WorldWideScience

Sample records for group functional balance

  1. Synthesis of Polystyrene-Based Random Copolymers with Balanced Number of Basic or Acidic Functional Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2010-01-01

    for the functionalization were applied. The first one involved direct functionalization of the template backbone through alkylation of the phenolic groups with suitable reagents. The second modification approach was based on "click" chemistry, where the introduction of alkyne groups onto the template backbone was followed......Pairs of polystyrene-based random copolymers with balanced number of pendant basic or acidic groups were synthesized utilizing the template strategy. The same poly[(4-hydroxystyrene)-ran-styrene] was used as a template backbone for modification. Two different synthetic approaches...... by copper-catalyzed 1,3 cycloaddition of aliphatic sulfonate- or amine-contaning azides. Both synthetic approaches proved to be highly efficient as evidenced by H-1-NMR analyses. The thermal properties were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analyses and were influenced...

  2. [MODen: Psychoeducationnal therapeutic group program for schizophrenic patients, based on nutritional balance and pleasure, using cognitive functions: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, S L; Hochard, C; Orens, S; Gautier, C; Lambert, T; Geret, L; Bralet, M C

    2016-10-01

    Schizophrenia causes psychological difficulties (with positive and/or negative symptoms) as well as cognitive disabilities (attention, memory, executive functions and social cognition). Moreover, 40 to 60% of patients suffer from an excess of weight or obesity (due to bad eating habits, eating disorders or medication). All these difficulties impair their autonomy and their insertion into the society. In this context, setting-up a therapeutic tool, which may have cognitive benefits seems relevant. Thus, MODen is a therapeutic educational tool whose aim is to improve cognitive functions and the symptoms by using "nutritional balance" as an aid. In this treatment program, two therapists lead a group of 5 to 8 patients which group meets once a week during two to four hours for 16 weeks, divided in 4 cycles. The first three weeks of each cycle consists of theoretical instruction: patients talk about their eating habits, information is given about nutritional balance and preparation of meals. In the different cycles, flexibility, planning, memory and attention are trained. For instance, the work on categorisation of foods and nutritional balance allow enhancing flexibility abilities. Writing down the lists of different ingredients needed for one week's meals and preparation of meals train planning abilities. MODen also takes into account ecological issues such as the limited budget of patients to do their shopping (this budget is around 4 euros per meal in France). The budget is also linked to planning abilities and reasoning. Finally, during the last session of each cycle the group prepares a meal (from the shopping to cooking). This last session is all about sharing and social cognition abilities. By the end of the program, patients will have prepared four meals together. Also "homework" has to be done each week in order to facilitate memorisation of what has been learned during the last session and to prepare the beginning of the next session. In a pilot study with 8

  3. STATIC BALANCE MEASUREMENTS IN STABLE AND UNSTABLE CONDITIONS DO NOT DISCRIMINATE GROUPS OF YOUNG ADULTS ASSESSED BY THE FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREEN™ (FMS™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Matheus A; de Toledo, Aline Martins; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Souza, Igor Eduardo; Dos Santos Mendes, Felipe Augusto; Santana, Luisiane A; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz

    2017-11-01

    The Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) has been the focus of recent research related to movement profiling and injury prediction. However, there is a paucity of studies examining the associations between physical performance tasks such as balance and the FMS™ screening system. The purpose of this study was to compare measures of static balance in stable and unstable conditions between different groups divided by FMS™ scores. A secondary purpose was to discern if balance indices discriminate the groups divided by FMS™ scores. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-seven physically active subjects (25 men and 32 women; mean age of 22.9 ± 3.1 yrs) participated. The outcome was unilateral stance balance indices, composed by: Anteroposterior Index; Medial-lateral Index, and Overall Balance Index in stable and unstable conditions, as provided by the Biodex balance platform. Subjects were dichotomized into two groups, according to a FMS™ cut-off score of 14: FMS1 (score > 14) and FMS2 (score ≤ 14). The independent Students t-test was used to verify differences in balance indices between FMS1 and FMS2 groups. A discriminant analysis was applied in order to identify which of the balance indices would adequately discriminate the FMS™ groups. Comparisons between FMS1 and FMS2 groups in the stable and unstable conditions demonstrated a higher unstable Anteroposterior index for FMS2 (p=0.017). No significant differences were found for other comparisons (p>0.05). The indices did not discriminate the FMS™ groups ( p  > 0.05). The balance indices adopted in this study were not useful as a parameter for identification and discrimination of healthy subjects assessed by the FMS™. 2c.

  4. Balanced identity in the minimal groups paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarrow Dunham

    Full Text Available Balanced Identity Theory [1] formalizes a set of relationships between group attitude, group identification, and self-esteem. While these relationships have been demonstrated for familiar and highly salient social categories, questions remain regarding the generality of the balance phenomenon and its causal versus descriptive status. Supporting the generality and rapidity of cognitive balance, four studies demonstrate that the central predictions of balance are supported even for previously unfamiliar "minimal" social groups to which participants have just been randomly assigned. Further, supporting a causal as opposed to merely descriptive interpretation, manipulating any one component of the balance model (group attitude, group identification, or self-esteem affects at least one of the related components. Interestingly, the broader pattern of cognitive balance was preserved across such manipulations only when the manipulation strengthens as opposes to weakens the manipulated construct. Taken together, these findings indicate that Balanced Identity Theory has promise as a general theory of intergroup attitudes, and that it may be able to shed light on prior inconsistencies concerning the relationship between self-esteem and intergroup bias.

  5. Balanced identity in the minimal groups paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Yarrow

    2013-01-01

    Balanced Identity Theory [1] formalizes a set of relationships between group attitude, group identification, and self-esteem. While these relationships have been demonstrated for familiar and highly salient social categories, questions remain regarding the generality of the balance phenomenon and its causal versus descriptive status. Supporting the generality and rapidity of cognitive balance, four studies demonstrate that the central predictions of balance are supported even for previously unfamiliar "minimal" social groups to which participants have just been randomly assigned. Further, supporting a causal as opposed to merely descriptive interpretation, manipulating any one component of the balance model (group attitude, group identification, or self-esteem) affects at least one of the related components. Interestingly, the broader pattern of cognitive balance was preserved across such manipulations only when the manipulation strengthens as opposes to weakens the manipulated construct. Taken together, these findings indicate that Balanced Identity Theory has promise as a general theory of intergroup attitudes, and that it may be able to shed light on prior inconsistencies concerning the relationship between self-esteem and intergroup bias.

  6. Renormalization Group Functional Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Curtright, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Functional conjugation methods are used to analyze the global structure of various renormalization group trajectories. With minimal assumptions, the methods produce continuous flows from step-scaling {\\sigma} functions, and lead to exact functional relations for the local flow {\\beta} functions, whose solutions may have novel, exotic features, including multiple branches. As a result, fixed points of {\\sigma} are sometimes not true fixed points under continuous changes in scale, and zeroes of {\\beta} do not necessarily signal fixed points of the flow, but instead may only indicate turning points of the trajectories.

  7. Functional Group Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on analytical methods related to the functional groups of 17 chemical compounds is reviewed. These compounds include acids, acid azides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amino acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbodiimides, carbohydrates, ethers, nitro compounds, nitrosamines, organometallic compounds, peroxides, phenols, silicon compounds,…

  8. Functional Balance and Its Determinants in Older People with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Ju; Yang, Yi-Ching; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Lee, Pei-Yun; Lee, I-Ting; Lin, Sang-I

    2016-01-01

    To determine functional balance abilities of older adults with diabetes, and identify determinants of these abilities. Eighty diabetic and 67 healthy non-diabetic community-dwelling older adults completed the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and questionnaires about their medical and fall histories. Participants were also assessed for vision, plantar sensitivity, muscle strength, and functional balance, including Functional Reach (FR), Five Times Sit-to-Stand (FTSTS), and 180° turn (TURN). In addition to between-group comparisons, hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to identify the independent determinants for each of the individual balance tasks for the diabetes and control group separately. The diabetes group had significantly greater body mass index, higher rate of cardiac disease, and poorer plantar sensitivity, mental status, grip and lower limb strength. The diabetes group performed significantly poorer in FTSTS and TURN (both pdeterminants for the balance tasks varied substantially between tasks and groups. For the diabetes group, they included visual and plantar sensitivity and MMSE for FR (R2 = 0.39), ankle dorsiflexion strength for FTSTS (R2 = 0.377), and plantar sensitivity, knee extension strength and MMSE for TURN (R2 = 0.391). For the control group, knee extension strength emerged as the common and only significant determinant and only explained approximately 10% of the variance for FR and TURN. Impairments in functional balance abilities were evident for older adults with diabetes. Their underpinning functional limitations were different for different tasks and were also different from those of the control group. Screening of functional balance and mental status, lower limb strength and sensory function, and interventions to address these impairments may be important to maintain function, independence and safety for older clients with diabetes.

  9. Partial Key Grouping: Load-Balanced Partitioning of Distributed Streams

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Muhammad Anis Uddin; Morales, Gianmarco De Francisci; Garcia-Soriano, David; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Serafini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of load balancing in distributed stream processing engines, which is exacerbated in the presence of skew. We introduce PARTIAL KEY GROUPING (PKG), a new stream partitioning scheme that adapts the classical “power of two choices” to a distributed streaming setting by leveraging two novel techniques: key splitting and local load estimation. In so doing, it achieves better load balancing than key grouping while being more scalable than shuffle grouping. We test PKG on severa...

  10. Considerations related to the Analysis of the Financial Balance of the Trading Company Interlink Group SRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton C.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the financial balance in the company’s activity implies the amortization of the resources with the needs, reflected as the functional balance sheet. The information transmitted by means of the accounting balance sheet as a synthesis document, is processed and grouped so that the view on the company appears from the functional point of view and the functional presentation of the balance sheet highlights financial, structural aspects that best respond to the requirements of the company managers. According to the functional point of view, the company is the economic entity whose essential objective is the production of goods and services, its activity implying the exertion of the production, trade, investments and financing functions. The paper aims at establishing a financial diagnosis allowing the appreciation of the conditions in which financial balance is made for the continuity of INTERLINK GROUP SRL company’s activity and attaining the proposed intend.

  11. Functional Balance Training Using a Domed Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    people. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 31:182–187. 2003. 17. Roubenoff, R. Sarcopenia and its im- plications for the elderly . Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 54(Suppl 3):S40–7... elderly and the injured (7, 10, 18). Functional balance training involves skilled body movement patterns that si- multaneously require movement and...important aspect of athletic and occupational perfor- mance, in the elderly , and for injury rehabilitation, where use of a novel domed device can be

  12. Virtual reality training improves balance function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-09-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.

  13. Virtual reality training improves balance function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function. PMID:25368651

  14. Balance Function in High-Energy Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, A.; Shalaby, Asmaa G.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects and implications of the balance functions (BF) in high-energy physics are reviewed. The various calculations and measurements depending on different quantities, for example, system size, collisions centrality, and beam energy, are discussed. First, the different definitions including advantages and even short-comings are highlighted. It is found that BF, which are mainly presented in terms of relative rapidity, and relative azimuthal and invariant relative momentum, are sensitive to the interaction centrality but not to the beam energy and can be used in estimating the hadronization time and the hadron-quark phase transition. Furthermore, the quark chemistry can be determined. The chemical evolution of the new-state-of-matter, the quark-gluon plasma, and its temporal-spatial evolution, femtoscopy of two-particle correlations, are accessible. The production time of positive-negative pair of charges can be determined from the widths of BF. Due to the reduction in the diffusion time, narrowed widths refer to delayed hadronization. It is concluded that BF are powerful tools characterizing hadron-quark phase transition and estimating some essential properties

  15. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  16. Static, dynamic balance and functional performance in subjects with and without plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiseane Aguiar Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Plantar fasciitis (PF is characterized by non-inflammatory degeneration and pain under the heel, and is one of the most common foot complaints. The compensations and adjustments made to decrease the discomfort caused by the disease are clinical findings and can be a factor that contributes to impaired balance and decreased functional performance. Objective: To compare functional performance as well as static and dynamic balance among subjects with and without PF. Methods: The sample consisted of 124 subjects of both sexes aged 20-60 years. Participants were divided into two groups: a bilateral PF group (PFG; n = 62 and a control group (CG, n = 62. The following outcomes were analyzed: static and dynamic balance (using functional tests and functional performance (using a questionnaire. We used Student’s t test for independent samples to compare variables between the groups. The alpha error was set at 0.05. Results: Subjects with PF showed greater impairment in their overall dynamic balance performance (p < 0.001 than the control group, except for left posteromedial movement (p = 0.19. The CG showed showed better functional performance (p < 0.001 than the PF group. There was no difference between groups for the variable static balance on stable (p = 0.160 and unstable surfaces (p = 0.085. Conclusion: Subjects with PF displayed smaller reach distances in the overall Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT, demonstrating a deficit in dynamic balance and functional performance when compared with healthy subjects.

