting for Specific Employee Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Jeannie M.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the proficiency of employee SMART goal setting following the intervention of employee SMART goal setting training. Current challenges in higher education substantiate the need for employees to align their performance with the mission, vision, and strategic directions of the organization. A performance management…

  8. An Analysis of Training Focused on Improving SMART Goal Setting for Specific Employee Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Jeannie M.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the proficiency of employee SMART goal setting following the intervention of employee SMART goal setting training. Current challenges in higher education substantiate the need for employees to align their performance with the mission, vision, and strategic directions of the organization. A performance management…

  9. Goal Setting during Early Childhood Parent-Teacher Conferences: A Comparison of Three Groups of Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2013-01-01

    Parent-teacher communication and partnerships are important in children's early years. This study compared goal setting, conducted in English, during Head Start parent-teacher conferences with native Spanish speaking, Latino bilingual, and native English speaking parents and their children's teachers. To understand conference goal-setting…

  10. Chicken or the Egg: Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Dilemma between Goal Orientation, Self-Regulation and Cognitive Processing Strategies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Mikael; Galand, Benoit; Frenay, Mariane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the direction of the effect between goal orientation, self-regulation and deep processing strategies in order to understand the impact of these three constructs on students' achievement. The participants were 110 freshmen from the engineering faculty at the Universite catholique de Louvain in Belgium, who…

  11. The Reciprocal Relations between Self-Concept, Motivation and Achievement: Juxtaposing Academic Self-Concept and Achievement Goal Orientations for Mathematics Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…

  12. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between student's achievement goal orientation, self-efficiacy, cognitive processing and achievement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, Patrick H.M.; van Joolingen, Wouter; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In ord

  13. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between students' achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing and achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, P.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29637119X; van Joolingen, W.R.; Savelsbergh, E.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/17345853X; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In ord

  14. Chicken or the Egg: Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Dilemma between Goal Orientation, Self-Regulation and Cognitive Processing Strategies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Mikael; Galand, Benoit; Frenay, Mariane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the direction of the effect between goal orientation, self-regulation and deep processing strategies in order to understand the impact of these three constructs on students' achievement. The participants were 110 freshmen from the engineering faculty at the Universite catholique de Louvain in Belgium, who…

  15. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self Handicapping as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Intrinsic Achievement Motivation and Negative Automatic Thoughts in Adolescence Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Sahin

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator role of self-handicapping and achievement goal orientations variables on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts intrinsic achievement motivation in high school students. 586 high school students, ranging in age from 14 to 20 (M = 16.08), adolescence students…

  16. Differential Moderating Effects of Student- and Parent-Rated Support in the Relationship between Learning Goal Orientation and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrick Raymund James M.; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.; Toledano, Lemuel S.; Tolentino, Laramie R.; Rafferty, Alannah E.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by the social cognitive career and cognitive evaluation theories, the authors theorize and test differential predictions regarding the moderating role of student- and parent-rated support when considering the influence of students' learning goal orientation on career decision-making self-efficacy. Data were collected from 141 undergraduate…

  17. How to investigate the goal orientations of students in competence-based pre-vocational secondary education: choosing the right instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, M.; Teune, P.J.; Beijaard, D.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the psychometric properties of three instruments: a semi-structured interview, a questionnaire and a sorting task. The central question is which instrument is most suitable to investigate the goal orientations of students in competence-based Pre-Vocational Secondary Education. Th

  18. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between students' achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing and achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, P.H.M.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Savelsbergh, E.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In ord

  19. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: relations between students’ achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, Patrick H.M.; Joolingen, van Wouter R.; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; Hout-Wolters, van Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In ord

  20. NASA ExoPAG Study Analysis Group 5: Flagship Exoplanet Imaging Mission Science Goals and Requirements Report

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Exoplanet Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG) has undertaken an effort to define mission Level 1 requirements for exoplanet direct detection missions at a range of sizes. This report outlines the science goals and requirements for the next exoplanet flagship imaging and spectroscopy mission as determined by the flagship mission Study Analysis Group (SAG) of the NASA Exoplanet Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG). We expect that these goals and requirements will be used to evaluate specific architectures for a future flagship exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy mission, and we expect this effort to serve as a guide and template for similar goals and requirements for smaller missions, an effort that we expect will begin soon. These goals and requirements were discussed, determined, and documented over a 1 year period with contributions from approximately 60 volunteer exoplanet scientists, technologists, and engineers. Numerous teleconferences, emails, and several in-person meetings were conducted to progress on ...

  1. The essential tension between leadership and power: when leaders sacrifice group goals for the sake of self-interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maner, Jon K; Mead, Nicole L

    2010-09-01

    Throughout human history, leaders have been responsible for helping groups attain important goals. Ideally, leaders use their power to steer groups toward desired outcomes. However, leaders can also use their power in the service of self-interest rather than effective leadership. Five experiments identified factors within both the person and the social context that determine whether leaders wield their power to promote group goals versus self-interest. In most cases, leaders behaved in a manner consistent with group goals. However, when their power was tenuous due to instability within the hierarchy, leaders high (but not low) in dominance motivation prioritized their own power over group goals: They withheld valuable information from the group, excluded a highly skilled group member, and prevented a proficient group member from having any influence over a group task. These self-interested actions were eliminated when the group was competing against a rival outgroup. Findings provide important insight into factors that influence the way leaders navigate the essential tension between leadership and power.

  2. Ethnic identity, intergroup contact, and outgroup orientation among diverse groups of adolescents on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N

    2008-08-01

    The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.

  3. Team-oriented leadership: the interactive effects of leader group prototypicality, accountability, and team identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessner, Steffen R; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Ginkel, Wendy; Sleebos, Ed

    2013-07-01

    We examined the interactive effects of leader group prototypicality, accountability, and team identification on team-oriented behavior of leaders, thus extending the social identity perspective on leadership to the study of leader behavior. An experimental study (N = 152) supported our hypothesis that leader accountability relates more strongly to team-oriented behavior for group nonprototypical leaders than for group prototypical leaders. A multisource field study with leaders (N = 64) and their followers (N = 209) indicated that this interactive effect is more pronounced for leaders who identify more strongly with their team. We discuss how these findings further develop the social identity analysis of leadership.

  4. Study on Achievement Goal Orientation of Adolescence with Test Anxiety%中学生考试焦虑者的成就目标定向分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婉莉

    2012-01-01

    508 students from 6 grades of junior high school and senior high school are investigated by Test Anxiety Scale and Achievement Goal Orientation Scale in order to comprehend featuers of the achieve- ment goal orientation of people experiencing test anxiety the results are: about 67. 7% of students surveyed feel anxiety discomfort and about 31% experience severe test anxiety; Girls' test anxiety level is more se- vere than boys'; There is a significant positive correlation between the score of test anxiety and scores of avoided achievement goal orientations; There are statistically differences in scores of the avoided achieve- ment goal orientations between key school and non-key school, junior high school and senior high school, male and female of students with anxiety discomfort. This paper displays adolescence with test anxiety try to avoid achievement goal orientations and the intrinsic reason of girls with severe test anxiety is typical learning-avoided achievement goal orientation.%采用整群抽样调查法,以两所完全中学的508名学生为被试,探索考试焦虑罹患者的四分成就目标特征。通过调查我们发现:中学生考试焦虑不适者的检出率为67.7%,重度焦虑者占到了抽样总体的三分之一强;女生的考试应激问题要明显重于男生;中学生的焦虑不适度与2种回避型目标显著正相关;焦虑不适者的四分成就目标具有校际(重点与普通)、学段(初中与高中)与性别等人口学特征差异。提示,考试焦虑中学生具有回避型成就目标特征,女生的高掌握回避取向可能是其高焦虑的内在原因。

  5. Effects of an intensive middle school science experience on the attitude toward science, self-esteem, career goal orientation, and science achievement of eighth-grade female students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tammy Kay

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a year long intensive extracurricular middle school science experience on the self-esteem, career goal orientation, and attitude toward science of eighth grade female students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Sixteen self-selected eighth grade female students participated in extracurricular science experiences such as camping, rock climbing, specimen collecting and hiking, as well as meeting and interacting with female science role models. Data was collected using pre- and posttest methods using the Children's Attitude Toward Science Survey, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) Career Explorer. End of year science course grades were examined for seventh and eighth grades and compared to first semester high school grades. Qualitative data was in the form of: (1) focus group interviews conducted prior to field experiences, at the end of all field experiences, and at the end of the first semester of high school, and (2) journal entries from throughout the project. Qualitative data was examined for changes in student perceptions of science as a discipline, self as scientist, women in science, and social comparison of self in science.

  6. "The Goal" Project: A Group Assignment to Encourage Creative Thinking, Leadership Abilities and Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Patricia Lee

    2014-01-01

    The classroom assignment described in this paper, "The Goal" Project, gives students an opportunity to develop four of the skills and abilities required to be a successful accountant. In 1990, the Accounting Education Change Commission issued Position Statement Number One, Objectives of Education for Accountants. Appendix B of that…

  7. The relationship between perceived coaching behaviors, goal orientation, team cohesion, perceived motivational climate ve collective efficacy among basketball players before and after the tournament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turhan Toros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal Tablo"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This paper aims to examine the perceived coaching behaviors, the goal orientation, the team cohesion, the perceived motivational climate and the relationship of the collective efficacy among basketball players before and after the tournament. In this research, the young male basketball players who played in the young male basketball teams in 2005-2006 league season and moreover, the ones who took parts in the teams participated into the Turkish National Championship were included. The only 12 teams(144 players of the total 16 teams who participated into the Turkish National Championship were included. In collecting the data, Leadership for Sport Scale-LSS, Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire-TEOSQ, Group Environment Questionnaire-GEQ, Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire- PMCSQ and Collective Efficacy Scale-CES were used. The data were calculated with The Analysis of the Descriptive Statistical Techiques, Partial, Part and Pearson Correlation Analysis. Results revealed significant relationship with task orientation and autocratic (r=.195;p<.05 social support (r=.664;p<.05 before the Turkish National Championship. revealed significant relationship with mastery climate and training

  8. Group unconscious common orientation: exploratory study at the Basque Foundation for the investigation of mental health group training for therapists

    CERN Document Server

    Trojaola Zapirain, Begona; Carminati, Federico; Gonzalez Torres, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez de Mendivil, Ernesto; Fouassier, Claire; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Martin, Francois; Labarere, Jose; Demongeot, Jacques; Lorincz, Erika Nora

    2014-01-01

    Group phenomena have been used since antiquity in therapeutic, social, economic and political domains. According to Bion, the interactions between group members generate a ``group unconscious'' and its behavior is governed and oriented by Bion's ``basic assumptions.'' The present work has been conducted during group analysis training at the Basque Foundation for the Investigation of Mental Health (OMIE) at Bilbao, consisting of eleven sessions. The participants are presented with an ``absurd questionnaire'' proposing 50 pairs of images, in each of which one image has to be chosen. The results are used to search for evidence in favor of the influence of group dynamics on individual choices of the images proposed in the questionnaire. Our analysis finds some evidence for an effect of group dynamics both on the initial choice of the pictures and on the evolution of the number of changes (swaps) of picture choices across the eleven sessions. We interpret these effects in the light of Bion's view of group dynamics...

  9. Experiences from active membership and participation in decision-making processes and age in moral reasoning and goal orientation of referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proios, Miltiadis; Doganis, George

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of experiences of active membership and participation in decision-making processes and age on moral reasoning and goal orientations of referees in sport. The sample consisted of 148 referees of whom 56 judged soccer, 55 basketball, and 37 handball. Their ages ranged from 17 to 50 years (M=36.6, SD=7.4). Of the total number of referees, 8.3% have no experiences from active membership and participation in decision-making processes in organizations (social, athletic, political), 53.1% were simply active members, and 38.6% were involved in decision-making in their respective organizations. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance showed an interaction between experiences and age on moral reasoning and goal orientation of referees.

  10. Study on the Application of Goal-oriented Task-based“Teaching, Learn-ing and Doing”Integrated BE Teaching Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yan-li

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of applying a new teaching mode of Goal-oriented Task-based Ap-proach (GOTBA) into the teaching of Business English. A comparative study of Experimental Class and Control Class was adopt-ed in the research. Instruments include tests and questionnaires and interview. Results show that GOTBA is significantly effective to increase the learners’learning motivation so to promote their BE competence.

  11. The Relationship Between Goal Orientation and Socio-cognitive Conflict Regulation%目标取向与社会认知冲突调节的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓东; 高秋凤

    2009-01-01

    本研究采用问卷法考察目标取向与社会认知冲突调节的关系.结果表明:任务取向对认识冲突调节有显著的正向预测作用;趋向型自我取向对关系冲突调节有显著的正向预测作用;逃避型自我取向对社会认知冲突调节无显著的预测作用;社会认知冲突调节的直接与间接测量方式具有等价作用.%The present study explored the relationship between goal orientation and socio-cognitive conflict regulation by using the questionnaire method. The results were as follows: task goal orientation was a significant positive predicator of epistemic conflict regulation; ego-approach orientation was a significant positive predicator of relation conflict regulation; ego-avoidance orientation was not a significant predicator of socio-cognitive conflict regulation; the direct and indirect measurement of socio-cognitive conflict regulation had the same valence.

  12. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, M; Groen, Y; Wijers, A A; Noltes, H; Tucha, O; Hoekstra, P J

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the individual's approach and avoidance tendencies. All subjects participated in a randomised double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial where either oxytocin (OXT) or placebo was administered preceding the viewing of affective pictures.The pictures, selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), represented a systematic variation of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral scenes with and without humans. Both cardiac (ECR) and cortical (LPP) evoked orienting responses were measured and both were enhanced for the pictures with humans, in particular for the unpleasant ones. No significant group differences were found, nor were there any treatment effects. Moderator analysis, however, demonstrated that OXT did enhance orienting to affective pictures with humansin male adults with ASD who are easily distressed when seeing others in stressful situations and in healthy males who are highly sensitive to anticipated punishment and criticism or have a low drive for goal achievement. Individual differences in stress-related avoidance tendencies should be taken into account when considering OXT as a treatment of social deficiencies in autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Illegitimacy and identity threat in (inter)action : Predicting intergroup orientations among minority group members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livingstone, Andrew G.; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Bruder, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that intergroup orientations among minority group members are shaped by the interaction between the perceived illegitimacy of intergroup relations and identity threat appraisals, as well as their main effects. This is because together they serve to focus emotion-mediated react

  14. Adults with ADHD Benefit from Cognitive-Behaviorally Oriented Group Rehabilitation: A Study of 29 Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Maarit; Vedenpaa, Anita; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective nonpharmacological treatments of adult ADHD. The authors present results from a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychological group rehabilitation for adult ADHD. Method: A total of 29 adults with ADHD participated. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 or 11 weekly sessions.…

  15. Resources Sharing and Access Control in Group-oriented Networks: Fednet and Related Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrohimovna, K.M.; Heemstra de Groot, S.

    2009-01-01

    A Personal Network (PN) is a network composed of devices of a person that can communicate with each other independently from their geographical location. Extra functionality in PNs enables the cooperation amongst different persons forming a group-oriented network called a Federation of Personal Netw

  16. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  17. Mastering Social and Organization Goals: Strategy Use by Two Children with Asperger Syndrome during Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (daily) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning daily occupations. This case study explored the pattern of Global Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies…

  18. Employees' goal orientations, the quality of leader-member exchange, and the outcomes of job performance and job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    2004-01-01

    As hypothesized, data from 170 employees of a Dutch firm showed that the quality of leader-member exchange mediated positive relationships between a mastery orientation and leader-rated in-role job performance, leader-rated innovative job performance, and job satisfaction. In contrast, a performance

  19. The Interaction of Pedagogical Approach, Gender, Self-Regulation, and Goal Orientation Using Student Response System Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, Kellah M.

    2008-01-01

    This research compares a behaviorally based approach for using electronic student response system (SRS) technology with a metacognitive-oriented approach to determine effects on attendance, preparation for class, and achievement. Also examined are the interaction effects of pedagogical approach with self-regulatory and motivational characteristics…

  20. Interest groups at transnational negotiation conferences: goals, strategies, interactions, and influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanegraaff, M.

    2015-01-01

    Interest groups partake in transnational negotiation conferences en masse. This is surprising given that the chances for influencing policymaking at these venues appear to be slim while the costs of participation are high. This amounts to an interesting question: why do so many interest groups atten

  1. Interest groups at transnational negotiation conferences: goals, strategies, interactions, and influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanegraaff, M.

    2015-01-01

    Interest groups partake in transnational negotiation conferences en masse. This is surprising given that the chances for influencing policymaking at these venues appear to be slim while the costs of participation are high. This amounts to an interesting question: why do so many interest groups

  2. Consensus-oriented group peer review: a new process to review radiologist work output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasab, Tarik K; Harvey, H Benjamin; Gowda, Vrushab; Thrall, James H; Rosenthal, Daniel I; Gazelle, G Scott

    2014-02-01

    The Joint Commission and other regulatory bodies have mandated that health care organizations implement processes for ongoing physician performance review. Software solutions, such as RADPEER™, have been created to meet this need efficiently. However, the authors believe that available systems are not optimally designed to produce changes in practice and overlook many important aspects of quality by excessive focus on diagnosis. The authors present a new model of peer review known as consensus-oriented group review, which is based on group discussion of cases in a conference setting and places greater emphasis on feedback than traditional systems of radiology peer review. By focusing on the process of peer review, consensus-oriented group review is intended to optimize performance improvement and foster group standards of practice. The authors also describe the software tool developed to implement this process of enriched peer review.

  3. Causal relationships of sport and exercise involvement with goal orientations, perceived competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Bebetsos, Evaggelos; Theodorakis, Yannis; Christodoulidis, Triantafyllos; Kouli, Olga

    2006-04-01

    Little information exists about the causal relationships of sport and exercise participation with goal orientations, perceived athletic competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education. A longitudinal study was conducted involving 882 Greek students who completed questionnaires on three occasions: 3 - 5 weeks into the academic year, 3 - 6 weeks before the end of the academic year, and 7 months later. The data were analysed using structural equation models, controlling for age. Task orientation and intrinsic motivation in physical education at the beginning of the academic year predicted sport and exercise participation 7 and 14 months later. Perceived athletic competence both at the beginning and end of the academic year predicted sport and exercise participation 7 and 14 months later, while ego orientation did not predict sport and exercise involvement at either time. Previous sport and exercise participation had positive effects on task orientation and perceived athletic competence 3 - 6 weeks before the end of the academic year and predicted all cognitive-affective constructs 7 months later. These results imply that the cultivation of task orientation, intrinsic motivation in physical education and perceived athletic competence will help to promote sport and exercise participation in adolescence.

  4. Goal-Oriented Error Estimation and Adaptivity for Free-Boundary Problems: The Shape-Linearization Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K.G.; Van Brummelen, E.H.; De Borst, R.

    2010-01-01

    We develop duality-based a posteriori error estimates for functional outputs of solutions of free-boundary problems via shape-linearization principles. To derive an appropriate dual (linearized adjoint) problem, we linearize the domain dependence of the very weak form and goal functional of interest

  5. The Impact of Goal Orientation, Self-Reflection and Personal Characteristics on the Acquisition of Oral Presentation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Although many educators help others to develop oral presentation skills, little research is available to direct the instructional design activities of these educators. In the present article an explorative study on university freshman is described, in which goal-setting, self-reflection, and several characteristics of the subjects during oral…

  6. The Impact of Goal Orientation, Self-Reflection and Personal Characteristics on the Acquisition of Oral Presentation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Although many educators help others to develop oral presentation skills, little research is available to direct the instructional design activities of these educators. In the present article an explorative study on university freshman is described, in which goal-setting, self-reflection, and several characteristics of the subjects during oral…

  7. Interaction between Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors: The Influences of Academic Goal Orientation and Working Memory on Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry; Ning, Flora; Goh, Hui Chin

    2014-01-01

    Although the effects of achievement goals and working memory on academic performance are well established, it is not clear whether they jointly affect academic performance. Children from Primary 4 and 6 (N = 608) were administered (a) measures of working memory and updating from the automated working memory battery and a running span task, (b)…

  8. Group differences in the legitimization of inequality: Questioning the role of social dominance orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, Samuel; Carvacho, Héctor; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-03-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time. The SDO mediation hypothesis is supported in the case of hostile sexism. However, it is unsupported in the case of benevolent sexism and LMs relating to ethnic hierarchy, where there was no cross-lagged effect of SDO. Moreover, being in the dominant ethnic group is associated with more legitimization of ethnic hierarchy but less legitimization of gender hierarchy, which is inconsistent with the notion of a general orientation underpinning group differences in legitimation. There was mixed evidence for a reverse path whereby specific LMs mediate group differences in SDO across time. We argue for the need to find alternative ways to theorize ideological consensus and difference between groups.

  9. Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and Relations with Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Schwebel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Perceived Parent Success Standards Scale (PPSSS, adapted from the Perception of Success Questionnaire constructed by Roberts et al. (1998 to measure athletes’ achievement goal orientation, provides a measure of athletes’ perceptions of mastery- and ego-oriented parental success criteria, a central component of parental motivational climate. This study focused on 543 young athletes (ages 9–16 on 82 teams in recreational basketball leagues. The PPSSS exhibited strong factorial validity, construct validity, and orthogonality between ego and mastery factors that allow for different combinations of these factors to be tested. We also compared the impact of the motivational climates created by coaches and success standards conveyed by parents on postseason athlete outcome measures of anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement goal orientation. Correlational and multilevel regression analyses revealed that both coach and parent variables were significantly related to the athlete variables. However, mediational analyses indicated that parental success standards mediated relations between coach-initiated climate and all of the outcome variables, reflecting the power of parental socialization processes. We discuss potential reasons for the greater parental influence shown in this and a previous study, and we suggest directions for further research as well as possible interventions that can help both coaches and parents create a more positive athletic environment for young athletes.

  10. Pod Learning: Student Groups Create Podcasts to Achieve Economics Learning Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moryl, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a group project to create student-generated podcasts on economics topics. This project provides an innovative opportunity for students to demonstrate proficiency in skills required for the undergraduate economics major and valued in the professional marketplace. Results of a student self-assessment survey on…

  11. Group-colouring, group-connectivity, claw-decompositions, and orientations in 5-edge-connected planar graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, R. Bruce; Thomassen, Carsten; Younger, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Let G be a graph, let Γ be an Abelian group with identity 0Γ, and, for each vertex v of G, let p(v) be a prescription such that ∑v∈V(G)p(v)=0Γ. A (Γ,p)-flow consists of an orientation D of G and, for each edge e of G, a label f(e) in Γ∖{0Γ} such that, for each vertex v of G, ∑e points in to v f(e...

