WorldWideScience

Sample records for group future interventions

  1. Group-based social skills interventions for adolescents with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a review and looking to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M; Lerner, Matthew D; Britton, Noah

    2013-01-22

    In this paper, we synthesize the current literature on group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs) for adolescents (ages 10-20 years) with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder and identify key concepts that should be addressed in future research on GSSIs. We consider the research participants, the intervention, the assessment of the intervention, and the research methodology and results to be integral and interconnected components of the GSSI literature, and we review each of these components respectively. Participant characteristics (eg, age, IQ, sex) and intervention characteristics (eg, targeted social skills, teaching strategies, duration and intensity) vary considerably across GSSIs; future research should evaluate whether participant and intervention characteristics mediate/moderate intervention efficacy. Multiple assessments (eg, parent-report, child-report, social cognitive assessments) are used to evaluate the efficacy of GSSIs; future research should be aware of the limitations of current measurement approaches and employ more accurate, sensitive, and comprehensive measurement approaches. Results of GSSIs are largely inconclusive, with few consistent findings across studies (eg, high parent and child satisfaction with the intervention); future research should employ more rigorous methodological standards for evaluating efficacy. A better understanding of these components in the current GSSI literature and a more sophisticated and rigorous analysis of these components in future research will lend clarity to key questions regarding the efficacy of GSSIs for individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

  2. Group-based social skills interventions for adolescents with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a review and looking to the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon CM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Camilla M McMahon,1 Matthew D Lerner,2,3 Noah Britton41Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, USA; 2Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 4Behavorial Sciences Department, Bunker Hill Community College, Charleston, MA, USAAbstract: In this paper, we synthesize the current literature on group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs for adolescents (ages 10–20 years with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder and identify key concepts that should be addressed in future research on GSSIs. We consider the research participants, the intervention, the assessment of the intervention, and the research methodology and results to be integral and interconnected components of the GSSI literature, and we review each of these components respectively. Participant characteristics (eg, age, IQ, sex and intervention characteristics (eg, targeted social skills, teaching strategies, duration and intensity vary considerably across GSSIs; future research should evaluate whether participant and intervention characteristics mediate/moderate intervention efficacy. Multiple assessments (eg, parent-report, child-report, social cognitive assessments are used to evaluate the efficacy of GSSIs; future research should be aware of the limitations of current measurement approaches and employ more accurate, sensitive, and comprehensive measurement approaches. Results of GSSIs are largely inconclusive, with few consistent findings across studies (eg, high parent and child satisfaction with the intervention; future research should employ more rigorous methodological standards for evaluating efficacy. A better understanding of these components in the current GSSI literature and a more sophisticated and rigorous analysis of these components in future research will lend clarity to key questions

  3. Group Intervention in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Group intervention in pediatric physical and occupational therapy is an alternative to individual intervention allowing the therapist to meet the needs of multiple children at one time. Survey research indicates that approximately 40% to 60% of pediatric physical and occupational therapists use group intervention at least occasionally in practice,…

  4. Group Intervention With Adolescent Vietnamese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Alice M.; Sammons, Morgan T.

    1988-01-01

    Describes group intervention model, based on primary prevention schemes, for work with adolescent Vietnamese refugees. Addresses special cultural and therapeutic issues and concerns. Notes that while group therapies are generally difficult to implement with Vietnamese participants, group intervention work is feasible if clinicians modify…

  5. Gestalt Therapy Interventions for Group Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passons, William R.

    1972-01-01

    The author offers a brief introduction to some of the basic tenets of Gestalt therapy, noting goals that are similar to those in counseling theories. He also suggests several interventions from Gestalt therapy to be considered for group counseling and discusses their applications. (Author)

  6. ATLAS Future Framework Requirements Group Report

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Future Frameworks Requirements Group was constituted in Summer 2013 to consider and summarise the framework requirements from trigger and offline for configuring, scheduling and monitoring the data processing software needed by the ATLAS experiment. The principal motivation for such a re-examination arises from the current and anticipated evolution of CPUs, where multiple cores, hyper-threading and wide vector registers require a shift to a concurrent programming model. Such a model requires extensive changes in the current Gaudi/Athena frameworks and offers the opportunity to consider how HLT and offline processing can be better accommodated within the ATLAS framework. This note contains the report of the Future Frameworks Requirements Group.

  7. Addressing group dynamics in a brief motivational intervention for college student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Alexander S; Brown, Janice M

    2003-01-01

    Previous research indicates that brief motivational interventions for college student drinkers may be less effective in group settings than individual settings. Social psychological theories about counterproductive group dynamics may partially explain this finding. The present study examined potential problems with group motivational interventions by comparing outcomes from a standard group motivational intervention (SGMI; n = 25), an enhanced group motivational intervention (EGMI; n = 27) designed to suppress counterproductive processes, and a no intervention control (n = 23). SGMI and EGMI participants reported disruptive group dynamics as evidenced by low elaboration likelihood, production blocking, and social loafing, though the level of disturbance was significantly lower for EGMI individuals (p = .001). Despite counteracting group dynamics in the EGMI condition, participants in the two interventions were statistically similar in post-intervention problem recognition and future drinking intentions. The results raise concerns over implementing individually-based interventions in group settings without making necessary adjustments.

  8. Group practice--trend for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, H H

    1983-11-01

    Group practices in various forms and combinations appear to set the trend for small animal practice management. By pooling their financial resources, energies, and talents, veterinarians can share the burden of increasing overhead costs and enjoy the benefits of specialization, new technologies, continuing education, consultations and referrals, peer review, applied research and publication, and fringe benefits such as paid vacation and sick leave, profit sharing, and pension. Group practices preserve ownership continuity at fair market value and afford opportunities for the utilization of expert business consultants. There are prerequisites to establishing a successful group practice: An adequate personal income base, a sufficient pet population, and business associates with compatible practice philosophy. Special considerations must be given to the social, economic, and psychological forces at work in a group practice environment. Professional and personal interactions can make or break a group practice. The group concept, MIP treatment of clients and their pets, and personalized appointments are important features which must be emphasized. The law of supply and demand and the law of diminishing returns must be kept in focus at all times. In tandem, they dictate the fortunes of all business enterprises and group practices can be particularly vulnerable to them. Long-term business commitment is a condition of group practice ownership and may pose a conflict with other interests. A predetermined buy-sell agreement and deferred compensation plan may provide the answer in case of dissolution, termination, or early retirement. A system of animal and material transport and transfer of business transactions and medical records must be set up between satellite clinics and the base hospital. A hospital-owned-and-operated shuttle service appears to offer the greatest flexibility and convenience. Cost-effectiveness of a shuttle service depends on the volume of referral

  9. Work organization interventions: state of knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lawrence R; Sauter, Steven L

    2004-01-01

    Changes taking place in the modern workplace, such as more flexible and lean production technologies, flatter management structures, and nontraditional employment practices fundamentally alter work organization factors and raise concerns about potentially negative influences on worker health and safety. These changes raise concerns about adverse effects on worker safety and health and call attention to the need for interventions to counter these effects. This forum article provides an overview of work organization intervention research, highlights gaps in the research literature, and sets forth an agenda for future intervention research. Research to date has focused primarily on individual-level interventions, with far less attention to interventions at the legislative/policy level, employer/organization level, and job/task level. Future research is recommended to establish the effectiveness of work organization interventions using improved methodological designs and giving increased attention to the circumstances within organizations that promote the adoption of such interventions.

  10. The future of transcatheter mitral valve interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maisano, Francesco; Alfieri, Ottavio; Banai, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter mitral interventions has been developed to address an unmet clinical need and may be an alternative therapeutic option to surgery with the intent to provide symptomatic and prognostic benefit. Beyond MitraClip therapy, alternative repair technologies are being developed to expand th...

  11. Funding and future diagnosis related group development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertrees, J C

    2001-07-01

    Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) are widely used for a variety of purposes including quality improvement, hospital output measurement and funding. DRGs are a patient classification scheme which provides a means of relating the type of patients a hospital treats (i.e., its casemix) to the costs incurred by the hospital. This is done by classifying patients into mutually exclusive groups based on the patient's principal diagnosis and other information. The original Health Care Financing Administration DRGs (HCFA DRGs) have been in use since 1982. This document provides an overview of future directions for the newer DRG systems and it provides a framework for understanding the use of DRGs for funding. Newer DRG systems incorporate explicit adjustment for severity of illness, include separate measures for the likelihood of mortality, and are more independent of the underlying coding systems (e.g., ICD-10 for diagnoses, ICD-9-CM for procedures). The framework for a casemix-based budgeting system consists of five basic aspects. They are: 1) Categories--which kind of DRG will be the basis for the casemix system; 2) Relative Weights--relative weights reflect the expected cost of a case in one DRG relative to the expected cost of the average patient; 3) Base Rates/Pricing--the base rate converts the relative values to prices or budgets; 4) Adjustments--adjustments account for exogenous factors; 5) Transition Policy--this provides time so hospital administrators can learn to respond to the incentives contained in the DRG system.

  12. The priority intervention group in action; Le groupe d'intervention prioritaire en action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    After the storm of december 1999 in France, RTE defined and implemented a GIP, Group of Priority Intervention to manage such crisis and intervene more rapidly. A crisis drill has been organised the first of February 2001 to repair high voltage electric lines. The document presents the drill and analyses the results. Some information on the RTE missions and management facing the electric power market deregulation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. The Effect of Group Norms on Bystander Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Irwin A.

    1971-01-01

    Forty members of service and social groups were compared for intervention in a simulated emergency situation during the experimental discussion. Service group members were more likely to intervene than social group members, and intervention was made more probable when group norms were made salient in the discussion. (Author/SD)

  14. Personal Autonomy in Group-Based Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Marginalised individuals are often caught in a vicious cycle of economic or health problems, a lack of social connection, and disempowerment. The present research examines interventions that provide opportunities for social inclusion to break this cycle. Specifically, in two longitudinal field studi

  15. Relational interventions for child maltreatment: past, present, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Gravener-Davis, Julie A; Guild, Danielle J; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-11-01

    It is well established that child maltreatment has significant deleterious effects for the individual as well as for society. We briefly review research regarding the impact of child maltreatment on the attachment relationship, highlighting the need for relational interventions for maltreated children and their families to effectively thwart negative developmental cascades that are so often observed in the context of child maltreatment. Next, historical and contemporaneous perspectives on relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment are discussed, with attention to the empirical evidence for and the current evidence-based status of several relationally based interventions for child maltreatment. Differential sensitivity to the environment is then discussed as a theoretical framework with important implications for interventions for individuals who have been reared in maltreating environments. Current research on neurobiology and maltreatment is then reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for future investigations on genetic variants, epigenetics, and the efficacy of relational interventions for maltreated children. We conclude with a discussion of the tenets of developmental psychopathology, their implications for relational interventions for child maltreatment, and recommendations for advancing the development, provision, and evaluation of relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment.

  16. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  17. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  18. Group-as-a-whole as a context for studying individual behaviour: A group diagnostic intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys

    2012-01-01

    Orientation: Traditionalists view group interventions from three perspectives: singletons, dyads and whole groups. The focus of this research was on interventions from the third perspective, that of the whole group, using a systems psychodynamic stance. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to use group-as-a-whole to study individual behaviour in organisations.Motivation for the study: Team research and practice is not on a par with the complexities that teams actually experience....

  19. Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Hoogveld, Bert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., Hoogveld, A. W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands; EU Forlic project.

  20. Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Hoogveld, Bert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., Hoogveld, A. W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands; EU Forlic project.

  1. Community Post-Tornado Support Groups: Intervention and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Susan; And Others

    Post-tornado support groups were organized by the Greene County, North Carolina disaster coordinators and the Pitt County outreach workers from the Community Mental Health Center sponsored tornado follow-up project. The most significant intervention used was the emphasis on creating a climate of group support by establishing a forum for…

  2. [Evaluation of preventive group intervention for children of divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütkenhaus, P; Hasler-Kufner, P; Plaum, E

    1996-09-01

    Following the results of American intervention programs for children of divorce, the effects of a preventive group program for 10 to 12 year old children of divorced families were studied within a pretest-posttest design. The aim of the intervention was to decrease children's fears, increase their feelings of self-esteem and to improve the relationship to their parents. The program consists of 10 group-sessions about divorce related changes and experiences in the children families and 3 evenings for their parents. Subjects were 5 boys and 2 girls. The results show that after the intervention fears are decreased, feelings of self-esteem are increased and the subjective perception of the own family is more positive than before. The results are discussed in terms of the further development of interventions for children of divorce.

  3. Promoting family meals: a review of existing interventions and opportunities for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura; Oh, April; Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that regular family meals protect against unhealthy eating and obesity during childhood and adolescence. However, there is limited information on ways to promote family meals as part of health promotion and obesity prevention efforts. The primary aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on strategies to promote family meals among families with school-aged children and adolescents. First, we reviewed interventions that assess family meals as an outcome and summarized strategies that have been used in these interventions. Second, we reviewed correlates and barriers to family meals to identify focal populations and target constructs for consideration in new interventions. During May 26-27, 2014, PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify literature on family meals published between January 1, 2000 and May 27, 2014. Two reviewers coded 2,115 titles/abstracts, yielding a sample of 139 articles for full-text review. Six interventions and 43 other studies presenting data on correlates of or barriers to family meals were included in the review. Four interventions resulted in greater family meal frequency. Although there were a small number of interventions, intervention settings were diverse and included the home, community, medical settings, the workplace, and the Internet. Common strategies were goal setting and interactive group activities, and intervention targets included cooking and food preparation, cost, shopping, and adolescent influence. Although methodological nuances may contribute to mixed findings, key correlates of family meals were employment, socioeconomic and demographic factors, family structure, and psychosocial constructs. Barriers to consider in future interventions include time and scheduling challenges, cost, and food preferences. Increasing youth involvement in mealtime, tailoring interventions to family characteristics, and providing support for families experiencing time-related barriers are suggested

  4. Group intervention for siblings of children with disabilities: a pilot study in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Tina; Nordgren, Ingrid; Rein, George; Sonnander, Karin

    2012-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of a group intervention in a clinical setting designed to increase knowledge of disability and improve sibling relationship among siblings of children with disabilities. A self-selected sample of 54 younger and older siblings with typical development (ages 8-12 years) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (9), Asperger syndrome (7), autistic disorder (13), physical disability (8) and intellectual disability (17) participated in collateral sibling groups. The Sibling Knowledge Interview (SKI) and Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (SRQ) were administered pre- and post-intervention. SKI scores increased (p < 0.001) from pre- to post-intervention when merged diagnostic groups were compared. Comparisons of SRQ pre- and post-intervention scores across diagnostic sibling groups showed significantly different (p < 0.05) score patterns. The results were encouraging and contribute to further development of interventions meeting the needs of siblings of children with disabilities. In view of the limited empirical research on group interventions for siblings of children with disabilities future work is needed to investigate the effectiveness of such interventions. Particular attention should be given to siblings of children with autism and siblings of children with intellectual disability.

  5. Group-as-a-whole as a context for studying individual behaviour: A group diagnostic intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Traditionalists view group interventions from three perspectives: singletons, dyads and whole groups. The focus of this research was on interventions from the third perspective, that of the whole group, using a systems psychodynamic stance. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to use group-as-a-whole to study individual behaviour in organisations.Motivation for the study: Team research and practice is not on a par with the complexities that teams actually experience. Traditional group interventions use humanistic and functionalistic paradigms that do not consider the unconscious functioning of groups. Interventions that use the system psychodynamic paradigm could address these dynamics because they study behaviour of individual group members in the context of the group-as-a-whole. Research design, approach and method: The researcher conducted action research in a publishing company. He used purposive sampling and analysed the data using qualitative content analysis.Main findings: The researcher found that the group-as-a-whole partly explains the behaviour of team members and that intervening from this perspective could improve negative relationships.Practical/managerial implications: Managers can use interventions that use the groupas- a-whole concept as a diagnostic intervention to study and possibly change the complex behavioural issues that team members experience.Contribution/value-add: The findings give one an understanding of the behaviour of individual group members when one views it from a systems psychodynamic stance. Furthermore, the researcher proposes a group diagnostic intervention that will allow some of the root causes of poor interpersonal behaviour to surface and group members to diagnose and take ownership of their own behaviour.

  6. Promoting family meals: a review of existing interventions and opportunities for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer L

    2015-06-01

    goal setting and interactive group activities, and intervention targets included cooking and food preparation, cost, shopping, and adolescent influence. Although methodological nuances may contribute to mixed findings, key correlates of family meals were employment, socioeconomic and demographic factors, family structure, and psychosocial constructs. Barriers to consider in future interventions include time and scheduling challenges, cost, and food preferences. Increasing youth involvement in mealtime, tailoring interventions to family characteristics, and providing support for families experiencing time-related barriers are suggested strategies for future research. Keywords: family meals, families, intervention, diet 

  7. Using memories to motivate future behaviour: an experimental exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondolillo, Mathew J; Pillemer, David B

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a novel memory-based experimental intervention to increase exercise activity. Undergraduate students completed a two-part online survey ostensibly regarding college activity choices. At Time 1, they completed questionnaires that included assessments of exercise-related attitudes, motivation and self-reported behaviours. Next, they described a memory of a positive or negative experience that would increase their motivation to exercise; students in a control condition did not receive a memory prompt. Finally, they rated their intentions to exercise in the future. Eight days following Time 1, students received a Time 2 survey that included an assessment of their self-reported exercise during the prior week. Students in the positive memory condition reported higher levels of subsequent exercise than those in the control condition; students in the negative memory condition reported intermediate levels of exercise. Activating a positive motivational memory had a significant effect on students' self-reported exercise activity even after controlling for prior attitudes, motivation and exercise activity.

  8. Summary of “Future of DIS” Working Group Session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamont M.; Guzey, V.; Polini, A.

    2011-04-11

    Despite the closure of the HERA accelerator in the past few years, much physics still remains to be understood, from the quark and gluon content of the nucleon/nucleus across all x to the still unknown spin structure of the proton. The 'Future of DIS' working group was dedicated to discussions on these and many other subjects. This paper represents a brief overview of the discussions. For further details, please refer to individual contributions.

  9. Group music interventions for dementia-associated anxiety: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing-Randolph, Avis R; Phillips, Linda R; Williams, Ann B

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review examines the few published studies using group music interventions to reduce dementia-associated anxiety, the delivery of such interventions, and proposes changes to nursing curriculum for the future. Literature review. All quantitative studies from 1989 to 2014 were searched in CINAHL and PubMed databases. Only published articles written in English were included. Studies excluded were reviews, non-human subjects, reports, expert opinions, subject age less than 65, papers that were theoretical or philosophical in nature, individual music interventions, case studies, studies without quantification of changes to anxiety, and those consisting of less than three subjects. Components of each study are analyzed and compared to examine the risk for bias. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria for review. Subject dementia severity ranged from mild to severe among studies reviewed. Intervention delivery and group sizes varied among studies. Seven reported decreases to anxiety after a group music intervention. Group music interventions to treat dementia-associated anxiety is a promising treatment. However, the small number of studies and the large variety in methods and definitions limit our ability to draw conclusions. It appears that group size, age of persons with dementia and standardization of the best times for treatment to effect anxiety decreases all deserve further investigation. In addition, few studies have been conducted in the United States. In sum, while credit is due to the nurses and music therapists who pioneered the idea in nursing care, consideration of patient safety and improvements in music intervention delivery training from a healthcare perspective are needed. Finally, more research investigating resident safety and the growth of nursing roles within various types of facilities where anxiety is highest, is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Descriptions of memory rehabilitation group interventions for neurological conditions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kristy-Jane; Sinclair, Emma J; dasNair, Roshan

    2016-07-01

    To establish what aspects of group-based cognitive rehabilitation for memory problems are reported, and to develop a checklist for authors, which may to improve reporting of these interventions in future studies. A systematic search was conducted on Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE and PsycINFO electronic databases (last search: 01/05/2015). Articles were included if the sample were adults with a neurological disorder, the intervention was group-based cognitive rehabilitation for memory problems, and if the study was a randomised controlled trial. Articles were independently screened for inclusion and data extracted by two researchers, with the third researcher arbitrating any disputes. Fourteen studies were included in this review. The reporting of certain aspects of an intervention was found to be poor, particularly in relation to: duration of the programme (6 of 14 studies did not report), the development of the intervention (7 of 14 studies did not discuss), and the content and structure of intervention (7 of the 14 studies did not provide details). This review found that the overall reporting of memory rehabilitation content and format is poor. Refinement and adaption of pre-existing checklists to capture aspects of cognitive rehabilitation programmes may help authors when reporting complex interventions. A draft checklist is provided that could be refined and validated in further research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Betting on the fastest horse: Using computer simulation to design a combination HIV intervention for future projects in Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Patel, Anik R; Schensul, Stephen; Schensul, Jean; Nucifora, Kimberly; Zhou, Qinlian; Bryant, Kendall; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2017-01-01

    To inform the design of a combination intervention strategy targeting HIV-infected unhealthy alcohol users in Maharashtra, India, that could be tested in future randomized control trials. Using probabilistic compartmental simulation modeling we compared intervention strategies targeting HIV-infected unhealthy alcohol users on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Maharashtra, India. We tested interventions targeting four behaviors (unhealthy alcohol consumption, risky sexual behavior, depression and antiretroviral adherence), in three formats (individual, group based, community) and two durations (shorter versus longer). A total of 5,386 possible intervention combinations were tested across the population for a 20-year time horizon and intervention bundles were narrowed down based on incremental cost-effectiveness analysis using a two-step probabilistic uncertainty analysis approach. Taking into account uncertainty in transmission variables and intervention cost and effectiveness values, we were able to reduce the number of possible intervention combinations to be used in a randomized control trial from over 5,000 to less than 5. The most robust intervention bundle identified was a combination of three interventions: long individual alcohol counseling; weekly Short Message Service (SMS) adherence counseling; and brief sex risk group counseling. In addition to guiding policy design, simulation modeling of HIV transmission can be used as a preparatory step to trial design, offering a method for intervention pre-selection at a reduced cost.

  12. Letters from the Future: Suggestions for Using Letter Writing as a School Counselling Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Hinkle, Michelle Gimenez; Protivnak, Jake J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a school counselling intervention that utilises letters written from the future. Few peer-reviewed articles have addressed the use of letter writing in a school counselling context, and none have focused on the use of letters from the future as a means of school counsellor intervention. The authors present a theoretical…

  13. Incredible Years parenting interventions: current effectiveness research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Frances; Leijten, Patty

    2017-06-01

    The Incredible Years parenting intervention is a social learning theory-based programme for reducing children's conduct problems. Dozens of randomized trials, many by independent investigators, find consistent effects of Incredible Years on children's conduct problems across multiple countries and settings. However, in common with other interventions, these average effects hide much variability in the responses of individual children and families. Innovative moderator research is needed to enhance scientific understanding of why individual children and parents respond differently to intervention. Additionally, research is needed to test whether there are ways to make Incredible Years more effective and accessible for families and service providers, especially in low resource settings, by developing innovative delivery systems using new media, and by systematically testing for essential components of parenting interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The Effectiveness of Early Group Intervention for Military Reserves Soldiers: The Role of the Repressive Coping Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoval-Zuckerman, Yael; Dekel, Rachel; Solomon, Zahava; Levi, Ofir

    2015-01-01

    This study had two aims: 1. To examine whether soldiers who participated in Early Group Intervention (EGI) would show less distress and better functioning and physical health than soldiers who did not participate in EGI, and 2. To examine the contribution of the intervention to participants with repressive coping style. The sample comprised 166 male reserve soldiers who fought in the Second Lebanon War. The intervention was conducted three months after the traumatic event, was based on military protocol, and took place over the course of one day. Data were collected at two points in time (four months apart). The findings indicated that after EGI, the intervention group experienced less post-traumatic distress than did the control group. In addition, four months after the intervention, the functioning and physical health of the intervention group was significantly better than that of the control group. Notably, the intensity of post-traumatic distress before the intervention was lower among repressors and low-anxious soldiers than among soldiers in the other two groups (high-anxious and defensive). No significant differences were found after the intervention with regard to the various styles of coping with post-traumatic distress. Future clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and Target Systolic Blood Pressure in Future Hypertension Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wagner, C Shaun

    2016-08-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP, mm Hg) Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that targeting SBP SPRINT has 2 implicit assumptions that could impact future US hypertension guidelines: (1) standard therapy controlled SBP similarly to that in adults with treated hypertension and (2) intensive therapy produced a lower mean SBP than in adults with treated hypertension and SBP SPRINT-like participants aged ≥50 years; group 2 consisted of participants all aged ≥18 years; and group 3 consisted of participants aged ≥18 years excluding group 1 but otherwise similar to SPRINT-like participants except high cardiovascular risk. Mean SBPs in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 133.0, 130.1, and 124.6, with 66.2%, 72.2%, and 81.9%, respectively, controlled to SBP SPRINT-like group had higher mean SBP than comparison groups, yet lower than SPRINT standard treatment group and (2) among groups 1 to 3 with SBP SPRINT intensive treatment. SPRINT results suggest that treatment should be continued and not reduced when treated SBP is SPRINT-like subset. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of treated adults with SBP SPRINT intensive treatment SBP without lowering treatment goals.

  16. Group Work with Parents of Adolescent Sex Offenders: Intervention Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bennett

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest and attention to adolescent sex offenders has increased greatly over the past twenty years. Allegations of adolescent sexual improprieties are known to have profound and disruptive repercussions on the entire family, especially the parents of the offending adolescent. Adolescent criminal acts, in general, result in a myriad of disconcerting emotions experienced by the parent(s. Although a great deal of attention is currently being focused upon treatment of adolescent sex offenders, little is being written about intervention with parents of these adolescents. This paper reviews the clinical and research literature pertaining to the family dimensions of male adolescent sexual offending behavior and offers a set of guidelines for use in group practice with parents of these adolescent.

  17. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma.

  18. Groups 4 Health: Evidence that a social-identity intervention that builds and strengthens social group membership improves mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation and disconnection have profound negative effects on mental health, but there are few, if any, theoretically-derived interventions that directly target this problem. We evaluate a new intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), a manualized 5-module psychological intervention that targets the development and maintenance of social group relationships to treat psychological distress arising from social isolation. G4H was tested using a non-randomized control design. The program was delivered to young adults presenting with social isolation and affective disturbance. Primary outcome measures assessed mental health (depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and stress), well-being (life satisfaction, self-esteem) and social connectedness (loneliness, social functioning). Our secondary goal was to assess whether mechanisms of social identification were responsible for changes in outcomes. G4H was found to significantly improve mental health, well-being, and social connectedness on all measures, both on program completion and 6-month follow-up. In line with social identity theorizing, analysis also showed that improvements in depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and life satisfaction were underpinned by participants' increased identification both with their G4H group and with multiple groups. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential value of G4H and its underlying mechanisms, but further examination is required in other populations to address issues of generalizability, and in randomized controlled trials to address its wider efficacy. Results of this pilot study confirm that G4H has the potential to reduce the negative health-related consequences of social disconnection. Future research will determine its utility in wider community contexts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Teaching Effort and the Future of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Michael M.; Solari, Emily J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we discuss two impediments to widespread adoption and implementation of cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) procedures by teachers of students with behavior disorders. First, its principles can be difficult, even for researchers and other specialists. Second, despite ample demonstration that teachers can be taught CBI…

  20. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Gorgas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emotional Intelligence (EI is defined as an ability to perceive another’s emotional state combined with an ability to modify one’s own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI’s are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM residents. Methods: This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT, a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre and after (post training, and at six-months post training (follow up; and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Results: Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%, 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p<0.05. Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%, but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77. We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Conclusion: Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant

  1. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgas, Diane L; Greenberger, Sarah; Bahner, David P; Way, David P

    2015-11-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as an ability to perceive another's emotional state combined with an ability to modify one's own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI's are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability) through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM) residents. This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT), a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre) and after (post) training, and at six-months post training (follow up); and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%), 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p≤0.05). Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%), but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77). We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant positive impact on EM residents six months after the

  2. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; de Wit, John; Benyamini, Yael; Burkert, Silke; Chamberland, Pier-Eric; Chater, Angel; Dombrowski, Stephan U; van Dongen, Anne; French, David P; Gauchet, Aurelie; Hankonen, Nelli; Karekla, Maria; Kinney, Anita Y; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Hing Lo, Siu; López-Roig, Sofía; Meslot, Carine; Marques, Marta Moreira; Neter, Efrat; Plass, Anne Marie; Potthoff, Sebastian; Rennie, Laura; Scholz, Urte; Stadler, Gertraud; Stolte, Elske; Ten Hoor, Gill; Verhoeven, Aukje; Wagner, Monika; Oettingen, Gabriele; Sheeran, Paschal; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural medicine who convened to discuss priority issues in planning interventions in health contexts and develop a set of recommendations for future research and practice. The expert group adopted a nominal groups approach and voting system to elicit and structure priority issues in planning interventions and implementation intentions research. Forty-two priority issues identified in initial discussions were further condensed to 18 key issues, including definitions of planning and implementation intentions and 17 priority research areas. Each issue was subjected to voting for consensus among group members and formed the basis of the position statement and recommendations. Specifically, the expert group endorsed statements and recommendations in the following areas: generic definition of planning and specific definition of implementation intentions, recommendations for better testing of mechanisms, guidance on testing the effects of moderators of planning interventions, recommendations on the social aspects of planning interventions, identification of the preconditions that moderate effectiveness of planning interventions and recommendations for research on how people use plans.

  3. Social Media and Alcohol: Summary of Research, Intervention Ideas and Future Study Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Moreno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol content is frequently displayed on social media through both user-generated posts and advertisements. Previous work supports that alcohol content on social media is influential and often associated with offline behaviors for adolescents and young adults. Social media may have a role in future alcohol intervention efforts including identifying those at risk or providing timely prevention messages. Future intervention efforts may benefit from an affordance approach rather than focusing on a single platform.

  4. Social Media and Alcohol: Summary of Research, Intervention Ideas and Future Study Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Moreno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol content is frequently displayed on social media through both user-generated posts and advertisements. Previous work supports that alcohol content on social media is influential and often associated with offline behaviors for adolescents and young adults. Social media may have a role in future alcohol intervention efforts including identifying those at risk or providing timely prevention messages. Future intervention efforts may benefit from an affordance approach rather than focusing on a single platform.

  5. Enhancing student motivation: a longitudinal intervention study based on future time perspective theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitema, J.; Peetsma, T.; van der Veen, I.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspective (FTP) theory, has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (T. T. D. Peetsma & I. Van

  6. Conducting Nursing Intervention Research in a Cooperative Group Setting – A Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Heidi S.; Nolte, Susan; Edwards, Robert P.; Wenzel, Lari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To provide a history on nursing science within the Gynecology Oncology Group (GOG); to discuss challenges and facilitators of nursing science in the cooperative group (CG) using a current nurse-led protocol (GOG-0259) as an exemplar; and to propose recommendations aimed at advancing nursing science in the CG setting. Data Source GOG reports and protocol databases, online databases of indexed citations, and experiences from the development and implementation of GOG-0259. Conclusions Benefits of CG research include opportunities for inter-disciplinary collaboration and ability to rapidly accrue large national samples. Challenges include limited financial resources to support non-treatment trials, a cumbersome protocol approval process, and lack of experience with nursing/quality of life intervention studies. Formal structures within GOG need to be created to encourage nurse scientists to become active members; promote collaboration between experienced GOG advanced practice nurses and new nurse scientists to identify nursing research priorities; and consider innovative funding structures to support pilot intervention studies. Implications for Nursing Practice Understanding the CG research process is critical for nurse scientists. A multi-disciplinary team of CG leaders can help investigators navigate a complex research environment and can increase awareness of the value of nursing research. PMID:24559780

  7. Definition of a COPD self-management intervention: International Expert Group consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effing, Tanja W; Vercoulen, Jan H; Bourbeau, Jean; Trappenburg, Jaap; Lenferink, Anke; Cafarella, Paul; Coultas, David; Meek, Paula; van der Valk, Paul; Bischoff, Erik W M A; Bucknall, Christine; Dewan, Naresh A; Early, Frances; Fan, Vincent; Frith, Peter; Janssen, Daisy J A; Mitchell, Katy; Morgan, Mike; Nici, Linda; Patel, Irem; Walters, Haydn; Rice, Kathryn L; Singh, Sally; Zuwallack, Richard; Benzo, Roberto; Goldstein, Roger; Partridge, Martyn R; van der Palen, Job

    2016-07-01

    There is an urgent need for consensus on what defines a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) self-management intervention. We aimed to obtain consensus regarding the conceptual definition of a COPD self-management intervention by engaging an international panel of COPD self-management experts using Delphi technique features and an additional group meeting.In each consensus round the experts were asked to provide feedback on the proposed definition and to score their level of agreement (1=totally disagree; 5=totally agree). The information provided was used to modify the definition for the next consensus round. Thematic analysis was used for free text responses and descriptive statistics were used for agreement scores.In total, 28 experts participated. The consensus round response rate varied randomly over the five rounds (ranging from 48% (n=13) to 85% (n=23)), and mean definition agreement scores increased from 3.8 (round 1) to 4.8 (round 5) with an increasing percentage of experts allocating the highest score of 5 (round 1: 14% (n=3); round 5: 83% (n=19)).In this study we reached consensus regarding a conceptual definition of what should be a COPD self-management intervention, clarifying the requisites for such an intervention. Operationalisation of this conceptual definition in the near future will be an essential next step.

  8. Multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for self-management of fibromyalgia: a mixed-methods randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bourgault

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of the PASSAGE Program, a structured multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for the self-management of FMS.A mixed-methods randomized controlled trial (intervention (INT vs. waitlist (WL was conducted with patients suffering from FMS. Data were collected at baseline (T0, at the end of the intervention (T1, and 3 months later (T2. The primary outcome was change in pain intensity (0-10. Secondary outcomes were fibromyalgia severity, pain interference, sleep quality, pain coping strategies, depression, health-related quality of life, patient global impression of change (PGIC, and perceived pain relief. Qualitative group interviews with a subset of patients were also conducted. Complete data from T0 to T2 were available for 43 patients.The intervention had a statistically significant impact on the three PGIC measures. At the end of the PASSAGE Program, the percentages of patients who perceived overall improvement in their pain levels, functioning and quality of life were significantly higher in the INT Group (73%, 55%, 77% respectively than in the WL Group (8%, 12%, 20%. The same differences were observed 3 months post-intervention (Intervention group: 62%, 43%, 38% vs Waitlist Group: 13%, 13%, 9%. The proportion of patients who reported ≥ 50% pain relief was also significantly higher in the INT Group at the end of the intervention (36% vs 12% and 3 months post-intervention (33% vs 4%. Results of the qualitative analysis were in line with the quantitative findings regarding the efficacy of the intervention. The improvement, however, was not reflected in the primary outcome and other secondary outcome measures.The PASSAGE Program was effective in helping FMS patients gain a sense of control over their symptoms. We suggest including PGIC in future clinical trials on FMS as they appear to capture important aspects of the patients' experience.International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number

  9. Internet interventions for mental health and addictions: current findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John A; Gulliver, Amelia; Farrer, Lou; Bennett, Kylie; Carron-Arthur, Bradley

    2014-12-01

    Over the last several years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of publications reporting on Internet interventions for mental health and addictions. This paper provides a summary of the recent research on Internet interventions for the most common mental health and addictions concerns-depression, anxiety, alcohol and smoking. There is considerable evidence for the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions targeting depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol use and smoking. Small to moderate effect sizes have been reported for interventions targeting depression, anxiety and alcohol use, and smoking interventions have shown large effects. The addition of human support to depression and anxiety interventions has generally resulted in larger treatments effects, but this trend has not been observed in trials of interventions targeting alcohol use. There is some evidence that online interventions can be as effective as face-to-face therapies, at least for anxiety disorders. Despite a proliferation of research activity in this area, gaps in knowledge remain. Future research should focus on the development and evaluation of interventions for different platforms (e.g. smartphone applications), examining the long-term impacts of these interventions, determining active intervention components and identifying methods for enhancing tailoring and engagement. Careful consideration should be given to the ongoing technical and clinical expertise required to ensure that Internet interventions are delivered safely and professionally in a rapidly changing technology environment.

  10. The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space: a systematic review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Christian, Hayley; Veitch, Jenny; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Hipp, J Aaron; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is mounting on the association between the built environment and physical activity (PA) with a call for intervention research. A broader approach which recognizes the role of supportive environments that can make healthy choices easier is required. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of interventions to encourage PA in urban green space. Five databases were searched independently by two reviewers using search terms relating to 'physical activity', 'urban green space' and 'intervention' in July 2014. Eligibility criteria included: (i) intervention to encourage PA in urban green space which involved either a physical change to the urban green space or a PA intervention to promote use of urban green space or a combination of both; and (ii) primary outcome of PA. Of the 2405 studies identified, 12 were included. There was some evidence (4/9 studies showed positive effect) to support built environment only interventions for encouraging use and increasing PA in urban green space. There was more promising evidence (3/3 studies showed positive effect) to support PAprograms or PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment, for increasing urban green space use and PA of users. Recommendations for future research include the need for longer term follow-up post-intervention, adequate control groups, sufficiently powered studies, and consideration of the social environment, which was identified as a significantly under-utilized resource in this area. Interventions that involve the use of PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment are likely to have a positive effect on PA. Robust evaluations of such interventions are urgently required. The findings provide a platform to inform the design, implementation and evaluation of future urban green space and PAintervention research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving Parental Stress Levels Among Mothers Living with HIV: A Randomized Control Group Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Erica R.; Davies, Susan L.; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J.; Shrestha, Sadeep; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2015-01-01

    Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of P...

  12. Positive psychology group intervention for breast cancer patients: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Cerezo, M; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; De La Torre-Luque, Alejandro

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of a psychological group intervention based on positive psychology in women with breast cancer. 175 women were randomly assigned either to an experimental group, receiving the 14-session intervention (n = 87), or to a wait list group (n = 88) that did not receive any type of intervention. For treatment, a group intervention was applied, based on improving psychological strengths and enhancing positive psychology-based styles of coping. Strength-related outcomes, self-esteem, well-being, and happiness were assessed before and after the intervention. The experimental group showed higher scores on all of the study variables after the intervention. Participants reported improved self-esteem, emotional intelligence-related abilities, resilience, and optimism, as well as positive affectivity, well-being, and happiness. The results show a beneficial effect of this psychological intervention based on positive psychology on female breast cancer patients' psychological health.

  13. The Skills of Facilitator Nurses in Psycho-Social Group Intervention for Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chujo, Masami; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to provide cancer patients with a psychosocial group intervention consisting of 3 parts, i.e., education on how to cope with stress and solve problems, group discussions, and progressive muscle relaxation, and to investigate the intervention techniques of Japanese facilitators. Methods Group interventions for breast cancer patients performed by 3 facilitators were analyzed qualitatively and inductively using a phenomenological approach. Results The s...

  14. The future of transcatheter mitral valve interventions: competitive or complementary role of repair vs. replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisano, Francesco; Alfieri, Ottavio; Banai, Shmuel; Buchbinder, Maurice; Colombo, Antonio; Falk, Volkmar; Feldman, Ted; Franzen, Olaf; Herrmann, Howard; Kar, Saibal; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lutter, Georg; Mack, Michael; Nickenig, Georg; Piazza, Nicolo; Reisman, Mark; Ruiz, Carlos E; Schofer, Joachim; Søndergaard, Lars; Stone, Gregg W; Taramasso, Maurizio; Thomas, Martyn; Vahanian, Alec; Webb, John; Windecker, Stephan; Leon, Martin B

    2015-07-07

    Transcatheter mitral interventions has been developed to address an unmet clinical need and may be an alternative therapeutic option to surgery with the intent to provide symptomatic and prognostic benefit. Beyond MitraClip therapy, alternative repair technologies are being developed to expand the transcatheter intervention armamentarium. Recently, the feasibility of transcatheter mitral valve implantation in native non-calcified valves has been reported in very high-risk patients. Acknowledging the lack of scientific evidence to date, it is difficult to predict what the ultimate future role of transcatheter mitral valve interventions will be. The purpose of the present report is to review the current state-of-the-art of mitral valve intervention, and to identify the potential future scenarios, which might benefit most from the transcatheter repair and replacement devices under development.

  15. Effect of a Disease-Specific Planning Intervention on Surrogate Understanding of Patient Goals for Future Medical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Karin T.; Hammes, Bernard J.; Kehl, Karen A.; Briggs, Linda A.; Brown, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    Context Patients with life-limiting illnesses, and their families, struggle with complex treatment decisions as these patients approach the last few years of life. Surrogates often do not clearly understand the patient's goals for future medical treatments. Objectives To determine if a disease-specific planning process can improve surrogate understanding of such patient goals for future, medical treatments. Design, Setting, and Participants A multisite randomized controlled trial conducted between January 1, 2004 and July 31, 2007 in 6 outpatient clinics of large community or university health systems in 3 Wisconsin cities. Subjects were patients with either chronic congestive heart failure or chronic renal disease and their surrogate decision makers. Participants had to be competent, English-speaking adults at least 18 years of age. Intervention Trained health professionals conducted a structured, patient-centered interview intended to promote informed decision making and to result in the completion of a document clarifying the goals of the patient with regard to four disease-specific health outcome situations and to the degree of decision-making latitude granted to the surrogate. Measurements Surrogate understanding of patient goals for care with regard to four expected, disease-specific outcomes situations and of the degree of surrogate latitude in decision making. Results Three hundred thirteen patient-surrogate pairs completed the study. As measured by Kappa (κ) scores and in all four situations and in the degree of latitude, intervention group surrogates demonstrated a significantly higher degree of understanding of patient goals than control group surrogates. Intervention group κ scores ranged from 0.61 to 0.78, while control group κ scores ranged from 0.07 to 0.28. Conclusion Surrogates in the intervention group had a significantly better understanding of patient goals and preferences than surrogates in the control group. This finding is the first step

  16. The Skills of Facilitator Nurses in Psycho-Social Group Intervention for Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Masami; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to provide cancer patients with a psychosocial group intervention consisting of 3 parts, i.e., education on how to cope with stress and solve problems, group discussions, and progressive muscle relaxation, and to investigate the intervention techniques of Japanese facilitators. Group interventions for breast cancer patients performed by 3 facilitators were analyzed qualitatively and inductively using a phenomenological approach. The skills of facilitators included 10 intervention techniques and 1 problem in interventions. Intervention techniques, which promote group dynamics and thereby help participants acquire improvements in their coping abilities and quality of life (QOL), were somewhat different between new and experienced facilitators, with the content showing immaturity and maturity in the new and experienced facilitators, respectively. Both experienced and new facilitators faced the risk of experiencing problems in interventions, which countered the purpose of the intervention of improving the participants' coping abilities or QOL. While intervention skills are necessary for facilitators to execute group interventions, it must be borne in mind, that even well-experienced facilitators may not always be able to accomplish skillful intervention.

  17. [Impulsivity-focused Group Intervention to reduce Binge Eating Episodes in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder - A Group Training Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Skoda, Eva-Maria; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2016-11-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is an eating disorder where cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) could already show reliable efficacy. Relying on basic research, CBT interventions which especially focus on impulsivity could be effective, because binge eating episodes represent highly impulsive eating behaviour. For this reason, we developed a treatment concept about an impulsivity-focused behavioural group intervention for patients with BED, called IMPULS. The efficacy of IMPULS is currently investigated in a randomised controlled trial 1. IMPULS is drafted as a weekly group training programme with 5-6 participants per group. The essential interventions are food-related cue exposure with response prevention and the development of self-control strategies. These interventions are adapted onto the impulsivity concept from conventional treatment of addictive disorders and BED. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Inpatient group therapeutic interventions for patients with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vilash

    2015-03-01

    Group therapy can be an effective mode of therapy, used on an inpatient unit, as it can allow patients to become allies in their journey to understand and overcome their mental health needs. The therapeutic principles discussed by Dr Irvin Yalom illustrate the significance and importance of group therapy, which was strongly incorporated into interactive behavior therapy (IBT) developed by Dr Daniel J Tomasulo. IBT is a type of group therapy, more action oriented, created to allow patients with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to better comprehend discussed topics, by designing and tailoring activities to meet their cognitive and linguistic capabilities. Additional details found in this article will illustrate the methods by which IBT is capable of meeting the needs of patients with ID. Such adjustments include shorter duration of activities to maximize concentration, proactive role-playing involving the synergistic effort of all members of the group, and limiting the authoritative role of the therapist in a group environment.

  19. HIV/AIDS behavioral interventions in China: a literature review and recommendation for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming

    2009-06-01

    In the past two decades, China has witnessed an alarming increase of HIV/AIDS epidemic. Meanwhile, a number of HIV prevention interventions have been conducted. This study reviews existing studies in literature on behavioral interventions on HIV/AIDS in China. Of 25 studies we identified, most have been concentrated in South and South-West China, mainly targeting injection drug users and female sex workers. The most commonly used intervention strategy was individual-oriented HIV-related knowledge education and behavioral skill training. All studies reported positive intervention effects including improved HIV-related knowledge, increased condom use, reduced needle sharing, and reduced STI. Literature also suggests a lack of intervention among other at-risk populations such as MSM, migrant workers, and non-injecting drug users, lack of studies with rigorous evaluation design, inadequate follow-up, limited outcome measurement, and lack of multi-faceted structural interventions. The existing intervention studies document strong evidence of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic through effective behavioral intervention. More efforts are needed to control the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Future studies need to employ more rigorous methodology and incorporate environmental or structural factors for different populations at risk of HIV infection in China.

  20. Helping Adolescent Mothers to Achieve in School: An Evaluation of the Taking Charge Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary Beth; Franklin, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    A school social worker and three social work interns in a semirural alternative high school with a predominant Hispanic student enrollment evaluated the Taking Charge group intervention. The group is an evidence-based life skills intervention for adolescent mothers, and it was evaluated on its efficacy for improving participants' school…

  1. Building Relationships and Combating Bullying: Effectiveness of a School-Based Social Skills Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosier, Melissa E.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a generic social skills intervention, Social Skills GRoup INtervention (S.S.GRIN), for children experiencing peer dislike, bullying, or social anxiety. Third-grade children were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 187) or no-treatment control (CO; n = 194) groups. Examination of the direction and magnitude of…

  2. Future Development Strategies for S Group Based on SWOT Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohui; QI; Ligen; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,the real estate development enterprises are facing the gradually increased government’s macro-control,and the increasingly fierce market competition,so it is very imperative to timely adjust and change the enterprises’ development strategies to adapt to the new development situation.With S Group as the study object,we use SWOT analysis to analyze the company’s internal and external environment,study the current situation of the company and the existing problems,and clearly point out the opportunities and challenges facing the company.Finally we put forth some targeted strategic recommendations,in order to provide a reference for the development of S Group.

  3. Back to the Future: A Critique of Response to Intervention's Social Justice Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiles, Alfredo J.; Bal, Aydin; King Thorius, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of Response to Intervention (RTI) anticipates a different future for all students, particularly learners from racial minority backgrounds and students with disabilities. RTI is being widely adopted in school districts as a viable alternative to enhance learning opportunities; hence, some education scholars argue it promises a…

  4. Supportive and cognitive behavioral group interventions on Bam earthquake related PTSD symptoms in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mahmoudi-Gharaei

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological debriefing has been widely advocated for routine use following major traumatic events. Cognitive Behavioral Interventions, art supportive therapies, and sport and recreational support activities are other interventions for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder. We assessed the effects of theses methods individually and in combination on reduction posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adolescents who had experienced Bam earthquake. Methods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of psychological debriefing, group cognitive-behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in 200 adolescents with PTSD symptoms who survived of Bam earthquake and compare it with a control group. Patients were randomly assigned to one of intervention programs including: group cognitive-behavioral therapy; group CBT plus art and sport interventions; art and sport interventions without group CBT; and control group. Results: Thirty one individuals were excluded because of migration. A statistically significant reduction in overall PTSD symptoms as well as in avoidance symptoms was observed after group cognitive-behavioral therapy. There was no significant difference in reduction of overall PTSD and avoidance symptoms between the other groups. Conclusion: Psychological interventions in form of group cognitive behavioral therapy can reduce the symptoms of PTSD symptoms but we couldn't find the art and sport supportive therapy alone or in combination with group CBT to be useful in this regard.

  5. Intervention to Enhance Empowerment in Breast Cancer Self-Help Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Stang, Ingun; Mittelmark, Maurice B.

    2010-01-01

    As arduous psychological reactions and loss of control almost inevitably represent a challenge for women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer, a participatory intervention study was initiated that aimed to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups. Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were invited to participate. The intervention encompassed three professionally led self-help groups running sequentially, each group for approximately four months. Each group of...

  6. Future Objectives of Maintenance Management in the CV Group

    CERN Document Server

    Annila, L

    1999-01-01

    The ST/CV group has an extensive maintenance contract with a multinational consortium (Gematec-F/I/DE). Annually, the contract costs the group about 6 MCHF. Today the technical monitoring of the performance within the contract has become too irregular and different people's roles have not been sufficiently well defined. It has therefore been decided that all the technical, financial and performance-indicating data should be centrally co-ordinated within the group. The objective is to enable an efficient follow-up of the contract with a view to optimization. Another objective is to migrate to the new, more proficient version of the Computer Aided Maintenance Management (CAMM) software and learn to use it to its full potential. This means using its statistics and analysis features in addition to controlling the maintenance activities, spare-parts store, costs, etc. A further aim is to develop standards for the maintenance and the CAMM. This paper will discuss these objectives and the schedule for their implemen...

  7. Endoscopic vs. Surgical Interventions for Painful Chronic Pancreatitis: What is Needed for Future Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, John A; Reddy, Nageshwar D

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of painful chronic pancreatitis remains controversial. The available evidence from two randomized controlled trials favor surgical intervention, whereas an endotherapy-first approach is widely practiced. Chronic pancreatitis is complex disease with different genetic and environmental factors, different pain mechanisms and different treatment modalities including medical, endoscopic, and surgical. The widely practiced step-up approach remains unproven. In designing future clinical trials there are some important pre-requisites including a more comprehensive pain assessment tool, the optimization of conservative medical treatment and interventional techniques. Consideration should be given to the need of a control arm and the optimal timing of intervention. Pending better designed studies, the practical way forward is to identify subgroups of patients who clearly warrant endotherapy or surgery first, and to design the future clinical trials for the remainder. PMID:28079861

  8. The Changing Face of Vascular Interventional Radiology: The Future Role of Pharmacotherapies and Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, Charles R., E-mail: crtapping@doctors.org.uk; Bratby, Mark J., E-mail: mark.bratby@ouh.nhs.uk [Oxford University Hospitals, John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Interventional radiology has had to evolve constantly because there is the ever-present competition and threat from other specialties within medicine, surgery, and research. The development of new technologies, techniques, and therapies is vital to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and to ensure its continued success in the future. In part, this change will be due to improved chronic disease prevention altering what we treat and in whom. The most important of these strategies are the therapeutic use of statins, Beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and substances that interfere with mast cell degeneration. Molecular imaging and therapeutic strategies will move away from conventional techniques and nano and microparticle molecular technology, tissue factor imaging, gene therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, and photodynamic therapy will become an important part of interventional radiology of the future. This review looks at these new and exciting technologies.