  17. Effects of visual feedback balance training on the balance and ankle instability in adult men with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seung-Min; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Do Youn

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of visual feedback balance training on the balance and ankle instability in adult men with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty eight adults with functional ankle instability, divided randomly into an experimental group, which performed visual feedback balance training for 20 minutes and ankle joint exercises for 10 minutes, and a control group, which performed ankle joint exercise for 30 minutes. Exercises were completed three times a week for 8 weeks. Bio rescue was used for balance ability. It measured limit of stability at one minute. For ankle instability was measured using Cumberland ankle instability tool (CAIT). This measure was performed before and after the experiments in each group. [Results] The experimental group had significant increase in the Limit of Stability and CAIT score. The control group had significant increase in CAIT score. While the Limit of Stability increased without significance. [Conclusion] In conclusion, visual feedback balance training can be recommended as a treatment method for patients with functional ankle instability.

  18. Magnetic susceptibility of functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, T.; Ferraro, M.B.; Contreras, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Proceeding with a series of works where new criteria are applied to the the calculation of the contribution of molecular fragments to certain properties, results are presented for a group of 1-X-benzenes and 1-X-naphtalenes for the magnetic susceptibility constant. Both the diamagnetic and paramagnetic parts are taken into account. To reduce the problems associated with the Gauge dependence originated in the approximations made, Gauge independent atomic orbitals (GIAO) orbitals are used in the atomic orbital basis. Results are discussed in terms of functional groups. (Author). 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. The transposition of the balance sheet to financial and functional balance sheet. Research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana GĂDĂU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the title suggests, through this paper we want to highlight the necessity of treating again the content and the form of the balance sheet in order to adapt it to a more efficient analysis, this way surpassing the informational valences of the classic balance sheet. The functional and the financial balance sheet will be taken into account. These models of balance sheet permit the complex analyses regarding the solvability or the bankruptcy risk of an enterprise to take place, and also other analyses, like the analysis of the structure and the financial/ functional equilibrium, the analysis of the company on operating cycles and their role in the functioning of the company. Through the particularities offered by each of these two models of balance sheet, we want to present the advantages of a superior informing. This content of this material is based on a vast investigation of the specialized literature.

  20. Analysis of pain, functional capacity, muscular strength and balance in young women with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camile Ludovico Zamboti

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS is associated with anterior knee pain, changes in functional capacity, balance and muscle strength disorders. Objective: To quantify pain, functional capacity, strength in quadriceps (Q, gluteus medium (GM, hip external rotator (ER muscles and balance in sedentary women with PFPS. Methods: Twenty sedentary women, aged 18 to 25 years, were divided into two groups: PFPS (N=10 and control group (N=10. All the volunteers answered the items of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Lysholm Knee Score Scale, the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS, and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS. The participants performed the following tests: maximal voluntary isometric contraction measured by dynamometry; postural balance using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT and a force platform. Statistical analyses were performed using the Shapiro Wilk test, the Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Data were submitted to SPSS 20 software. Results: The PFPS group presented greater pain, balance impairment and higher average velocity of oscillation; however, no differences were observed in Q, GM and RE muscle strength and in balance analyzed by SEBT. Conclusion: Women with PFPS exhibited greater pain, worse functional capacity and body balance. Moderate correlation between both balance tests suggests the use of SEBT when the force platform is not available, which could facilitate and highlight the importance of clinical diagnosis with regard to postural balance.

  1. A computer vision based candidate for functional balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalci, Alican; Khodamoradi, Alireza; Balkan, Ozgur; Nahab, Fatta; Garudadri, Harinath

    2015-08-01

    Balance in humans is a motor skill based on complex multimodal sensing, processing and control. Ability to maintain balance in activities of daily living (ADL) is compromised due to aging, diseases, injuries and environmental factors. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate of the costs of falls among older adults was $34 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $54.9 billion in 2020. In this paper, we present a brief review of balance impairments followed by subjective and objective tools currently used in clinical settings for human balance assessment. We propose a novel computer vision (CV) based approach as a candidate for functional balance test. The test will take less than a minute to administer and expected to be objective, repeatable and highly discriminative in quantifying ability to maintain posture and balance. We present an informal study with preliminary data from 10 healthy volunteers, and compare performance with a balance assessment system called BTrackS Balance Assessment Board. Our results show high degree of correlation with BTrackS. The proposed system promises to be a good candidate for objective functional balance tests and warrants further investigations to assess validity in clinical settings, including acute care, long term care and assisted living care facilities. Our long term goals include non-intrusive approaches to assess balance competence during ADL in independent living environments.

  2. [Rational balanced nutrition of schoolchildren of various age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, N V; Samolyuk, N G; Fedotov, A S; Krotenko, N M

    2013-01-01

    The problem of nutrition of schoolchildren as the main index of health status is considered. Recommendations for implementation of correction system of school feeding in conditions of Siberia will be presented. The purpose of work: on the basis of the results of monitoring living activity and assessment of the health of schoolchildren of different age groups in Siberia to develop guidelines on the rational balanced nutrition. Studies bear witness to inadequate diet and regimen of feeding of schoolchildren. In Siberia a progressive deterioration in the health of students during the years of learning is observed, part of diseases is associated with an unbalanced diet. We offer the project, in course of realization of which study in schools are carried out, scientifically grounded recommendations on appropriate diet and regimen of feeding for schoolchildren of different age groups in the Siberia in the cold and warm period of the year are developed. Implementation of recommendations will result in the general improvement of children health and reduction in medical aid appealability due to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

  3. Effects of virtual reality programs on balance in functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Heo, Myoung

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to identify the impact that recent virtual reality training programs used in a variety of fields have had on the ankle's static and dynamic senses of balance among subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly divided research subjects into two groups, a strengthening exercise group (Group I) and a balance exercise group (Group II), with each group consisting of 10 people. A virtual reality program was performed three times a week for four weeks. Exercises from the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus program were applied to each group for twenty minutes along with ten minutes of warming up and wrap-up exercises. [Results] Group II showed a significant decrease of post-intervention static and dynamic balance overall in the anterior-posterior, and mediolateral directions, compared with the pre-intervention test results. In comparison of post-intervention static and dynamic balance between Group I and Group II, a significant decrease was observed overall. [Conclusion] Virtual reality programs improved the static balance and dynamic balance of subjects with functional ankle instability. Virtual reality programs can be used more safely and efficiently if they are implemented under appropriate monitoring by a physiotherapist.

  4. Robust energy storage scheduling for imbalance reduction of strategically formed energy balancing groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Shantanu; Okabe, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Imbalance (on-line energy gap between contracted supply and actual demand, and associated cost) reduction is going to be a crucial service for a Power Producer and Supplier (PPS) in the deregulated energy market. PPS requires forward market interactions to procure energy as precisely as possible in order to reduce imbalance energy. This paper presents, 1) (off-line) an effective demand aggregation based strategy for creating a number of balancing groups that leads to higher predictability of group-wise aggregated demand, 2) (on-line) a robust energy storage scheduling that minimizes the imbalance energy and cost of a particular balancing group considering the demand prediction uncertainty. The group formation is performed by a Probabilistic Programming approach using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method after applied on the historical demand statistics. Apart from the group formation, the aggregation strategy (with the help of Bayesian Inference) also clears out the upper-limit of the required storage capacity for a formed group, fraction of which is to be utilized in on-line operation. For on-line operation, a robust energy storage scheduling method is proposed that minimizes expected imbalance energy and cost (a non-linear function of imbalance energy) while incorporating the demand uncertainty of a particular group. The proposed methods are applied on the real apartment buildings' demand data in Tokyo, Japan. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. - Highlights: • Strategic method for intelligent energy balancing group formation using Bayesian MCMC. • Stochastic programming based robust and online energy storage (battery) scheduling. • Imbalance cost (regulation) and energy reduction of a balancing group. • Imbalance cost reduction of 80% attainable by considerably lower battery capacity.

  5. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

  6. Effect of Core Stability Training on Trunk Function, Standing Balance, and Mobility in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Koshiro; Kawakami, Michiyuki; Otsuka, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Trunk function is important for standing balance, mobility, and functional outcome after stroke, but few studies have evaluated the effects of exercises aimed at improving core stability in stroke patients. To investigate the effectiveness of core stability training on trunk function, standing balance, and mobility in stroke patients. An assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial was undertaken in a stroke rehabilitation ward, with 32 participants randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group (n = 16 each). The experimental group received 400 minutes of core stability training in place of conventional programs within total training time, while the control group received only conventional programs. Primary outcome measures were evaluated using the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), which reflects trunk function. Secondary outcome measures were evaluated by pelvic tilt active range of motion in the sagittal plane, the Balance Evaluation Systems Test-brief version (Brief-BESTest), Functional Reach test, Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG), and Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC). A general linear repeated-measures model was used to analyze the results. A treatment effect was found for the experimental group on the dynamic balance subscale and total score of the TIS ( P = .002 and P Core stability training has beneficial effects on trunk function, standing balance, and mobility in stroke patients. Our findings might provide support for introducing core stability training in stroke rehabilitation.

  7. Effects of Balance Control Training on Functional Outcomes in Subacute Hemiparetic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jin Seok; Lee, Yang-Soo; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Min, Yu-Sun; Kang, Min-Gu; Jung, Tae-Du

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy of balance control training using a newly developed balance control trainer (BalPro) on the balance and gait of patients with subacute hemiparetic stroke. Forty-three subacute stroke patients were assigned to either a balance control training (BCT) group or a control group. The BCT group (n=23) was trained with BalPro for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks, and received one daily session of conventional physical therapy. The control group (n=20) received two sessions of conventional physical therapy every day for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was assessment with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Secondary outcomes were Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), the 6-minute walking test (6mWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG), the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), and the manual muscle test (MMT) of the knee extensor. All outcome measures were evaluated before and after 2 weeks of training in both groups. There were statistically significant improvements in all parameters except MMT and FAC after 2 weeks of treatment in both groups. After training, the BCT group showed greater improvements in the BBS and the 6mWT than did the control group. Balance control training using BalPro could be a useful treatment for improving balance and gait in subacute hemiparetic stroke patients.

  8. Balance Functional Assessment in People with Visual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Izabela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were twofold: to assess the level of balance of people with visual impairment against the BOT-2 standard scores for the able-bodied, and to identify in which trials subjects had the greatest difficulties in maintaining balance with respect to the degree of vision loss and age categories. One hundred twenty-seven subjects with visual impairment aged 6-16 years, participated in the study (68 girls and 59 boys. The division for partially sighted people (61 and the blind (66 was made according to the WHO classification. Functional balance assessment was made using a balance subtest from the Bruininks-Oseretsky test. Significant relationships were noticed between age and the level of balance (χ2 = 8.35 p <0,05, as well as between the degree of vision loss and the level of balance (χ2 = 24.53 p <0,001. The level of balance of almost all blind subjects was below (20% or well-below (60% the average for the able-bodied. The subjects’ ability to maintain balance was not dependent on gender and was associated primarily with the degree of visual impairment and age. Partially sighted people had better balance than the blind and the decrease in visual acuity resulted in reduction of balance skills. The lowest level of balance was observed in blind students aged 7-11 years. Elaborating physical fitness improvement programs for children and adolescents with visual impairment, diversity of age, the degree of vision loss and limitations of ablility to maintain balance should be taken into account.