  12. Alcohol-Preferring Rats Show Goal Oriented Behaviour to Food Incentives but Are Neither Sign-Trackers Nor Impulsive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Peña-Oliver

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is often associated with impulsivity and altered behavioural responses to both primary and conditioned rewards. Here we investigated whether selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP rats show differential levels of impulsivity and conditioned behavioural responses to food incentives. P and NP rats were assessed for impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT, a widely used translational task in humans and other animals, as well as Pavlovian conditioned approach to measure sign- and goal-tracking behaviour. Drug-naïve P and NP rats showed similar levels of impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT, assessed by the number of premature, anticipatory responses, even when the waiting interval to respond was increased. However, unlike NP rats, P rats were faster to enter the food magazine and spent more time in this area. In addition, P rats showed higher levels of goal-tracking responses than NP rats, as measured by the number of magazine nose-pokes during the presentation of a food conditioned stimulus. By contrast, NP showed higher levels of sign-tracking behaviour than P rats. Following a 4-week exposure to intermittent alcohol we confirmed that P rats had a marked preference for, and consumed more alcohol than, NP rats, but were not more impulsive when re-tested in the 5-CSRTT. These findings indicate that high alcohol preferring and drinking P rats are neither intrinsically impulsive nor do they exhibit impulsivity after exposure to alcohol. However, P rats do show increased goal-directed behaviour to food incentives and this may be associated with their strong preference for alcohol.

  13. 目标定向及目标设置理论在乒乓球教学中的应用%Application of Goal Orientation and Goal Setting Theory in Table Tennis Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文丽

    2016-01-01

    乒乓球教学在当今大学体育中占有越来越重要的地位,无论是开课的班级还是选课的人数在数量上都占有绝对优势。但是当前大学生对体育课的重视程度不够高,使得他们对乒乓球的学习不能付出应有的关注,这就导致了乒乓球教学不能成功地展开。因此,在乒乓球教学中展开目标定向和目标设置理论的应用就成为一种必要的趋势。从当今大学体育乒乓球教学现状入手,进一步分析目标定向和目标设置在乒乓球教学中的应用。%Table tennis teaching in college sports is becoming more and more important, the number in both classes of course and students occupies the absolute advantage. But the contemporary college students have not paid enough attention to physical education, which makes them paid inadequate attention to table tennis learning, and leads to the unsuccessful table tennis teaching. So the goal orientation and application of goal setting theory have become necessary trend in table tennis teaching. Based on the current situation of college sports table tennis teaching, ana-lyze the target orientation and the application of the targets set in table tennis teaching.

  14. Supporting Goal-Oriented Primary Health Care for Seniors with Complex Care Needs Using Mobile Technology: Evaluation and Implementation of the Health System Performance Research Network, Bridgepoint Electronic Patient Reported Outcome Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodchis, Walter P; Upshur, Ross; Cott, Cheryl; McKinstry, Brian; Mercer, Stewart; Palen, Ted E; Ramsay, Tim; Thavorn, Kednapa

    2016-01-01

    Background Older adults experiencing multiple chronic illnesses are at high risk of hospitalization and health decline if they are unable to manage the significant challenges posed by their health conditions. Goal-oriented care approaches can provide better care for these complex patients, but clinicians find the process of ascertaining goals “too complex and too-time consuming,” and goals are often not agreed upon between complex patients and their providers. The electronic patient reported outcomes (ePRO) mobile app and portal offers an innovative approach to creating and monitoring goal-oriented patient-care plans to improve patient self-management and shared decision-making between patients and health care providers. The ePRO tool also supports proactive patient monitoring by the patient, caregiver(s), and health care provider. It was developed with and for older adults with complex care needs as a means to improve their quality of life. Objective Our proposed project will evaluate the use, effectiveness, and value for money of the ePRO tool in a 12-month multicenter, randomized controlled trial in Ontario; targeting individuals 65 or over with two or more chronic conditions that require frequent health care visits to manage their health conditions. Methods Intervention groups using the ePRO tool will be compared with control groups on measures of quality of life, patient experience, and cost-effectiveness. We will also evaluate the implementation of the tool. Results The proposed project presented in this paper will be funded through the Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR) eHealth Innovation Partnerships Program (eHIPP) program (CIHR–143559). The expected completion date of the study is November, 2019. Conclusions We anticipate our program of work will support improved quality of life and patient self-management, improved patient-centered primary care delivery, and will encourage the adoption of goal-oriented care approaches across primary

  15. 目标教学理论在老年护理学课程设计及教学中的应用%Practice of goal-oriented teaching theory in curriculum design and teaching of geriatric nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇勤; 杨巧菊; 潘兰霞; 井晓磊; 邹晓燕; 宋晓燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 更好地完成老年护理学课程培养目标,缩短护生毕业后从事老年护理工作的适应期.方法 参照目标教学理论对老年护理学课程进行设计,将2007、2008级278名本科护生按等同原则将2个年级的一班140人归为观察组,二班138人归为对照组;对照组采用传统方式教学;观察组采用设计后的课程方案教学.课程结束后进行效果评价.结果 理论、实践能力考核成绩,观察组显著优于对照组(均P<0.01);对课程设置及学习效果12个条目的肯定评价观察组为41.43%~91.43%,对照组为6.52%~78.99%.结论 目标教学理论在老年护理学课程设计中的应用,增强了护生对老年人的服务意识,提高了服务技能,实现了课程培养目标.%Objective To achieve the teaching goal of geriatric nursing, and to shorten nursing students adaptation period after graduation. Methods A total of 278 nursing undergraduates enrolled in the year of 2007 and 2008 were divided into two groups. The control group (138 students) received traditional teaching model, while their counterparts in the observation group (140 students) were subjected to a new curriculum that was created on the basis of the goal-oriented teaching theory. The teaching effect was evaluated at the end of the course. Results The examination results of theory and practice skills were significantly better in the observation group than those in the control group (P<0. 01 for both). As for 12 items designed to evaluate curriculum design and learning effect, 41. 43%-91. 43% of the observation group and 6. 52%-78. 99% of the control group gave positive appraisal. Conclusion Application of goal-oriented teaching theory to curriculum design of geriatric nursing can strengthen service awareness of students, improve their service skills, and achieve training goal.

  16. Does intruder group size and orientation affect flight initiation distance in birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geist, C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife managers use flight initiation distance (FID, the distance animals flee an approaching predator, to determine set back distances to minimize human impacts on wildlife. FID is typically estimated by a single person; this study examined the effects of intruder number and orientation on FID. Three different group size treatments (solitary person, two people side-by-side, two people one-behind-the-other were applied to Pied Currawongs (Strepera graculina and to Crimson Rosellas (Platycerus elegans. Rosellas flushed at significantly greater distances when approached by two people compared to a single person. This effect was not seen in currawongs. Intruder orientation did not influence the FID of either species. Results suggest that intruder number should be better integrated into estimates of set back distance to manage human visitation around sensitive species.

  17. Tract-oriented statistical group comparison of diffusion in sheet-like white matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyksborg, Mark; Dyrby, T. B.; Sorensen, P. S.;

    2013-01-01

    Identifying specific structures of the brain where pathology differs between groups of subjects may aid to develop imaging-based markers for disease diagnosis. We propose a new technique for doing multivariate statistical analysis on white matter tracts with sheet like shapes. Previous works assume...... tube-like shapes, not always suitable for modelling the white matter tracts of the brain. The tract-oriented technique aimed at group studies, integrates the usage of multivariate features and outputs a single value of significance indicating tract-specific differences. This is in contrast to voxel...... based analysis techniques which outputs a significance per voxel basis, and requires multiple comparison correction. We demonstrate our technique by comparing a group of controls with a group of Multiple Sclerosis subjects obtaining significant differences on 11 different fascicle structures....

  18. Mental health orientation for self-help group members: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Shrinivasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment gap for mental health care in low- and middle-income (LAMI countries is very large, and building workforce using the locally available resources is very much essential in reducing this gap. The current study is a preliminary work toward this direction. Materials and Methods: A single group pre- and post-design was considered for assessing the feasibility of Mental Health Orientation (MHO Program for Self-Help Group members. Assessment of participants' MHO using Orientation Towards Mental Illness (OMI scale was undertaken at three levels: baseline assessment before the intervention, after completing 2 days orientation program, and 6 weeks later. Results: Analysis of data resulted in statistically significant mean scores in the domains of areas of causation (F[1.41, 40.7] = 21.7, P< 0.000, ηp2 = 0.428, perception of abnormality (F[1.27, 36.8] = 15.8, P< 0.000, ηp2 = 0.353, treatment (F[1.42, 41.3] = 34.8, P< 0.000, ηp2 = 0.546, and after effect (F[1.36,39.4] = 26.7, P< 0.000, ηp2 = 0.480. Although the overall mean scores of all the domains of OMI were found to be statistically significantly different, there was no significant difference in the mean scores between post and follow-up assessments on areas of causation (μd = 1.27, P = 0.440 and treatment (μd = 1.00, P = 0.156. Conclusion: Overall, the findings of our study demonstrate that brief MHO program can exert a beneficial effect on bringing about significant change in the orientation of the participants toward mental illness but need to be refreshed over time to make the impact of the program stay longer.

  19. An enhanced reliability-oriented workforce planning model for process industry using combined fuzzy goal programming and differential evolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighravwe, D. E.; Oke, S. A.; Adebiyi, K. A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper draws on the "human reliability" concept as a structure for gaining insight into the maintenance workforce assessment in a process industry. Human reliability hinges on developing the reliability of humans to a threshold that guides the maintenance workforce to execute accurate decisions within the limits of resources and time allocations. This concept offers a worthwhile point of deviation to encompass three elegant adjustments to literature model in terms of maintenance time, workforce performance and return-on-workforce investments. These fully explain the results of our influence. The presented structure breaks new grounds in maintenance workforce theory and practice from a number of perspectives. First, we have successfully implemented fuzzy goal programming (FGP) and differential evolution (DE) techniques for the solution of optimisation problem in maintenance of a process plant for the first time. The results obtained in this work showed better quality of solution from the DE algorithm compared with those of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimisation algorithm, thus expressing superiority of the proposed procedure over them. Second, the analytical discourse, which was framed on stochastic theory, focusing on specific application to a process plant in Nigeria is a novelty. The work provides more insights into maintenance workforce planning during overhaul rework and overtime maintenance activities in manufacturing systems and demonstrated capacity in generating substantially helpful information for practice.

  20. The Effects of a Growth Mindset Intervention on the Beliefs about Intelligence, Effort Beliefs, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Academic Self-Efficacy of LD Students with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Mary Caufield

    2010-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a "growth mindset" intervention on the beliefs about intelligence, effort beliefs, achievement goals, and academic self-efficacy of learning disabled (LD) students with reading difficulties. The treatment group consisted of 12 high school LD students with reading difficulties. This…

  1. The Effects of a Growth Mindset Intervention on the Beliefs about Intelligence, Effort Beliefs, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Academic Self-Efficacy of LD Students with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Mary Caufield

    2010-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a "growth mindset" intervention on the beliefs about intelligence, effort beliefs, achievement goals, and academic self-efficacy of learning disabled (LD) students with reading difficulties. The treatment group consisted of 12 high school LD students with reading difficulties. This…

  2. Stereotype Threat's Effect on Women's Achievement in Chemistry: The Interaction of Achievement Goal Orientation for Women in Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For…

  3. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauff, Mathias; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals’ Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753), Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948), and England (Study 5; N = 594). Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO). Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1–5), but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5), the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact. PMID:26751203

  4. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kauff

    Full Text Available Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO, and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753, Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948, and England (Study 5; N = 594. Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO. Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1-5, but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5, the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact.

  5. Employee Voice Behavior and Team Performance---The Role of Member Goal Orientation%员工建言行为与团队绩效的关系--成员目标取向的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓今朝; 黄中梅; 余绍忠

    2015-01-01

    45 3-person groups comprising 135 students participated in this study. Based on hierarchical regression and medi-ation and moderation effect analytic techniques the final results showed that the relationship between employee voice behavior and team performance was nonmonotonic and was inverted U-shaped. In addition, team member goal orientation, specifical-ly, performance goal orientation was found to have significant moderation effect on the relationship between employee voice behavior and team performance.%采用决策模拟方法对员工建言行为与团队绩效的关系进行了探讨,以45个团队共135名大学生为样本的研究表明:员工建言行为与团队绩效的关系呈倒“U”形,成员的绩效目标取向在建言行为与团队绩效的关系中存在正向调节作用。

  6. Illegitimacy and identity threat in (inter)action: predicting intergroup orientations among minority group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Andrew G; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S R; Bruder, Martin

    2009-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that intergroup orientations among minority group members are shaped by the interaction between the perceived illegitimacy of intergroup relations and identity threat appraisals, as well as their main effects. This is because together they serve to focus emotion-mediated reactions on the out-group's role in threatening in-group identity. In a large-scale field study (N=646), conducted among the Welsh minority in the UK, we quasi-manipulated the extent to which Welsh identity was dependent on the 'threatened' Welsh language. Results supported our hypothesis that the illegitimacy x identity threat interaction would be strongest where Welsh identity was most dependent upon the Welsh language, and through intergroup anger would predict support for more radical, unconstitutional forms of action.

  7. Group-Oriented Services: A Shift towards Consumer-Managed Relationships in the Telecom Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Luka; Bojic, Iva; Podobnik, Vedran; Jezic, Gordan; Kusek, Mario

    Today, telecom operators face a threefold challenge: a social challenge dealing with the evolution of the consumer lifestyle, a technological challenge dealing with ever changing ICT trends and a business challenge dealing with the need for innovative business models. This paper introduces an idea of group-oriented services, a special type of personalized telecom services, as a possible solution for all three of these challenges. A proof-of-concept service, called Agent-Based Mobile Content Brokerage, is presented and elaborated with the aim to demonstrate a shift towards consumer-managed relationships, a novel provisioning paradigm within the telecom industry.

  8. Preventive effects of group dance movement therapy on participants of oriental dance courses

    OpenAIRE

    Jevšenak, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    The connection of mind and body as well as the impact of physical activity on mental state of the person is defined in the theoretical part of the thesis. It featured dance as an expressive means of non-verbal communication in the therapeutic process in the group and stressed the importance of creativity in dance expression. It has given a historical overview of the role of women in dance and described the therapeutic characteristics of oriental dance. In addition to presenting dance - moveme...

  9. A Validity Study of the Working Group's Orientation Test for Individuals with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, G.; Curtis, K.; Curtis, R.; Markwell, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Decline in orientation skill has been reported as an early indicator of Dementia of Alzheimer's Type (DAT). Orientation subtest of the Working Group's Test Battery was examined whether this test is useful to identify DAT patients among adults with moderate to severe ID. Methods: Sixteen DAT patients and 35 non-demented normal controls…

  10. When you have to climb downhill to reach the top: The effect of action versus state orientation on solving a goal-subgoal conflict in the Tower of Hanoi task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jostmann, N.B.; Gieselmann, A.

    2014-01-01

    Complex problems often include a response conflict between a subgoal and a final goal. The present experiment investigated the roles of situational demands and individual differences in self-regulation on solving goal-subgoal conflicts in a computerized Tower of Hanoi task. Action-oriented versus

  11. Rural women farmers’ assessment of credit oriented self-help groups in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku Albert U.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the perception of the rural woman about credit oriented self-help group in Delta State, Nigeria. A sample size of 110 respondents was used for the study and data were collected from them with the use of structured interview schedule and questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression equation model as the lead equation. It was revealed that the women farmers subscribed to self-help groups in order to be able to have access to credit (mean = 3.78, information (mean = 3.55, extension services (mean = 3.45. The respondents were satisfied with their respective self-help groups. However, they had some challenges such as inadequate access to extension services (mean = 3.55 and lack of commitment by the leaders (mean = 3.22 and members (mean = 3.19. Educational level and frequency of extension contact of the respondents were found to influence their perception on self-help groups at 5% level of significance. It is recommended that governmental and non-governmental organizations, and university agricultural extension departments should carry out a campaign on workshops for these groups on commitment and extension agencies should diversify their focus to include selfhelp groups and activities.

  12. When you have to climb downhill to reach the top: the effect of action versus state orientation on solvinga goal-subgoal conflict in the Tower of Hanoi task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostmann, Nils B; Gieselmann, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Complex problems often include a response conflict between a subgoal and a final goal. The present experiment investigated the roles of situational demands and individual differences in self-regulation on solving goal-subgoal conflicts in a computerized Tower of Hanoi task. Action-oriented versus state-oriented individuals were randomly assigned to a demanding condition in which they deliberated about a personal decision problem, or to a nondemanding control condition. In line with expectations state-oriented individuals had greater difficulties to solve goal-subgoal conflicts in the demanding compared to the nondemanding condition. Action-oriented individuals performed well in both conditions. In line with Personality Systems Interactions theory (Kuhl, 2000) the findings show that complex problem solving depends on how well people are able to deal with situational demands.

  13. EBSD imaging of orientation relationships and variant groupings in different martensitic alloys and Widmanstätten iron meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayron, Cyril, E-mail: cyril.cayron@cea.fr

    2014-08-15

    An automatic method to colorize and quantify the classical Pitsch, Kurdjumov–Sachs, Greninger–Troiano and Nishiyama–Wasserman orientation relationships in the electron backscatter diffraction maps of martensitic/bainitic steels is detailed. Automatic analysis of variant grouping is also presented. The method was applied to low and high carbon steels, and to iron–nickel Widmanstätten meteorites. Many results of recent literature are confirmed. In low carbon steels the individual laths exhibit continuous orientation gradients between the classical orientation relationships, and the laths tend to be grouped by close-packed plane (morphological) packets. A crystallographic scenario describing the formation of the packets is proposed on the base of the one-step model. When the carbon content increases, the orientation spreading is reduced; and martensite tends to form plate groups and burst configurations. In iron–nickel meteorites, the centimeter long Widmanstätten laths do not exhibit continuous orientation gradients but are constituted of subgrains with uniform orientation relationship; the kamacite grains in the plessite regions are grouped into Bain zones, probably due to a recrystallization during the slow cooling of the meteorites. - Highlights: • Analysis of different low and high carbon steels and Widmanstätten meteorites • Automatic color mapping of the classical orientation relationships in EBSD maps • Quantification of variant pairing and grouping tendencies • Crystallographic scenario for the formation of morphological packets.

  14. High Performance Human Resource Practices, Identification with Organizational Values and Goals, and Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Review of Literature and Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasurdin Aizzat Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing competition within the hospitality industry has recognized the importance of service quality as a key business differentiation strategy. Proactive involvement of employees is a vital component of the service delivery, which in turn, enhances customer satisfaction and loyalty. Hence, hospitality organizations, particularly hotels, need to encourage their employees to perform voluntary behaviors that go “beyond their call of duty”. These behaviors are referred to as service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors (hereafter labeled as SO-OCBs. A review of the literature indicates that an organization’s human resource management (henceforth labeled as HRM practices are instrumental in establishing the tone of the employee-employer relationship, which subsequently affects employees’ display of discretionary functional service-related behaviors. Specifically, high-performance HRM practices can nurture a relational employment relationship, leading to internalization of organizational values and goals. This, in turn, would induce employees to engage in greater SO-OCBs. However, conceptual and empirical work explaining the mechanism by which high-performance HRM practices relate to SO-OCBs remains scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to construct a model linking a set of high-performance HRM practices (selective hiring, communication, appraisal, and reward and SO-OCBs. Identification with organizational values and goals is posited as a mediator in the proposed relationship. A discussion of the literature to support the proposed framework is furnished.

  15. ORIENTATION OF MOLECULAR GROUPS IN CROSS SECTION OF POLYAMIDE-6 FIBER BY INFRARED ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTION DICHROISM STUDIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Deyan; ZHANG Shengqing

    1987-01-01

    The polymer fiber usually possess typical uniaxial orientation. The molecular chains are symmetrically distributed around fiber axis. In this work, the orientation of molecular groups in the cross section of polyamide-6 fiber has been measured by using IR ATR method. The results indicated that the polyamide-6fiber mainly contains α-crystalline form. The direction of hydrogen bonds of amide groups is predominately parallel with the surface in the cross section of the fiber.

  16. On the Relationship among Academic Seeking Help Behavior and Achievement Goal Orientation%初中生成就目标定向与学业求助的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海芳

    2013-01-01

      To explore the relationship among academic seeking help behavior and achievement goal orientation, the paper applies Academic Seeking Help Behavior Scale and Achievement Goal Orientation Scale to survey 210 junior high school students. Results are: Gender and grade have no significant influence on junior high school students; Achievement goal orientation is correlated with academic seeking help behavior;Achievement goal orientation has a role of remarkable prediction in academic seeking help behavior. The results show that achievement goal orientation has an influence on academic seeking help behavior.%  文章以初中生的成就目标定向与学业求助的关系为研究对象,运用《学业求助问卷》和《成就目标定向量表》,对210名初中生进行问卷调查。结论为:初中生学业求助行为在性别、年级上无显著差异;初中生成就目标定向和学业求助行为存在显著性相关;初中生成就目标定向对学业求助行为有显著的预测作用。这说明初中生的学业求助行为受成就目标定向的影响。

  17. An examination of sexual orientation group patterns in mammographic and colorectal screening in a cohort of U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Pazaris, Mathew J; Nichols, Lauren P; Bowen, Deborah; Wei, Esther K; Spiegelman, Donna

    2013-03-01

    Underutilization of cancer screening has been found especially to affect socially marginalized groups. We investigated sexual orientation group patterns in breast and colorectal cancer screening adherence. Data on breast and colorectal cancer screening, sexual orientation, and sociodemographics were gathered prospectively from 1989 through 2005 from 85,759 U.S. women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Publicly available data on state-level healthcare quality and sexual-orientation-related legal protections were also gathered. Multivariable models were used to estimate sexual orientation group differences in breast and colorectal cancer screening, controlling for sociodemographics and state-level healthcare quality and legal protections for sexual minorities. Receipt of a mammogram in the past 2 years was common though not universal and differed only slightly by sexual orientation: heterosexual 84 %, bisexual 79 %, and lesbian 82 %. Fewer than half of eligible women had ever received a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy, and rates did not differ by sexual orientation: heterosexual 39 %, bisexual 39 %, and lesbian 42 %. In fully adjusted models, state-level healthcare quality score, though not state-level legal protections for sexual minorities, was positively associated with likelihood of being screened for all women regardless of sexual orientation. Concerns have been raised that unequal healthcare access for sexual orientation minorities may adversely affect cancer screening. We found small disparities in mammography and none in colorectal screening, though adherence to colorectal screening recommendations was uniformly very low. Interventions are needed to increase screening in women of all sexual orientation groups, particularly in areas with poor healthcare policies.

  18. Veteran satisfaction and treatment preferences in response to a posttraumatic stress disorder specialty clinic orientation group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Jeremiah A; Walter, Kristen H; Bartone, Anne S; Chard, Kathleen M

    2015-06-01

    To maximize accessibility to evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has widely disseminated cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) therapy to VA clinicians. However, there is a lack of research on veteran preferences when presented with a range of psychotherapy and medication options. This study uses a mixed-method approach to explore veteran satisfaction with a VA PTSD specialty clinic pre-treatment orientation group, which provides education about available PTSD treatment options. This study also tested differences in treatment preference in response to the group. Participants were 183 US veterans. Most were White, male, and referred to the clinic by a VA provider. Results indicated high satisfaction with the group in providing an overview of services and helping to inform treatment choice. Most preferred psychotherapy plus medications (63.4%) or psychotherapy only (30.1%). Participants endorsed a significantly stronger preference for CPT versus other psychotherapies. PE was significantly preferred over nightmare resolution therapy and present-centered therapy, and both PE and cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy were preferred over virtual reality exposure therapy. Results suggest that by informing consumers about evidence-based treatments for PTSD, pre-treatment educational approaches may increase consumer demand for these treatment options.