  9. Effectiveness of current policing-related mental health interventions in England and Wales and Crisis Intervention Teams as a future potential model: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Eddie; Evans, Emily; Shokraneh, Farhad

    2017-04-17

    carried out to aid the development of the PICO, composed of Population/Participants, Intervention/Indicator, Comparator/Control, and Outcomes. For the proposed review, the key elements of the PICO are the following: persons with mental health problems, symptoms or diagnoses who come into contact with the police; interventions involving partnership working between police and mental health nurses and related professionals to divert those with mental health problems away from criminal justice processes; comparisons with control groups or areas where such interventions have not been introduced; and outcomes concerning criminal justice and health outcomes. The results of the searches will be screened using the set criteria and the selected papers reviewed and analysed to allow findings regarding these interventions to be reported. The objectives of the review are firstly to identify and report research on the relevant interventions, nationally and internationally and then secondly to consider, when possible, which interventions or aspects of those interventions are effective. This is judged with regard to changes in mental health status or service use and future offending behaviour. The approaches to be considered have gained a good deal of support and funding over recent years, and this review will provide a systematic review of the underpinning research evidence to inform future commissioning, service design and investment decisions.

  10. Gestalt Intervention Groups for Anxious Parents in Hong Kong: A Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace Suk Man; Khor, Su Hean

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of gestalt intervention groups for anxious Chinese parents in Hong Kong. A non-randomized control group pre-test/post-test design was adopted. A total of 156 parents participated in the project. After 4 weeks of treatment, the intervention group participants had lower anxiety levels, less avoidance of inner experiences, and more kindness towards oneself and mindfulness when compared to control group participants. However, the dimension of self-judgment remained unchanged. The adaptation of gestalt intervention to suit the Chinese culture was discussed.

  11. Intra-psychic effects of a group intervention programme on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    and mood swings at the time of the divorce (Dowling & Barnes, 1999;. Smart ... that when divorce negatively affects a child's self-concept, a multitude of intra- and ... tions, learn communication skills, receive and experience empathy and enjoy the .... years of age) or middle-adolescence (16–18 years of age). The group.

  12. Treatment Compliance in Group Therapy: Issues and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt Hollenbaugh, Karen Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this manuscript, research on treatment compliance and dropout in group therapy is reviewed. A number of variables found to be related to the compliance and dropout are identified including client characteristics, treatment characteristics, and therapist perceptions and behavior. Implications of these results for increasing treatment compliance…

  13. Coping with threats of terrorism: a protocol for group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenstein, Richard J

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a group protocol designed to assist people in coping with direct and ongoing threats of terrorism. The protocol is intended to enable participants to address the psychological issues necessary to cope during periods of extreme threat. A step-by-step description of the protocol is provided.

  14. Standard care quality determines treatment outcomes in control groups of HAART-adherence intervention studies: implications for the interpretation and comparison of intervention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Marijn; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Hospers, Harm J; Schaalma, Herman P; Kok, Gerjo

    2009-11-01

    Clinical trials of behavioral interventions seek to enhance evidence-based health care. However, in case the quality of standard care provided to control conditions varies between studies and affects outcomes, intervention effects cannot be directly interpreted or compared. The objective of the present study was to examine whether standard care quality (SCQ) could be reliably assessed, varies between studies of highly active antiretroviral HIV-adherence interventions, and is related to the proportion of patients achieving an undetectable viral load ("success rate"). Databases were searched for relevant articles. Authors of selected studies retrospectively completed a checklist with standard care activities, which were coded to compute SCQ scores. The relationship between SCQ and the success rates was examined using meta-regression. Cronbach's alpha, variability in SCQ, and relation between SCQ and success rate. Reliability of the SCQ instrument was high (Cronbach's alpha = .91). SCQ scores ranged from 3.7 to 27.8 (total range = 0-30) and were highly predictive of success rate (p = .002). Variation in SCQ provided to control groups may substantially influence effect sizes of behavior change interventions. Future trials should therefore assess and report SCQ, and meta-analyses should control for variability in SCQ, thereby producing more accurate estimates of the effectiveness of behavior change interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. The Anger Management Project: A Group Intervention for Anger in People with Physical and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiliassis, Nick; Gulbenkoglu, Hrepsime; Di Marco, Mark; Young, Suzanne; Hudson, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Background: This paper describes the evaluation of a group program designed specifically to meet the anger management needs of a group of individuals with various levels of intellectual disability and/or complex communication needs. Method: Twenty-nine individuals were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a waiting-list comparison group.…

  16. Future delivery of the Drug Interventions Programme: do the benefits justify the costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The Drug Interventions Programme is an initiative employed by the Home Office in 2003 to integrate the Criminal Justice System with drug treatment services with the ultimate goal of reducing acquisitive crime. Drug Action Teams employ this scheme on a local level by providing a broad range of services for misusers in the community. Although much attention has been placed on societal gains, there is an added benefit in improving the health outcomes of those referred. Opioid replacement therapy decreases illicit heroin use, reduces mortality and maintains contact with misusers allowing for psychosocial intervention. The Drug Interventions Programme provides direct access to such treatment in an otherwise high-risk and disengaged population. Anecdotal evidence of the programme is positive; with improved mental and physical health in offenders and a reduction in hospital admissions. However, monitoring health outcomes in offenders is challenging as long-term follow-up is difficult, poor compliance is an issue and coercive referrals may introduce a reporting bias. Drug Action Team services are cost-effective due a lower consumption of health and social care and reduced offending levels. The Drug Interventions Programme has been successful in maintaining offenders in treatment and the Home Office claim its role in reducing crime is cost-saving. Future delivery of the initiative is at risk due to spending reductions, competing interests and a focus towards payment by results. Opposition to future implementation of the Drug Interventions Programme must be met with evidence for its effectiveness in order to ensure its continued investment.

  17. Using intervention mapping to develop a theory-driven, group-based complex intervention to support self-management of osteoarthritis and low back pain (SOLAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Deirdre A; Murphy, Laura Currie; Hayes, David; Hall, Amanda M; Toomey, Elaine; McDonough, Suzanne M; Lonsdale, Chris; Walsh, Nicola E; Guerin, Suzanne; Matthews, James

    2016-04-26

    The Medical Research Council framework provides a useful general approach to designing and evaluating complex interventions, but does not provide detailed guidance on how to do this and there is little evidence of how this framework is applied in practice. This study describes the use of intervention mapping (IM) in the design of a theory-driven, group-based complex intervention to support self-management (SM) of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and chronic low back pain (CLBP) in Ireland's primary care health system. The six steps of the IM protocol were systematically applied to develop the self-management of osteoarthritis and low back pain through activity and skills (SOLAS) intervention through adaptation of the Facilitating Activity and Self-management in Arthritis (FASA) intervention. A needs assessment including literature reviews, interviews with patients and physiotherapists and resource evaluation was completed to identify the programme goals, determinants of SM behaviour, consolidated definition of SM and required adaptations to FASA to meet health service and patient needs and the evidence. The resultant SOLAS intervention behavioural outcomes, performance and change objectives were specified and practical application methods selected, followed by organised programme, adoption, implementation and evaluation plans underpinned by behaviour change theory. The SOLAS intervention consists of six weekly sessions of 90-min education and exercise designed to increase participants' physical activity level and use of evidence-based SM strategies (i.e. pain self-management, pain coping, healthy eating for weight management and specific exercise) through targeting of individual determinants of SM behaviour (knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, fear, catastrophizing, motivation, behavioural regulation), delivered by a trained physiotherapist to groups of up to eight individuals using a needs supportive interpersonal style based on self-determination theory

  18. Evaluation of a positive psychotherapy group intervention for people with psychosis: pilot randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Third-wave psychological interventions have gained relevance in mental health service provision but their application to people with psychosis is in its infancy and interventions targeting wellbeing in psychosis are scarce. This study tested the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of positive psychotherapy adapted for people with psychosis (WELLFOCUS PPT) to improve wellbeing. Methods. WELLFOCUS PPT was tested as an 11-week group intervention in a convenience sample of people w...

  19. Intervention for children with word-finding difficulties: a parallel group randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Wendy; Hughes, Lucy Mari; Masterson, Jackie; Thomas, Michael; Fedor, Anna; Roncoli, Silvia; Fern-Pollak, Liory; Shepherd, Donna-Lynn; Howard, David; Shobbrook, Kate; Kapikian, Anna

    2017-07-31

    The study investigated the outcome of a word-web intervention for children diagnosed with word-finding difficulties (WFDs). Twenty children age 6-8 years with WFDs confirmed by a discrepancy between comprehension and production on the Test of Word Finding-2, were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 11) and waiting control (n = 9) groups. The intervention group had six sessions of intervention which used word-webs and targeted children's meta-cognitive awareness and word-retrieval. On the treated experimental set (n = 25 items) the intervention group gained on average four times as many items as the waiting control group (d = 2.30). There were also gains on personally chosen items for the intervention group. There was little change on untreated items for either group. The study is the first randomised control trial to demonstrate an effect of word-finding therapy with children with language difficulties in mainstream school. The improvement in word-finding for treated items was obtained following a clinically realistic intervention in terms of approach, intensity and duration.

  20. Short horizons and obesity futures: disjunctures between public health interventions and everyday temporalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warin, Megan; Zivkovic, Tanya; Moore, Vivienne; Ward, Paul R; Jones, Michelle

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the spatio-temporal disjuncture between 'the future' in public health obesity initiatives and the embodied reality of eating. Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork in a disadvantaged community in South Australia (August 2012-July 2014), we argue that the future oriented discourses of managing risk employed in obesity prevention programs have limited relevance to the immediacy of poverty, contingencies and survival that mark people's day to day lives. Extending Bourdieu's position that temporality is a central feature of practice, we develop the concept of short horizons to offer a theoretical framework to articulate the tensions between public health imperatives of healthy eating, and local 'tastes of necessity'. Research undertaken at the time of Australia's largest obesity prevention program (OPAL) demonstrates that pre-emptive and risk-based approaches to health can fail to resonate when the future is not within easy reach. Considering the lack of evidence for success of obesity prevention programs, over-reliance on appeals to 'the future' may be a major challenge to the design, operationalisation and success of interventions. Attention to local rather than future horizons reveals a range of innovative strategies around everyday food and eating practices, and these capabilities need to be understood and supported in the delivery of obesity interventions. We argue, therefore, that public health initiatives should be located in the dynamics of a living present, tailored to the particular, localised spatio-temporal perspectives and material circumstances in which people live.

  1. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams: Effects of Group Contingency Programs in Urban Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard P.; Heitzman-Powell, Linda; Laylin, Jeff; Szoke, Carolyn; Petrillo, Tai; Culey, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention for whole classes, and for students with disruptive behaviors who are at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD). The CW-FIT program includes four elements designed from…

  2. Effects of a Structured Group Intervention on the Achievement of Academically At-Risk Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hardin L. K.; Freedman, Albert M.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effects of a multi-component, structured group intervention on the academic achievement of 78 male and 71 female students on academic probation. Students participating in the intervention were removed from probation status at significantly higher rates and achieved significantly higher grade point averages and credit completion ratios…

  3. Evaluating Brief Group Interventions in Sexuality Education and Enhancement: Do Workshops Really Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Barnaby B.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of brief group interventions (weekend workshops, sexuality attitude reassessment seminars, and other formats) since the 1960s, there is a paucity of evaluative evidence as to their effectiveness. An abundance of anecdotal testimony suggests these interventions may have powerful and lasting impact on individual…

  4. Outcomes of an HIV Prevention Peer Group Intervention for Rural Adults in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Norr, Kathleen F.; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Norr, James L.; McCreary, Linda L.; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I.; Mbeba, Mary M.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate a six-session peer group intervention for HIV prevention among rural adults in Malawi. Two rural districts were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Independent random samples of community adults compared the districts at baseline and at 6 and 18 months postintervention.…

  5. Addressing Low Colorectal Cancer Screening in African Americans: Using Focus Groups to Inform the Development of Effective Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Folasade P; Whitman, Cynthia B; Varlyguina, Ksenia; Bromley, Erica G; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2016-09-01

    African Americans have the highest burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States of America (USA) yet lower CRC screening rates than whites. Although poor screening has prompted efforts to increase screening uptake, there is a persistent need to develop public health interventions in partnership with the African American community. The aim of this study was to conduct focus groups with African Americans to determine preferences for the content and mode of dissemination of culturally tailored CRC screening interventions. In June 2013, 45-75-year-old African Americans were recruited through online advertisements and from an urban Veterans Affairs system to create four focus groups. A semi-structured interview script employing open-ended elicitation was used, and transcripts were analyzed using ATLAS.ti software to code and group data into a concept network. A total of 38 participants (mean age = 54) were enrolled, and 59 ATLAS.ti codes were generated. Commonly reported barriers to screening included perceived invasiveness of colonoscopy, fear of pain, and financial concerns. Facilitators included poor diet/health and desire to prevent CRC. Common sources of health information included media and medical providers. CRC screening information was commonly obtained from medical personnel or media. Participants suggested dissemination of CRC screening education through commercials, billboards, influential African American public figures, Internet, and radio. Participants suggested future interventions include culturally specific information, including details about increased risk, accessing care, and dispelling of myths. Public health interventions to improve CRC screening among African Americans should employ media outlets, emphasize increased risk among African Americans, and address race-specific barriers. Specific recommendations are presented for developing future interventions.

  6. Hypertension management initiative prospective cohort study: comparison between immediate and delayed intervention groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, S W; Moy Lum-Kwong, M; Von Sychowski, S; Kandukur, K; Kiss, A; Flintoft, V

    2014-01-01

    The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario's Hypertension Management Initiative (HMI) was a pragmatic implementation of clinical practice guidelines for hypertension management in primary care clinics. The HMI was a prospective delayed phase cohort study of 11 sites enrolling patients in two blocks starting 9 months apart in 2007. The intervention was an evidence-informed chronic disease management program consisting of an interprofessional educational intervention with practice tools to implement the Canadian Hypertension Education Program's clinical practice guidelines. This study compares the change in blood pressure (BP) from baseline to 9 months after the intervention between groups. In the immediate intervention group, the mean BP at baseline was 134.6/79.1 mm Hg (18.2/11.5) and in the delayed intervention group 134.2/77.1 mm Hg (18.9/11.8). The fall in BP in the immediate intervention group from baseline to 9 months after the intervention was 7.3/3.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.9-8.7/2.6-4.5) and in the delayed group 8.1/3.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 7.0-9.3/2.5-4.1) (all Phypertension can rapidly lead to lower BP levels.

  7. The Solution-Focused Debriefing Group: An Integrated Postviolence Group Intervention for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhnke, Gerald A.; Osborne, W. Larry

    1997-01-01

    Describes a solution-focused debriefing group model for adult survivors of violence, which integrates Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) and solution-focused counseling techniques. Discusses how to debrief team members, group size, the seven stages of CISD, and solution-focused debriefing group techniques. (RJM)

  8. Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Group Intervention for Dementia Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, William E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of group interventions for caregivers of elderly dementia patients. Indicated that, although caregivers rated the groups as quite helpful, group participation did not lead to improvements on objective measures of depression, life satisfaction, social support, or coping variables. (Author/ABB)

  9. The Use of Online Focus Groups to Design an Online Food Safety Education Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Ashley Bramlett; Harrison, Judy A.

    2012-01-01

    In the development of an online food safety education intervention for college students, online focus groups were used to determine the appropriate format and messages. Focus groups are often used in qualitative research and formative evaluation of public health programs, yet traditional focus groups can be both difficult and expensive to…

  10. Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Group Intervention for Dementia Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, William E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of group interventions for caregivers of elderly dementia patients. Indicated that, although caregivers rated the groups as quite helpful, group participation did not lead to improvements on objective measures of depression, life satisfaction, social support, or coping variables. (Author/ABB)

  11. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Middelkamp, Maaike van Rooijen, Peter Wolfhagen, Bert Steenbergen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1. The first experimental group was able to self-set their activities and participate in multiple group exercise programs (group 2. The second experimental group received an additional monthly coaching protocol to manage self-set goals (group 3. A validated scale for barrier self-efficacy was used, group exercise sessions were measured and drop-out rates were registered. An ANOVA indicated that mean amount of sessions of group 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 differed significantly (p < 0.05 in 12 weeks. Descriptive statistics demonstrate mean group exercise sessions over the total of 12 weeks of 2.74 (SD 4.65 in the control group; 4.75 (SD 6.08 in the first experimental group, and 12.25 (SD 9.07 for the second experimental group. Regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy at 8-weeks explained the highest variance in overall group exercise sessions (R2 = 0.18; p < 0.05. Overall drop-out rates were 88% in group 1, 78% in group 2 and 48% in group 3. The results showed that group exercise behavior can significantly be improved by a coaching protocol on self-set goals. Future research should address the effectiveness of self-set activities and self-set goals for a longer period of time and in other types of exercise programs.

  12. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Ellen H; Karlsen, Randi; Christensen, Jane; Paaschburg, Birgitte; Nielsen, Dorte; Bloch, Iben Seier; Christiansen, Birgitte; Jacobsen, Kathrine; Johansen, Christoffer

    2011-06-01

    To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MAC and marital relationship measured by BLRI in women with primary breast cancer conducted 10 weeks after surgery. A secondary outcome was 4-year survival. We randomly assigned 210 patients with primary breast cancer to a control or an intervention group. Patients in the intervention group were offered two weekly 6-h sessions of psycho-education and eight weekly 2-h sessions of group psychotherapy. All participants were followed up for Quality of Life, coping ability and social relations 1, 6 and 12 months after the intervention and on survival 4 years after surgical treatment. No statistically significant effects of the intervention were found on any of the psychosocial questionnaire outcomes. There were not enough cases of death to analyse overall survival. The only statistically significant result was for patients who used anti depressive medication, for whom almost all measures improved over time, in both the control and intervention groups. Psycho-education and group psychotherapy did not decrease psychological distress or increase Quality of Life, Mental Adjustment or improve marital relationship among patients with primary breast cancer. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The Nonsignificant Impact of an Agenda Setting Treatment for Groups: Implications for Future Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridbord, Karen; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.; Jones, Edlyn; Gerrity, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study compared the effect of two writing techniques, Agenda Setting and Group Focus, to a cognitive technique, reading process notes at the start of a group session, to examine their impact on social climate, member involvement, and behavior. Theoretically an intervention that helps members to focus directly on their goals and potential…

  14. Applying Social Justice to Oppression and Marginalization in Group Process: Interventions and Strategies for Group Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, Theodore R.; Ross, Katherine L.

    2010-01-01

    A call from the group counseling literature (Brown, 2009) recognizes the need for theoretical and empirical writings that explore the intersection of social justice and counseling practice, as many counselors are unprepared to address the impact of oppression and privilege on group process. The authors explore these issues by making…

  15. Self-development groups reduce medical school stress: a controlled intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stordal Kirsten I

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High stress levels and mental health problems are common among medical students and there is a lack of studies on group interventions that aim to reduce such distress during medical school. Methods A full class of students (n = 129 participated in group sessions during their third year of medical school in Bergen, Norway. The subsequent third-year class (n = 152 acted as control group, in order to create a quasi-experimental design. Two types of group intervention sessions were offered to the first class. One option was self-development groups led by trained group psychotherapists. Alternatively, students could choose discussion groups that focused on themes of special relevance to doctors, led by experienced general practitioners. The intervention comprised of 12 weekly group sessions each lasting 90 minutes. Data were gathered before the intervention (T1, and three months post intervention (T2. Distress was measured using the Perceived Medical School Stress (PMSS and Symptom Check List-5 (SCL-5 assessments. Results The intervention group showed a significant reduction in PMSS over the observation period. The subsequent year control group stayed on the same PMSS levels over the similar period. The intervention was a significant predictor of PMSS reduction in a multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and sex, β = -1.93 (-3.47 to -0.38, P = 0.02. When we analysed the effects of self-development and discussion groups with the control group as reference, self-development group was the only significant predictor of PMSS reduction, β = -2.18 (-4.03 to -0.33, P = 0.02. There was no interaction with gender in our analysis. This implicates no significant difference between men and women concerning the effect of the self-development group. There was no reduction in general mental distress (SCL-5 over this period. Conclusion A three-month follow-up showed that the intervention had a positive effect on perceived medical school

  16. Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking Latina mothers influence the home food environment: implications for future interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Jennings, Rose; Dave, Jayna; Scoblick, Kathryn; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Loyo, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to obtain in-depth information from low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent's knowledge about healthful eating, the home food environment, perceived influences on children's eating habits, food purchasing practices, and commonly used strategies to promote healthful eating among their children. Thirty-four Latino parents (33 women; 27 born in Mexico; 21 food-insecure) of preschool-aged children participated in four focus group discussions conducted in Spanish by a trained moderator. The focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded by independent raters. Results suggest that in general, parents were very knowledgeable about healthful eating and cited both parents and school as significant factors influencing children's eating habits; at home, most families had more traditional Mexican foods available than American foods; cost and familiarity with foods were the most influential factors affecting food purchasing; many parents had rules regarding sugar intake; and parents cited role modeling, reinforcement, and creative food preparation as ways to encourage children's healthful eating habits. Finally, parents generated ideas on how to best assist Latino families through interventions. Parents indicated that future interventions should be community based and teach skills to purchase and prepare meals that include low-cost and traditional Mexican ingredients, using hands-on activities. In addition, interventions could encourage and reinforce healthy food-related practices that Latino families bring from their native countries. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of prenatal education on maternal utilization of analgesic interventions at future infant vaccinations: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddio, Anna; Smart, Sarah; Sheedy, Matthuschka; Yoon, Eugene W; Vyas, Charmy; Parikh, Chaitya; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Shah, Vibhuti

    2014-07-01

    Analgesic interventions are not routinely used during vaccine injections in infants. Parents report a desire to mitigate injection pain, but lack the knowledge about how to do so. The objective of this cluster-randomized trial was to evaluate the effect of a parent-directed prenatal education teaching module about vaccination pain management on analgesic utilization at future infant vaccinations. Expectant mothers enrolled in prenatal classes at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto were randomized to a 20-30minute interactive presentation about vaccination pain management (experimental group) or general vaccination information (control group). Both presentations included a PowerPoint (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA) and video presentation, take-home pamphlet, and "Question and Answer" period. The primary outcome was self-reported utilization of breastfeeding, sugar water, or topical anaesthetics at routine 2-month infant vaccinations. Between October 2012 and July 2013, 197 expectant mothers from 28 prenatal classes participated; follow-up was obtained in 174 (88%). Maternal characteristics did not differ (P>0.05) between groups. Utilization of one or more prespecified pain interventions occurred in 34% of participants in the experimental group, compared to 17% in the control group (P=0.01). Inclusion of a pain management module in prenatal classes led to increased utilization of evidence-based pain management interventions by parents at the 2-month infant vaccination appointment. Educating parents offers a novel and effective way of improving the quality of pain care delivered to infants during vaccination. Additional research is needed to determine if utilization can be bolstered further using techniques such as postnatal hospital reinforcement, reminder cards, and clinician education.

  18. Combined use of focalized meditation and group psychological intervention in patients with terminal chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enma Taimara Cisneros Acosta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: chronic renal failure is within the first 35 death causes in the country within the last five years.Objective: to determine the effectiveness of the combined use of the group psychological intervention with the focalized meditation (FM in the psychological rehabilitation of patients suffering from terminal chronic renal failure who underwent hemodialysis treatment in “Juan Bruno Zayas” General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba from January to June, 2014.Methods: a pre-test, post-test and control group intervention was carried out. The study sample was divided into three groups: one for the group psychological intervention (GPI, another one for the focalized meditation FM and the other one for the combined use of them both. The research process had three stages: the diagnostic phase with the use of: interview, observation, state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI, Beck Diagnostic Inventory (BDI, and coping ways questionnaire; the intervention, where treatment was imposed with six sessions of group psychological intervention to a group, eight sessions of focalized meditation to another one and the combination of them both to the other one; and the last phase, which was the post-intervention one, was carried out to evaluate the changes of the impaired adjustment and coping with emotional states, applying the same diagnostic techniques.Results: after the application of the therapeutic modalities, the results were: in the groups treated with the GPI and FM separately, the 80 % of the subjects reduced their anxiety levels; meanwhile, with the combination of the techniques, improvement was for the 100 % of the patients. The variable depression had a similar behavior. As for the coping styles: in the GPI group, 80 % of the subjects got active coping styles and the 20 % got mixed ones; in the FM group, the 40 % showed active styles, another 40 % passive styles, and 20 % got mixed ones; in the group with the combined treatment, the results were the

  19. Acceptance and commitment therapy for perinatal mood and anxiety disorders: development of an inpatient group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacquisti, Alexa; Cohen, Matthew J; Schiller, Crystal Edler

    2017-06-10

    Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for childbearing women. Current treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy, have demonstrated modest success in addressing perinatal psychiatric symptoms; however, additional treatment options are needed to address the limitations of current approaches, particularly for women experiencing moderate to severe perinatal mental illness during pregnancy or postpartum. We discuss the use of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) as a promising treatment approach that may be uniquely suited for perinatal women due to its emphasis of values, mindfulness, and acceptance; these psychological constructs notably address the significant psychiatric and behavioral health condition comorbidity, somatic symptoms, and stigma associated with perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. In addition, we describe the development of a four-session ACT-based group intervention at the Perinatal Psychiatry Inpatient Unit at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Sessions focus on core ACT processes of acceptance, cognitive defusion, present-moment awareness, value identification, and goal setting, and we describe how each of these processes is relevant to the perinatal population. Implications for future clinical applications and research investigations are discussed.

  20. Impact of a group intervention with mothers and babies on child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Oré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact on child development of a group intervention with mothers and their eight-month-old babies from a marginal urban district of Lima. The groups, control and treatment, were randomized and child development was assessed before and after with the BSID-II. The intervention had a general positive impact in the children’s development, but no significant differences were found between both groups in the Mental Development Index or the Psychomotor Development Index. There was a significant effect (p < .05 in two of the BSID-II Behavioral Scale factors.

  1. Treating panic symptoms within everyday clinical settings: the feasibility of a group cognitive behavioural intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, S.F.; Sumbundu, A.D.; Lykke, J.

    2008-01-01

    , anxiety and depressive symptoms and marked improvement in mobility. These improvements were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Outcomes supported the feasibility of a brief group cognitive-behavioural intervention for GP-referred patients. Implications of these results are discussed in terms...... implemented in everyday clinical settings. The aim of the following pilot study was to examine the feasibility of a brief group cognitive-behavioural intervention carried out in a clinical setting. Salient issues in determining feasibility include: representativeness of patient group treated, amount...

  2. A Strengths-Based Group Intervention for Women Who Experienced Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Williams, Hayley J.; Fouché, Ansie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the benefits of a ''survivor to thriver'' strengths-based group intervention program to facilitate posttraumatic growth in women survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental, one group, pretest, posttest, time-delay design was employed using qualitative methods to evaluate the benefits of the…

  3. A Strengths-Based Group Intervention for Women Who Experienced Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Williams, Hayley J.; Fouché, Ansie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the benefits of a ''survivor to thriver'' strengths-based group intervention program to facilitate posttraumatic growth in women survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental, one group, pretest, posttest, time-delay design was employed using qualitative methods to evaluate the benefits of the…

  4. Using the Solving Problems Together Psychoeducational Group Counseling Model as an Intervention for Negative Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri Lynn; Khurshid, Ayesha

    2011-01-01

    Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), that focuses on working with students who struggle with negative peer pressure. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…

  5. Using the Solving Problems Together Psychoeducational Group Counseling Model as an Intervention for Negative Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri Lynn; Khurshid, Ayesha

    2011-01-01

    Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), that focuses on working with students who struggle with negative peer pressure. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…

  6. The Healthy Start project: a randomized, controlled intervention to prevent overweight among normal weight, preschool children at high risk of future overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Nanna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research shows that obesity prevention has to start early. Targeting interventions towards subgroups of individuals who are predisposed, but yet normal weight, may prove more effective in preventing overweight than interventions towards unselected normal weight subsets. Finally, interventions focused on other factors than diet and activity are lacking. The objectives were to perform a randomized, controlled intervention aiming at preventing overweight in children aged 2–6 years, who are yet normal weight, but have high predisposition for future overweight, and to intervene not only by improving diet and physical activity, but also reduce stress and improve sleep quality and quantity. Methods/Design Based on information from the Danish National Birth Registry and administrative birth forms, children were selected based on having either a high birth weight, a mother who was overweight prior to pregnancy, or a familial low socioeconomic status. Selected children (n = 5,902 were randomized into three groups; an intervention group, a shadow control group followed in registers exclusively, and a control group examined at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Approximately 21% agreed to participate. Children who presented as overweight prior to the intervention were excluded from this study (n = 92. In the intervention group, 271 children were included, and in the control group 272 were included. Information obtained from the shadow control group is on-going, but it is estimated that 394 children will be included. The intervention took place over on average 1½ year between 2009 and 2011, and consisted of optional individual guidance in optimizing diet and physical activity habits, reducing chronic stress and stressful events and improving sleep quality and quantity. The intervention also included participation in cooking classes and play arrangements. Information on dietary intake, meal habits, physical

  7. Group-Based Intervention to Improve Socio-Emotional Health in Vulnerable Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Cassidy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Internalizing and externalizing problems present as difficulties in socio-emotional competence and predispose to a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes. This study examines the efficacy of an intervention (Pyramid Plus in strengthening children’s socio-emotional competencies. Participants (294 11 year old children attending schools in Northern Ireland were screened for socio-emotional difficulties using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and before being allocated to attend a Pyramid Club intervention (n = 162, and a waiting list control (n = 122. A 3 × 2 mixed-model design was used: group (intervention group vs. waiting list control × 3 time points (pre- vs. post-intervention vs. 12 weeks follow up to investigate the impact of the Pyramid Plus intervention. Teachers and children completed the SDQ-11-16 years, and children completed the TEIQue-CSF ant all 3 times. SDQ total difficult, internalizing and externalizing scores were reduced significantly, and prosocial and emotional intelligence scores were increased significantly compared to waiting list controls post intervention and at follow up. The Pyramid Plus intervention improves the socio-emotional health of vulnerable children through promoting positive outcomes as well as reducing socio- emotional deficits.

  8. School Resources in Teaching Science to Diverse Student Groups: An Intervention's Effect on Elementary Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Llosa, Lorena; Jiang, Feng; O'Connor, Corey; Haas, Alison

    2016-11-01

    Elementary school teachers' perceptions of school resources (i.e., material, human, and social) for teaching science to diverse student groups were examined across three school districts from one state. As part of a 3-year curricular and professional development intervention, we examined the effect on teachers' perceptions after their first year of participation. The study involved 103 fifth-grade teachers from 33 schools participating in the intervention and 116 teachers from 33 control schools. The teachers completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. As a result of the intervention, teachers in the treatment group reported more positive perceptions of school resources than teachers in the control group.

  9. EVALUATION OF WORK PLACE GROUP AND INTERNET BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTIONS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH EXERCISE BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology

  10. Intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy: an experience with menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Diniz Rosa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy is the main theme of this study. Herein we present an experience carried out in two universities in the areas of occupational therapy, pharmacy and medicine, more specifically in the field of gynecology regarding the care of climacteric woman. The first intervention occurred in 2004 with trainees of the occupational therapy course and medical school residents. However, the study was restarted in 2010 with expansion to the human resources and knowledge areas. The methodology was based on the transcripts of the remarks made after each group meeting, which was coordinated by the Occupational Therapy. Results showed that the intervention group process has helped participants in the understanding of this stage of life and has interfered in the changing of habits and attitudes, with great improvement in daily life organization. We concluded that the use of intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy and the liaison with other areas are of great importance because they enable the construction of a unique treatment plan for the group, given the contribution from each clinical area.

  11. Association of intervention outcomes with practice capacity for change: Subgroup analysis from a group randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyer Sharon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between health care practices' capacity for change and the results and sustainability of interventions to improve health care delivery is unclear. Methods In the setting of an intervention to increase preventive service delivery (PSD, we assessed practice capacity for change by rating motivation to change and instrumental ability to change on a one to four scale. After combining these ratings into a single score, random effects models tested its association with change in PSD rates from baseline to immediately after intervention completion and 12 months later. Results Our measure of practices' capacity for change varied widely at baseline (range 2–8; mean 4.8 ± 1.6. Practices with greater capacity for change delivered preventive services to eligible patients at higher rates after completion of the intervention (2.7% per unit increase in the combined effort score, p Conclusion Greater capacity for change is associated with a higher probability that a practice will attain and sustain desired outcomes. Future work to refine measures of this practice characteristic may be useful in planning and implementing interventions that result in sustained, evidence-based improvements in health care delivery.

  12. Effects of Individual and Group Contingency Interventions on Attendance in Adolescent Part-Time Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Shira Melody; Sturmey, Peter; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of individual and group monetary contingencies on the attendance of adolescent part-time employees. Attendance increased in both individual and group contingency phases; however staff questionnaire responses indicated a preference for the individual contingencies. Future research should consider staff acceptability…

  13. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-24

    Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study

  14. A systematic evidence review of school-based group contingency interventions for students with challenging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggin, Daniel M; Johnson, Austin H; Chafouleas, Sandra M; Ruberto, Laura M; Berggren, Melissa

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research underlying group contingency interventions to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support their use for managing the classroom behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. An application of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) procedures for evaluating single-subject research revealed that the research investigating group contingencies demonstrated sufficient rigor, evidence, and replication to label the intervention as evidence-based. These findings were further supported across five quantitative indices of treatment effect. The results associated with the application of the WWC procedures and quantitative evaluations were supplemented with additional systematic coding of methodological features and study characteristics to evaluate the populations and conditions under which the effects of the group contingency best generalize. Findings associated with this coding revealed that the lack of detailed reporting across studies limited our ability to determine for whom and under what conditions group contingencies are best suited.

  15. Group cohesion and social support in exercise classes: results from a danish intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod...... approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group......, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding...

  16. The OMERACT MRI in Arthritis Working Group - Update on Status and Future Research Priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Bird, Paul; Gandjbakhch, Frédérique;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the status and future research priorities of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in arthritis working group. METHODS: A summary is provided of the activities of the group within rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic......, and at the OMERACT 12 conference, we provided longitudinal data demonstrating reliability and sensitivity to change of the RAMRIS JSN component score, supporting its use in future clinical trials. The MRI group has previously developed a PsA MRI score (PsAMRIS). At OMERACT 12, PsAMRIS was evaluated in a randomized...... reliability, but variable reliability of change scores, were reported. Potential future research areas were identified at the MRI session at OMERACT 12 including assessment of tenosynovitis in RA and enthesitis in PsA and focusing on alternative MRI techniques. CONCLUSION: MRI has been further developed...

  17. A Psychoeducational School-Based Group Intervention for Socially Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Damer, Diana E.; Mellou, Angeliki; Mitropoulou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a psychoeducational group for social anxiety aimed at elementary children. An 8-week psychoeducational program based on empirically validated risk factors was designed. Interventions included cognitive restructuring, anxiety management techniques, and social skills training. Pre-and posttest data from 3 groups…

  18. Promoting Distributive Justice for Intimate Partner Violence Survivors with Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronister, Krista M.; Davidson, M. Meghan

    2010-01-01

    Advancing Career Counseling and Employment Support for Survivors (ACCESS; Chronister, 2006) is a group intervention designed to foster the career development of women who have experienced intimate partner violence. The ACCESS curriculum is based on theory and research from multiple disciplines including intimate partner violence, counseling, and…

  19. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, E. H.; Karlsen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MA...

  20. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and…

  1. An Exploratory Study of Teacher Interventions in Elementary Science Laboratory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Wayne F.; Crocker, Robert K.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses the significance of teacher role in the control of student behavior in laboratory groups. Elementary school science classes were observed and videotaped. Changes in interaction setting (teacher-class, pupil-pupil, and intervention) or "treatments" were noted for each class. Conclusions are made concerning teacher interventions…

  2. The effect of interventions on Twitter in four target groups using different measures of influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Wijn, R.; Boertjes, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in (a) number of participants, (b) size of the audience, (c) amount of activity, and (d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: (a) politicians, (b) journalists, (c) employees and (d

  3. Small-Group Standardized Patient Encounter Improves Athletic Training Students' Psychosocial Intervention and Referral Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Thrasher, Ashley B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers provide psychological support, counseling, intervention, and referral to patients during clinical practice. However, students are rarely exposed to real-life opportunities to develop these skills. Objective: To determine if a small-group standardized patient (SP) encounter improved athletic training students'…

  4. The effect of interventions on Twitter in four target groups using different measures of influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Wijn, R.; Boertjes, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in (a) number of participants, (b) size of the audience, (c) amount of activity, and (d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: (a) politicians, (b) journalists, (c) employees and (d

  5. Influence of controlled and uncontrolled interventions on Twitter in different target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Aarts, O.; Boertjes, E.; Wijn, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in a) number of participants, b) size of the audience, c) amount of activity, and d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: a) politicians, b) journalists, c) employees and d) the gen

  6. Effects of a music therapy group intervention on enhancing social skills in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, A Blythe

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that music therapy can improve social behaviors and joint attention in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); however, more research on the use of music therapy interventions for social skills is needed to determine the impact of group music therapy. To examine the effects of a music therapy group intervention on eye gaze, joint attention, and communication in children with ASD. Seventeen children, ages 6 to 9, with a diagnosis of ASD were randomly assigned to the music therapy group (MTG) or the no-music social skills group (SSG). Children participated in ten 50-minute group sessions over a period of 5 weeks. All group sessions were designed to target social skills. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), and video analysis of sessions were used to evaluate changes in social behavior. There were significant between-group differences for joint attention with peers and eye gaze towards persons, with participants in the MTG demonstrating greater gains. There were no significant between-group differences for initiation of communication, response to communication, or social withdraw/behaviors. There was a significant interaction between time and group for SRS scores, with improvements for the MTG but not the SSG. Scores on the ATEC did not differ over time between the MTG and SSG. The results of this study support further research on the use of music therapy group interventions for social skills in children with ASD. Statistical results demonstrate initial support for the use of music therapy social groups to develop joint attention. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Attitudes of older adults in a group-based exercise program towards a blended intervention; a focus-group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Mehra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.

  8. Regional variations in HIV disclosure in Thailand: implications for future interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S-J; Li, L; Jiraphongsa, C; Iamsirithaworn, S; Khumtong, S; Rotheram-Borus, M J

    2010-03-01

    People living with HIV (PLH) in Thailand face tremendous challenges, including HIV disclosure. With the advent of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in Thailand, the positive benefits of HIV disclosure are becoming more salient. However, there are regional variations in the levels of HIV disclosure in Thailand. We examined and compared the levels of HIV disclosure in Northern and Northeastern Thailand. PLH (N = 410) were recruited from four district hospitals in the North and the Northeast. More PLH in the North reported disclosing HIV status to at least one family member in the household. PLH in the Northeast reported significantly lower levels of HIV disclosure within family and outside of family. HIV disclosure remains a significant challenge in Thailand, especially in the Northeast. We propose future interventions focusing on HIV disclosure to address the specific concerns and barriers to HIV disclosure, taking into account the regional differences in HIV disclosure.

  9. Context and group dynamics in a CBPR-developed HIV prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Zuniga, Maria Ofelia; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; Navas, Verónica

    2016-03-01

    This paper will explore in detail the effects of context and group dynamics on the development of a multi-level community-based HIV prevention intervention for crack cocaine users in the San Salvador Metropolitan Area, El Salvador. Community partners included residents from marginal communities, service providers from the historic center of San Salvador and research staff from a non-profit organization. The community contexts from which partners came varied considerably and affected structural group dynamics, i.e. who was identified as community partners, their research and organizational capacity, and their ability to represent their communities, with participants from marginal communities most likely to hold community leadership positions and be residents, and those from the center of San Salvador most likely to work in religious organizations dedicated to HIV prevention or feeding indigent drug users. These differences also affected the intervention priorities of different partners. The context of communities changed over time, particularly levels of violence, and affected group dynamics and the intervention developed. Finally, strategies were needed to elicit input from stakeholders under-represented in the community advisory board, in particular active crack users, in order to check the feasibility of the proposed intervention and revise it as necessary. Because El Salvador is a very different context than that in which most CBPR studies have been conducted, our results reveal important contextual factors and their effects on partnerships not often considered in the literature.

  10. iPSCs, a Future Tool for Therapeutic Intervention in Mitochondrial Disorders: Pros and Cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galera, Teresa; Zurita-Díaz, Francisco; Garesse, Rafael; Gallardo, M Esther

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial disorders, although individually are rare, taken together constitute a big group of diseases that share a defect in the oxidative phosphorylation system. Up to now, the development of therapies for these diseases is very slow and ineffective due in part to the lack of appropriate disease models. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new therapeutic interventions. Regarding this, the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened new expectations in the regenerative medicine field. However, special cares and considerations must be taken into account previous to a replacement therapy. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2317-2318, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The present and the future of the social role of Group-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Lo Piccolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper raises questions about the new social demands of psychotherapy, thoughts on the feeling of trust, and considerations on historical events such as recent paradigms of unresolved social grief and trauma. It is proposed that the therapeutic group is a place in which processing trauma and grief, inducing trust and hope in a possible future.Keywords: Social demand of psychotherapy; Social trauma processing; group psychotherapy

  12. Impact of a patient-centered pharmacy program and intervention in a high-risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Janice M; Shartle, Deborah; Faudskar, Larry; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A

    2013-04-01

    The medication therapy management (MTM) program identified high-risk members in a large employer group and invited them to participate in an MTM program. The intervention consisted of at least 3 consultations with a clinical pharmacist to review and discuss drug therapy. The goal was to improve drug therapy adherence and clinical outcomes. To assess the impact of MTM on plan-paid health care costs, utilization of medical services, overall days supply of targeted medications, and medication possession ratios (MPRs). The MTM and control group comprised eligible members of a large employer prescription benefit plan who were identified between October 1, 2007, and November 12, 2008, and invited to participate. Control group members were selected from targeted members who declined. After propensity score matching to ensure similarity of groups at baseline, each group had 2,250 members. Baseline comparisons and post-period impact analyses between groups were conducted using bivariate analysis. Post-period analyses used tests for paired comparisons. The MTM and control group members were studied for the year before and after their individual program invitations. We measured pre-post differences between the MTM members and controls in total heath care costs, inpatient visits, emergency room (ER) visits, total days supply, and MPRs for 5 conditions: diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, depression, and asthma. MTM members significantly reduced their plan-paid health care costs by 10.3% or $977, compared with an increase of 0.7% or $62 in the control group (P = 0.048). Inpatient visits in the MTM group decreased by 18.6%, while the control group experienced an increase of 24.2% (P  less than  0.001). While both groups had decreases in ER visits, the groups were not significantly different (P = 0.399). Average days supply for the MTM group increased by 72.7 days over baseline; for the control group, it decreased by 111.1 days (P  less than  0.001). MTM members

  13. Moms in motion: a group-mediated cognitive-behavioral physical activity intervention

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    Brawley Lawrence R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When examining the prevalence of physical inactivity by gender and age, women over the age of 25 are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior. Childbearing and motherhood have been explored as one possible explanation for this increased risk. Post natal exercise studies to date demonstrate promising physical and psychological outcomes, however few physical activity interventions have been theory-driven and tailored to post natal exercise initiates. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention based upon social-cognitive theory and group dynamics (GMCB to a standard care postnatal exercise program (SE. Method A randomized, two-arm intervention design was used. Fifty-seven post natal women were randomized to one of two conditions: (1 a standard exercise treatment (SE and (2 a standard exercise treatment plus group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention (GMCB. Participants in both conditions participated in a four-week intensive phase where participants received standard exercise training. In addition, GMCB participants received self-regulatory behavioral skills training via six group-mediated counseling sessions. Following the intensive phase, participants engaged in a four-week home-based phase of self-structured exercise. Measures of physical activity, barrier efficacy, and proximal outcome expectations were administered and data were analyzed using ANCOVA procedures. Results and discussion ANCOVA of change scores for frequency, minutes, and volume of physical activity revealed significant treatment effects over the intensive and home-based phases (p's Conclusion While both exercise programs resulted in improvements to exercise participation, the GMCB intervention produced greater improvement in overall physical activity, barrier efficacy and proximal outcome expectations.

  14. Intervention to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Ingun; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2010-03-01

    As arduous psychological reactions and loss of control almost inevitably represent a challenge for women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer, a participatory intervention study was initiated that aimed to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups. Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were invited to participate. The intervention encompassed three professionally led self-help groups running sequentially, each group for approximately 4 months. Each group of five to seven participants met weekly. Several empowerment strategies were initiated by two professional facilitators, aiming to promote empowerment processes and to manage stress. The participants experienced group participation as both empowering and as a valuable source of support, and although the group processes developed very differently, a strong sense of fellowship developed in all three groups. The discussion highlights the findings in relation to several theoretical perspectives including social capital, social cohesion, risky agreements, helper-therapy and power/empowerment. We conclude that empowerment strategies that are implemented in professionally led breast cancer self-help groups can contribute to participant empowerment and function as an important source of re-discovery and confirmation of the participants' strengths and abilities.

  15. A Group-Based Yoga Therapy Intervention for Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alison J.; Jenny, Hillary E.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Schembri, Michael; Subak, Leslee L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention for middle-aged and older women with urinary incontinence. Methods We conducted a pilot randomized trial of ambulatory women aged 40 years and older with stress, urgency, or mixed-type incontinence. Women were randomized to a 6-week yoga therapy program (N=10) consisting of twice weekly group classes and once weekly home practice or a waitlist control group (N=9). All participants also received written pamphlets about standard behavioral self-management strategies for incontinence. Changes in incontinence were assessed by 7-day voiding diaries. Results Mean (±SD) age was 61.4 (±8.2) years, and mean baseline frequency of incontinence was 2.5 (±1.3) episodes/day. After 6 weeks, total incontinence frequency decreased by 66% (1.8 [±0.9] fewer episodes/day) in the yoga therapy versus 13% (0.3 [±1.7] fewer episodes/day) in the control group (P=0.049). Participants in the yoga therapy group also reported an average 85% decrease in stress incontinence frequency (0.7 [±0.8] fewer episodes/day) compared to a 25% increase in controls (0.2 [± 1.1] more episodes/day) (P=0.039). No significant differences in reduction in urgency incontinence were detected between the yoga therapy versus control groups (1.0 [±1.0] versus 0.5 [±0.5] fewer episodes/day, P=0.20). All women starting the yoga therapy program completed at least 90% of group classes and practice sessions. Two participants in each group reported adverse events unrelated to the intervention. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention to improve urinary incontinence in women. PMID:24763156

  16. Into the Future: Adult Professional Groups and the 21st Century Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Museum programs for working adults in their workplace groups are an interesting and important recent development. These programs have the potential to contribute significantly to the future health of museums. This article shows that these programs link to and build on three important trends in museums--customized experiences, deep engagement, and…

  17. Effects of Mindfulness-Based versus Interpersonal Process Group Intervention on Psychological Well-Being with a Clinical University Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Ciara; Bond, Lynne A.; London, Miv

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared a group mindfulness-based intervention (MI) with an interpersonal process (IP) group intervention and a no-treatment (NT) control condition in reducing psychological distress among 112 students at 2 universities. At postintervention, IP and MI group participants exhibited significant reductions in anxiety,…

  18. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelkamp, Jan; van Rooijen, Maaike; Wolfhagen, Peter; Steenbergen, Bert

    2016-06-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1). The first experimental group was able to self-set their activities and participate in multiple group exercise programs (group 2). The second experimental group received an additional monthly coaching protocol to manage self-set goals (group 3). A validated scale for barrier self-efficacy was used, group exercise sessions were measured and drop-out rates were registered. An ANOVA indicated that mean amount of sessions of group 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 differed significantly (p exercise sessions over the total of 12 weeks of 2.74 (SD 4.65) in the control group; 4.75 (SD 6.08) in the first experimental group, and 12.25 (SD 9.07) for the second experimental group. Regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy at 8-weeks explained the highest variance in overall group exercise sessions (R(2) = 0.18; p exercise behavior can significantly be improved by a coaching protocol on self-set goals. Future research should address the effectiveness of self-set activities and self-set goals for a longer period of time and in other types of exercise programs. Key pointsApproximately 144 million individuals exercise in fitness clubs worldwide.About 50% participate in at least one group exercise program and 23% participate only in group exercise classes with instructor.Research on attendance and exercise behavior in fitness clubs is limited but there are strong indications that the frequencies are low.This study demonstrates that group exercise behavior in fitness clubs can be improved significantly by a coaching protocol on self

  19. Peer group intervention for HIV prevention among health workers in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norr, Kathleen F; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Crittenden, Kathleen S; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Bernales, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    We tested the impacts of a professionally assisted peer-group intervention on Chilean health workers' HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors using a quasi-experimental design with a pretest and 3-month posttest. Two Santiago suburbs were randomly assigned to the intervention or delayed intervention control condition. Five community clinics per suburb participated. Interested workers at the intervention (n = 262) and control (n = 293) clinics participated and completed both evaluations. At posttest, intervention clinic workers had higher knowledge and more positive attitudes regarding HIV, condoms, stigmatization, and self-efficacy for prevention. They reported more partner discussion about safer sex, less unprotected sex, and more involvement in HIV prevention activities in the clinic and the community, but they did not report fewer sexual partners or more standard precautions behaviors. Because of these positive impacts, the program will become a regular continuing education unit that can be used to meet health-worker licensing requirements. Copyright © 2012 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Working with children from substance-affected families: the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE

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    Sonja Bröning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Frequently, they experience violence, abuse and neglect in their families. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated program for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. Methods: A new group intervention for children from substance-affected families was developed and is currently being evaluated in a randomized-controlled multicenter study funded by the German Ministry of Health. The development process was simultaneously guided by theory, existing research knowledge and expert opinion. Promoting resilience in children affected by parental substance abuse is a key goal of the program. Results: The TRAMPOLINE manual describes a 9-session addiction-focused, modular group program for children aged 8 to 12 years with at least one substance-using parent. Weekly sessions last for 90 minutes and combine psychoeducational elements with exercises and role play. A two-session parent intervention component is also integrated in the program. Content, structure and theoretical background of the intervention are described. Discussion: TRAMPOLINE is a new interventive effort targeting children from substance-affected families. It is grounded in theory and practice. The results of the research in progress will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of a structured group prevention program for German children from substance-abusing families. Thus, the study will contribute to creating a broader and more effective system of preventive help for this high-risk target group.