  9. Functional-Strengthening: A Pilot Study on Balance Control Improvement in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah D. Josephson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adults over the age of 65 have a 1 in 3 chance of falling; in 2012, more than $30 billion was spent on medical costs due to these falls. The division of resistance training and neuromotor training balance improvement interventions has shown to yield low to moderate results. Athletes combine both resistance training and skill development (function training to improve skilled performance. Older adults may not be performing high-level sports activities, but still require strength, power, and functional fitness levels to perform relatively high-level skills. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of combining resistance and functional training into functional-strength training on dynamic balance control in moderately active older adults. Eighteen healthy older adults were divided into three groups; functional resistance, standard resistance, and control. All groups met for their intervention twice a week for six weeks. Dynamic balance was assessed using the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (0-40. Results of individual paired T-tests showed a significant improvement in balance control in the functional resistance group (t(5 =-3.492, p=.017 and a very large effect size (d=1.33 whereas neither the standard resistance nor control group had a significant reduction in the risk of falls. Manipulating multidimensional, neuromotor function during resistance training exercises is an effective method of applying the overload principle in order to reduce falls risk in moderately active seniors.

  10. Relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Häkkinen, Arja; Lönnroos, Eija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Sulkava, Raimo; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2013-10-01

    Vision is an important prerequisite for balance control and mobility. The role of objectively measured visual functions has been previously studied but less is known about associations of functional vision, that refers to self-perceived vision-based ability to perform daily activities. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in a community-based sample of older adults. This study is part of a Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for the Good Care of the Elderly project (GeMS). Participants (576) aged 76-100 years (mean age 81 years, 70 % women) were interviewed using a seven-item functional vision questionnaire (VF-7). Balance and mobility were measured by the Berg balance scale (BBS), timed up and go (TUG), chair stand test, and maximal walking speed. In addition, self-reported fear of falling, depressive symptoms (15-item Geriatric Depression Scale), cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination) and physical activity (Grimby) were assessed. In the analysis, participants were classified into poor, moderate, or good functional vision groups. The poor functional vision group (n = 95) had more comorbidities, depressed mood, cognition decline, fear of falling, and reduced physical activity compared to participants with moderate (n = 222) or good functional vision (n = 259). Participants with poor functional vision performed worse on all balance and mobility tests. After adjusting for gender, age, chronic conditions, and cognition, the linearity remained statistically significant between functional vision and BBS (p = 0.013), TUG (p = 0.010), and maximal walking speed (p = 0.008), but not between functional vision and chair stand (p = 0.069). Poor functional vision is related to weaker balance and mobility performance in community-dwelling older adults. This highlights the importance of widespread assessment of health, including functional vision, to prevent balance impairment and maintain

  11. The Effects of Core Stabilization Exercise on Dynamic Balance and Gait Function in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of core stabilization exercise on dynamic balance and gait function in stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 stroke patients, who were randomly divided into two groups: a core stabilization exercise group of eight subjects and control group of eight subjects. [Methods] Subjects in both groups received general training five times per week. Subjects in the core stabilization exercise group practiced an additional core s...

  12. The effect of balance training on cervical sensorimotor function and neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinert, Konstantin; Taube, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The authors' aim was to evaluate the effect of balance training on cervical joint position sense in people with subclinical neck pain. Thirty-four participants were randomly assigned to balance training or to stay active. Sensorimotor function was determined before and after 5 weeks of training by assessing the ability to reproduce the neutral head position and a predefined rotated head position. After balance training, the intervention group showed improved joint repositioning accuracy and decreased pain whereas no effects were observed in the control group. A weak correlation was identified between reduced neck pain intensity and improved joint repositioning. The present data demonstrate that balance training can effectively improve cervical sensorimotor function and decrease neck pain intensity.

  13. Initial experience gained with the balance-group system of the Swiss power supply legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, M.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the initial experience gained with the Swiss balance-group system. This system was introduced within the framework of Swiss power supply legislation (StromVG - Stromversorgungsgesetz). The balance-group system was considered to be an essential precondition for the implementation of an energy trading business in a liberalised power market. The associated rights and responsibilities and the economic risks involved are discussed in detail. The partners and structures involved in such a balance-group are looked at and basic models for the associated contracts are examined. The relationship between balance-groups and the national power grid Swissgrid are discussed

  14. Relationship Between Functional Mobility and Balance and Dependency in Activity of Daily Living in Elderly After “Hip Arthroplasty”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hassan Mirzaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate correlation between functional mobility with balance and dependency in activity of daily living in elderly after “hip arthroplasty” (HA and its comparison with healthy subjects. Methods & Materials: The current cross-sectional study was done on 15 patients with age mean and standard deviation (72±9.6 with hip osteoarthritis 6 months after “hip arthroplasty” (HA and 15 healthy subjects with age mean and standard deviation (72.7±1.4 as control group. Patient group was assigned with non- probability convenient sampling and control group selected with matched assignment. Functional mobility measured with Timed Up & Go Test (TUG, functional balance with Functional Reach (FR and Berg Balance Scale (BBS and dependency in activity of daily living measured with Modified Barthel Index (MBI. Pearsons correlation coefficient used for stastistical analysis. Results: Results of this study indicated significantly and stronge correlation between functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in patient group (r>0.50. Also medium correlation existed between functional mobility and balance with dependency in activity of daily living in control group (r>0.30. Conclusion: Functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in the elderly who had HA showed significant positive correlation. In addition correlation between functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in patient group is better and higher than healthy group.

  15. Regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults in Japan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko

    2017-08-22

    While community-wide interventions to promote physical activity have been encouraged in older adults, evidence of their effectiveness remains limited. We conducted a qualitative study among older adults participating in regular group exercise to understand their perceptions of the physical, mental, and social changes they underwent as a result of the physical activity. We conducted a qualitative study with purposeful sampling to explore the experiences of older adults who participated in regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention. Four focus group interviews were conducted between April and June of 2016 at community halls in Fujisawa City. The participants in the focus group interviews were 26 older adults with a mean age of 74.69 years (range: 66-86). The interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method in the grounded theory approach. We used qualitative research software NVivo10® to track the coding and manage the data. The finding 'regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults' emerged as an overarching theme with seven categories (regular group exercise, functional health, active mind, enjoyment, social connectedness, mutual support, and expanding communities). Although the participants perceived that they were aging physically and cognitively, the regular group exercise helped them to improve or maintain their functional health and enjoy their lives. They felt socially connected and experienced a sense of security in the community through caring for others and supporting each other. As the older adults began to seek value beyond individuals, they gradually expanded their communities beyond geographical and generational boundaries. The participants achieved balanced health in the physical, mental, and social domains through regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention and contributed to expanding communities through social connectedness and

  16. The effect of musical movement activities on the balance function of autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Atigh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autistic children with low level performance have problems in social interaction, communication skills and sensory processing as well as motor and balance function. Musical activity is one of the most effective therapeutic strategies to manage some of these core defects. The present study examined the effect of musical movement activities on the balance function of 7 to 14 years autistic children with low performance. Methods: Twenty-two autistic students with low performance at age range of 7 to 14 years old participated in the study were assigned to experimental and control group randomly. The interventions were consisted of musical movement activities for experimental and without music for control group. Balance performance of subjects was assessed before treatment, and after 12th and 24th therapeutic sessions using balancing subtest of Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOTMP. The assessments were double blinded. Data were analyzed employing repeated measures of ANOVA. The SPSS software-version 17was used. Results: The results indicated that the effect of interventions on two groups was significantly different (F; 1.2= 52.8, P<0.001. The improvement in the balancing performance has been observed in both groups after 12th and 24th sessions although the difference in balance scores between groups was higher after 24th treatment session (P<0.001; that is in experimental group more improvement was obtained. Conclusion: The findings suggest that musical movement activities can accelerate the improvement in balance function of autistic children with low performance.

  17. Supervised Versus Home Exercise Training Programs on Functional Balance in Older Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Enas Fawzy; Shanb, Alsayed Abd Elhameed

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in physical capabilities and a disturbance of both postural control and daily living activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supervised versus home exercise programs on muscle strength, balance and functional activities in older participants. Forty older participants were equally assigned to a supervised exercise program (group-I) or a home exercise program (group-II). Each participant performed the exercise program for 35-45 minutes, two times per week for four months. Balance indices and isometric muscle strength were measured with the Biodex Balance System and Hand-Held Dynamometer. Functional activities were evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the timed get-up-and-go test (TUG). The mean values of the Biodex balance indices and the BBS improved significantly after both the supervised and home exercise programs ( P training programs significantly increased balance performance. The supervised program was superior to the home program in restoring functional activities and isometric muscle strength in older participants.

  18. Growth functions for some uniformly amenable groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dronka Janusz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple constructive proof of the fact that every abelian discrete group is uniformly amenable. We improve the growth function obtained earlier and find the optimal growth function in a particular case. We also compute a growth function for some non-abelian uniformly amenable group.

  19. [Influences of balancing-side interference on jaw function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K

    1991-03-01

    The influences of experimental balancing-side interference on the jaw function were investigated on 6 subjects. A specially designed onlay was fabricated for the lower second molar, which acted as an artificial balancing-side interference in the lateral mandibular position. The subjects were asked to do maximum clenching, lateral gliding and gum chewing with and without the device. Electromyographic activity of the masseter and the anterior and posterior temporal muscles were measured and the related mandibular movement was simultaneously recorded during these tasks. Introduction of the experimental interference caused alteration in the muscle activity as follows: 1. When the subjects exerted maximum clenching efforts in the lateral mandibular position, the ratio of the temporal muscle activity on the working-side to the balancing-side decreased, while that of the masseter muscle remained unchanged. 2. There was a tendency for the activity in the working-side posterior temporal muscle to increase during gliding from intercuspation. The ratio of the temporal muscle activity on the working-side to the balancing-side decreased during gliding into intercuspation. 3. Prolongation of the occlusal phase associated with the increase of the muscle activity was observed during gum chewing on the side opposite to the interference. It was suggested that the balancing-side interference might provoke a specific muscle activity in the temporal muscles during parafunctional clenching or grinding.

  20. Introduction to the functional renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopietz, Peter; Bartosch, Lorenz; Schuetz, Florian

    2010-01-01

    This book, based on a graduate course given by the authors, is a pedagogic and self-contained introduction to the renormalization group with special emphasis on the functional renormalization group. The functional renormalization group is a modern formulation of the Wilsonian renormalization group in terms of formally exact functional differential equations for generating functionals. In Part I the reader is introduced to the basic concepts of the renormalization group idea, requiring only basic knowledge of equilibrium statistical mechanics. More advanced methods, such as diagrammatic perturbation theory, are introduced step by step. Part II then gives a self-contained introduction to the functional renormalization group. After a careful definition of various types of generating functionals, the renormalization group flow equations for these functionals are derived. This procedure is shown to encompass the traditional method of the mode elimination steps of the Wilsonian renormalization group procedure. Then, approximate solutions of these flow equations using expansions in powers of irreducible vertices or in powers of derivatives are given. Finally, in Part III the exact hierarchy of functional renormalization group flow equations for the irreducible vertices is used to study various aspects of non-relativistic fermions, including the so-called BCS-BEC crossover, thereby making the link to contemporary research topics. (orig.)