  19. Research on Relationship between Goal Orientation and Sport Moral Disengagement of Chinese Athlete%我国运动员目标定向与运动道德推脱的关系探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俊; 王栋

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between goal orientation and sport moral disen-gagement of Chinese athlete,identify the type of goal orientation can predict sport moral disengagement effectively,ath-letes completed questionnaires measuring goal orientation and sport moral disengagement. Results indicated that there ex-ist significant differences for sport moral disengagement among different gender,different types of sport,reflected on de-humanization,euphemistic labeling for gender and non-responsibility for types of sport;ego goal orientation is related significant positively sport moral disengagement,task goal orientation is related non-significant negatively sport moral disengagement;ego goal orientation can predict reliably sport moral disengagement.%为揭示我国运动员目标定向与运动道德推脱的关系,识别有效预测运动道德推脱的目标定向类型,采用心理测量法对我国运动员进行研究,结果表明:①运动道德推脱存在性别上的显著性差异,体现在非人性化和委婉标签两个维度;运动道德推脱在项目类型上也存在显著性差异,体现在非责任维度;②自我定向与运动道德推脱呈显著性正相关关系,任务定向与运动道德推脱呈负相关关系,但相关不具显著性;③自我定向成为有效预测运动道德推脱的目标定向类型。

  20. Explaining Research Utilization Among 4-H Faculty, Staff, and Volunteers: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Learning Goal Orientation, Training, and Previous Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Tillman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of factors that facilitate the utilization of research evidence among faculty, staff, and volunteers in the 4-H Youth Development Program is presented in this paper. Participants (N= 368; 86 4-H faculty, 153 staff, and 129 volunteers represented 35 states; structural equation modeling was utilized in the analyses. Results of the path analysis explained 56% of variance in research utilization and 28% in research utilization self-efficacy. Among the factors impacting research utilization, self-efficacy played the most important role. In turn, self-efficacy for research utilization was positively influenced by participants’ learning goal orientation, frequency of 4-H training during the last 12 months, education in research-related areas, and investigative career interests. In addition, 4-H staff who were exposed to research at higher levels reported higher research utilization self-efficacy. The findings reinforce the importance of fostering research utilization self-efficacy among 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers. Among the suggestions presented are regular 4-H training opportunities and on-going exposure to program evaluation and program improvement experiences.

  1. Enabling Predictive Simulation and UQ of Complex Multiphysics PDE Systems by the Development of Goal-Oriented Variational Sensitivity Analysis and A Posteriori Error Estimation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginting, Victor

    2014-03-15

    it was demonstrated that a posteriori analyses in general and in particular one that uses adjoint methods can accurately and efficiently compute numerical error estimates and sensitivity for critical Quantities of Interest (QoIs) that depend on a large number of parameters. Activities include: analysis and implementation of several time integration techniques for solving system of ODEs as typically obtained from spatial discretization of PDE systems; multirate integration methods for ordinary differential equations; formulation and analysis of an iterative multi-discretization Galerkin finite element method for multi-scale reaction-diffusion equations; investigation of an inexpensive postprocessing technique to estimate the error of finite element solution of the second-order quasi-linear elliptic problems measured in some global metrics; investigation of an application of the residual-based a posteriori error estimates to symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin method for solving a class of second order quasi-linear elliptic problems; a posteriori analysis of explicit time integrations for system of linear ordinary differential equations; derivation of accurate a posteriori goal oriented error estimates for a user-defined quantity of interest for two classes of first and second order IMEX schemes for advection-diffusion-reaction problems; Postprocessing finite element solution; and A Bayesian Framework for Uncertain Quantification of Porous Media Flows.

  2. King's theory of goal attainment applied in group therapy for inpatient juvenile sexual offenders, maximum security state offenders, and community parolees, using visual aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laben, J K; Dodd, D; Sneed, L

    1991-01-01

    Group psychotherapy has been considered the treatment of choice by many therapists working with offenders within the criminal justice system. However, there has been little written by nurses regarding this special population. This article's purpose is to illustrate how King's theory of goal attainment may be used in conducting group psychotherapy with offender populations. The application of King's model is demonstrated in three milieus: an inpatient setting for juvenile sexual offenders, a state maximum security prison, and a halfway house for offenders involved in a work-release program. The methodology and use of visual aids in actualizing King's theory of mutual goal setting and goal attainment are discussed.

  3. Goal-oriented incentive payment in CUDAM institution and variation in medical visit indicators in children under one and pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Morales

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: The establishment of National Integrated Health System in Uruguay from 2007 led to changes in the financing of the Collective Health Care Institutions (IAMC. They charge the National Health Fund (FONASA for their partners from social security (SS a health fee consists of: a A risk-adjusted capita (94%b A component for compliance with performance (6%, depending on the fulfillment of three goals of care. Goal 1 is a component of the child under 1 year and a component of the pregnant woman. For both components were established institutional baseline (July 2007-September 2008 in the control patients in both age groups. This motif COMPLIANCE quarterly reports with a fee of $48/user FONASA/month for average baseline compliment. Las for children and pregnant women were monitored for IAMC CUDAM 64% and 59% respectively.This institution has 42,000 users, 95% derived from SS, featuring 45 births, 585 children <1 year and 405 pregnant women tested monthly.Objectives: Evaluate two years (July-September 2010:a The mean percentages of compliance for children and pregnant CUDAM with medical controlb Relationship between income through the FONASA insitucional for goal 1 and children and pregnant women in medical management during the quarter.Methods: a retrospective study of children and pregnant women with medical control CUDAM. In turn, each target has 6 indicators (N: children, F: females. Child: N1 and N2: derivation and acquisition of the newborn, N3: controls as a guideline, N4: current vaccination, N5: ultrasound hip and pregnant, N6: accreditation in good feeding practices for infants and young children and pregnant women. Pregnant woman: M1 controls as a guideline, M2: leaf perinatal information system, M3: HIV and VDRL performed, M4: uptake in 1 st quarter, M5 and M6: dental checkup during pregnancy and postpartum.Results: The mean percentages of compliance for children and pregnant women increased to 92% (164 additional children and 88

  4. Management goals for type 1 Gaucher disease: An expert consensus document from the European working group on Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegstraaten, M; Cox, T M; Belmatoug, N; Berger, M G; Collin-Histed, T; Vom Dahl, S; Di Rocco, M; Fraga, C; Giona, F; Giraldo, P; Hasanhodzic, M; Hughes, D A; Iversen, P O; Kiewiet, A I; Lukina, E; Machaczka, M; Marinakis, T; Mengel, E; Pastores, G M; Plöckinger, U; Rosenbaum, H; Serratrice, C; Symeonidis, A; Szer, J; Timmerman, J; Tylki-Szymańska, A; Weisz Hubshman, M; Zafeiriou, D I; Zimran, A; Hollak, C E M

    2016-10-24

    Gaucher Disease type 1 (GD1) is a lysosomal disorder that affects many systems. Therapy improves the principal manifestations of the condition and, as a consequence, many patients show a modified phenotype which reflects manifestations of their disease that are refractory to treatment. More generally, it is increasingly recognised that information as to how a patient feels and functions [obtained by patient- reported outcome measurements (PROMs)] is critical to any comprehensive evaluation of treatment. A new set of management goals for GD1 in which both trends are reflected is needed. To this end, a modified Delphi procedure among 25 experts was performed. Based on a literature review and with input from patients, 65 potential goals were formulated as statements. Consensus was considered to be reached when ≥75% of the participants agreed to include that specific statement in the management goals. There was agreement on 42 statements. In addition to the traditional goals concerning haematological, visceral and bone manifestations, improvement in quality of life, fatigue and social participation, as well as early detection of long-term complications or associated diseases were included. When applying this set of goals in medical practice, the clinical status of the individual patient should be taken into account. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dimensions of Aggressiveness as a Psychological Background of Political Orientations and Ethnocentrism: a Comparison of Different Sociodemographic Groups in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Šram

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The author begins with the supposition (1 that specific dimensions of aggressiveness provide a background for various political orientations and ethnocentrism, and (2 that different traits among respondents influence notably the latent configuration of dimensions pertaining to political orientations, ethnocentrism and aggressive behaviour. A sample of 628 adults was derived in a logical manner from the electoral lists of the commune of Subotica. Factor analysis revealed latent variables pertaining to political orientations, ethnocentrism and aggressiveness. Canonical correlation analysis was carried out in order to determine, on the one hand, the relations between the group of variables constituting the area of political orientations and ethnocentrism and, on the other hand, the group of variables constituting the area of aggressiveness. The model of canonical correlation analysis produced two statistically significant canonical correlations. The canonical correlation between the two groups reached 0.49, meaning that − based on knowledge of the different dimensions of aggressiveness − it is possible to explain 24% of the variants in regard to the joint appearance of certain dimensions of political orientations and ethnocentrism. The author postulates the existence of an ideological model that he calls "national exclusiveness and an anti-Western militarist-statist orientation", the background of which includes sociopathological aggressiveness. He also postulates the existence of another ideological model, which he calls "anti-Western militarist-statist", which is not based on sociopathological aggressiveness, but is primarily determined by asocial behaviour in childhood. The author likewise highlights the existence of a relationship between affective national attachment and the need for national homogenising through a certain type of aggressiveness with neurotic characteristics (impulsiveness, egocentrism, absence of empathy. The results of

  6. What Do 1st Year Japanese EFL Students Learn by Preparing and Presenting a Group Work Oriented Oral Presentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This small-scale qualitative study aimed at identifying factors and the extent of their influence upon the learning experiences of first year Japanese undergraduate students in a group work oriented oral presentation using English as their second language (ESL). Research findings were obtained from students through their participation in written…

  7. Task- and Self-Related Pathways to Deep Learning: The Mediating Role of Achievement Goals, Classroom Attentiveness, and Group Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Shun; Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Nie, Youyan

    2008-01-01

    Background: The expectancy-value and achievement goal theories are arguably the two most dominant theories of achievement motivation in the contemporary literature. However, very few studies have examined how the constructs derived from both theories are related to deep learning. Moreover, although there is evidence demonstrating the links between…

  8. Task- and Self-Related Pathways to Deep Learning: The Mediating Role of Achievement Goals, Classroom Attentiveness, and Group Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Shun; Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Nie, Youyan

    2008-01-01

    Background: The expectancy-value and achievement goal theories are arguably the two most dominant theories of achievement motivation in the contemporary literature. However, very few studies have examined how the constructs derived from both theories are related to deep learning. Moreover, although there is evidence demonstrating the links between…

  9. Bringing a Network-Oriented Approach to Domestic Violence Services: A Focus Group Exploration of Promising Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Lisa A; Banyard, Victoria; Woulfe, Julie; Ash, Sarah; Mattern, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Despite powerful evidence that informal social support contributes to survivors' safety and well-being, mainstream domestic violence (DV) programs have not developed comprehensive models for helping isolated survivors re-engage with these networks. Although many advocates use network-oriented strategies informally, they often do so without resources, funding, or training. This qualitative focus group study explored advocates' use and perceptions of network-oriented strategies. Advocates working in a range of DV programs across one state described the importance of network-oriented work and articulated its five dimensions, including helping survivors build their capacity to form healthy relationships, identify helpful and harmful network members, re-engage with existing networks, develop new relationships, and respond more effectively to network members.

  10. Multi-group acculturation orientations in a changing context: Palestinian Christian Arab adolescents in Israel after the lost decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munayer, Salim J; Horenczyk, Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    Grounded in a contextual approach to acculturation of minorities, this study examines changes in acculturation orientations among Palestinian Christian Arab adolescents in Israel following the "lost decade of Arab-Jewish coexistence." Multi-group acculturation orientations among 237 respondents were assessed vis-à-vis two majorities--Muslim Arabs and Israeli Jews--and compared to 1998 data. Separation was the strongest endorsed orientation towards both majority groups. Comparisons with the 1998 data also show a weakening of the Integration attitude towards Israeli Jews, and also distancing from Muslim Arabs. For the examination of the "Westernisation" hypothesis, multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analyses of perceptions of Self and group values clearly showed that, after 10 years, Palestinian Christian Arabs perceive Israeli Jewish culture as less close to Western culture, and that Self and the Christian Arab group have become much closer, suggesting an increasing identification of Palestinian Christian Arab adolescents with their ethnoreligious culture. We discuss the value of a multi-group, multi-method, and multi-wave approach to the examination of the role of the political context in acculturation processes.

  11. Orientation/Disorientation Training of Flying Personnel: A Working Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (ORGANISATION DU TRATTE DE L’ATLANTIQUE NORD ) I I I AGARD REPORT No.62S ORIENTATION/DISORIENTATION TRAINING OF...signal caused by malfunction or dynamic limitations. Vision impaired by nystagmus, glare, flash etc. c. Vestibular and other receptors: Fail to

  12. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: Using Goal-Oriented Applied Research as a Means of Building Comprehensive and Integrated Scientific Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, B. C.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Schlosser, P.; Corbett, E.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional instruction in science often proceeds from the general to the specific and from text to action. Fundamental terminologies, concepts, and ideas that are often abstract are taught first and only after such introductory processes can a student engage in research. Many students struggle to find relevance when presented information without context specific to their own experiences. This challenge is exacerbated for students whose social circles do not include adults who can validate scientific learning from their own experiences. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program inverts the standard paradigm and places small groups of students in research projects where they begin by performing manageable tasks on complex applied research projects. These tasks are supplemented with informal mentoring and relevant articles (~1 per week). Quantitative metrics suggest the approach is highly successful—most participants report a dramatic increase in their enthusiasm for science, 100% attend college, and approximately 50% declare majors in science or technology. We use one project, the construction of a microbial battery, to illustrate this novel model of science learning and argue that it should be considered a best practice for project-based science education. The goal of this project was to build a rechargeable battery for a mobile phone based on a geochemical cycle, to generate and store electricity. The students, mostly from ethnic groups under-represented in the STEM fields, combined concepts and laboratory methods from biology, chemistry and physics to isolate photosynthetic bacteria from a natural salt marsh, and made an in situ device capable of powering a light bulb. The younger participants had been exposed to neither high school chemistry nor physics at the start of the project, yet they were able to use the project as a platform to deepen their science knowledge and their desire for increased participation in formal science education.

  13. 女大学生锻炼需要、目标定向与体育行为的关系%Relationship Between Female College Students’ Physical Exercise Need, Goal Orientation and Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洵韬; 翟春

    2014-01-01

    为促进女大学生积极、自主的参与体育锻炼,以需要层次理论和目标定向理论为框架,采用锻炼需要量表、运动中任务定向和自我定向问卷及体育活动等级量表对1488名女大学生进行调查,探讨女大学生锻炼需要、目标定向、体育行为间的关系,构建女大学生体育锻炼“锻炼需要-目标定向-体育行为”关系模型。结果表明:女大学生体育锻炼具备多维度需要、高自我定向、低运动量特征;锻炼需要和目标定向各维度均与体育行为显著相关,其中,任务定向与高一级锻炼需要密切相关,自我定向与低一级锻炼需要密切相关。结构方程模型验证了,女大学生的目标定向(任务定向或自我定向)在锻炼需要解释体育行为时,具备部分中介效应,其效应值占总体近16.67%。%In order to promote female students’ autonomous and active participation in physical exercise, the pa-per, by adopting Needs of Physical Exercise Scale ( NPES ) , Task Orientation and Ego Orientation Scale in Sport ( TESS) , conducts an investigation of 1488 female students in the framework of "Hierarchy of Needs Theory" and "A-chievement Goal Orientation Theory" to explore the causal relationship between the three of physical exercise needs, goal orientation, behavior. It then constructs the physical exercise "Need - Goal Orientation - Behavior" relational model of female students. The results show that female students' physical exercise exhibits some characteristics such as multiple-dimension need, higher ego orientation motivation and low exercise amount. Each dimension of physical exer-cise needs and goal orientation is significantly associated with physical exercise behavior. Task orientation is closely re-lated with the high level of need, while ego orientation, the low level of need. SEM shows that female students' goal ori-entation ( task orientation or ego orientation) have mediating effects

  14. Analysis and Research on Haier Group's Website Construction Based on Cybermarketing-orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhao; Yintao, Bao

    At present, many large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises have established their own e-commerce websites. But there are still many shortcomings in the aspects of website constructions of these enterprises, especially can't reflect the value of cybermarketing in full. Haier is one of the world's top 500 enterprises,and its website has distinct advantages and disadvantages, so it is a classic case for studying. During the same time of analyzing and researching Haier's website on cybermarketing- oriented website construction, this paper reveals the subsistent problems of our large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises in this regard, and put forward reasonable countermeasures and advices, which make large-scale and medium-sized enterprises to enhance the cognition of cybermarketing-oriented website construction.

  15. Comparative analysis of the physical readiness athletes of different qualifying groups specializing in run orienteering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himenes K. R.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Confirmed the leading role of physical preparation in the structure of the training process of athletes who specialize in run orienteering. It is shown that more skilled orienteriers (I discharge and CMS had much more significant correlations between indexes of physical preparedness (eight than less-skilled (III-II discharges athletes (three. This suggests that the growth of sportsmanship is associated not only with increasing level of physical preparedness, but also its structure.

  16. Comparative analysis of the physical readiness athletes of different qualifying groups specializing in run orienteering.

    OpenAIRE

    Himenes K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Confirmed the leading role of physical preparation in the structure of the training process of athletes who specialize in run orienteering. It is shown that more skilled orienteriers (I discharge and CMS) had much more significant correlations between indexes of physical preparedness (eight) than less-skilled (III-II discharges) athletes (three). This suggests that the growth of sportsmanship is associated not only with increasing level of physical preparedness, but also its structure.

  17. Comparative analysis of the physical readiness athletes of different qualifying groups specializing in run orienteering

    OpenAIRE

    Хименес, Христина Робертовна

    2011-01-01

    Confirmed the leading role of physical preparation in the structure of the training process of athletes who specialize in run orienteering. It is shown that more skilled orienteriers (I discharge and CMS) had much more significant correlations between indexes of physical preparedness (eight) than less-skilled (III-II discharges) athletes (three). This suggests that the growth of sportsmanship is associated not only with increasing level of physical preparedness, but also its structure.

  18. Understanding academic attitudes and achievement in mexican-origin youths: ethnic identity, other-group orientation, and fatalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Michele R; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L; Hasse, Richard F

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the relationships among ethnic identity, other-group orientation, fatalism, and 2 dependent variables: attitude toward education and school, and grade point average (GPA). Mexican-origin adolescents (N = 222) completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (J. S. Phinney, 1992), the fatalism scale of the Multiphasic Assessment of Cultural Constructs-Short Form (I. Cuellar, B. Arnold, & G. Gonzalez, 1995), and the attitude scale of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory-High School (C. E. Weinstein & D. R. Palmer, 1990a). Other-group orientation was positively related to attitude and GPA, and a negative relationship between fatalism and attitude was demonstrated. No relationship emerged between ethnic identity and the dependent variables.

  19. A study on effect of market orientation and Michael Porter's Five Competitive Forces on performance of Bahman Group

    OpenAIRE

    ahra Mohebi Ashtiani; Sharif karimi

    2016-01-01

    Concept of competitive advantage has a direct linkage with the considered values of the customer, such that the more the supplied values of an organization approach to the considered values of the customer in a comparative range, it can say that the organization outperforms the competitors in one or several competitive criteria. The present research is an applied survey which examines effect of market orientation and Michael Porter's Five Competitive Forces on performance of Bahman Group. ...

  20. The role of individualist and collectivist orientations on self-determined motivation: integrating self-determination theory and group processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rentzelas, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to examine the role of individualism and collectivism as situational group norms on intrinsic motivation. A further aim was to examine the effect of individual differences in individualist and collectivist orientations on the effect of autonomous motivation on intention and behaviour. This research integrated the concept of self-determined and intrinsic motivation as postulated in Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985a, 2000,2002), individualism and coll...

  1. Emotions in Group Work: Insights from an Appraisal-Oriented Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Karen; Wosnitza, Marold; Bürger, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Small group work is common practice in higher education. However, empirical research on students' emotions related to group work is still relatively scarce. Particularly, little is known about students' appraisals of a group task as antecedents of emotions arising in the context of group work. This paper provides a first attempt to systematically…

  2. 航海类高职院校学生专业认同与成就目标定向的关系%Relations between sailing class in higher vocational college students' professional identity and achievement goal orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美廷

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解航海类高职院校学生专业认同的基本情况及与成就目标定向的关系。方法:采用《大学生专业认同问卷》和《大学生成就目标定向量表》对786名航海类高职院校学生进行调查。结果:航海类高职院校学生专业认同总体上处于中等水平,专业认同与成就目标定向的掌握趋近、成绩趋近、社会支持、成绩回避及社会责任五个因子呈显著正相关。%Objective: to know the sailing class basic situation of higher vocational college students' professional identity and the relationship between achievement goal orientation. Methods: the questionnaire of college students' professional identity and the college students' achievement goal orientation scale, investigating 786 students in nautical class of higher vocational colleges. Results: the navigation class in higher vocational colleges students' professional identity, on the whole, in the medium level, professional identity and achievement goal orientation control approach, results have been avoiding approach, social support, and five factors was significantly positively related to social responsibility.

  3. Orientation and Order of the Amide Group of Sphingomyelin in Bilayers Determined by Solid-State NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumori, Nobuaki; Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Maeta, Yoshiko; Murata, Michio

    2015-06-16

    Sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol) are considered essential for the formation of lipid rafts; however, the types of molecular interactions involved in this process, such as intermolecular hydrogen bonding, are not well understood. Since, unlike other phospholipids, SM is characterized by the presence of an amide group, it is essential to determine the orientation of the amide and its order in the lipid bilayers to understand the nature of the hydrogen bonds in lipid rafts. For this study, 1'-(13)C-2-(15)N-labeled and 2'-(13)C-2-(15)N-labeled SMs were prepared, and the rotational-axis direction and order parameters of the SM amide in bilayers were determined based on (13)C and (15)N chemical-shift anisotropies and intramolecular (13)C-(15)N dipole coupling constants. Results revealed that the amide orientation was minimally affected by Chol, whereas the order was enhanced significantly in its presence. Thus, Chol likely promotes the formation of an intermolecular hydrogen-bond network involving the SM amide without significantly changing its orientation, providing a higher order to the SM amide. To our knowledge, this study offers new insight into the significance of the SM amide orientation with regard to molecular recognition in lipid rafts, and therefore provides a deeper understanding of the mechanism of their formation.