  1. [Evaluation of an educational group intervention in the control of patients with cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Girbau, M Núria; Lladó-Blanch, M Magdalena; Seco-Salcedo, M Carmen; Gómez-Saldaña, Ana; Medina-Peralta, Manuel; Riera-Torres, Roser; Pera, Guillem

    2011-01-01

    To compare an educational group intervention with individual care to improve clinical and management variables among patients with cardiovascular risk (CVR) in community health care (PC). A randomised controlled experimental study was developed in 7 PC centres of Barcelona (Spain). A total of 2,127 patients included in the chronic diseases protocol of the centres were selected. The intervention group (IG) attended four educative workshops led by their nurses during one year. Clinical and management variables (number of visits, pharmaceutical expenditure, nurse time consumption) were measured at baseline and 3 months after the intervention in the IG and in the control group (CG). Pre-post-intervention and IG vs. CG differences were analysed. Among the 672 patients belonging to the IG, 144 were lost due to failing to attend the workshops. CG (n=824) had no withdrawals. At the end of follow-up there were no significant differences between their clinical variables. The number of visits and pharmaceutical expenditure increased in the IG. However, the annual dedication of nurses per patient per year was 39.59 minutes in the IG and 60 minutes in the CG. Nurse group control of patients with CVR in PC saves nurse-time compared with the usual individual visits. However, further studies are needed to better define what type of patient that is more susceptible to follow cardiovascular control through group workshops and whether this time-saving is related to the use of other health resources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of individual and group interventions for people with type 2 diabetes1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazu, Maria Fernanda Manoel; Faria, Barbara Nascimento; de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Sales, Catarina Aparecida; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to compare the effectiveness of two educational interventions used by a healthcare provider in the monitoring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), regarding knowledge of the disease, impact on quality of life and adoption of self-care actions. METHODS: comparative, longitudinal, prospective study performed with 150 subjects with type 2 diabetes, analyzed according to the type of participation in the program (individual and/or group). Participants of the individual intervention (II) received nursing consultations every six months and those of the group intervention (GI) took part in weekly meetings for three months. Data were collected through four questionnaires: Identification questionnaire, Problem Areas in Diabetes Questionnaire (PAID), Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire (SDSCA) and the Diabetes Knowledge Scale (DKN-A). Data were analyzed using the Friedman and Mann Whitney tests, considering a statistical significance of p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: there was an increase in knowledge about the disease in the II (p<0.003) and GI (p<0.007), with reduction of the impact on the quality of life in the II (p<0.007) and improvement in self-care actions in the GI (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: in both intervention models improvements were observed in the indicators, over the six month monitoring period. PMID:26039289

  3. Group Music Therapy as a Preventive Intervention for Young People at Risk: Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Saarikallio, Suvi; Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale; McFerran, Katrina Skewes

    2017-07-01

    Music forms an important part of the lives and identities of adolescents and may have positive or negative mental health implications. Music therapy can be effective for mental disorders such as depression, but its preventive potential is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether group music therapy (GMT) is an effective intervention for young people who may be at risk of developing mental health problems, as indicated via unhealthy music use. The main question was whether GMT can reduce unhealthy uses of music and increase potentials for healthy uses of music, compared to self-directed music listening (SDML). We were also interested in effects of GMT on depressive symptoms, psychosocial well-being, rumination, and reflection. In an exploratory cluster-randomized trial in Australian schools, 100 students with self-reported unhealthy music use were invited to GMT (weekly sessions over 8 weeks) or SDML. Changes in the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS) and mental health outcomes were measured over 3 months. Both interventions were well accepted. No effects were found between GMT and SDML (all p > 0.05); both groups tended to show small improvements over time. Younger participants benefited more from GMT, and older ones more from SDML (p = 0.018). GMT was associated with similar changes as SDML. Further research is needed to improve the processes of selecting participants for targeted interventions; to determine optimal dosage; and to provide more reliable evidence of effects of music-based interventions for adolescents.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Decrease Job Burnout in First-Year Internal Medicine Residents Using a Facilitated Discussion Group Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Jonathan A; Fallar, Robert; Korenstein, Deborah

    2016-05-01

    Background Burnout is common in internal medicine (IM) trainees and is associated with depression and suboptimal patient care. Facilitated group discussion reduces burnout among practicing clinicians. Objective We hypothesized that this type of intervention would reduce incident burnout among first-year IM residents. Methods Between June 2013 and May 2014, participants from a convenience sample of 51 incoming IM residents were randomly assigned (in groups of 3) to the intervention or a control. Twice-monthly theme-based discussion sessions (18 total) led by expert facilitators were held for intervention groups. Surveys were administered at study onset and completion. Demographic and personal characteristics were collected. Burnout and burnout domains were the primary outcomes. Following convention, we defined burnout as a high emotional exhaustion or depersonalization score on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results All 51 eligible residents participated; 39 (76%) completed both surveys. Initial burnout prevalence (10 of 21 [48%] versus 7 of 17 [41%], P = .69), incidence of burnout at year end (9 of 11 [82%] versus 5 of 10 [50%], P = .18), and secondary outcomes were similar in intervention and control arms. More residents in the intervention group had high year-end depersonalization scores (18 of 21 [86%] versus 9 of 17 [53%], P = .04). Many intervention residents revealed that sessions did not truly free them from clinical or educational responsibilities. Conclusions A facilitated group discussion intervention did not decrease burnout in resident physicians. Future discussion-based interventions for reducing resident burnout should be voluntary and effectively free participants from clinical duties.

  5. [Effects of a psychological group intervention on neuropsychiatric symptoms and communication in Alzheimer's dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Terworth, C; Probst, P

    2012-07-01

    Outcomes of a multicomponent psychological intervention designed for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms, communicative and emotional deficits in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia were evaluated in a controlled trial. Core components of the program were milieu therapy interventions and music therapy. A total of 49 patients were involved into a pre-post design. The treatment group (n=26) received the program for 6 months, while controls (n=23) participated in standard occupational therapy. Statistical analyses included t-tests, calculation of effect sizes, and two-way analyses of variance. After 6 months, the treatment group showed clear, partly significant improvement of anxiety, agitation, aggression, and apathy as well as social communication, emotional competence and activity levels relative to controls. The program has the potential to increase psychological well-being and to improve communication in patients with Alzheimer's dementia.

  6. Cognitive-behavior intervention group counseling manual for reducing adolescents’ career indecision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datu, Jesus Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current manual is purported to provide an empirical guide in facilitating a group intervention that will address career indecision among adolescents. It utilized Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as the major framework of the treatment protocol. Prior to the group facilitation, prospective members will be screened through an interview and Career Decision Profile. It consists of six sessions (one and a half hour every session which will be executed on a weekly basis. With the intention of modifying negative beliefs that the members hold about themselves in relation to career decision-making, specific activities and processing procedures were charted each session that ranged from individual cognitive exercises to dyadic behavioral role-plays. Each session will be monitored by the group counselor via group case notes to properly document therapeutic encounters which is essential in achieving the intended outcomes. At the end of the group intervention, members will be assessed through group feedback and administering of Career Decision Profile to look at the positive changes on their levels of capabilities to make career decisions.

  7. Group interventions for men who batter: a summary of program descriptions and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Daniel G

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the latest research on men's group interventions for men who batter their intimate partners. The major components of current programs are described, along with studies on treatment effectiveness. Evidence for the effectiveness of treatment combined with a coordinated community response is also presented. Several related topics are covered, in particular methods for enhancing treatment motivation and culturally competent practice.

  8. Using intervention mapping to develop a theory-driven, group-based complex intervention to support self management of osteoarthritis and low back pain (SOLAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, D.A.; Currie Murphy, L.; Hayes, D.; Hall, A. M.; Toomey, E; McDonough, S.M.; Lonsdale, C; Walsh, N.; Guerin, S.; Matthews, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Medical Research Council framework provides a useful general approach to designing and evaluating complex interventions, but does not provide detailed guidance on how to do this and there is little evidence of how this framework is applied in practice. This study describes the use of intervention mapping (IM) in the design of a theory-driven, group-based complex intervention to support self-management (SM) of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and chronic low back pain (CLBP) in...

  9. Health-related quality of life among veterans in addictions treatment: identifying behavioral targets for future intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppezzo, Marily A.; Michalek, Anne K.; Delucchi, Kevin; Baiocchi, Michael T. M.; Barnett, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background US veterans report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) relative to the general population. Identifying behavioral factors related to HRQoL that are malleable to change may inform interventions to improve well-being in this vulnerable group. Purpose The current study sought to characterize HRQoL in a largely male sample of veterans in addictions treatment, both in relation to US norms and in association with five recommended health behavior practices: regularly exercising, managing stress, having good sleep hygiene, consuming fruits and vegetables, and being tobacco free. Methods We assessed HRQoL with 250 veterans in addictions treatment (96 % male, mean age 53, range 24–77) using scales from four validated measures. Data reduction methods identified two principal components reflecting physical and mental HRQoL. Model testing of HRQoL associations with health behaviors adjusted for relevant demographic and treatment-related covariates. Results Compared to US norms, the sample had lower HRQoL scores. Better psychological HRQoL was associated with higher subjective social standing, absence of pain or trauma, lower alcohol severity, and monotonically with the sum of health behaviors (all p management, and sleep hygiene. Regular exercise also related to better physical HRQoL. The models explained >40 % of the variance in HRQoL. Conclusions Exercise, sleep hygiene, and stress management are strongly associated with HRQoL among veterans in addictions treatment. Future research is needed to test the effect of interventions for improving well-being in this high-risk group. PMID:26886926

  10. Acceptability and feasibility of potential intervention strategies for influencing sedentary time at work: focus group interviews in executives and employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; Veldeman, Charlene; De Bacquer, Dirk; Braeckman, Lutgart; Owen, Neville; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-02-18

    Occupational sitting can be the largest contributor to overall daily sitting time in white-collar workers. With adverse health effects in adults, intervention strategies to influence sedentary time on a working day are needed. Therefore, the present aim was to examine employees' and executives' reflections on occupational sitting and to examine the potential acceptability and feasibility of intervention strategies to reduce and interrupt sedentary time on a working day. Seven focus groups (four among employees, n = 34; three among executives, n = 21) were conducted in a convenience sample of three different companies in Flanders (Belgium), using a semi-structured questioning route in five themes [personal sitting patterns; intervention strategies during working hours, (lunch) breaks, commuting; and intervention approach]. The audiotaped interviews were verbatim transcribed, followed by a qualitative inductive content analysis in NVivo 10. The majority of participants recognized they spend their working day mostly sitting and associated this mainly with musculoskeletal health problems. Participants suggested a variety of possible strategies, primarily for working hours (standing during phone calls/meetings, PC reminders, increasing bathroom use by drinking more water, active sitting furniture, standing desks, rearranging the office) and (lunch) breaks (physical activity, movement breaks, standing tables). However, several barriers were reported, including productivity concerns, impracticality, awkwardness of standing, and the habitual nature of sitting. Facilitating factors were raising awareness, providing alternatives for simply standing, making some strategies obligatory and workers taking some personal responsibility. There are some strategies targeting sedentary time on a working day that are perceived to be realistic and useful. However several barriers emerged, which future trials and practical initiatives should take into account.

  11. Evaluation of Group Intervention for Mothers/Caretakers of Kindergarten Children with Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative parental practices may influence the onset and maintenance of externalizing behavior problems, and positive parenting seem to improve children's social skills and reduce behavior problems. The objective of the present study was to describe the effects of an intervention designed to foster parents' social skills related to upbringing practices in order to reduce externalizing problems in children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirteen mothers and two care taker grandmothers took part in the study with an average of four participants per group. To assess intervention effects, we used a repeated measure design with control, pre, and post intervention assessments. Instruments used were: (a An interview schedule that evaluates the social interactions between parents and children functionally, considering each pair of child¿s and parent's behaviors as context for one another; (b A Social Skills Inventory; (c Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Intervention was effective in improving parent general social skills, decreasing negative parental practices and decreasing child behavior problems.

  12. Effects of a Social Skills Intervention Administered in Mixed Diagnostic Groups for Children with Peer Relationship Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Scambler, Douglas J.; Page, Melanie C.; Sullivan, Maureen A.; Armendariz, Monica L.; Isenberg, Jill C.; Warner, Christina M.

    2009-01-01

    Research on social skills interventions has been mixed. This study evaluates a group-administered, manualized social skills intervention program. Twenty-three boys and 9 girls between the ages of 7 and 13 participated. Participants were included in the groups based on peer relationship difficulties rather than diagnostic status, resulting in a…

  13. A Systematic Review of Training Interventions Addressing Sexual Violence against Marginalized At-Risk Groups of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with…

  14. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  15. Epidemiological differences of lower urinary tract symptoms among female subpopulations and group level interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avasarala Atchuta Kameswararao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To study the risk factor profiles of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS among adolescent girls, housewives and working women and its socioeconomic and quality of life losses. 2 To undertake risk factor modifications using the adolescent girls. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional descriptive study followed by educational intervention. Statistical Methods: Cluster sampling, Proportions, confidence intervals, Chi square and t-Tests and Logistic regression. Materials and Methods: House to house survey was done in two villages and one urban ward. Seventy-five housewives, 75 working women and 180 adolescent girls were asked about the risk factors and losses due to LUTS. Three teams of adolescent girls were utilized to bring about behavioral modifications. Impact was measured through user perspectives obtained from the participants. Results: Risk factors, social, economic and quality of life losses were different among the three female populations. Overall prevalence of LUTS among the three groups is 61(18.5%. Improper anal washing technique, malnutrition, presence of vaginal discharge, use of unsanitary menstrual pads, pinworm infestation and use of bad toilets were the significant causes among girls. Presence of sexually transmitted diseases was a contributing factor among housewives and working women. Prolonged sitting the posture was also contributing to LUTS among working women. Seventy-four per cent of beneficiaries expressed that intervention is useful. Conclusions: The causes for LUTS and their consequences were differing among the three female subpopulations. Specific group level interventions using trained girls were successful.

  16. High-throughput sorting of mosquito larvae for laboratory studies and for future vector control interventions

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    Marois Eric

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito transgenesis offers new promises for the genetic control of vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Genetic control strategies require the release of large number of male mosquitoes into field populations, whether they are based on the use of sterile males (sterile insect technique, SIT or on introducing genetic traits conferring refractoriness to disease transmission (population replacement. However, the current absence of high-throughput techniques for sorting different mosquito populations impairs the application of these control measures. Methods A method was developed to generate large mosquito populations of the desired sex and genotype. This method combines flow cytometry and the use of Anopheles gambiae transgenic lines that differentially express fluorescent markers in males and females. Results Fluorescence-assisted sorting allowed single-step isolation of homozygous transgenic mosquitoes from a mixed population. This method was also used to select wild-type males only with high efficiency and accuracy, a highly desirable tool for genetic control strategies where the release of transgenic individuals may be problematic. Importantly, sorted males showed normal mating ability compared to their unsorted brothers. Conclusions The developed method will greatly facilitate both laboratory studies of mosquito vectorial capacity requiring high-throughput approaches and future field interventions in the fight against infectious disease vectors.

  17. Race-Based Humor and Peer Group Dynamics in Adolescence: Bystander Intervention and Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Palmer, Sally B; Abrams, Dominic

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of discriminatory race-based humor and their expectations about peer responses to discrimination were investigated in 8th- (Mage  = 13.80) and 10th-grade (Mage  = 16.11) primarily European-American participants (N = 256). Older adolescents judged race-based humor as more acceptable than did younger adolescents and were less likely to expect peer intervention. Participants who rejected discrimination were more likely to reference welfare/rights and prejudice and to anticipate that peers would intervene. Showing awareness of group processes, adolescents who rejected race-based humor believed that peers who intervened would be more likely to be excluded. They also disapproved of exclusion more than did participants who supported race-based humor. Results expose the complexity of situations involving subtle discrimination. Implications for bullying interventions are discussed.

  18. [Goal analysis and goal operationalisation: a group intervention for the enhancement of work motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Rana; Fiedler, Rolf G; Dietrich, Hilke; Greitemann, Bernhard; Heuft, Gereon

    2010-08-01

    Work motivation, mental well-being and competencies of self-regulation are linked to successful job-related reintegration after rehabilitation. Based on the Diagnostical Instrument to assess Work motivation (Diagnostikinstrument für Arbeitsmotivation DIAMO) and existing training programs, a new group intervention, the goal analysis and goal operationalization, was developed and evaluated. The objective of this intervention, designed for participants of a rehabilitation program was to enhance work motivation and volitional control processes (self-regulation and self-control), to encourage job-related goal orientation and to thereby increase the probability of goal achievement. In a quasi-experimental longitudinal design 207 patients (111 experimental group/96 control group) were tested. The experimental group took part in the job-related training (ZAZO) in addition to the usual rehabilitation. The evaluation was conducted through various scales at t0 (beginning) and t1 (end of the training). Scales for the measurement of work motivation, mental well-being, status of rehabilitation, competencies of self-regulation and the subjective prognosis of the ability to work were used. As direct effects of the training an enhancement of work motivation and of an improved subjective prognosis of the ability to work were expected. Accordingly, a positive influence on the subjective well-being as indirect effects, were anticipated in the long run, the experimental group should also show an enhanced job-related reintegration. Participants of the experimental group showed significantly higher values on particular scales of the Diagnostical Instrument of Work motivation as opposed to the control group (curiosity motive, attitudes to work and contact motive). Most notably, significant interactional effects could be found on the scale for the subjective prognosis of the ability to work, which is a highly reliable instrument and important predictor for prospective job

  19. Intervention in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis: a review and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick D; Nelson, Barnaby; Amminger, G Paul

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Over the last 15 years, a focus on early intervention in psychotic disorders has emerged. Initially, the early psychosis movement focused on timely recognition and phase-specific treatment of first-episode psychosis. However, early psychosis researchers suspected that pushing the point...... 1980 was conducted on PubMed with the search terms prodrome and intervention. STUDY SELECTION: All published intervention trials with ultra-high-risk cohorts. DATA SYNTHESIS: The first generation of intervention trials indicated that both pharmacologic and psychological intervention strategies may...

  20. Intervention in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis: a review and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick D; Nelson, Barnaby; Amminger, G Paul

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Over the last 15 years, a focus on early intervention in psychotic disorders has emerged. Initially, the early psychosis movement focused on timely recognition and phase-specific treatment of first-episode psychosis. However, early psychosis researchers suspected that pushing the point...... 1980 was conducted on PubMed with the search terms prodrome and intervention. STUDY SELECTION: All published intervention trials with ultra-high-risk cohorts. DATA SYNTHESIS: The first generation of intervention trials indicated that both pharmacologic and psychological intervention strategies may...

  1. Functional Assessment Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Children’s Challenging Behaviors: Exploratory Study of Group Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Fettig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of group parent training on children’s challenging behaviors in home settings. Eight parents of young children with challenging behaviors were trained in a large group setting on using functional assessment to design interventions that fit the strengths and needs of individual families. The training included information sharing and collaborating with parents on designing functional-assessment based interventions. An Interrupted Time Series Design was used to examine the effects of large group training by comparing parent and child behaviors prior to intervention with behaviors after the intervention. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measures ANOVA. The results indicated that group training increased parents’ ability to implement functional assessment based strategies and these strategies resulted in a significant reduction in children’s challenging behaviors. Furthermore, parent implementation of functional assessment based strategies and children’s decreased levels of challenging behaviors were maintained after the completion of the intervention.

  2. Can mindfulness-based interventions influence cognitive functioning in older adults? A review and considerations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Lotte; van Boxtel, Martin; van Os, Jim

    2017-11-01

    An increased need exists to examine factors that protect against age-related cognitive decline. There is preliminary evidence that meditation can improve cognitive function. However, most studies are cross-sectional and examine a wide variety of meditation techniques. This review focuses on the standard eight-week mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). We searched the PsychINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, COCHRANE, and PubMed databases to identify original studies investigating the effects of MBI on cognition in older adults. Six reports were included in the review of which three were randomized controlled trials. Studies reported preliminary positive effects on memory, executive function and processing speed. However, most reports had a high risk of bias and sample sizes were small. The only study with low risk of bias, large sample size and active control group reported no significant findings. We conclude that eight-week MBI for older adults are feasible, but results on cognitive improvement are inconclusive due a limited number of studies, small sample sizes, and a high risk of bias. Rather than a narrow focus on cognitive training per se, future research may productively shift to investigate MBI as a tool to alleviate suffering in older adults, and to prevent cognitive problems in later life already in younger target populations.

  3. How can a brief intervention contribute to coping with back pain? A focus group study about participants’ experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ree, Eline; Harris, A.; Indahl, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our aim was to explore how individuals who had participated in a brief back and neck pain intervention perceived connections between the intervention and their subsequent coping. METHODS: Three focus group discussions were conducted with a sample of ten employees aged 20-67 years, who...... had participated in a brief intervention for back and neck pain, perceived the intervention as helpful and had returned or remained at work subsequent to the intervention. Participants were invited to share stories of how the intervention had made a positive difference to their work situation...... and everyday life and helped them cope with their complaints. Systematic text condensation was used for analysis. RESULTS: Analysis revealed several aspects of how the participants considered the intervention to be helpful. They emphasized the importance of having the information delivered in a comprehensible...

  4. Hierarchical Group Based Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement for Machine Type Communication in LTE and Future 5G Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probidita Roychoudhury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the exponential growth in the volume of wireless data communication among heterogeneous devices ranging from smart phones to tiny sensors across a wide range of applications, 3GPP LTE-A has standardized Machine Type Communication (MTC which allows communication between entities without any human intervention. The future 5G cellular networks also envisage massive deployment of MTC Devices (MTCDs which will increase the total number of connected devices hundredfold. This poses a huge challenge to the traditional cellular system processes, especially the traditional Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA mechanism currently used in LTE systems, as the signaling load caused by the increasingly large number of devices may have an adverse effect on the regular Human to Human (H2H traffic. A solution in the literature has been the use of group based architecture which, while addressing the authentication traffic, has their share of issues. This paper introduces Hierarchical Group based Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement (HGMAKA protocol to address those issues and also enables the small cell heterogeneous architecture in line with 5G networks to support MTC services. The aggregate Message Authentication Code based approach has been shown to be lightweight and significantly efficient in terms of resource usage compared to the existing protocols, while being robust to authentication message failures, and scalable to heterogeneous network architectures.

  5. Early psychological intervention for auditory hallucinations: an exploratory study of young people's voices groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Elizabeth; Landau, Sabine; Smith, Patrick; Monks, Paul; Shergill, Sukhi; Wykes, Til

    2005-01-01

    Twenty to fifty percent of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia continue to hear voices despite taking neuroleptic medication. Trials of group cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with auditory hallucinations have shown promising results. Auditory hallucinations may be most amenable to psychological intervention during a 3-year critical period after symptom onset. This study evaluates the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for young people with recent-onset auditory hallucinations (N = 22), using a waiting list control. Outcome measures were administered at four separate time points. Significant reductions in auditory hallucinations occurred over the total treatment phase, but not over the waiting period. Further investigations in the form of randomized controlled trials are warranted.

  6. Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle R Leonard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.

  7. HIV/AIDS Behavioral Interventions in China: A Literature Review and Recommendation for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming

    2008-01-01

    In the past two decades, China has witnessed an alarming increase of HIV/AIDS epidemic. Meanwhile, a number of HIV prevention interventions have been conducted. This study reviews existing studies in literature on behavioral interventions on HIV/AIDS in China. Of 25 studies we identified, most have been concentrated in South and South–West China, mainly targeting injection drug users and female sex workers. The most commonly used intervention strategy was individual-oriented HIV-related knowl...

  8. Technology-assisted Interventions for Parents of Young Children: Emerging Practices, Current Research, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Cristin M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Technology can potentially expand the reach and cut the costs of providing effective, evidence-based interventions. This paper reviews existing publications that describe the application and evaluation of technology-assisted interventions for parents of young children. A broad review of the early childhood literature revealed 48 studies describing technology-assisted parent education and interventions. Across these studies, multiple forms of technology were used, including web-based platforms...

  9. A Multi-Family Group Intervention for Adolescent Depression: The BEST MOOD Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Lucinda A; Lewis, Andrew J; Toumbourou, John W; Knight, Tess; Bertino, Melanie D; Pryor, Reima

    2017-06-01

    Depression is the most common mental disorder for young people, and it is associated with educational underachievement, self-harm, and suicidality. Current psychological therapies for adolescent depression are usually focused only on individual-level change and often neglect family or contextual influences. The efficacy of interventions may be enhanced with a broader therapeutic focus on family factors such as communication, conflict, support, and cohesion. This article describes a structured multi-family group approach to the treatment of adolescent depression: Behaviour Exchange Systems Therapy for adolescent depression (BEST MOOD). BEST MOOD is a manualized intervention that is designed to address both individual and family factors in the treatment of adolescent depression. BEST MOOD adopts a family systems approach that also incorporates psychoeducation and elements of attachment theories. The program consists of eight multifamily group therapy sessions delivered over 2 hours per week, where parents attend the first four sessions and young people and siblings join from week 5. The program design is specifically aimed to engage youth who are initially resistant to treatment and to optimize youth and family mental health outcomes. This article presents an overview of the theoretical model, session content, and evaluations to date, and provides a case study to illustrate the approach. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  10. Evaluation of psychological outcomes following the intervention 'teaching group': study on predialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Vilaplana, Josep Maria; Zampieron, Alessandra; Craver, Lourdes; Buja, Alessandra

    2009-09-01

    Aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of the intervention 'Group education' (NIC 5604) on patients' coping, fear control, anxiety and the association between demographic and clinical variables with the outcomes. We studied all predialysis patients treated, at Lleida University Hospital, from 1 January 2007 till 31 March 2008, who received the total intervention for six months. There were 41 patients, 33 male and 8 female. They had a mean age of 60.56 years (SD 13.96); 66% declared family support. Forty-one percent had a low educational level. The Charlson Comorbidity test showed a mean of 5.07 (SD 1.77). All patients were independent, using the Karnofsky scale and Barthel index. Patients reported a significant improvement in all the outcomes evaluated (anxiety, coping and fear response). Logistic regression showed that the reduction in anxiety and the improved nursing outcomes were not related to demographic and clinical variables. The group educational programme was effective on the defined psychological outcomes in predialysis patients. Hence, it should be available for all clients.

  11. Passive Smoking in China: Contributing Factors and Areas for Future Interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to passive smoking in China.Methods Discussion consisting of 80 focus groups and 35 interviews were held in three rural intervention counties of Jiangxi,Henan,and Sichuan Provinces. Participants came from hospitals,schools,rural areas,and urban areas.Results Tobacco use and exposure to passive smoking were widely prevalent in the investigated schools,hospitals,county towns,and rural areas. Knowledge of the risks for passive smoking on health is lacking,especially in rural areas. Barriers to the control of tobacco use in public places include reluctance of administrators to implement tobacco control policies,lack of consistent policies,difficulties with regulations and enforcement,and reluctance of non-smokers to exercise their right to clean air.Conclusion To curb the current tobacco epidemic in China,tobacco control efforts must focus on reducing exposure to passive smoking. A strategy should be formulated to reduce the factors that contribute to tobacco use and exposure to passive smoking.

  12. A cognitive behavioral based group intervention for children with a chronic illness and their parents: a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuengel Carlo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping with a chronic illness (CI challenges children's psychosocial functioning and wellbeing. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs that focus on teaching the active use of coping strategies may prevent children with CI from developing psychosocial problems. Involvement of parents in the intervention program may enhance the use of learned coping strategies in daily life, especially on the long-term. The primary aim of the present study is to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral based group intervention (called 'Op Koers' 1 for children with CI and of a parallel intervention for their parents. A secondary objective is to investigate why and for whom this intervention works, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the intervention effect. Methods/design This study is a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Participants are children (8 to 18 years of age with a chronic illness, and their parents, recruited from seven participating hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants are randomly allocated to two intervention groups (the child intervention group and the child intervention combined with a parent program and a wait-list control group. Primary outcomes are child psychosocial functioning, wellbeing and child disease related coping skills. Secondary outcomes are child quality of life, child general coping skills, child self-perception, parental stress, quality of parent-child interaction, and parental perceived vulnerability. Outcomes are evaluated at baseline, after 6 weeks of treatment, and at a 6 and 12-month follow-up period. The analyses will be performed on the basis of an intention-to-treat population. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a group intervention improving psychosocial functioning in children with CI and their parents. If proven effective, the intervention will be implemented in clinical practice. Strengths and limitations of the study design are discussed

  13. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  14. When sad groups expect to meet again : Interactive affective sharing and future interaction expectation as determinants of work groups' analytical and creative task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klep, Annefloor H. M.; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the moderating role of future interaction expectation in the relationship between affective sharing and work groups' task performance. We argue that group affect, a group defining characteristic, becomes more salient to its members when it is interactively shared, and that

  15. The effectiveness of a health promotion with group intervention by clinical trial. Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campo Osaba Maria-Antonia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The promotion of health and the interventions in community health continue to be one of the pending subjects of our health system. The most prevalent health problems (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes... are for the most part related to life habits. We propose a holistic and integral approach as the best option for tackling behavior and its determinants. The research team has elaborated the necessary educational material to realize group teaching, which we call "Health Workshops". The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these Health Workshops in the following terms: Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL, incorporate and maintain a balanced diet, do physical activity regularly, maintain risk factors such as tension, weight, cholesterol within normal limits and diminish cardiovascular risk. Methods/Design Controlled and random clinical testing, comparing a group of persons who have participated in the Health Workshops with a control group of similar characteristics who have not participated in the Health Workshops. Field of study: the research is being done in Health Centers of the city of Barcelona, Spain. Population studied: The group is composed of 108 persons that are actually doing the Health Workshops, and 108 that are not and form the control group. They are assigned at random to one group or the other. Data Analysis: With Student's t-distribution test to compare the differences between numerical variables or their non parametric equivalent if the variable does not comply with the criteria of normality. (Kolmogorov-Smirnof test. Chi-square test to compare the differences between categorical variables and the Logistic Regression Model to analyze different meaningful variables by dichotomous analysis related to the intervention. Discussion The Health Workshop proposed in the present study constitutes an innovative approach in health promotion, placing the emphasis on the person's self

  16. At the Crossroads: Development and Evaluation of a Dementia Caregiver Group Intervention to Assist in Driving Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robert A.; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A.; Mohyde, Maureen; Carruth, Anastasia; Tracton-Bishop, Beth; Hunter, Jennifer C.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Coughlin, Joseph F.

    2008-01-01

    Deciding when an individual with dementia must reduce or stop driving can be a stressful issue for family caregivers. The purpose of this study was to develop a group intervention to assist these caregivers with driving issues and to provide a preliminary evaluation of the comparative effectiveness of this At the Crossroads intervention.…

  17. Promotion of Syntactical Development and Oral Comprehension: Development and Initial Evaluation of a Small-Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Beth M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the development and preliminary implementation trials of a modular small-group intervention targeting syntax and vocabulary for children at high risk for reading comprehension difficulties in grades prekindergarten through first. The intervention, delivered by trained paraprofessionals, included 12 weeks of 20-minute…

  18. A HOLISTIC GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC INTERVENTION FOR THE TREATMENT OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME AND ITS COMORBID DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Stuart

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of a holistic short-term group intervention in the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (/BS with comorbid depression and anxiety. The sample consisted of 24 South African women who had been diagnosed with severe IBS. Furthermore, each participant had to have associated moderate to severe depression and anxiety. The group design was a pre-test, post-test control group design where the experimental group (n = 12 received group intervention and the members of the control group (n = 12 received no intervention until after completion of the research. All the participants completed the Functional Bowel Disorder Severity Index and the Depression and Anxiety subscales of the Personality Assessment Inventory before commencement of group therapy for Group 1 and one month after completion of this intervention. The effect of the intervention was determined by utilising comparative statistics. The findings indicate that holistic short-term group therapy results in significant improvement in terms of depreSSion and anxiety scores, but that IBS symptom severity remains unchanged. It is recommended that further research be conducted to ascertain whether holistic group therapy of a longer duration has a greater impact on the IBS symptom severity.

  19. Future of Early Intervention with Infants and Toddlers for Whom Typical Experiences Are Not Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for infants and toddlers began with high hopes, but became mired in overspecialization, bureaucracy, and turf guarding. Nevertheless, two important advances in the field have been (a) a recognition that the child's natural caregivers are in the best position to be the intervention agents and, concomitantly, (b) a rethinking…

  20. Lifestyle intervention for prevention of diabetes : determinants of success for future implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumen, Cheryl; Blaak, Ellen E.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions are reported to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals after mid- and long-term follow-up. Information on determinants of intervention outcome and adherence and the mechanisms underlying diabetes progression are valuable for a more targeted implementation

  1. Lifestyle intervention for prevention of diabetes : determinants of success for future implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumen, Cheryl; Blaak, Ellen E.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    Lifestyle interventions are reported to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals after mid- and long-term follow-up. Information on determinants of intervention outcome and adherence and the mechanisms underlying diabetes progression are valuable for a more targeted

  2. Future of Early Intervention with Infants and Toddlers for Whom Typical Experiences Are Not Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for infants and toddlers began with high hopes, but became mired in overspecialization, bureaucracy, and turf guarding. Nevertheless, two important advances in the field have been (a) a recognition that the child's natural caregivers are in the best position to be the intervention agents and, concomitantly, (b) a rethinking…

  3. Technology-assisted Interventions for Parents of Young Children: Emerging Practices, Current Research, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cristin M; Bierman, Karen L

    Technology can potentially expand the reach and cut the costs of providing effective, evidence-based interventions. This paper reviews existing publications that describe the application and evaluation of technology-assisted interventions for parents of young children. A broad review of the early childhood literature revealed 48 studies describing technology-assisted parent education and interventions. Across these studies, multiple forms of technology were used, including web-based platforms, discussion forums, mobile devices, and video conferencing. Results are described moving from feasibility and acceptability of technology-based delivery systems to more rigorous evaluations examining their impact on parent and child outcomes. Potential exists for technology to deliver interventions to parents. Limitations are discussed including differential acceptability and elevated attrition associated with internet-only intervention delivery.

  4. An effective workplace stress management intervention: Chicken Soup for the Soul at Work Employee Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Anne Puidk

    2002-01-01

    Stress is a costly and significant source of health problems and mental distress--with work cited as a primary stressor. This pilot study supports the effectiveness of a new workplace stress intervention: Chicken Soup for the Soul at Work Employee Groups. In this program, employee-participants met during nine weekly meetings to read inspirational workplace stories, comment, and share their own stories. A leader, chosen from and by the group, guided meetings. Utilizing a wait-list control group design, participants were randomly assigned to an experimental or wait-list group. Participants completed pretests and posttests (Coping Resources Inventory, Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised, Job Descriptive Index, Pressure Management Indicator, survey). Statistical interaction effect for subtests was evaluated using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Participants exhibited improved total coping resources, cognitive/rational coping, state of mind, confidence and home/work balance. Participant comments and their continued participation in a similar company-sponsored program bolster these empirical results.

  5. Agent Based Simulation of Group Emotions Evolution and Strategy Intervention in Extreme Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agent based simulation method has become a prominent approach in computational modeling and analysis of public emergency management in social science research. The group emotions evolution, information diffusion, and collective behavior selection make extreme incidents studies a complex system problem, which requires new methods for incidents management and strategy evaluation. This paper studies the group emotion evolution and intervention strategy effectiveness using agent based simulation method. By employing a computational experimentation methodology, we construct the group emotion evolution as a complex system and test the effects of three strategies. In addition, the events-chain model is proposed to model the accumulation influence of the temporal successive events. Each strategy is examined through three simulation experiments, including two make-up scenarios and a real case study. We show how various strategies could impact the group emotion evolution in terms of the complex emergence and emotion accumulation influence in extreme events. This paper also provides an effective method of how to use agent-based simulation for the study of complex collective behavior evolution problem in extreme incidents, emergency, and security study domains.

  6. Adjustment to cancer: exploring patients' experiences of participating in a psychodramatic group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichetti, J; Giusti, L; Fossati, I; Vegni, E

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to understand the subjective experience of patients adjusting to cancer by focusing on how that experience might be affected by participating in a psychodramatic group intervention. In-depth interviews using an interpretative-phenomenological approach were conducted with eight cancer patients involved in a psychodrama group. Four key themes were identified: (1) outside and inside relationships; (2) identities: nurturing other selves; (3) a feelings' gym: performing the internal world; and (4) many ends: mourning death and dying. Participation in cancer group using a psychodramatic approach provided positive results. In detail, the group setting: (1) favoured relationships in which it was possible to freely express oneself and (2) empowered patients in their feelings of being able to give and receive help; the psychodramatic approach: (1) supported the physical mobilisation of sense of agency and (2) permitted to deal with the grieving process. Cancer healthcare pathways would benefit from psychotherapeutic programmes using a similar approach, since psychodrama by actively involving body seems to works on areas that are often underwhelmed by other approaches, such as (i.e., physical mobilisation, body engagement, grieving adjustment). Psychodrama supports patients to achieve insights into their own possibilities to actively participate in their own life situations despite having cancer and undergoing treatment for it.

  7. When sad groups expect to meet again: interactive affective sharing and future interaction expectation as determinants of work groups' analytical and creative task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klep, Annefloor H M; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

    2013-12-01

    The present study examines the moderating role of future interaction expectation in the relationship between affective sharing and work groups' task performance. We argue that group affect, a group defining characteristic, becomes more salient to its members when it is interactively shared, and that the anticipation of future interaction may strengthen the effects of group defining characteristics on subsequent group member behaviour. As a consequence, interactive sharing (vs. non-interactive sharing) of negative affect is more likely to influence work group outcomes when group members expect to meet again. Results from a laboratory experiment with 66 three-person work groups indeed show that interactively shared (vs. non-interactively shared) negative affect facilitated work groups' analytical task performance, whereas it inhibited performance on a creative fluency task when groups have expectations of future interaction and not when they do not have such expectations. The discussion focuses on how these results add to theory on group affect and contribute to insights in the effects of future interaction expectation.

  8. A computer-assisted protocol for endovascular target interventions using a clinical MRI system for controlling untethered microdevices and future nanorobots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain; Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Chanu, Arnaud; Aboussouan, Eric; Tamaz, Samer; Pouponneau, Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine; Beaudoin, Gilles; Soulez, Gilles; Mankiewicz, Martin

    2008-11-01

    The possibility of automatically navigating untethered microdevices or future nanorobots to conduct target endovascular interventions has been demonstrated by our group with the computer-controlled displacement of a magnetic sphere along a pre-planned path inside the carotid artery of a living swine. However, although the feasibility of propelling, tracking and performing real-time closed-loop control of an untethered ferromagnetic object inside a living animal model with a relatively close similarity to human anatomical conditions has been validated using a standard clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system, little information has been published so far concerning the medical and technical protocol used. In fact, such a protocol developed within technological and physiological constraints was a key element in the success of the experiment. More precisely, special software modules were developed within the MRI software environment to offer an effective tool for experimenters interested in conducting such novel interventions. These additional software modules were also designed to assist an interventional radiologist in all critical real-time aspects that are executed at a speed beyond human capability, and include tracking, propulsion, event timing and closed-loop position control. These real-time tasks were necessary to avoid a loss of navigation control that could result in serious injury to the patient. Here, additional simulation and experimental results for microdevices designed to be targeted more towards the microvasculature have also been considered in the identification, validation and description of a specific sequence of events defining a new computer-assisted interventional protocol that provides the framework for future target interventions conducted in humans.

  9. Methods and design of a 10-week multi-component family meals intervention: a two group quasi-experimental effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Catherine; Anderson, Sarah E; Dollahite, Jamie S; Hill, Tisa F; Holloman, Chris; Miller, Carla K; Pratt, Keeley J; Gunther, Carolyn

    2017-01-09

    Given the ongoing childhood obesity public health crisis and potential protective effect of family meals, there is need for additional family meals research, specifically experimental studies with expanded health outcomes that focus on the at-risk populations in highest need of intervention. Future research, specifically intervention work, would also benefit from an expansion of the target age range to include younger children, who are laying the foundation of their eating patterns and capable of participating in family meal preparations. The purpose of this paper is to address this research gap by presenting the objectives and research methods of a 10-week multi-component family meals intervention study aimed at eliciting positive changes in child diet and weight status. This will be a group quasi-experimental trial with staggered cohort design. Data will be collected via direct measure and questionnaires at baseline, intervention completion (or waiting period for controls), and 10-weeks post-intervention. Setting will be faith-based community center. Participants will be 60 underserved families with at least 1, 4-10 year old child will be recruited and enrolled in the intervention (n = 30) or waitlist control group (n = 30). The intervention (Simple Suppers) is a 10-week family meals program designed for underserved families from racial/ethnic diverse backgrounds. The 10, 90-min program lessons will be delivered weekly over the dinner hour. Session components include: a) interactive group discussion of strategies to overcome family meal barriers, plus weekly goal setting for caregivers; b) engagement in age-appropriate food preparation activities for children; and c) group family meal for caregivers and children. Main outcome measures are change in: child diet quality; child standardized body mass index; and frequency of family meals. Regression models will be used to compare response variables results of intervention to control group, controlling for

  10. Interventional cardiology in Europe 1993. Working Group on Coronary Circulation of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B J; Meier, B; Bonzel, T; Fabian, J; Heyndrickx, G; Morice, M C; Mühlberger, V; Piscione, F; Rothman, M; Wijns, W; van den Brand, M

    1996-09-01

    An annual survey on cardiac interventions in Europe is performed by the working group on Coronary Circulation of the European Society of Cardiology with the help of the national societies of cardiology. A questionnaire about cardiac interventions in 1993 was mailed to a representative of the national societies of 35 members of the European Society of Cardiology. The data collection of coronary interventions was delayed by slow backreporting and from 10 of the 35 national members data were missing or grossly incomplete. They were excluded from the analysis. A total of 756,822 coronary angiograms were reported resulting in an incidence of 1146 +/- 1024 per 10(6) inhabitants, ranging from 24 (Romania) to 3499 (Germany). This represents an increase of 12% compared to 1992. Germany (279,882 cases), France (157,237), the United Kingdom (77,000), Italy (44,934) and Spain (37,591) registered 79% of all the coronary angiograms performed. A total of 183,728 percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty cases were reported in 1993, 24% more than in 1992. On average, they accounted for 18 +/- 7% (range 8 (Romania) to 35% (Sweden) of the coronary angiograms. Most of these percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties (82%) were confined to a single vessel. In 13% only, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty took place immediately after the diagnostic study. Adjusted per capita. Germany ranks first with 873 percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties per 10(6) inhabitants, followed by France (737), Holland (725), Belgium (713), and Switzerland (665). The European mean of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties per 10(6) inhabitants was 270 +/- 279, representing an increase of 14% compared with 1992. A major in-hospital complication was reported in 3.8% of the patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: 0.6% hospital deaths, 1.5% emergency coronary artery bypass grafting, and 1.7% myocardial infarctions. In 1993 stents were

  11. PSYCHOSOCIAL GROUP INTERVENTION AND THE RATE OF DECLINE OF IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN ASYMPTOMATIC HIV-INFECTED HOMOSEXUAL MEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, CL; ANTONI, MH; EMMELKAMP, PMG; VEUGELERS, PJ; SANDFORT, TGM; VANDEVIJVER, FAJR; DEVRIES, MJ

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine changes in the rate of decline of immunological parameters after psychosocial group intervention. Subjects were 26 asymptomatic HIV-infected homosexual men who participated in a cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBT; n = 14), or an experiential group therapy p

  12. Futurism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  13. The Effect of Education-Based Intervention Using Small Group Discussion in Empowering Adolescent Girls to Prevent Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemehsadat Seyed Nematollah Roshan

    2014-10-01

    Results: At baseline, independent T-test showed no significant difference between the two groups in the perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and self efficacy, all of which could be regarded as empowerment process components (P>0.05. However, significant differences were observed after intervention. Also, the paired T-test showed a significant difference before and after the intervention in the test group in means of the perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, self efficacy and, in the grand scheme, adolescent girls' empowerment (P

  14. Determination of needs of black aged persons in Port Elizabeth: Direction for future interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. S. Ntshona

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Social, economic and health care needs of elderly black persons in Port Elizabeth and areas in its immediate vicinity are investigated. Conclusions are drawn from a sample study of 301 elderly people. The investigation reveals that the majority of pensioners are -women, their educational standard is below standard 10, and they have little vocational or specialized training. A high proportion (86% of them are breadwinners and therefore they are unwilling to reside in institutions. Recreational facilities are inadequate. Pension payout points are overcrowded and disorganized. Also health care services are inaccessible to most elderly people. In view of these findings, a community-based approach to care for the elderly is recommended. The approach should promote social interaction among elderly through establishment of luncheon clubs and service centres and well-being of all elderly through geriatric clinics as well as home care services for the infirm. This entails an intersectorial collaboration, with the elderly being fully involved and participating. Considering the exponential growth of the elderly population in South Africa, it is imperative that the government and other organizations should take cognizance of studies of this nature when making future decisions as regards the care of this group.

  15. An intervention analysis on the Tokyo Grain Exchange non-genetically modified and conventional soybean futures markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaka Aruga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how efficiently the price premium for non-genetically modified (non-GM soybeans at the Tokyo Grain Exchange (TGE reacts to an announcement to change the contract unit, suppliers, and expiration date on the conventional soybean futures contract. An intervention analysis is used for this purpose. The results reveal that the price premium for non-GM soybeans increases after the change and this effect did not disappear immediately. This implies that the two soybean futures markets did not respond quickly to the announcement and there was an informational inefficiency after the announcement. The TGE non-GM soybean futures market is one of the first segregated markets for a non-GM commodity. An intervention of clearing houses on such newly opened markets can often lead to market inefficiency so a further study is necessary in order to understand what causes such inefficiency and to find out how clearing houses can minimize the effects of intervention.

  16. Local community intervention through depression screening and group activity for elderly suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Ono, Yutaka; Watanabe, Naoki; Tanaka, Eriko; Kudoh, Seijiro; Sakashita, Tomoe; Sakamoto, Shinji; Neichi, Keiko; Satoh, Kyoko; Nakamura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Kimio

    2006-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate outcomes of a community-based program to prevent suicide among the elderly (>or=65 years old) using a quasi-experimental design with two neighboring references. During 1999-2004, the program including depression screening and group activity was conducted by the public health nurses in the Minami district (population 1685) of Nagawa town, rural Japan. Pre-post changes in the risk of completing suicide were estimated by the incidence rate ratios (IRR). The risk for Minami's elderly females was reduced by 74% (age-adjusted IRR, 0.26; 90% CI, 0.07-0.98) more than the historical trend, while there was no change in the risk of Minami's males and nor in the male or female references. The local intervention using public health nursing would be effective against suicide for elderly females without diffusing to the surroundings.

  17. Spanish cardiac catheterization and coronary intervention registry. 22nd official report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Del Blanco, Bruno; Rumoroso Cuevas, Jose Ramón; Hernández Hernández, Felipe; Trillo Nouche, Ramiro

    2013-11-01

    The Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology presents the yearly report on the data collected for the Spanish registry. Institutions provided their data voluntarily (online) and the information was analyzed by the Working Group's Steering Committee. Data were provided by 109 hospitals (71 public and 38 private) that mainly treat adults. There were 136,912 diagnostic procedures, 120, 441 of which were coronary angiograms, slightly fewer than the year before, with a rate of 2979 diagnostic studies per million population. Percutaneous coronary interventions increased slightly to 65,909 procedures, for a rate of 1434 interventions per million population. Of the 99,110 stents implanted, 62% were drug-eluting stents. In all, 17,125 coronary interventions were carried out during the acute phase of myocardial infarction, 10.5% more than in 2011, representing 25.9% of the total number of coronary interventions. The most frequently performed intervention for adult congenital heart disease was atrial septal defect closure (292 procedures). The use of percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty continued to decline (258 procedures) and percutaneous aortic valve implantations increased by only 10% in 2012. In 2012, the only increase in hemodynamic activity occurred in the field of ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and the increasing trend had slowed for percutaneous aortic valve implantation and other procedures affecting structure. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. [Positive psychology orientation: an intervention proposal for group work in mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Patrícia Mendes; Cavalcante Júnior, Francisco Silva

    2009-01-01

    This investigation aims at presenting a positive approach to psychology applied to the field of mental health in the treatment of patients with mental disorders. The intervention here presented was conducted in therapeutic groups with patients from a psychosocial care center (called CAPS). The analysis of the group work was based on three basic concepts: the humanistic approach and its vision of men and the world, the (con)text method of multiple literacies, and positive psychology. Quantitative and qualitative phenomenological research methodologies were used. The research results were divided into categories based on the group work with patients with depression-related disorders. Seeking for a new model of mental health care aimed at preserving the humanistic approach and the rights of the citizen, the Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) emerges as a historical result of the construction of the health/disease concept in order to put into practice the principles guiding the psychiatric reform in Brazil. Within this process, a positive approach to psychology is opening horizons for a practice based on a new view of the subject, emphasizing and developing ' virtuous' aspects like the possibility of achieving health in its broader meaning, together health promotion and the employment of different psychological practices.