  1. THE IMMEDIATE AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPE® ON BALANCE AND FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Victoria; Douris, Peter; Fukuroku, Taryn; Kuzniewski, Michael; Dias, Joe; Figueiredo, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The application of Kinesio Tex® tape (KT) results, in theory, in the improvement of muscle contractibility by supporting weakened muscles. The effect of KT on muscle strength has been investigated by numerous researchers who have theorized that KT facilitates an immediate increase in muscle strength by generating a concentric pull on the fascia. The effect of KT on balance and functional performance has been controversial because of the inconsistencies of tension and direction of pull required during application of KT and whether its use on healthy individuals provides therapeutic benefits. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of the prescribed application (for facilitation) of KT when applied to the dominant lower extremity of healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that balance and functional performance would improve with the prescribed application of KT versus the sham application. Pretest-posttest repeated measures control group design. Seventeen healthy subjects (9 males; 8 females) ranging from 18-35 years of age (mean age 23.3 ± 0.72), volunteered to participate in this study. KT was applied to the gastrocnemius of the participant's dominant leg using a prescribed application to facilitate muscle performance for the experimental group versus a sham application for the control group. The Biodex Balance System and four hop tests were utilized to assess balance, proprioception, and functional performance beginning on the first day including pre- and immediately post-KT application measurements. Subsequent measurements were performed 24, 72, and 120 hours after tape application. Repeated measures ANOVA's were performed for each individual dependent variable. There were no significant differences for main and interaction effects between KT and sham groups for the balance and four hop tests. The results of the present study did not indicate any significant differences in balance and functional performance

  2. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  3. The acidic functional groups of humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanxiang, Li; Shuhe, Sun; Zhai Zongxi, Wu Qihu

    1983-09-01

    The acidic functional groups content, pK value, DELTAH and DELTAS of humic acid (HA) and nitro-humic acid (NHA) were determined by potentiometry, conductometry and calorimetric titration. The thermodynamic parameters of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups of humic acid are similar to that of simple hydroxy-benzoic acid. The configuration sites of acidic functional groups in humic acid from different coals are different. The carbonyl groups on aromatic rings are probably ortho to phenolic -OH for HA and NHA extracted from Huangxian's brown coal and Japanese lignite, while those from Lingshi's weathered coal are not. The weak -COOH groups of the latter possess higher chemical activity. The -COOH content in HA increases, phenolic -OH group decreases and the chemical acidity of acidic functional groups increases when HA is oxidized by nitric acid. (14 refs.)

  4. FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY, SAGITTAL ALIGNMENT AND PELVIC BALANCE IN LUMBAR SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Muñiz Luna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To demonstrate the recovery of lumbar sagittal pelvic alignment and sagittal pelvic balance after surgical reduction of lumbar spondylolisthesis and establish the benefits of the surgery for reduction and fixation of the lumbar spondylolisthesis with 360o circumferential arthrodesis for 2 surgical approaches by clinical and functional evaluation. Method: Eight patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis treated with surgical reduction and fixation of listhesis and segmental circumferential fusion with two surgical approaches were reviewed. They were evaluated before and after treatment with Oswestry, Visual Analogue for pain and Odom scales, performing radiographic measurement of lumbar sagittal alignment and pelvic sagittal balance with the technique of pelvic radius. Results: Oswestry scales and EVA reported improvement of symptoms after treatment in 8 cases; the Odom scale had six outstanding cases reported. The lumbar sagittal alignment presented a lumbosacral lordosis angle and a lumbopelvic lordosis angle reduced in 4 cases and increased in 4 other cases; pelvic sagittal balance increased the pelvic angle in 4 cases and decreased in 3 cases and the sacral translation of the hip axis to the promontory increased in 6 cases. Conclusion: The surgical procedure evaluated proved to be useful by modifying the lumbar sagittal alignment and the pelvic balance, besides reducing the symptoms, enabling the patient to have mobility and movement and the consequent satisfaction with the surgery.

  5. Functional Group Imaging by Adhesion AFM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, C.E.H.; Berger, C.E.H.; van der Werf, Kees; Kooyman, R.P.H.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Recently developed adhesion atomic force microscopy was used as a technique to map the spatial arrangement of chemical functional groups at a surface with a lateral resolution of 20 nm. The ratio of the adhesion forces for different functional groups can be compared with values determined from the

  6. Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Jef

    2009-01-01

    An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)

  7. Invariance group of the Finster metric function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanov, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    An invariance group of the Finsler metric function is introduced and studied that directly generalized the respective concept (a group of Euclidean rolations) of the Rieman geometry. A sequential description of the isotopic invariance of physical fields on the base of the Finsler geometry is possible in terms of this group

  8. The catalystic function of leadership in efficient group functioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The more efficient group leaders were found to be more competent and revealed a greater task orientation. Compared to the less efficient groups, the better functioning groups were characterised by a higher degree of shared leadership. The bigger involvement in leadership functions seems to increase the competence ...

  9. Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Michael J.

    2003-04-01

    The recognition and identification of organic functional groups, while essential for chemistry and biology majors, is also very useful for non-science majors in the study of molecules in art and life. In order to make this task more palatable for the non-science major (art and communications students), the images of a traditional playing deck of cards (heart, spade, diamond, and club) have been replaced with four representations of common organic functional groups. The hierarchy rules for naming two groups in a molecule is loosely incorporated to represent the sequence (King, Queen, Jack, ?, Ace) of the deck. Students practice recognizing and identifying organic groups by playing simple card games of "Old Maid" and "Go Fish". To play games like "Poker" or "Gin", a student must not only recognize the functional groups, but also master a naming hierarchy for the organic groups.

  10. Silsesquioxane nanoparticles with reactive internal functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozek, Eric M . [University of Utah, Department of Chemistry (United States); Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (United States); Zharov, Ilya, E-mail: i.zharov@utah.edu [University of Utah, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2017-02-15

    A series of silsesquioxane nanoparticles containing reactive internal organic functionalities throughout the entire particle body have been synthesized using a surfactant-free method with organosilanes as the sole precursors and a base catalyst. The organic functional groups incorporated are vinyl, allyl, mercapto, cyanoethyl, and cyanopropyl groups. The sizes and morphologies of the particles were characterized using SEM and nitrogen adsorption, while the compositions were confirmed using TGA, FT-IR, solid state NMR, and elemental analysis. The accessibility and reactivity of the functional groups inside the particles were demonstrated by performing bromination and reduction reactions in the interior of the particles.

  11. Effects of functional training on pain, leg strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of 18-week functional training (FT) program consisting in two sessions a week of in-water exercise and one of on-land exercise on pain, strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia. A sample consisting of 36 fibromyalgia patients was included in the study. The patients were allocated randomly into the experimental group (EG, n = 20), and control group (CG, n = 16). Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand and handgrip strength) and agility/dynamic balance and static balance. Fibromyalgia impact and pain were analyzed by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), tender points (TPs), visual analog scale (VAS). We observed a significant reduction in the FIQ (p = 0.042), the algometer scale of TP (p = 0.008), TP (p < 0.001), and VAS (p < 0.001) in the EG. The EG shows better results in leg strength (p < 0.001), handgrip strength (p = 0.025), agility/dynamic balance (p = 0.032) and balance (p = 0.006). An 18-week intervention consisting in two sessions of in-water exercise and one session of on-land exercise of FT reduces pain and improves functional capacity in FM patients. These results suggested that FT could play an important role in maintaining an independent lifestyle in patients with FM.

  12. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing isocyanate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Chungui; Ji Lijun; Liu Huiju; Hu Guangjun; Zhang Shimin; Yang Mingshu; Yang Zhenzhong

    2004-01-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing isocyanate groups can extend the nanotube chemistry, and may promote their many potential applications such as in polymer composites and coatings. This paper describes a facile method to prepare functionalized carbon nanotubes containing highly reactive isocyanate groups on its surface via the reaction between toluene 2,4-diisocyanate and carboxylated carbon nanotubes. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that reactive isocyanate groups were covalently attached to carbon nanotubes. The content of isocyanate groups were determined by chemical titration and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  13. Effects of feedback-based balance and core resistance training vs. Pilates training on balance and muscle function in older women: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Goran; Sarabon, Nejc; Greblo, Zrinka; Krizanic, Valerija

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with decline in physical function that could result in the development of physical impairment and disability. Hence, interventions that simultaneously challenge balance ability, trunk (core) and extremity strength of older adults could be particularly effective in preserving and enhancing these physical functions. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of feedback-based balance and core resistance training utilizing the a special computer-controlled device (Huber®) with the conventional Pilates training on balance ability, neuromuscular function and body composition of healthy older women. Thirty-four older women (age: 70±4 years) were randomly assigned to a Huber group (n=17) or Pilates group (n=17). Both groups trained for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors, extensors, and lateral flexors, leg power, upper-body strength, single- and dual-task static balance, and body composition were measured before and after the intervention programs. Significant group×time interactions and main effects of time (pcore resistance training proved to be more effective in improving single- and dual-task balance ability, trunk muscle strength, leg power, and body composition of healthy older women than the traditional Pilates training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Postural control and functional balance in individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia de Souza Fortaleza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN brings on reduced somatosensation, which can lead to changes in postural control. The objective of this study was to evaluate postural control in a standing position and in different conditions, as well as functional balance in individuals with DPN, make the correlation between the results obtained from the postural control assessment with the values from the functional balance test and compare the results obtained in the neuropathy group with those of the control group, checking for possible differences between the evaluation conditions of both groups. The study included 13 women with DPN (NG and 17 non-diabetic women (CG. Postural control assessment was performed by kinemetry in the following conditions: eyes opened (EO, eyes closed (EC, and semi-tandem (ST. The data was processed in MATLAB and the following variables were generated: mean amplitude of oscillation (MAO in the anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML direction; and average speed of oscillation (ASO in AP and ML direction. Functional balance was assessed by the Timed Up and Go Test. There was significant difference between the groups (p≤0.005 in MAO-AP EO and EC, MAO-ML EC and ST, and ASO-ML ST. There were differences between the conditions EO and ST (p≤0.005 and EC and ST (p≤0.005 for the variables MAO-ML and ASO-ML with greater damage to the NG, which also had a lower functional balance (p=0.001. ML instability was positively correlated with functional imbalance. The results show a change in the postural control system in the DPN, which could lead these individuals to a higher risk for falls and functional impairment.

  15. Postural control and functional balance in individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia de Souza Fortaleza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n3p305 Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN brings on reduced somatosensation, which can lead to changes in postural control. The objective of this study was to evaluate postural control in a standing position and in different conditions, as well as functional balance in individuals with DPN, make the correlation between the results obtained from the postural control assessment with the values from the functional balance test and compare the results obtained in the neuropathy group with those of the control group, checking for possible differences between the evaluation conditions of both groups. The study included 13 women with DPN (NG and 17 non-diabetic women (CG. Postural control assessment was performed by kinemetry in the following conditions: eyes opened (EO, eyes closed (EC, and semi-tandem (ST. The data was processed in MATLAB and the following variables were generated: mean amplitude of oscillation (MAO in the anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML direction; and average speed of oscillation (ASO in AP and ML direction. Functional balance was assessed by the Timed Up and Go Test. There was significant difference between the groups (p≤0.005 in MAO-AP EO and EC, MAO-ML EC and ST, and ASO-ML ST. There were differences between the conditions EO and ST (p≤0.005 and EC and ST (p≤0.005 for the variables MAO-ML and ASO-ML with greater damage to the NG, which also had a lower functional balance (p=0.001. ML instability was positively correlated with functional imbalance. The results show a change in the postural control system in the DPN, which could lead these individuals to a higher risk for falls and functional impairment.

  16. Uncertainty communication in the Environmental Balance 2005. Results of the User Group Policy Makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardekker, J.A.; Van der Sluijs, J.P.; Janssen, P.H.M.