  4. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  5. 护理本科生成就目标定向与临床实践行为关系研究%Study on Correlation between Nursing Undergraduates’ Achievement Goal Orientation and Clinical Practice ;Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璐良; 赵琳琳; 王成林; 孙铮

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To know about nursing undergraduates’ achievement goal orientation and clinical practice behavior,so as to probe into the relationship between them.Method:Stratified cluster sampling method was used,BNS’s Clinical Evaluation Tool(CET)and the Achievement Goal Orientation Scale were used for investigation of 180 nursing undergraduates,related data were analyzed by stepwise regression analysis.Result:The total average score of CET was(3.738±0.469). The four scale score of achievement goals orientation were :mastery approach(3.58±0.56), mastery avoidance(3.25±0.72),performance avoidance(2.48±0.76),performance approach(3.53±0.68). The goal orientation of mastery approach was positively correlated with clinical practice behavior. The goal orientation of performance avoidance was negative correlated with clinical practice behavior.Conclusion:Nursing undergraduates’ achievement goal orientation is associated with clinical practice behavior,the achievement goals can forecast clinic practice. In the clinical nursing teaching,teachers should train students’ mastery approach and performance approach goal orientation. And to help nursing students to enhance study motivation,increase learning efficiency and improve their ability of clinical practice.%目的:了解护理本科生成就目标定向与临床实践行为现状,探讨两者之间的关系。方法:采用方便抽样的方法,运用《护理本科生临床实践行为量表》和《成就目标定向量表》对180名护理本科生进行问卷调查,对数据进行相关分析和逐步回归分析。结果:护理本科生临床实践行为总均分为(3.738±0.469)分,成就目标定向的四个量表的得分为:掌握接近(3.58±0.56)分,掌握回避(3.25±0.72)分,成绩接近(3.53±0.68)分,成绩回避(2.48±0.76)分。掌握接近目标定向与临床实践行为呈正相关关系,成绩回避目标与其为负相关关系。结论:护理本

  6. [Social participation processes, task-oriented participation and learning as antecedents of group cohesion. A longitudinal perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo Lahiguera, Carmen; Zornoza Abad, Ana; Peiró Silla, José M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of changes in social participation and task- and learning-oriented processes on the development of cohesion (social and task-focused) in new groups. Cohesion has been considered one of the most important constructs in small groups, and its influence on team performance and efficacy has been highlighted. However, there are few papers that analyze the processes and the variables that precede the construct and that affect its evolution. Results of the longitudinal study show the importance of changes in participation processes on the development of task cohesion and social cohesion.

  7. Investigating the Development of Work-Oriented Groups in an e-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Ping; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated developmental patterns of virtual groups in the e-learning environment. Our findings suggest that for virtual groups formed for the purpose of e-learning, dependency and inclusion characterize the initial stage of group development, as such characteristics reinforce cooperative relationships and help to build a…

  8. An Agent-Based Simulation for Investigating the Impact of Stereotypes on Task-Oriented Group Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mahsa; Sukthankar, Gita

    In this paper, we introduce an agent-based simulation for investigating the impact of social factors on the formation and evolution of task-oriented groups. Task-oriented groups are created explicitly to perform a task, and all members derive benefits from task completion. However, even in cases when all group members act in a way that is locally optimal for task completion, social forces that have mild effects on choice of associates can have a measurable impact on task completion performance. In this paper, we show how our simulation can be used to model the impact of stereotypes on group formation. In our simulation, stereotypes are based on observable features, learned from prior experience, and only affect an agent's link formation preferences. Even without assuming stereotypes affect the agents' willingness or ability to complete tasks, the long-term modifications that stereotypes have on the agents' social network impair the agents' ability to form groups with sufficient diversity of skills, as compared to agents who form links randomly. An interesting finding is that this effect holds even in cases where stereotype preference and skill existence are completely uncorrelated.

  9. A Topic Space Oriented User Group Discovering Scheme in Social Network: A Trust Chain Based Interest Measuring Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, user group has become an effective platform for information sharing and communicating among users in social network sites. In present work, we propose a single topic user group discovering scheme, which includes three phases: topic impact evaluation, interest degree measurement, and trust chain based discovering, to enable selecting influential topic and discovering users into a topic oriented group. Our main works include (1 an overview of proposed scheme and its related definitions; (2 topic space construction method based on topic relatedness clustering and its impact (influence degree and popularity degree evaluation; (3 a trust chain model to take user relation network topological information into account with a strength classification perspective; (4 an interest degree (user explicit and implicit interest degree evaluation method based on trust chain among users; and (5 a topic space oriented user group discovering method to group core users according to their explicit interest degrees and to predict ordinary users under implicit interest and user trust chain. Finally, experimental results are given to explain effectiveness and feasibility of our scheme.

  10. Relationship between Rural Pupils' Achievement Goal Orientation and Test Anxiety%农村小学生成就目标定向与考试焦虑的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡睿

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the status quo and its orientation and test anxiety among rural primary school achievement goals. Methods of Test Anxiety Scale and the achievement goal orientation Scale 270 rural pri-mary school students were investigated. Get data results by analysis of variance, correlation and stepwise regression. The re-sults of test anxiety rural pupils have significant differences in gender;achievement goal orientation was significant differ-ence in the grade. Achievement goal orientation factor in performance avoidance and anxiety, emotional factor was a signifi-cant positive correlation; grasp avoidance and anxiety, emotional factor was a significant positive correlation; grasp ap-proaching and anxiety, emotional factor was significantly negatively correlated. Conclusion achievement goal orientation of each variable on test anxiety has significant predictive effect.%目的:探讨农村小学生成就目标定向现状及其与考试焦虑之间的关系。方法:采用考试焦虑量表和成就目标定向量表对270名农村小学学生进行调查。通过方差分析、相关分析及逐步回归分析得出数据结果。结果:农村小学生考试焦虑在性别有显著性差异,成就目标定向在年级上有显著性差异。成就目标定向因素中的成绩回避与忧虑性、情绪性因子呈显著正相关;掌握回避与忧虑性、情绪性因子呈显著正相关;掌握趋近与忧虑性、情绪性因子呈显著负相关。结论:成就目标定向各变量对考试焦虑有显著的预测效果。

  11. General and Specific Goal Orientations as Correlates of Adult Student Degree Completion: Lessons from the Community College of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jeffrey S.; Smith, Albert B.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined degree completion through the lens of Snyder's hope theory (Snyder, 2000) in an effort to expand the research on student retention from Tinto's sociological theory to a theory that focuses on the psychological orientations that might help explain student success. The study focused on a sample of 443 master sergeants enrolled…

  12. Outcomes of a multimodal cognitive and physical rehabilitation program for persons with mild dementia and their caregivers: a goal-oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Justin Chew, Mei-Sian Chong, Yoke-Leng Fong, Laura Tay Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Geriatrics and Active Ageing, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore Background: Nonpharmacological interventions such as exercise and cognitive rehabilitation programs have shown promise in reducing the impact of dementia on the individual and the caregiver. In this study, we examine the effect of a multimodal cognitive and physical rehabilitation program for persons with mild dementia and their caregivers using conventional measures of cognition, behavior, quality of life (QoL, and caregiver burden together with goal attainment scaling (GAS, an individualized outcome measure.Methods: Goals were set at baseline, and GAS score was calculated at the end of the program. Participants were also assessed with the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination, functional and behavioral scales (Barthel Index, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, QoL, and caregiver burden using EuroQol-five dimension questionnaire and Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI. Differences in median scores postintervention were obtained. Further analysis of caregiver burden was undertaken utilizing the multidimensional classification of burden on the ZBI.Results: Thirty-four (61.8% patients were assessed to have met their goals (GAS score ≥50. Mean (standard deviation GAS score was 48.6 (6.5. Cognition goals were set in only 20.6%, followed by goals to improve engagement and socialization; reduce caregiver stress; and improve physical function, behavior, and mood. Median scores in the cognitive, functional, and QoL measures did not differ significantly pre- and postintervention. The intervention had a positive impact on role strain, a unique dimension of caregiver burden.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that a multimodal approach combining physical exercise and cognitive rehabilitation improves goal attainment and caregiver burden

  13. Influence of Linking Group Orientation on Mesomorphism of Two Aromatic Ring Mesogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Ong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new homologous series of alkyl 4-{[(4-chlorophenylimino]methyl}benzoates were prepared, and all the members are differentiate by the alkoxy chain length, CnH2n+1O, where n=2–7, 9, 11, 13, 15. Their phase transition behaviors and mesophase characteristics were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and optical polarizing microscopy techniques. DSC thermograms show direct isotropization and recrystallization during heating and cooling processes, respectively. The crystal phase changed directly to dark area textures (isotropic phase without displaying any mesophase. The mesomorphic properties of compounds studied are strongly dependent on the orientation of the ester linkage. Reversed ester linkage has caused depression of mesomorphic property in the compounds studied.

  14. Monitoring survey of pulsating giant stars in the Local Group galaxies: survey description, science goals, target selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, E.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th; Khosroshahi, H.; Abedi, A.; Bamber, J.; Hashemi, S. A.; Nikzat, F.; Molaei Nezhad, A.

    2017-06-01

    The population of nearby dwarf galaxies in the Local Group constitutes a complete galactic environment, perfect suited for studying the connection between stellar populations and galaxy evolution. In this study, we are conducting an optical monitoring survey of the majority of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), to identify long period variable stars (LPVs). These stars are at the end points of their evolution and therefore their luminosity can be directly translated into their birth masses; this enables us to reconstruct the star formation history. By the end of the monitoring survey, we will have performed observations over ten epochs, spaced approximately three months apart, and identified long-period, dust-producing AGB stars; five epochs of data have been obtained already. LPVs are also the main source of dust; in combination with Spitzer Space Telescope images at mid-IR wavelengths we will quantify the mass loss, and provide a detailed map of the mass feedback into the interstellar medium. We will also use the amplitudes in different optical passbands to determine the radius variations of the stars, and relate this to their mass loss.

  15. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kauff, Mathias; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2016-01-01

    .... Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification...

  16. Finding Your New Normal: Outcomes of a Wellness-Oriented Psychoeducational Support Group for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Myers, Jane; Barden, Sejal; Clarke, Philip; Weimann, Rochelle; Forti, Allison; Moore-Painter, Terry; Knutson, Tami; Porter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Group interventions have been useful for survivors to overcome the challenges of cancer. This study employed a pre/post, mixed-methods design to explore the influence of an 8-week support group on the holistic wellness of 14 breast cancer survivors. Pairing experiential activities with wellness-centered psychoeducation was viewed positively by…

  17. Finding Your New Normal: Outcomes of a Wellness-Oriented Psychoeducational Support Group for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Myers, Jane; Barden, Sejal; Clarke, Philip; Weimann, Rochelle; Forti, Allison; Moore-Painter, Terry; Knutson, Tami; Porter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Group interventions have been useful for survivors to overcome the challenges of cancer. This study employed a pre/post, mixed-methods design to explore the influence of an 8-week support group on the holistic wellness of 14 breast cancer survivors. Pairing experiential activities with wellness-centered psychoeducation was viewed positively by…

  18. Kidnapping by Terrorist Groups, 1970-2010: Is Ideological Orientation Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, James J. F.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether a terrorist group's ideology has a meaningful impact on its involvement in kidnapping. On a global level, incident data (1970-2010) indicate that in the past decade the number of kidnappings by terrorist groups has increased, while Muslim extremists have replaced left-wing/Marxist revolutionaries as the world's…

  19. Why and when do learning goal orientation and attitude decrease with aging? : The role of perceived remaining time and work centrality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; Zacher, H.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted two studies to improve our understanding of why and when older workers are focused on learning. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, which proposes that goal focus changes with age and the perception of time, we hypothesized and found that older workers perceive their remaining t

  20. Examining Motivational Orientation and Learning Strategies in Computer-Supported Self-Directed Learning (CS-SDL) for Mathematics: The Perspective of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Andrew Chan-Chio; Cheng, Hercy N. H.; Huang, Mark C. L.; Ku, Oskar; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2017-01-01

    One-to-one technology, which allows every student to receive equal access to learning tasks through a personal computing device, has shown increasing potential for self-directed learning in elementary schools. With computer-supported self-directed learning (CS-SDL), students may set their own learning goals through the suggestions of the system…

  1. Charismatic Leadership and Group Learning: Moderating Effect of Group Goal Specificity%魅力型领导与团队学习:团队目标明确度的缓冲效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫申江; 潘陆山

    2011-01-01

    本研究采用分组回归方法,以89支学生研究项目团队作为研究对象,考查魅力型领导与团队学习间的影响关系;并检验了团队目标的明确程度对魅力型领导和团队学习间关系所起的缓冲效应.结果表明,魅力型领导有助于团队学习;另一方面,当团队目标相对明确时,魅力型领导对团队学习的积极影响效应才较为显著;而当团队目标相对不明确时,魅力型领导对团队学习的影响效能则无法有效体现.%Applying multi -step linear regression, this study examines the relation between charismatic leader ship and group learning, and the moderating effect of group goal specificity.Data was collected from a large sample of 89 students' research project groups from a comprehensive university in China.Results show that charismatic leadership is positively associated with group learning when the group has a specific goal.However, there is no significant effect between them without a specific group goal.

  2. 个体创造力的跨层次影响因素:个体目标取向与团队自省%A Multilevel Model of Individual Goal Orientation and Team Reflexivity on Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗瑾琏; 徐振亭; 钟竞

    2016-01-01

    Research on individual creativity form multilevel is increasingly becoming the focus of academia ,especially for its important for team creativity .Based on goal orientation and team reflexivity theory ,this article adopts a multilevel model in w hich team reflexivity are included to examine how individual goal orientation may relate to individual creativity ,espe‐cially adopting team reflexivity .Multi -source data are collected from 364 members and their leaders within 72 R&D teams .The results indicates that the individual learning goal and individual performance approach goal are positively , w hereas the individual performance avoidance goal is negatively ,and relates to individual creativity .Furthermore ,team reflexivity positively moderates the relationship between the individual learning goal ,individual performance approach goal and individual creativity ,and negatively moderates the relationship between the individual performance avoidance goal and individual creativity .%个体创造力是团队成功乃至组织获得竞争优势的源泉,从多个层次综合考察个体创造力的影响因素具有重要意义。基于目标取向理论与个体—情境互动理论,将团队自省纳入个体目标取向对个体创造力影响的研究中。通过对72个研发团队(含364个团队成员)样本的调查分析,得出实证研究结果:个体学习目标取向和绩效证明目标取向都对个体创造力具有显著的正向影响,且团队自省可以显著调节(增强)其对个体创造力的影响作用;个体绩效回避取向对个体创造力具有显著的负向影响,且团队自省可以显著调节(减弱)个体绩效回避取向对个体创造力的影响作用。

  3. [Group psychotherapy with an analytical orientation at the Tlatelolco clinic of neuropsychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Since most of the patients who attend for psychiatric consultation at a clinic are little motivated for psychotherapy, analytic group therapy was attempted, with basis on studies on psychological genetics, on groups management, and on the theories of Freud, Klein and Bion. Several open groups were handled, with the following achievements: 1. A decrease in anxiety, and increase in the objective vision of reality and in increase in the ability to see past and present conflicts. 2. A greater tolerance to agressive and sexual instincts and to frustration. 3. A greater personal acceptance, ability to sublimate productively and elimination of clinical symptoms. Varying degrees of improvement, and lesser need for psychiatric medication and hospitalization were obtained. Several problems were encountered: a) Desertion of 30% of patients from the sessions, due to the disapearance of symptoms buth with no character changes (resistances). b) Temporary absence or habit of arriving late to the sessions (resistances). c) Overwhelming passivity. The groups were handled in cotherapy and the work was supervised with experienced therapists. To attempt solving the above mentioned problems a better selection of patients was made, complete clinical histories were elaborated, a battery of psychological tests was made, and diagnosis, dynamics and prognosis of each case were outlined; this allowed the evaluation of middle and long term treatment. It was suggested to change the technique to that of operative groups.

  4. Lean Management System Based on the Goal-oriented in Jinan Steel%济钢以目标为导向的精益管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐守亮; 邵明志; 郑丽; 朱碧桃; 张雁

    2013-01-01

      结合钢铁市场需求的特点,分析济钢现有的生产经营方式,制定在济钢建立精益管理系统所要达到的目标,并以此目标做出规划路线,提出推行精益管理的实施步骤。%  Combined with characteristic of steel market demand, business pattern of Jinan Steel was analyze and investigated. Based on the lean thinking strategy, the goal of lean management system was established. Planning route for the goal was made, and the implementing step was raised.

  5. Learning Intercultural Communication through Group Work Oriented to the World beyond the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Competence in intercultural communication has become a necessity for functioning effectively in our increasingly globalised and multicultural society. This study reports the use of a group project to enhance students' learning of intercultural communication. Participants were from a large undergraduate class in an Australian university. The aim of…

  6. Cultural Orientations in the United States: (Re)Examining Differences among Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Heather M.; Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in individualism and collectivism between the U.S.'s four largest ethnic groups (African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and European Americans). Surveys of Michigan college students indicated that Asian Americans and African Americans but not Hispanic Americans scored higher in collectivism that did…

  7. Learning Intercultural Communication through Group Work Oriented to the World beyond the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Competence in intercultural communication has become a necessity for functioning effectively in our increasingly globalised and multicultural society. This study reports the use of a group project to enhance students' learning of intercultural communication. Participants were from a large undergraduate class in an Australian university. The aim of…

  8. Organizational commitment leads to employee innovative performance: a moderated effect of goal orientation%组织承诺会导致创新:目标定向的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩翼; 杨百寅; 张鹏程

    2011-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis of survey data from 727 employees and supervisors' dyads supported previous multidimensional constructs among the three - component of organizational commitment and the two - component of goal orientation. Regression analysis found that three organizational commitment components was different which affective commitment (AC) , was positive related to,continuance commitment (CC) was negative correlational, innovative performance, while normative commitment (NC) was not associated with it. Moreover, performance goal orientation moderated the relationship between AC and innovative performance(IP). Yet,learning goal orientation enhanced the relationship between NC and innovative performance as well as the relationship between CC and IP. The objective of this study was to present and demonstrate whether organizational commitment leads to employee innovative performance or not, and examine the moderator of goal orientation between organizational commitment and employee innovative performance.The theoretical, empirical, and practical implications of the findings were discussed.%验证性因素分析显示,组织承诺是一个三维结构,而目标定向是一个二维结构.回归分析发现,感情承诺不仅直接对创新绩效产生影响,当员工表现出成绩目标定向时,这种关系被弱化.另一方面,持续承诺也对创新绩效产生负向影响,并受学习目标定向调节,规范承诺则对创新绩效没有影响.成绩目标定向调节感情承诺和创新绩效之间的关系,但学习目标定向则调节规范承诺和持续承诺与创新绩效之间的关系.本研究的目的是检验组织承诺对员工创新绩效的影响,并探讨目标定向对二者关系的调节作用.文章最后讨论了研究结果的理论、实证和实践的意义.

  9. [Positive psychology orientation: an intervention proposal for group work in mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Patrícia Mendes; Cavalcante Júnior, Francisco Silva

    2009-01-01

    This investigation aims at presenting a positive approach to psychology applied to the field of mental health in the treatment of patients with mental disorders. The intervention here presented was conducted in therapeutic groups with patients from a psychosocial care center (called CAPS). The analysis of the group work was based on three basic concepts: the humanistic approach and its vision of men and the world, the (con)text method of multiple literacies, and positive psychology. Quantitative and qualitative phenomenological research methodologies were used. The research results were divided into categories based on the group work with patients with depression-related disorders. Seeking for a new model of mental health care aimed at preserving the humanistic approach and the rights of the citizen, the Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) emerges as a historical result of the construction of the health/disease concept in order to put into practice the principles guiding the psychiatric reform in Brazil. Within this process, a positive approach to psychology is opening horizons for a practice based on a new view of the subject, emphasizing and developing ' virtuous' aspects like the possibility of achieving health in its broader meaning, together health promotion and the employment of different psychological practices.

  10. 魏晋清谈对口语交际教学目标取向的启示%The Inspirations of Wei - Jin Pure Talk on Oral Communication Teaching Goal-orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宇娇

    2016-01-01

    Teaching has long been neglected oral communication caused no history of oral communication teaching empirical evidence may refer to the situation. In the context of globalization, countries native language educational experiences influence each other, learn from each other, but just far enough nutrition learn from foreign experience teaching development of oral communication. Chinese oral communication teaching to obtain long-term development will have to go back to the ancient culture to absorb nutrients and get inspira⁃tion, such as Wei - Jin pure talk. Identify the" Wei - Jin pure talk in terms of oral communication objectives orientation" and"new standard oral communication teaching goal orientation" meeting point between these two, may help locate contemporary oral communi⁃cation teaching goal-oriented.%长期以来对口语交际教学的忽视造成了我国口语交际教学无历史实证依据可资参考的局面。在全球化的背景下,各国母语教育经验相互影响、相互借鉴,但仅仅是借鉴国外经验远远不够。中国口语交际教学要获得长足发展还得回到古代文化中去汲取营养,比如魏晋清谈。找准“魏晋清谈在口语交际方面的目标取向”和“新课标口语交际教学的目标取向”这二者之间的契合点,或许有助于当代口语交际教学目标取向的定位。

  11. University Students' Emotion During Online Search Task: A Multiple Achievement Goal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming

    2016-07-03

    Endorsing a multiple goal perspective, students' academic emotions were examined with different goal profiles while solving learning tasks online. One hundred and seven Chinese undergraduates were classified based on the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework into three groups: Mastery-approach-focused, Approach-oriented, and Avoidance-oriented group. Participants' emotional states were assessed immediately prior to the task and following the task. Prior to the task, the Avoidance-oriented group reported significantly higher levels of deactivated negative emotion (i.e., bored and confused) than the Approach-oriented group. The Mastery-approach-focused group reported significantly higher levels of activated positive emotions (i.e., excited and eager) than the Avoidance-oriented group after the task. Within each group, all three groups followed a similar emotion change pattern prior versus after the search task in deactivated positive emotion, with a significant increase. In addition, the Mastery-approach-focused group also reported a significantly higher level of happiness after completing the task, whereas the other two groups did not report much change. The Avoidance-oriented group also reported a significant drop in the feeling of excitement, eagerness, anxiety, and nervousness; whereas, the Approach-oriented group reported a significantly higher level of confusion after the task was finished. Implications of the findings are further discussed.

  12. CBM with Goal Setting: Impacting Students' Understanding of Reading Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Kristine D.

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study investigated if goal setting with curriculum-based measurement (CBM) was effective in increasing student awareness of goal knowledge and if students could set realistic daily reading goals. Nineteen 6th and 7th grade students with learning disabilities participated in a goal setting treatment group or a control group. During the…

  13. Global Goals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ The goal of ZTE Corp.,the second largest telecommunications equipment and phone maker in China,has remained simple and unchanged for the past four years,continuing to push further into the European and American markets.