  19. Using ecological momentary assessment in testing the effectiveness of an alcohol intervention: a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen V Voogt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption of college students has a fluctuating nature, which might impact the measurement of intervention effects. By using 25 follow-up time-points, this study tested whether intervention effects are robust or might vary over time. METHODS: Data were used from a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial applying ecological momentary assessment (EMA with 30 data time-points in total. Students between 18 and 24 years old who reported heavy drinking in the past six months and who were ready to change their alcohol consumption were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 456: web-based brief alcohol intervention and control condition (n = 451: no intervention. Outcome measures were weekly alcohol consumption, frequency of binge drinking, and heavy drinking status. RESULTS: According to the intention-to-treat principle, regression analyses revealed that intervention effects on alcohol consumption varied when exploring multiple follow-up time-points. Intervention effects were found for a weekly alcohol consumption at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 weeks follow-up, b frequency of binge drinking at 1, 2, 7, and 12 weeks follow-up, and c heavy drinking status at 1, 2, 7, and 16 weeks follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This research showed that the commonly used one and six month follow-up time-points are relatively arbitrary and not using EMA might bring forth erroneous conclusions on the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, future trials in alcohol prevention research and beyond are encouraged to apply EMA when assessing outcome measures and intervention effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR2665.

  20. Cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children and adolescents from ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Manus, V; Savage, E

    2010-09-01

    Both diabetes and asthma are increasingly being recognized as health problems for ethnic groups. Because of cultural differences, ethnicity is reported to be a risk factor for poorer quality in health care, disease management and disease control. Ethnic groups are at risk for poorer quality of life and increased disease complications when compared with non-ethnic counterparts living in the same country. There is little known about how culture is addressed in interventions developed for ethnic groups. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic minority groups. A total of 92 records were identified that were potentially relevant to this review following which, 61 papers were excluded. The full texts of remaining papers (n= 31) were then read independently by both authors, and agreement was reached to exclude a further 27 papers that did not meet inclusion criteria. A total of four papers were eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that despite growing concerns about health disparities between ethnic and non-ethnic groups in relation to both asthma and diabetes in childhood, there has been little effort to develop cultural specific interventions for ethnic groups. By systematically reviewing asthma and diabetes interventions we have highlighted that few interventions have been developed from a cultural perspective. There are a limited number of interventions published that add knowledge on the specific elements of intervention that is needed to effectively and sensitively educate other cultures. More work is required into identifying which strategies or components of cultural interventions are most effective in achieving positive health outcomes for children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic groups.

  1. Future directions for interventions targeting PTSD in HIV-infected adults

    OpenAIRE

    Applebaum, Allison J.; Bedoya, C. Andres; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Wilkinson, Jesse L.; Safren, Steven A.; O’Cleirigh, Conall

    2014-01-01

    Although studies consistently report high rates of comorbid Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and HIV infection, development and testing of PTSD treatment interventions in HIV-infected adults is limited. As such, the purpose of this review was twofold. First, this review augments the 3 existing reviews of research for PTSD in HIV-infected adults conducted within the past 10 years. We found 2 empirically supported cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based interventions for the treatment of ...

  2. Planning and managing future space facility projects. [management by objectives and group dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, J. E.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Tanner, T. A.; Helmreich, R. L.; Burgenbauch, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    To learn how ground-based personnel of a space project plan and organize their work and how such planning and organizing relate to work outcomes, longitudinal study of the management and execution of the Space Lab Mission Development Test 3 (SMD 3) was performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A view of the problems likely to arise in organizations and some methods of coping with these problems are presented as well as the conclusions and recommendations that pertain strictly to SMD 3 management. Emphasis is placed on the broader context of future space facility projects and additional problems that may be anticipated. A model of management that may be used to facilitate problem solving and communication - management by objectives (MBO) is presented. Some problems of communication and emotion management that MBO does not address directly are considered. Models for promoting mature, constructive and satisfying emotional relationships among group members are discussed.

  3. Future In-Space Operations (FISO): A Working Group and Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Long-duration human capabilities beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), either in support of or as an alternative to lunar surface operations, have been assessed at least since the late 1960s. Over the next few months, we will present short histories of concepts for long-duration, free-space human habitation beyond LEO from the end of the Apollo program to the Decadal Planning Team (DPT)/NASA Exploration Team (NExT), which was active in 1999 2000 (see Forging a vision: NASA s Decadal Planning Team and the origins of the Vision for Space Exploration , The Space Review, December 19, 2005). Here we summarize the brief existence of the Future In-Space Operations (FISO) working group in 2005 2006 and its successor, a telecon-based colloquium series, which we co-moderate.

  4. Radiation effects analysis in a group of interventional radiologists using biological and physical dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M., E-mail: WEMLmirapas@iqn.upv.e [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Tortosa, R. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, P. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Barrios, L.L. [Department of Physiology and Cellular Biology, Unit of Cellular Biology (UAB) (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Interventional radiologists and staff members are frequently exposed to protracted and fractionated low doses of ionizing radiation, which extend during all their professional activities. These exposures can derive, due to the effects of direct and scattered radiation, in deterministic effects (radiodermitis, aged skin, cataracts, telangiectasia in nasal region, vasocellular epitelioms, hands depilation) and/or stochastic ones (cancer incidence). A methodology has been proposed for estimating the radiation risk or detriment from a group of six exposed interventional radiologists of the Hospital Universitario La Fe (Valencia, Spain), which had developed general exposition symptoms attributable to deterministic effects of ionizing radiation. Equivalent doses have been periodically registered using TLD's and wrist dosimeters, H{sub p}(10) and H{sub p}(0.07), respectively, and estimated through the observation of translocations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood (biological methods), by extrapolating the yield of translocations to their respective dose-effect curves. The software RADRISK has been applied for estimating radiation risks in these occupational radiation exposures. This software is based on transport models from epidemiological studies of population exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation, such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors [UNSCEAR, Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: 2006 report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations; 2006]. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for skin cancer has been, using wrist physical doses, of [1.03x10{sup -3}, 5.06x10{sup -2}], concluding that there is not an increased risk of skin cancer incidence. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for leukemia has been, using TLD physical doses, of [7.84x10{sup -2}, 3.36x10{sup -1}], and using biological doses, of [1.40x10{sup -1}, 1.51], which is considerably higher than incidence rates, showing an

  5. Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 24th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Del Blanco, Bruno; Hernández Hernández, Felipe; Rumoroso Cuevas, José Ramón; Trillo Nouche, Ramiro

    2015-12-01

    The Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology presents its annual report on the data from the registry of the activity in Spain in 2014. Data were voluntarily provided by participating centers. The information was introduced online and was analyzed by the Steering Committee of the Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology. Data were reported by 106 hospitals. A total of 140 461 diagnostic procedures (125 484 coronary angiograms) were performed, representing a rate of 3014 diagnostic studies per million population. This year, the number of percutaneous coronary interventions increased to 67 611, giving a rate of 1447 interventions per million population. A total of 94 458 stents were implanted, including 64 057 drug-eluting stents and 2424 biodegradable intracoronary devices. Of the total number of percutaneous coronary interventions, 17 825 were in acute myocardial infarction, representing 26.4% of all coronary interventions. A radial approach was used in 74% of diagnostic procedures and in 70.4% of interventional procedures. The use of renal denervation decreased, whereas over 125 mitral leak closures were performed. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures exceeded 1300 implantations per year, a 27% increase from 2013. The registry for 2014 shows a slight increase in coronary disease activity despite no increase in the management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Drug-eluting intracoronary devices now comprise over 70% of all intracoronary devices. A continual increase is only seen in certain structural interventional techniques, such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation and perivalvular leak closure. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of support group intervention on family system strengths of rural caregivers of stroke patients in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malini, M Hema

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of support group intervention on family system strengths of rural caregivers of stroke patients. True experimental pretest and post-test design was adopted for the study. The study was conducted in Kattankulathur Block, a rural area in Kancheepuram district, India. Two hundred forty caregivers of stroke patients were selected by simple random sampling technique. Enrolment in self-help groups and attending meetings were used as the interventional strategy for the purpose of this study. The main outcome of the study was to evaluate the impact of support group intervention on family system strengths of rural caregivers of stroke patients. Following intervention, the mean score and the standard deviation of the experimental group increased to 44.73 and 5.83, respectively, the control group mean score remained at 22.08 and the standard deviation was 3.07 at t = 37.58. P value was 0.001, which is statistically significant at the confidence interval of 39.45%. It was found that there was a significant and positive increase in the family system strengths of caregivers who participated in the self-help group meetings, thereby suggesting that support group intervention programs are an effective nursing strategy that can be employed for improving the overall well-being of the caregivers of stroke patients. © 2014 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  7. An intervention to reduce HIV risk behavior of substance-using men who have sex with men: a two-group randomized trial with a nonrandomized third group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Mansergh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Substance use during sex is associated with sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, and MSM continue to be the group at highest risk for incident HIV in the United States. The objective of this study is to test the efficacy of a group-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce risk behavior of substance-using MSM, compared to a randomized attention-control group and a nonrandomized standard HIV-testing group. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants (n = 1,686 were enrolled in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco and randomized to a cognitive-behavioral intervention or attention-control comparison. The nonrandomized group received standard HIV counseling and testing. Intervention group participants received six 2-h group sessions focused on reducing substance use and sexual risk behavior. Attention-control group participants received six 2-h group sessions of videos and discussion of MSM community issues unrelated to substance use, sexual risk, and HIV/AIDS. All three groups received HIV counseling and testing at baseline. The sample reported high-risk behavior during the past 3 mo prior to their baseline visit: 67% reported unprotected anal sex, and 77% reported substance use during their most recent anal sex encounter with a nonprimary partner. The three groups significantly (p0.05 from each other at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Outcomes for the 2-arm comparisons were not significantly different at 12-mo follow-up (e.g., unprotected anal sex, odds ratio = 1.14, confidence interval = 0.86-1.51, nor at earlier time points. Similar results were found for each outcome variable in both 2- and 3-arm comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: These results for reducing sexual risk behavior of substance-using MSM are consistent with results of intervention trials for other populations, which collectively suggest critical challenges for the field of HIV behavioral interventions. Several mechanisms may contribute to

  8. Using A Facebook Group As An Adjunct To A Pilot mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumper, Megan A; Mendoza, Jason A; Arseniev-Koehler, Alina; Holm, Matthew; Waite, Alan; Moreno, Megan A

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, most adolescents do not obtain the recommended amounts of physical activity for optimal health. Around 80% of adolescents own a mobile device, and social media is frequently used by adolescents on mobile devices. Few studies have examined the use of social media as part of an intervention to promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a Facebook group as part of a mHealth physical activity intervention trial. Adolescents, ages 14-18 years, were recruited for a four week physical activity intervention using the FitBit Flex. Participants were also given the option to join a private Facebook group where they could interact and were given badges for fitness accomplishments. The research assistant moderator posted on the Facebook group an average of 25.3 times (SD=7.2). Post-intervention, participants completed a phone interview about their experience. Of 30 intervention participants (avg age 16.0 (SD=1.1), 60.0% female), 17 opted to join the Facebook group (avg age 16.3 (SD=1.2), 47.0% female) of which 10 completed a qualitative interview. Participants averaged 4.9 interactions (SD=8.7) on the Facebook group wall throughout the intervention. From the interview responses, major themes included enjoying the badge feature of the Facebook group and wanting more content and interaction. In conclusion, participants used and enjoyed having the Facebook group, particularly the badge feature of the group, as an adjunct to the physical activity intervention.

  9. Estimating coverage of a women's group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Younes (Layla); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); K. Azad (Kishwar); A. Costello (Anthony); E. Fottrell (Edward)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention c

  10. Effects of resource-building group intervention on career management and mental health in work organizations: randomized controlled field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Jukka; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Mutanen, Pertti

    2012-03-01

    A resource-building group intervention was developed to enhance career management, mental health, and job retention in work organizations. The in-company training program provided employees with better preparedness to manage their own careers. The program activities were universally implemented using an organization-level, 2-trainer model with trainers from the human resources management and occupational health services. The study was a within-organizations, randomly assigned field experimental study; it investigated the impacts of the intervention on immediate career management preparedness and later mental health and intentions to retire early. A total of 718 eligible individuals returned a questionnaire in 17 organizations and became voluntary participants. The respondents were randomly assigned to either an intervention (N = 369) or a comparison group (N = 349). Those in the intervention group were invited to group intervention workshops, whereas those in the comparison group received printed information about career and health-related issues. The 7-month follow-up results showed that the program significantly decreased depressive symptoms and intentions to retire early and increased mental resources among the group participants compared to the others. The mediation analyses demonstrated that the increase in career management preparedness as a proximal impact of the intervention mediated the longer term mental health effects. Those who benefited most from the intervention as regards their mental health were employees with elevated levels of depression or exhaustion and younger employees, implying additional benefits of a more targeted use of the intervention. The results demonstrated the benefits of the enhancement of individual-level career management and resilience resources as career and health promotion practice in work organizations.

  11. Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking latina mothers influence the home food environment: Implications for future interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to obtain in-depth information from low income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent’s knowledge about healthful eating, the home food enviro...

  12. Nutritional care of Danish medical inpatients: Effect on dietary intake and the occupational groups' perspectives of intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lillian

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients do not eat and drink sufficiently during hospitalisation. The clinical consequences of this under nutrition include lassitude, an increased risk of complications and prolonged convalescence. The aim of the study was 1 to introduce intervention targeting nutritional care for medical inpatients, 2 to investigate the effect of this intervention, and 3 to investigate the occupational groups' attitudes towards nutritional intervention and nutritional care in general. Methods The design was to determinate the extent to which the protein and energy requirements of medical inpatients were met before and after intervention. Dietary protein and energy intakes were assessed by 72-hour weighed food records. A total number of 108 medical patients at four bed sections and occupational groups in the two intervention bed sections, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark participated. The intervention included introduction and implementation of nursing procedures targeting nutritional care during a five-month investigation period using standard food produced at the hospital. The effect of intervention for independent groups of patients were tested by one-way analysis of variance. After the intervention occupational groups were interviewed in focus groups. Results Before the intervention hospital food on average met 72% of the patients' protein requirement and 85% of their energy requirement. After intervention hospital food satisfied 85% of the protein and 103% of the energy requirements of 14 patients in one intervention section and 56% of the protein and 76% of the energy requirement of 17 patients in the other intervention section. Hospital food satisfied 61% of the protein and 75% of the energy requirement in a total of 29 controls. From the occupational groups' point of view lack of time, lack of access to food, and lack of knowledge of nutritional care for patients were identified as barriers to better integration of

  13. The process of a group intervention for caregivers of demented persons living at home: conceptual framework, components, and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, L; Gendron, C; Vézina, J; Hébert, R; Ducharme, F; Lavoie, J-P; Gendron, M; Voyer, L; Préville, M

    2002-08-01

    Most earlier group interventions for caregivers of demented persons lacked a theoretical basis to guide the intervention process and focused on providing information and practical advice and encouraging the expression of feelings. This article presents the process of a group intervention with emphasis on its conceptual framework, components and characteristics. As caregivers are exposed to numerous daily stressful demands, the intervention's conceptual framework was derived from Lazarus and Folkman's transactional theory of stress and coping and Folkman's Coping Effectiveness Training Program. The central aim of the intervention was to improve the ability of caregivers to cope with the stressful demands at the core of caring for a demented person, rather than to focus on information and the task-oriented aspects of caring. The two components of the intervention deal with the cognitive appraisal of stressors and coping strategies, with a view to determining which strategies are most appropriate on the basis of the changeability of stressors. Three coping strategies were proposed: problem solving (problem-focused coping to deal with changeable stressors), reframing (emotion-focused coping to manage the emotional response to unchangeable stressors), and seeking social support (problem- or emotion-focused coping). The most salient characteristics of this group intervention were its intensity (15 meetings) and its focus on the caregivers' daily reality, which provided concrete reference points for the discussion of conceptual notions.

  14. Small groups, big gains: efficacy of a tier 2 phonological awareness intervention with preschoolers with early literacy deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Lydia G; Spencer, Trina D; Olszewski, Arnold; Goldstein, Howard

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a phonological awareness (PA) intervention, designed for Tier 2 instruction in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model, delivered to small groups of preschoolers. A multiple-baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention on low-income preschool children's PA skills. A trained interventionist delivered small group sessions 3 to 4 days a week and ensured children received frequent opportunities to respond and contingent feedback. Participants received 28 to 36 lessons that lasted about 10 min each and focused on PA and alphabet knowledge. Initiation of intervention was staggered across 3 triads, and 7 children completed the study. The intervention produced consistent gains on weekly progress monitoring assessments of the primary outcome measure for first sound identification (First Sound Fluency). Most children also demonstrated gains on other measures of PA and alphabet knowledge. Results provide support for the application of a small group intervention consistent with an RTI framework and document the potential benefits of the intervention to learners who need early literacy instruction beyond the core curriculum.

  15. TU-EF-210-04: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, K. [National Cancer Institute (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare.

  16. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Middelkamp, Maaike van Rooijen, Peter Wolfhagen, Bert Steenbergen

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1). The first experimental group was...

  17. The effects of two self-regulation interventions to increase self-efficacy and group exercise behavior in fitness clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Middelkamp, P.J.C.; Van Rooijen, M.; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1). The first experimental group was...

  18. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolderink Marla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI, because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. Although the exact number of parents with a mental illness is unclear, the subject of mentally ill parents is gaining attention. Moreover there is a lack of interventions for COPMI-children, as well of (cost- effectiveness studies evaluating COPMI interventions. Innovative interventions such as e-health provide a new field for exploration. There is no knowledge about the opportunities for using the internet to prevent problems in children at risk. In the current study we will focus on the (cost- effectiveness of an online health prevention program for COPMI-children. Methods/Design We designed a randomized controlled trial to examine the (cost- effectiveness of the Kopstoring intervention. Kopstoring is an online intervention for COPMI-children to strengthen their coping skills and prevent behavioral and psychological problems. We will compare the Kopstoring intervention with (waiting list care as usual. This trial will be conducted entirely over the internet. An economic evaluation, from a societal perspective will be conducted, to examine the trial's cost-effectiveness. Power calculations show that 214 participants are needed, aged 16-25. Possible participants will be recruited via media announcements and banners on the internet. After screening and completing informed consent procedures, participants will be randomized. The main outcome is internalizing and externalizing symptoms as measured by the Youth Self Report. For the economic evaluation, healthcare costs and costs outside the healthcare sector will be measured at the same time as the clinical measures, at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. An extended

  19. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Acculturation: A Study of Students in Hong Kong from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jia-Yan; Ng, Petrus; Young, Daniel Kim-Wan; Caroline, Schoepf

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral intervention (CBI) in improving mental health and promoting postmigration growth for Mainland university students in Hong Kong. Methods: Thirty-six Mainland students with mild-to-moderate levels of psychological distress have completed an 8-session CBI group. Various…

  20. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Acculturation: A Study of Students in Hong Kong from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jia-Yan; Ng, Petrus; Young, Daniel Kim-Wan; Caroline, Schoepf

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral intervention (CBI) in improving mental health and promoting postmigration growth for Mainland university students in Hong Kong. Methods: Thirty-six Mainland students with mild-to-moderate levels of psychological distress have completed an 8-session CBI group. Various…

  1. Increasing the Use of Group Interventions in a Pediatric Rehabilitation Program: Perceptions of Administrators, Therapists, and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Chantal; Tetreault, Sylvie; Swaine, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore perceptions related to increased utilization of group interventions as a part of the service reorganization within a pediatric rehabilitation program. Methods: Individual interviews with program administrators (n = 13) and focus groups with therapists (n = 19) and parents of children with disabilities (n = 5) were conducted.…

  2. The effects of two self-regulation interventions to increase self-efficacy and group exercise behavior in fitness clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp, P.J.C.; Rooijen, M. van; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited

  3. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp, J.; van Rooijen, M.; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited

  4. Future Perspectives of Personalized Weight Loss Interventions Based on Nutrigenetic, Epigenetic, and Metagenomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Leticia; Cuervo, Marta; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2016-03-09

    As obesity has become a major global public health challenge, a large number of studies have analyzed different strategies aimed at inducing a negative energy balance and, consequently, body weight loss. However, most existing weight loss programs are generally unsuccessful, so several interventions have been carried out to identify physiologic and behavioral factors concerning this variability in order to implement more personalized treatment. Nowadays, an individualized approach is being proposed through so-called personalized nutrition, whereby not only the phenotype but also the genotype is used for customized nutrition treatment. Regarding body weight regulation, ∼70 polymorphisms have been identified in or near genes related to energy expenditure, appetite, adipogenesis, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolism. Although personalized nutrition refers mainly to genetic makeup, recent advances in the investigation of the epigenome and the microbiome open the door to implement more personalized recommendations for body weight management. In this context, recent studies have demonstrated the existence of several epigenetic markers that may modify gene expression and could be involved in the outcome of weight loss interventions. Moreover, different studies have shown that dietary interventions could affect the composition of gut microbiota and have an impact on body weight. The integration of nutrigenetic, epigenetic, and metagenomic data may lead to the design of more personalized dietary treatments to prevent chronic diseases and to optimize the individual's response to dietary interventions.

  5. Changing self-esteem in children and adolescents: A roadmap for future interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.R. Bos (Arjan); P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); S. Mulkens; H.P. Schaalma (Herman)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSelf-esteem is an important construct that is related to academic achievement, social functioning and psychopathology in children and adolescents. Therefore, it is not surprising that many interventions have tried to change levels of self-esteem in this population. In this article a theo

  6. Changing self-esteem in children and adolescents: A roadmap for future interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.R. Bos (Arjan); P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); S. Mulkens; H.P. Schaalma (Herman)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSelf-esteem is an important construct that is related to academic achievement, social functioning and psychopathology in children and adolescents. Therefore, it is not surprising that many interventions have tried to change levels of self-esteem in this population. In this article a

  7. Current Provision, Recent Developments, and Future Directions for Early Childhood Intervention in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Lim, Ai-Keow

    2012-01-01

    Singapore is a young island nation with a diverse population. Its support for young children at risk has its roots in the 1950s, but early childhood intervention (ECI) programs for young children with disabilities emerged only in the 1980s. ECI programs have proliferated in the subsequent years, offering an increasing range of service delivery…

  8. The current and future state of interventional cardiology: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    After 75 years of invasive and over 50 years of interventional cardiology, cardiac catheter-based procedures have become the most frequently used interventions of modern medicine. Patients undergoing a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outnumber those with coronary artery bypass surgery by a factor of 2 to 4. The default approach to PCI is the implantation of a (drug-eluting) stent, in spite of the fact that it improves the results of balloon angioplasty only in about 25% of cases. The dominance of stenting over conservative therapy or balloon angioplasty on one hand and bypass surgery on the other hand is a flagrant example of how medical research is digested an applied in real life. Apart from electrophysiological interventions, closure ot the patent foramen ovale and percutaneous replacement of the aortic valve in the elderly have the potential of becoming daily routine procedures in catheterization laboratories around the world. Stem cell regeneration of vessels or heart muscle, on the other hand, may remain a dream never to come true.

  9. Changing self-esteem in children and adolescents: A roadmap for future interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.R. Bos (Arjan); P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); S. Mulkens; H.P. Schaalma (Herman)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSelf-esteem is an important construct that is related to academic achievement, social functioning and psychopathology in children and adolescents. Therefore, it is not surprising that many interventions have tried to change levels of self-esteem in this population. In this article a theo

  10. Positive Peer Group Interventions: An Alternative to Individualized Interventions for Promoting Prosocial Behavior in Potentially Disaffected Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclouglin, Caven S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Most approaches to reducing the socially inappropriate behavior of adolescents target the individual rather than a group. Evidence suggests greater efficiency and longlasting effects may be achieved when groups of peers work together to make meaningful contributions to their communities through service learning projects. In the…

  11. Complex and Conflicting Social Norms: Implications for Implementation of Future HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP Interventions in Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Knight

    Full Text Available HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP has been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV acquisition among seronegative individuals in a variety of risk groups, including men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs. To date, however, it remains unclear how socio-cultural norms (e.g., attitudes towards HIV; social understandings regarding HIV risk practices may influence the scalability of future PrEP interventions. The objective of this study is to assess how socio-cultural norms may influence the implementation and scalability of future HIV PrEP interventions in Vancouver, Canada.We conducted 50 interviews with young men (ages 18-24 with a variety of HIV risk behavioural profiles (e.g., young men who inject drugs; MSM. Interviews focused on participants' experiences and perceptions with various HIV interventions and policies, including PrEP.While awareness of PrEP was generally low, perceptions about the potential personal and public health gains associated with PrEP were interconnected with expressions of complex and sometimes conflicting social norms. Some accounts characterized PrEP as a convenient form of reliable protection against HIV, likening it to the female birth control pill. Other accounts cast PrEP as a means to facilitate 'socially unacceptable' behaviour (e.g., promiscuity. Stigmatizing rhetoric was used to position PrEP as a tool that could promote some groups' proclivities to take 'risks'.Stigma regarding 'risky' behaviour and PrEP should not be underestimated as a serious implementation challenge. Pre-implementation strategies that concomitantly aim to improve knowledge about PrEP, while addressing associated social prejudices, may be key to effective implementation and scale-up.

  12. Effectiveness of Positive Psychology Group Interventions on Meaning of Life and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Kashaniyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological changes impact the psychological and interpersonal function in late life. Therefore, the general health and well-being diminish with decreasing the ages. These changes lead to decreasing life satisfaction and meaning of life in elderly individuals. The aim of study is to examine the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions (PPIs on meaning of life and life satisfaction among older adults. Methods: This study is quasi-experimental with pre and post-tests. Thirty elderly residents were selected from Tohid nursing home in Tehran in 2015. The participants were assigned randomly to the control (15 subjects with mean’s age 74.66 ± 6.62 and experimental groups (15 subjects with mean’s age 76.73± 9.45. PPIs were conducted during 10 sessions (each 90 minutes per week. Then the questionnaire was administered at post-test. Statistical analysis was conducted using Paired Samples T-test and Analysis of Covariance. The research instruments were the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Results: There was a significant difference between the pretest and post-test scores of meaning of  life (t= 3.85 and life satisfaction (t= 4.10 in the experimental group (p < 0.05. Also, there was significant difference between means of meaning of life (F= 19.88 and life satisfaction (F= 18.72 by eliminating the pretest effect (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The finding emphasized that PPIs is a kind of psychotherapy that addresses strengths, resources, values and hopes instead of deficits and weaknesses. Hence, it could be considered in therapeutic intervention to enhance the component of well-being as life satisfaction and  meaning of life. health improvement. On the other hand understanding of relationship between type of leisure activities and mental health, provides evidence for policy makers and health care planners to offer and facilitate a context in

  13. The "Living with Dysarthria" Group: Implementation and Feasibility of a Group Intervention for People with Dysarthria Following Stroke and Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Paton, Gillian; Kelly, Shona; Brady, Marian; Muir, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Background: The broad life implications of acquired dysarthria are recognized, but they have received little attention in stroke management. Reports of group therapy, which may be a suitable approach to intervention, are not available for stroke-related dysarthria. Aims: To examine the operational feasibility of and response to a new eight-session…

  14. Simultaneous natural speech and AAC interventions for children with childhood apraxia of speech: lessons from a speech-language pathologist focus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, Elizabeth R; McCarthy, John W

    2015-03-01

    In childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), children exhibit varying levels of speech intelligibility depending on the nature of errors in articulation and prosody. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) strategies are beneficial, and commonly adopted with children with CAS. This study focused on the decision-making process and strategies adopted by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) when simultaneously implementing interventions that focused on natural speech and AAC. Eight SLPs, with significant clinical experience in CAS and AAC interventions, participated in an online focus group. Thematic analysis revealed eight themes: key decision-making factors; treatment history and rationale; benefits; challenges; therapy strategies and activities; collaboration with team members; recommendations; and other comments. Results are discussed along with clinical implications and directions for future research.

  15. Imagining the future: Community perceptions of a family-based economic empowerment intervention for AIDS-orphaned adolescents in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred; Mooers, Elizabeth; Nabunya, Proscovia; Sheshadri, Srividya

    2012-10-01

    AIDS-orphaned children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa have inadequate access to basic services, including health and education. Using a qualitative approach, the study explores the meaning of education in rural Uganda, obstacles faced by AIDS-orphaned adolescents and their caregivers to access secondary education, and the potential of an economic empowerment intervention SEED in addressing the challenges of accessing educational opportunities for AIDS-orphaned adolescents. The findings come from 29 semi-structured interviews conducted with eleven adolescents study participants, four caregivers and fourteen community leaders involved in the pilot SEED intervention. Study participants and community members indicated that the savings accounts offer a unique opportunity for orphaned adolescents to stay in school and imagine the future with optimism.

  16. Estimating coverage of a women’s group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Layla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention coverage in resource and data poor settings is rarely documented. This paper describes four different methods, and their underlying assumptions, to estimate coverage of a community mobilisation women’s group intervention for maternal and newborn health among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. Methods Primary and secondary data sources were used to estimate the intervention’s coverage among pregnant women. Four methods were used: (1 direct measurement of a proxy indicator using intervention survey data; (2 direct measurement among intervention participants and modelled extrapolation based on routine longitudinal surveillance of births; (3 direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on cross-sectional measurements and national data; and (4 direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on published national data. Results The estimated women’s group intervention’s coverage among pregnant women ranged from 30% to 34%, depending on method used. Differences likely reflect differing assumptions and methodological biases of the various methods. Conclusion In the absence of complete and timely population data, choice of coverage estimation method must be based on the strengths and limitations of available methods, capacity and resources for measurement and the ultimate end user needs. Each of the methods presented and discussed here is likely to provide a useful understanding of intervention coverage at a single point in time and Methods 1 and 2 may also provide more reliable estimates of coverage trends. Footnotes 1Unpublished data from three focus group discussions with women’s group

  17. What do service users with bipolar disorder want from a web-based self-management intervention? A qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nicholas J; Jones, Steven H; Lobban, Fiona A

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and recurrent severe mental health problem. A web-based self-management intervention provides the opportunity to widen access to psychological interventions. This qualitative study aims to identify what an ideal web-based intervention would look like for service users with BD. Twelve service users with BD were recruited in the UK and took part in a series of focus groups to inform and refine the development of a web-based self-management intervention. Reported here is a subset analysis of data gathered with the primary aim of identifying the needs and desires of service users for such an intervention for BD. We analysed service users' responses to questions about content, outcomes, format, barriers and support. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was employed. The data were ordered into four key themes: (1) gaining an awareness of and managing mood swings; (2) not just about managing mood swings: the importance of practical and interpersonal issues; (3) managing living within mood swings without losing the experience; (4) internet is the only format: freely accessible, instant and interactive; (5) professional and peer support to overcome low motivation and procrastination difficulties. The small group of participants are not representative of those living with BD. These findings have significantly enhanced our understanding of what service users with BD want from a web-based self-management intervention and have clear implications for the future development of such approaches. Service users desire a web-based self-management approach that gives them the techniques they need to not only manage their moods but also manage their lives alongside the disorder, including interpersonal and practical issues. Service users describe their primary outcome, not as a cure or reduction in their symptoms, but instead being able to live a fulfilling life alongside their condition. Service users see the internet as their

  18. The present and future of interventional catheterization for congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Over the past decade, the focus of the pediatric catheterization laboratory has changed dramatically from its primary function of providing diagnosis to offering treatment.Since Rashkind first described the technique for atrial septostomy in the setting of complete transposition of the great arteries in 1966, therapeutic catheterization techniques have replaced conventional surgery, including both corrective and palliative surgeries, for many lesions. Interventional catheterization has become an important modality in the treatment of congenital heart disease. In addition, in the staged management of complex congenital heart disease, better outcomes have been acquired by combined surgical and interventional catheterization strategies. Although great advances have been made in the therapeutic catheterization for congenital heart disease in some Chinese medical centers, there is considerable difference in both clinical applications and basic researches between China and other developed countries. Thus, it is very important to expand this advanced technique aggressively but carefully.

  19. SU(3) Simple Group Model and New Z' Properties in Future Linear Colliders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yao-Bei; WANG Shuai-Wei; ZHANG Wen-Qing

    2009-01-01

    In the SU(3) simple group model, the new neutral gauge boson Z' couples to pairs of SM fermions with couplings fixed in terms of the SM gauge couplings and depending only on the choice of the fermion embedding.In this paper, we calculate the contributions of this new particle to the processes e+e-→ l+l+, bb, and cc and study the possibility of detecting this new particle via these processes in the future high-energy linear e+ e+ collider (LC) experiments with (s)= 500 GeV and £int= 340 fb-1.We find that the new gauge boson Z' is most sensitive to the process e+e+ → b(b).As long as Mz' ≤2 TeV, the absolute values of the relative correction parameter are larger than 5%.We calculate the forward-backward asymmetries and left-right asymmetries for the process e+ e-→ c(c), with both the universal and anomaly-free fermion embeddings.Bounds on Z' masses are also estimated within 95% confidence level.

  20. Weighing the Future: An Ethnographic Examination of Epigenetics and Prenatal Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Natali

    2016-01-01

    The ethnography examines the different roles of epigenetics in both new scientific thinking and within clinical trials that test nutritional interventions on pregnant women deemed obese. Contrary to commonly held assumptions that underlie genetic determinism, epigenetics represents a paradigmatic shift through the study of how environmental conditions affect gene regulation. Research and prevention efforts around the growing public concern for childhood and adult obesity have recently shift...

  1. Assessing Acceptability of Short Message Service Based Interventions towards Becoming Future Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All blood bank services, especially those of developing countries, face a major shortfall of blood donations due to lack of voluntary blood donors. Our study aims to evaluate the acceptability of Short Message Service based interventions towards becoming voluntary blood donors among medical university students of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods. A total of 350 medical students were approached in medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan, using a nonprobability convenient sampling technique. Data collectors administered a self-made questionnaire to each participant using an interview based format. All data was recorded and analyzed on SPSS 16. Results. 350 participants, having a mean age of 21.47 ± 1.36, were included in our study with 30.6% (107/350 being males and 69.4% (243/350 being females. 93.4% (327/350 of participants agreed that donating blood was healthy, but only 26% had donated blood in the past with 79.1% donating voluntarily. 65.7% (230/350 of the participants agreed to take part in Short Message Service based behavioral interventions to become voluntary blood donors with 69.7% (244/350 also agreeing that Short Message Service reminders will promote them to donate blood more often. Conclusion. With university students willing to become voluntary blood donors, Pakistani blood banks can carry out Short Message Service based interventions to encourage them to donate blood.

  2. Assessing Acceptability of Short Message Service Based Interventions towards Becoming Future Voluntary Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sana; Wasim, Anum; Sabih, Sidra; Khan, Ayisha Farooq; Rizvi, Madiha Hasan; Jillani, Umaima Ayesha; Syed, Mujtaba Jamal; Mumtaz, Madiha; Mumtaz, Yasmeen; Shehzad, Abdul Moid; Dawani, Om; Khan, Saima; Munir, Sheheryar; Asad, Nava; Kazi, Abdul Nafey

    2014-01-01

    All blood bank services, especially those of developing countries, face a major shortfall of blood donations due to lack of voluntary blood donors. Our study aims to evaluate the acceptability of Short Message Service based interventions towards becoming voluntary blood donors among medical university students of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods. A total of 350 medical students were approached in medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan, using a nonprobability convenient sampling technique. Data collectors administered a self-made questionnaire to each participant using an interview based format. All data was recorded and analyzed on SPSS 16. Results. 350 participants, having a mean age of 21.47 ± 1.36, were included in our study with 30.6% (107/350) being males and 69.4% (243/350) being females. 93.4% (327/350) of participants agreed that donating blood was healthy, but only 26% had donated blood in the past with 79.1% donating voluntarily. 65.7% (230/350) of the participants agreed to take part in Short Message Service based behavioral interventions to become voluntary blood donors with 69.7% (244/350) also agreeing that Short Message Service reminders will promote them to donate blood more often. Conclusion. With university students willing to become voluntary blood donors, Pakistani blood banks can carry out Short Message Service based interventions to encourage them to donate blood.

  3. [Future psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians raising children together in the situation of child focused intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycisk, Jowita; Kleka, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of paper was to explore the attitudes of Polish psychology students towards lesbian mothers whose children undergo psychological intervention, in an imaginary situation of providing professional support to the child. The authors found 3 types of psychologist behaviour: contact omission (withdrawal from the intervention, mother's partner exclusion), apparent appreciation of mother's partner and authentic appreciation of mother's partner (with women comparable participation). The authors explored an interaction between these attitudes and the support for gay and lesbian rights, the origin of the child (from a previous heterosexual relationship or present, homosexual one) and demographic variables. 97 students of psychology were examined at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, using the custom survey. Respondents were most likely to include mother's partner to intervention, and the least - to avoid contact. Based on cluster analysis we found three types of attitude: unconditional acceptance, conditional acceptance, dependent on whether the child was born due in heterosexual or lesbian relationship and avoidance / rejection. The attitude of participants was associated with the declared support for gay rights, there was no correlation with gender and age. Due to the significant level of social prejudice against gays and lesbians in Poland, the issue of homosexual parenting and social functioning of gay and lesbians' children should become an area of research and scientific debate. There is a necessity ofthe introduction of this issue to the curricula of higher education and the implementation of formal, systematic training on sexual diversity for the professionals supporting families.

  4. Development and pilot of a group skills-and-support intervention for mothers of children with feeding problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C J; Bryant-Waugh, R

    2012-04-01

    Child feeding problems are often associated with parental factors which may influence and maintain difficulties. This paper reports the development, pilot and preliminary evaluation of a group intervention for mothers of children with feeding problems. Themes for the group were derived from a survey of parents and professionals. Three pilot interventions were conducted in order to make an assessment of the feasibility, acceptability and potential for achieving change in levels of maternal mood, parenting stress and concerns related to feeding. While single case analysis revealed little change in standardised measures of mood and parenting stress, participants valued the social and emotional support offered by the group and reported improvements in concerns and maladaptive behaviours related to feeding. An intervention which provides support and a sense of a shared experience appears to have beneficial effects for mothers of children with feeding problems and therefore, may offer a constructive means of supporting this population.

  5. Understanding consistencies and gaps between desired forest futures: An analysis of visions from stakeholder groups in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Camilla; Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Lindahl, Karin Beland; Sonnek, Karin Mossberg; Mossing, Annika; Nordin, Annika; Nordström, Eva-Maria; Räty, Riitta

    2016-02-01

    Conflicting perspectives on forests has for a long time challenged forest policy development in Sweden. Disagreements about forest futures create intractable deadlocks when stakeholders talk past each other. The purpose of this study is to move beyond this situation through the application of participatory backcasting. By comparing visions of the future forest among stakeholder groups, we highlight contemporary trajectories and identify changes that were conceived as desirable. We worked with four groups: the Biomass and Bioenergy group, the Conservation group, the Sami Livelihood group and the Recreation and Rural Development group; in total representatives from 40 organizations participated in workshops articulating the groups' visions. Our results show well-known tensions such as intrinsic versus instrumental values but also new ones concerning forests' social values. Identified synergies include prioritization of rural development, new valued-added forest products and diversified forest management. The results may feed directly into forest policy processes facilitating the process and break current deadlocks.

  6. Effects of Multiple Cleaning and Disinfection Interventions on Infectious Diseases in Children: A Group Randomized Trial in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Hai Qun; Li, Tao; Shen, Jin; Li, Jin; Peng, Pin Zhang; Ye, Heng Ping; Zhang, Liu Bo

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effectiveness of multiple cleaning and disinfection interventions in the homes and kindergartens, in reducing gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses of children. From October 2010 to September 2011, we performed a prospective, controlled study in China. 408 children under 5 years old were recruited and group randomized into intervention and control groups. Families and kindergartens in the intervention group were provided with antibacterial products for hand hygiene and surface cleaning or disinfection for one year. Each child's illness symptoms and sick leave were recorded every day. A total of 393 children completed the study, with similar baseline demographics in each of the 2 groups. Except for abdominal pain, the odds of symptoms (fever, cough and expectoration, runny nose and nasal congestion, diarrhea), illness (acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal illness), and sick leave per person each month were significantly reduced by interventions. The rates of fever, diarrhea, acute respiratory illness, gastrointestinal illness and sick leave per person per year were significantly decreased as well. Not only the acute respiratory and gastrointestinal illness but the sick leave rate in children were significantly reduced by multiple interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Multiple Cleaning and Disinfection Interventions on Infectious Diseases in Children:A Group Randomized Trial in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAN Hai Qun; LI Tao; SHEN Jin; LI Jin; PENG Pin Zhang; YE Heng Ping; ZHANG Liu Bo

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess the effectiveness of multiple cleaning and disinfection interventions in the homes and kindergartens, in reducing gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses of children. MethodsFrom October 2010 to September 2011, we performed a prospective, controlled study in China. 408 children under 5 years old were recruited and group randomized into intervention and control groups. Families and kindergartens in the intervention group were provided with antibacterial products for hand hygiene and surface cleaning or disinfection for one year. Each child’s illness symptoms andsick leave were recorded every day. ResultsA total of 393 children completed the study, with similar baseline demographics in each of the 2 groups.Except for abdominal pain, the odds of symptoms(fever, cough and expectoration, runny nose and nasal congestion, diarrhea), illness (acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal illness), and sick leave per person each month were significantly reduced by interventions. The rates of fever, diarrhea, acute respiratory illness, gastrointestinal illness and sick leave per person per year were significantly decreased as well. ConclusionNot only the acute respiratory and gastrointestinal illness but the sick leave rate in children were significantly reduced by multiple interventions.

  8. Clinical outcomes of an early intervention program for preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a community group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia

    2013-01-07

    Available evidence indicates that early intervention programs, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively affect key outcomes for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, programs involving resource intensive one-to-one clinical intervention are not readily available or deliverable in the community, resulting in many children with ASD missing out on evidence-based intervention during their early and most critical preschool years. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the ESDM for preschool-aged children with ASD using a predominantly group-based intervention in a community child care setting. Participants were 26 children (21 male) with ASD with a mean age of 49.6 months. The ESDM, a comprehensive early intervention program that integrates applied behaviour analysis with developmental and relationship-based approaches, was delivered by trained therapists during the child's attendance at a child care centre for preschool-aged children with ASD. Children received 15-20 hours of group-based, and one hour of one-to-one, ESDM intervention per week. The average intervention period was ten months. Outcome measures were administered pre- and post-intervention, and comprised a developmental assessment - the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL); and two parent-report questionnaires - the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and Vineland Adaptive Behaviours Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II). Statistically significant post-intervention improvements were found in children's performance on the visual reception, receptive language and expressive language domains of the MSEL in addition to their overall intellectual functioning, as assessed by standardised developmental quotients. Parents reported significant increases in their child's receptive communication and motor skills on the VABS-II, and a significant decrease in autism-specific features on the SCQ. These effects were of around medium size, and appeared to be in excess of what may

  9. Prevention of Mental Health Disorders Using Internet- and Mobile-Based Interventions: A Narrative Review and Recommendations for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Daniel Ebert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD, their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en masse due to limited health care resources and the limited availability of evidence-based interventions and clinicians in routine practice, especially in rural areas. Therefore, new approaches are needed to maximize the impact of psychological preventive interventions. Limitations of traditional prevention programs could potentially be overcome by providing Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs. This relatively new medium for promoting mental health and preventing MHD introduces a fresh array of possibilities, including the provision of evidence-based psychological interventions that are free from the restraints of travel and time and allow reaching participants for whom traditional opportunities are not an option. This article provides an introduction to the subject and narratively reviews the available evidence for the effectiveness of IMIs with regard to the prevention of MHD onsets. The number of randomized controlled trials that have been conducted to date is very limited and so far it is not possible to draw definite conclusions about the potential of IMIs for the prevention of MHD for specific disorders. Only for the indicated prevention of depression there is consistent evidence across four different randomized trial trials. The only trial on the prevention of general anxiety did not result in positive findings in terms of eating disorders (EDs, effects were only found in post hoc subgroup analyses, indicating that it might be possible to prevent ED onset for subpopulations of people at risk of developing EDs. Future studies need to identify those subpopulations likely to profit from preventive. Disorders not examined so far include

  10. The Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature: Past, Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, Craig; Casey, Kenneth; Minnett, Peter; Corlett, Gary

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, satellite Agencies, science, operational user/producer and Sea Surface Temperature practitioner communities have come together within the Group for High Resolution SST (GHRSST) to create a new framework for generation, delivery and application of improved common format high-resolution (~1-10 km) satellite SST datasets for the benefit of society. The GHRSST data system is a mature, robust, and highly reliable near real time and delayed mode data system known as the GHRSST Regional/Global Task Sharing framework (R/GTS) and has operated in NRT since 2006. It consists of distributed Regional Data Assembly Centers (RDACs) around the world that submit their data to a Global Data Assembly Center (GDAC) maintained at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (JPL PO.DAAC), where all the data are available for 30 days. After that they are transferred to the GHRSST Long Term Stewardship and Reanalysis Facility (LTSRF) at the U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) for long-term preservation and distribution. The extensive user base includes many operational meteorological services, the scientific community, industry and Government. Since the R/GTS has operated, statistics show over 72,000 users have accessed the R/GTS in NRT, accessing over 100 million files amounting to more than 232 Tb of information. GHRSST has an organisation structure that has both fixed and flexible components allowing it to respond effectively and efficiently to new and emerging challenges. GHRSST has often been cited as a model for other Virtual Communities/Constellations. GHRSST is underpinned by an international Science Team and International Project Office together. Long-standing GHRSST Technical Advisory Groups (TAG) and ad hoc Working Groups (WG) are typically at the "cutting edge" of international SST activities delivering real coordination in space-based Earth observations for societal benefit through the prioritized

  11. Definition of a COPD self-management intervention: International Expert Group consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Tanja W.; Vercoulen, Jan H.; Bourbeau, Jean; Trappenburg, Jaap C.A.; Lenferink, Anke; Cafarella, Paul; Coultas, David; Meek, Paula; Valk, van der Paul; Bischoff, Erik W.M.A.; Bucknall, Christine E.; Dewan, Naresh A.; Early, Frances; Fan, Vincent; Frith, Peter; Janssen, Daisy J.A.; Mitchell, Katy; Morgan, Mike; Nici, Linda; Patel, Irem; Walters, Haydn; Rice, Kathryn L.; Singh, Sally J.; ZuWallack, Richard; Benzo, Roberto; Goldstein, Roger S.; Partridge, Martyn R.; Palen, van der Job

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for consensus on what defines a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) self-management intervention. We aimed to obtain consensus regarding the conceptual definition of a COPD self-management intervention by engaging an international panel of COPD self-management expert

  12. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  13. Definition of a COPD self-management intervention: International Expert Group consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, T.W.; Vercoulen, Jan H.; Bourbeau, Jean; Trappenburg, Jaap C.A.; Lenferink, Anke; Cafarella, Paul; Coultas, David; Meek, Paula; van der Valk, Paul; Bischoff, Erik W.M.A.; Bucknall, Christine E.; Dewan, Naresh A.; Early, Frances; Fan, Vincent; Frith, Peter; Janssen, Daisy J.A.; Mitchell, Katy; Morgan, Mike; Nici, Linda; Patel, Irem; Walters, Haydn; Rice, Kathryn L.; Singh, Sally J.; ZuWallack, Richard; Benzo, Roberto; Goldstein, Roger S.; Partridge, Martyn R.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for consensus on what defines a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) self-management intervention. We aimed to obtain consensus regarding the conceptual definition of a COPD self-management intervention by engaging an international panel of COPD self-management

  14. Definition of a COPD self-management intervention : International Expert Group consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Tanja W; Vercoulen, Jan H; Bourbeau, Jean; Trappenburg, Jaap; Lenferink, Anke; Cafarella, Paul; Coultas, David; Meek, Paula; van der Valk, Paul; Bischoff, Erik W M A; Bucknall, Christine; Dewan, Naresh A; Early, Frances; Fan, Vincent; Frith, Peter; Janssen, Daisy J A; Mitchell, Katy; Morgan, Mike; Nici, Linda; Patel, Irem; Walters, Haydn; Rice, Kathryn L; Singh, Sally; Zuwallack, Richard; Benzo, Roberto; Goldstein, Roger; Partridge, Martyn R; van der Palen, Job

    There is an urgent need for consensus on what defines a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) self-management intervention. We aimed to obtain consensus regarding the conceptual definition of a COPD self-management intervention by engaging an international panel of COPD self-management

  15. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  16. Strategies for Data Collection in Social Skills Group Interventions: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N.; Rennie, Brandon J.; Hammond, Julia; Schoffer Closson, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    For many practitioners in schools and clinics, collecting data to show the effectiveness of an intervention is probably one of the most important yet challenging components of intervention implementation. This article provides practitioners with an example case study of how data can be organized and collected to determine the effectiveness of a…

  17. Behavioral Mediators of Weight Loss in Two Group-Based Behavioral Interventions in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Schlaff, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding the mechanisms by which behavioral interventions exert their effects is important. Purpose: To examine behavioral mediators of weight loss in a sample of older adults participating in an evidence-based physical activity (PA) or nutrition intervention. Methods: Participants (n = 46) were randomized to a 12-week,…

  18. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with…

  19. Temporary Versus Permanent Group Membership : How the Future Prospects of Newcomers Affect Newcomer Acceptance and Newcomer Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor A.; Ellemers, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Three studies examine how the future prospects of new group members affect newcomer acceptance and newcomer influence. In Study 1, participants anticipate accepting temporary newcomers less easily than permanent newcomers because they expect temporary newcomers to differ from the group. In Study 2,

  20. Use of Tablet PCs to Enhance Instruction and Promote Group Collaboration in a Course to Prepare Future Mathematics Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Aimee J.; Wilson, Jill H.; Nugent, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    This article details the use of tablet PCs in a mathematics content course for future Mathematics Specialists. Instructors used tablet PCs instead of a traditional whiteboard to capture demonstration and discussion. Students were grouped for collaborative problem solving and exploration exercises. Each group was provided with a tablet PC for…

  1. The Daily Lives of People With HIV Infection: A Qualitative Study of the Control Group in an Expressive Writing Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaweh, Maria; Ironson, Gail; Barroso, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Emotional disclosure is an expressive writing technique used in psychotherapy to process traumatic and stressful life experiences. While emotional disclosure interventions frequently use control groups, there are few qualitative analyses of these control groups. Our study's purpose was to analyze the control essays written by HIV-infected informants about their daily activities in an augmented written emotional disclosure intervention. Latent and manifest qualitative content analyses revealed prevalent contextual themes within the data. The emergent themes were socioeconomic status (SES), self-care, religiosity/spirituality, and social support. Emotional disclosure control subjects contributed substantial findings in terms of SES, self-care, resiliency, religiosity/spirituality, and social support and altruism.