    2006-02-01

    In 2003 recommendations were formulated how to deal with uncertainties in scientific studies. Currently a so-called 'Styleguide for Uncertainty Communication' is under development to report on information about uncertainties. The guide is based on literature survey and knowledge from experts in the field. A group of users of the Dutch Environmental Balance 2005 was set up to communicate and inform about uncertainties with respect to the Balance [nl

  17. Effects of Ai Chi on balance, quality of life, functional mobility, and motor impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Emine Eda; Büyükturan, Buket; Büyükturan, Öznur; Erdem, Hatice Rana; Tuncay, Figen

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate effects of Ai Chi on balance, functional mobility, health-related quality of life, and motor impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study was conducted as an open-label randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN26292510) with repeated measures. Forty patients with Parkinson's disease stages 2 to 3 according to the Hoehn and Yahr Scale were randomly allocated to either an Ai Chi exercise group or a land-based exercise control group for 5 weeks. Balance was measured using the Biodex-3,1 and the Berg Balance Scale. Functional mobility was evaluated using the Timed Up and Go Test. Additionally, health-related quality of life and motor activity were assessed with the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III. Although patients in both groups showed significant improvement in all outcome variables, improvement of dynamic balance was significantly greater in the Ai Chi group (p Balance Scale (p balance, mobility, motor ability, and quality of life. In addition, Ai Chi exercise was more effective as an intervention than land-based exercise in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. Implications for rehabilitation Ai Chi exercises (aquatic exercises) may help improve balance, functional mobility, health-related quality of life, and motor ability in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease more efficiently than similar land-based exercises. Ai Chi exercises should be considered as a rehabilitation option for treatment of patients with mild or moderate Parkinson's disease.

  18. Twelve weeks of BodyBalance® training improved balance and functional task performance in middle-aged and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson VP

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vaughan P Nicholson, Mark R McKean, Brendan J Burkett School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of BodyBalance® training on balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and health-related quality of life in adults aged over 55 years.Participants and methods: A total of 28 healthy, active adults aged 66±5 years completed the randomized controlled trial. Balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and self-reported quality of life were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Participants either undertook two sessions of BodyBalance per week for 12 weeks (n=15 or continued with their normal activities (n=13.Results: Significant group-by-time interactions were found for the timed up and go (P=0.038, 30-second chair stand (P=0.037, and mediolateral center-of-pressure range in narrow stance with eyes closed (P=0.017. There were no significant effects on fear of falling or self-reported quality of life.Conclusion: Twelve weeks of BodyBalance training is effective at improving certain balance and functional based tasks in healthy older adults. Keywords: postural control, yoga, tai chi, center of pressure, exercise

  19. Static postural balance in healthy individuals: Comparisons between three age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanne Salviano Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare static postural balance of healthy individuals of three age groups in different conditions of support and vision. Seventy one individuals, divided into 3 groups, were analyzed: young group (YG: 22.2 ± 2.1 years, middle aged group (MAG: 50.7 ± 5.7 years and older individuals group (EG: 66.8 ± 5.4 years. Their balance was tested on a force platform, under 3 support and 3 visual conditions. Measures included: total (TD, anterior-posterior (APD and mediolateral displacement (MLD of the center of pressure (CoP. ANOVA revealed significant differences for interactions between group X support conditions and group X visual conditions for the 3 variables (p<0.01, with greater displacements for the MAG and EG groups during single-leg stance with partial and occluded vision (p<0.05. Static postural balance decreased over time in healthy individuals, and conditions of support and visual negatively affected balance with the increment of age.

  20. Effects of functional level on balance in children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Halil; Mutlu, Akmer; Fırat, Tüzün; Bulut, Numan; Karaduman, Aynur Ayşe; Yılmaz, Öznur Tunca

    2017-07-01

    This study was planned to compare the static and dynamic balance in children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) at different functional levels with each other and with healthy peers. Sixty nine children between the ages of 6 and 11 were included in this study where 52 of them were diagnosed with DMD in Level I (18 patients), Level II (17 patients), and Level III (17 patients) according to Brooke Functional Classification Scale and 17 of them healthy peers were included. In order to assess static and dynamic balance pediatric functional reach test (PFRT) and timed up and go test (TUGT) were used. When compared in terms of the TUGT, differences were found between all groups, i.e. Level 1 and 2, Level 2 and 3, Level 1 and 3, Healthy peers and Level 1, Healthy peers and Level 2, and Healthy peers and Level 3 (p level 3 and healthy peers (p level in DMD to affect the dynamic and static balance parameters in this study. The dynamic balance of a child with DMD at Level 3 is decreased to a third of a healthy peer. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. THE IMMEDIATE AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPE® ON BALANCE AND FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter; Fukuroku, Taryn; Kuzniewski, Michael; Dias, Joe; Figueiredo, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background The application of Kinesio Tex® tape (KT) results, in theory, in the improvement of muscle contractibility by supporting weakened muscles. The effect of KT on muscle strength has been investigated by numerous researchers who have theorized that KT facilitates an immediate increase in muscle strength by generating a concentric pull on the fascia. The effect of KT on balance and functional performance has been controversial because of the inconsistencies of tension and direction of pull required during application of KT and whether its use on healthy individuals provides therapeutic benefits. Hypotheses/Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of the prescribed application (for facilitation) of KT when applied to the dominant lower extremity of healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that balance and functional performance would improve with the prescribed application of KT versus the sham application. Study Design Pretest-posttest repeated measures control group design. Methods Seventeen healthy subjects (9 males; 8 females) ranging from 18-35 years of age (mean age 23.3 ± 0.72), volunteered to participate in this study. KT was applied to the gastrocnemius of the participant's dominant leg using a prescribed application to facilitate muscle performance for the experimental group versus a sham application for the control group. The Biodex Balance System and four hop tests were utilized to assess balance, proprioception, and functional performance beginning on the first day including pre- and immediately post-KT application measurements. Subsequent measurements were performed 24, 72, and 120 hours after tape application. Repeated measures ANOVA's were performed for each individual dependent variable. Results There were no significant differences for main and interaction effects between KT and sham groups for the balance and four hop tests. Conclusion The results of the present study did not

  2. Balancing multiple roles among a group of urban midlife American Indian working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, L

    2000-06-01

    Presented are the results of a secondary analysis of group data from a study of a six-week role conflict reduction intervention among a group of urban American Indian women (n = 8). The specific aim of this researcher was to understand the process of balancing multiple roles as expressed in the participants' daily lived experiences as mothers, wives, and workers. A construction of the process of balancing multiple roles was accomplished through the use of narratives. Balancing multiple roles represented a major current attempt on the part of the participants to integrate and balance traditional and contemporary feminine strengths in a positive, culturally consistent manner. The study themes included: traditional sex role expectation conflicts, family guilt, guilt management, transitioning inner conflict and stress, breaking the silence-learning to say no, and healing the spirit to reclaim the self. Further support for retraditionalization of roles for this group of Indian women was maintained as an effective means of balancing roles and achieving Indian self-determination.

  3. Introduction to the nonequilibrium functional renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berges, J.; Mesterházy, D.

    2012-01-01

    In these lectures we introduce the functional renormalization group out of equilibrium. While in thermal equilibrium typically a Euclidean formulation is adequate, nonequilibrium properties require real-time descriptions. For quantum systems specified by a given density matrix at initial time, a generating functional for real-time correlation functions can be written down using the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path. This can be used to construct a nonequilibrium functional renormalization group along similar lines as for Euclidean field theories in thermal equilibrium. Important differences include the absence of a fluctuation-dissipation relation for general out-of-equilibrium situations. The nonequilibrium renormalization group takes on a particularly simple form at a fixed point, where the corresponding scale-invariant system becomes independent of the details of the initial density matrix. We discuss some basic examples, for which we derive a hierarchy of fixed point solutions with increasing complexity from vacuum and thermal equilibrium to nonequilibrium. The latter solutions are then associated to the phenomenon of turbulence in quantum field theory.

  4. Emergence of Functional Specificity in Balanced Networks with Synaptic Plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadra Sadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In rodent visual cortex, synaptic connections between orientation-selective neurons are unspecific at the time of eye opening, and become to some degree functionally specific only later during development. An explanation for this two-stage process was proposed in terms of Hebbian plasticity based on visual experience that would eventually enhance connections between neurons with similar response features. For this to work, however, two conditions must be satisfied: First, orientation selective neuronal responses must exist before specific recurrent synaptic connections can be established. Second, Hebbian learning must be compatible with the recurrent network dynamics contributing to orientation selectivity, and the resulting specific connectivity must remain stable for unspecific background activity. Previous studies have mainly focused on very simple models, where the receptive fields of neurons were essentially determined by feedforward mechanisms, and where the recurrent network was small, lacking the complex recurrent dynamics of large-scale networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Here we studied the emergence of functionally specific connectivity in large-scale recurrent networks with synaptic plasticity. Our results show that balanced random networks, which already exhibit highly selective responses at eye opening, can develop feature-specific connectivity if appropriate rules of synaptic plasticity are invoked within and between excitatory and inhibitory populations. If these conditions are met, the initial orientation selectivity guides the process of Hebbian learning and, as a result, functionally specific and a surplus of bidirectional connections emerge. Our results thus demonstrate the cooperation of synaptic plasticity and recurrent dynamics in large-scale functional networks with realistic receptive fields, highlight the role of inhibition as a critical element in this process, and paves the road for further computational

  5. Effects of dual-task training on balance and executive functions in Parkinson's disease: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Fernandes; Nuno Rocha; Rubim Santos; João Manuel R. S. Tavares

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of cognitive-motor dual-task training compared with single-task training on balance and executive functions in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Fifteen subjects, aged between 39 and 75 years old, were randomly assigned to the dual-task training group (n = 8) and single-task training group (n = 7). The training was run twice a week for 6 weeks. The single-task group received balance training and the dual-task group performed cognitive task...

  6. The effect of peculiar complex core balance training on isokinetic muscle functions of the knee and lumbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungsun; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of peculiar complex core balance training on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus to provide fundamental data for establishing a training program that focuses on improving the performance and prevention of injury by developing the core and low extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study included a total of ten high school athletes involved in a throwing event for over five years. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: The experimental group (N=5) and the control group (N=5). The experimental group underwent peculiar complex core balance training. [Results] According to the analysis of covariance, there was a significant effect of peculiar complex core balance training. Therefore, the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus in the experimental group participating in peculiar complex core balance training was significantly increased compared to the control group. [Conclusion] It is concluded that peculiar complex core balance training had a positive effect on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee and lumbus in throwing event athletes.

  7. The effects of core stabilization exercise on dynamic balance and gait function in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of core stabilization exercise on dynamic balance and gait function in stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 stroke patients, who were randomly divided into two groups: a core stabilization exercise group of eight subjects and control group of eight subjects. [Methods] Subjects in both groups received general training five times per week. Subjects in the core stabilization exercise group practiced an additional core stabilization exercise program, which was performed for 30 minutes, three times per week, during a period of four weeks. All subjects were evaluated for dynamic balance (Timed Up and Go test, TUG) and gait parameters (velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length). [Results] Following intervention, the core exercise group showed a significant change in TUG, velocity, and cadence. The only significant difference observed between the core group and control group was in velocity. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of core stabilization exercise for stroke patients.

  8. Functional measures show improvements after a home exercise program following supervised balance training in older adults with elevated fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisher, Kristen; Mann, Kimberly; VanDyke, Sarah; Johansson, Charity; Vallabhajosula, Srikant

    2018-03-05

    Supervised balance training shows immediate benefit for older adults at fall risk. The long-term effectiveness of such training can be enhanced by implementing a safe and simple home exercise program (HEP). We investigated the effects of a12-week unsupervised HEP following supervised clinic-based balance training on functional mobility, balance, fall risk, and gait. Six older adults with an elevated fall risk obtained an HEP and comprised the HEP group (HEPG) and five older adults who were not given an HEP comprised the no HEP group (NoHEPG). The HEP consisted of three static balance exercises: feet-together, single-leg stance, and tandem. Each exercise was to be performed twice for 30-60 s, once per day, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Participants were educated on proper form, safety, and progression of exercises. Pre- and post-HEP testing included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) assessments, Activities-Balance Confidence, Late-Life Functional Disability Instrument and instrumented assessments of balance and gait (Limits of Stability, modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, Gait). A healthy control group (HCG; n = 11) was also tested. For most of the measures, the HEPG improved to the level of HCG. Though task-specific improvements like BBS and SPPB components were seen, the results did not carry over to more dynamic assessments. Results provide proof of concept that a simple HEP can be independently implemented and effective for sustaining and/or improving balance in older adults at elevated fall-risk after they have undergone a clinic-based balance intervention.