  14. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    in mathematics and Danish-as-a-Mother-Tongue in regard to planning, teaching and assessment. Our research is framed by an explorative design. The informants take part in the research- and development project “Digitally Supported Learning Goals”. In addition to observe teaching, we conduct qualitative interviews...... will be presented. We expect to deepen our understanding of the relations between the various parameters in the teachers' practice in relation to learning goals and goal-oriented teaching. There is conducted research on the effects of goal-oriented teaching on students' learning both internationally......The national curriculum for Danish primary and lower secondary schools has recently changed in a goal-oriented direction. The intention is to increase the teachers´ and students´attention to learning outcome, by making learning goals visible. Danish surveys show that teachers did not use...

  15. Absolute Orientation of Molecules with Competing Hydrophilic Head Groups at the Air/Water Interface Probed with Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wang; Zhi Huang; Zhifeng Cui; Hongfei Wang

    2009-01-01

    The constructive or destructive spectral interference between the molecular groups oriented up and down at the interface in the sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectra provides a direct measurement of the absolute orientation of these molecular groups. This simple approach can be employed to interrogate absolute molecular orientations other than using the complex absolute phase measurement in the SFG studies. We used the -CN group in the p-cyanophenol (PCP) molecule as the internal phase standard, and we measured the phases of the SFG fields of the -CN groups in the 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-benzonitrile (35DMHBN)and 2,6-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-benzonitrile (26DMHBN) at the air/water interface by measuring the SFG spectra of the aqueous surfaces of the mixtures of the PCP, 35DMHBN, and 26DMHBN solutions. The results showed that the 35DMHBN had its -CN group pointing into the aqueous phase; while the 26DMHBN, similar to the PCP, had its -CN group pointing away from the aqueous phase. The tilt angles of the -CN group for both the 35DMHBN and 26DMHBN molecules at the air/water interface were around 25°-45° from the interface normal. These results provided insights on the understanding of the detailed balance of the competing factors, such as solvation of the polar head groups, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic effects, etc., on influencing the absolute molecular orientation at the air/water interface.

  16. Conformational differences between the methoxy groups of QA and QB site ubisemiquinones in bacterial reaction centers: a key role for methoxy group orientation in modulating ubiquinone redox potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Alexander T; O'Malley, Patrick J; Wraight, Colin A; Dikanov, Sergei A

    2013-07-09

    Ubiquinone is an almost universal, membrane-associated redox mediator. Its ability to accept either one or two electrons allows it to function in critical roles in biological electron transport. The redox properties of ubiquinone in vivo are determined by its environment in the binding sites of proteins and by the dihedral angle of each methoxy group relative to the ring plane. This is an attribute unique to ubiquinone among natural quinones and could account for its widespread function with many different redox complexes. In this work, we use the photosynthetic reaction center as a model system for understanding the role of methoxy conformations in determining the redox potential of the ubiquinone/semiquinone couple. Despite the abundance of X-ray crystal structures for the reaction center, quinone site resolution has thus far been too low to provide a reliable measure of the methoxy dihedral angles of the primary and secondary quinones, QA and QB. We performed 2D ESEEM (HYSCORE) on isolated reaction centers with ubiquinones (13)C-labeled at the headgroup methyl and methoxy substituents, and have measured the (13)C isotropic and anisotropic components of the hyperfine tensors. Hyperfine couplings were compared to those derived by DFT calculations as a function of methoxy torsional angle allowing estimation of the methoxy dihedral angles for the semiquinones in the QA and QB sites. Based on this analysis, the orientation of the 2-methoxy groups are distinct in the two sites, with QB more out of plane by 20-25°. This corresponds to an ≈50 meV larger electron affinity for the QB quinone, indicating a substantial contribution to the experimental difference in redox potentials (60-75 mV) of the two quinones. The methods developed here can be readily extended to ubiquinone-binding sites in other protein complexes.

  17. Conformational differences between the methoxy groups of QA and QB site ubisemiquinones in bacterial reaction centers: a key role for methoxy group orientation in modulating ubiquinone redox potential†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Alexander T.; O'Malley, Patrick J.; Wraight, Colin A.; Dikanov, Sergei A.

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquinone is an almost universal, membrane-associated redox mediator. Its ability to accept either one or two electrons allows it to function in critical roles in biological electron transport. The redox properties of ubiquinone in vivo are determined by its environment in the binding sites of proteins and by the dihedral angle of each methoxy group relative to the ring plane. This is an attribute unique to ubiquinone among natural quinones and could account for its widespread function with many different redox complexes. In this work, we use the photosynthetic reaction center as a model system for understanding the role of methoxy conformations in determining the redox potential of the ubiquinone/semiquinone couple. Despite the abundance of X-ray crystal structures for the reaction center, quinone site resolution has thus far been too low to provide a reliable measure of the methoxy dihedral angles of the primary and secondary quinones, QA and QB. We performed 2D ESEEM (HYSCORE) on isolated reaction centers with ubiquinones 13C-labeled at the headgroup methyl and methoxy substituents, and have measured the 13C isotropic and anisotropic components of the hyperfine tensors. Hyperfine couplings were compared to those derived by DFT calculations as a function of methoxy torsional angle allowing estimation of the methoxy dihedral angles for the semiquinones in the QA and QB sites. Based on this analysis, the orientation of the 2-methoxy groups are distinct in the two sites, with QB more out of plane by 20-30°. This corresponds to an ≈50 meV larger electron affinity for the QB quinone, indicating a substantial contribution to the experimental difference in redox potentials (60-75 mV) of the two quinones. The methods developed here can be readily extended to ubiquinone-binding sites in other protein complexes. PMID:23745576

  18. Study on transportation plate energy saving goals of Shenhua group%神华集团运输板块节能目标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑英; 蔡先锋

    2011-01-01

    神华集团的运输板块业务主要包括铁路和港口两部分,运输板块耗能结构主要由一次能源——石油、天然气、煤,以及二次能源——电构成.根据国家节能减排的相关政策、铁道部及交通运输部的相关规划和措施,基于基准情景、低参考情景和高参考情景,研究了神华集团运输板块2015年与2020年两个时间点的节能目标.%Transportation plate of Shenhua group is divided into railway transportation and harbor transportation and the energy consumption is made up of primary engergy including petroleum, nature gas and coal and secondary energy including electrical energy. According to the national policies, plannings and measures involved energy saving and emission reduction, based on the analyses of baseline scenario, the low referance scenario and the high reference scenario, the transportation plate energy saving goals of Shenhua group on 2015 and 2020 are studied.

  19. Research on the Goal Orientation of College Students' In-terpersonal Relationship under the Background of New Media%新媒体背景下的大学生人际关系目标导向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵铮; 张仙智; 余嘉; 聂坤

    2016-01-01

    现在的大学生是伴随着新媒体成长起来的一代,他们的学习、社交、生活都与新媒体紧密结合。本文从新媒体应用角度呈现大学生人际关系的实像,进而探索用主体启迪法、情感认同法、环境塑造法、规范导向法来实现大学生人际关系的目标导向,真正使大学生在新媒体下自我完善发展、人际关系合理和谐。%College students are now growing up with new media, and their learning, social relationship and life are closely inte-grated with the new media. It presents the reality of the interper-sonal relationship of college students from the perspective of new media applications, thus exploring the application of subject en-lightenment, emotional identity, environment building and regu-lation orientation in realizing the goal orientation of college stu-dents' interpersonal relationship, and truly promoting the self-improvement and self-development of college students and the rationality and harmony of their interpersonal relationship under the background of new media.

  20. A study on effect of market orientation and Michael Porter's Five Competitive Forces on performance of Bahman Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahra Mohebi Ashtiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Concept of competitive advantage has a direct linkage with the considered values of the customer, such that the more the supplied values of an organization approach to the considered values of the customer in a comparative range, it can say that the organization outperforms the competitors in one or several competitive criteria. The present research is an applied survey which examines effect of market orientation and Michael Porter's Five Competitive Forces on performance of Bahman Group. The present research is an applied survey in which the questionnaire was used as the data collection instrument. In this research, the indices were detected after studying the books and articles and interviewing with the experts. The research hypotheses were designed based on these criteria. Ultimately, all the hypotheses were confirmed using statistical techniques. After inferential analysis of data which includes significant study on the items of the questionnaire regarding the factors, the study on the relationship between latent and patent variables was considered. The research hypotheses and the modeling for the relationship between dependent and independent variables were confirmed using structural equation method and ultimately all the proposed hypotheses were confirmed.

  1. Goal Orientations and Adolescent Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Tran Dang

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a fundamental educational challenge for adolescents in the United States, and particularly for immigrant youth. The motivation to achieve, especially in mathematics, declines during adolescence. Most of what is known about motivation is based on studies of predominately middle-class White students; yet the influx of immigrants over…

  2. On goal orientation and goal setting theory in the application of table tennis teaching effect%刍议目标定向与目标设置理论在乒乓球教学中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭华彬; 顾平

    2013-01-01

    在乒乓球教学中,提前准确预判落球点与击球点非常重要,这就是教学的关键。本文通过使用逻辑推理与调查分析的方法,以乒乓球教学作为切入点,刍议在乒乓球教学中应用目标定向与目标设置理论,对乒乓球教学中存在学生练习时赢球心切而忽略基本功练习的情况提出相应的解决方法,以培养加强学生的基本功,从而提高学生的乒乓球水平。%In the table tennis teaching, accurate predictions fall ahead of place and the shot is very important, this is the key to teaching. In this paper, by using the method of logic reasoning and investigation analysis, with the table tennis teaching as the breakthrough point, analysis used in table tennis teaching goal orientation and goal setting theory, to win in table tennis teaching existing in the students' practice, and ignore the basic skills practice, and put forward corresponding solutions to problems, to cultivate strengthen student's basic skills, so as to improve the students' level of table tennis.

  3. Social Goals and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.

    2017-01-01

    Students have various social reasons for doing well in school (social-academic goals). However, most studies have focused on competence-oriented achievement goals with little attention paid to social-academic goals. This study aims to examine the role of social-academic goals in students' general well-being (Study 1) and socioemotional functioning…

  4. The Role of Attention in Goal Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Meacham, Kristina A.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the role of attention in goal setting theory, using techniques adapted from selective attention research. Specifically, it explored activation and suppression of goal related information in the presence of two conflicting assigned goals. Pre vs. post goal completion and goal commitment were examined as moderators of these attentional effects. In addition, exploratory analyses looked at the impact of individual differences on attention (goal preference & action-state orient...

  5. Stability and Change in Social Goals as Related to Goal Structures and Engagement in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir

    2017-01-01

    The current studies explored (a) the extended external validity of social-goal-orientation framework; (b) the mediating role of social goals between classroom goal structures and students' engagement; and (c) whether changes in social goals can be explained by classroom goal structures and engagement. Study 1 was cross-sectional (N = 317), and…

  6. The communication orientation model: explaining the diverse effects of sight, sound, and synchronicity on negotiation and group decision-making outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaab, Roderick I; Galinsky, Adam D; Medvec, Victoria; Diermeier, Daniel A

    2012-02-01

    Two quantitative meta-analyses examined how the presence of visual channels, vocal channels, and synchronicity influences the quality of outcomes in negotiations and group decision making. A qualitative review of the literature found that the effects of communication channels vary widely and that existing theories do not sufficiently account for these contradictory findings. To parsimoniously encompass the full range of existing data, the authors created the communication orientation model, which proposes that the impact of communication channels is shaped by communicators' orientations to cooperate or not. Two meta-analyses-conducted separately for negotiations and decision making-provide strong support for this model. Overall, the presence of communication channels (a) increased the achievement of high-quality outcomes for communicators with a neutral orientation, (b) did not affect the outcomes for communicators with a cooperative orientation, but (c) hurt communicators' outcomes with a noncooperative orientation. Tests of cross-cultural differences in each meta-analysis further supported the model: for those with a neutral orientation, the beneficial effects of communication channels were weaker within East Asian cultures (i.e., Interdependent and therefore more predisposed towards cooperation) than within Western cultures (i.e., Independent).

  7. A review of research on smoking behavior in three demographic groups of veterans: women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Esan, Hannah; Hunt, Marcia G; Hoff, Rani A

    2016-05-01

    Veterans comprise a large segment of the U.S. population and smoke at high rates. One significant way to reduce healthcare costs and improve the health of veterans is to reduce smoking-related illnesses for smokers who have high smoking rates and/or face disproportionate smoking consequences (e.g. women, racial/ethnic minorities, sexual orientation minorities). We reviewed published studies of smoking behavior in three demographic subgroups of veterans - women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minorities - to synthesize current knowledge and identify areas in need of more research. A MEDLINE search identified papers on smoking and veterans published through 31 December 2014. Twenty-five studies were identified that focused on gender (n = 17), race/ethnicity (n = 6), or sexual orientation (n = 2). Female and sexual orientation minority veterans reported higher rates of smoking than non-veteran women and sexual orientation majority veterans, respectively. Veterans appeared to be offered VA smoking cessation services equally by gender and race. Few studies examined smoking behavior by race/ethnicity or sexual orientation. Little information was identified examining the outcomes of specific smoking treatments for any group. There is a need for more research on all aspects of smoking and quit behavior for women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minority veterans. The high rates of smoking by these groups of veterans suggest that they may benefit from motivational interventions aimed at increasing quit attempts and longer and more intense treatments to maximize outcomes. Learning more about these veterans can help reduce costs for those who experience greater consequences of smoking.

  8. Self assembled films of porphyrins with amine groups at different positions: influence of their orientation on the corrosion inhibition and the electrocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokesh, Koodlur Sannegowda; De Keersmaecker, Michel; Adriaens, Annemie

    2012-06-26

    Self-assembled molecular films of two cobalt porphyrins with amine groups at different positions-(5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2-aminophenyl) porphyrin-cobalt(II), [Co(II) (T(o-NH(2))PP)] and (5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-aminophenyl) porphyrin-cobalt(II), [Co(II)(T(p-NH(2))PP)]-were formed on a gold substrate. The functionalized surfaces were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrochemical methods. Both modified gold surfaces completely mask the charge transfer of a [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) redox couple in solution, indicating the layer is highly resistive in behavior. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses revealed that the porphyrin film with amine groups at ortho positions shows a higher charge-transfer resistance with a better protective behavior compared to the para position modified surface. Raman, AFM and EIS data suggests that an ortho amine positioned molecule forms a more compact layer compared to the para-positioned molecule. This can be explained in terms of their orientation on the gold surface. [Co(II)(T(o-NH(2))PP)] adopted a saddle shape orientation whereas [Co(II)(T(p-NH(2))PP)] adopted a flat orientation on the gold surface. The porphyrin modified gold electrode catalyzes the oxygen reduction at lower potentials compared to the bare gold electrode. The shift in the overvoltage was higher in case of molecules with flat orientation compared to the saddle shaped oriented porphyrin molecules on the surface.

  9. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.” Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc. Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page. Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark. Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create. Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  10. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.”Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc.Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page.Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark.Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create.Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  11. Goal-oriented decomposition study of the airport safety and security based on the risk management%基于风险管理的机场安全目标分解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永刚; 王一苇

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is aimed to introduce our goal-oriented decomposition study of the airport safety and security management based on the hazardous risk control. The so-called decomposition method does not take the airport framework and comprehensive risk management as its safety goal at all levels. Rather it is unrelated with the real situation of airport operation. Therefore, what we have pro- posed is to analyze the airport operational safety-ensurence activities, and then classify the airport safety-ensurence system into Gve systems, that is, the flight safety ensuring system, the airfield safety ensuring system, the air defense area safety ensuring system, the emergency rescue ensuring system as well as the command and coordination ensuring system. According to Heinrich and his law, before a serious accident takes place, there ought to have been 29 accidents and 300 errors that ought to have happened. It is for this reason that we need to set a personnel safety target in order to restrain or prevent all the managerial links from doing wrongs. As far as the safety goal items are concerned, the factors that may affect safety or influence the safety of each goal item in each grass-root department are to be established as the definite goal. And, for this, it should be made as a firm rule for each department in charge to find out or to detect the factors affecting safety according the risk management and accident-causing theory. And, therefore, what we need to do is to find out hazards as many as possible by using the risk management method, and make clear all the likely reasons that may lead to the accident so that the factor should be set up as the safety goal item. Starting from the above research perspective, we have decomposed the total safety goals into five specific targets according to the above said five safety ensuring systems. That is, we have set the safety-ensuring goals according to the likely-to-happen risks by means of risk management and accident

  12. 成就目标定向对学习倦怠的影响:学业自我效能的中介作用%Goal Orientation and Burnout: The Mediating Effects of Academic Self-efficacy among Junior High School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雷山; 高峰强; 王鹏; 陈英敏

    2012-01-01

    Goal orientation is emerging as a useful construct for understanding how people develop, attain or demonstrate competence in learning and performance. It is generally accepted that goal orientation comprises three factors - learning, performance approach, and performance avoidance orientations. At present, there appears to be widespread agreement on performance avoidance goals and learning goals. But, there is disagreement among achievement goal theories regarding the beneficial or inimical nature of performance-approach goals. Goal orientation, or the way in which people approach a task, represents a key motivational variable related to selection, training, and evaluation. It has received a considerable amount of research interest. Although it is still in a relatively early stage, the accumulating evidence presents an emerging picture of the nature of goal orientation, its relationship with conceptually similar variables, and how it influences learning and performance. Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and diminished personal accomplishment that occurs among people in professions that deal with people. Although burnout has generally been regarded as a work related disorder, it may also occur in the school context. A school is a setting in which students work: students attend classes and do assignments in order to pass exams and obtain a degree. Student burnout can be defined as consisting of exhaustion due to school demands, cynical, and detached attitude toward one's school, and feelings of inadequacy as a student. Understanding the factors that influence people burnout has been a popular topic in psychological research in the last few decades. Self-efficacy belief has received increasing attention in educational research. In order to examine and investigate the mediating effects of academic self-efficacy on the relationship between goal orientation and student burnout, 1139 students were randomly chosen as subjects. SEM results

  13. Sexual Orientation-Based Disparities in School and Juvenile Justice Discipline: A Multiple Group Comparison of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Chong, Eddie S. K.

    2016-01-01

    There is little data on whether school discipline or juvenile justice sanctions are directed disproportionately toward sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; LGBQ) compared with heterosexual youth and even less on factors that may relate to such disparities. We tested for sexual orientation-based disparities in school…

  14. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M.; Groen, Y.; Wijers, A. A.; Noltes, H.; Tucha, O.; Hoekstra, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the i

  15. Sexual Orientation-Based Disparities in School and Juvenile Justice Discipline: A Multiple Group Comparison of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Chong, Eddie S. K.

    2016-01-01

    There is little data on whether school discipline or juvenile justice sanctions are directed disproportionately toward sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; LGBQ) compared with heterosexual youth and even less on factors that may relate to such disparities. We tested for sexual orientation-based disparities in school…

  16. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M.; Groen, Y.; Wijers, A. A.; Noltes, H.; Tucha, O.; Hoekstra, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the

  17. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  18. Adsorption and hydrogenation of simple alkenes at Pt-group metal electrodes studied by DEMS: influence of the crystal orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ulrich; Schmiemann, Udo; Dülberg, Andreas; Baltruschat, Helmut

    1995-07-01

    The adsorption of ethene and cyclohexene on mono-and polycrystalline Pt and on polycrystalline Pd electrodes was studied using differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS). Both molecules are partially hydrated to an oxygen containing species upon adsorption on Pt. In the case of ethene, this species dissociated to methane and adsorbed CO at negative potentials. Another part of the adsorbed ethene can be cathodically desorbed as ethane and butane. The ratio of the various species formed strongly depends on crystal orientation and adsorption potential. Contrary to heterogenous gas phase hydrogenation (and also contrary to some earlier reports on electrochemical hydrogenation), the rate of the Faradaic hydrogenation reaction is also strongly dependent on the crystallographic orientation, being faster on Pt(110) or roughened surfaces. During hydrogenation, H/D exchange occurs to an appreciable degree, suggesting the participation of adsorbed intermediates.

  19. Energies and 2'-Hydroxyl Group Orientations of RNA Backbone Conformations. Benchmark CCSD(T)/CBS Database, Electronic Analysis, and Assessment of DFT Methods and MD Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mládek, Arnošt; Banáš, Pavel; Jurečka, Petr; Otyepka, Michal; Zgarbová, Marie; Šponer, Jiří

    2014-01-14

    Sugar-phosphate backbone is an electronically complex molecular segment imparting RNA molecules high flexibility and architectonic heterogeneity necessary for their biological functions. The structural variability of RNA molecules is amplified by the presence of the 2'-hydroxyl group, capable of forming multitude of intra- and intermolecular interactions. Bioinformatics studies based on X-ray structure database revealed that RNA backbone samples at least 46 substates known as rotameric families. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of RNA backbone conformational preferences and 2'-hydroxyl group orientations. First, we create a benchmark database of estimated CCSD(T)/CBS relative energies of all rotameric families and test performance of dispersion-corrected DFT-D3 methods and molecular mechanics in vacuum and in continuum solvent. The performance of the DFT-D3 methods is in general quite satisfactory. The B-LYP-D3 method provides the best trade-off between accuracy and computational demands. B3-LYP-D3 slightly outperforms the new PW6B95-D3 and MPW1B95-D3 and is the second most accurate density functional of the study. The best agreement with CCSD(T)/CBS is provided by DSD-B-LYP-D3 double-hybrid functional, although its large-scale applications may be limited by high computational costs. Molecular mechanics does not reproduce the fine energy differences between the RNA backbone substates. We also demonstrate that the differences in the magnitude of the hyperconjugation effect do not correlate with the energy ranking of the backbone conformations. Further, we investigated the 2'-hydroxyl group orientation preferences. For all families, we conducted a QM and MM hydroxyl group rigid scan in gas phase and solvent. We then carried out set of explicit solvent MD simulations of folded RNAs and analyze 2'-hydroxyl group orientations of different backbone families in MD. The solvent energy profiles determined primarily by the sugar pucker match well with the

  20. Self Assembled Films of Porphyrins with Amine Groups at Different Positions: Influence of Their Orientation on the Corrosion Inhibition and the Electrocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koodlur Sannegowda Lokesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembled molecular films of two cobalt porphyrins with amine groups at different positions—(5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2-aminophenyl porphyrin-cobalt(II, [Co(II (T(o-NH2PP] and (5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-aminophenyl porphyrin-cobalt(II, [Co(II(T(p-NH2PP]—were formed on a gold substrate. The functionalized surfaces were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrochemical methods. Both modified gold surfaces completely mask the charge transfer of a [Fe(CN6]3−/4− redox couple in solution, indicating the layer is highly resistive in behavior. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses revealed that the porphyrin film with amine groups at ortho positions shows a higher charge-transfer resistance with a better protective behavior compared to the para position modified surface. Raman, AFM and EIS data suggests that an ortho amine positioned molecule forms a more compact layer compared to the para-positioned molecule. This can be explained in terms of their orientation on the gold surface. [Co(II(T(o-NH2PP] adopted a saddle shape orientation whereas [Co(II(T(p-NH2PP] adopted a flat orientation on the gold surface. The porphyrin modified gold electrode catalyzes the oxygen reduction at lower potentials compared to the bare gold electrode. The shift in the overvoltage was higher in case of molecules with flat orientation compared to the saddle shaped oriented porphyrin molecules on the surface.