  2. Comparison of group vs self-directed music interventions to reduce chemotherapy-related distress and cognitive appraisal: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Lin, Mei-Feng

    2017-08-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine effects of group music intervention and self-directed music intervention on anxiety, depression, and cognitive appraisal among women with breast cancer. A quasi-experimental design randomly assigned 60 women undergoing chemotherapy to 3 groups: group music intervention, self-directed music intervention, or a control group. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale were administered before, after the 8-week interventions, and at 3-month follow-up. Of the 52 women completing the study, results indicated that group music intervention had a significant (p cognitive avoidance compared to the other two groups at 3-month follow-up. Group music intervention can be considered an effective supportive care in alleviating the chemotherapy-related distress and enhancing cognition modification of women with breast cancer. Further research is needed to determine the role of cognitive appraisal in the illness trajectory.

  3. Social problem solving and social performance after a group social skills intervention for childhood brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Future psychologists’ attitudes toward lesbians raising children together in the situation of child focused intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycisk, Jowita

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:The aim of paper was to explore the attitudes of Polish psychology students towards lesbian mothers whose children undergo psychological intervention, in an imaginary situation of providing professional support to the child. The authors found 3 types of psychologist behaviour: contact omission (withdrawal from the intervention, mother’s partner exclusion, apparent appreciation of mother’s partner and authentic appreciation of mother’s partner (with women comparable participation. The authors explored an interaction between these attitudes and the support for gay and lesbian rights, the origin of the child (from a previous heterosexual relationship or present, homosexual one and demographic variables. Methods: 97 students of psychology were examined at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, using the custom survey. Results: Respondents were most likely to include mother’s partner to intervention, and the least – to avoid contact. Based on cluster analysis we found three types of attitude: unconditional acceptance, conditional acceptance, dependent on whether the child was born due in heterosexual or lesbian relationship and avoidance / rejection. The attitude of participants was associated with the declared support for gay rights, there was no correlation with gender and age. Conclusions: Due to the significant level of social prejudice against gays and lesbians in Poland, the issue of homosexual parenting and social functioning of gay and lesbians’ children should become an area of research and scientific debate. There is a necessity of the introduction of this issue to the curricula of higher education and the implementation of formal, systematic training on sexual diversity for the professionals supporting families.

  5. Internet-based video-group delivery of Healthy Relationships--a "prevention with positives" intervention: report on a single group pilot test among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhefka, Stephanie L; Iziduh, Sharon; Fuhrmann, Hollie J; Lopez, Bernice; Glueckauf, Robert; Lynn, Vickie; Baldwin, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLH) face challenges related to stigma, disclosure of HIV status, and negotiating safer sex. Several effective behavioral interventions, such as Healthy Relationships (HR), help WLH address these challenges and are disseminated by the USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions project. However, many WLH living in poor urban or rural locations cannot access interventions such as HR because implementation is not feasible. Video-conferencing technology holds promise for expanding access to effective behavioral interventions for WLH. Following a systematic adaptation to the video-conferencing format, this pilot study tested the delivery of HR via video-group (VG) among WLH. The video-conferencing-based intervention, HR-VG, consisted of six, two-hour sessions led by two facilitators, and used structured activities and video-clips to build disclosure and safer sex skills. Four minority WLH received HR-VG at four different community-based intervention sites in a private room equipped with a video-phone for participating in HR-VG and a desktop computer for completing assessments via Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview. Participants completed a baseline assessment prior to HR-VG and post-session assessment after each HR-VG session. The post-intervention assessment and video-focus group were completed following the last HR-VG session. Facilitators completed an assessment after each HR-VG session and an open-ended questionnaire following HR-VG. HR-VG was implemented in its entirety with minimal challenges. Both participants and facilitators reported feeling either "very comfortable" or "completely comfortable" with the technology and the overall intervention. Participants also reported high levels of unity and togetherness among the group. These preliminary findings suggest VG delivery of HR for WLH is both feasible and highly valued by participants. A follow-up randomized controlled trial

  6. The Effects of a Short-term Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Bam Earthquake Related PTSD Symptoms in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Naderi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nObjective :Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction after disasters. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of group CBT in adolescent survivors of a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake. "n "nMethods: In a controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a short term method of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent survivors of Bam earthquake who had PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The adolescents who had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorders that needed pharmacological interventions were excluded. We evaluated PTSD symptoms using Post traumatic Stress Scale (PSS pre and post intervention and compared them with a control group. "n "nResults: 100 adolescents were included in the study and 15 were excluded during the intervention. The mean age of the participants was 14.6±2.1 years. The mean score of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of avoidance was reduced after interventions, and was statistically significant. The mean change of re-experience and hyper arousal symptoms of PTSD were not significant. "n "nConclusion: Psychological debriefing and group cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing some of the PTSD symptoms.

  7. Subsea well intervention; Learning from the past - planning for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsnes, Trond Inge

    2010-07-01

    Over many years Statoil has focussed on increasing hydrocarbon recovery factors from their reservoirs. The company has a stated ambition for achieving an average 55% recovery factor from subsea wells. Considering that the majority of the company's oil production originates from subsea wells, it is clear that this is a major strategic area for development. Continuous technology development has been is delivering more safe, efficient and cost effective well intervention operations in subsea wells. During 2009 new technology has been taken into use for the first time, this consists of a fit-for-purpose LRP (Lower Riser Package), high pressure riser and near-surface BOP system operating from the Stena Don semi-submersible unit. This unique system enables, for the first time, coiled tubing and TTRD (Through Tubing Rotary Drilling) operations on subsea wells with the same riser and well control system. The presentation will review some history relating to increasing reserves recovery from subsea wells. Activities from light to medium well intervention operations will be discussed with a focus on the technical and operational experiences. A review of the 2009 activities will be provided - with several coiled tubing and TTRD operations with Stena Don. The presentation will also provide a look ahead to further plans for improvement and optimisation in this area. (Author)

  8. Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 23rd official report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García del Blanco, Bruno; Hernández Hernández, Felipe; Rumoroso Cuevas, José Ramón; Trillo Nouche, Ramiro

    2014-12-01

    The Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology presents its yearly report on the data from the registry of the activity in Spain corresponding to 2013. The centers introduce their data online voluntarily and the information is analyzed by the Steering Committee of the Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization. In 2013, 104 hospitals sent their data (72 public centers and 32 private). In all, 136 715 diagnostic studies were performed (120 358 coronary angiograms), with a slight decrease with respect to 2012, a reduction that was also observed in the rate, which was 2944 diagnostic studies per million population. A total of 65 912 interventional procedures were carried out during a phase of stability, for a rate of 1419 interventions per million population. Other techniques included the implantation of 99 417 stents and 1384 biodegradable intracoronary devices (64% of them drug-eluting devices). There were 18 337 procedures in acute myocardial infarction, for an increase of 7% with respect to 2012 and representing 27.8% of all the percutaneous coronary interventions. Radial access was the approach used in 71% of the diagnostic procedures and in 65% of the interventional procedures. The performance of renal denervation has nearly doubled with respect to 2012. For the first time, more than 1000 transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures were carried out in 1 year, although the frequency increased only slightly (23%). There continued to be a slight increase in the activity in cardiac catheterization in association with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, whereas, with the exception of recently introduced, highly specific procedures, the use of the remainder of the procedures, among them transcatheter aortic valve implantation, leveled off. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Computer technology-based interventions in HIV prevention: state of the evidence and future directions for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M.

    2015-01-01

    Computer technology-based interventions (CBIs) represent a promising area for HIV prevention behavioral intervention research. Such programs are a compelling prevention option given their potential for broad reach, customized content, and low cost delivery. The purpose of the current article is to provide a review of the state of the literature on CBIs. First, we define CBIs in HIV prevention and highlight the many advantages of such interventions. Next, we provide an overview of what is currently known regarding the efficacy of CBIs in HIV prevention, focusing on two recent meta-analyses of this literature. Finally, we propose an agenda for future directions for research in the area of CBIs, using the RE-AIM model as an organizing guide. We conclude that with the continued growth of computer technologies, opportunities to apply such technologies in HIV prevention will continue to blossom. Further research is greatly needed to advance an understanding of not only how and under what circumstances CBIs can be efficacious, but also how the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of such programs in clinical and community settings can be achieved. PMID:21287420

  10. Internet Based Interventions for Traumatic Stress-Related Mental Health Problems: A Review and Suggestion for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Broman-Fulks, Joshua; Zinzow, Heidi; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Cercone, Jen

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to potentially traumatic events is a common occurrence. Most individuals exposed to such an event are resilient or recover rapidly, although some individuals develop psychological problems that warrant treatment. However, a small percentage of individuals seek traditional treatment, thereby calling for novel approaches or methodologies of treatment. The present paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of the extant literature on computerized and internet-based-interventions (IBIs) for traumatic stress related conditions (i.e., panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder/complicated grief, depression, comorbid anxiety and depression, alcohol abuse, smoking cessation). Generally, computerized or IBIs for depression and anxiety are yielding effect sizes that are comparable to traditional psychosocial treatment. Interventions aimed at alcohol and smoking cessation generally have lower effect sizes than do IBIs for anxiety and depression. Most interventions reviewed in this paper included common components (e.g., were developed through a cognitive behavioral framework and included psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring, goal setting, exposure). Therefore, it is possible that these shared features may in part account for symptom reduction. Little is known regarding mechanisms of change. Future directions for novel web-based approaches to treatment are provided. PMID:19403215

  11. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Supportive Art and Sport Interventions on Bam Earthquake Related Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Children: A Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Joshaghani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of psychological therapies and art/sport supportive interventions separately,and in combination on post traumatic stress symptoms in children and compare them with a control group . "nMethods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of group behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in Bam earthquake children survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. Before and after interventions we evaluated the PTSD symptoms using K-SADS-PL semi-structural interview for each group and compared them using appropriate statistical methods. "nResults: The participants were 200 individuals who were randomized in four groups according to an intervention program including: Group behavioral therapy; Group behavioral therapy plus art and sport interventions; Art and sport interventions; and control group. During the interventions, 39 individuals were excluded. None of the participants had severed PTSD or other psychiatry disorders that needed pharmacological interventions. In interventional groups, the reduction of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience, avoidance and hyper arousal was not statistically significant. However, in the control group, the PTSD symptoms increased during the study which was statistically significant. "nConclusion: Group behavior therapy and supportive interventions (art and sport may have preventive effects on PTSD symptoms.

  12. Occupational Health Hazards in the Interventional Laboratory: Progress Report of the Multispecialty Occupational Health Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of the global market for medical imaging technology. The meeting was attended by representatives from MITA, General Electric, Philips, Siemens and...published as official guidance of the Asian Pacific Society of Interventional Cardiology, the Sociedad Latinoamericana de Cardiologia Intervencionista

  13. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovee Vicki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70 completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05 within each group with a mean (± standard deviation weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35 vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35. Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG. Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG. There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%, cholesterol ( Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy

  14. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Judith M; Herzog, Holly; Clodfelter, Sharon; Bovee, Vicki; Schrage, Jon; Pritsos, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG) or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG) incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70) completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05) within each group with a mean (± standard deviation) weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35) vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35). Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat) ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG). Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG). There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%), cholesterol (<200 mg/day), and sodium (< 2400 mg/day), with increased total servings/day of fruits and vegetables (4.0 ± 2.2, TFG vs 4.6 ± 3.2, MRG). However, the TFG had a significantly lower dietary intake of several vitamins and minerals compared to the MRG and was at greater risk for inadequate intake. Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group

  15. Nurse-initiated intervention programs: future directions for cessation and prevention of adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebb, Andrea L O

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use in adolescence remains at unacceptable levels. Increasing teen knowledge about the dangers of smoking appears to be insufficient in changing adolescent attitudes regarding the use of tobacco. To incite change and increase their effectiveness, adult smoking cessation programs need to be tailored to adolescents. Ultimately, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors that underlie tobacco use and smoking behaviors in adolescents must be identified. The nurse's role is both in identification of the adolescent smoker and assessment of the smoking behavior. Future directions in nursing practice, nursing education, and research surrounding tobacco use in youth are discussed.

  16. The Role of Community, Family, Peer, and School Factors in Group Bullying: Implications for School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael J.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Smith, Megan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although an ecological perspective suggests the importance of multiple levels of intervention, most bullying research has emphasized individual- and school-focused strategies. This study investigated community and family factors that influence school efforts to reduce odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. Methods: We used…

  17. Improved self-management ability and well-being in older women after a short group intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, I.P.; Steverink, N.; Albersnagel, F.A.; Slaets, J.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present randomized controlled trial (RCT) it was investigated whether single women, 55 years of age and older, improved with regard to self-management ability, well-being, and social and emotional loneliness after having participated in a newly designed self-management group intervention base

  18. Improving Social Competence in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders through a Combined-Strategy Group Intervention: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    This applied dissertation investigated whether a combined-strategy group intervention improved social competence among children with autism spectrum disorders. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders exhibit deficits in social behaviors that may negatively impact all aspects of their lives. Social competence for individuals with autism spectrum…

  19. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Skills Groups at School: A Randomized Trial Comparing Intervention Approach and Peer Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Method: Children with ASD were…

  20. Improved self-management ability and well-being in older women after a short group intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, I.P.; Steverink, N.; Albersnagel, F.A.; Slaets, J.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present randomized controlled trial (RCT) it was investigated whether single women, 55 years of age and older, improved with regard to self-management ability, well-being, and social and emotional loneliness after having participated in a newly designed self-management group intervention base

  1. A qualitative evaluation of online chat groups for women completing a psychological intervention for female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucker, Alice; McCabe, Marita P

    2014-01-01

    Because of the embarrassment that can surround female sexual dysfunctions, online interventions offer an anonymous and private treatment alternative. Recently, an online cognitive-behavioral treatment for female sexual dysfunctions was evaluated. Although significant improvements were observed in sexual functioning, the treatment was primarily a behavioral intervention because of difficulties with engaging participants in cognitive therapy over e-mail. To address this limitation, the use of chat groups was incorporated into a new online treatment for female sexual dysfunctions-the PursuingPleasure program. Thirty-eight women participated in the PursuingPleasure chat groups. The goals of the chat groups were to address and overcome challenges as women progressed through PursuingPleasure and to create a social support network where group therapy processes could be used. The chat groups aimed to address misunderstandings, monitor changes, and receive feedback. A qualitative analysis of the chat groups revealed that they helped to facilitate the cognitive-affective aspects of the program, as well as fulfill their other intended functions. This study demonstrates how the use of chat groups in the online treatment of female sexual dysfunctions is a useful addition to Internet-based treatment. Feedback suggests that the chat groups were one of the most helpful aspects of the program, although a small group of women reported finding the groups unhelpful.

  2. Exo-organoplasty interventions: A brief review of past, present and future directions for advance heart failure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Waqas; Khan, Farhan Ullah; Khan, Muhammad Zahid; Gang, Wang; Yang, Mengqi; Liao, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Li; Ihsan, Awais Ullah; Khan, Amjad; Han, Lei; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2017-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a debilitating disease in which abnormal function of the heart leads to imbalance of blood demand to tissues and organs. The pathogenesis of HF is very complex and various factors can contribute including myocardial infarction, ischemia, hypertension and genetic cardiomyopathies. HF is the leading cause of death and its prevalence is expected to increase in parallel with the population age. Different kind of therapeutic approaches including lifestyle modification, medication and pacemakers are used for HF patients in NYHA I-III functional class. However, for advance stage HF patient's (NYHA IV), ventricle assist devices are clinically use and stem cells are under active investigation. Most of these therapies leads to modest symptoms relief and have no significant role in long-term survival rate. Currently there is no effective treatment for advance HF except heart transplantation, which is still remain clinically insignificant because of donor pool limitation. As HF is a result of multiple etiologies therefore multi-functional therapeutic platform is needed. Exo-organoplasty interventions are studied from almost one century. The major goals of these interventions are to treat various kind of heart disease from outside the heart muscle without having direct contact with blood. Various kind of interventions (devices and techniques) are developed in this arena with the passage of time. The purpose of this review is to describe the theory behind intervention devices, the devices themselves, their clinical results, advantages and limitations. Furthermore, to present a future multi-functional therapeutic platform (ASD) for advance stage HF management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Developing a Group Motivational Interviewing Intervention for Adolescents At-Risk for Developing an Alcohol or Drug use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Hunter, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how teens who had committed a first-time alcohol or other drug (AOD) offense responded to a motivational interviewing (MI) group intervention. Participants were 101 first-time AOD adolescent offenders (M=15.88; 63% male, 54% Hispanic). We developed and tested a six-session curriculum called Free Talk and solicited feedback from different teens after each session. Groups were recorded and transcribed. Feedback was categorized using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment In...

  4. Temporary versus permanent group membership: how the future prospects of newcomers affect newcomer acceptance and newcomer influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Floor A; Ellemers, Naomi

    2009-06-01

    Three studies examine how the future prospects of new group members affect newcomer acceptance and newcomer influence. In Study 1, participants anticipate accepting temporary newcomers less easily than permanent newcomers because they expect temporary newcomers to differ from the group. In Study 2, the effects of newcomer entry in three-person groups are examined. Results show that groups perceived temporary newcomers as more involved in a judgmental decision-making process than permanent newcomers. In Study 3, a hidden profile task confirms that temporary newcomers indeed shared more unique knowledge during discussions than permanent newcomers and that this enhanced the groups' decision quality. However, compared to permanent newcomers, temporary newcomers caused teams to experience more conflict and less group identification, illustrating the tension between innovative group performance and group cohesion. The results are discussed in light of the social identity perspective and research on minority influence.

  5. Minimally invasive neurosurgery with interventional magnetic resonance. Its present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takuo [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-01-01

    We have used X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, and computed tomography in treatment. However, these methods do not provide precise image. Since magnetic resonance (MR) provides high-resolution images, it is more suitable in treatment. Recently open-type MR has been introduced for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Interventional MR provides a real-time images, high-resolutional images, and thermal distribution. Open MR can be used for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Interventional MR (I-MR) can be used in treatment and is extremely useful for minimally invasive surgery of the brain and spinal cord. We have used an open-type permanent MR scanner (Airis, Hitachi), for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Stereotactic brain tumor biopsy, aspiration of intracerebral hematoma, and percutaneous laser disc hernia ablation under MR guidance has been performed in our department. I-MR provided precise, and less-invasive treatment. Stereotactic biopsy was done in 12 patients with brain tumors. Precise, accurate biopsy is possible with MR fluoroscopic guidance. Hematomas were also aspirated safely and precisely by monitoring real-time image. Percutaneous laser disc hernia ablation (PLDA) was done in 201 patients with lumbar disc herniation (127 at L4/5 and 48 at L5/S1). Patients ranged in age from 17 to 72 years. A MR-compatible 18-gauge 15-cm-long titanium needle was clearly visualized and safety and accurately inserted into the disc herniation from multiple directions. Laser ablation was done (mean, 1,000 J). Signs and symptoms improved immediately after ablation. The overall success rate was 90.5% (MacNab's criteria). Two patients (1.0%) had discitis after PLDA. I-MR and fluoroscopy provide near-real-time images for treatment of brain tumors and hematoma. Precise treatment can be performed with the Patil MR-compatible stereotactic system. PLDA was performed safety and accurately with I-MR. The results were satisfactory. I-MR-PLDA is a safe, precise, and minimally

  6. A teachable moment communication process for smoking cessation talk: description of a group randomized clinician-focused intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flocke Susan A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective clinician-patient communication about health behavior change is one of the most important and most overlooked strategies to promote health and prevent disease. Existing guidelines for specific health behavior counseling have been created and promulgated, but not successfully adopted in primary care practice. Building on work focused on creating effective clinician strategies for prompting health behavior change in the primary care setting, we developed an intervention intended to enhance clinician communication skills to create and act on teachable moments for smoking cessation. In this manuscript, we describe the development and implementation of the Teachable Moment Communication Process (TMCP intervention and the baseline characteristics of a group randomized trial designed to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods/Design This group randomized trial includes thirty-one community-based primary care clinicians practicing in Northeast Ohio and 840 of their adult patients. Clinicians were randomly assigned to receive either the Teachable Moments Communication Process (TMCP intervention for smoking cessation, or the delayed intervention. The TMCP intervention consisted of two, 3-hour educational training sessions including didactic presentation, skill demonstration through video examples, skills practices with standardized patients, and feedback from peers and the trainers. For each clinician enrolled, 12 patients were recruited for two time points. Pre- and post-intervention data from the clinicians, patients and audio-recorded clinician‒patient interactions were collected. At baseline, the two groups of clinicians and their patients were similar with regard to all demographic and practice characteristics examined. Both physician and patient recruitment goals were met, and retention was 96% and 94% respectively. Discussion Findings support the feasibility of training clinicians to use the Teachable Moments

  7. Biotechnological intervention in betelvine (Piper betle L.): A review on recent advances and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suryasnata; Parida, Reena; Sriram Sandeep, I; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Mohanty, Sujata

    2016-10-01

    Betelvine (Piper betle L.) is cultivated for its deep green heart shaped leaf for (15-20) million Indian and 2 billion foreign consumers annually. The crop provides Rs (6000-7000) million of national income per year and at the same time leaves worth Rs (30-40) million is exported to other countries. The leaves are not only used directly for chewing purposes but also possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties. Besides, the leaves also contain eugenol rich essential oil (1%-3%) which is the source for medicine, stimulant, antiseptic, tonic and other ayurvedic formulations. The essential oil also contains chavibetol, caryophyllene and methyl eugenol which are the potent source for preparation in ayurvedic medicine and herbal products. Cost of betelvine essential oil is 10$ per 5 mL. In spite of its great economical and medicinal importance betelvine is still neglected by the researchers for proper characterization and authentication for selection of elite landraces. Lack of awareness among people, use of same planting material for many generations, existing of many synonyms for a single landraces, no proper characterization of available landraces are some of the significant constraints for its commercialization. Our review endeavours a complete advance in the research on betelvine, existing lacunae for its proper characterization and commercial cultivation. It also attempts to provide a comprehensive account on biotechnological interventions made in betelvine aimed at complementing conventional programmes for improvement of this nutraceutically important cash crop.

  8. Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 25th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Serrador, Ana; Pérez de Prado, Armando; Pan, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    The Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology presents its annual report on the data from the registry of the activity in 2015. All Spanish hospitals with catheterization laboratories were invited to voluntarily contribute their activity data. The information was collected online and analyzed mostly by an independent company. In 2015, 106 centers participated in the national register; 73 of these centers are public. A total of 145 836 diagnostic studies were conducted, among which 128 669 were coronary angiograms. These figures are higher than in previous years. The Spanish average of total diagnoses per million population was 3127. The number of coronary interventional procedures was very similar (67 671), although there was a slight increase in the complexity of coronary interventions: 7% in multivessel treatment and 8% in unprotected left main trunk treatment. A total of 98 043 stents were implanted, of which 74 684 were drug-eluting stents. A total of 18 418 interventional procedures were performed in the acute myocardial infarction setting, of which 81.9% were primary angioplasties. The radial approach was used in 73.3% of the diagnostic procedures and in 76.1% of interventional ones. The number of transcatheter aortic valve implantations continued to increase (1586), as well as the number of left atrial appendage closures (331). An increase in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in acute myocardial infarction was reported in 2015. The use of the radial approach and drug-eluting stents also increased in therapeutic procedures. The progressive increase in structural procedures seen in previous years continued. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Group 1 versus Group 2 carbapenems on the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii to carbapenems: a before and after intervention study of carbapenem-use stewardship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kyung Yoon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been proposed for reducing bacterial resistance in the hospital environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a carbapenem-use stewardship program on the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii to Group 2 carbapenems. METHODS: A before and after intervention study was conducted at a university hospital from September 2008 to February 2013. Three study periods were defined: Phase I, pre-intervention (months 1-18; Phase II, a postintervention period during which ertapenem use was mandated but carbapenem use was not restricted (months 19-36; and Phase III, a postintervention period during which Group 2 carbapenem use was restricted (months 37-54. RESULTS: During the study period, intervention resulted in diminished consumption of Group 2 carbapenems (antimicrobial use density (AUD: 21.3±6.0 in Phase I, 18.8±6.0 in Phase II, 16.1±4.4 in Phase III; P = 0.028 and increased consumption of ertapenem (AUD: 2.7±1.7 in Phase I, 7.2±4.5 in Phase II, 9.1±5.3 in Phase III; P<0.001. The use of autoregressive-error models showed that in contrast with ertapenem use, the use of Group 2 carbapenem during the previous one month was positively and significantly associated with a subsequent increase in the proportion of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB (P = 0.031. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing a carbapenem-use stewardship program featuring the preferential use of ertapenem for treating appropriate indications of infection resulted in reduced use of Group 2 carbapenems and had a positive impact on the susceptibility of A. baumannii to carbapenems. This approach could be integrated into CRAB-control strategies in hospitals.

  10. Early intervention in pregnant women with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms: efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Antje; Peukert, Judith; Zimmermann, Cornelia; Junge-Hoffmeister, Juliane; Parker, Lisa S; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Weidner, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether a cognitive-behavioral group program among pregnant women with elevated levels of anxiety or depression may reduce anxious and depressive symptoms and has a positive impact on risk factors for anxiety disorders and depression. A total of 753 participants were recruited. After completion of the clinical standardized interview, 160 participants were randomized to an intervention group or a control condition. Psychometric assessments took place at T1 (preintervention), T2 (antenatal follow-up), and T3 (3 months postpartum). Analyses included women who took part in all 3 assessments (intervention group, N = 21; control group, N = 53). The subjective program evaluation by the participants was highly positive, but with the exception of a short-term effect on the quality of an intimate partnership (F1/67 = 4.056; P anxiety or depressive symptoms were not found. However, there was an intervention effect 3 months postpartum for participants with high depressive symptoms at T1 (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ≥10) (F1/69 = 5.410; P women with rather low levels of anxiety and depression. For women with higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy, a cognitive-behavioral group program may have a positive impact on the course of depressive symptoms during the postpartum period.

  11. Changes in Acceptance in a Low-Intensity, Group-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) Chronic Pain Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoff, John A; Hanrahan, Stephanie J; Burke, Anne L J; Connor, Jason P

    2016-02-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy has shown to be effective in chronic pain rehabilitation, and acceptance has been shown to be a key process of change. The influence of treatment dose on acceptance is not clear, and in particular, the effectiveness of a non-intensive treatment (acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) group program for chronic pain. The study sought to compare, at both groups and individual patient levels, changes in acceptance with changes observed in previous ACT studies. Seventy-one individuals with chronic pain commenced a 9-week ACT-based group program at an outpatient chronic pain service. In addition to acceptance, outcomes included the following: pain catastrophizing, depression, anxiety, quality of life, and pain-related anxiety. To compare the current findings with previous research, effect sizes from seven studies were aggregated using the random-effects model to calculate benchmarks. Reliable change indices (RCIs) were applied to assess change on an individual patient-level. The ACT intervention achieved a statistically significant increase in acceptance and medium effect size (d = 0.54) at a group level. Change in acceptance was of a similar magnitude to that found in previous ACT studies that examined interventions with similar treatment hours (acceptance occurred in approximately one-third (37.2, 90% CI) of patients. Approximately three-quarters (74.3, 90% CI) demonstrated reliable change in at least one of the outcome measures. The low-intensity, group-based ACT intervention was effective at a group level and showed a similar magnitude of change in acceptance to previous ACT studies employing low-intensity interventions. Three-quarters of patients reported reliable change on at least one outcome measure.

  12. Succession Planning and Management: The Backbone of the Radiology Group's Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, E Michael; Gridley, Daniel; Ulreich, Sidney; Bluth, Edward I

    2017-01-01

    The transition of leadership within radiology practices is often not a planned replacement process with formal development of potential future leaders. To ensure their ongoing success, however, practices need to develop comprehensive succession plans that include a robust developmental program for potential leaders consisting of mentoring, coaching, structured socialization, 360-degree feedback, developmental stretch assignments, job rotation, and formal education. Succession planning and leadership development will be necessary in the future for a practice to be successful in its business relationships and to be financially viable. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Drug discovery in renin-angiotensin system intervention: past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bryan

    2016-06-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a central role in the control of blood pressure in the body and the way this interacts with other systems is widely recognized. This has not always been the case and this review summarizes how our knowledge has evolved from the initial discovery of renin by Tigerstedt and Berman in 1898. This includes the identification of angiotensin in the 1950s to the proposed relationship between this system, hypertension and ultimately cardiovascular disease. While the RAS is far more complex than originally thought, much is now known about this system and the wide ranging effects of angiotensin in the body. This has enabled the development of therapies that target the various proteins in this pathway and hence are implicated in disease. The first of these treatments was the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), followed by the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and more recently the direct renin inhibitors (DRIs). Clinical outcome trials have shown these drugs to be effective, but as they act at contrasting points in the RAS, there are differences in their efficacy and safety profiles. RAS blockade is the foundation of modern combination therapy with a calcium channel blocker and/or a diuretic given to reduce blood pressure and limit the impact of RAS activation. Other options that complement these treatments may be available in the future and will offer more choice to clinicians.

  14. Dictyocaulus viviparus genome, variome and transcriptome elucidate lungworm biology and support future intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Samantha N; Strübe, Christina; Rosa, Bruce A; Martin, John C; Tyagi, Rahul; Choi, Young-Jun; Wang, Qi; Hallsworth Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-02-09

    The bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus (order Strongylida), is an important parasite of livestock that causes substantial economic and production losses worldwide. Here we report the draft genome, variome, and developmental transcriptome of D. viviparus. The genome (161 Mb) is smaller than those of related bursate nematodes and encodes fewer proteins (14,171 total). In the first genome-wide assessment of genomic variation in any parasitic nematode, we found a high degree of sequence variability in proteins predicted to be involved host-parasite interactions. Next, we used extensive RNA sequence data to track gene transcription across the life cycle of D. viviparus, and identified genes that might be important in nematode development and parasitism. Finally, we predicted genes that could be vital in host-parasite interactions, genes that could serve as drug targets, and putative RNAi effectors with a view to developing functional genomic tools. This extensive, well-curated dataset should provide a basis for developing new anthelmintics, vaccines, and improved diagnostic tests and serve as a platform for future investigations of drug resistance and epidemiology of the bovine lungworm and related nematodes.

  15. Molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma: implications for future research and clinical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Maria-Pia; Ngan, Samuel Y; Michael, Michael; Lynch, A Craig; Heriot, Alexander G; Ramsay, Robert G; Phillips, Wayne A

    2015-12-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is a human papillomavirus-related disease, in which no substantial advances in treatment have been made in over 40 years, especially for those patients who develop disease relapse and for whom no surgical options exist. HPV can evade the immune system and its role in disease progression can be exploited in novel immunotherapy platforms. Although several studies have investigated the expression and inactivation (through loss of heterozygosity) of tumour suppressor genes in the pathways to cancer, no clinically valuable biomarkers have emerged. Regulators of apoptosis, including survivin, and agents targeting the PI3K/AKT pathway, offer opportunities for targeted therapy, although robust data are scarce. Additionally, antibody therapy targeting EGFR may prove effective, although its safety profile in combination with standard chemoradiotherapy has proven to be suboptimal. Finally, progress in the treatment of anal cancer has remained stagnant due to a lack of preclinical models, including cell lines and mouse models. In this Review, we discuss the molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma, clinical trials in progress, and implications for novel therapeutic targets. Future work should focus on preclinical models to provide a resource for investigation of new molecular pathways and for testing novel targets.

  16. HIV/AIDS infected mothers' experience of a group intervention to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UP User

    2016-05-11

    May 11, 2016 ... emotional and behavioral difficulties, attachment and academic ... Individual factors, such as age, gender, child and parental .... intelligence, social skills, and a positive future orientation. ..... Anxiety/stress among mothers.

  17. Proprioception: where are we now? A commentary on clinical assessment, changes across the life course, functional implications and future interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetterlin, Karen Joan; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2014-05-01

    Proprioception, the sense of where one is in space, is essential for effective interaction with the environment. A lack of or reduction in proprioceptive acuity has been directly correlated with falls and with reduced functional independence in older people. Proprioceptive losses have also been shown to negatively correlate with functional recovery post stroke and play a significant role in other conditions such as Parkinson's disease. However, despite its central importance to many geriatric syndromes, the clinical assessment of proprioception has remained remarkably static. We look at approaches to the clinical assessment of proprioception, changes in proprioception across the life course, functional implications of proprioception in health and disease and the potential for targeted interventions in the future such as joint taping, and proprioception-specific rehabilitation and footwear.

  18. An evidence-based group coping intervention for women living with HIV and history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Eve S; Kochman, Arlene; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2011-01-01

    Women living with HIV/AIDS and a history of childhood sexual abuse often exhibit sexual trauma symptoms and elevated rates of HIV-risk behaviors. In this paper, we describe a coping skills group intervention that reduced traumatic stress and sexual-risk behavior in a recent randomized clinical trial. We focused on clinical issues that emerged among female participants receiving the intervention. Clinical observations showed that recognizing connections between trauma, psychological distress, and high risk behaviors was a new and powerful experience for many participants. Participants successfully applied psychoeducational material, expressing an increased sense of power and control over their relationships and behaviors as they developed more adaptive cognitive and behavioral skills. Women expressed high levels of satisfaction with the intervention. Recommendations for clinical practice are provided.

  19. Evaluation of a Group CBT Early Intervention Program for Adolescents with Comorbid Depression and Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Depression and externalising behaviour disorders frequently occur together in adolescence and are associated with a marked increase in symptom severity and poorer outcome. Clinical treatment research and early intervention programs for depression have not addressed the specific cognitive and interpersonal deficits associated with comorbidity. This…

  20. Depression in Adolescents with ASD: A Pilot RCT of a Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Damian; Sheffield, Jeanie; Sofronoff, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a potentially life threatening affective disorder that is highly prevalent in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a cognitive behavioural intervention for depression in adolescents with ASD. Participants were randomly assigned to the…

  1. Teaching Story Grammar Components to Increase Oral Narrative Ability: A Group Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Laura B.; Klecan-Aker, Joni S.

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of an oral narrative intervention program implemented with 24 children who attended a College of Education on campus laboratory school for children with specific language learning difficulties. Oral narratives were elicited before and after treatment and underwent T-unit and story grammar component…

  2. Teaching Story Grammar Components to Increase Oral Narrative Ability: A Group Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Laura B.; Klecan-Aker, Joni S.

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of an oral narrative intervention program implemented with 24 children who attended a College of Education on campus laboratory school for children with specific language learning difficulties. Oral narratives were elicited before and after treatment and underwent T-unit and story grammar component…

  3. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Peters, M.C.; Manton, D.J.; Leal, S.C.; Gordan, V.V.; Eden, E.

    2012-01-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defectiv

  4. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  5. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  6. Group Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Rompa, David; Cage, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial show that a behavioral intervention grounded in social cognitive theory reduces unprotected sexual behaviors among men and women living with HIV infection, with the greatest reductions in HIV transmission risk behaviors occurring with non-HIV-positive sex partners. In this article, the authors describe the…

  7. Cultural Competence in a Group Intervention Designed for Latino Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Although the trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed dramatically over the past 25 years, addressing the psychosocial needs of patients living with HIV/AIDS remains vital. Ensuring the effective delivery of services demands that interventions be rooted in cultural competence and aimed at vulnerable populations. This article describes a…

  8. Planning and Decision Making about the Future Care of Older Group Home Residents and Transition to Residential Aged Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigby, C.; Bowers, B.; Webber, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Planning for future care after the death of parental caregivers and adapting disability support systems to achieve the best possible quality of life for people with intellectual disability as they age have been important issues for more than two decades. This study examined perceptions held by family members, group home staff and…

  9. Planning and Decision Making about the Future Care of Older Group Home Residents and Transition to Residential Aged Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigby, C.; Bowers, B.; Webber, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Planning for future care after the death of parental caregivers and adapting disability support systems to achieve the best possible quality of life for people with intellectual disability as they age have been important issues for more than two decades. This study examined perceptions held by family members, group home staff and…

  10. Group Patient Education: Effectiveness of a Brief Intervention in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Health Care in Greece: A Clinically Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merakou, K.; Knithaki, A.; Karageorgos, G.; Theodoridis, D.; Barbouni, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of a brief patient group education intervention in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The sample, 193 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were patients at the diabetic clinic of a primary health care setting in Attica, was assigned to two groups, intervention (138 individuals) and control group (55…

  11. PROACTIVE REGULATORY INTERVENTION IN EU COMMUNICATIONS SECTOR AND ITS FORESEEABLE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Barčys

    2013-06-01

    as competition in the market develops and more investments are promoted. However, sectors still requires for at least a minimum level of legislation, retaining the need of both regulatory regimes at least until sector specific qualities will completely abolish need for ex ante regulatory intervention. Keywords: SMP, ex ante, ex post, proactive control, sector specific features, telecommunications. Research type: general review, viewpoint.

  12. Efficacy of leisure intervention groups in rehabilitation of people with an acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Elizabeth J; Veitch, Craig; Passey, Megan

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether participation in a week-long residential leisure intervention program targeting individuals with an acquired brain injury (ABI) improved the leisure satisfaction, self-esteem and quality of life (QOL) of participants. The program included leisure awareness, leisure resources, social interaction skills and leisure activity skills. Using a pre- and post-intervention design leisure satisfaction, self-esteem and QOL were assessed prior to, immediately following and at three months post program. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Participants were eight men and four women aged between 19 and 49 years who were recent clients of a rural Brain Injury Rehabilitation Service. The majority (7/12) had acquired their ABI more than two years previously, and for most (10/12) the cause was trauma. Program participants showed clinically important and statistically significant improvements in leisure satisfaction (p = 0.002), self-esteem (p = 0.03) and QOL (p = 0.02 to 0.008 for four domains of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life - Bref scale) three months post program. Adults with an ABI participating in leisure education programs can experience improvements in leisure satisfaction, self-esteem and QOL following the program. The findings suggest that active leisure intervention programs should be included in the ongoing rehabilitative care of adults with an ABI. Implications for Rehabilitation Leisure participation, leisure satisfaction and social integration can be seriously compromised following an acquired brain injury (ABI). Engagement in leisure activities has positive effects on physical and mental health and is increasingly recognised as an important determinant of quality of life (QOL) for people with ABI. Participation in a short-term intensive leisure intervention program can improve leisure satisfaction, self-esteem and QOL. Active leisure intervention programs should be included in the ongoing rehabilitation

  13. Pollutant emissions and energy efficiency of Chinese gasifier cooking stoves and implications for future intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ellison M; Shan, Ming; Yang, Xudong; Li, Jiarong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2014-06-03

    Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is the leading environmental health risk factor globally. In China, almost half of all homes use solid fuel to meet their household energy demands. Gasifier cookstoves offer a potentially affordable, efficient, and low-polluting alternative to current solid fuel combustion technology, but pollutant emissions and energy efficiency performance of this class of stoves are poorly characterized. In this study, four Chinese gasifier cookstoves were evaluated for their pollutant emissions and efficiency using the internationally recognized water boiling test (WBT), version 4.1.2. WBT performance indicators included PM2.5, CO, and CO2 emissions and overall thermal efficiency. Laboratory investigation also included evaluation of pollutant emissions (PM2.5 and CO) under stove operating conditions designed to simulate common Chinese cooking practices. High power average overall thermal efficiencies ranged from 22 to 33%. High power average PM2.5 emissions ranged from 120 to 430 mg/MJ of useful energy, and CO emissions ranged from 1 to 30 g/MJ of useful energy. Compared with several widely disseminated "improved" cookstoves selected from the literature, on average, the four Chinese gasifier cookstoves had lower PM2.5 emissions and higher CO emissions. The recent International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Workshop Agreement on tiered cookstove ranking was developed to help classify stove performance and identify the best-performing stoves. The results from this study highlight potential ways to further improve this approach. Medium power stove operation emitted nearly twice as much PM2.5 as was emitted during high power stove operation, and the lighting phase of a cooking event contributed 45% and 34% of total PM2.5 emissions (combined lighting and cooking). Future approaches to laboratory-based testing of advanced cookstoves could improve to include greater differentiation between different modes of

  14. Development and pilot-testing of a cognitive behavioral coping skills group intervention for patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Evon, Ph.D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV infection are needed to attenuate the impact of extrahepatic symptoms, comorbid conditions, and treatment side effects on HCV health outcomes. We adapted empirically-supported interventions for similar patient populations to develop a Cognitive Behavioral Coping Skills group intervention for HCV patients (CBCS-HCV undergoing treatment. The objectives of this paper are to describe the research activities associated with CBCS-HCV development and pilot testing, including: (1 formative work leading to intervention development; (2 preliminary study protocol; and (3 pilot feasibility testing of the intervention and study design. Formative work included a literature review, qualitative interviews, and adaption, development, and review of study materials. A preliminary study protocol is described. We evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT of the CBCS-HCV with 12 study participants in Wave 1 testing to examine: (a feasibility of intervention delivery; (b patient acceptability; (c recruitment, enrollment, retention; (d feasibility of conducting a RCT; (d therapist protocol fidelity; and (e feasibility of data collection. Numerous lessons were learned. We found very high rates of data collection, participant attendance, engagement, retention and acceptability, and therapist protocol fidelity. We conclude that many aspects of the CBCS-HCV intervention and study protocol were highly feasible. The greatest challenge during this Wave 1 pilot study was efficiency of participant enrollment due to changes in standard of care treatment. These findings informed two additional waves of pilot testing to examine effect sizes and potential improvements in clinical outcomes, with results forthcoming.

  15. Black Women, Work, Stress, and Perceived Discrimination: The Focused Support Group Model as an Intervention for Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAYS, VICKIE M.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the use of two components (small and large groups) of a community-based intervention, the Focused Support Group (FSG) model, to alleviate employment-related stressors in Black women. Participants were assigned to small groups based on occupational status. Groups met for five weekly 3-hr sessions in didactic or small- and large-group formats. Two evaluations following the didactic session and the small and large group sessions elicited information on satisfaction with each of the formats, self-reported change in stress, awareness of interpersonal and sociopolitical issues affecting Black women in the labor force, assessing support networks, and usefulness of specific discussion topics to stress reduction. Results indicated the usefulness of the small- and large-group formats in reduction of self-reported stress and increases in personal and professional sources of support. Discussions on race and sex discrimination in the workplace were effective in overall stress reduction. The study highlights labor force participation as a potential source of stress for Black women, and supports the development of culture- and gender-appropriate community interventions as viable and cost-effective methods for stress reduction. PMID:9225548

  16. Effectiveness and specificity of a classroom-based group intervention in children and adolescents exposed to war in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie G; Fayyad, John; Nasser Karam, Aimee; Cordahi Tabet, Caroline; Melhem, Nadine; Mneimneh, Zeina; Dimassi, Hani

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and specificity of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention after war. All students (n=2500) of six villages in Southern Lebanon designated as most heavily exposed to war received a classroom-based intervention delivered by teachers, consisting of cognitive-behavioural and stress inoculation training strategies. A random sample of treated students (n=101) and a matched control group (n=93) were assessed one month post-war and one year later. Mental disorders and psychosocial stressors were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents - Revised with children and parents. War exposure was measured using the War Events Questionnaire. The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined pre-war, one month post-war (pre-intervention), and one year post-war. Specificity of treatment was determined by rating teachers' therapy diaries. The rates of disorders peaked one month post-war and decreased over one year. There was no significant effect of the intervention on the rates of MDD, SAD or PTSD. Post-war MDD, SAD and PTSD were associated with pre-war SAD and PTSD, family violence parameters, financial problems and witnessing war events. These findings have significant policy and public health implications, given current practices of delivering universal interventions immediately post-war.

  17. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila El-Bassel

    Full Text Available IMPORTANCE: This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. OBJECTIVE: We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health among drug-involved women under community supervision. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTION: We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1 a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH; (2 a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3 a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237 and 63% (n = 194 had multiple sex partners. RESULTS: Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18 and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest

  18. Enhancing the early home learning environment through a brief group parenting intervention: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background The quality of the home learning environment has a significant influence on children’s language and communication skills during the early years with children from disadvantaged families disproportionately affected. This paper describes the protocol and participant baseline characteristics of a community-based effectiveness study. It evaluates the effects of ‘smalltalk’, a brief group parenting intervention (with or without home coaching) on the quality of the early childhood home l...

  19. Use of formative research and social network theory to develop a group walking intervention: Sumter County on the Move!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, Melinda; Burroughs-Girardi, Ericka; Stoisor-Olsson, Liliana; Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Pekuri, Linda M

    2016-10-01

    Although social support is a frequently cited enabler of physical activity, few studies have examined how to harness social support in interventions. This paper describes community-based formative research to design a walking program for mobilizing naturally occurring social networks to support increases in walking behavior. Focus group methods were used to engage community members in discussions about desired walking program features. The research was conducted with underserved communities in Sumter County, South Carolina. The majority of focus group participants were women (76%) and African American (92%). Several important themes emerged from the focus group results regarding attitudes toward walking, facilitators of and barriers to walking, ideal walking program characteristics, and strategies for encouraging community members to walk. Most noteably, the role of existing social networks as a supportive influence on physical activity was a recurring theme in our formative research and a gap in the existing evidence base. The resulting walking program focused on strategies for mobilizing, supporting and reinforcing existing social networks as mechanisms for increasing walking. Our approach to linking theory, empirical evidence and community-based formative research for the development of a walking intervention offers an example for practitioners developing intervention strategies for a wide range of behaviors.

  20. Family matters: examining a multi-family group intervention for women with BRCA mutations in the scope of genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Alvaro; Chiquelho, Raquel; Santos, Teresa Almeida; Sousa, Liliana

    2010-12-01

    The availability of family-centred services for women genetically at-risk for breast and ovarian cancer (BRCA) due to deleterious genetic mutations is still scarce, despite the distress that these women and their families may experience. This study describes a multi-family group intervention for women who tested positive for BRCA mutations and their families. Methods include a time-limited psycho-educational programme involving educational and support components and consisting of four semi-structured multi-family sessions. Three families (a total of nine people) attended the programme in genetic counselling for hereditary cancers at a Portuguese public hospital. A focus group interview was performed 1 month after the last session to assess both the practical and the psychosocial impacts and to collect suggestions from participants. The present paper focuses on the practical aspects of the intervention, its development and its evaluation. Participants reported that the programme is well-structured and that responds to the needs of patients and their families by improving coping skills and medical awareness in the adaptation to genetic illness. Results reinforce the need to integrate psychosocial and family-oriented interventions in genetic counselling, addressing the holistic experience of hereditary disease. Recommendations for enhancing the services available are provided. The multi-family discussion group, combining educative and supportive services with a family focus, can be successfully adapted in genetic counselling protocols.

  1. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90). The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Clinical

  2. Race-Based Humor and Peer Group Dynamics in Adolescence:Bystander Intervention and Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents’ evaluations of discriminatory race-based humor and their expectations about peer responses to\\ud discrimination were investigated in 8th- (Mage = 13.80) and 10th-grade (Mage = 16.11) primarily European-\\ud American participants (N = 256). Older adolescents judged race-based humor as more acceptable than did\\ud younger adolescents and were less likely to expect peer intervention. Participants who rejected discrimination\\ud were more likely to reference welfare/rights and prejudice...

  3. Active placebo control groups of pharmacological interventions were rarely used but merited serious consideration: a methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob Solgaard; Bielefeldt, Andreas Ørsted; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2017-07-01

    Active placebos are control interventions that mimic the side effects of the experimental interventions in randomized trials and are sometimes used to reduce the risk of unblinding. We wanted to assess how often randomized clinical drug trials use active placebo control groups; to provide a catalog, and a characterization, of such trials; and to analyze methodological arguments for and against the use of active placebo. An overview consisting of three thematically linked substudies. In an observational substudy, we assessed the prevalence of active placebo groups based on a random sample of 200 PubMed indexed placebo-controlled randomized drug trials published in October 2013. In a systematic review, we identified and characterized trials with active placebo control groups irrespective of publication time. In a third substudy, we reviewed publications with substantial methodological comments on active placebo groups (searches in PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and HighWirePress). The prevalence of trials with active placebo groups published in 2013 was 1 out of 200 (95% confidence interval: 0-2), 0.5% (0-1%). We identified and characterized 89 randomized trials (published 1961-2014) using active placebos, for example, antihistamines, anticholinergic drugs, and sedatives. Such trials typically involved a crossover design, the experimental intervention had noticeable side effects, and the outcomes were patient-reported. The use of active placebos was clustered in specific research settings and did not appear to reflect consistently the side effect profile of the experimental intervention, for example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were compared with active placebos in pain trials but not in depression trials. We identified and analyzed 25 methods publications with substantial comments. The main argument for active placebo was to reduce risk of unblinding; the main argument against was the risk of unintended therapeutic effect. Pharmacological

  4. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a group-based pain self-management intervention for patients undergoing total hip replacement: feasibility study for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Marques, Elsa; Artz, Neil; Blom, Ashley; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2014-05-20

    . This study highlights the importance of feasibility work prior to a randomized controlled trial to assess recruitment methods and rates, barriers to participation, logistics of scheduling group-based interventions, acceptability of the intervention and piloting resource use questionnaires to improve data available for economic evaluations. This information is of value to researchers and funders in the design and commissioning of future research. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52305381.

  5. Intervention leads to improvements in the nutrient profile of snacks served in afterschool programs: a group randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Weaver, R Glenn; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B; Ward, Dianne S; Freedman, Darcy A

    2016-09-01

    Widely adopted nutrition policies for afterschool programs (ASPs) focus on serving a fruit/vegetable daily and eliminating sugar-sweetened foods/beverages. The impact of these policies on the nutrient profile of snacks served is unclear. Evaluate changes in macro/micronutrient content of snacks served in ASPs. A 1-year group randomized controlled trial was conducted in 20 ASPs serving over 1700 elementary-age children. Intervention ASPs received a multistep adaptive framework intervention. Direct observation of snack served was collected and nutrient information determined using the USDA Nutrient Database, standardized to nutrients/100 kcal. By post-assessment, intervention ASPs reduced total kcal/snack served by 66 kcal (95CI -114 to -19 kcal) compared to control ASPs. Total fiber (+1.7 g/100 kcal), protein (+1.4 g/100 kcal), polyunsaturated fat (+1.2 g/100 kcal), phosphorous (+49.0 mg/100 kcal), potassium (+201.8 mg/100 kcal), and vitamin K (+21.5 μg/100 kcal) increased in intervention ASPs, while added sugars decreased (-5.0 g/100 kcal). Nutrition policies can lead to modest daily caloric reductions and improve select macro/micronutrients in snacks served. Long-term, these nutritional changes may contribute to healthy dietary habits.