  9. Impact of Balance Confidence on Daily Living Activities of Older People with Knee Osteoarthritis with Regard to Balance, Physical Function, Pain, and Quality of Life - A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobić Lucić, Lana; Grazio, Simeon

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the impact of balance confidence on different activities of daily living (ADL) in older people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Forty-seven consecutive participants with knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. They were divided according to the results of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale into a group with a low level of confidence in physical functioning (ABC balance measurements. Older people with knee OA who were less confident in their daily physical activities had more physical difficulties and a greater effect of pain on ADL, lower quality of life, and a higher physician's global assessment, but no differences were obtained in balance tests. In people with knee OA, decreased balance confidence is associated with more physical difficulties, an increased effect of pain on ADL, and lower quality of life. An improved awareness of decreased balance confidence may lead to more effective management of older people with knee OA by improving their mobility and QOL through rehabilitation. Furthermore, future research in that direction is warranted.

  10. Aspects of the functional renormalisation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss structural aspects of the functional renormalisation group. Flows for a general class of correlation functions are derived, and it is shown how symmetry relations of the underlying theory are lifted to the regularised theory. A simple equation for the flow of these relations is provided. The setting includes general flows in the presence of composite operators and their relation to standard flows, an important example being NPI quantities. We discuss optimisation and derive a functional optimisation criterion. Applications deal with the interrelation between functional flows and the quantum equations of motion, general Dyson-Schwinger equations. We discuss the combined use of these functional equations as well as outlining the construction of practical renormalisation schemes, also valid in the presence of composite operators. Furthermore, the formalism is used to derive various representations of modified symmetry relations in gauge theories, as well as to discuss gauge-invariant flows. We close with the construction and analysis of truncation schemes in view of practical optimisation

  11. Functional, balance and health determinants of falls in a free living community Amazon riparian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia Ribeiro, Ednéa Aguiar; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves; Viegas, Karin; Teixeira, Fernanda; dos Santos Montagner, Greice Franciele Feyh; Mota, Kennya Márcia; Barbisan, Fernanda; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; de Paz, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate socio-economic, clinical, anthropometric, balance and functional fitness factors present in Amazon riparian older persons that can be associated with a risk of falling. A cross sectional study was performed with 637 riverine elderly residents (≥60 years old) in Maués city Amazonas, Brazil. The elderly were grouped in two categories with and without a history of falls in the past six months. The following variables were compared between these groups: self-reported social and health conditions; biochemical and physiological variables related to the control of metabolic diseases; body composition; hand grip strength; functional fitness evaluation using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) battery, and balance condition using the Berg Balance Test (BBT). The prevalence of at least one fall in the past six months was 24.6% (n=157) and was similar between the sexes. The mean age between males and females with and without a history of falls was also similar (males with falls=72.67 ± 8.86; males with no falls=73.26 ± 7.58) female falls=71.78 ± 8.18, female with no falls=71.48 ± 8.17). A history of falls was associated with hospitalization in the last year and to self-health perception to both sexes and presence of chronic morbidity and percentage of body fat (BF) to women. However, the other variables including balance and functional fitness, did not present differences between elderly with and without a history of falls. These results suggest that falls experienced by the riparian elderly are strongly associated to accidents due to environmental conditions related to daily life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship of Lower Extremity Muscle Strength with Balance and Lower Extremity Functions in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Başkurt

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: Functional score, mobility and balance are related to lower extremity muscle strength in elderly women. Increasing muscle strength will reduce the risk of falls and increase independence.

  13. Synthesis, radiometric determination of functional groups, complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Schmeide, K.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G.; Nitsche, H.

    2000-01-01

    The interaction behavior of humic acids with uranium(VI) and the influence of humic substances on the migration behavior of uranium was investigated. A main focus of this work was the synthesis of four different humic acid model substances and their characterization and comparison to the natural humic acid from Aldrich. A radiometric method for the determination of humic acid functional groups was applied in addition to conventional methods for the determination of the functionality of humic acids. The humic acid model substances show functional and structural properties comparable to natural humic acids. Modified humic acids with blocked phenolic OH were synthesized to determine the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids. A synthesis method for 14 C-labeled humic acids with high specific activity was developed. The complexation behavior of synthetic and natural humic acids with uranium(VI) was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthetic model substances show an interaction behavior with uranium(VI) that is comparable to natural humic acids. This points to the fact that the synthetic humic acids simulate the functionality of their natural analogues very well. For the first time the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids was investigated by applying a modified humic acid with blocked phenolic OH groups. The formation of a uranyl hydroxy humate complex was identified by laserspectroscopic investigations of the complexation of Aldrich humic acid with uranium(VI) at pH 7. The migration behavior of uranium in a sandy aquifer system rich is humic substances was investigated in column experiments. A part of uranium migrates non-retarded through the sediment, bound to humic colloids. The uranium migration behavior is strongly influenced by the kinetically controlled interaction processes of uranium with the humic colloids

  14. Perencanaan Strategis dengan Pendekatan Balance Scorecard pada Perusahaan Properti (Studi Kasus : Elang Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Wulandari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the strategic factors of the internal and external environments, analyze alternative strategies, to develop strategic targets and strategic maps, set key performance indicator (KPI, and determine the weight of each balanced scorecard perspective (BSC, and weight of each KPI. The research methods used were SWOT and BSC analysis. The business environment identification conducted at Elang Group resulted in eight internal factors and five external factors that influence the company's strategy to survive and to become more competitive. Following this, the process of SWOT analysis was carried out. There are four alternative strategies that can be implemented by Elang Group in improving its performance. The result of SWOT analysis was then translated into 15 strategic targets that form a causal relationship. The design of key performance indicators (KPI determined 25 KPI divided into four Balanced Scorecard perspectives. In the financial perspective, the highest average KPI weight for return on investment (ROI is 41,4 percent.Keywords: balance scorecard, SWOT, key performance indicators, property, Elang groupABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menetapkan faktor–faktor strategis dari lingkungan internal dan eksternal; menganalisis alternatif strategi; menyusun sasaran strategis dan peta strategis; menetapkan key performance indicator (KPI; dan menetapkan bobot dari masing-masing perspektif balanced Scorecard (BSC, dan bobot dari masing-masing KPI. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah analisis SWOT dan BSC. Hasil identifikasi lingkungan bisnis yang dilakukan di Elang Group terdapat delapan faktor internal di perusahaan, dan lima faktor external perusahaan yang berpengaruh terhadap strategi perusahaan untuk dapat bertahan dan semakin kompetitif. Dari hasil identifikasi kemudian dilakukan proses analisis SWOT. Terdapat empat alternatif strategi yang dapat dilakukan oleh Elang Group dalam meningkatkan

  15. Feasibility of Early Functional Rehabilitation in Acute Stroke Survivors using the Balance-Bed – A Technology that Emulates Microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars I.E. Oddsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based guidelines recommend early functional rehabilitation of stroke patients when risk of patient harm can be managed. Current tools do not allow balance training under load conditions sufficiently low for acute stroke patients. This single-arm pilot study tested feasibility and safety for acute stroke survivors to use Balance-Bed, a technology for balance exercises in supine initially developed to emulate microgravity effects on balance. Nine acute stroke patients (50-79 yrs. participated in 3-10 sessions over 16-46 days as part of their rehabilitation in a hospital inpatient setting. Standard inpatient measures of outcome were monitored where lack of progress from admission to discharge might indicate possible harm. Total FIM scores at admission (median 40, range 22-53 changed to (74, 50-96, Motor FIM scores from (23, 13-32 to (50, 32-68 and Berg Balance scores from (3, 0-6 to (19, 7-43 at discharge. Changes reached Minimal Clinical Important Difference for a sufficient proportion (>0.6 of the patients to indicate no harm to the patients. In addition, therapists reported the technology was safe, provided a positive experience for the patient and fit within the rehabilitation program. They reported the device should be easier to set up and exit. We conclude acute stroke patients tolerated Balance-Bed exercises such as standing on one or two legs, squats, stepping in place as well as balance perturbations provided by the therapist. We believe this is the first time it has been demonstrated that acute stroke patients can safely perform whole body balance training including balance perturbations as part of their rehabilitation program. Future studies should include a control group and compare outcomes from best practices to interventions using the Balance-Bed. In addition, the technology is relevant for countermeasure development for spaceflight and as a test-bed of balance function under microgravity-like conditions.

  16. Comparison of energy balance between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying the energy balance is essential for testing socio-ecological models. To reveal costs and benefits of group living in Japanese macaques from the perspective of feeding competition, Kurihara and Hanya (Am J Primatol 77:986-1000, 2015) previously compared feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of macaques (larger group 30-35 individuals; smaller group 13-15 individuals) in the coastal forest of Yakushima, Japan. The results suggested that the larger group exhibited greater feeding effort because of intragroup scramble competition and that the smaller group suffered from higher travel costs, possibly owing to intergroup contest competition. However, it remained unclear whether the behavioral differences affected their energy budgets. The present study examined energetic consequences of the different feeding behaviors in the two groups. Using behavioral data from 10 to 13 adult females and nutritional composition of food items, we compared ingestion rates, energetic/nutritional content of diet, and energy budgets between the two groups. Ingestion rates and energetic/nutritional content of diet did not differ between the two groups. Despite the higher feeding effort of the larger group, energy intake did not differ between the two groups. Energy expenditure did not differ between the two groups because higher travel costs were negated by lower feeding effort in the smaller group. Consequently, the energy balance did not differ between the two groups. We demonstrated that the behavioral measures of feeding competition were not translated into their energetic condition; moreover, our findings re-emphasize the importance of quantifying behavioral and fitness measures for interpreting variation in feeding behavior properly.

  17. Ultracold atoms and the Functional Renormalization Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Igor; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Diehl, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    We give a self-contained introduction to the physics of ultracold atoms using functional integral techniques. Based on a consideration of the relevant length scales, we derive the universal effective low energy Hamiltonian describing ultracold alkali atoms. We then introduce the concept of the effective action, which generalizes the classical action principle to full quantum status and provides an intuitive and versatile tool for practical calculations. This framework is applied to weakly interacting degenerate bosons and fermions in the spatial continuum. In particular, we discuss the related BEC and BCS quantum condensation mechanisms. We then turn to the BCS-BEC crossover, which interpolates between both phenomena, and which is realized experimentally in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. For its description, we introduce the Functional Renormalization Group approach. After a general discussion of the method in the cold atoms context, we present a detailed and pedagogical application to the crossover problem. This not only provides the physical mechanism underlying this phenomenon. More generally, it also reveals how the renormalization group can be used as a tool to capture physics at all scales, from few-body scattering on microscopic scales, through the finite temperature phase diagram governed by many-body length scales, up to critical phenomena dictating long distance physics at the phase transition. The presentation aims to equip students at the beginning PhD level with knowledge on key physical phenomena and flexible tools for their description, and should enable to embark upon practical calculations in this field.