  1. 基于职业经理人目标导向的酒店管理本科人才培养模式创新研究%Study on Professional Manager Goal Oriented Undergraduate Hotel Management Talents Training Mode Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮平凡; 黄燕; 肖璇

    2014-01-01

    酒店管理本科教育发展的关键在于准确定位和创新机制。本文提出了基于职业经理人目标导向的酒店管理本科人才培养创新模式,即确立职业经理人的培养目标,遵循市场化、国际化和应用型的价值导向,以案例教学为主线的启发式教学、以实习实训为支点的实践教学、以职业养成教育为核心的第二课堂的教学模式,加强学科体系、产学研协同创新体系,师资体系和教学管理体系的保障,探索酒店管理本科人才培养的新途径。%The key for the development of undergraduate education for hotel management is accurate positioning and innovative mechanism. In this paper, the professional manager goal-oriented undergraduate hotel management training innovative mode is proposed, that is, to establish training objectives of professional managers, to follow the market, internationalization and application-based value guidance, case-based teaching heuristic teaching line, practice teaching with practical training as a fulcrum to develop vocational education as the core of the second classroom teaching model, strengthening discipline system, security research collaborative innovation system, teacher management system and teaching system, to explore the hotel management undergraduate training new ways.

  2. Psychological Capital,Goal Orientation and Innovation Behavior——The Effects in Organizational Innovation Climate%心理资本、目标取向与创新行为——组织创新氛围下的两层次多效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄美荣; 朱永跃; 庄晋财; 郭本海

    2015-01-01

    Combining the perspectives of individual level and organizational level, the paper analyzes the interactive effect of organizational innovation climate, phychological capital and goal orientation on innovation behavior. Results show that, or-ganizational innovation climate has positivly and significantly effects on innovation behavior;phychological capital has signifi-cant mediating effect between organizational innovation climate and innovation behavior;prove goal orientation which is media-ted by psychological capital, has negative moderating effect on the ralationship of organizational innovation climate and innova-tion behavior, and which is same to avoid goal orientation;leaning goal orientation's moderating effect is not significant.%基于个体层次和组织层次的双重视角研究心理资本、目标取向在组织创新氛围下对创新行为的影响. 通过368名在职员工的数据分析表明:组织创新氛围与个体创新行为呈显著正相关关系;心理资本在此关系中起完全中介作用;证明目标取向和回避目标取向在此关系中通过心理资本起反向调节作用;学习目标取向的调节作用没有得到验证.

  3. Power in group contexts: the influence of group status on promotion and prevention decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Daan; Ellemers, Naomi; Sassenberg, Kai

    2013-06-01

    This research examines how group status affects the impact of individual power positions on promotion versus prevention choices in group decision making. We consider that high power not only implies control, but also indicates responsibility for the achievement of group goals. We argue that the nature of these goals depends on the current status of the group. In Experiment 1, individuals who were accorded high power showed more promotion-oriented decisions in the low group status condition while decisions were more prevention oriented under high group status. Experiment 2 replicated these effects, and further demonstrated that they only emerge when those in power are explicitly made accountable for the achievement of group goals. These results are discussed in relation to regulatory focus theory, power theories, and the role of social identities and group goals in group dynamics.

  4. Goal Reasoning for an Autonomous Squad Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    2015 Annual Conference on Advances in Cognitive Systems: Workshop on Goal Reasoning Goal Reasoning for an Autonomous Squad Member Kellen...20375 USA Abstract Autonomous agents are beginning to play larger roles within team-oriented tasks and missions in various domains. Many reasoning ...present a goal reasoning system for this agent that integrates natural language processing, explanation generation, and plan recognition components

  5. Competition and achievement goals in work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemeier, H.; Bittner, Jenny V.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how competition within teams influences which type of achievement goals employees adopt. We studied how dispositional learning-goal and performance-goal orientation interact with team-level competition and predict whether team members adopt state learning or performance achieveme

  6. 学习目标取向对员工创造力的影响机制研究:积极心境和领导成员交换的作用%The Effect of Learning-goal Orientation on Employee Creativity: The Roles of Positive Mood and Leader-member Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王端旭; 赵轶

    2011-01-01

    Employee's learning-goal orientation is an important factor considered in organizational creativity research and practice.Using the data from 248 employees,we try to examine the effect of learning-goal orientation on employee creativity based on achievement motivation theory,and explore the mechanism through which learning-goal orientation influence employee creativity applying mood theory.We also try to find the difference in relationship between learning-goal orientation and employee creativity in different context.The result shows that ① learning-goal orientation positively predicts employee creativity;② positive mood partially mediates the effect of learning-goal orientation on employee creativity;③ leader-member exchange positively moderates the relation between learning-goal orientation and employee creativity.Finally,we discuss the theoretical contributions and practical implications of this study,and point out the research direction in the future.%员工的学习目标取向是组织创造力研究与实践中备受关注的重要因素。通过对248名企业员工进行问卷调查,从成就动机理论出发,实证检验学习目标取向对员工创造力的影响;应用心境理论,揭示学习目标取向对员工创造力的作用机制;应用领导成员交换理论,探究学习目标取向与员工创造力的关系在不同情境下的差异性。结果表明:①学习目标取向正向预测员工创造力;②积极心境部分中介学习目标取向对员工创造力的作用;③领导成员交换显著正向调节学习目标取向与员工创造力的关系。最后讨论了研究结果的理论和实践意义并指出未来的研究方向。

  7. 成就目标定向对选修篮球技能学习及自尊影响的实验研究%Experimental Research on the Influence of Achievement Goal Orientation to Elective Basketball Skill Learning and Self-esteem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷明光; 梁建秀

    2014-01-01

    Through using the method of literature review,questionnaire survey,mathematical statistics,the effects of achievement goal orientation on basketball skills were studied.The results showed that high low self-goal orientation can effectively improve the teaching effect and basketball skills.Therefore,teachers should use the theory of goal orientation,establish reasonable goals achievement evaluation system,task goal orientation on students to correct guidance,to establish a reasonable performance appraisal system,encouraging students to set a task oriented goals,to create a task oriented climate,the goal orientation theory combined with teaching,improve students'the body self-esteem,so as to improve their learning efficiency,and provides the reference for the various teaching methods of physical education.%通过文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法等方法,对成就目标定向对篮球技能学习的影响进行了研究,结果表明:高任务低自我的目标定向能有效地提高其教学效果和篮球技能水平。因此,教师应运用目标定向理论,建立合理的阶段目标成绩评定体系,对学生的任务目标定向进行正确的引导,建立合理的成绩考核体系,多鼓励学生设置任务定向的目标,营造一种高任务定向的气氛,把目标定向理论结合教学,提高学生的身体自尊,从而提高他们的学习效率,为以后的体育专业教学手段的多样化提供参考。

  8. 以学生职业可持续发展为目标导向的大学生心理健康教育目标体系%On the Goal System of College Students' Psychological Health Education Oriented by the Sustainable Develop-ment of Students' Careers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳华

    2014-01-01

    To improve the psychological quality of college stu-dents is the ultimate goal of mental health education. Only to es-tablish a goal system of college students' psychological health ed-ucation oriented by the sustainable development of students' ca-reers can help scientifically implement the psychological health education of college students. To establish a goal system of col-lege students' psychological health education oriented by the sustainable development of students' careers, there must be a scientific basis, and a goal system including the overall goals and specific goals should be formed.%提高大学生心理素质是心理健康教育工作的终极目标。只有构建以学生职业可持续发展为目标导向的大学生心理健康教育目标体系,才能科学地开展大学生心理健康教育工作。构建以学生职业可持续发展为目标导向的大学生心理健康教育目标体系,必须有科学的依据,并形成一套由总目标和具体目标构成的目标体系。

  9. 基于目标导向的矿业城市新型城镇化风险识别%Risk identification in the process of new type urbanization of mining cities based on goal-orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海滨; 曹丽

    2016-01-01

    文章采用基于目标导向的风险识别方法,在总结与分析新型城镇化、资源型城市转型发展、资源型城市可持续发展等评价指标体系的基础上,对矿业城市的新型城镇化建设过程进行风险识别,辨识出了经济风险、社会风险、政治风险、生态风险等四大类风险,共包括41项风险因素,运用德尔菲法进行确认,构建了矿业城市新型城镇化建设风险因素体系。通过调查问卷的形式进行实证分析,并对调查的数据进行了探索性检验与验证性检验,剔除了6个影响量表信度与效度的因素,最终保留了35项风险因素,作为矿业城市新型城镇化建设的风险识别因素。%The article identifies the risks in the process of new urbanization of mining cities ,based on the goal oriented risk identification method and Delphi method ,according to the evaluation index systems of new type of urbanization ,transformation development of resources city and sustainable development of the resources city .To identify four kinds of risks including economic risk ,social risk ,political risk and ecological risk ,consists of 41 risk factors ,constructing the system of risk factors of new urbanization construction of the mining city .The article takes empirical analysis in the form of the questionnaire ,and the data of investigation has carried on the exploratory test and verification test ,excluding 6 factors that influence the reliability and validity of the scale ,finally retained 35 risk factors ,as the risk identification factors of new urbanization construction of mining cities .

  10. 面向目标和RBAC的项目团队成员知识需求分析%Knowledge Requirement Analysis of Project Team Member Based on Goal-oriented and RBAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞涟; 刘尚; 颜红艳; 王燕

    2014-01-01

    对建设工程项目团队知识需求进行分析,可以在项目团队知识学习过程中确切掌握项目团队需要学习的知识,从而提高知识学习效率和项目管理绩效。结合建设项目团队知识学习的特点,对建设项目团队知识需求的内涵、作用及特点做详细阐述;然后从内部因素和外部因素两个方面分析建设项目团队知识需求影响因素,项目团队成员知识需求分析是项目团队知识需求分析的基础;最后,运用角色与目标注册元模型、基于角色的访问控制方法(RBAC)对项目团队成员知识需求进行分析,并以某电站项目的商务助理岗位进行案例分析。%Knowledge requirement analysis of construction project team can filter non -essential knowledge in the process of project team knowledge learning,thereby it can improve the efficiency of knowledge and project management performance.In this paper,under the characteristics of construction project team knowledge learning,knowledge of the meaning,effect and characteristics of the construction project team knowledge requirement were made a detailed exposi-tion.Then from both internal and external factors,affecting factors of construction project team knowledge requirement were analyzed.Knowledge requirement analysis of construction project team member is the basis of requirement analysis of team.Finally,the role and goal registration meta-model,role-oriented access control model were used to analyze knowledge requirement of construction project team member,and a case study was carried out about a business assistant position of power plant project.

  11. Achievement Goal Orientation and to Improve the Study of the Correlation of College Students'Interest in Learning Volleyball%成就目标与提高大学生排球学习兴趣的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚岩

    2015-01-01

    排球课在全国各地高校的选修课中被广泛开展,本着其活动的多样性和广泛的群众性特点深受学生们的喜爱。近些年,在学生排球运动基础较差,部分教师教学教法的陈旧等因素的影响下,学生学习排球的兴趣呈下降趋势。本文将目标定向理论运用于排球教学课中,结合排球运动的规律及特点,使学生在排球教学课的学习过程中加深对技术动作的理解与应用,学生的学习成果能够得到及时反馈。把相应的评价体系建立在教学过程中,使大学生学习排球的兴趣有所提升。%Volleyball course in colleges and universities across the country are electives were extensively devel -oped, and in line with the characteristics of the diversity of its activities and extensive mass was deeply loved by the students .In recent years , in the student volleyball foundation is bad , some teachers'teaching law under the influ-ence of such factors as the old , students'interest in learning volleyball is on the decline .This article goal orienta-tion theory in volleyball lesson , combined with the rule and characteristics of volleyball movement , so that the students in the process of learning volleyball lesson to deepen the understanding and application of technical ac -tions, the students'learning outcomes can get timely feedback .To establish the corresponding evaluation system in the process of teaching , improve college students'interest in learning volleyball .

  12. Effect of goal orientation in team on innovative climate and innovation performance%团队中的目标取向对创新气氛与创新绩效影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文勤; 王瑛

    2011-01-01

    Effective teams are important cornerstones of successful organizations, especially for those organization operating in dynamic environments.Based on the preliminary conclusions derived from the research on the Goal Orientation (GO) theory, a theoretical model in which the team climate (TC) were included is proposed to examine the relationship between the GO and innovation performance.Seventy teams including 70 team leaders and 352 team members are investigated.Empirical results show that the dimensions of team GO and leader GO have different effect on the team innovation performance, and TC play a partially mediative role on this effect; team learning GO and leader avoiding failure GO have cross - effect on the innovation performance.Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.%当代企业的发展越来越依赖于创新型员工与创新型团队,影响团队创新绩效的主要因素一直是研究者关注的热点.本文以企业中的工作团队为研究对象,将团队创新气氛因素纳入到团队层次目标取向对创新绩效影响的研究中.通过对70个团队样本(70个团队主管,352个团队成员)的调查分析,得出实证研究结果:团队目标取向与主管目标取向的各维度对团队创新绩效会产生不同的影响,团队创新气氛在该影响过程中扮演了部分中介功能;团队学习目标取向与主管回避失败取向对团队创新绩效具有交互作用.最后讨论了本研究的结论、局限性及展望.

  13. Individuals in mind, mates by heart : Individualistic self-construal and collective value orientation as predictors of group creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechtoldt, Myriam N.; Choi, Hoon-Seok; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that groups with individualistic norms are more creative than groups with collectivistic norms (Goncalo &. Staw, 2006). This conclusion, however, may be too unspecific, as individualism-collectivism denotes a multidimensional continuum and may affect people's self-construal and va

  14. 成就目标导向、团队绩效控制对员工创造力的跨层次影响%A Cross-level Analysis of Achievement Goal Orientation and Performance Control on Team Member’s Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马君; 张昊民; 杨涛

    2015-01-01

    In the critical period of innovation-driven development and transformation, employee creativity is regarded as an important source of competitive advantage, and organizations are increasingly seeking innovative ways to foster individual creativity. Against this background, managers are facing the dual challenges, not only to identify employees with creativity potential, but also managing team context to render it more conducive to individual employee creativity. Hence, organizational researchers had devoted great attention to uncovering variables that influence employee creativity both on individual level and on team level. Previous researches have revealed strong links between achievement goal orientation and employee creativity, however the empirical studies show mixed results and this relationship has remained ambiguous and contested. For example, it is uncertain whether there is always a positive relationship between mastery goal orientation and creativity in different team contexts, and whether there is always a negative relationship between performance goal orientation and creativity under any circumstances. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework about the cross-level influences of individual goal orientation and the team context on team member’s creativity. Adopting a cross-level approach, we examined how achievement goal orientation may relate to individual creativity in different team contexts. Multi-source data were collected from 540 members within 54 R&D teams. Although both individual differences in dispositions and team context play important roles in the creative process, person-in-situation approaches that account for their interactive influences are still in development. Our study also enriches and extends the nonlinear cross-level approach in organizational behavior research, providing further evidence for the promise of this approach. The results are as follows: firstly, mastery goal orientation is positively related to creativity

  15. 基层公务员目标导向对工作绩效的影响机制研究%Mechanism of Goal Orientation Influence on Working Performance for Grass-root Civil Servants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄清娟

    2014-01-01

    基层公务员的学习导向对工作绩效有显著正向影响;基层公务员表现导向越强或领导权威越低,学习导向对工作绩效的正向影响越强;高学习导向或高工作经验情况下,表现导向对工作绩效呈显著正向影响。%The learning orientation of grass-root civil servants strongly and positively affects their working per-formance.Stronger performance orientation or lower authoritative leadership will result in more positive influence, and the relationship of performance orientation and working performance is significantly positive for individuals with high learning orientation or high working experience.

  16. "Leaders," "Followers" and Collective Group Support in Learning "Art Music" in an Amateur Composer-Oriented Bach Choir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sigrun Lilja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how amateur choral singers experience collective group support as a method of learning "art music" choral work. Findings are derived from a grounded-theory based, socio-musical case study of an amateur "art music" Bach Choir, in the process of rehearsing and performing the Mass in B…

  17. "Leaders," "Followers" and Collective Group Support in Learning "Art Music" in an Amateur Composer-Oriented Bach Choir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sigrun Lilja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how amateur choral singers experience collective group support as a method of learning "art music" choral work. Findings are derived from a grounded-theory based, socio-musical case study of an amateur "art music" Bach Choir, in the process of rehearsing and performing the Mass in B…

  18. How Select Groups of Preservice Science Teachers with Inquiry Orientations View Teaching and Learning Science through Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Peggy

    Although hailed as a powerful form of instruction, in most teaching and learning contexts, inquiry-based instruction is fraught with ambiguous and conflicting definitions and descriptions. Yet little has been written about the experiences preservice science teacher have regarding their learning to teach science through inquiry. This project sought to understand how select preservice secondary science teachers enrolled in three UTeach programs in Arkansas conceptualize inquiry instruction and how they rationalize its value in a teaching and learning context. The three teacher education programs investigated in this study are adoption sites aligned with the UTeach Program in Austin, TX that distinguishes itself in part by its inquiry emphasis. Using a mixed method investigation design, this study utilized two sources of data to explore the preservice science teachers' thinking. In the first phase, a modified version of the Pedagogy of Science teaching Tests (POSTT) was used to identify select program participants who indicated preferences for inquiry instruction over other instructional strategies. Secondly, the study used an open-ended questionnaire to explore the selected subjects' beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning science in an inquiry context. The study also focused on identifying particular junctures in the prospective science teachers' education preparation that might impact their understanding about inquiry. Using a constant comparative approach, this study explored 19 preservice science teachers' conceptions about inquiry. The results indicate that across all levels of instruction, the prospective teachers tended to have strong student-centered teaching orientations. Except subjects in for the earliest courses, subjects' definitions and descriptions of inquiry tended toward a few of the science practices. More advanced subjects, however, expressed more in-depth descriptions. Excluding the subjects who have completed the program, multiple

  19. Stepwise positional-orientational order and the multicritical-multistructural global phase diagram of the s=3/2 Ising model from renormalization-group theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Çağın; Renklioğlu, Başak; Keskin, Mustafa; Berker, A Nihat

    2016-06-01

    The spin-3/2 Ising model, with nearest-neighbor interactions only, is the prototypical system with two different ordering species, with concentrations regulated by a chemical potential. Its global phase diagram, obtained in d=3 by renormalization-group theory in the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation or equivalently as an exact solution of a d=3 hierarchical lattice, with flows subtended by 40 different fixed points, presents a very rich structure containing eight different ordered and disordered phases, with more than 14 different types of phase diagrams in temperature and chemical potential. It exhibits phases with orientational and/or positional order. It also exhibits quintuple phase transition reentrances. Universality of critical exponents is conserved across different renormalization-group flow basins via redundant fixed points. One of the phase diagrams contains a plastic crystal sequence, with positional and orientational ordering encountered consecutively as temperature is lowered. The global phase diagram also contains double critical points, first-order and critical lines between two ordered phases, critical end points, usual and unusual (inverted) bicritical points, tricritical points, multiple tetracritical points, and zero-temperature criticality and bicriticality. The four-state Potts permutation-symmetric subspace is contained in this model.

  20. Change in basic motor abilities, quality of movement and everyday activities following intensive, goal-directed, activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting for children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kaale Helga K; Moe-Nilssen Rolf; Sorsdahl Anne; Rieber Jannike; Strand Liv

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The effects of intensive training for children with cerebral palsy (CP) remain uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact on motor function, quality of movements and everyday activities of three hours of goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting, five days a week for a period of three weeks. Methods A repeated measures design was applied with three baseline and two follow up assessments; immediately and three weeks after interventio...

  1. Study on goal orientation multi-dynamic "KSCQ" the personnel training model --A case study of Tianjin University of Technology and Education%目标导向的多元动态“KSCQ”人才培养模式研究——以天津职业技术师范大学应用心理学专业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐大真; 陈祥新; 朱程程

    2012-01-01

    在调查研究的基础上,依据目标导向理论,确立KSCQ(知识、技能、特色、质量)人才培养目标,其中的行为目标导向教师,生成性目标导向学生,表现性目标导向社会;强调以学生为本,注重专业设置和教学内容的本土化,构建了由学科基础模块、专业方向模块、技能拓展模块3部分课程体系构成的多元化人才培养体系;采用行动研究方法,根据社会需求预测进行动态化专业方向调整,以提高应用心理学人才培养质量。%On the basis of the research, according to the goal-oriented theory, KSCQ (knowledge,skills, characteristics, quality )personnel training objectives is established, in which the behavioral goals orient teachers, generative goals orient students, performance goals orient society; and emphasize student-centeredness ,focusing on professional settings and teaching content localization, constructed by the disciplinary foundation module, professional direction module, skills development module three-part curriculum system constitutes a diversified personnel training system; by using action research methods, according to the needs of society predicts dynamic professional reorientation, to improve the quality of personnel training of applied psychology.

  2. The Effects of Achievement Goal Orientation on Middle School Students' Achievement Motivation%成就目标定向对中学生成就动机的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈丽丽

    2009-01-01

    The theory of achievement goal is one of the most important motivation theories, and it gradually becomes a hot research issue in motivation field. In recent years, the studies about the effects which achievement goal has on achievement motivation gradually become prolific, and these studies have important revelation in education area. All of these three effects: whether the students have defined their achievement goal, the type of their achievement goal and the evaluation middle school students have on their achievement goal will have important influences on their achievement motivation. The revelation achievement goal theory has in education area mainly means that the teacher should help the student to set individual achievement goals, and this will stimulate middle schools student's achievement motivation more effectively.%中学生成就目标的确立与否、确立的成就目标的类型以及对所设定目标的评价性反应这三个因素都会对中学生的成就动机产生影响.成就目标定向对教育的启示,主要表现为教师应该帮助学生设定个性化的成就目标,以更好地激发中学生的成就动机.

  3. Report of the Snowmass 2013 Computing Frontier working group on Lattice Field Theory -- Lattice field theory for the energy and intensity frontiers: Scientific goals and computing needs

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, T; Holmgren, D; Brower, R; Catterall, S; Christ, N; Kronfeld, A; Kuti, J; Mackenzie, P; Neil, E T; Sharpe, S R; Sugar, R

    2013-01-01

    This is the report of the Computing Frontier working group on Lattice Field Theory prepared for the proceedings of the 2013 Community Summer Study ("Snowmass"). We present the future computing needs and plans of the U.S. lattice gauge theory community and argue that continued support of the U.S. (and worldwide) lattice-QCD effort is essential to fully capitalize on the enormous investment in the high-energy physics experimental program. We first summarize the dramatic progress of numerical lattice-QCD simulations in the past decade, with some emphasis on calculations carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Lattice-QCD Collaboration, and describe a broad program of lattice-QCD calculations that will be relevant for future experiments at the intensity and energy frontiers. We then present details of the computational hardware and software resources needed to undertake these calculations.