  6. Taking charge of epilepsy: the development of a structured psychoeducational group intervention for adolescents with epilepsy and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Kara; Ackerson, Joseph; Bailey, Kirstin; Schmitt, Margaret M; Madan-Swain, Avi; Martin, Roy C

    2004-08-01

    Children and adolescents with epilepsy frequently experience poor psychosocial outcomes due to numerous factors such as perceived stigma, behavior problems, academic difficulties, and depression. Health psychology research has documented the effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions aimed at improving psychosocial outcomes for individuals with a variety of health conditions. With increasing numbers of adolescents living with epilepsy, interest in improving the quality of life for this particular population has grown. There remains, however, a paucity of research concerning psychosocial interventions for adolescents with epilepsy. The present study outlines the development and initial implementation of a 6-week structured psychoeducational group intervention for adolescents with epilepsy and their parents. Preintervention, the QOLIE-AD-48, Childhood Depression Inventory, and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale were administered. Educational topics included medical aspects of epilepsy, healthy lifestyle behaviors, family and peer relationships, understanding self-image and self-esteem, and stress management techniques. Participants were introduced to a variety of cognitive-behavioral strategies, and were encouraged to share their own experiences with epilepsy. Feedback from adolescent and parent participants indicated that the intervention was relevant to their needs, helped them better understand their epilepsy, and allowed an opportunity for positive peer support. Also, postintervention outcome measurement indicated an overall positive trend for quality of life improvement in the adolescents.

  7. Teacher Interventions in Small Group Work in Secondary Mathematics and Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, R.; Mercer, N.

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative problem solving, when students work in pairs or small groups on a curriculum-related task, has become an increasingly common feature of classroom education. This paper reports a study of a topic which has received relatively little attention: how teachers can most usefully intervene when students are working in a group, but have…

  8. International Cultural Immersion: Assessing the Influence of a Group Intervention on Intercultural Sensitivity for Counselor Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Sejal M.; Shannonhouse, Laura; Mobley, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Scholars (e.g., Bemak & Chung, 2004) underscore the need for group workers to be culturally sensitive. One group training strategy, cultural immersion, is often employed to develop cultural sensitivity. However, no studies have utilized quasi-experimental methodologies to assess differences in cultural sensitivity between trainees that immerse…

  9. Effect of Brief Group Intervention for Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Dave; Singh, Kusum; Hutchins, David E.; Getz, Hildy G.

    1999-01-01

    Assesses the effects of a psychoeducational group for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results show that the group experience has statistically significant effects in improving organization skills by helping participants examine and change their thoughts, feelings, and actions to improve time management and task…

  10. Report of the Independent Expert Group on the Future of European Public Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    The next EU research and innovation framework programme 'Horizon 2020' will address a number of important societal challenges including health, demographic changes and well-being. To prepare the work in these areas, the Health Directorate of the European Commission's Research & Innovation...... the following four questions: What should the thematic priorities for EU funded public health research under Horizon 2020 be? How to best structure European Public Health Research in the future? How to develop stronger links and synergies between EU funded research and national research activities, EU policy...... agendas and national policy agendas? How to improve the uptake of evidence generated from public health research in the development of public health policy? This report summarises the recommendations from Subgroup 2....

  11. Group Action Planning: An Innovative Manual for Building a Self-Determined Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma Longan; And Others

    This manual is designed to provide adolescents and young adults who have disabilities with a blueprint for setting and achieving goals, making decisions, acquiring needed supports, and achieving a self-determined and sustainable lifestyle. A planning process called Group Action Planning is used as a foundation for self-determination, with…

  12. Increasing the Degrees of Freedom in Future Group Randomized Trials: The "df*" Method Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David M.; Blitstein, Jonathan L.; Hannan, Peter J.; Shadish, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This article revisits an article published in Evaluation Review in 2005 on sample size estimation and power analysis for group-randomized trials. With help from a careful reader, we learned of an important error in the spreadsheet used to perform the calculations and generate the results presented in that article. As we studied the…

  13. The OMERACT MRI inflammatory arthritis group: advances and future research priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conaghan, Philip G; Bird, Paul; McQueen, Fiona;

    2009-01-01

    The OMERACT magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in inflammatory arthritis group previously developed the rheumatoid arthritis MRI score (RAMRIS) for use in clinical studies, evaluated the use of extremity MRI, and initiated development of a psoriatic arthritis MRI score (PsAMRIS). At OMERACT 9...

  14. Evaluation of a Two-Phase Experimental Study of a Small Group ("MultiLit") Reading Intervention for Older Low-Progress Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Jennifer; Beaman-Wheldall, Robyn; Wheldall, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here examined the efficacy of a small group (Tier 2 in a three-tier Response to Intervention model) literacy intervention for older low-progress readers (in Years 3-6). This article focuses on the second phase of a two-phase, crossover randomized control trial involving 26 students. In Phase 1, the experimental group (E1)…

  15. Primary Prevention Programme for Burnout-Endangered Teachers: Follow-Up Effectiveness of a Combined Group and Individual Intervention of AFA Breathing Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Goetz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early retirement of teachers due to burnout is frequent in Germany. In this study short- and medium-term effects of AFA breathing therapy were evaluated. Methods. This study was designed as a longitudinal controlled intervention design with four points of measurements: before assessment (T1, after intervention (T2, three months (follow up 1 (T3 after intervention, and six months (follow up 2 after intervention (T4. The intervention lasted a total of 11 weeks (weekly group therapy for eight weeks and three weeks of individual breathing session. The effects of intervention were measured with the questionnaire “work-related behaviour and experience Patterns” (AVEM at four times. Results. In the intervention group 64 teachers and in the self-selected control group 27 teachers were included. The AVEM scales “subjective significance of work” and “professional ambition” changed over time and within both groups (interaction effect. Significant improvements over the four measurements were observed in the intervention group in two AVEM scales: “emotional distancing” (F=6.3; P<0.01 and “balance and mental stability” (F=4.4; P<0.02. Conclusions. AFA breathing therapy showed short- and medium-term effects in the intervention group over four points of measurements. It may be assumed that breath therapy supports teachers in resisting occupational demand.

  16. Letting the Future In: a therapeutic intervention for children affected by sexual abuse and their carers:An evaluation of impact and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, John; Jessiman, Tricia; Patsios, Demi; Hackett, Simon; Phillips, Josie

    2016-01-01

    Letting the Future In is a structured guide to therapeutic intervention with children affected by sexual abuse. The guide was developed by the NSPCC and has been implemented by 20 NSPCC teams across England, Wales and Northern Ireland since 2011. It is available to children aged between four and 17 who have made a disclosure and experienced sexual abuse, live with a safe carer with no planned moves and have no diagnosed learning disability. Letting the Future In is grounded in an understandin...

  17. Comparative effectiveness of Pilates and yoga group exercise interventions for chronic mechanical neck pain: quasi-randomised parallel controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, K; Kava, K; Goldberg, A; Malek, M H; Talley, S A; Tutag-Lehr, V; Hildreth, J

    2016-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of Pilates and yoga group exercise interventions for individuals with chronic neck pain (CNP). Quasi-randomised parallel controlled study. Community, university and private practice settings in four locations. Fifty-six individuals with CNP scoring ≥3/10 on the numeric pain rating scale for >3 months (controls n=17, Pilates n=20, yoga n=19). Exercise participants completed 12 small-group sessions with modifications and progressions supervised by a physiotherapist. The primary outcome measure was the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Secondary outcomes were pain ratings, range of movement and postural measurements collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Follow-up was performed 6 weeks after completion of the exercise classes (Week 18). NDI decreased significantly in the Pilates {baseline: 11.1 [standard deviation (SD) 4.3] vs Week 12: 6.8 (SD 4.3); mean difference -4.3 (95% confidence interval -1.64 to -6.7); PPilates and yoga group exercise interventions with appropriate modifications and supervision were safe and equally effective for decreasing disability and pain compared with the control group for individuals with mild-to-moderate CNP. Physiotherapists may consider including these approaches in a plan of care. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01999283. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Piloting a Coping Skills Group Intervention to Reduce Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Patients Awaiting Kidney or Liver Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Julie Anne; Miner, Dee; Remtulla, Tasneem; Miller, Janet; Zanussi, Lauren W

    2017-02-01

    The authors evaluated the use of a coping skills group (CSG) therapy intervention to decrease depression and anxiety and increase healthy coping skills in a population of kidney and liver transplant candidates. The study, using a pre-posttest design, piloted a CSG with a convenience sample of 41 consenting participants on a waiting list or in workup for kidney or liver transplant. Two transplant social workers led five eight-week closed psychoeducational groups. Coping skills, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were assessed preintervention, postintervention, and at follow-up one month later. Results suggest that the CSG group created significant changes in some coping areas, such as decreasing the use of denial and self-blame and increasing the use of acceptance, religion, and instrumental supports. In this study, instrumental supports are strategies such as seeking assistance, finding information, or asking for advice about what to do. The effects on instrumental supports did not sustain at the one-month follow-up. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly reduced, and these changes were sustained at one-month follow-up. This study supports the use of a group-based psychosocial intervention for the pretransplant population and will be most relevant to social workers practicing in the transplant field. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  19. Effectiveness of a cognitive-functional group intervention among preschoolers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Lori; Maeir, Adina; Yochman, Aviva; Dahan, Idit; Hirsch, Idit

    2015-01-01

    To test functional improvement after a group cognitive-functional occupational therapy intervention for preschoolers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Seventeen preschooler-parent dyads attended 11 weekly group sessions focused on acquiring executive strategies through occupational performance. Functional improvement was measured using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS); executive function, using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Pediatric; ADHD symptomatology, using Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised; and social functioning, using the Social Participation scale of the Sensory Processing Measure. Significant improvement was found on the COPM and GAS measures, whereas mixed results were found on the other measures, with improvements found in children whose scores indicated impairment at baseline. Cognitive-functional group intervention appears to significantly improve daily functioning, executive function, and social functioning for children who demonstrate clinical impairment. Further research with a larger sample, a control group, and follow-up is required. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. Reducing resistance to treatment, through group intervention, improves clinical measurements in patients with type 2 diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valinsky, Liora; Mishali, Moshe; Endevelt, Ronit; Preiss, Rachel; Dopelt, Keren; Heymann, Anthony D

    2013-01-01

    .... The Objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of diabetes groups in reducing resistance to treatment and the association between reduced resistance and better management of the disease...

  1. [Groups in basic health attention in Porto Alegre: uses and forms of therapeutic intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffacciolli, Rosana; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with groups as an assistential modality used by the services of basic health attention. Workshops, health education groups, as well as, lectures are different activities done in relation to other traditional attendances. The study that is behind this discussion had as its main aim to know the profile of assistance, under groups' organization, offered in the Units which make part of the Basic Health Network in Porto Alegre. Within a total of 124 health services, 116 professionals were approached, among them, 96 developed groups. We could verify that the groups have therapeutic relevance because they favor the sharing of information and the learning about aspects which are related to the topic health-sickness. They constitute inclusive practices, which are able to create a link with the users and the service, as well as, to reformulate the existing assistential model. Therefore, it was verified that the understanding of these practices reflects on its dimension of the group assistance qualification and also the strategic dimension of compensation in the attendance of the increasing demand of health.

  2. Efficacy of group social skills interventions for youth with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jacquelyn A; Kang, Erin; Lerner, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    Group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs) are widely used for treating social competence among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their efficacy is unclear. Previous meta-analysis of the literature on well-designed trials of GSSIs is limited in size and scope, collapsing across highly heterogeneous sources (parents; youths; teachers; observers; behavioral tasks). The current meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) was conducted to ascertain overall effectiveness of GSSIs and differences by reporting sources. Nineteen RCTs met inclusion criteria. Results show that overall positive aggregate effects were medium (g=0.51, pskilled social behaviors (social knowledge; g=1.15, psocial performance; g=0.28, p=0.31). Social skills interventions presently appear modestly effective for youth with ASD, but may not generalize to school settings or self-reported social behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interest in, concerns about, and preferences for potential video-group delivery of an effective behavioral intervention among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhefka, Stephanie L; Fuhrmann, Hollie J; Gilliam, Patricia; Lopez, Bernice; Baldwin, Julie

    2012-10-01

    Novel strategies are needed to expand access to effective behavioral interventions for HIV prevention. Delivering effective group-based interventions to people living with HIV using video-conferencing technology is an innovative approach that may address this need, but has not been explored. Twenty-seven women living with HIV (WLH) who had just completed Healthy Relationships, a group-based behavioral program for WLH, participated in focus groups to share their thoughts about potentially participating in Healthy Relationships via a video-conferencing group. Overall, WLH supported the idea of video-group delivery of the program. They had numerous questions about logistics, expressed concerns about safety and confidentiality, and indicated a preference for accessing video-groups via special video-phones versus computers. Findings warrant further research into the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of video-group delivery of HIV prevention interventions and suggest important considerations for researchers and practitioners who may employ video-conferencing for intervention delivery.

  4. Update on research and future directions of the OMERACT MRI inflammatory arthritis group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conaghan, Philip G; McQueen, Fiona M; Bird, Paul;

    2011-01-01

    The OMERACT Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Task Force has developed and evolved the psoriatic arthritis MRI score (PsAMRIS) over the last few years, and at OMERACT 10, presented longitudinal evaluation by multiple readers, using PsA datasets obtained from extremity MRI magnets. Further evaluation...... as a potential RAMRIS addendum, although responsiveness will need to be evaluated. One of the strengths of MRI is the ability to detect subclinical synovitis, so the group worked on obtaining low disease activity/clinical remission datasets from a number of international centers and presented cross...

  5. Identifying future models for delivering genetic services: a nominal group study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Peter

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background To enable primary care medical practitioners to generate a range of possible service delivery models for genetic counselling services and critically assess their suitability. Methods Modified nominal group technique using in primary care professional development workshops. Results 37 general practitioners in Wales, United Kingdom too part in the nominal group process. The practitioners who attended did not believe current systems were sufficient to meet anticipated demand for genetic services. A wide range of different service models was proposed, although no single option emerged as a clear preference. No argument was put forward for genetic assessment and counselling being central to family practice, neither was there a voice for the view that the family doctor should become skilled at advising patients about predictive genetic testing and be able to counsel patients about the wider implications of genetic testing for patients and their family members, even for areas such as common cancers. Nevertheless, all the preferred models put a high priority on providing the service in the community, and often co-located in primary care, by clinicians who had developed expertise. Conclusion There is a need for a wider debate about how healthcare systems address individual concerns about genetic concerns and risk, especially given the increasing commercial marketing of genetic tests.

  6. Mining a Written Values Affirmation Intervention to Identify the Unique Linguistic Features of Stigmatized Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Travis; Bhagavatula, Sowmya Sree; Guo, Weiwei; Muresan, Smaranda; Cohen, Geoff; Cook, Jonathan E.; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Social identity threat refers to the process through which an individual underperforms in some domain due to their concern with confirming a negative stereotype held about their group. Psychological research has identified this as one contributor to the underperformance and underrepresentation of women, Blacks, and Latinos in STEM fields. Over the…

  7. Making the Connection: Interweaving Multicultural Creative Arts through the Power of Group Counseling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Bogusia; Monteiro-Leitner, Julieta; Garrett, Michael T.; Gladding, Samuel T.

    2005-01-01

    Creativity and the creative arts are important to the portrayal of human experiences through a myriad of forms, including visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and written expression. While these forms of creative expression vary within and across cultural groups, a unifying element embedded in creative works seems to prevail through a continuous search…

  8. Making the Connection: Interweaving Multicultural Creative Arts through the Power of Group Counseling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Bogusia; Monteiro-Leitner, Julieta; Garrett, Michael T.; Gladding, Samuel T.

    2005-01-01

    Creativity and the creative arts are important to the portrayal of human experiences through a myriad of forms, including visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and written expression. While these forms of creative expression vary within and across cultural groups, a unifying element embedded in creative works seems to prevail through a continuous search…

  9. Memory Club: A Group Intervention for People with Early-Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia E.; Watson, Jennifer; Rice-Oeschger, Laura; Kakos, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnosis of dementia in its early stages presents a window of opportunity for examining the immediate and long-term consequences of the illness at a point when the individual with memory loss can still participate in decision making. Design and Methods: Memory Club is a l0-session group program designed to provide information about…

  10. The Contribution of Group Work Programmes to Early Intervention and Improving Children's Emotional Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Christine; Manby, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Recent government policy has emphasised links between the acquisition of social skills by children and young people and their educational attainment. This study aims to fill a gap in the literature about the contribution of school-based group work programmes to developing children's social skills. National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to…

  11. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing.

  12. Increasing self-esteem: efficacy of a group intervention for individuals with severe mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borras, L; Boucherie, M; Mohr, S; Lecomte, T; Perroud, N; Huguelet, Ph

    2009-06-01

    Individuals with psychosis are known to have a lower self-esteem compared to the general population, in part because of social stigma, paternalistic care, long periods of institutionalization and negative family interactions. This study aimed at assessing the efficacy of a self-esteem enhancement program for individuals with severe mental illness and at analyzing the results in their European context. A randomized cross-over study including 54 outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia from Geneva, Switzerland, was conducted. Twenty-four were recruited from an outpatient facility receiving traditional psychiatric care whereas 30 came from an outpatient facility with case-management care. Psychosocial, diagnostic and symptom measures were taken for all the subjects before treatment, after treatment, and at 3-months' follow-up. Results indicated significant positive self-esteem module effects on self-esteem, self-assertion, active coping strategies and symptom for the participants receiving case-management care. Results were not significant for those receiving traditional care. However, 71% of all participants expressed satisfaction with the module. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be benefit from the effects of the self-esteem module, particularly when they are involved in a rehabilitation program and followed by a case manager who liaises with the other partners of the multidisciplinary team. This encourages reconsidering the interventions' format and setting in order to ensure lasting effects on the environment and in turn on coping, self-esteem and overall empowerment.

  13. Large group intervention for military reintegration: peer support & Yellow Ribbon enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Cherie; Everly, George S

    2010-01-01

    University Behavioral HealthCare, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in partnership with the New Jersey Department of Military & Veterans Affairs established a program entitled the "New Jersey Veterans Helpline," modeled after the "Cop 2 Cop Helpline," in 2005 to assist veterans and their families within the state. The events of September 11, 2001, demanded an unprecedented response to address the behavioral health care needs of first responders in New Jersey and highlighted the similarities amongst the military population in their response. Although the New Jersey Veterans Helpline program was initiated as a peer based helpline, the need for support in pre- and post-deployment quickly emerged. This paper describes the application of the Cop 2 Cop interventions with the Port Authority Police Department (PAPD) entitled "Acute Stress Management Reentry Program." This program was adapted and combined with Yellow Ribbon Guideline enhancements to create a "60 Day Resiliency & Reintegration Program" led by the New Jersey Veterans program to over 2,400 soldiers returning from war.

  14. Meeting notes of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) futures group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houser, M.M. [comp.

    1995-08-01

    This report is a compilation of the notes from the ten meetings. The group charter is: (1) to identify and characterize the range of possibilities and necessities for keeping the HFIR operating for at least the next 15 years; (2) to identify and characterize the range of possibilities for enhancing the scientific and technical utility of the HFIR; (3) to evaluate the benefits or impacts of these possibilities on the various scientific fields that use the HFIR or its products; (4) to evaluate the benefits or impacts on the operation and maintenance of the HFIR facility and the regulatory requirements; (5) to estimate the costs, including operating costs, and the schedules, including downtime, for these various possibilities; and one possible impact of proposed changes may be to stimulate increased pressure for a reduced enrichment fuel for HFIR.

  15. Characteristics of the Family Caregivers Who Did Not Benefit From a Successful Psychoeducational Group Intervention During Palliative Cancer Care: A Prospective Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Maja; Årestedt, Kristofer; Carlander, Ida; Wengström, Yvonne; Öhlen, Joakim; Alvariza, Anette

    Although there has been a steady increase in intervention studies aimed toward supporting family caregivers in palliative cancer care, they often report modest effect sizes and there is a lack of knowledge about possible barriers to intervention effectiveness. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of family caregivers who did not benefit from a successful psychoeducational group intervention compared with the characteristics of those who did. A psychoeducational intervention for family caregivers was delivered at 10 palliative settings in Sweden. Questionnaires were used to collect data at baseline and following the intervention. The Preparedness for Caregiving Scale was the main outcome for the study and was used to decide whether or not the family caregiver had benefited from the intervention (Preparedness for Caregiving Scale difference score ≤ 0 vs ≥ 1). A total of 82 family caregivers completed the intervention and follow-up. Caregivers who did not benefit from the intervention had significantly higher ratings of their preparedness and competence for caregiving and their health at baseline compared with the group who benefited. They also experienced lower levels of environmental burden and a trend toward fewer symptoms of depression. Family caregivers who did not benefit from the intervention tended to be less vulnerable at baseline. Hence, the potential to improve their ratings was smaller than for the group who did benefit. Determining family caregivers in cancer and palliative care who are more likely to benefit from an intervention needs to be explored further in research.

  16. Evaluating environmental tobacco smoke exposure in a group of Turkish primary school students and developing intervention methods for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davutoglu Mehmet

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In countries like Turkey where smoking is highly prevalent, children's exposure to tobacco smoke is an important public health problem. The goals of this study were to determine the self-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure status of primary school students in grades 3 to 5, to verify self-reported exposure levels with data provided from a biomarker of exposure, and to develop methods for preventing school children from passive smoking. Methods The study was conducted on 347 primary school students by using a standard questionnaire and urinary cotinine tests. Children with verified ETS exposure were randomly assigned to 2 intervention groups. Two phone interviews were conducted with the parents of the first group regarding their children's passive smoking status and its possible consequences. On the other hand, a brief note concerning urinary cotinine test result was sent to parents of the second group. Nine months after the initial urinary cotinine tests, measurements were repeated in both groups. Results According to questionnaire data, 59.9% of the study group (208 of 347 were exposed to ETS. Urinary cotinine measurements of children were highly consistent with the self-reported exposure levels (P 0.05. Conclusion Self-reported ETS exposure was found to be pretty accurate in the 9–11 age group when checked with urinary cotinine tests. Only informing parents that their childrens' ETS exposure were confirmed by a laboratory test seems to be very promising in preventing children from ETS.

  17. Explaining the impact of a women's group led community mobilisation intervention on maternal and newborn health outcomes: the Ekjut trial process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few large and rigorous evaluations of participatory interventions systematically describe their context and implementation, or attempt to explain the mechanisms behind their impact. This study reports process evaluation data from the Ekjut cluster-randomised controlled trial of a participatory learning and action cycle with women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in Jharkhand and Orissa, eastern India (2005-2008. The study demonstrated a 45% reduction in neonatal mortality in the last two years of the intervention, largely driven by improvements in safe practices for home deliveries. Methods A participatory learning and action cycle with 244 women's groups was implemented in 18 intervention clusters covering an estimated population of 114 141. We describe the context, content, and implementation of this intervention, identify potential mechanisms behind its impact, and report challenges experienced in the field. Methods included a review of intervention documents, qualitative structured discussions with group members and non-group members, meeting observations, as well as descriptive statistical analysis of data on meeting attendance, activities, and characteristics of group attendees. Results Six broad, interrelated factors influenced the intervention's impact: (1 acceptability; (2 a participatory approach to the development of knowledge, skills and 'critical consciousness'; (3 community involvement beyond the groups; (4 a focus on marginalized communities; (5 the active recruitment of newly pregnant women into groups; (6 high population coverage. We hypothesize that these factors were responsible for the increase in safe delivery and care practices that led to the reduction in neonatal mortality demonstrated in the Ekjut trial. Conclusions Participatory interventions with community groups can influence maternal and child health outcomes if key intervention characteristics are preserved and tailored to

  18. Adoption of web-based group decision support systems: experiences from the field and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos van Hillegersberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While organizations have massively adopted enterprise information systems to support business processes, business meetings in which key decisions are made about products, services and processes, are usually held without much support of information systems. This is remarkable as group decision support systems (GDSS seems to fit for this purpose. They have existed for decades and modern versions benefit of web-based technologies, enabling low cost any-place, any time and device independent meeting support. In this exploratory case research, we study nine organizations in four different adoption categories to learn more about the reasons for the relatively slow adoption of web-based GDSS. Using the Fit-Viability adoption framework we conduct interviews with organizations that have experience with using GDSS. We conclude that adopting GDSS requires considerable and carefully planned change of processes that are deeply grounded in the organization. Existing meeting routines need to be adapted. Introduction needs to be carefully planned and room for face-to-face meetings and creativity sessions away from the keyboard need to be built in depending on the type of meeting. Not all companies find the cost level affordable. Clear and convincing business cases are lacking. Still the added value is ranked highly and there are frequent and enthusiastic user organizations that may lead the way for others. Their success stories show others how to mitigate problems.

  19. Microscopic colitis: Current status, present and future challenges: statements of the European Microscopic Colitis Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, A; Aust, D; Bohr, J; Bonderup, O; Fernández Bañares, F; Hjortswang, H; Madisch, A; Munck, L K; Ström, M; Tysk, C; Miehlke, S

    2012-10-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory bowel disease presenting with chronic, non-bloody watery diarrhoea and few or no endoscopic abnormalities. The histological examination reveals mainly two subtypes of MC, lymphocytic or collagenous colitis. Despite the fact that the incidence in MC has been rising over the last decades, research has been sparse and our knowledge about MC remains limited. Specialists in the field have initiated the European Microscopic Colitis Group (EMCG) with the primary goal to create awareness on MC. The EMCG is furthermore a forum with the intention to promote clinical and basic research. In this article statements and comments are given that all members of the EMCG have considered being of importance for a better understanding of MC. The paper focuses on the newest updates in epidemiology, symptoms and diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology and highlights some unsolved problems. Moreover, a new treatment algorithm is proposed on the basis of new evidence from well-designed, randomized control trials. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding Process in Group-Based Intervention Delivery: Social Network Analysis and Intra-entity Variability Methods as Windows into the "Black Box".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy Elreda, Lauren; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Gest, Scott D; Ram, Nilam; Bamberger, Katharine

    2016-11-01

    Although the majority of evidence-based programs are designed for group delivery, group process and its role in participant outcomes have received little empirical attention. Data were collected from 20 groups of participants (94 early adolescents, 120 parents) enrolled in an efficacy trial of a mindfulness-based adaptation of the Strengthening Families Program (MSFP). Following each weekly session, participants reported on their relations to group members. Social network analysis and methods sensitive to intraindividual variability were integrated to examine weekly covariation between group process and participant progress, and to predict post-intervention outcomes from levels and changes in group process. Results demonstrate hypothesized links between network indices of group process and intervention outcomes and highlight the value of this unique analytic approach to studying intervention group process.

  1. Awareness of Stress-Reduction Interventions on Work Attitudes: The Impact of Tenure and Staff Group in Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA) and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees' reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1) perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2) job satisfaction for employees with 0-19 years of tenure; (3) trust in senior management for employees with 6-19 years of tenure; and (4) affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6-10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20-38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual issues in organizational

  2. Awareness of stress-reduction interventions on work attitudes: the impact of tenure and staff group in Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees’ reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1 perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2 job satisfaction for employees with 0–19 years of tenure; (3 trust in senior management for employees with 6–19 years of tenure; and (4 affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6–10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20–38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual

  3. Effectiveness of the Relaxation Response-Based Group Intervention for Treating Depressed Chinese American Immigrants: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Yeung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an 8-week Relaxation Response (RR-based group. Methods: Twenty-two depressed Chinese American immigrants were recruited. Outcomes measures were response and remission rates, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale. Results: Participants (N = 22 were 82% female, mean age was 53 (±12. After intervention, completers (N = 15 showed a 40% response rate and a 27% remission rate, and statistically significant improvement in most outcome measures. Discussion: The RR-based group is feasible and safe in treating Chinese American immigrants with depression.

  4. Mom Power: preliminary outcomes of a group intervention to improve mental health and parenting among high-risk mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Maria; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Alfafara, Emily A; Schuster, Melisa M; Miller, Nicole M; Waddell, Rachel M; Stanton Kohler, Emily

    2015-06-01

    Maternal psychopathology and traumatic life experiences may adversely impact family functioning, the quality of the parent-child relationship and the attachment bond, placing the child's early social-emotional development at risk. Attachment-based parenting interventions may be particularly useful in decreasing negative outcomes for children exposed to risk contexts, yet high risk families frequently do not engage in programs to address mental health and/or parenting needs. This study evaluated the effects of Mom Power (MP), a 13-session parenting and self-care skills group program for high-risk mothers and their young children (age parenting competence, and engagement in treatment. Mothers were referred from community health providers for a phase 1 trial to assess feasibility, acceptability, and pilot outcomes. At baseline, many reported several identified risk factors, including trauma exposure, psychopathology, poverty, and single parenthood. Ninety-nine mother-child pairs were initially recruited into the MP program with 68 women completing and providing pre- and post-self-report measures assessing demographics and trauma history (pre-assessment only), maternal mental health (depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)), parenting, and intervention satisfaction. Results indicate that MP participation was associated with reduction in depression, PTSD, and caregiving helplessness. A dose response relationship was evident in that, despite baseline equivalence, women who attended ≥70 % of the 10 groups (completers; N = 68) improved on parenting and mental health outcomes, in contrast to non-completers (N = 12). Effects were most pronounced for women with a mental health diagnosis at baseline. The intervention was perceived as helpful and user-friendly. Results indicate that MP is feasible, acceptable, and holds promise for improving maternal mental health and parenting competence among high-risk dyads. Further research is warranted to evaluate

  5. FUTURE BACHELORS’ TECHNOLOGY OF PROJECT LEARNING IN DESIGN GROUPS AS A MEANS OF INNOVATIVE TEACHING ACTIVITIES SUBJECT’S TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. ZARECHNAYA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the bachelor’s preparation, the basic conceptual idea of is to achieve efficiency and social and educational importance of integrative cultural and educational space as a system to ensure the teachers’ readiness to innovative professional work at school. The solution to this problem is in the competence-based approach to students’ design activity in the conditions of design groups as a means of mastering professionalvaluable innovative technologies of socialization of pupils and methodological tools of their motivation to the designer's creativity. The article notes that the process of mastering the future bachelors of professional competence in the design group based on the multidisciplinary integration and implemented in an environment of a complex interaction of its epistemological (scientifictheoretical and value (spiritual practice aspects. They are based on the integration of knowledge of different areas of science, the disclosure of the relationship and interdependence of general scientific, social, technological, aesthetic, economic, environmental, educational, psychological and other problems in the system of global problems of general and professional culture of the future teacher, teaching them values of subjectivation. Diversity and structure of such an interrelation and interdependence in project activities of students due to the specifics of scientific, aesthetic, design, technological, technical and economic means to achieve the desired, socially significant result of project activities. It also stems from the need of didactic thinking by students of dialectical nature monism categories and the principles of technology and aesthetics, and innovative teaching technologies and methods of students' teaching and the technological development of the world in accordance with the design principles of their development as active and creative subjects of social and labor relations. This article emphasizes

  6. Does Engaging in a Group-Based Intervention Increase Parental Self-efficacy in Parents of Preschool Children? A Systematic Review of the Current Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Wittkowski, Anja; Dowling, Hannah; Smith, Debbie M.

    2016-01-01

    As the preschool years are a formative period for long-term physical and mental health, this period is recognised as an important window for early effective intervention. Parenting behaviour is a key factor to target in order to optimise child development. Group-based interventions for parents are considered efficient and cost effective methods of early intervention and have been found to improve child behaviour and adjustment. Self-efficacy is key to behaviour change and as such parental sel...

  7. Assessing Economic Modulation of Future Critical Materials Use: The Case of Automotive-Related Platinum Group Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingshu; Everson, Mark P; Wallington, Timothy J; Field, Frank R; Roth, Richard; Kirchain, Randolph E

    2016-07-19

    Platinum-group metals (PGMs) are technological and economic enablers of many industrial processes. This important role, coupled with their limited geographic availability, has led to PGMs being labeled as "critical materials". Studies of future PGM flows have focused on trends within material flows or macroeconomic indicators. We complement the previous work by introducing a novel technoeconomic model of substitution among PGMs within the automotive sector (the largest user of PGMs) reflecting the rational response of firms to changing prices. The results from the model support previous conclusions that PGM use is likely to grow, in some cases strongly, by 2030 (approximately 45% for Pd and 5% for Pt), driven by the increasing sales of automobiles. The model also indicates that PGM-demand growth will be significantly influenced by the future Pt-to-Pd price ratio, with swings of Pt and Pd demand of as much as 25% if the future price ratio shifts higher or lower even if it stays within the historic range. Fortunately, automotive catalysts are one of the more effectively recycled metals. As such, with proper policy support, recycling can serve to meet some of this growing demand.

  8. A one-day couple group intervention to enhance sexual recovery for surgically treated men with prostate cancer and their partners: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Daniela; He, Chang; Mitchell, Staci; Wood, David P; Hola, Victor; Thelen-Perry, Steve; Montie, James E

    2013-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the acceptance and effectiveness of a group intervention that provided education about post-prostatectomy sexual recovery and peer support for couples. Couples valued the intervention and retained the information. Partners became accepting of erectile dysfunction and communicated more openly about upsetting topics.

  9. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Wadephul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their ‘normality’. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features.

  10. Managing Repetitive Behaviours in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Parent Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Victoria; Brett, Denise; Dixon, Linda; McConachie, Helen; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social-communication skills. We report the acceptability, feasibility and impact on child functioning of a new 8 weeks parent-group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD aged 3-7 years. Forty-five families took…

  11. Can a Targeted, Group-Based CBT Intervention Reduce Depression and Anxiety and Improve Self-Concept in Primary-Age Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Cunningham, Enda

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the impact of a 10 session, group-based, early-intervention cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme (Cool Connections) on anxiety, depression and self-concept in nine 8-11 year old pupils in Northern Ireland. The intervention was facilitated by a teacher, education welfare officer and two classroom assistants, with…

  12. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  13. Improving Executive Functions in 5- and 6-year-olds: Evaluation of a Small Group Intervention in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Marianne; Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patriza; Michel, Eva; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests a central role of executive functions for children's cognitive and social development during preschool years, especially in promoting school readiness. Interventions aiming to improve executive functions are therefore being called for. The present study examined the effect of a small group intervention implemented in kindergarten…

  14. Evaluation of a Two-Phase Implementation of a Tier-2 (Small Group) Reading Intervention for Young Low-Progress Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Jennifer; Wheldall, Kevin; Beaman-Wheldall, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    In a response to intervention (RtI) model, reading is taught in increasingly intensive tiers of instruction. The aim of the study was to examine the efficacy of a Tier-2 (small group) literacy intervention for young struggling readers. This article focuses on the second phase of a randomised control trial involving 14 students in kindergarten as…

  15. [Research on the impact of the intervention of sponsoring of the Groupe Les Relevailles.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, N; Paquet, G

    1985-01-01

    The socialization of women has set, for maternal instinct, norms based on standard role-models. When women are unable to conform to the expected role, difficulties arise. This study had two objectives. First, to evaluate the impact of a pairing-sponsorship program for women experiencing adaptation difficulties after childbirth. Volunteer sponsors are women who have experienced maternity and who agree to offer support to new mothers. Secondly, to identify the particular social characteristics of the clientele reached by a mutual help group called . The authors conducted structured interviews with thirteen client-beneficiaries and six volunteer-sponsors. Each interview took place at the participant's residence, and lasted an average of two hours. A clear improvement in the physical and psychological well-being of the beneficiaries was noted as a result of the support provided by the sponsors. Overall, we remarked a decrease of the guilt-feeling level and an increased feeling of ability and autonomy in one's mother's role. We also observed that the social and family network of the client-beneficiary was very weak. These mothers with young children live in great isolation, and they show a notable departure from the social representation of the perfect mother. Also, we noted that the practices and strategies of the encouraged the diffusion of a mother role-model which had an emancipating value for women; that is, a maternel role with behavior patterns that do not deny the other needs of women.

  16. An emergency department intervention to protect an overlooked group of children at risk of significant harm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kaye, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Parental psychiatric disorder, especially depression, personality disorder and deliberate self-harm, is known to put children at greater risk of mental illness, neglect or physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Without a reliable procedure to identify children of parents presenting with these mental health problems, children at high risk of significant harm can be easily overlooked. Although deliberate self-harm constitutes a significant proportion of emergency presentations, there are no guidelines which address the emergency physician\\'s role in identifying and assessing risk to children of these patients. METHODS: A robust system was jointly developed with the local social services child protection team to identify and risk-stratify children of parents with mental illness. This allows us to intervene when we identify children at immediate risk of harm and to ensure that social services are aware of potential risk to all children in this group. The referral process was audited repeatedly to refine the agreed protocol. RESULTS: The proportion of patients asked by the emergency department personnel about dependent children increased and the quality of information received by the social services child protection team improved. CONCLUSIONS: All emergency departments should acknowledge the inadequacy of information available to them regarding patients\\' children and consider a policy of referral to social services for all children of parents with mental health presentations. This process can only be developed through close liaison within the multidisciplinary child protection team.

  17. Effects of Group Drumming Interventions on Anxiety, Depression, Social Resilience and Inflammatory Immune Response among Mental Health Service Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Fancourt

    Full Text Available Growing numbers of mental health organizations are developing community music-making interventions for service users; however, to date there has been little research into their efficacy or mechanisms of effect. This study was an exploratory examination of whether 10 weeks of group drumming could improve depression, anxiety and social resilience among service users compared with a non-music control group (with participants allocated to group by geographical location. Significant improvements were found in the drumming group but not the control group: by week 6 there were decreases in depression (-2.14 SE 0.50 CI -3.16 to -1.11 and increases in social resilience (7.69 SE 2.00 CI 3.60 to 11.78, and by week 10 these had further improved (depression: -3.41 SE 0.62 CI -4.68 to -2.15; social resilience: 10.59 SE 1.78 CI 6.94 to 14.24 alongside significant improvements in anxiety (-2.21 SE 0.50 CI -3.24 to -1.19 and mental wellbeing (6.14 SE 0.92 CI 4.25 to 8.04. All significant changes were maintained at 3 months follow-up. Furthermore, it is now recognised that many mental health conditions are characterised by underlying inflammatory immune responses. Consequently, participants in the drumming group also provided saliva samples to test for cortisol and the cytokines interleukin (IL 4, IL6, IL17, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP 1. Across the 10 weeks there was a shift away from a pro-inflammatory towards an anti-inflammatory immune profile. Consequently, this study demonstrates the psychological benefits of group drumming and also suggests underlying biological effects, supporting its therapeutic potential for mental health.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01906892.

  18. Radial Velocity Prospects Current and Future: A White Paper Report prepared by the Study Analysis Group 8 for the Exoplanet Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG)

    CERN Document Server

    Plavchan, Peter; Gaudi, Scott; Crepp, Justin; Xavier, Dumusque; Furesz, Gabor; Vanderburg, Andrew; Blake, Cullen; Fischer, Debra; Prato, Lisa; White, Russel; Makarov, Valeri; Marcy, Geoff; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Haywood, Raphaëlle; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Anglada, Guillem; Muirhead, Philip

    2015-01-01

    [Abridged] The Study Analysis Group 8 of the NASA Exoplanet Analysis Group was convened to assess the current capabilities and the future potential of the precise radial velocity (PRV) method to advance the NASA goal to "search for planetary bodies and Earth-like planets in orbit around other stars.: (U.S. National Space Policy, June 28, 2010). PRVs complement other exoplanet detection methods, for example offering a direct path to obtaining the bulk density and thus the structure and composition of transiting exoplanets. Our analysis builds upon previous community input, including the ExoPlanet Community Report chapter on radial velocities in 2008, the 2010 Decadal Survey of Astronomy, the Penn State Precise Radial Velocities Workshop response to the Decadal Survey in 2010, and the NSF Portfolio Review in 2012. The radial-velocity detection of exoplanets is strongly endorsed by both the Astro 2010 Decadal Survey "New Worlds, New Horizons" and the NSF Portfolio Review, and the community has recommended robust...

  19. A group-mediated physical activity intervention in older knee osteoarthritis patients: effects on social cognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, Brian C; Garver, Matthew J; Lucas, Alexander R; Devor, Steven T; Emery, Charles F; Hackshaw, Kevin V; Fairman, Ciaran M; Bowman, Jessica; Rejeski, W Jack

    2017-01-20

    The objective of the present study was to compare a group-mediated cognitive behavioral (GMCB) physical activity intervention with traditional exercise therapy (TRAD) upon select social cognitive outcomes in sedentary knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) patients. A total of 80 patients (mean age = 63.5 years; 84% women) were recruited using clinic and community-based strategies to a 12-month, single-blind, two-arm, randomized controlled trial. Mobility-related self-efficacy, self-regulatory self-efficacy (SRSE), and satisfaction with physical function (SPF) were assessed at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Results of intent-to-treat 2 (Treatment: GMCB and TRAD) × 2 (Time: 3 and 12 month) analyses of covariance yielded significantly greater increases in SRSE and SPF (P physical activity and mobility at 3 and 12-months. The GMCB intervention yielded more favorable effects on important social cognitive outcomes than TRAD; these effects were related to improvements in physical activity and mobility.

  20. Staff's experiences of a person-centered health education group intervention for people with a persistent mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Brunt, David Arthur; Rask, Mikael; Bengtsson, Agneta; Svedberg, Petra

    2013-07-01

    Patient education in mental health care is a conventional intervention to increase patients' knowledge about their illness and treatment. A provider-centered focus in patient education may put patients in a passive role, which can counteract their processes of recovery. There is an increasing emphasis on recovery-oriented practice, an approach that is aligned with the service user perspective, but little is known about health care staff's perspectives on person-centered mental health care. A qualitative approach was used to describe staff's experiences of being group leaders in a person-centered health education intervention in municipal services for persons with a persistent mental illness. The analysis of staff experiences revealed three core categories: (1) implications of the division of responsibility among local authorities, (2) awareness of facilitating factors of growth, and (3) the meaning of dialogue. These formed the theme Preconditions for Person-Centered Care. Further research is required to explore larger economic, political, and social structures as backdrops to person-centered mental health care, from the perspective of service users, families, health professionals, and the community at large.

  1. Standard Care Quality Determines Treatment Outcomes in Control Groups of HAART-Adherence Intervention Studies: Implications for the Interpretation and Comparison of Intervention Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de M.; Viechtbauer, W.; Hospers, H.J.; Schaalma, H.P.; Kok, G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Clinical trials of behavioral interventions seek to enhance evidence-based health care. However, in case the quality of standard care provided to control conditions varies between studies and affects outcomes, intervention effects cannot be directly interpreted or compared. The objective

  2. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral...... theory based training (CBTr). Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT...... aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr...

  3. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students' reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement.

  4. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolderink, M; Smit, H.F.E.; Zanden, R.; Beecham, J; Knapp, M.; Paulus, A; Evers, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI), because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly

  5. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Intervention Program to Reduce Hypertension Prevalence Among Adults: Results of a Quasiexperimental Study With Control Group in the Region of Sousse, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Jihene; Maatoug, Jihene; Harrabi, Imed; Ben Fredj, Sihem; Dendana, Emna; Ghannem, Hassen

    2016-03-01

    High blood pressure is preventable and is directly related to lifestyle habits such as an unbalanced diet, low levels of physical activity, and tobacco use. This quasiexperimental study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year community intervention targeting healthy lifestyle promotion in reducing hypertension prevalence among adults. A quasiexperimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a 3-year intervention for healthy lifestyle that was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in a community of adults in the region of Sousse in Tunisia. The population study was randomly selected in both intervention and control groups at pre-assessment and post-assessment. After considering a type 1 error α of 5%, a type 2 error β of 20%, and a change in the prevalence of various risk factors of 6% between pre-intervention and post-intervention, the sample size was fixed to 2,000 adults in intervention and control areas. The intervention group was composed of 940 and 1,001 adults, and the control group was composed of 940 and 976, respectively, at pre-assessment and post-assessment. The prevalence of hypertension decreased in the intervention group globally from 37.3% to 33.7% but not significantly (p = 0.1). In the control group, this proportion increased from 31.1% to 33.4% without significant difference (p = 0.28). In the intervention group, after stratification for age, a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in the prevalence of hypertension was observed for participants younger than 40 years old: it decreased from 22.8% to 16.2%. In the control group, it increased from 14% to 15.4% (p = 0.52). In intervention group, a significant decrease of the hypertension from 31.4% to 26% (p = 0.03) was observed among nonobese participants after stratification for weight status. No significant change was observed in the control group. This study showed the feasibility and effectiveness of a community-based intervention to reduce the prevalence of hypertension in the context

  6. The future of the pharmaceutical sciences and graduate education: recommendations from the AACP Graduate Education Special Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Pong, Susanna; Gobburu, Jogarao; O'Barr, Stephen; Shah, Kumar; Huber, Jason; Weiner, Daniel

    2013-05-13

    Despite pharma's recent sea change in approach to drug discovery and development, U.S. pharmaceutical sciences graduate programs are currently maintaining traditional methods for master's and doctoral student education. The literature on graduate education in the biomedical sciences has long been advocating educating students to hone soft skills like communication and teamwork, in addition to maintaining excellent basic skills in research. However, recommendations to date have not taken into account the future trends in the pharmaceutical industry. The AACP Graduate Education Special Interest Group has completed a literature survey of the trends in the pharmaceutical industry and graduate education in order to determine whether our graduate programs are strategically positioned to prepare our graduates for successful careers in the next few decades. We recommend that our pharmaceutical sciences graduate programs take a proactive leadership role in meeting the needs of our future graduates and employers. Our graduate programs should bring to education the innovation and collaboration that our industry also requires to be successful and relevant in this century.

  7. RadioNet3 Study Group White Paper on: The Future Organisation and Coordination of Radio Astronomy in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, M A; Garrington, S T; Klöckner, H-R; van Langevelde, H; Mantovani, F; Russel, A; Schuster, K; Vermeulen, R C; Zensus, A

    2016-01-01

    The QueSERA Study Group (QSG) have been tasked by the RadioNet Board to produce a White Paper on the future organisation and coordination of radio astronomy in Europe. This White Paper describes the options discussed by the QSG, and our conclusions on how to move forward. We propose, that as a first step, RadioNet-work, be established as an entity that persists between EC contracts, and that takes responsibility for preparing or coordinating responses to EC opportunities specific to the field of radio astronomy research infrastructures. RadioNet-work should provide a safety net that ensures that cooperation and collaboration between the various radio astronomy partners in Europe is maintained with or without EC funding.

  8. A Pilot Study of a Peer-Group Lifestyle Intervention Enhanced With mHealth Technology and Social Media for Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Shevenell, Megan; Kinney, Elizabeth; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study examined the preliminary effectiveness of a peer-group lifestyle intervention enhanced with mobile health technology and social media for obese individuals with serious mental illness. Thirty-two participants with a body mass index of 30 or higher received a 24-week intervention designed to facilitate peer support for lifestyle change through experiential learning and use of wearable activity tracking devices, smartphone applications, and Facebook to reinforce physical activity, healthy eating, and group participation between sessions. The primary outcome was weight loss. Secondary measures included fitness and participants' perceptions of peer-group support. Most participants (72%) lost weight, including 28% achieving clinically significant weight loss, and 17% of participants showed clinically significant improvements in cardiovascular fitness. Weight loss was associated with perceived peer-group support. This evaluation demonstrated the preliminary effectiveness of a potentially scalable peer-group lifestyle intervention delivered in community mental health settings for obese individuals with serious mental illness.

  9. Resource-enhancing group intervention against depression at workplace: who benefits? A randomised controlled study with a 7-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Kirsi; Vuori, Jukka; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Mutanen, Pertti; Honkonen, Teija

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether participation in a structured resource-enhancing group intervention at work would act as primary prevention against depression. The authors analysed whether the intervention resulted in universal, selected or indicated prevention. A total of 566 persons participated in a prospective, within-organisation, randomly assigned field experimental study, which consisted of 34 workshops in 17 organisations. The participants filled in a questionnaire, were randomly assigned to either intervention (n=296) or comparison (n=324) groups and returned another questionnaire 7 months later. The intervention, lasting four half-day sessions, was delivered by trainers from occupational health services and human resources. The aim of the structured programme was to enhance participants' career management preparedness by strengthening self-efficacy and inoculation against setbacks. The comparison group received a literature package. The authors measured depressive symptoms using the short version of the Beck Depression Inventory. A high number of depressive symptoms (over 9 points) were used as a proxy for depression. At follow-up, the odds of depression were lower in the intervention group (OR=0.40, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.85) than in the comparison group when adjusted for baseline depressive symptoms, job strain and socio-demographics. In addition, the odds of depression among those with job strain (OR=0.15, 95% CI 0.03-0.81) at baseline were lower after the intervention. The intervention had no statistically significant effect on those with depressive symptoms (over 4 points) at baseline. The resource-enhancing group intervention appeared to be successful as universal and selective prevention of potential depression.

  10. Reducing substance involvement in college students: a three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial of a computer-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoff, Adriana de Oliveira; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of alcohol and other drug use is high among college students. Reducing their consumption will likely be beneficial for society as a whole. Computer and web-based interventions are promising for providing behaviorally based information. The present study compared the efficacy of three interventions (computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIc], non-computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIi], and screening only [control]) in college students in Curitiba, Brazil. A convenience sample of 458 students scored moderate and high risk on the ASSIST. They were then randomized into the three arms of the randomized controlled trial (ASSIST/MBIc, ASSIST/MBIi [interview], and assessment-only [control]) and assessed at baseline and 3 months later. The ASSIST involvement scores decreased at follow-up compared with baseline in the three groups, suggesting that any intervention is better than no intervention. For alcohol, the specific involvement scores decreased to a low level of risk in the three groups and the MBIc group showed a positive outcome compared with control, and the scores for each question were reduced in the two intervention groups compared to baseline. For tobacco, involvement scores decreased in the three groups, but they maintained moderate risk. For marijuana, a small positive effect was observed in the ASSIST/MBIi and control groups. The ASSIST/MBIc may be a good alternative to interview interventions because it is easy to administer, students frequently use such computer-based technologies, and individually tailored content can be delivered in the absence of a counselor.