  18. Recovery of balance function among individuals with total knee arthroplasty: Comparison of responsiveness among four balance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andy C M; Ouyang, Xi H; Jehu, Deborah A M; Chung, Raymond C K; Pang, Marco Y C

    2018-01-01

    Balance deficits are common after total knee arthroplasty (TKA); however the responsiveness of commonly used balance measurement tools has not been well defined. The objective of this prospective study was to compare the internal and external responsiveness of four measurement tools in assessing recovery of balance function following TKA. A total of 134 individuals with TKA (95 women; age: 66.3±6.6years) completed the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest), Mini-BESTest, Brief-BESTest, and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks post-TKA. The Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) served as the anchor measure, and was also measured across these time points. Internal responsiveness was indicated by the standardized response mean (SRM), while external responsiveness was reflected by the degree of association of the changes of balance scores with those of FGA. The SRM ranged from 0.60-1.14 for the BESTest, 0.40-0.94 for the Mini-BESTest, 0.27-0.91 for the Brief-BESTest, and 0.19-0.70 for the BBS, over time. The change in BESTest and Mini-BESTest scores predicted the change in the FGA scores across all time periods, except for the Mini-BESTest between weeks 12-24, accounting for 13-27%, and 12-24% of the variance, respectively. The Brief-BESTest scores only predicted FGA scores between the weeks 2-4 (R 2 =20%). The changes in BBS scores were not associated with the FGA. The BESTest is the most responsive in measuring recovery of balance among individuals with TKA. The Mini-BESTest is a reasonable option during time constraints. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Functional balance associated factors in the elderly with chronic vestibular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Juliana Maria; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Ganança, Fernando Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Daily activities can be challenging for the elderly. To study the association between functional balance, evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), sociodemographics, clinical and mobilility (Timed up and go test-TUGT, Dynamic Gait Index-DGI) variables in the elderly with chronic vestibular disorder. A series study with one hundred and twenty elderly with chronic vestibular disorder. We performed the Mann-Whitney test, the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn test and the Spearman Coefficient ([FORMULA: SEE TEXT]). Statistically significant associations and correlations were observed between total BBS score and age ([FORMULA: SEE TEXT]=-0.354; pfalls (p=0.010), tendency to fall (p=0.002), topographic diagnosis of central vestibular disorder (pFunctional balance in the elderly with chronic vestibular disorders evaluated by the BBS is worse when associated with aging, with a more advanced age group (80 years or more), increasing number of illnesses, presence of five or more illnesses, use of multiple medications, recurrent falls, tendency to fall, central vestibular syndromes, daily dizziness, mobility and gait impairments.

  20. Spectral functions and transport coefficients from the functional renormalization group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripolt, Ralf-Arno

    2015-06-03

    In this thesis we present a new method to obtain real-time quantities like spectral functions and transport coefficients at finite temperature and density using the Functional Renormalization Group approach. Our non-perturbative method is thermodynamically consistent, symmetry preserving and based on an analytic continuation from imaginary to real time on the level of the flow equations. We demonstrate the applicability of this method by calculating mesonic spectral functions as well as the shear viscosity for the quark-meson model. In particular, results are presented for the pion and sigma spectral function at finite temperature and chemical potential, with a focus on the regime near the critical endpoint in the phase diagram of the quark-meson model. Moreover, the different time-like and space-like processes, which give rise to a complex structure of the spectral functions, are discussed. Finally, based on the momentum dependence of the spectral functions, we calculate the shear viscosity and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio using the corresponding Green-Kubo formula.

  1. Dynamic balance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and its relationship with cognitive functions and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Michal Goetz,1 Jaroslava Paulasova Schwabova,2 Zdenek Hlavka,3 Radek Ptacek,4 Craig BH Surman5 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Second Faculty of Medicine, Motol University Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Statistics, 4Department of Psychiatry, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is linked to the presence of motor deficiencies, including balance deficits. The cerebellum serves as an integrative structure for balance control and is also involved in cognition, including timing and anticipatory regulation. Cerebellar development may be delayed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and inconsistent reaction time is commonly seen in ADHD. We hypothesized that dynamic balance deficits would be present in children with ADHD and they would correlate with attention and cerebellar functions. Methods: Sixty-two children with ADHD and no other neurological conditions and 62 typically developing (TD children were examined with five trials of the Phyaction Balance Board, an electronic balancing platform. Cerebellar clinical symptoms were evaluated using an international ataxia rating scale. Conners’ Continuous Performance Test was used to evaluate patterns of reaction. Results: Children with ADHD had poorer performance on balancing tasks, compared to TD children (P<0.001. They exhibited significantly greater sway amplitudes than TD children (P<0.001 in all of the five balancing trials. The effect size of the difference between the groups increased continuously from the first to the last trial. Balance score in both groups was related to the variation in the reaction time, including reaction time standard error (r =0.25; P=0.0409, respectively, r =0.31; P=0.0131 and Variability of Standard Error (r =0.28; P=0.0252, respectively, r =0.41; P<0.001. The burden of cerebellar symptoms was strongly related to

  2. A rehabilitation tool for functional balance using altered gravity and virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Serdar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for effective and early functional rehabilitation of patients with gait and balance problems including those with spinal cord injury, neurological diseases and recovering from hip fractures, a common consequence of falls especially in the elderly population. Gait training in these patients using partial body weight support (BWS on a treadmill, a technique that involves unloading the subject through a harness, improves walking better than training with full weight bearing. One problem with this technique not commonly acknowledged is that the harness provides external support that essentially eliminates associated postural adjustments (APAs required for independent gait. We have developed a device to address this issue and conducted a training study for proof of concept of efficacy. Methods We present a tool that can enhance the concept of BWS training by allowing natural APAs to occur mediolaterally. While in a supine position in a 90 deg tilted environment built around a modified hospital bed, subjects wear a backpack frame that is freely moving on air-bearings (cf. puck on an air hockey table and attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provides a load that can be set to emulate various G-like loads. Veridical visual input is provided through two 3-D automultiscopic displays that allow glasses free 3-D vision representing a virtual surrounding environment that may be acquired from sites chosen by the patient. Two groups of 12 healthy subjects were exposed to either strength training alone or a combination of strength and balance training in such a tilted environment over a period of four weeks. Results Isokinetic strength measured during upright squat extension improved similarly in both groups. Measures of balance assessed in upright showed statistically significant improvements only when balance was part of the training in the tilted environment. Postural measures indicated less reliance on

  3. A rehabilitation tool for functional balance using altered gravity and virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddsson, Lars I E; Karlsson, Robin; Konrad, Janusz; Ince, Serdar; Williams, Steve R; Zemkova, Erika

    2007-07-10

    There is a need for effective and early functional rehabilitation of patients with gait and balance problems including those with spinal cord injury, neurological diseases and recovering from hip fractures, a common consequence of falls especially in the elderly population. Gait training in these patients using partial body weight support (BWS) on a treadmill, a technique that involves unloading the subject through a harness, improves walking better than training with full weight bearing. One problem with this technique not commonly acknowledged is that the harness provides external support that essentially eliminates associated postural adjustments (APAs) required for independent gait. We have developed a device to address this issue and conducted a training study for proof of concept of efficacy. We present a tool that can enhance the concept of BWS training by allowing natural APAs to occur mediolaterally. While in a supine position in a 90 deg tilted environment built around a modified hospital bed, subjects wear a backpack frame that is freely moving on air-bearings (cf. puck on an air hockey table) and attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provides a load that can be set to emulate various G-like loads. Veridical visual input is provided through two 3-D automultiscopic displays that allow glasses free 3-D vision representing a virtual surrounding environment that may be acquired from sites chosen by the patient. Two groups of 12 healthy subjects were exposed to either strength training alone or a combination of strength and balance training in such a tilted environment over a period of four weeks. Isokinetic strength measured during upright squat extension improved similarly in both groups. Measures of balance assessed in upright showed statistically significant improvements only when balance was part of the training in the tilted environment. Postural measures indicated less reliance on visual and/or increased use of somatosensory cues after

  4. Managing a work-life balance: the experiences of midwives working in a group practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereday, Jennifer; Oster, Candice

    2010-06-01

    To explore how a group of midwives achieved a work-life balance working within a caseload model of care with flexible work hours and on-call work. in-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analysed using a data-driven thematic analysis technique. Children, Youth and Women's Health Service (CYWHS) (previously Women's and Children's Hospital), Adelaide, where a midwifery service known as Midwifery Group Practice (MGP) offers a caseload model of care to women within a midwife-managed unit. 17 midwives who were currently working, or had previously worked, in MGP. analysis of the midwives' individual experiences provided insight into how midwives managed the flexible hours and on-call work to achieve a sustainable work-life balance within a caseload model of care. it is important for midwives working in MGP to actively manage the flexibility of their role with time on call. Organisational, team and individual structure influenced how flexibility of hours was managed; however, a period of adjustment was required to achieve this balance. the study findings offer a description of effective, sustainable strategies to manage flexible hours and on-call work that may assist other midwives working in a similar role or considering this type of work setting. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Linear representation of algebras with non-associative operations which are satisfy in the balanced functional equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Algebras with a pair of non-associative binary operations (f, g) which are satisfy in the balanced quadratic functional equations with four object variables considered. First, we obtain a linear representation for the operations, of this kind of binary algebras (A,f,g), over an abelian group (A, +) and then we generalize the linear representation of operations, to an algebra (A,F) with non-associative binary operations which are satisfy in the balanced quadratic functional equations with four object variables. (paper)

  6. A balanced hazard ratio for risk group evaluation from survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branders, Samuel; Dupont, Pierre

    2015-07-30

    Common clinical studies assess the quality of prognostic factors, such as gene expression signatures, clinical variables or environmental factors, and cluster patients into various risk groups. Typical examples include cancer clinical trials where patients are clustered into high or low risk groups. Whenever applied to survival data analysis, such groups are intended to represent patients with similar survival odds and to select the most appropriate therapy accordingly. The relevance of such risk groups, and of the related prognostic factors, is typically assessed through the computation of a hazard ratio. We first stress three limitations of assessing risk groups through the hazard ratio: (1) it may promote the definition of arbitrarily unbalanced risk groups; (2) an apparently optimal group hazard ratio can be largely inconsistent with the p-value commonly associated to it; and (3) some marginal changes between risk group proportions may lead to highly different hazard ratio values. Those issues could lead to inappropriate comparisons between various prognostic factors. Next, we propose the balanced hazard ratio to solve those issues. This new performance metric keeps an intuitive interpretation and is as simple to compute. We also show how the balanced hazard ratio leads to a natural cut-off choice to define risk groups from continuous risk scores. The proposed methodology is validated through controlled experiments for which a prescribed cut-off value is defined by design. Further results are also reported on several cancer prognosis studies, and the proposed methodology could be applied more generally to assess the quality of any prognostic markers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Excess costs from functional somatic syndromes in Germany - An analysis using entropy balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupp, Helen; Kaufmann, Claudia; König, Hans-Helmut; Bleibler, Florian; Wild, Beate; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schellberg, Dieter; Schäfert, Rainer; Konnopka, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate disorder-specific excess costs in patients with functional somatic syndromes (FSS). We compared 6-month direct and indirect costs in a patient group with FSS (n=273) to a control group of the general adult population in Germany without FSS (n=2914). Data on the patient group were collected between 2007 and 2009 in a randomized controlled trial (speciAL). Data on the control group were obtained from a telephone survey, representative for the general German population, conducted in 2014. Covariate balance between the patient group and the control group was achieved using entropy balancing. Excess costs were calculated by estimating generalized linear models and two-part models for direct costs and indirect costs. Further, we estimated excess costs according to the level of somatic symptom severity (SSS). FSS patients differed significantly from the control group regarding 6-month costs of outpatient physicians (+€280) and other outpatient providers (+€74). According to SSS, significantly higher outpatient physician costs were found for mild (+€151), moderate (+€306) and severe (+€376) SSS. We also found significantly higher costs of other outpatient providers in patients with mild, moderate and severe SSS. Regarding costs of rehabilitation and hospital treatments, FSS patients did not differ significantly from the control group for any level of SSS. Indirect costs were significantly higher in patients with severe SSS (+€760). FSS were of major importance in the outpatient sector. Further, we found significantly higher indirect costs in patients with severe SSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measures of static postural control moderate the association of strength and power with functional dynamic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Roberta; Boreham, Colin A G; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Pesce, Caterina

    2014-12-01

    Age-related reductions in strength and power are considered to negatively impact balance control, but the existence of a direct association is still an issue of debate. This is possibly due to the fact that balance assessment is complex, reflects different underlying physiologic mechanisms and involves quantitative measurements of postural sway or timing of performance during balance tasks. The present study evaluated the moderator effect of static postural control on the association of power and strength with dynamic balance tasks. Fifty-seven healthy 65-75 year old individuals performed tests of dynamic functional balance (walking speed under different conditions) and of strength, power and static postural control. Dynamic balance performance (walking speed) was associated with lower limb strength and power, as well as postural control under conditions requiring postural adjustments (narrow surface walking r(2) = 0.31, p balance tasks. Practical implications for assessment and training are discussed.