  4. An Effective Framework for Fast Expert Mining in Collaboration Networks: A Group-Oriented and Cost-Based Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farnoush Farhadi; Maryam Sorkhi; Sattar Hashemi; Ali Hamzeh

    2012-01-01

    The growth of social networks in modern information systems has enabled the collaboration of experts at a scale that was unseen before.Given a task and a graph of experts where each expert possesses some skills,we tend to find an effective team of experts who are able to accomplish the task.This team should consider how team members collaborate in an effective manner to perform the task as well as how efficient the team assignment is,considering each expert has the minimum required level of skill.Here,we generalize the problem in multiple perspectives.First,a method is provided to determine the skill level of each expert based on his/her skill and collaboration among neighbors.Second,the graph is aggregated to the set of skilled expert groups that are strongly correlated based on their skills as well as the best connection among them.By considering the groups,search space is significantly reduced and moreover it causes to prevent from the growth of redundant communication costs and team cardinality while assigning the team members.Third,the existing RarestFirst algorithm is extended to more generalized version,and finally the cost definition is customized to improve the efficiency of selected team.Experiments on DBLP co-authorship graph show that in terms of efficiency and effectiveness,our proposed framework is achieved well in practice.

  5. Achieving lipid goals with rosuvastatin compared with simvastatin in high risk patients in real clinical practice: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center study: the DISCOVERY-Beta study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toivo Laks

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Toivo Laks1, Ester Keba2, Mariann Leiner3, Eero Merilind4, Mall Petersen5, Sirje Reinmets6, Sille Väli7, Terje Sööt8, Karin Otter81Clinic of Internal Medicine, North-Estonia Regional Hospital, Tallinn, Estonia; 2Clinic of Internal Medicine, Viljandi County Hospital, Viljandi, Estonia; 3Mustamäe Family Doctors Centre, Tallinn, Estonia; 4Nõmme Family Doctors Centre, Tallinn, Estonia; 5Saku Health Centre, Saku, Estonia; 6Kristiine Family Doctors, Tallinn, Estonia; 7Family Doctor Sille Väli, Kuressaare, Estonia; 8AstraZeneca, Tallinn, EstoniaAbstract: The aim of this multi-center, open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial was to compare the efficacy of rosuvastatin with that of simvastatin in achieving the 1998 European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS lipid treatment goals. 504 patients (≥18 years with primary hypercholesterolemia and a 10-year cardiovascular (CV risk >20% or history of coronary heart disease (CHD or other established atherosclerotic disease were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive rosuvastatin 10 mg or simvastatin 20 mg once daily for 12 weeks. A significantly higher proportion of patients achieved 1998 EAS low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C goal after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared to simvastatin 20 mg (64 vs 51.5%, p < 0.01. Similarly, significantly more patients achieved the 1998 EAS total cholesterol (TC goal and the 2003 EAS LDL-C and TC goals (p < 0.001 with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared with simvastatin 20 mg. The incidence of adverse events and the proportion of patients who discontinued study treatment were similar between treatment groups. In conclusion, in the DISCOVERY-Beta Study in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia greater proportion of patients in the rosuvastatin 10 mg group achieved the EAS LDL-C treatment goal compared with the simvastatin 20 mg group. Drug tolerability was similar across both treatment groups.Keywords: hypercholesterolemia, low-density lipoprotein

  6. Goals and Personality in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for…

  7. Goals and Personality in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for…

  8. Goal Directedness and Decision Making in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenward, Ben; Folke, Sara; Holmberg, Jacob; Johansson, Alexandra; Gredeback, Gustaf

    2009-01-01

    The term "goal directed" conventionally refers to either of 2 separate process types--motor processes organizing action oriented toward physical targets and decision-making processes that select these targets by integrating desire for and knowledge of action outcomes. Even newborns are goal directed in the first sense, but the status of…

  9. Change in basic motor abilities, quality of movement and everyday activities following intensive, goal-directed, activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting for children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaale Helga K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of intensive training for children with cerebral palsy (CP remain uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact on motor function, quality of movements and everyday activities of three hours of goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting, five days a week for a period of three weeks. Methods A repeated measures design was applied with three baseline and two follow up assessments; immediately and three weeks after intervention. Twenty-two children with hemiplegia (n = 7, diplegia (n = 11, quadriplegia (n = 2 and ataxia (n = 2 participated, age ranging 3-9 y. All levels of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS were represented. Parents and professionals participated in goal setting and training. ANOVA was used to analyse change over repeated measures. Results A main effect of time was shown in the primary outcome measure; Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66, mean change being 4.5 (p Conclusions Basic motor abilities and self-care improved in young children with CP after goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy with involvement of their local environment, and their need for caregiver assistance in self-care and mobility decreased. The individualized training within a group context during a limited period of time was feasible and well-tolerated. The coherence between acquisition of basic motor abilities and quality of movement should be further examined.

  10. Vectorial representation of spatial goals in the hippocampus of bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarel, Ayelet; Finkelstein, Arseny; Las, Liora; Ulanovsky, Nachum

    2017-01-13

    To navigate, animals need to represent not only their own position and orientation, but also the location of their goal. Neural representations of an animal's own position and orientation have been extensively studied. However, it is unknown how navigational goals are encoded in the brain. We recorded from hippocampal CA1 neurons of bats flying in complex trajectories toward a spatial goal. We discovered a subpopulation of neurons with angular tuning to the goal direction. Many of these neurons were tuned to an occluded goal, suggesting that goal-direction representation is memory-based. We also found cells that encoded the distance to the goal, often in conjunction with goal direction. The goal-direction and goal-distance signals make up a vectorial representation of spatial goals, suggesting a previously unrecognized neuronal mechanism for goal-directed navigation.

  11. Perceived assistance in pursuing personal goals and personal recovery among mental health consumers across housing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Galia S; Westman, Kinneret; Weissberg, Esther; Melamed, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    Personal goals/plans play a central role in personal recovery and psychiatric rehabilitation of persons with mental illnesses. Yet, few studies have explored whether perceiving practitioners' assistance towards the pursuit of goals are associated with personal recovery and other favorable rehabilitation outcomes. A total of 2121 mental health consumers, of which 1222 use supported-housing services and 899 use group-home services, completed self-report questionnaires as part of a larger quality-assurance study conducted during the years 2013-2014. Eighty percent of participants living in supported-housing and 72% living in group-homes reported having personal goals/plans for the forthcoming year. Furthermore, their type of goals was different. Irrespective of the type of goal or housing service, participants who reported having goals/plans (compared with those who did not) showed higher levels of personal recovery and more favorable psychosocial outcomes. Regression analyses showed that perceiving professional staff members (but not para-professionals) as assisting in pursuing goals/plans was positively associated with personal recovery. This study empirically validates the value of having personal goals and professionals' assistance in pursuing goals/plans in regards to personal recovery. We propose that recovery-oriented services should seek to enhance goal setting and goal-pursuit, and to train practitioners in these areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 新升本科工科类院校的办学定位与人才培养目标探讨%Discussion on school-running orientation and talent training goal of newly-promoted undergraduate universities of engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚慧

    2013-01-01

    The discussion process for school -running orientation and talent training goal of newly -promoted undergraduate uni-versities of engineering over ten years is reviewed.The fuzzy school -running orientation and confused goal of talent training , which have ever emerged ,are analyzed and the preliminary experience of colleges and universities in recent years is summa -rized.It is showed that the status of newly -promoted undergraduate universities is between traditional universities and vocational technology colleges , and they take applied talents as their training goal.%本文回顾了十几年里新升本科工科类院校的办学定位与人才培养目标的讨论过程,分析了曾经出现的办学定位的模糊与人才培养目标的困惑等问题,总结了近年来各高校取得的初步经验,认为新升本科院校的地位实际上介于传统本科与职业技术学院之间,并以应用型人才为培养目标。

  13. 个人目标取向对员工前摄行为的作用机理--基于心理契约的中介效应和自我领导的调节效应%A Study about the Impact of Personal Goal Orientation on Employees’ Proactive Behavior:The Mediating Effect of Psychological Contract and the Moderating Effect of Self-leadership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建中; 曲小瑜

    2015-01-01

    The study exploratorily constructs a conceptual model of the impact of personal goal orientation on employees’ proactive behavior regarding psychological contract as a mediator and self-leadership as a moderator. It adopts 365 employees from equipment manufacturing industry as empirical samples to verify the model. The results show that:learning goal orientation and proving goal orientation have a positive impact on employees’ proactive behavior, avoiding goal orientation has a negative impact on employees’ proactive behavior; psychological contract plays a full mediating role between personal goal orientation and employees ’ proactive behavior; self-leadership can strengthen the positive impact of learning goal orientation and proving goal orientation on employees’ proactive behavior, it can weaken the neg-ative impact of avoiding goal orientation on employees’ proactive behavior.%本研究探索性地构建了以心理契约为中介变量、以自我领导为调节变量的个人目标取向对员工前摄行为影响的概念模型,并以365名装备制造企业员工为样本,对模型进行验证。结果表明:学习目标取向和证明目标取向对员工前摄行为具有正向影响,回避目标取向对员工前摄行为具有负向影响;心理契约在个人目标取向和员工前摄行为间起完全中介作用;自我领导能够强化学习目标取向和证明目标取向对员工前摄行为的正向影响,削弱回避目标取向对员工前摄行为的负向影响。

  14. A Multilevel Model of Individual Goal Orientation and Team-Psychological Safety on Knowledge Sharing%个体目标取向与团队心理安全交互对个体知识共享的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨相玉; 徐振亭; 孙效敏

    2016-01-01

    Research on individual knowledge sharing form multilevel is increasingly becoming the focus of academia,espe-cially for its important for organizational development and source of competitive advantage.Based on goal orientation and trait activation theory,this article adopts a multilevel model in which team psychological safety are included to examine how individual goal orientation may relate to individual knowledge sharing.Multi-source data are collected from 485 members and their leaders within 120 R&D teams.The results indicates that the individual learning goal and individual performance approach goal are positively,whereas the individual performance avoidance goal is negatively,related to indi-vidual knowledge sharing.Furthermore,team psychological safety positively moderates the relationship between the indi-vidual learning goal,individual performance approach goal and individual knowledge sharing,and negatively moderates the relationship between the individual performance avoidance goal and individual knowledge sharing.%知识经济和“互联网+”快速发展,知识共享成为组织获取前进动力的主要方式以及组织竞争优势的重要来源。结合目标取向理论与特征激活理论,将团队心理安全纳入到个体目标取向对个体知识共享影响的研究中。对120个研发团队(含485个团队成员)样本的调查分析结果表明,个体学习目标取向与证明取向都显著正向影响个体知识共享,且团队心理安全在两者关系间具有显著的正向调节作用;个体回避取向显著负向影响个体知识共享,团队心理安全在两者关系间具有显著负向调节作用。

  15. Reliance on luck: identifying which achievement goals elicit superstitious behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerman, Eric J; Morewedge, Carey K

    2015-03-01

    People often resort to superstitious behavior to facilitate goal achievement. We examined whether the specific type of achievement goal pursued influences the propensity to engage in superstitious behavior. Across six studies, we found that performance goals were more likely than learning goals to elicit superstitious behavior. Participants were more likely to engage in superstitious behavior at high than at low levels of chronic performance orientation, but superstitious behavior was not influenced by chronic learning orientation (Studies 1 and 2). Similarly, participants exhibited stronger preferences for lucky items when primed to pursue performance goals rather than learning goals (Studies 3 and 4). As uncertainty of goal achievement increased, superstitious behavior increased when participants pursued performance goals but not learning goals (Study 5). Finally, assignment to use a lucky (vs. unlucky) item resulted in greater confidence of achieving performance goals but not learning goals (Study 6). © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Danish orientalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zerlang, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Orientalism became an important current in nineteenth-century Danish culture, but although it was contemporaneous with the orientalism of the leading European nations - Great Britain, France, Germany...

  17. 应用型人才培养目标下城市规划理论教学的思考%Thinking on Urban Planning Theory Teaching under the Goal of Application-oriented Talent Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡超文; 聂艳华

    2011-01-01

    应用型人才培养是高校尤其是地方高校寻求自身发展的理性选择。文章对应用型人才培养的科学内涵进行了解读,指出了应用型人才培养目标对城市规划理论教学的新要求,在此基础上总结了提高城市规划理论教学质量的若干策略。%Application-oriented talent cultivation is the objective requirement of social economical development,the inevitable trend of higher education development and the rational choice of universities,especially local universities during exploring their self-development.The paper clarified the concept of application-oriented talent cultivation,pointed the new requirements of urban planning theory teaching,and on base of these,it summarized some strategies of improving the teaching quality of urban planning theory.

  18. Psychological characteristics of group cohesion athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheriff Sarhan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic components of group cohesion in sport teams. An analysis of publications on cohesion within the groups where an interconnection of individual goals of each participant group with common goals and the end result of teamwork. The concept of harmony in the team sports, where the rate of group cohesion is dependent on such integrative index as psychological climate. It is established that a number of athletes to achieve high results require high cohesion, unity, value-normative orientation, deep identification and responsibility for the results of the joint group activities.

  19. Impact Analysis on an Attributed Goal Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinpei; Tanabe, Daisuke; Kaiya, Haruhiko; Saeki, Motoshi

    Requirements changes frequently occur at any time of a software development process, and their management is a crucial issue to develop software of high quality. Meanwhile, goal-oriented analysis techniques are being put into practice to elicit requirements. In this situation, the change management of goal graphs and its support are necessary. This paper presents a technique related to the change management of goal graphs, realizing impact analysis on a goal graph when its modifications occur. Our impact analysis detects conflicts that arise when a new goal is added, and investigates the achievability of the other goals when an existing goal is deleted. We have implemented a supporting tool for automating the analysis. Two case studies suggested the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  20. Relationship of goal orientation,motivation and performance under different tasks---With the football kicking accuracy as an example%不同任务情境下目标定向、动机及运动表现关系的考究--以足球定位球踢准为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛林杰

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between goal orientation( ego orientation and task orientation),motivation and performance under different tasks( training and competition),the two tasks( sports training and competition)were designed to discuss the effect of different tasks on the goal orientation, motivation ( efforts, fun, pressure and other variables ) and performance,and analyze the important predictive variables for different tasks and the adjusting variables. Through the test method,questionnaire survey method and mathematical statistics method,a test was carried out on 30 male students majoring in PE and the results show that 1) the task and ego orientation in different task situations( training and competition)has changed, but sport achievement is not significant( P ﹤0 . 05 ,Table 1 );2 ) ego orientation of goal orientation plays a significant moderating effect on the task context( B=0 . 705 ,P﹤0 . 01;Table 5),and a significant interaction(B =0. 347,P ﹤0. 01);3)the different task situations changed the relationship between variables,especially the ego orientation ascension can change efforts and fun ascension,however,this effect in high task orientation is more obvious.%为了考察不同任务情境(训练和比赛)下目标定向(自我定向和任务定向)、动机及运动表现的关系,主要设计了训练和比赛两种任务情境,重点探讨这两种情境下目标定向、动机(努力、乐趣、压力等变量)和运动表现的关系,并分析出不同任务情境下它们之间的重要预测变量和调节变量。通过测试、问卷调查及数理统计等方法对体育教育专业30名男生进行了数据测试和分析;结果表明:1)自我定向、目标定向及动机各变量在不同的任务情境中均发生了显著的变化,但运动成绩没有显著性改变( P﹤0.05,表1);2)目标定向中自我定向发挥了对任务情境和努力的显著调节作用( B =0.705,P ﹤0.01

  1. 以多群組結構方程模式檢驗成就目標理論模式的測量恆等性 Verifying the Invariance of a Measurement Model for Achievement Goals Theory by Using the Multiple Group Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳中勤 Chung-Chin Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 成就目標測量存在著測量內容、理論再概念化以及理論模式類推適用等問題,尚未受到研究的重視及實徵的檢驗。本研究之主要目的在於:一、修正成就目標測量的問題,編製六向度成就目標量表,透過競爭模式選擇適配度最佳且最具簡效性之模式;二、針對理論模式進行跨群組恆等性的檢驗;三、探討性別與教育階段對六向度成就目標的影響。研究結果顯示:一、六向度成就目標測量具有良好的信度與建構效度,為適配度最佳且最具簡效性之理論模式;二、測量具良好的跨性別群組恆等性及適中的跨教育階段測量的恆等性;三、普遍而言,男生抱持了較高的趨向導向與逃避導向目標,顯示出成就目標的複雜性。根據本研究發現,於文末提出相應之建議。 The appropriateness of measure content, ambiguity of theoretical concepts, and interferences of theoretical measure are three problems in achievement goal research. These problems have yet to receive comprehensive attention or empirical examinations. The purposes of this study were (1 to revise the problems caused by achievement goal measures and to compile a Mandarin version of a 3×2 achievement goal measure (the best fit and most parsimonious model was chosen based on model comparisons, (2 to examine the multiple group invariance of the theoretical model by utilizing multiple group structural equation modeling, and (3 to investigate the influences of gender and the educational phase on each of the 3×2 achievement goals. The results are summarized as follows: (1 the measurement of 3×2 achievement goals yielded favorable reliability and construct validity. Moreover, this model is regarded as the best fit and the most parsimonious model. (2 The measurement presents favorable validity between gender and moderate validity between the educational phase. (3 In general, boys pursued

  2. 以“提高职业导向能力”为目标改进高职辅导员工作%the goal of heightening work in vocational their career-oriented ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺永明

    2011-01-01

    高职辅导员工作是高职教育的重要领域。本文提出以“提高职业导向能力”为目标改进高职辅导员工作,并就高职辅导员培养及队伍建设提出建议。%Counselors' work is an important part of higher vocational education. This article suggests that the counselors' work in vocational colleges should be improved with the goal of height.

  3. Comparative study of goal contents and goal characteristics between medical and business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun-Young; Shin, Jongho

    2016-03-01

    Medical and business are one of the most popular majors among students, and both fields require intensive training to reach certain level of expertise. During the development of professionalism, goal can become a crucial role in psychological impetus. The purpose of this study is to compare goal contents, goal characteristics, and effect of goal characteristics on student's major satisfaction between medical and business. A total of 193 undergraduate students (97 medical students, 96 business students) answered survey questions including goal contents, goal characteristics (goal autonomy, goal attainability, social value of goal) and satisfaction on their majors. Qualitative analysis of goal contents and quantitative analysis of goal characteristics, and their effects on student major satisfaction were performed. Goal content analysis showed percentage of social concern goal was higher in medical students (25.8%) than business students (6.3%), whereas percentage of wealth goal was higher business students (24.0%) than medical students (3.1%). Among goal characteristics, goal attainability and social value of goal were higher in medical students than business students. In both groups, social value of goal was significantly predict major satisfaction. Goal contents and goal characteristics are different between medical and business students. Curriculum and educational interventions that concerning students' goal and developing programs to enhance students' social value of goal is necessary.

  4. Comparative study of goal contents and goal characteristics between medical and business students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soowon Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Medical and business are one of the most popular majors among students, and both fields require intensive training to reach certain level of expertise. During the development of professionalism, goal can become a crucial role in psychological impetus. The purpose of this study is to compare goal contents, goal characteristics, and effect of goal characteristics on student’s major satisfaction between medical and business. Methods: A total of 193 undergraduate students (97 medical students, 96 business students answered survey questions including goal contents, goal characteristics (goal autonomy, goal attainability, social value of goal and satisfaction on their majors. Qualitative analysis of goal contents and quantitative analysis of goal characteristics, and their effects on student major satisfaction were performed. Results: Goal content analysis showed percentage of social concern goal was higher in medical students (25.8% than business students (6.3%, whereas percentage of wealth goal was higher business students (24.0% than medical students (3.1%. Among goal characteristics, goal attainability and social value of goal were higher in medical students than business students. In both groups, social value of goal was significantly predict major satisfaction. Conclusion: Goal contents and goal characteristics are different between medical and business students. Curriculum and educational interventions that concerning students’ goal and developing programs to enhance students’ social value of goal is necessary.

  5. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    -induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition......We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal...

  6. Orientaciones de Meta y Compromiso Físico-Motor en Educación Física. Un estudio en alumnos de 4º de Educación Primaria. (Goals orientations and level of motor commitment in physical activity in physical education. A study of students in 4th of primary education .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Barbero Alvarez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Partiendo de estudios previos que señalan la influencia que lo realizado en la infancia y adolescencia tiene en etapas vitales posteriores respecto a hábitos de participación en actividades físicas (Pate, Dowda, Baranowski y Puhl, 1993 y la relación existente entre nivel de capacidad física, orientaciones de meta y nivel de compromiso en actividades físicas (Goudas, Biddle y Fox, 1994; Tzetis, Goudas, Kourtesis y Zisi, 2002; Vlachopoulos y Biddle, 1996, en el presente trabajo se describe un estudio que se ha llevado a cabo con alumnos de 4º de Educación Primaria en Educación Física cuyo objetivo es determinar la existencia de relaciones entre orientaciones de meta, variables condicionales físicas (nivel de capacidad física y niveles de compromiso físico-motor en clases de Educación Física, medidas mediante el cuestionario TEOSQ, test deresistencia Shuttle-Run de 20 m y UPG (Unidad de posicionamiento global. Los resultados muestran la inexistencia de relaciones significativas entre orientación de meta y variables cinemáticas y fisiológicas, al considerar de forma global al conjunto de los sujetos. Al realizar el análisis en función del género se han encontrado relaciones significativas en el subgrupo mujeres entre la puntuación alcanzada en el factor orientación a la tarea y algunos parámetros cinemáticos y fisiológicos. Abstract Several previous studies pointed out to the influence of the experience acquired during childhood and adolescence on further vital stages, regarding the habits of taking part in physical activities, as well as therelation between physical capacity level, goal orientations and commitment level in physical activities. Therefore, in this paper we describe a study carried out with 4th-grade students in Primary Education in the Physical Education class. This study aims to determine the relations between goal orientations, physical conditional variables (physical capacity level and physical

  7. Control Oriented System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The research goals for this grant were to obtain algorithms for control oriented system identification is to construct dynamical models of systems...and measured information. Algorithms for this type of nonlinear system identification have been given that produce models suitable for gain scheduled

  8. Some predictors of life goals in Slovenia and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Poljšak Škraban

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Personal goals and interests play an important role in human development because they orient people's life planning, decision-making and also, therefore, their future life course. The article presents the findings of a research which explores the eventual differences between Slovenian and Croatian sample in agency-oriented and communion-oriented life goals and the analysis of significant predictors of above mentioned life goals on both samples. The research included 924 adults of both genders, aged between 21 and 70 years from Slovenia and Croatia. In the study we used the scale of Goals (Pohlman and Brunstein, 1997 and a set of questions regarding various participant's life domains and their perceived importance. The results show significant differences on agency- oriented and communion-oriented life goals between the Slovenian and Croatian sample; in both cases croatian participants reach higher results than those from slovenina sample. As significant predictors in both samples were identified (a age and importance of effective use of free time for agency-oriented goals, and (b and gender, parenthood, importance of parenthood and importance of effective use of free time for communion-oriented life goals. The differences in results are explained by respective levels of social modernisation and social welfare, given the fact the Slovenian respondents are embedded in the social environment that offers more possibilities for fullfilment of their life goals, and are closer to postmaterialism and individualism.a

  9. The Practice Goal and Value Orientation of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics%中国特色社会主义的实践目标与价值旨归

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭华

    2015-01-01

    实现中华民族伟大复兴的“中国梦”是中国特色社会主义的实践目标。富强、民主、文明、和谐、自由、平等、公正、法治、爱国、敬业、诚信、友善的社会主义核心价值观是中国特色社会主义的价值旨归。实质上,“中国梦”与社会主义核心价值观是一致的,二者有机地统一于中国特色社会主义的伟大实践中。富强、民主、文明、和谐体现了社会主义初级阶段的基本奋斗目标,与“中国梦”高度一致;自由、平等、公正、法治体现了中国特色社会主义的政治诉求,是实现“中国梦”的价值准则;爱国、敬业、诚信、友善体现了中国特色社会主义公民的道德要求,是实现“中国梦”的重要支撑。%Realizing the"Chinese dream" of great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation is the practice goal of socialism with Chinese characteristics.The socialist core values of prosperity,democracy,civilization,harmony,freedom,equality,justice,rule of law,patriotic,patriotism,dedication,integrity and kindness are the essential values of socialism with Chinese characteristics. In essence,"China dream" and the socialist core values are consistent,which are organically unified into the great practice of Chinese characteristic socialism.Prosperity,democracy,civilization and harmony embody the basic goal of the Chinese socialism in its primary stage,highly consistent with the"China Dream";freedom,equality,justice and the rule of law reflect the political aspirations of socialism with Chinese characteristics,and are the value criteria to achieve"China Dream";patriotism,dedication, integrity and kindness embody the moral requirements for citizens of socialism with Chinese characteristics and are an important support to achieve"China Dream".