  11. Making Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Policy Practice: Process Evaluation of a Group Randomized Controlled Intervention in Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Hutto, Brent; Saunders, Ruth P.; Moore, Justin B.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Pate, Russell R.; Beighle, Aaron; Freedman, Darcy

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the link between level of implementation and outcomes from an intervention to increase afterschool programs' (ASPs) achievement of healthy eating and physical activity (HE-PA) Standards. Ten intervention ASPs implemented the Strategies-To-Enhance-Practice (STEPs), a multi-component, adaptive intervention framework identifying…

  12. Making Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Policy Practice: Process Evaluation of a Group Randomized Controlled Intervention in Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Hutto, Brent; Saunders, Ruth P.; Moore, Justin B.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Pate, Russell R.; Beighle, Aaron; Freedman, Darcy

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the link between level of implementation and outcomes from an intervention to increase afterschool programs' (ASPs) achievement of healthy eating and physical activity (HE-PA) Standards. Ten intervention ASPs implemented the Strategies-To-Enhance-Practice (STEPs), a multi-component, adaptive intervention framework identifying…

  13. Nursing care intervention in group vaccination of military cadets%军校学员群体预防接种的护理干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永玲

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查系统护理干预在军校学员群体预防接种的方法和作用.方法 将实施预防接种系统护理干预前后的1 800名学员分为两组:未干预组(875人)和干预组(925人),比较接种效果.结果 通过系统护理干预,学员接种后的不良反应明显减少.结论 护理干预可显著提高学员群体预防接种的安全性和接种效果.%OBJECTIVE To investigate methods and role of systematic nursing care intervention in group vaccination of military cadets.METHODS Based on the systematic nursing care intervention of the immunization,1 800 military cadets were divided into non-intervention group (875 people) and intervention group (925 People) and compared vaccination effect.RESULTS After the systematic nursing care intervention of vaccination,side effect of vaccination reduced obviously.CONCLUSION Nursing care intervention can improve the safety of group vaccination and the effect of vaccination obviously.

  14. An expressive therapy group disclosure intervention for women living with HIV improves social support, self-efficacy, and the safety and quality of relationships: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, Edward L; Lavin, Sonja M; Hilliard, Starr; Jones, Rhodessa; Haberer, Jessica E; Capito, Kristen; Dawson-Rose, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLHIV) face high rates of morbidity and mortality. HIV disclosure interventions have been identified as a promising but under-evaluated approach for WLHIV to improve their health and well-being. The Medea Project is an expressive therapy group intervention that was first developed to help incarcerated women develop the confidence and skills to tell their stories publicly in theatrical performances. The intervention was subsequently adapted as a community-based disclosure intervention for WLHIV. Our study describes an analysis of the impact of the Medea Project on the lives of the WLHIV who participated. All participating WLHIV publicly disclosed their HIV status during the performances. Five impact themes emerged from the data: sisterhood, catharsis, self-acceptance, safer and healthier relationships, and gaining a voice. Our study identifies a voluntary, effective, and broadly beneficial disclosure intervention for women living with HIV.

  15. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  16. Comparative Effects of Mindfulness and Support and Information Group Interventions for Parents of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsky, Yona; Hastings, Richard P.; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Palucka, Anna M.; Hutton, Sue; White, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated two community based interventions for parents of adults with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities. Parents in the mindfulness group reported significant reductions in psychological distress, while parents in the support and information group did not. Reduced levels of distress in the mindfulness group…

  17. The effect of oppressed group behaviours on the culture of the nursing workplace: a review of the evidence and interventions for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Susan J O; Demarco, Rosanna; Griffin, Martha

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to review the current literature on oppressed group behaviours in nursing, with emphasis on interventions to change the behaviours, and on instruments that have been developed to measure it. Oppressed group behaviours have been described in nurses for over two decades and their presence has been related to decreased nurse self-advocacy, and other negative aspects of the nursing workplace. Systematic review of the literature on oppressed group behaviour in nursing. Oppressed group behaviours are frequently found in nurses. Interventions have been created and tested to decrease oppressed group behaviours. Oppressed group behaviours are frequently found in nurses. Interventions exist that can decrease oppressed group behaviours and the decrease is related to increased work force performance, satisfaction and retention of nurses in the workplace. Nurse Managers can improve the workplace by measuring oppressed group behaviours and utilizing interventions to break the cycle of oppression in the workplace culture. Utilizing these innovations improve the workplace culture for nursing.

  18. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  19. Variation in Response to Evidence-Based Group Preventive Intervention for Disruptive Behavior Problems: A View from 938 Coping Power Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Dishion, Thomas J; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Powell, Nicole P; Qu, Lixin

    2017-01-05

    Prior research suggests that under some conditions, interventions that aggregate high-risk youth may be less effective, or at worse, iatrogenic. However, group formats have considerable practical utility for delivery of preventive interventions, and thus it is crucial to understand child and therapist factors that predict which aggressive children can profit from group intervention and which do not. To address these questions we video-recorded group Coping Power intervention sessions (938 sessions), coded both leader and participant behavior, and analyzed both leader and children's behaviors in the sessions that predicted changes in teacher and parent, reports of problem behavior at 1-year follow up. The sample included 180 high-risk children (69% male) who received intervention in 30 separate Coping Power intervention groups (six children assigned per group). The evidence-based Coping Power prevention program consists of 32 sessions delivered during the 4th and 5th grade years; only the child component was used in this study. The behavioral coding system used in the analyses included two clusters of behaviors for children (positive; negative) and two for the primary group leaders (group management; clinical skills). Growth spline models suggest that high levels of children's negative behaviors predicted increases in teacher and parent rated aggressive and conduct problem behaviors during the follow-up period in the three of the four models. Therapist use of clinical skills (e.g., warmth, nonreactive) predicted less increase in children's teacher-rated conduct problems. These findings suggest the importance of clinical training in the effective delivery of evidence-based practices, particularly when working with high-risk youth in groups.

  20. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients

  1. The impact of culturally competent diabetes care interventions for improving diabetes-related outcomes in ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, P; Sandhu, H K; Cannaby, A M; Sturt, J A

    2012-10-01

    To examine the evidence on culturally competent interventions tailored to the needs of people with diabetes from ethnic minority groups. MEDLINE (NHS Evidence), CINAHL and reference lists of retrieved papers were searched from inception to September 2011; two National Health Service specialist libraries were also searched. Google, Cochrane and DARE databases were interrogated and experts consulted. Studies were included if they reported primary research on the impact of culturally competent interventions on outcome measures of any ethnic minority group with diabetes. Paper selection and appraisal were conducted independently by two reviewers. The heterogeneity of the studies required narrative analysis. A novel culturally competent assessment tool was used to systematically assess the cultural competency of each intervention. Three hundred and twenty papers were retrieved and 11 included. Study designs varied with a diverse range of service providers. Of the interventions, 64% were found to be highly culturally competent (scoring 90-100%) and 36% moderately culturally competent (70-89%). Data were collected from 2616 participants on 22 patient-reported outcome measures. A consistent finding from 10 of the studies was that any structured intervention, tailored to ethnic minority groups by integrating elements of culture, language, religion and health literacy skills, produced a positive impact on a range of patient-important outcomes. Benefits in using culturally competent interventions with ethnic minority groups with diabetes were identified. The majority of interventions described as culturally competent were confirmed as so, when assessed using the culturally competent assessment tool. Further good quality research is required to determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of culturally competent interventions to influence diabetes service commissioners. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  2. Dose to patients and professionals in cardiology interventional: Progress of multicenter group Doccaci; Dosis a pacientes y a profesionales en cardiologia intervencionista: Avances del grupo multicentrico DOCCACI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R. M.; Vano, E.; Fernandez, J. M.; Goicolea Ruigomez, J.; Pifarre, X.; Escaned, J.; Rovira, J. J.; Garcia del Blanco, B.; Carrera, F.; Diaz, J. F.; Ordiales, J. M.; Nogales, J. M.; Hernandez, J.; Bosa, F.; Rosales, F.; Saez, J. R.; Soler, M. M.; Romero, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    The multidisciplinary group and multicenter DOCCACI (dosimetry and quality assurance in interventional cardiology), sponsored by the section of haemodynamics of the Spanish society of Cardiology, is intended to propose reference levels to doses received by patients in interventional cardiology procedures such as recommended by the International Commission on radiological protection It also investigates the doses received by professionals, in particular dose in Crystallyne whose recommended limit dose has been reduced recently from 150 to 20 mSv/year. (Author)

  3. The DISC (Diabetes in Social Context Study-evaluation of a culturally sensitive social network intervention for diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissenberg Charlotte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups, diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups have less favourable metabolic control and experience more diabetes-related complications. They encounter specific barriers that hinder optimal diabetes self-management, including a lack of social support and other psychosocial mechanisms in their immediate social environments. Powerful Together with Diabetes is a culturally sensitive social network intervention specifically targeted to ethnic Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups. For ten months, patients will participate in peer support groups in which they will share experiences, support each other in maintaining healthy lifestyles, and learn skills to resist social pressure. At the same time, their significant others will also receive an intervention, aimed at maximizing support for and minimizing the negative social influences on diabetes self-management. This study aims to test the effectiveness of Powerful Together with Diabetes. Methods/Design We will use a quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (Group 1 and two comparison groups (Groups 2 and 3, N = 128 in each group. Group 1 will receive Powerful Together with Diabetes. Group 2 will receive Know your Sugar, a six-week group intervention that does not focus on the participants' social environments. Group 3 receives standard care only. Participants in Groups 1 and 2 will be interviewed and physically examined at baseline, 3, 10, and 16 months. We will compare their haemoglobin A1C levels with the haemoglobin A1C levels of Group 3. Main outcome measures are haemoglobin A1C, diabetes-related quality of life, diabetes self-management, health-related, and intermediate outcome measures. We will conduct a process evaluation and a qualitative study to gain more insights into the intervention fidelity, feasibility, and changes in the psychosocial mechanism in the

  4. An intervention analysis on the relationship between futures prices of non-GM and GM contract soybeans in China

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    China adopted a mandatory labeling policy of Genetically Modified (GM) food products in 2002. The strategy of separating trading was intended by Chinese regulators to protect domestic non-GMO production, provide non-GM soybean growers a higher selling price, and facilitate marketing. On December 22, 2004, the Dalian Commodity Exchange (DCE) introduced a separate futures contract for No. 2 soybeans, which includes GM soybeans. With this change, the No. 1 soybean futures contract defaulted to a...

  5. Reconstructing masculinity? A qualitative evaluation of the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures interventions in urban informal settlements in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Willan, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows the importance of working with men to reduce intimate partner violence and HIV-risk. Two claims dominate this work. The first is that interventions 'reconstruct' masculinities--these new formations of masculinity exist in opposition to existing ones and are healthier for men and less harmful for women. The second is that to be successful, such interventions need to address men's exclusion from the economy. Using a qualitative longitudinal cohort study of young men who participated in a gender transformative and livelihood strengthening intervention, as well as dyadic interviews with men's main female partners, we explore these claims. Data suggests men saw some improvements in livelihoods and relationships. However, challenging social contexts, including high rates of unemployment, peer networks and a dominant youth masculinity, limited change. Rather than reconstructing masculinity, a more subtle shift was seen with men moving away from 'harmful' aspects of a dominant youth masculinity towards a form of masculinity whereby male power is buttressed by economic provision and attempting to form and support 'households'. Working with men on their livelihoods at an instrumental level encouraged participation in the intervention. Beyond encouragement, men's improving livelihoods afforded men the opportunity to materially demonstrate the social changes - in the form of shifts in masculinity--they were seeking to enact.

  6. Effectiveness of a biopsychosocial e-learning intervention on the clinical judgements of medical students and GP trainees regarding future risk of disability in patients with chronic lower back pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Christopher P; MacNeela, Pádraig; Reynolds, Bronagh; Hamm, Robert M; Main, Christopher J; O'Connor, Laura L; Conneely, Sinéad; Taheny, Darragh; Slattery, Brian W; O'Neill, Ciaran; NicGabhainn, Saoirse; Murphy, Andrew W; Kropmans, Thomas; McGuire, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic lower back pain (CLBP) is a major healthcare problem with wide ranging effects. It is a priority for appropriate management of CLBP to get individuals back to work as early as possible. Interventions that identify biopsychosocial barriers to recovery have been observed to lead to successfully reduced pain-related work absences and increased return to work for individuals with CLBP. Modern conceptualisations of pain adopt a biopsychosocial approach, such as the flags approach. Biopsychosocial perspectives have been applied to judgements about future adjustment, recovery from pain and risk of long-term disability; and provide a helpful model for understanding the importance of contextual interactions between psychosocial and biological variables in the experience of pain. Medical students and general practitioner (GP) trainees are important groups to target with education about biopsychosocial conceptualisations of pain and related clinical implications. Aim The current study will compare the effects of an e-learning intervention that focuses on a biopsychosocial model of pain, on the clinical judgements of medical students and trainees. Methods and analysis Medical student and GP trainee participants will be randomised to 1 of 2 study conditions: (1) a 20 min e-learning intervention focused on the fundamentals of the flags approach to clinical judgement-making regarding risk of future pain-related disability; compared with a (2) wait-list control group on judgement accuracy and weighting (ie, primary outcomes); flags approach knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards pain, judgement speed and empathy (ie, secondary outcomes). Participants will be assessed at preintervention and postintervention. Ethics and dissemination The study will be performed in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki and is approved by the National University of Ireland Galway Research Ethics Committee. The results of the trial will be published according to the

  7. Clinical outcomes of an early intervention program for preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a community group setting

    OpenAIRE

    Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Background Available evidence indicates that early intervention programs, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively affect key outcomes for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, programs involving resource intensive one-to-one clinical intervention are not readily available or deliverable in the community, resulting in many children with ASD missing out on evidence-based intervention during their early and most critical preschool years. This study evaluated ...

  8. Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Koth, Christine W; Thornton, Leslie A; Leaf, Philip J

    2009-06-01

    Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a universal, school-wide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 7,500 schools to reduce disruptive behavior problems. The present study examines the impact of PBIS on staff reports of school organizational health using data from a group-randomized controlled effectiveness trial of PBIS conducted in 37 elementary schools. Longitudinal multilevel analyses on data from 2,596 staff revealed a significant effect of PBIS on the schools' overall organizational health, resource influence, staff affiliation, and academic emphasis over the 5-year trial; the effects on collegial leadership and institutional integrity were significant when implementation fidelity was included in the model. Trained schools that adopted PBIS the fastest tended to have higher levels of organizational health at baseline, but the later-implementing schools tended to experience the greatest improvements in organizational health after implementing PBIS. This study indicated that changes in school organizational health are important consequences of the PBIS whole-school prevention model, and may in turn be a potential contextual mediator of the effect of PBIS on student performance.

  9. The Plate Model: a visual method of teaching meal planning. DAIS Project Group. Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelon, K M; Hådell, K; Jämsén, P T; Ketonen, K J; Kohtamäki, H M; Mäkimatilla, S; Törmälä, M L; Valve, R H

    1998-10-01

    Dietitians from Canada, Finland, France, and Sweden have explored methods of teaching meal planning to persons with diabetes and dyslipidemia in the Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study. The Plate Model, a method commonly used in Europe, is a simple alternative to the traditional exchange-based method for teaching meal planning. In this visual method, a dinner plate serves as a pie chart to show proportions of the plate that should be covered by various food groups. Portions of foods and appropriate food choices can be depicted for meals and snacks in assorted forms of the model. Methods of presenting the model range from professional photography to hand-drawn sketches and displays of food replicas. Benefits of the model for adult learners include enhancement of the connection between dietary theory and practice, promotion of memory retention and understanding through visual messages, and experience of a positive approach to nutrition counseling. Various cuisines and festive foods can be incorporated into the model. The Plate Model offers a meal planning approach that is simple and versatile. The effectiveness of the model and its applications to other populations need to be evaluated.

  10. [The model of Human Caring: results of a pre- and post-intervention study with a control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Piercarlo; Pellegrini, Walter; Masera, Giuliana; Berchialla, Paola; Dal Molin, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The "Human Caring" model is a philosophy of care based on individual centrality and which, although developed within nursing discipline, could be used by all professionals who take care of individuals. Nurses who work within the field of Mental Health, is subjected to a considerable emotional burden and it is believed that the introduction of this model can have a positive impact. To evaluate the effects of the introduction of the model Human Caring in the Department of Mental Health Asl Cuneo 1, in order to improve health care professionals' well-being and patients' perception with respect to care and assistance. A pre and post intervention design approach with control group where variables were measured before (T0) and after (T1) the implementation of the model of care Human Caring. 80 health care professionals and 125 clients were observed. Results show a non statistically significant difference between the pre and post test both for health care professionals and clients. Human Caring model does not seem to have a positive impact in the short term. However, it is arguably a protective action for health care professionals that further studies should deeply explore with longer period of follow-up.

  11. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tanya B; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K

    2015-11-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study's qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants' narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention.

  12. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tanya B.; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J.; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study’s qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants’ narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention. PMID:26554330

  13. Factors Influencing Uptake of Rapid HIV and Hepatitis C Screening Among Drug Misusing Adult Emergency Department Patients: Implications for Future HIV/HCV Screening Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Roland C; DeLong, Allison K; Liu, Tao; Baird, Janette R

    2015-11-01

    In this randomized, controlled trial among 957 English- or Spanish-speaking drug misusing adult emergency department (ED) patients, we determined if a tailored brief intervention (BI) increased uptake of rapid HIV/HCV screening, and identified factors associated with greater screening uptake. Rapid HIV/HCV screening uptake was greater in the control than the BI arm (45 vs. 38 %; p Screening uptake depended on elapsed study time and which research staff member offered testing. In the control arm, uptake was lowest for those spending screening uptake generally increased over time. Tailored BI content specifically addressing participant HIV/HCV knowledge, HIV/HCV risk behaviors, or need for HIV/HCV screening was not associated with greater screening uptake. These study findings suggested factors that should be considered when designing future ED-based screening initiatives, such as elapsed study time, who offers testing, and the content of interventions.

  14. Effectiveness of a Group-Based Culturally Tailored Lifestyle Intervention Program on Changes in Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes among Asian Indians in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupal M. Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group repeated measures design to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention program to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM among Gujarati Asian Indians (AIs in an urban community in the US. Participants included 70 adult AIs in the greater Houston metropolitan area. The primary outcomes were reduction in weight and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and improvement in physical activity. Participants were screened for risk factors and randomly assigned to a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention program (n=34 or a control group (n=36 that received standard print material on diabetes prevention. Participants also completed clinical measures and self-reported questionnaires about physical activity, social, and lifestyle habits at 0, 3, and 6 months. No significant baseline differences were noted between groups. While a significant decline in weight and increase in physical activity was observed in all participants, the intervention group lowered their HbA1c (p<0.0005 and waist circumference (p=0.04 significantly as compared to the control group. Findings demonstrated that participation in a culturally tailored, lifestyle intervention program in a community setting can effectively reduce weight, waist circumference, and HbA1c among Gujarati AIs living in the US.

  15. Evaluation of a two-phase experimental study of a small group (“MultiLit” reading intervention for older low-progress readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Buckingham

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reported here examined the efficacy of a small group (Tier 2 in a three-tier Response to Intervention model literacy intervention for older low-progress readers (in Years 3–6. This article focuses on the second phase of a two-phase, crossover randomized control trial involving 26 students. In Phase 1, the experimental group (E1 received the 1 h literacy intervention daily for three school terms. The control group received regular classroom instruction. In Phase 2, the original control group received the intervention (E2. At the end of Phase 1, there was a statistically significant difference between groups and a large treatment effect on one of five measures—the Martin and Pratt Non-word Reading Test of phonological recoding. At the end of Phase 2, the large effect on phonological recoding was confirmed for the second experimental group, and there were also statistically significant differences with moderate or large effect sizes on four other measures—single word reading, fluency, passage reading accuracy, and comprehension.

  16. Lifestyle Intervention for Weight Loss: a group-based program for Emiratis in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiya A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amena Sadiya,1,* Sarah Abdi,1,* Salah Abusnana2 1Lifestyle Clinic, 2Research and Education Department, Rashid Center for Diabetes and Research, Ajman, United Arab Emirates *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Lifestyle Intervention for Weight Loss (LIFE-8 is developed as a structured, group-based weight management program for Emiratis with obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is a 3-month program followed by a 1-year follow-up. The results from the first 2 years are presented here to indicate the possibility of its further adaptation and implementation in this region. Methodology: We recruited 45 participants with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The LIFE-8 program was executed by incorporating dietary modification, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, aiming to achieve up to 5% weight loss. The outcomes included body weight, fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and nutritional knowledge at 3 months and 12 months. Results: We observed a reduction of 5.0% in body weight (4.8±2.8 kg; 95% CI 3.7–5.8, fat mass (–7.8%, P<0.01, and waist circumference (Δ=4±4 cm, P<0.01 in the completed participants (n=28. An improvement (P<0.05 in HbA1c (7.1%±1.0% vs 6.6%±0.7% and FBG (8.2±2.0 mmol/L vs 6.8±0.8 mmol/L was observed in participants with obesity and type 2 diabetes after the program. Increase in nutritional knowledge (<0.01 and overall evaluation of the program (9/10 was favorable. On 1-year follow-up, we found that the participants could sustain weight loss (–4.0%, while obese, type 2 diabetic participants sustained HbA1c (6.6%±0.7% vs 6.4%±0.7% and further improved (P<0.05 the level of FBG (6.8±0.8 mmol/L vs 6.7±0.4 mmol/L. Conclusion: LIFE-8 could be an effective, affordable, acceptable, and adaptable lifestyle intervention program for the prevention and management of diabetes in Emiratis. It was successful not

  17. The potential of technology-based psychological interventions for anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a systematic review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegl, Sandra; Bürger, Carolina; Schmidt, Luise; Herbst, Nirmal; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2015-03-31

    Previous studies have shown an unmet need in the treatment of eating disorders. In the last decade, interest in technology-based interventions (TBIs) (including computer- and Internet-based interventions [CBIs] or mobile interventions) for providing evidence-based therapies to individuals with different mental disorders has increased. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the potential of TBIs in the field of eating disorders, namely for anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), for both prevention and treatment, and also for carers of eating disorder patients. A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline and PsycINFO. Bibliographies of retrieved articles were also reviewed without date or study type restrictions. Forty studies resulting in 45 publications reporting outcomes fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 22 randomized controlled trials, 2 controlled studies, and 16 uncontrolled studies. In total, 3646 patients were included. Overall, the studies provided evidence for the efficacy of guided CBIs, especially for BN patients and for compliant patients. Furthermore, videoconferencing also appeared to be a promising approach. Evaluation results of Internet-based prevention of eating disorders and Internet-based programs for carers of eating disorder patients were also encouraging. Finally, there was preliminary evidence for the efficacy of mobile interventions. TBIs may be an additional way of delivering evidence-based treatments to eating disorder patients and their use is likely to increase in the near future. TBIs may also be considered for the prevention of eating disorders and to support carers of eating disorder patients. Areas of future research and important issues such as guidance, therapeutic alliance, and dissemination are discussed.

  18. The Potential of Technology-Based Psychological Interventions for Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Carolina; Schmidt, Luise; Herbst, Nirmal; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an unmet need in the treatment of eating disorders. In the last decade, interest in technology-based interventions (TBIs) (including computer- and Internet-based interventions [CBIs] or mobile interventions) for providing evidence-based therapies to individuals with different mental disorders has increased. Objective The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the potential of TBIs in the field of eating disorders, namely for anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), for both prevention and treatment, and also for carers of eating disorder patients. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline and PsycINFO. Bibliographies of retrieved articles were also reviewed without date or study type restrictions. Results Forty studies resulting in 45 publications reporting outcomes fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 22 randomized controlled trials, 2 controlled studies, and 16 uncontrolled studies. In total, 3646 patients were included. Overall, the studies provided evidence for the efficacy of guided CBIs, especially for BN patients and for compliant patients. Furthermore, videoconferencing also appeared to be a promising approach. Evaluation results of Internet-based prevention of eating disorders and Internet-based programs for carers of eating disorder patients were also encouraging. Finally, there was preliminary evidence for the efficacy of mobile interventions. Conclusions TBIs may be an additional way of delivering evidence-based treatments to eating disorder patients and their use is likely to increase in the near future. TBIs may also be considered for the prevention of eating disorders and to support carers of eating disorder patients. Areas of future research and important issues such as guidance, therapeutic alliance, and dissemination are discussed. PMID:25840591

  19. Internet Based Interventions for Traumatic Stress-Related Mental Health Problems: A Review and Suggestion for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Broman-Fulks, Joshua; Zinzow, Heidi; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Cercone, Jen

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to potentially traumatic events is a common occurrence. Most individuals exposed to such an event are resilient or recover rapidly, although some individuals develop psychological problems that warrant treatment. However, a small percentage of individuals seek traditional treatment, thereby calling for novel approaches or methodologies of treatment. The present paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of the extant literature on computerized and internet-based-interventions...

  20. The fluoro-less and contrast-less peripheral endovascular intervention: a concept for the future today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ephrem, Georges, E-mail: g.ephrem@gmail.com; Lau, Joe F.; Meraj, Perwaiz M.

    2015-07-15

    Introduction: Percutaneous endovascular revascularization requires fluoroscopic guidance and radiopaque contrast use. This approach becomes problematic, especially in patients with advanced renal disease or allergies to iodinated contrast medium. The direct (exposure) and indirect (lead garment) burden of radiation affects patients and operators alike. Purpose: We propose a completely contrast-free, fluoroscopy-free approach to endovascular diagnostic arterial imaging and percutaneous intervention using available technologies, and outline a timeframe for its implementation. Project Description/Methodology: Ultrasound imaging of the leg creates a roadmap of the vessel and identifies the lesion of interest. Device-based sensors using a low-powered electromagnetic field allow for wiring of the vessel. This is followed by the use of intravascular ultrasonography and near infrared spectroscopy to characterize the lesion dimensions and composition. After completion of the diagnostic phase of the process, the interventional portion with deployment of an angioplasty balloon and/or stent is performed using the electromagnetic field-guided sensors. Feasibility: The project uses already available technologies. Benefits/Anticipated Outcomes: This project demonstrates the real potential of performing endovascular peripheral intervention without fluoroscopy or contrast in a practical, user-friendly way with the currently available technology. The prospects in renal function preservation and radiation avoidance for both patients and operators are extremely attractive. - Highlights: • We propose an endovascular peripheral intervention without fluoroscopy or contrast. • It is based on ultrasound, electromagnetic sensors, and near infrared spectroscopy. • The method is practical and uses available technology. • The prospects in renal function preservation and radiation avoidance are excellent.

  1. Do Postoperative Psychotherapeutic Interventions and Support Groups Influence Weight Loss Following Bariatric Surgery? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized and Nonrandomized Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Nina N.; Johannsen, Maja; Støvring, René K.

    2012-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently considered the most effective treatment of severe obesity, but considerable individual variations in weight loss results have been reported. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating the effect of psychotherapeutic...... interventions and support groups on weight loss following bariatric surgery. A literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed and PsycINFO, identifying nine eligible studies reporting results of the effect of psychotherapeutic interventions and support groups on weight loss following bariatric surgery...

  2. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi;

    2010-01-01

    A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high...... physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high...... physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence....

  3. Consensus document on the radial approach in percutaneous cardiovascular interventions: position paper by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions and Working Groups on Acute Cardiac Care** and Thrombosis of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Martial; Pristipino, Christian; Di Mario, Carlo; Nolan, James; Ludwig, Josef; Tubaro, Marco; Sabate, Manel; Mauri-Ferré, Josepa; Huber, Kurt; Niemelä, Kari; Haude, Michael; Wijns, William; Dudek, Dariusz; Fajadet, Jean; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand

    2013-03-01

    Radial access use has been growing steadily but, despite encouraging results, still varies greatly among operators, hospitals, countries and continents. Twenty years from its introduction, it was felt that the time had come to develop a common evidence-based view on the technical, clinical and organisational implications of using the radial approach for coronary angiography and interventions. The European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) has, therefore, appointed a core group of European and non-European experts, including pioneers of radial angioplasty and operators with different practices in vascular access supported by experts nominated by the Working Groups on Acute Cardiac Care and Thrombosis of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Their goal was to define the role of the radial approach in modern interventional practice and give advice on technique, training needs, and optimal clinical indications.

  4. Cognitive behavioral group intervention for pain and well-being in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a study of feasibility and preliminary efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Johanne Jeppesen; Thastum, Mikael; Christensen, Anne Estmann

    2015-01-01

    % of the invited families participated. However, the participants rated the intervention's credibility and satisfaction with the intervention as high. The dropout rate was low and attendance rate high. Increased quality of life and improvements in adaptive pain cognitions was reported in the intervention condition...... and their parents were allocated to six sessions' group cognitive-behavioral therapy (n = 9) or a waitlist control condition (n = 10). Results were measured from self-reported scales and one-week pain diaries. Clinical data was collected by a rheumatologist. RESULTS: The participation rate was low; 33...... the severity of the disease status increased, an increase in quality of life, reduction in pain catastrophizing, and an improvement in adaptive pain cognitions (the beliefs in controlling pain and self-efficacy) were seen in the intervention condition. The study highlights the importance of considering...

  5. Reductions in alcohol and cocaine use following a group coping intervention for HIV-positive adults with childhood sexual abuse histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Drabkin, Anya S; Hansen, Nathan B; Wilson, Patrick A; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2010-11-01

    Few interventions exist to reduce alcohol and non-injection drug use among people living with HIV/AIDS. This study tested the effects of a coping group intervention for HIV-positive adults with childhood sexual abuse histories on alcohol, cocaine and marijuana use. Participants were assigned randomly to the experimental coping group or a time-matched comparison support group. Both interventions were delivered in a group format over 15 weekly 90-minute sessions. A diverse sample of 247 HIV-positive men and women with childhood sexual abuse were recruited from AIDS service organizations and community health centers in New York City. Substance use was assessed pre- and post-intervention and every 4 months during a 12-month follow-up period. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, longitudinal changes in substance use by condition were assessed using generalized estimating equations. At baseline, 42% of participants drank alcohol, 26% used cocaine and 26% used marijuana. Relative to participants in the support group, those in the coping group had greater reductions in quantity of alcohol use (Wald χ²(₄)=10.77, P = 0.029) and any cocaine use (Wald χ²(₄) = 9.81, P = 0.044) overtime. Many HIV patients, particularly those with childhood sexual abuse histories, continue to abuse substances. This group intervention that addressed coping with HIV and sexual trauma was effective in reducing alcohol and cocaine use, with effects sustained at 12-month follow-up. Integrating mental health treatment into HIV prevention may improve outcomes. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Outcome of Home-Based Early Intervention for Autism in Sri Lanka: Follow-Up of a Cohort and Comparison with a Nonintervention Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemamali Perera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the outcome of a home-based autism intervention program (HBAIP in 18- to 40-month-old children newly diagnosed and treatment naïve. Intervention was exclusively implemented at home. Outcome was measured at 3 months and 6 months after intervention and compared with a group of newly diagnosed children with autism who were >40 months at intake but had not received any autism specific clinical management. Aim was also to estimate whether natural development would contribute to gain in skills and compare with the effect of intervention. Five selected parameters of behavior representing social interaction and social communication were used to assess outcome. Results showed a statistically significant improvement between preintervention and postintervention in all the measured parameters. The effect size was large when compared to preintervention and gains were indicated by changes in mean scores and p values within a narrow confidence interval. Highest gains were in first 3 months of postintervention which continued up to 6 months. Although the comparison group was more advanced in the measured skills at intake, they were significantly below the level reached by experimental group at 3 months and 6 months after intervention. This study was registered in the Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry (SLCTR/2009/011.

  7. Group Work for Bulimia: A Review of Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews descriptive and experimental research relating to the eating disorder known as bulimia nervosa. Reviews outcome studies of group treatment of bulimia to examine the effectiveness of group intervention. Provides recommendations for practice and future research. (Author/PVV)

  8. Group Work for Bulimia: A Review of Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews descriptive and experimental research relating to the eating disorder known as bulimia nervosa. Reviews outcome studies of group treatment of bulimia to examine the effectiveness of group intervention. Provides recommendations for practice and future research. (Author/PVV)

  9. The impact of vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension ability of Iranian English learners receiving reciprocal teaching and cooperative grouping intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemeh Kharaghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension ability of Iranian English language learners receiving reciprocal teaching and cooperative grouping intervention program. To this aim, 80 students participated in the vocabulary test as the pre-test and they were asked to fill out the questionnaire. Then, they were distributed in four groups. Control groups (A & B received the typical instruction of reading comprehension. On the other hand, experimental groups (A & B received the intervention program. At the end of the course, all the students took part in the vocabulary test as the post-test and they were also asked to fill out the questionnaire provided for them after the post-test. The results were analyzed by the use of a series of independent –sample t-tests and MANOVA. It was found out there was relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the level of motivation in reading comprehension skill of Iranian EFL learner.

  10. Reducing children's aggressive and oppositional behaviors in the schools: Preliminary results on the effectiveness of a social-cognitive group intervention program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); C.M.G. Meesters (Cor); M. Vincken (Manon); A. Eijkelenboom (Anneke)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the effects of a social-cognitive group intervention program for children with oppositional and aggressive behaviors. Forty-two children aged between 9 and 12 years who clearly displayed behavior problems at school were treated with this program. A cross-over design

  11. Moderators of the efficacy of a psychosocial group intervention for children with chronic illness and their parents: what works for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, L.; Willemen, A.M.; Napoleone, E.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Last, B.F.; Dijk-Lokkart, E.M. van; Zandbelt, N.; Ensink, E.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate psychosocial characteristics of children and parents as predictors and moderators of the effect of a group intervention for children with chronic illness and their parents. METHODS: Data from a randomized controlled trial were used, including 194 children (8-18 years) who

  12. Effectiveness of a group-based intervention to change medication beliefs and improve medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwikker, H.E.; Ende, C.H. van den; Lankveld, W.G. van; Broeder, A.A. den; Hoogen, F.H. van den; Mosselaar, B. van de; Dulmen, S. van; Bemt, B.J. van den

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of a group-based intervention on the balance between necessity beliefs and concern beliefs about medication and on medication non-adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Non-adherent RA patients using disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMAR

  13. Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV Positive Men and Women Coping with AIDS-Related Loss and Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Tate, David C.; DiFranceisco, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention…

  14. School-based mindfulness intervention for stress reduction in adolescents: Design and methodology of an open-label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette M. Johnstone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are in a high-risk period developmentally, in terms of susceptibility to stress. A mindfulness intervention represents a potentially useful strategy for developing cognitive and emotion regulation skills associated with successful stress coping. Mindfulness strategies have been used successfully for emotional coping in adults, but are not as well studied in youth. This article details a novel proposal for the design of an 8-week randomized study to evaluate a high school-based mindfulness curriculum delivered as part of a two semester health class. A wellness education intervention is proposed as an active control, along with a waitlist control condition. All students enrolled in a sophomore (10th grade health class at a private suburban high school will be invited to participate (n = 300. Pre-test assessments will be obtained by youth report, parent ratings, and on-site behavioral testing. The assessments will evaluate baseline stress, mood, emotional coping, controlled attention, and working memory. Participants, divided into 13 classrooms, will be randomized into one of three conditions, by classroom: A mindfulness intervention, an active control (wellness education, and a passive control (waitlist. Waitlisted participants will receive one of the interventions in the following term. Intervention groups will meet weekly for 8 weeks during regularly scheduled health classes. Immediate post-tests will be conducted, followed by a 60-day post-test. It is hypothesized that the mindfulness intervention will outperform the other conditions with regard to the adolescents' mood, attention and response to stress.

  15. Living both well and sustainably: a review of the literature, with some reflections on future research, interventions and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2017-05-01

    The idea that human well-being (WB) can be supported and even enhanced by using, producing, buying, selling and consuming less `stuff' is anathema to many living under consumer capitalism. Yet a growing research literature actually finds that frequent engagement in pro-ecological behaviours (PEBs) is positively correlated with personal WB. This paper reviews data relevant to three possible explanations for the apparent compatibility of PEBs and WB: (i) engaging in PEBs leads to psychological need satisfaction, which in turn causes WB; (ii) being in a good mood causes people to engage in more prosocial behaviours, including PEBs; and (iii) personal characteristics and lifestyles such as intrinsic values, mindfulness and voluntary simplicity cause both PEBs and WB. Because each explanation has some empirical support, I close by reflecting on some relevant interventions and policies that could strengthen each of these three pathways and thereby promote living both well and sustainably. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  16. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: A randomised controlled trial - design, evaluation, recruitment issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country) will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family) compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. Discussion In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784). PMID:22439919

  17. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: A randomised controlled trial - design, evaluation, recruitment issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bröning Sonja

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. Discussion In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784.

  18. Six Considerations for Social Justice Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Salazar, Carmen F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "courageous conversations" in social justice group work and a continuum of action for social justice interventions. It analyzes themes from 20 contributions to 2 consecutive special issues of "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" on social justice group work. Implications for future development in group leadership and…

  19. MyPyramid-omega-3 fatty acid nutrition education intervention may improve food groups and omega-3 fatty acid consumption in university middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Wan-Ju J; Lewis, Nancy M

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the impact of a nutrition education intervention on food groups and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption in middle-aged women. We hypothesized that participants who received educational materials about n-3 fatty acids would have a higher consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids than the MyPyramid group. The first phase of this study used the qualitative method to identify the beliefs and interests of middle-aged women about the topic of nutrition. Data were collected using semistructured individual interviews. Phase 2 was a quantitative study to assess the effectiveness of MyPyramid to improve dietary intake and self-efficacy after a 6-week online nutrition education intervention using a blog for university middle-aged female staff. The impact of n-3 fatty acid education on food consumption and self-efficacy was also assessed. Eight female staff (aged 45-65 years) in a Midwestern university participated in the interviews. Data were coded, and 3 themes emerged: "health," "lifestyle," and "availability." Eighty-eight middle-aged women participated in the intervention study and were randomized into either an intervention group or a control group. The overall consumption of the food groups was lower than the MyPyramid recommendation, except in the meat and beans group. There was a trend that participants were less certain to include n-3 fatty acids than whole grains in their diets. Using MyPyramid and supplementary information about n-3 fatty acids did not significantly affect participants' dietary consumption or self-efficacy to increase consumption from the food groups or to increase n-3 fatty acid consumption. Blog-based nutrition education is acceptable for this target population.

  20. The group matters: an explorative study of group cohesion and quality of life in cancer patients participating in physical exercise intervention during treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    -C30) was assessed at baseline and after Week 6. The interviews revealed that group cohesion was an interim goal aimed to maximize peak performance potential by patients. Group cohesion was characterized by a special 'esprit de corps' and enabled the group members to feel like sport teams....... The programme made purposeful togetherness possible while allowing the patients an opportunity to let their illness fade into the background. Questionnaire data showed significant improvements in mental health, social and emotional functioning. This study identified a conceptualization of group cohesion...

  1. Effects of health empowerment intervention on resilience of adolescents in a tribal area: A study using the Solomon four-groups design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kaushik; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Sinha, Multipada; Shahbabu, Bhaskar

    2017-10-01

    Resilience prevents the emergence of stress-related mental health problems among adolescents. Adolescents in tribal areas of India are more prone to develop such problems. The primary objective was to determine the effect of combined life skills-based health empowerment intervention on the resilience of school-going adolescents in a tribal area. The secondary objectives were to determine the effect of the intervention on internal health locus of control and self-determination and to compare the effect of intervention on resilience between non-tribal and tribal adolescents. We conducted this quasi-experimental study using a Solomon four-group design among 742 adolescents in two schools of Purulia, West Bengal, India. Students of the pretested group were examined for resilience using the Child Youth Resilience Measurement scale. A life skills education-based health empowerment intervention was administered among students of the experimental group. Post-test data on resilience, self-determination, internal health locus of control and pathological behaviour was obtained 3 months after the completion of intervention. A multi-level general linear mixed model was constructed to determine the effect of intervention on resilience. Resilience was less among tribal adolescents at baseline. The intervention significantly improved resilience [βAdjusted = 11.19 (95% CI = 10.55, 11.83], with a greater increase for tribal adolescents [βtribal-nontribal = 1.53 (95% CI = 0.03, 3.03)]. The intervention also significantly improved internal health locus of control (marginal mean increment 1.38 ± 0.05), self-determination (marginal mean increment 3.71 ± 0.09) and reduced pathological behaviour of the adolescents. Our study informed the current health policy that the existing life skills education-based programme should be reviewed and modified to include generic life skills, and the life skills education-based programme should be coupled with developmental interventions

  2. Investing in the future: lessons learnt from communicating the results of HSV/ HIV intervention trials in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayaud Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicating the results of randomised controlled trials may present challenges for researchers who have to work with communities and policy-makers to anticipate positive outcomes, while being aware that results may show no effect or harm. Methods We present a case study from the perspective of researchers in South Africa about the lessons learnt from communicating the results of four trials evaluating treatment for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 as a new strategy for HIV prevention. Results We show that contextual factors such as misunderstandings and mistrust played an important role in defining the communications response. Use of different approaches in combination was found to be most effective in building understanding, credibility and trust in the research process. During the communication process, researchers acted beyond their traditional role of neutral observers and became agents of social change. This change in role is in keeping with a global trend towards increased communication of research results and presents both opportunities and challenges for the conduct of future research. Conclusions Despite disappointing trial results which showed no benefit of HSV-2 treatment for HIV prevention, important lessons were learnt about the value of the communication process in building trust between researchers, community members and policy-makers, and creating an enabling environment for future research partnerships.

  3. The efficacy of a brief intervention in reducing hazardous drinking in working age men in Russia: the HIM (Health for Izhevsk men individually randomised parallel group exploratory trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Elizabeth

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Russia has particularly low life expectancy for an industrialised country, with mortality at working ages having fluctuated dramatically over the past few decades, particularly among men. Alcohol has been identified as the most likely cause of these temporal variations. One approach to reducing the alcohol problem in Russia is 'brief interventions' which seek to change views of the personal acceptability of excessive drinking and to encourage self-directed behaviour change. Very few studies to evaluate the efficacy of brief interventions in Russia have been conducted. Motivational Interviewing (MI is a person-centred counselling style which can be adapted to brief interventions in which help is offered in thinking through behaviour in the context of values and goals, to decide whether change is needed, and if so, how it may best be achieved. Methods This paper reports on an individually randomised two-armed parallel group exploratory trial. The primary hypothesis is that a brief adaptation of MI will be effective in reducing self-reported hazardous and harmful drinking at 3 months. Participants were drawn from the Izhevsk Family Study II, with eligibility determined based on proxy reports of hazardous and harmful drinking in the past year. All participants underwent a health check, with MI subsequently delivered to those in the intervention arm. Signed consent was obtained from those in the intervention arm only at this point. Both groups were then invited for 3 and 12 month follow ups. The control group did not receive any additional intervention. Results 441 men were randomised. Of these 61 did not have a health check leaving 190 in each trial arm. Follow up at 3 months was high (97% of those having a health check, and very similar in the two trial arms (183 in the intervention and 187 in the control. No significant differences were detected between the randomised groups in either the primary or the secondary outcomes at

  4. Risk factors for not completing health interventions and the potential impact on health inequalities between educational groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kure-Biegel, Nanna; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individual-based interventions aim to improve patient self-management of chronic disease and to improve lifestyle among people at high risk, to reduce the prevalence of diseases contributing to health inequality. The present study investigates risk factors for uncompleted health...... among people with low education (OR 1.82, 95 % CI 0.66; 5.03). Qualitative elaboration of these findings points to low self-control in jobs and a higher degree of comorbidity and treatment of diseases among the lower educated as determinants for not completing, but not lower motivation or less positive...... attitude toward the intervention itself. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates a social difference in dropout, and if dropout is to be prevented, there is a need to acknowledge factors such as organization of the intervention, lack of job flexibility, and comorbidity. If these factors are not addressed, people...

  5. Group psychosocial interventions for adults with schizophrenia and bipolar illness: the evidence base in the light of publications between 1986 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segredou, I; Xenitidis, K; Panagiotopoulou, M; Bochtsou, V; Antoniadou, O; Livaditis, M

    2012-05-01

    The treatment of major mental disorders usually combines medical and psychosocial interventions. The present study reviews research pertaining to the efficacy of group psychosocial interventions for people with psychotic illness. An electronic search was conducted through Medline and PsychINFO to identify articles relevant to group therapy for people with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Articles published in the English language, between January 1986 and May 2006, were considered. Studies were included if they had a control group and at least 20 participants. The search resulted in 23 articles concerning patients with schizophrenia and five concerning patients with bipolar affective disorder. The therapeutic approach in the majority of the studies was along the lines of cognitive behaviour therapy and psychoeducation. All studies reported improvement in at least one parameter. Most of them report improvement in skills and overall functioning.

  6. Effectiveness of a Group-Based Culturally Tailored Lifestyle Intervention Program on Changes in Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes among Asian Indians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rupal M; Misra, Ranjita; Raj, Sudha; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group repeated measures design to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention program to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Gujarati Asian Indians (AIs) in an urban community in the US. Participants included 70 adult AIs in the greater Houston metropolitan area. The primary outcomes were reduction in weight and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and improvement in physical activity. Participants were screened for risk factors and randomly assigned to a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention program (n = 34) or a control group (n = 36) that received standard print material on diabetes prevention. Participants also completed clinical measures and self-reported questionnaires about physical activity, social, and lifestyle habits at 0, 3, and 6 months. No significant baseline differences were noted between groups. While a significant decline in weight and increase in physical activity was observed in all participants, the intervention group lowered their HbA1c (p Gujarati AIs living in the US.

  7. Pilot randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness-based group intervention in adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Bruggink, Stephanie; Pivarunas, Bernadette; Skoranski, Amanda; Foss, Jillian; Chaffin, Ella; Dalager, Stephanie; Annameier, Shelly; Quaglia, Jordan; Brown, Kirk Warren; Broderick, Patricia; Bell, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    (1) Evaluate feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness-based group in adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) with depressive symptoms, and (2) compare efficacy of a mindfulness-based versus cognitive-behavioral group for decreasing depressive symptoms and improving insulin resistance. Parallel-group, randomized controlled pilot trial conducted at a university. Thirty-three girls 12-17y with overweight/obesity, family history of diabetes, and elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a six-week mindfulness-based (n=17) or cognitive-behavioral program (n=16). Both interventions included six, one-hour weekly group sessions. The mindfulness-based program included guided mindfulness awareness practices. The cognitive-behavioral program involved cognitive restructuring and behavioral activation. Adolescents were evaluated at baseline, post-intervention, and six-months. Feasibility/acceptability were measured by attendance and program ratings. Depressive symptoms were assessed by validated survey. Insulin resistance was determined from fasting insulin and glucose, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. Most adolescents attended ≥80% sessions (mindfulness: 92% versus cognitive-behavioral: 87%, p=1.00). Acceptability ratings were strong. At post-treatment and six-months, adolescents in the mindfulness condition had greater decreases in depressive symptoms than adolescents in the cognitive-behavioral condition (psmindfulness-based intervention also had greater decreases in insulin resistance and fasting insulin at post-treatment, adjusting for fat mass and other covariates (psmindfulness-based intervention shows feasibility and acceptability in girls at-risk for T2D with depressive symptoms. Compared to a cognitive-behavioral program, after the intervention, adolescents who received mindfulness showed greater reductions in depressive symptoms and better insulin resistance. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02218138

  8. Pre-consultation educational group intervention to improve shared decision-making in postmastectomy breast reconstruction: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Pre-Consultation Educational Group Intervention pilot study seeks to assess the feasibility and inform the optimal design for a definitive randomized controlled trial that aims to improve the quality of decision-making in postmastectomy breast reconstruction patients. Methods/design This is a mixed-methods pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial that will follow a single-center, 1:1 allocation, two-arm parallel group superiority design. Setting: The University Health Network, a tertiary care cancer center in Toronto, Canada. Participants: Adult women referred to one of three plastic and reconstructive surgeons for delayed breast reconstruction or prophylactic mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction. Intervention: We designed a multi-disciplinary educational group workshop that incorporates the key components of shared decision-making, decision-support, and psychosocial support for cancer survivors prior to the initial surgical consult. The intervention consists of didactic lectures by a plastic surgeon and nurse specialist on breast reconstruction choices, pre- and postoperative care; a value-clarification exercise led by a social worker; and discussions with a breast reconstruction patient. Control: Usual care includes access to an informational booklet, website, and patient volunteer if desired. Outcomes: Expected pilot outcomes include feasibility, recruitment, and retention targets. Acceptability of intervention and full trial outcomes will be established through qualitative interviews. Trial outcomes will include decision-quality measures, patient-reported outcomes, and service outcomes, and the treatment effect estimate and variability will be used to inform the sample size calculation for a full trial. Discussion Our pilot study seeks to identify the (1) feasibility, acceptability, and design of a definitive RCT and (2) the optimal content and delivery of our proposed educational group intervention. Thirty patients have been

  9. Combining a leadership course and multi-source feedback has no effect on leadership skills of leaders in postgraduate medical education. An intervention study with a control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Bente Vigh; Mortensen, Lene; Bonderup, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leadership courses and multi-source feedback are widely used developmental tools for leaders in health care. On this background we aimed to study the additional effect of a leadership course following a multi-source feedback procedure compared to multi-source feedback alone especially...... regarding development of leadership skills over time. METHODS: Study participants were consultants responsible for postgraduate medical education at clinical departments. STUDY DESIGN: pre-post measures with an intervention and control group. The intervention was participation in a seven-day leadership...... course. Scores of multi-source feedback from the consultants responsible for education and respondents (heads of department, consultants and doctors in specialist training) were collected before and one year after the intervention and analysed using Mann-Whitney's U-test and Multivariate analysis...

  10. Caring for Others: Internet Video-Conferencing Group Intervention for Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Elsa; Donahue, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to evaluate the effects of an innovative, Internet-based psychosocial intervention for family caregivers of older adults with neurodegenerative disease. Design and Methods: After receiving signed informed consent from each participant, we randomly assigned 66 caregivers to an Internet-based…

  11. The Efficacy of a Social Skills Group Intervention for Improving Social Behaviors in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Swick, Danielle C.; Davis, Naomi Ornstein; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; Matthews, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a new social skills intervention, "S ocial S kills GR oup IN tervention-High Functioning Autism" ("S.S.GRIN-HFA"), designed to improve social behaviors in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Fifty-five children were randomly assigned to "S.S.GRIN-HFA" treatment (n = 27) or control (i.e.,…

  12. Teacher Ratings of the Social Validity of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports: A Comparison of School Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancel, Samantha M.; Missall, Kristen N.; Bruhn, Allison L.