  10. Goal Engagement and Goal Attainment in Adolescents with and without Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The present longitudinal study analyzed the effects of domain-specific goal engagement on the attainment of four developmental goals in 133 adolescents with visual impairment and in 449 sighted peers. Goal engagement predicted stronger progress in goal attainment with regard to getting access to a peer group, career choice and development of…

  11. Using tasks to enhance beginners’ orientations for learning Chinese as a foreign language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Du, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    This study explores learners’ orientations, or goals, for learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in a Danish university. Drawing upon empirical data from both pre- and post-course surveys and group interviews, this study examines in what aspects and to what extent these orientations change...... (especially the task-based learning method), the learners’ increased self-efficacy, and student satisfaction, served to contribute to these positive changes in learners’ orientations. It is suggested that a communicative approach (e.g. the TBTL method) can be used to promote positive orientation changes...... and enhance learner motivation. The study also discusses challenges encountered in helping beginners learn a foreign language via TBTL....

  12. Orientation control of photo-immobilized antibodies on the surface of azobenzene-containing polymers by the introduction of functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Makoto; Ikawa, Taiji; Narita, Mamiko; Hoshino, Fumihiko; Watanabe, Osamu

    2010-06-11

    In our photo-induced immobilization technique for an antibody (IgG) using azopolymers, the introduction of COOH and NMe(2) into the azopolymers, which can introduce surface charges, strongly affected the immobilization properties such as the efficiency of immobilization and the activity of the immobilized IgG (i.e., the orientation of the immobilized IgG). The introduction of COOH promoted a more active orientation of the immobilized IgG. The orientation was determined during the adsorption process onto the azopolymer surface in solution before photo-immobilization, and was maintained during the photo-immobilization. The surface charge of the azopolymer appears to be an important factor for IgG orientation, which involves electrostatic interactions between its Fab and the azopolymer surface.

  13. Decision Making In Orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Katia

    1997-01-01

    Eight psychometric instruments were administered to 10 elite male Portuguese orienteers. The cognitive process involved in decision making did not differ between the best orienteers and the others. This group of athletes had a high capacity for work realization and a strong need to be in control of interpersonal situations. (Author/SV)

  14. From User Goals to Service Discovery and Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonino da Silva Santos, Luiz Olavo; Guizzardi, Giancarlo; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Sinderen, van Marten

    2009-01-01

    Goals are often used to represent stakeholder's objectives. The intentionality inherited by a goal drives stakeholders to pursuit the fulfillment of their goals either by themselves or by delegating this fulfillment to third parties. In Service-Oriented Computing, service client's requirements are c

  15. Science Motivation of University Students: Achievement Goals as a Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Serhat; Akcaalan, Mehmet; Yurdakul, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to make a study of the relationship between achievement goals and science motivation. Research data were collected from 295 university students. Achievement goals and science motivation scales were utilized as measure tools. The link between achievement goals orientation and science motivation was…

  16. Approach of Goal-Oriented Attack Graph-Based Threat Evaluation for Network Security%一种基于目标攻击图的态势威胁评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘威歆; 郑康锋; 胡影; 武斌

    2015-01-01

    针对传统安全威胁评估方法难以理解攻击渗透的相关性,且难以量化相关渗透对于网络环境的影响问题,结合攻击图渗透动作危害性、渗透相关性和主机业务重要性,提出双向威胁评估模型和计算方法,能衡量攻击的深入程度和对目标的威胁程度,最后提出了一个能应用于实时告警分析的攻击序列评估方法,并通过实验验证了所提模型的合理性和有效性。%For being not falling in as final targets of attackers, the critical resources in network environ-ments should be protected. It is vital to quantify the threat and impact during the process of multi-stage attacks. Aiming at combine threat quantification of individual attack action and significance value of hosts, as well as large amount of attack dependencies in attack graphs, a methodology for threat evalua-tion was proposed. The bi-directional threat evaluation presented in this article is able to compute pro-gress attackers already, as well as the threat to goal-resources in attack graph, which can be well applied to real-time attack threat evaluation. The proposed was finally verified in experiment and simulation.

  17. Goal Orientation and Model Selection of the Jointed Innovation in Marine Science and Technology of Zhejiang%浙江海洋科技创新协同的目标定位与模式选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏登武

    2016-01-01

    The core competitiveness to develop marine economy lies in the innovation of the regional marine science and technology. Based on the main factors influencing the innovation of marine science and technology, the article gives a detailed treatment of the innovation orientation from the aspects of organization innovation, knowledge collaboration, the integration and sharing of information resources. The article also constructs four collaborative models, i.e., the external organizational collaboration linked by market transaction, the internal organizational collaboration formed by property rights, the project collaboration aimed to make breakthroughs on major science and technology and the ally collaboration targeted at the congregation of marine science technology and industry. With the construction of the four models, it is hoped to promote the coordinated development of science, technology and industry in the era of marine science.%区域内海洋科技创新能力是发展海洋经济的核心竞争力,以影响区域内海洋科技创新能力的主要因素为参照体系,从组织创新、知识协同、信息资源整合与共享等层面分析了浙江海洋科技创新协同的目标定位;并基于浙江海洋科技创新协同的目标基点,根据浙江省海洋发展规划对科技发展的需要与海洋创新主体特质建构了4种协同模式:以“市场交易”为纽带的组织外部协同,以“产权”为核心的组织内部协同,以“重大海洋科技攻关”为目标的项目协同,以“海洋科技与产业集聚”为中心的联盟协同等,促进海洋大科学时代浙江海洋科技与产业协调发展。

  18. The Effects of an Interdependent Group Oriented Contingency and Performance Feedback on the Praise Statements of Pre-Service Teachers during a Summer Day-Camp for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clinton; Bicard, David F.; Casey, Laura B.; Bicard, Sara C.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher praise is one of the most important elements of teaching and learning. Behavioral consultation with and without performance has been shown to be an effective method for increasing instructional praise. The authors used an ABCBC design to investigate the effects of an interdependent group oriented contingency (GC) and the GC plus…

  19. University Student's Goal Profiles and Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    In this study, undergraduate students provided confidence ratings to predict future performance in answering questions drawn from the text before reading the text, after reading the text and after rereading the text. Self-reports of achievement goal orientations during reading and posttest scores were also collected. Student's calibration index…

  20. 新媒体环境下具有多目标导向性的信息细化模型研究--基于传染病模型%Information Eliberation Model with Multiple Goal Orientation in the New Media:a Study Based on Epidemic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 李全喜; 赵丹; 张鹏

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Significance] Obstacles of netizenˊs information elaboration exist in the new media environment. A new perspective is explored to help deepen the research on the information elaboration theory in the new media, which bears significant meanings for effec-tive promotion of efficiency and creativity during the process of information utilization by netizens in their practice. [ Method/Process] Based on the research results of information elaboration and relevant theories from home and abroad, this paper builds an information delib-eration model with multiple goal orientation in the new media, the SEIVR model. The data collected from the Sina Weibo on the topic of Brexit are used in this model to test and analyze the influence of variation of weight of goal orientation on information elaboration via Mat-lab simulation. [ Result/Conclusion] The results of simulation testify the effectiveness of multiple goal orientation in the new media, and indicate that proper measures should be taken to promote the information elaboration because of the relatively low level of information elab-oration of Chinese netizens.%[目的/意义]网民在新媒体环境下的信息细化存在障碍,为深化新媒体环境下信息细化理论研究提供新的视角,对从实践角度有效提高网民信息利用效率和创造力具有重要意义。[方法/过程]基于国内外学者的信息细化研究成果及相关理论,构建新媒体环境下具有多目标导向性的信息细化SEIVR模型,以新浪微博英国脱欧话题数据为基础,使用Matlab进行仿真实验对模型进行验证并分析目标导向权重变化对信息细化的影响。[结果/结论]实验结果验证了模型的有效性,分析表明我国网民信息细化水平偏低,应采取有效措施促进信息细化的深入发展。

  1. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and theoretical, at the Ioffe Institute and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris are documented in the book Optical Orientation, edited by F Meier and B P Zakharchenya in the series Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences [4], in which the foundations of optical orientation are comprehensively presented by renowned authors. This book is still the unsurpassed standard work in the field. If one asks what has become new since that publication in 1984 it is obviously the arrival of low-dimensional structures, two-dimensional heterostructures and zero-dimensional quantum dots. It has turned out that the quantum confinement can significantly modify the spin lifetime and the spin relaxation. The experimental work on spin alignment was done by a relative small number of researchers. However, the situation has substantially changed during the last decade. Research on spin-related phenomena has become very popular and the word 'spintronics' was coined. Spin research is no longer considered to be somewhat esoteric, since the replacement of silicon microelectronics based on the electron charge by spin-based electronics is being discussed. Whether these proposals can be realized remains to be seen. But one consequence has been a worldwide increase of high level basic research in spin phenomena. Another line of current research which has contributed to the popularity of spin-related research is quantum computing, based on spin-qubits. To be useful, solid state systems require long spin relaxation times and weak interaction with the environment. This is indispensable for low error rates. The difficulties in achieving these goals have been extensively discussed in the literature. Nowadays, because of the volume and diversity of spin-related work worldwide, a book on optical orientation like that edited by Meyer and Zakharchenya does not seem possible, so in this special issue of

  2. Goal importance and students at risk of having language difficulties: an underexplored aspect of student motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios D

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motivational determinants of students at risk of language difficulties (in reading and spelling) and students with high language skills. Teachers' evaluations in language and mathematics at the end of the academic year constituted the dependent variable. Motivational orientations were examined using the constructs that reflect the theory of planned behavior and goal importance. Participants were 202 elementary school students-22 at risk of language difficulties and 180 with high language skills-drawn from 30 elementary schools in northern Greece. The results indicated that the two groups differed significantly, with the at-risk students exhibiting significantly lower perceptions of goal importance, intention to achieve, belief strength, outcome evaluation, and normative beliefs, and eventually scoring lower in language and mathematics at the end of the academic year. A finer analysis of students' motivational orientations was conducted using covariance structural modeling (CSM) and EQS 5.7b. The planned behavior model with goal importance produced a comparative fit index (CFI) of 1.00 in language and mathematics for the at-risk group. The respective CFIs for the high language skills group were .97 and 1.00 in language and mathematics, respectively. Although model fit was excellent across samples, different weights and signs linking motivational orientations to achievement partly explained the observed differences in language and mathematics manifested in the two groups.

  3. Deposition of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Liquid-Phase Epitaxy: The Influence of Substrate Functional Group Density on Film Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxuan; Shekhah, Osama; Stammer, Xia; Arslan, Hasan K.; Liu, Bo; Schüpbach, Björn; Terfort, Andreas; Wöll, Christof

    2012-01-01

    The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA), 4’-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA) and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyl)triptycene (CMMT). The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100) direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111) direction.

  4. Deposition of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Liquid-Phase Epitaxy: The Influence of Substrate Functional Group Density on Film Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Wöll

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE of the metal-organic framework (MOF HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA, 4’-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyltriptycene (CMMT. The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100 direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111 direction.

  5. Deposition of metal-organic frameworks by liquid-phase epitaxy: The influence of substrate functional group density on film orientation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, J.

    2012-09-05

    The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA), 4\\'-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA) and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyl)triptycene (CMMT). The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100) direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111) direction.

  6. The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be

  7. Clinical Information System Services and Capabilities Desired for Scalable, Standards-Based, Service-oriented Decision Support: Consensus Assessment of the Health Level 7 Clinical Decision Support Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Jacobs, Jason; Welch, Brandon M.; Huser, Vojtech; Paterno, Marilyn D.; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Shields, David; Strasberg, Howard R.; Haug, Peter J.; Liu, Zhijing; Jenders, Robert A.; Rowed, David W.; Chertcoff, Daryl; Fehre, Karsten; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Curtis, A. Clayton

    2012-01-01

    A standards-based, service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support (CDS) has the potential to significantly enhance CDS scalability and robustness. To enable such a CDS architecture, the Health Level 7 CDS Work Group reviewed the literature, hosted multi-stakeholder discussions, and consulted domain experts to identify and prioritize the services and capabilities required from clinical information systems (CISs) to enable service-oriented CDS. In addition, relevant available standards were identified. Through this process, ten CIS services and eight CIS capabilities were identified as being important for enabling scalable, service-oriented CDS. In particular, through a survey of 46 domain experts, five services and capabilities were identified as being especially critical: 1) the use of standard information models and terminologies; 2) the ability to leverage a Decision Support Service (DSS); 3) support for a clinical data query service; 4) support for an event subscription and notification service; and 5) support for a user communication service. PMID:23304315

  8. Clinical information system services and capabilities desired for scalable, standards-based, service-oriented decision support: consensus assessment of the Health Level 7 clinical decision support Work Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Jacobs, Jason; Welch, Brandon M; Huser, Vojtech; Paterno, Marilyn D; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Shields, David; Strasberg, Howard R; Haug, Peter J; Liu, Zhijing; Jenders, Robert A; Rowed, David W; Chertcoff, Daryl; Fehre, Karsten; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Curtis, A Clayton

    2012-01-01

    A standards-based, service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support (CDS) has the potential to significantly enhance CDS scalability and robustness. To enable such a CDS architecture, the Health Level 7 CDS Work Group reviewed the literature, hosted multi-stakeholder discussions, and consulted domain experts to identify and prioritize the services and capabilities required from clinical information systems (CISs) to enable service-oriented CDS. In addition, relevant available standards were identified. Through this process, ten CIS services and eight CIS capabilities were identified as being important for enabling scalable, service-oriented CDS. In particular, through a survey of 46 domain experts, five services and capabilities were identified as being especially critical: 1) the use of standard information models and terminologies; 2) the ability to leverage a Decision Support Service (DSS); 3) support for a clinical data query service; 4) support for an event subscription and notification service; and 5) support for a user communication service.

  9. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...

  10. Goal Setting and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  11. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  12. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    In 'Joint Action and Development', Stephen Butterfill argues that if several agents' actions are driven by what he calls a "shared goal" -- a certain pattern of goal-relations and expectations -- then these actions constitute a joint action. This kind of joint action is sufficiently cognitively...... undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...... a counterexample, I show that the pattern of goal-relations and expectations specified by Butterfill cannot play this role. I then provide an appropriately conceptually and cognitively undemanding amendment with which the account can be saved....

  13. Learners’ Goal Profiles and their Learning Patterns over an Academic Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence Ng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine distance learners’ goal profiles and their contrasting patterns of learning and achievements at three different points during an academic year, i.e. in the beginning of the course in relation to learners’ general orientations to learning, at the middle of the course in relation to learners’ completion of an assignment, and towards the end of the course in relation to learners’ preparation for course examination. Two hundred seventy-six adult distance learners completed three survey questionnaires that assessed their motivation and learning at these three learning points. Using person-centred analytical procedures, this study located four groups of learners based on different combinations of mastery and performance-approach goals. MANOVA results have shown that multiple-goal learners (High mastery/High performance, HH who held strong mastery and performance-approach goals used more deep and regulatory strategies and showed a higher level of learning interest across three waves of surveys than did those focusing solely on mastery (HL or performance-approach goals (LH. However, the multiple-goal learners did not have better achievement levels compared to those focusing solely on mastery goals (HL. Given that multiple goal learners learnt with a more engaged pattern, it is less likely that these motivated learners will drop out of distance learning courses and programs. Future studies should explore how these goals can be promoted simultaneously in distance learning.

  14. 初中生成就目标、元认知、自我效能感与学业成绩的关系模型%A Model of Goal Achievement Orientation,Self-Efficacy,Metacognition and Academic Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 刘靖文; 吴庆麟

    2012-01-01

    以600名初中学生为被试,采用结构方程模型构建了成就目标、元认知、自我效能感与学业成绩的关系模型,考察了初中学生学业成绩的影响因素。结果表明:(1)自我效能感对学业成绩有直接影响,达到了显著水平。(2)成就目标通过自我效能感间接影响学生的学业成绩。(3)元认知对学生学业成绩的直接影响较弱。(4)成就目标通过自我效能感间接影响元认知。%Based on the test of 600 junior middle school students,we conducted a relationship model of achievement goal orientation,self-efficacy,metacognition and academic performance with the modeling techonology of structural equation,and examined the possible factors influencing the academic performance.the results suggest that:(a) self-efficacy is positively related to academic performance;(b) meatcognition has a weak relationship with the academic performance;(c) achievement goal orientation is not directly related to the academic performance and metacognition;(d) self-efficacy is the strongest predictor of metacognition.

  15. How do learning goals and strategies influence students’ academic success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkov Snežana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings of the research focused on determining whether learning goals and strategies influence differences in academic success. The sample consisted of 364 students of the University of Belgrade. Five categories of learning goals (knowledge orientation, extrinsic goals, self-confirmation orientation, lack of orientation and meta-learning and four categories of learning strategies (understanding strategies, reproduction strategies, achievement-oriented strategies and lack of strategies were included. Data were analyzed with respect to respondent’s gender and field of study. According to the obtained results, there are differences in average exam grades with respect to knowledge and self-confirmation orientation, meta-learning, understanding strategies and achievement-oriented strategies. Relations of certain categories of learning goals and strategies with the length of studying are under gender influence. Students of social sciences are more oriented towards extrinsic goals compared to students of humanities and sciences. Students of social sciences and humanities apply reproduction strategies to a greater extent compared to students of sciences. The field of study does not influence differences in academic success with respect to learning goals and strategies. There is emphasis on the need for acquiring a deeper insight into perspectives of students themselves and for further research on the possibility of development of teaching, with the aim of improvement of learning process and achievement of more quality outcomes.

  16. Interrelationships among Employee Participation, Individual Differences, Goal Difficulty, Goal Acceptance, Goal Instrumentality, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukl, Gary A.; Latham, Gary P.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is a model for goal setting, which is based on Locke's theory that difficult but clear and specific goals, if accepted, will result in higher performance than easy goals, nonspecific goals, or no goals at all. (Author/RK)

  17. RELM (the Working Group for the Development of Region Earthquake Likelihood Models) and the Development of new, Open-Source, Java-Based (Object Oriented) Code for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E. H.

    2001-12-01

    Given problems with virtually all previous earthquake-forecast models for southern California, and a current lack of consensus on how such models should be constructed, a joint SCEC-USGS sponsored working group for the development of Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) has been established (www.relm.org). The goals are as follows: 1) To develop and test a range of viable earthquake-potential models for southern California (not just one "consensus" model); 2) To examine and compare the implications of each model with respect to probabilistic seismic-hazard estimates (which will not only quantify existing hazard uncertainties, but will also indicate how future research should be focused in order to reduce the uncertainties); and 3) To design and document conclusive tests of each model with respect to existing and future geophysical observations. The variety of models under development reflects the variety of geophysical constraints available; these include geological fault information, historical seismicity, geodetic observations, stress-transfer interactions, and foreshock/aftershock statistics. One reason for developing and testing a range of models is to evaluate the extent to which any one can be exported to another region where the options are more limited. RELM is not intended to be a one-time effort. Rather, we are building an infrastructure that will facilitate an ongoing incorporation of new scientific findings into seismic-hazard models. The effort involves the development of several community models and databases, one of which is new Java-based code for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Although several different PSHA codes presently exist, none are open source, well documented, and written in an object-oriented programming language (which is ideally suited for PSHA). Furthermore, we need code that is flexible enough to accommodate the wide range of models currently under development in RELM. The new code is being developed under

  18. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the ethical dilemmas of setting goals in therapy. The main questions that it aims to answer are: who is to set the goals for therapy and who is to decide when they have been reached? The study is based on four semi-­‐structured, phenomenological interviews...... with psychologists, which were analyzed using the framework of the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with minor changes to the procedure of categorization. Using Harré’s (2002, 2012) Positioning Theory, it is shown that determining goals and deciding if they have been reached are processes...... that are based on asymmetric collaboration between the therapist and the client. Determining goals and deciding when they are reached are not “sterile” procedures, as both the client and the therapist might have different agendas when working therapeutically. The psychologists that participated in this study...

  19. Effect of goal difficulty, goal specificity and duration of practice time intervals on muscular endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Eli, M; Tenenbaum, G; Pie, J S; Btesh, Y; Almog, A

    1997-04-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the relationships between goal specificity, goal difficulty and performance, and to determine if setting unrealistic goals would produce decreases in performance. The subjects were high school students from 15 schools and an attempt was made to control for the effects of social comparison. The schools were randomly assigned to one of 15 conditions representing five levels of goal conditions-namely, 'do' (no goals), 'do your best', 'improve by 10%' (easy), 'improve by 20%' (difficult/ realistic) and 'improve by 40%' (improbable/unattainable)-and three levels of practice duration (4, 6 and 8 weeks). This design consisted of nesting goal difficulty within practice duration, which enabled an examination of the goal specificity and goal attainability/difficulty hypotheses proposed by Locke and Latham (1985). A 5 x 3 factorial ANCOVA was applied to the post-baseline sit-up gain scores. The results indicated that all specific groups performed better than all non-specific groups. In addition, across practice durations the difficult/realistic group exhibited the greatest increase in performance, followed by the easy group. The performance gains of the improbable/unattainable group were substantially less compared with the difficult/ realistic group after 4 and 6 weeks, but not after 8 weeks of practice. These results are in line with both the goal specificity and goal difficulty hypotheses derived from the application of Locke's goal-setting theory to sport.

  20. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.