    2016-01-01

    With over 14,000 schools implementing Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS), it is important to consider factors that contribute to effective implementation--which may affect student outcomes. Social validity is one factor that may influence implementation. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which…

  13. A cognitive behavioral based group intervention for children with a chronic illness and their parents: a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Scholten; A.M. Willemen; M.A. Grootenhuis; H. Maurice-Stam; C. Schuengel; B.F. Last

    2011-01-01

    Coping with a chronic illness (CI) challenges children's psychosocial functioning and wellbeing. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs that focus on teaching the active use of coping strategies may prevent children with CI from developing psychosocial problems. Involvement of parents in the int

  14. Research situation and development direction of community nursing intervention form in hypertension group%高血压人群社区护理干预形式研究现状及发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚满英; 孔桂花

    2014-01-01

    高血压是一种危害性较大的慢性疾病,针对高血压人群实施社区护理干预是一项有效的防治手段。本文通过介绍社区护理的概念及作用,分析研究社区护理干预形式现状及未来的发展方向,期望推动社区护理干预的水平,达到患者健康的目的。%Hypertension is a more destructive chronic disease.The community nursing intervention for the hypertension group is an effective prevention and control means.We research on the situation and the future development direction of community nursing intervention form by introducing the concept and role of community nursing,we hope to promote the community nursing intervention level,make the patient health purposes.

  15. Past and present achievements, and future direction of the Gastrointestinal Oncology Study Group (GIOSG), a Division of Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boku, Narikazu

    2011-12-01

    Initially, Gastrointestinal Study Group in Japan Clinical Oncology Group (GIOSG/JCOG) focused on gastric cancer. In 1980s, fluoropyrimidine, cisplatin and mitomycin C were key drugs. A randomized Phase II trial (JCOG8501) comparing futrafur plus mitomycin C and uracil plus futrafur and mitomycin C showed a higher response rate of uracil plus futrafur and mitomycin C than futrafur plus mitomycin C. From the results of two Phase II trials of etoposide, adriamycin and cisplatin, and cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil, uracil plus futrafur and mitomycin C and cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil were adopted for the test arms of the Phase III trial (JCOG9205) comparing with continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil as a control arm. Neither cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil nor uracil plus futrafur and mitomycin C showed a survival benefit over continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil. In late 1990s, new agents, irinotecan and S-1, were developed for gastric cancer in Japan. GIOSG conducted a Phase III trial (JCOG9912) investigating superiority of irinotecan plus cisplatin and non-inferiority of monotherapy with S-1 compared with continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil, and S-1 succeeded in showing non-inferiority. Then, SPIRITS trial showed a survival benefit of S-1 plus cisplatin over S-1, resulting in the establishment of a standard care for advanced gastric cancer in Japan. GIOSG have merged with Gastric Cancer Study Group as the Stomach Cancer Study Group (SCSG) from 2011. Recent progress in the development of new drugs has been remarkable. From the point of the roles shared with many other study groups for clinical trials, including registration trials of new drugs conducted by pharmaceutical companies, SCSG should recognize its role and conduct clinical trials with high quality for establishing new standard treatment.

  16. Sprcial discussion: Future Roles for Tincture of Opium in Medical Intervention for Opioid Dependence Treads and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Opium tincture or tincture of opium (TOP, also known as Laudanum, is an alcoholic herbal preparation of opium. It is made by combining ethanol with opium latex or powder. After works of Paracelsus, the 16th century Swiss-German alchemist, who discovered that the alkaloids in opium are far more soluble in alcohol compared to water and named Opium tincture as Laudanum, this drug has been found a broad range of applications as the drug of choice for practically every ailment through 17th to 19th centuries. The early 20th century brought increased regulation of all manner of narcotics, including laudanum, as the addictive properties of opium became more widely understood. By the late 20th century, TOP's use was almost exclusively confined to treating severe diarrhea. During these thirty years, The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of opioid substitution therapy for the treatment of opioid addiction has been well documented by methadone and buprenorphine. Based on the idea of substitution therapy, TOP and slow releasing oral morphine (SROM have been proposed as the new alternatives. TOP could be used in three different ways in interventions for opioid dependency, first, as a supportive drug to reduce withdrawal syndrome during detoxification programs, second, as a substitution drug in long term maintenance, third, as a legal form of opioid drugs for harm reduction purposes. A little but growing evidences are supporting effectiveness of TOP for detoxification programs, in Iran, some preliminary open label studies showed effectiveness of TOP as a detoxifying drug in three to six month program, Now another open label study is evaluating TOP in a specific detoxification program with monthly evaluation and providing long term follow up after reaching to abstinence. There are a strong debate among the policy makers and clinicians on implementation of TOP in Iranian National Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities. In this article, We reviewed the proposed

  17. An Exploratory Analysis of the Smoking and Physical Activity Outcomes From a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of an Exercise Assisted Reduction to Stop Smoking Intervention in Disadvantaged Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tom Paul; Greaves, Colin J; Ayres, Richard; Aveyard, Paul; Warren, Fiona C; Byng, Richard; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L; Ussher, Michael; Green, Colin; Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Taylor, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    Economically disadvantaged smokers not intending to stop may benefit from interventions aimed at reducing their smoking. This study assessed the effects of a behavioral intervention promoting an increase in physical activity versus usual care in a pilot randomized controlled trial. Disadvantaged smokers who wanted to reduce but not quit were randomized to either a counseling intervention of up to 12 weeks to support smoking reduction and increased physical activity (n = 49) or usual care (n = 50). Data at 16 weeks were collected for various smoking and physical activity outcomes. Primary analyses consisted of an intention to treat analysis based on complete case data. Secondary analyses explored the impact of handling missing data. Compared with controls, intervention smokers were more likely to initiate a quit attempt (36 vs. 10%; odds ratio 5.05, [95% CI: 1.10; 23.15]), and a greater proportion achieved at least 50% reduction in cigarettes smoked (63 vs. 32%; 4.21 [1.32; 13.39]). Postquit abstinence measured by exhaled carbon monoxide at 4-week follow-up showed promising differences between groups (23% vs. 6%; 4.91 [0.80; 30.24]). No benefit of intervention on physical activity was found. Secondary analyses suggested that the standard missing data assumption of "missing" being equivalent to "smoking" may be conservative resulting in a reduced intervention effect. A smoking reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged smokers which involved personal support to increase physical activity appears to be more effective than usual care in achieving reduction and may promote cessation. The effect does not appear to be influenced by an increase in physical activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Present and Future of Planetary Nebula Research. A White Paper by the IAU Planetary Nebula Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Kwitter, K B; Peña, M; Stanghellini, L; Corradi, R L M; DeMarco, O; Fang, X; Henry, R B C; Karakas, A I; Liu, X -W; López, J A; Manchado, A; Parker, Q A

    2014-01-01

    We present a summary of current research on planetary nebulae and their central stars, and related subjects such as atomic processes in ionized nebulae, AGB and post-AGB evolution. Future advances are discussed that will be essential to substantial improvements in our knowledge in the field.

  19. The Effectiveness of Marlaat’s Cognitive Behavior Intervention and Group Treatment Based on Change Stages for Recovery and Relapse Prevention Rates in Male Heroin Crack Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khodadust

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the Study of effectiveness of Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention and group treatment based on change stages for recovery and relapse rates in male heroin crack addictions. Method: In a experimental research design, 45 men addictions, who were diagnosed as the dependence of the heroin crack on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, were chosen after successfully detoxified. They were divided two experimental groups (30 participants and a control group (15 participants that have been selected by random sampling. The first experimental group was undergone group treatment based on change stages underwent 16 sessions of 1.5 hours, totally 24 hours and the second experimental groups who were undergone Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention has been held 15 sessions of 2 hours, totally 24 hours. The control group were just received MMT without any psychotherapy. All participants were assessed by structured interview, urine test, before treatment, after treatment and after 3 months follow up. Results: Results showed that both psychotherapy treatments were affected on recovery and relapse rates. Conclusion: It seems that psychological problems and conflicts before addiction and after addiction could be caused for individuals’ tendency to narcotics consumption. Therefore, applying of psychotherapy could be useful in relapse prevention.

  20. Understanding the role of gender in body image research settings: participant gender preferences for researchers and co-participants in interviews, focus groups and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Drummond, Murray

    2013-09-01

    Participant gender preferences for body image researchers, interventionists and focus group and intervention co-participants have been largely ignored, despite recognition that such characteristics can influence the nature and quality of data collected and intervention effects. To address this, Australian women (n=505) and men (n=220) completed a questionnaire about their preferences for interviewers and focus group facilitators, for teachers delivering school-based interventions, and for co-participants in these settings. Women predominantly preferred female interviewers and teachers, and mixed-sex co-participants, but most had no preference for focus group facilitators. Body dissatisfied women were more likely to prefer female researchers and single-sex co-participants. Most men did not have specific preferences, however, body dissatisfied men were more likely to report a gender preference for interviewers and teachers. Professional capabilities, personal qualities and appearance were regarded as important researcher characteristics. These findings have important implications for body image research, particularly among high-risk groups.

  1. Manage at work: a randomized, controlled trial of a self-management group intervention to overcome workplace challenges associated with chronic physical health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Besen, Elyssa; Pransky, Glenn; Boot, Cécile R L; Nicholas, Michael K; McLellan, Robert K; Tveito, Torill H

    2014-05-28

    The percentage of older and chronically ill workers is increasing rapidly in the US and in many other countries, but few interventions are available to help employees overcome the workplace challenges of chronic pain and other physical health conditions. While most workers are eligible for job accommodation and disability compensation benefits, other workplace strategies might improve individual-level coping and problem solving to prevent work disability. In this study, we hypothesize that an employer-sponsored group intervention program employing self-management principles may improve worker engagement and reduce functional limitation associated with chronic disorders. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), workers participating in an employer-sponsored self-management group intervention will be compared with a no-treatment (wait list) control condition. Volunteer employees (n = 300) will be recruited from five participating employers and randomly assigned to intervention or control. Participants in the intervention arm will attend facilitated group workshop sessions at work (10 hours total) to explore methods for improving comfort, adjusting work habits, communicating needs effectively, applying systematic problem solving, and dealing with negative thoughts and emotions about work. Work engagement and work limitation are the principal outcomes. Secondary outcomes include fatigue, job satisfaction, self-efficacy, turnover intention, sickness absence, and health care utilization. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. A process evaluation will be performed alongside the randomized trial. This study will be most relevant for organizations and occupational settings where some degree of job flexibility, leeway, and decision-making autonomy can be afforded to affected workers. The study design will provide initial assessment of a novel workplace approach and to understand factors affecting its feasibility and effectiveness

  2. A cluster-randomised, parallel group, controlled intervention study of genetic prostate cancer risk assessment and use of PSA tests in general practice--the ProCaRis study: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, Pia; Vedsted, Peter; Edwards, Adrian; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Bro, Flemming

    2013-03-01

    Unsystematic screening for prostate cancer (PCa) is common, causing a high number of false-positive results. Valid instruments for assessment of individual risk of PCa have been called for. A DNA-based genetic test has been tested retrospectively. The clinical use of this test needs further investigation. The primary objective is to evaluate the impact on the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests of introducing genetic PCa risk assessment in general practice. The secondary objectives are to evaluate PCa-related patient experiences, and to explore sociocultural aspects of genetic risk assessment in patients at high PCa risk. The study is a cluster-randomised, controlled intervention study with practice as the unit of randomisation. We expect 140 practices to accept participation and include a total of 1244 patients in 4 months. Patients requesting a PSA test in the intervention group practices will be offered a genetic PCa risk assessment. Patients requesting a PSA test in the control group practices will be handled according to current guidelines. Data will be collected from registers, patient questionnaires and interviews. Quantitative data will be analysed according to intention-to-treat principles. Baseline characteristics will be compared between groups. Longitudinal analyses will include time in risk, and multivariable analysis will be conducted to evaluate the influence of general practitioner and patient-specific variables on future PSA testing. Interview data will be transcribed verbatim and analysed from a social-constructivist perspective. Consent will be obtained from patients who can withdraw from the study at any time. The study provides data to the ongoing conceptual and ethical discussions about genetic risk assessment and classification of low-risk and high-risk individuals. The intervention model might be applicable to other screening areas regarding risk of cancer with identified genetic components, for example, colon cancer. The study is

  3. A cluster-randomised, parallel group, controlled intervention study of genetic prostate cancer risk assessment and use of PSA tests in general practice—the ProCaRis study: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, Pia; Vedsted, Peter; Edwards, Adrian; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Bro, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Unsystematic screening for prostate cancer (PCa) is common, causing a high number of false-positive results. Valid instruments for assessment of individual risk of PCa have been called for. A DNA-based genetic test has been tested retrospectively. The clinical use of this test needs further investigation. The primary objective is to evaluate the impact on the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests of introducing genetic PCa risk assessment in general practice. The secondary objectives are to evaluate PCa-related patient experiences, and to explore sociocultural aspects of genetic risk assessment in patients at high PCa risk. Methods and analysis The study is a cluster-randomised, controlled intervention study with practice as the unit of randomisation. We expect 140 practices to accept participation and include a total of 1244 patients in 4 months. Patients requesting a PSA test in the intervention group practices will be offered a genetic PCa risk assessment. Patients requesting a PSA test in the control group practices will be handled according to current guidelines. Data will be collected from registers, patient questionnaires and interviews. Quantitative data will be analysed according to intention-to-treat principles. Baseline characteristics will be compared between groups. Longitudinal analyses will include time in risk, and multivariable analysis will be conducted to evaluate the influence of general practitioner and patient-specific variables on future PSA testing. Interview data will be transcribed verbatim and analysed from a social-constructivist perspective. Ethics and dissemination Consent will be obtained from patients who can withdraw from the study at any time. The study provides data to the ongoing conceptual and ethical discussions about genetic risk assessment and classification of low-risk and high-risk individuals. The intervention model might be applicable to other screening areas regarding risk of cancer with identified

  4. What community-level strategies are needed to secure women's property rights in Western Kenya? Laying the groundwork for a future structural HIV prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Shari L; Lu, Tiffany; Grabe, Shelly; Kwena, Zachary; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Bukusi, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized need for structural-level HIV prevention interventions that focus on economic empowerment to reduce women's HIV risks, few science-based programs have focused on securing women's land ownership as a primary or secondary HIV risk reduction strategy. The current study focused on a community-led land and property rights model that was implemented in two rural areas of western Kenya where HIV prevalence was high (24-30%) and property rights violations were common. The program was designed to reduce women's HIV risk at the community level by protecting and enhancing women's access to and ownership of land. Through in-depth interviews with 50 program leaders and implementers of this program we sought to identify the strategies that were used to prevent, mediate, and resolve property rights violations. Results included four strategies: (1) rights-based education of both women and men individually and at the community level, (2) funeral committees that intervene to prevent property grabbing and disinheritance, (3) paralegal training of traditional leaders and community members and local adjudication of cases of property rights violations, and (4) referring property rights violations to the formal justice system when these are not resolved at the community level. Study participants underscored that local mediation of cases resulted in a higher success rate than women experienced in the formal court system, underscoring the importance of community-level solutions to property rights violations. The current study assists researchers in understanding the steps needed to prevent and resolve women's property rights violations so as to bolster the literature on potential structural HIV prevention interventions. Future research should rigorously test property rights programs as a structural HIV prevention intervention.

  5. When and how groups utilize dissenting newcomer knowledge : Newcomers' future prospects condition the effect of language-based identity strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Aimee A.; Rink, Floor

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments suggest that newcomers' structural role (permanent vs. temporary appointment) in the groups they enter conditions the extent to which their use of language-based identity strategies (integrating vs. differentiating) influences groups' willingness to accept them and utilize their diss

  6. A shared past and a common future: the Portuguese colonial war and the dynamics of group-based guilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, A.; Valentim, J.; Doosje, B.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we examine feelings of group-based guilt among Portuguese people in relation to the Portuguese colonial war, and their consequences for social behaviour. Specifically, we focus on the way Portuguese university students identify with their national group and the outgroup and thei

  7. When and how groups utilize dissenting newcomer knowledge : Newcomers' future prospects condition the effect of language-based identity strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Aimee A.; Rink, Floor

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments suggest that newcomers' structural role (permanent vs. temporary appointment) in the groups they enter conditions the extent to which their use of language-based identity strategies (integrating vs. differentiating) influences groups' willingness to accept them and utilize their diss

  8. A shared past and a common future: the Portuguese colonial war and the dynamics of group-based guilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, A.; Valentim, J.; Doosje, B.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we examine feelings of group-based guilt among Portuguese people in relation to the Portuguese colonial war, and their consequences for social behaviour. Specifically, we focus on the way Portuguese university students identify with their national group and the outgroup and thei

  9. 孕期集体干预对产后抑郁症的影响%Effect of antenatal group intervention on postpartum depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖毓冕; 杨金英; 曾慧倩; 程曦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of antenatal group intervention on postpartum depression ( PPD ) .Methods Totally 438 pregnant women examined and delivering in Guangzhou Women and Children' s Medical Center were included, whose Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale ( HAD) score≥11 in 16-24 gestational weeks.The subjects were randomly assigned to intervention group and control group.Interventions lasted for 90 minutes each time and were given to the intervention group weekly for 6 weeks from 24 weeks of gestation.Routine antenatal care was given to the control group.Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale ( EPDS) score ≥12 was used to diagnose PPD at 42 day after delivery.Results The ratio of women in the intervention group with HAD score≥11 was significantly lower than in the control group at 42 day after delivery ( χ2 =25.22, P<0.01) .There were 22 women in the intervention group and 63 women in the control group with EPDS score≥12 at 42 day after delivery, respectively (χ2 =24.51, P<0.01).Conclusion Group intervention in the antenatal period can relieve anxiety and depression of pregnant women and reduce the incidence of PPD.%目的 探讨孕期集体干预对产后抑郁症(PPD)的作用.方法 选择在我院产检且分娩,在孕16~24周行医院焦虑-抑郁量表(HAD)筛查≥11分的438例孕妇为研究对象,分为干预组和非干预组.干预组孕妇从孕24周开始实施每周1次,每次90分钟,共6周的干预治疗,非干预组孕妇行常规孕期保健.所有研究对象在产后42天行爱丁堡产后抑郁量表(edinburgh postnatal depression scale,EPDS)测试≥12分诊断为产后抑郁症.结果 干预组产后42天HAD≥11分(有焦虑或抑郁情绪)患者比率显著低于对照组(χ2=25.22,P<0.01).干预组产妇EPDS值≥12分人数为22人,显著低于非干预组的63人,差异有统计学意义(χ2=24.51,P<0.01).结论 孕期集体干预能够缓解孕产妇焦虑-抑郁情绪,降低产后抑郁症发生率.

  10. A school-based intervention to promote physical activity among adolescent girls: Rationale, design, and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puglisi Lauren

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity levels decline markedly among girls during adolescence. School-based interventions that are multi-component in nature, simultaneously targeting curricular, school environment and policy, and community links, are a promising approach for promoting physical activity. This report describes the rationale, design and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised trial, which aims to prevent the decline in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA among adolescent girls. Methods/Design A community-based participatory research approach and action learning framework are used with measurements at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Within each intervention school, a committee develops an action plan aimed at meeting the primary objective (preventing the decline in accelerometer-derived MVPA. Academic partners and the State Department of Education and Training act as critical friends. Control schools continue with their usual school programming. 24 schools were matched then randomized into intervention (n = 12 and control (n = 12 groups. A total of 1518 girls (771 intervention and 747 control completed baseline assessments (86% response rate. Useable accelerometer data (≥10 hrs/day on at least 3 days were obtained from 79% of this sample (n = 1199. Randomisation resulted in no differences between intervention and control groups on any of the outcomes. The mean age (SE of the sample was 13.6 (± 0.02 years and they spent less than 5% of their waking hours in MVPA (4.85 ± 0.06. Discussion Girls in Sport will test the effectiveness of schools working towards the same goal, but developing individual, targeted interventions that bring about changes in curriculum, school environment and policy, and community links. By using community-based participatory research and an action learning framework in a secondary school setting, it aims to add to the body of literature on effective school

  11. An intervention for reducing secondary traumatization and improving professional self-efficacy in well baby clinic nurses following war and terror: a random control group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Rony; Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Due to the terror and war-related situation in Israel, well baby clinic nurses dealing with a large number of traumatized and highly distressed infants, toddlers and their parents have become overwhelmed. (1) Assess the level of secondary traumatization, including lack of compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue of well baby clinic nurses living under chronic threat of war and terror. (2) Assess the efficacy of an intervention aimed at providing well baby clinic nurses with psycho-educational knowledge pertaining to stress and trauma in infants, young children and parents. This intervention provides the nurses with screening tools for identifying children and parents at risk of developing stress-related problems and equips them with stress management techniques. Quasi-random control trial. The intervention took place in Israel, in war (North) and terror (South) affected areas. Ninety well baby clinic nurses from the most war and terror affected areas in Israel were approached, 42 were randomly assigned the experimental intervention and 38 served as a waiting list group. The intervention was comprised of 12 weekly 6-h sessions. Each session included theoretical knowledge, experiential exercises based on the nurses' work or personal life experience, and the learning of skills accompanied by homework assignments. Participants were assessed on self-report measures of secondary traumatization, professional self-efficacy, hope, sense of mastery and self-esteem before and after the intervention. (1) Well baby clinic nurses were found to have elevated secondary traumatization levels. (2) Compared to the waiting list group, the intervention group improved significantly on the professional self-efficacy measure as well as reducing the level of secondary traumatization. Furthermore, improvement on all secondary traumatization measures covaried with the improvement on the professional self-efficacy assessments. Based on additional informal reports, the

  12. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension (COACH) trial: design and methodology of a group-based lifestyle intervention for hypertensive minority older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Fernandez, Senaida; Fournier, Leanne; Silver, Stephanie A; Kong, Jian; Gallagher, Sara; de la Calle, Franze; Plumhoff, Jordan; Sethi, Sheba; Choudhury, Evelyn; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2013-05-01

    The disproportionately high prevalence of hypertension and its associated mortality and morbidity in minority older adults is a major public health concern in the United States. Despite compelling evidence supporting the beneficial effects of therapeutic lifestyle changes on blood pressure reduction, these approaches remain largely untested among minority elders in community-based settings. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension trial is a two-arm randomized controlled trial of 250 African-American and Latino seniors, 60 years and older with uncontrolled hypertension, who attend senior centers. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the effect of a therapeutic lifestyle intervention delivered via group classes and individual motivational interviewing sessions versus health education, on blood pressure reduction. The primary outcome is change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from baseline to 12 months. The secondary outcomes are blood pressure control at 12 months; changes in levels of physical activity; body mass index; and number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables from baseline to 12 months. The intervention group will receive 12 weekly group classes followed by individual motivational interviewing sessions. The health education group will receive an individual counseling session on healthy lifestyle changes and standard hypertension education materials. Findings from this study will provide needed information on the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions delivered in senior centers. Such information is crucial in order to develop implementation strategies for translation of evidence-based lifestyle interventions to senior centers, where many minority elders spend their time, making the centers a salient point of dissemination.

  13. A Social Media Peer Group Intervention for Mothers to Prevent Obesity and Promote Healthy Growth from Infancy: Development and Pilot Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gruver, Rachel S; Bishop-Gilyard, Chanelle T.; Lieberman, Alexandra; Gerdes, Marsha; Virudachalam, Senbagam; Suh, Andrew W; Kalra, Gurpreet K.; Magge, Sheela N.; Shults, Justine; Schreiner, Mark S; Power, Thomas J.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Fiks, Alexander G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence increasingly indicates that childhood obesity prevention efforts should begin as early as infancy. However, few interventions meet the needs of families whose infants are at increased obesity risk due to factors including income and maternal body mass index (BMI). Social media peer groups may offer a promising new way to provide these families with the knowledge, strategies, and support they need to adopt obesity prevention behaviors. Objective The aim of this study is to ...

  14. ‘HeART of Stroke (HoS)’, a community-based Arts for Health group intervention to support self-confidence and psychological well-being following a stroke: protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Hill, Caroline; Gracey, Fergus; Thomas, Sarah; Lamont-Robinson, Catherine; Thomas, Peter W; Marques, Elsa M R; Grant, Mary; Nunn, Samantha; Cant, Robin P I; Galvin, Kathleen T; Reynolds, Frances; Jenkinson, Damian F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over 152 000 people in the UK have strokes annually and a third experience residual disability. Low mood also affects a third of stroke survivors; yet psychological support is poor. While Arts for Health interventions have been shown to improve well-being in people with mild-to-moderate depression post-stroke, their role in helping people regain sense of self, well-being and confidence has yet to be evaluated. The main aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of conducting a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an Arts for Health group intervention (‘HeART of Stroke’ (HoS)) for stroke survivors. HoS is a 10-session artist-facilitated group intervention held in the community over 14 weeks. It offers a non-judgemental, supportive environment for people to explore sense of self, potentially enhancing well-being and confidence. Methods and analysis Sixty-four people, up to 2 years post-stroke, recruited via secondary care research staff or community stroke/rehabilitation teams in two UK centres will be randomised to either HoS plus usual care or usual care only. Self-reported outcomes, measured at baseline and approximately 5 months postrandomisation, will include stroke-related, well-being, mood, self-esteem, quality of life and process measures. Analyses will focus on estimating key feasibility parameters (eg, rates of recruitment, retention, intervention attendance). We will develop outcome and resource use data collection methods to inform an effectiveness and cost-effectiveness analysis in the future trial. Interviews, with a sample of participants, will explore the acceptability of the intervention and study processes, as well as experiences of the HoS group. Ethics and dissemination National Health Service (NHS), Research and Development and University ethical approvals have been obtained. Two peer-reviewed journal publications are planned plus one service user led

  15. Comparison of usual podiatric care and early physical therapy intervention for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a parallel-group randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant number of individuals suffer from plantar heel pain (PHP) and many go on to have chronic symptoms and continued disability. Persistence of symptoms adds to the economic burden of PHP and cost-effective solutions are needed. Currently, there is a wide variation in treatment, cost, and outcomes of care for PHP with limited information on the cost-effectiveness and comparisons of common treatment approaches. Two practice guidelines and recent evidence of effective physical therapy intervention are available to direct treatment but the timing and influence of physical therapy intervention in the multidisciplinary management of PHP is unclear. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the outcomes and costs associated with early physical therapy intervention (ePT) following initial presentation to podiatry versus usual podiatric care (uPOD) in individuals with PHP. Methods A parallel-group, block-randomized clinical trial will compare ePT and uPOD. Both groups will be seen initially by a podiatrist before allocation to a group that will receive physical therapy intervention consisting primarily of manual therapy, exercise, and modalities, or podiatric care consisting primarily of a stretching handout, medication, injections, and orthotics. Treatment in each group will be directed by practice guidelines and a procedural manual, yet the specific intervention for each participant will be selected by the treating provider. Between-group differences in the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure 6 months following the initial visit will be the primary outcome collected by an independent investigator. In addition, differences in the European Quality of Life – Five Dimensions, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Global Rating of Change (GROC), health-related costs, and cost-effectiveness at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year will be compared between groups. The association between successful outcomes based on GROC score and participant expectations of recovery

  16. Speech and language therapy intervention with a group of persistent and prolific young offenders in a non-custodial setting with previously undiagnosed speech, language and communication difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Juliette; Bryan, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children with behaviour and school problems (related to both academic achievement and social participation) are recognized as having undiagnosed speech, language and communication difficulties. Both speech, language and communication difficulties and school failure are risk factors for offending. To investigate the prevalence of speech, language and communication difficulties in a group of persistent and prolific young offenders sentenced to the Intensive Supervision and Surveillance Programme (ISSP), and to provide a preliminary evaluation of the impact of speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention. Seventy-two entrants to ISSP over 12 months were screened by the speech and language therapist. Those showing difficulties then had a detailed language assessment followed by intervention delivered jointly by the speech and language therapist and the youth offending team staff. Reassessment occurred at programme completion. A total of 65% of those screened had profiles indicating that they had language difficulties and might benefit from speech and language therapy intervention. As a cohort, their language skills were lower than those of the general population, and 20% scored at the 'severely delayed' level on standardized assessment. This is the first study of speech and language therapy within community services for young offenders, and is the first to demonstrate language improvement detectable on standardized language tests. However, further research is needed to determine the precise role of speech and language therapy within the intervention programme. Children and young people with behavioural or school difficulties coming into contact with criminal justice, mental health, psychiatric, and social care services need to be systematically assessed for undiagnosed speech, language and communication difficulties. Appropriate interventions can then enable the young person to engage with verbally mediated interventions. © 2011 Royal College

  17. Return to Play and Future ACL Injury Risk Following ACL Reconstruction In Soccer Athletes From the MOON Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H.; Schmitz, Leah; Wright, Rick W.; Dunn, Warren R.; Parker, Richard D.; Andrish, Jack T.; McCarty, Eric C.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited information on outcomes and return to play (RTP) after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) in soccer athletes. Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to (i) test the hypotheses that player sex, side of injury and graft choice do not influence RTP, and (ii) define the risk for future ACL injury in soccer players after ACLR. Study design Retrospective cohort study, Level II. Methods Soccer players in a prospective cohort were contacted to determine RTP following ACLR. Information regarding if and when they returned to play, their current playing status, the primary reason they stopped playing soccer (if relevant) and incidence of subsequent ACL surgery was recorded. Results Initially, 72% of 100 soccer athletes (55 male, 45 female) with a mean age of 24.2 years at the time of ACL reconstruction returned to soccer. At average follow up of 7.0 years, 36% were still playing, a significant decrease compared to initial RTP (preturn to play. Twelve soccer athletes had undergone further ACL surgery, including 9 on the contralateral knee and 3 on the ipsilateral knee. In a univariate analysis, females were more likely to have future ACL surgery (20% v. 5.5%, p=0.03). Soccer athletes who underwent ACLR on their non-dominant limb had a higher future rate of contra-lateral ACLR (16%) than soccer athletes who underwent ACLR on their dominant limb (3.5%) (p=0.03). Conclusion Younger and male soccer players are more likely to return to play after ACL reconstruction. Return to soccer following ACLR declines over time. PMID:23002201

  18. Future Oil Spills and Possibilities for Intervention: A Model for the Coupled Human-Environmental Resource Extraction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shughrue, C. M.; Werner, B.; Nugnug, P. T.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlights the risks for widespread environmental damage resulting from petroleum resource extraction. Possibilities for amelioration of these risks depend critically on understanding the dynamics and nonlinear interactions between various components of the coupled human-environmental resource extraction system. We use a complexity analysis to identify the levels of description and time scales at which these interactions are strongest, and then use the analysis as the basis for an agent-based numerical model with which decadal trends can be analyzed. Oil industry economic and technological activity and associated oil spills are components of a complex system that is coupled to natural environment, legislation, regulation, media, and resistance systems over annual to decadal time scales. In the model, oil spills are produced stochastically with a range of magnitudes depending on a reliability-engineering-based assessment of failure for the technology employed, human factors including compliance with operating procedures, and risks associated with the drilling environment. Oil industry agents determine drilling location and technological investment using a cost-benefit analysis relating projected revenue from added production to technology cost and government regulation. Media outlet agents reporting on the oil industry and environmental damage from oil spills assess the impacts of aggressively covering a story on circulation increases, advertiser concerns and potential loss of information sources. Environmental advocacy group agents increase public awareness of environmental damage (through media and public contact), solicit memberships and donations, and apply direct pressure on legislators for policy change. Heterogeneous general public agents adjust their desire for change in the level of regulation, contact their representatives or participate in resistance via protest by considering media sources, personal

  19. The experiences of staff taking on the role of lay therapist in a group-based cognitive behavioural therapy anger management intervention for people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Aimée; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; MacMahon, Pamela; Rose, Nicola; Townson, Julia; Felce, David; Hood, Kerenza; Jahoda, Andrew; Rose, John; Willner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To explore the experience of 'lay therapists' of a group-based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) anger management intervention. Staff employed in daytime opportunity services for adults with intellectual disabilities took on the role of 'lay therapist' to facilitate CBT groups. They were trained and supervised by clinical psychologists and interviewed 2-6 weeks after the last group session. Their experiences were explored by means of a qualitative approach, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Several key themes emerged from the interview data such as 'hopes and fears', 'having a framework', 'making it work', 'observing progress', 'ingredients of success', 'the therapist role' and 'taking the group forward'. These themes indicate that participants' experiences had been perceived as positive for themselves, the service users as well as the relevant organization although initially the therapist role had appeared daunting. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Improving Pupil Group Work Interaction and Dialogue in Primary Classrooms: Results from a Year-Long Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Ed; Rubie-Davies, Christine; Blatchford, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Findings are reported from a year-long evaluation of the effectiveness of the SPRinG programme relative to a control group. SPRinG aimed to address the wide gap between the potential of group interaction to promote learning and its limited use in schools. The project involved working with teachers to develop strategies for enhancing pupil group…

  1. The effectiveness of a stratified group intervention using the STarTBack screening tool in patients with LBP--a non randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susan E; Blake, Catherine; Power, Camillus K; Fullen, Brona M

    2013-12-05

    Low back pain (LBP) is costly to society and improving patient outcomes is a priority. Stratifying LBP patients into more homogenous groups is advocated to improve patient outcome. The STarT Back tool, a prognostic screening tool has demonstrated efficacy and greater cost effectiveness in physiotherapy settings. The management of LBP patients in groups is common but to date the utility of the STarT Back tool in group settings has not been explored. The aim of this study is to determine if the implementation of 'stratified care' when delivered in a group setting will lead to significantly better physical and psychological outcomes and greater cost effectiveness in LBP patients compared to a bestcare historical control group. This study is a non randomised controlled trial. Low back pain patients recruited from the Waterford Primary Care area (population = 47,000) will be stratified into low, medium or high risk of persisting symptoms using the STarT Back Tool. Low risk patients will be offered a single one off education/exercise class offering positive messages on LBP management in line with recommended guidelines. Medium risk patients will be offered a 12 week group exercise/education intervention addressing their dominant physical obstacles to recovery. A 12 week group cognitive behavioural approach will be delivered to the high risk patients, characterised by the presence of high levels of psychosocial prognostic factors. These patients will be compared with a historical control group where therapists were blinded as to the risk stratification of patients and a generic group intervention was delivered to all patients, irrespective of their initial risk stratification. The primary outcome measure will be disability (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire). Secondary outcomes will include back pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), distress (Distress and Risk Assessment Method), back beliefs (Back Beliefs Questionnaire), health status (Euroqol), global benefit (7

  2. Globus Nexus: A Platform-As-A-Service provider of research Identity, Profile, and Group Management, Future Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chard, Kyle; Lidman, Mattias; McCollam, Brendan; Bryan, Josh; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Tuecke, Steven; Foster, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Globus Nexus is a professionally hosted Platform-as-a-Service that provides identity, profile and group management functionality for the research community. Many collaborative e-Science applications need to manage large numbers of user identities, profiles, and groups. However, developing and maintaining such capabilities is often challenging given the complexity of modern security protocols and requirements for scalable, robust, and highly available implementations. By outsourcing this functionality to Globus Nexus, developers can leverage best-practice implementations without incurring development and operations overhead. Users benefit from enhanced capabilities such as identity federation, flexible profile management, and user-oriented group management. In this paper we present Globus Nexus, describe its capabilities and architecture, summarize how several e-Science applications leverage these capabilities, and present results that characterize its scalability, reliability, and availability.

  3. The Reasoned Arguments of a Group of Future Biotechnology Technicians on a Controversial Socio-Scientific Issue: Human Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneaux, Laurence; Chouchane, Habib

    2011-01-01

    We tried to determine the reasoning behind the stances taken by a group of 19-21-year-old students on the controversial issue of the feasibility and acceptability of human gene therapy. The students were in training at a biotechnology institute. We organised classroom debates, punctuated by phases of epistemological "disturbances". We…

  4. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: Background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. Methods/Design A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr. Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and

  5. Awareness of Stress-Reduction Interventions on Work Attitudes: The Impact of Tenure and Staff Group in Australian Universities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2016-01-01

    ... commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups...

  6. A Group-Based Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, Quan Hoang; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Lan, Hang Thi Xuan; Safren, Steven A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn J

    2016-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam. There are currently no evidence-based behavioral sexual risk reduction interventions for MSM in this setting. Between October 2012 and June 2013, 100 high-risk MSM from Ho Chi Minh City were enrolled in an open pilot trial to assess feasibility and acceptability of a group-based, manualized sexual risk reduction intervention, and to preliminarily examine changes in primary and secondary outcomes. Participants completed a behavioral assessment battery and HIV testing at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Over 80.0 % of the sample was sex acts from baseline (6.32) to 3 month (2.06) and 6 month (2.49) follow-up (p Vietnam in a randomized controlled efficacy trial.

  7. The use, publication and future directions of immunocytochemistry in veterinary medicine: a consensus of the Oncology-Pathology Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, H L; Hume, K R; Killick, D; Kozicki, A; Rizzo, V L; Seelig, D; Snyder, L A; Springer, N L; Wright, Z M; Robat, C

    2016-03-22

    One of the primary objectives of the Oncology Pathology Working Group (OPWG), a joint initiative of the Veterinary Cancer Society and the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, is for oncologists and pathologists to collaboratively generate consensus documents to standardize aspects of and provide guidelines for oncologic pathology. Consensus is established through review of relevant peer-reviewed literature relative to a subgroup's particular focus. In this document, the authors provide descriptions of the literature reviewed, the review process, and a summary of the information gathered on immunocytochemistry. The intent of this publication is to help educate practitioners and pathologists on the process of immunocytochemistry and to provide a guide for the use of this technique in veterinary medicine. This document represents the opinions of the working group and the authors and does not constitute a formal endorsement by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists or the Veterinary Cancer Society.

  8. Five years of specialised early intervention versus two years of specialised early intervention followed by three years of standard treatment for patients with a first episode psychosis: randomised, superiority, parallel group trial in Denmark (OPUS II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi; Emborg, Charlotte; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Mollegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of five years of specialised early intervention (SEI) treatment for first episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder with the standard two years of SEI plus three years of treatment as usual. Design Randomised, superiority, parallel group trial with blinded outcome assessment. Randomisation was centralised and computerised with concealed randomisation sequence carried out at an external site. Setting Participants were recruited from six OPUS teams in Denmark between 2009 and 2012. OPUS teams provide SEI treatment to all patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in Denmark. Participants 400 participants (51% women) with a mean age of 25.6 (standard deviation 4.3) were randomised to five years of SEI (experimental intervention; n=197) or to two years of SEI plus three years of treatment as usual (control; n=203). Interventions OPUS treatment consists of three core elements—modified assertive community treatment, family involvement, and social skill training—with a patient-case manager ratio of no more than 12:1. For participants randomised to five years of OPUS treatment, the treatment was largely unchanged. Participants randomised to the control group were mostly referred to community health centres after two years of SEI treatment. Main outcomes Follow-up assessments were conducted five years after start of OPUS treatment. Primary outcome was negative symptoms measured on the scale for assessment of negative symptoms (avolition-apathy, anhedonia, alogia, and affective blunting). Secondary outcomes were remission of both negative and psychotic symptoms, psychotic symptoms, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, compliance with medical treatment, adherence with treatment, client satisfaction, days in hospital care, and labour market affiliation. Results Levels of negative symptoms did not differ between the intervention group and control group (1.72 v 1.81 points; estimated mean difference −0.10 (95% confidence

  9. A community-based group-guided self-help intervention for low mood and stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Carrie-Anne; Morrison, Jill; McConnachie, Alex; Williams, Christopher

    2013-11-19

    Depression is a mental health condition which affects millions of people each year, with worldwide rates increasing. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is recommended in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for the treatment of depression. However, waiting lists can cause delays for face-to-face therapy. Also a proportion of people decline to present for help through the health service - the so-called treatment gap. Self-referral to CBT using community-based group interventions delivered by a voluntary sector organization may serve to resolve this problem. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine the efficacy of such a guided CBT self-help course, the 'Living Life to the Full' (LLTTF) classes delivered by the charity Action on Depression (AOD). The primary outcome is level of depression at 6 months assessed using the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ9) depression scale. Secondary measures include levels of anxiety and social functioning. Participants with symptoms of low mood will be recruited from the community through newspaper adverts and also via the AOD website. Participants will receive either immediate or delayed access to guided CBT self-help classes - the eight session LLTTF course. The primary endpoint will be at 6 months at which point the delayed group will be offered the intervention. Levels of depression, anxiety and social functioning will be assessed and an economic analysis will be carried out. This RCT will test whether the LLTTF intervention is effective and/or cost-effective. If the LLTTF community-based classes are found to be cost effective, they may be helpful as both an intervention for those already seeking care in the health service, as well as those seeking help outside that setting, widening access to psychological therapy. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86292664.

  10. Development of a Web-Based Intervention for Addressing Distress in Caregivers of Patients Receiving Stem Cell Transplants: Formative Evaluation With Qualitative Interviews and Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Tanisha; Simoneau, Teresa; Kilbourn, Kristin; Carr, Alaina; Kutner, Jean; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    Background Caregivers of cancer patients experience significant burden and distress including depression and anxiety. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of an eight session, in-person, one-on-one stress management intervention to reduce distress in caregivers of patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (allo-HSCT). Objective The objective of this study was to adapt and enhance the in-person caregiver stress management intervention to a mobilized website (eg, tablet, smartphone, or computer-based) for self-delivery in order to enhance dissemination to caregiver populations most in need. Methods We used an established approach for development of a mhealth intervention, completing the first two research and evaluation steps: Step One: Formative Research (eg, expert and stakeholder review from patients, caregivers, and palliative care experts) and Step Two: Pretesting (eg, Focus Groups and Individual Interviews with caregivers of patients with autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT). Step one included feedback elicited for a mock-up version of Pep-Pal session one from caregiver, patients and clinician stakeholders from a multidisciplinary palliative care team (N=9 caregivers and patient stakeholders and N=20 palliative care experts). Step two included two focus groups (N=6 caregivers) and individual interviews (N=9 caregivers) regarding Pep-Pal’s look and feel, content, acceptability, and potential usability/feasibility. Focus groups and individual interviews were audio-recorded. In addition, individual interviews were transcribed, and applied thematic analysis was conducted in order to gain an in-depth understanding to inform the development and refinement of the mobilized caregiver stress management intervention, Pep-Pal (PsychoEducation and skills for Patient caregivers). Results Overall, results were favorable. Pep-Pal was deemed acceptable for caregivers of patients receiving an auto-HSCT. The refined Pep-Pal program consisted of 9 sessions

  11. 大学生网络成瘾及团体心理干预策略%Internet addiction of college students and group psychological intervention strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华炜; 刘九林

    2013-01-01

    本文通过文献研究,分析了大学生网络成瘾的心理和行为特点,提出一些有效治疗大学生网络成瘾的团体领导策略和团体活动策略,并认为整合型团体心理干预方案效果更显著、更持久。%Through literature research, analysis of the psychological and behavioral characteristics of Internet addiction in college students, and puts forward some effective treatment of College Students' Internet addiction group leadership strategy and group activities, and that Integrated group psychological intervention is more effective, more durable.

  12. Comorbid ADHD and anxiety affect social skills group intervention treatment efficacy in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Polacek, Carol; McMahon, Michele; Dygert, Karen; Spenceley, Laura; Dygert, Lindsay; Miller, Laura; Faisal, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    To assess the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on social skill treatment outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A community sample of 83 children (74 males, 9 females) with an ASD (mean age = 9.5 yr; SD = 1.2) and common comorbid disorders participated in 10-week social skills training groups. The first 5 weeks of the group focused on conversation skills and the second 5 weeks focused on social problem solving skills. A concurrent parent group was also included in the treatment. Social skills were assessed using the Social Skills Rating System. Ratings were completed by parents at pre- and posttreatment time periods. Children with ASD and children with an ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder improved in their parent reported social skills. Children with ASD and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder failed to improve. Psychiatric comorbidity affects social skill treatment gains in the ASD population.

  13. Focus group reflections on the current and future state of cognitive assessment tools in geriatric health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead JC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jocelyne C Whitehead,1 Sara A Gambino,1 Jeffrey D Richter,2 Jennifer D Ryan1,3,41Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, 2Independent Human Factors Consultant, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaObjective: This study provides insight into the thoughts and opinions of geriatric health-care professionals toward cognitive assessments and the use of emerging technologies, such as eye-tracking, to supplement current tools.Methods: Two focus group sessions were conducted with nurses and physicians who routinely administer neurocognitive assessments to geriatric populations. Video recordings of the focus group sessions were transcribed and a thematic analysis was performed.Results: Participants reported the need for assessment and diagnostic tools that are accessible and efficient, and that are capable of accommodating the rapid growth in the aging population. The prevalence of more complex ailments experienced by older adults has had repercussions in the quality of care that the clients receive, and has contributed to lengthy wait times and resource shortages. Health-care professionals stated that they are hampered by the disjointed structure of the health-care system and that they would benefit from a more efficient allocation of responsibilities made possible through tools that did not require extensive training or certification. Eyetracking-based cognitive assessments were thought to strongly complement this system, yet it was thought that difficulty would be faced in gaining the support and increased uptake by health-care professionals due to the nonintuitive relationship between eyetracking and cognition.Conclusion: The findings suggest that health-care professionals are receptive to the use of eyetracking technology to assess for cognitive health as it would conserve resources by allowing frontline staff to administer assessments with minimal training

  14. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  15. Differential Therapeutic Outcomes of Community-Based Group Interventions for Women and Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Paula T.

    2011-01-01

    Two community-based group therapies, emotion focused versus goal oriented, are compared among women exposed to intimate partner violence (n = 46) and their children (n = 48) aged between 6 and 12 years. A series of repeated measures analyses are employed to evaluate the effects of time from baseline to postintervention following random assignment.…

  16. A Promotora-administered group education intervention to promote breast and cervical cancer screening in a rural community along the U.S.-Mexico border: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, Tomas; Martinez, Maria Elena; Harris, Robin; García, Francisco

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm among Hispanic women. Cervical cancer has a higher incidence and mortality among Hispanic women compared with non-Hispanic White women. To assess the effectiveness of a promotora-administered educational intervention to promote breast and cervical cancer screening among post-reproductive age, medically underserved Hispanic women residing along the U.S.-Mexico border. Women age 50 or older were eligible to participate in this intervention study. A total of 381 subjects agreed to participate. Women were randomly assigned into one of two groups, educational intervention or usual care. The primary outcomes were self-reported mammogram and Pap smear screening. Logistic regression analysis was used to compute odds ratios for comparisons between intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group were 2.0 times more likely to report having had a mammogram within the last year when compared with the usual care group (95% CI = 1.3-3.1). Likewise, women in the intervention group were 1.5 times more likely to report having a Pap smear within the last year when compared with the usual care group, although this was not statistically significant (95% CI = 0.9-2.6). In a secondary analysis, the intervention suggests a stronger effect on those that had not had a mammogram or Pap smear within the past year at baseline. A promotora-based educational intervention can be used to increase breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic women.

  17. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Hyung Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of < 3 years and newly hired workers with a relatively shorter working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  18. Officer attitudes towards intra-group aggression in young people and young adults: does the reported motivation of an aggressor impact on intervention and support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Polly; Ireland, Jane L

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to assess whether global and context specific attitudes influence the ability to correctly identify the motivation for aggression and selection of appropriate intervention strategies. A sample of 105 prison officers completed a measure assessing global attitudes towards prisoners, one assessing context specific attitudes towards aggression, and also a case vignette. Officers were asked to consider the motivation for aggression and to select an appropriate intervention. It was predicted that sex, age and level of experience would impact on global and context specific attitudes. Officers expressing positive global attitudes and non-aggressive context specific attitudes were expected to be more able to identify the motivation for aggression and more likely to adopt a rehabilitative approach. There was evidence to indicate sex differences in global and context specific attitudes but no impact of age. Level of experience of aggression impacted both on global and context specific attitudes. Global or context specific attitudes did not influence the ability to interpret aggression, but aggression type did. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Lectures based on cardinal symptoms in undergraduate medicine - effects of evaluation-based interventions on teaching large groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnigk, Olaf; Weidtmann, Katja; Anders, Sven; Hüneke, Bernd; Santer, René; Harendza, Sigrid

    2011-01-01

    Despite critical voices lectures are still an important teaching format in current medical curricula. With the curricular reform at Hamburg Medical Faculty in the year 2004, all subject specific lectures were replaced by cardinal symptom oriented lectures (LSV) in the new clinical curriculum. LSVs are taught throughout all six thematic blocks in years three to five. Since regular student evaluations after each thematic block seemed to demand improvement of the LSVs, this study was carried out using evaluations of individual LSVs by the participating students and by trained auditors (final year students and academic staff). Based on these evaluations feedback containing the individual evaluation data was given in written form to the lecturers combined with information material on planning an LSV using modern didactic techniques. In a second evaluation period, the effects of this intervention were studied. Only small improvements in the LSVs' quality were noted regarding the level of marks achieved. When individual items were evaluated, especially the didactic quality, significant improvements were noticeable. Overall, on the basis of individual items students ranked the quality of the LSVs significantly higher than trained auditors during the first evaluation period. This effect was no longer seen after the second evaluation period. The inter rater reliability among the auditors was very good. This study shows that regular quality assurance is needed on the structural levels and for staff to accompany the process of embedding teaching formats into curricular concepts. Further investigation is needed to determine the adequate frequency of evaluation and the format of feedback to guarantee sustainable effects of the didactic quality of lectures.

  20. The Healthy Start project: a randomized, controlled intervention to prevent overweight among normal weight, preschool children at high risk of future overweight

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen Nanna; Buch-Andersen Tine; Händel Mina; Østergaard Louise; Pedersen Jeanett; Seeger Charlotte; Stougaard Maria; Trærup Maria; Livemore Kate; Mortensen Erik; Holst Claus; Heitmann Berit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Research shows that obesity prevention has to start early. Targeting interventions towards subgroups of individuals who are predisposed, but yet normal weight, may prove more effective in preventing overweight than interventions towards unselected normal weight subsets. Finally, interventions focused on other factors than diet and activity are lacking. The objectives were to perform a randomized, controlled intervention aiming at preventing overweight in children aged 2–6 ...