  9. Functional renormalization group methods in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.

    2006-01-01

    We apply functional Renormalization Group methods to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). First we calculate the mass shift for the pion in a finite volume in the framework of the quark-meson model. In particular, we investigate the importance of quark effects. As in lattice gauge theory, we find that the choice of quark boundary conditions has a noticeable effect on the pion mass shift in small volumes. A comparison of our results to chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD suggests that lattice QCD has not yet reached volume sizes for which chiral perturbation theory can be applied to extrapolate lattice results for low-energy observables. Phase transitions in QCD at finite temperature and density are currently very actively researched. We study the chiral phase transition at finite temperature with two approaches. First, we compute the phase transition temperature in infinite and in finite volume with the quark-meson model. Though qualitatively correct, our results suggest that the model does not describe the dynamics of QCD near the finite-temperature phase boundary accurately. Second, we study the approach to chiral symmetry breaking in terms of quarks and gluons. We compute the running QCD coupling for all temperatures and scales. We use this result to determine quantitatively the phase boundary in the plane of temperature and number of quark flavors and find good agreement with lattice results. (orig.)

  10. Functional renormalization group methods in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, J.

    2006-12-18

    We apply functional Renormalization Group methods to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). First we calculate the mass shift for the pion in a finite volume in the framework of the quark-meson model. In particular, we investigate the importance of quark effects. As in lattice gauge theory, we find that the choice of quark boundary conditions has a noticeable effect on the pion mass shift in small volumes. A comparison of our results to chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD suggests that lattice QCD has not yet reached volume sizes for which chiral perturbation theory can be applied to extrapolate lattice results for low-energy observables. Phase transitions in QCD at finite temperature and density are currently very actively researched. We study the chiral phase transition at finite temperature with two approaches. First, we compute the phase transition temperature in infinite and in finite volume with the quark-meson model. Though qualitatively correct, our results suggest that the model does not describe the dynamics of QCD near the finite-temperature phase boundary accurately. Second, we study the approach to chiral symmetry breaking in terms of quarks and gluons. We compute the running QCD coupling for all temperatures and scales. We use this result to determine quantitatively the phase boundary in the plane of temperature and number of quark flavors and find good agreement with lattice results. (orig.)

  11. The influence of unilateral saccular impairment on functional balance performance and self-report dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Devin L; Jacobson, Gary P; Grantham, Sarah L; Piker, Erin G; Verghese, Susha

    2011-09-01

    Postural stability in humans is largely maintained by vestibular, visual, and somatosensory inputs to the central nervous system. Recent clinical advances in the assessment of otolith function (e.g., cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials [cVEMPs and oVEMPs], subjective visual vertical [SVV] during eccentric rotation) have enabled investigators to identify patients with unilateral otolith impairments. This research has suggested that patients with unilateral otolith impairments perform worse than normal healthy controls on measures of postural stability. It is not yet known if patients with unilateral impairments of the saccule and/or inferior vestibular nerve (i.e., unilaterally abnormal cVEMP) perform differently on measures of postural stability than patients with unilateral impairments of the horizontal SCC (semicircular canal) and/or superior vestibular nerve (i.e., unilateral caloric weakness). Further, it is not known what relationship exists, if any, between otolith system impairment and self-report dizziness handicap. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which saccular impairments (defined by a unilaterally absent cVEMP) and impairments of the horizontal semicircular canal (as measured by the results of caloric testing) affect vestibulospinal function as measured through the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of the computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). A secondary objective of this investigation was to measure the effects, if any, that saccular impairment has on a modality-specific measure of health-related quality of life. A retrospective cohort study. Subjects were assigned to one of four groups based on results from balance function testing: Group 1 (abnormal cVEMP response only), Group 2 (abnormal caloric response only), Group 3 (abnormal cVEMP and abnormal caloric response), and Group 4 (normal control group). Subjects were 92 adult patients: 62 were seen for balance function testing due to complaints

  12. Development and implementation of a balanced scorecard in an academic hospitalist group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Michael; Sharpe, Bradley A; Wachter, Robert M

    2013-03-01

    Academic hospitalist groups (AHGs) are often expected to excel in multiple domains: quality improvement, patient safety, education, research, administration, and clinical care. To be successful, AHGs must develop strategies to balance their energies, resources, and performance. The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a strategic management system that enables organizations to translate their mission and vision into specific objectives and metrics across multiple domains. To date, no hospitalist group has reported on BSC implementation. We set out to develop a BSC as part of a strategic planning initiative. Based on a needs assessment of the University of California, San Francisco, Division of Hospital Medicine, mission and vision statements were developed. We engaged representative faculty to develop strategic objectives and determine performance metrics across 4 BSC perspectives. There were 41 metrics identified, and 16 were chosen for the initial BSC. It allowed us to achieve several goals: 1) present a broad view of performance, 2) create transparency and accountability, 3) communicate goals and engage faculty, and 4) ensure we use data to guide strategic decisions. Several lessons were learned, including the need to build faculty consensus, establish metrics with reliable measureable data, and the power of the BSC to drive goals across the division. We successfully developed and implemented a BSC in an AHG as part of a strategic planning initiative. The BSC has been instrumental in allowing us to achieve balanced success in multiple domains. Academic groups should consider employing the BSC as it allows for a data-driven strategic planning and assessment process. Copyright © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  13. Resonance-like QGP signals displayed in general charge balance functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Yinghua; Zhang, Weining

    2014-01-01

    Experiment and lattice simulation show that the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) system displays strong interaction between constituents at temperature a few times the critical temperature T c . This QGP picture can be explained by assuming that the QGP matter above T c is rich in different kinds of bound states, namely resonance-like QGP (RQGP). The chemical composition of the QGP system produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions can be investigated through a general charge balance function which describes two-wave quark production during expansion afterward. In this paper, we investigate the signals of this RQGP through general charge balance functions. We find that the quasiparticles in QGP contribute a little to the balance functions because of their heavy masses. The balance functions reduce to the situation discussed before where only one-wave charge production is involved if only the quasiparticles in QGP are considered. However, the baryonic bound states in QGP have a significant effect on the balance function B pp ¯(Δy), causing a dip in the pp¯ balance function at small Δy. The existence of the binary and baryonic bound states amplify the negative dip of the balance function B pK - (Δy) at Δy ∽ 1. (author)

  14. [Effects of physical activity on cognitive functions, balance and risk of falls in elderly patients with Alzheimer's dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Salma S S; Coelho, Flávia G M; Gobbi, Sebastião; Stella, Florindo

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the effects of regular, systematic and supervised activity on the cognitive functions, balance and risk of falls of elderly patients with Alzheimer's Dementia (AD). Sixteen elderly patients (mean age 78.5+/-6.8 years) were divided into two groups: intervention group (IG; n=9) and routine group (RG; n=7). The IG exercised systematically for six months, and both groups were submitted to the following tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and the agility/dynamic balance (AGIBAL) item of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) test battery. There was a statistically significant interaction (two-way ANOVA; F1,14=32.07; p=0.01) between groups and moments for the AGIBAL. The Mann Whitney U test indicated significant differences between groups (p=0.03), only at the post-intervention moment for the TUG measured in steps and for BBS. Therefore, no significant intergroup differences were found for the TUG, BBS and MMSE at the pre-intervention moment or at post-intervention moment for the TUG measured in seconds and MMSE. The intragroup analysis by means of the Wilcoxon test showed a significant decline in the TUG, BBS and MMSE for the RG, but not for the IG. Spearman's coefficient showed a significant correlation between the results of the MMSE and AGIBAL. Physical activity may be an important non-pharmacological approach that can benefit cognitive functions and balance and reduce the risk of falls. Moreover, agility and balance are associated with cognitive functions in elderly patients with AD.

  15. Relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Häkkinen, Arja; Lönnroos, Eija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Sulkava, Raimo; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Vision is an important prerequisite for balance control and mobility. The role of objectively measured visual functions has been previously studied but less is known about associations of functional vision. That refers to selfperceived vision-based ability to perform daily activities. The aim was to investigate the relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in a community-based sample of older adults. Methods: This study ...

  16. Effects of individual and group exercise programs on pain, balance, mobility and perceived benefits in rheumatoid arthritis with pain and foot deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Carolina Mendes; Almeida da Rocha, Bruna; Tanaka, Clarice

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of individual and group exercise programs on pain, balance, mobility and perceived benefits of rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA) with pain and foot deformities. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with RA pain and foot deformity were allocated into two groups: G1: individual exercise program and G2: group exercise program. The variables analyzed were Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for pain, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) for balance, Timed Up & Go Test (TUG) and Functional Reach (FR) for mobility, and Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ-Br) for perceived benefits. Both exercise programs consisted of functional rehabilitation exercises and self-care guidance aimed at reducing pain and improving balance and mobility. Intragroup comparisons of variables between A1 (pre-intervention) and A2 (post-intervention) were performed. [Results] Patients in both groups were similar in A1 (pre-intervention) in all the variables analyzed. Comparison between A1 and A2 for each variable showed improvement for G1 in the NRS, BBS, FR, TUG and in four out of ten domains of FHSQ-Br. G2 showed improvement in the NRS, BBS and eight out of ten domains of FHSQ-Br. [Conclusion] Both individual and group programs revealed benefits for patients with RA, however, group exercise programs showed better perception of benefits.

  17. Narrowing of the balance function with centrality in Au + Au collisions at √sNN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.; Alder, C.; Ahammed, Z.; Allgower, C.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Averichev, G.S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadman, R.V.; Caines, H.; Calderonde la Barca Sanchez, M.; Cardenas, A.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Castro, M.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S.P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, B.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Corral, M.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Draper, J.E.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Filimonov, K.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K.J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gaudichet, L.; Germain, M.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Grachov, O.; Grigoriev, V.; Guedon, M.; Guertin, S.M.; Gushin, E.; Hallman, T.J.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Herston, T.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.I.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kaneta, M.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Kollegger, T.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kunde, G.J.; Kunz, C.L.; Kutuev, R.Kh.; Kuznetsov, A.A.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; Lange, S.; Lansdell, C.P.; Lasiuk, B.; Laue, F.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Leontiev, V.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, Q.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Q.J.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Long, H.

    2003-01-01

    The balance function is a new observable based on the principle that charge is locally conserved when particles are pair produced. Balance functions have been measured for charged particle pairs and identified charged pion pairs in Au + Au collisions at √sNN = 130 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider using STAR. Balance functions for peripheral collisions have widths consistent with model predictions based on a superposition of nucleon-nucleon scattering. Widths in central collisions are smaller, consistent with trends predicted by models incorporating late hadronization

  18. Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roettger, Katrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Age-related postural misalignment, balance deficits and strength/power losses are associated with impaired functional mobility and an increased risk of falling in seniors. Core instability strength training (CIT) involves exercises that are challenging for both trunk muscles and postural control and may thus have the potential to induce benefits in trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility and balance performance. The objective was to investigate the effects of CIT on measures of trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in seniors. Thirty-two older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT; n = 16, aged 70.8 ± 4.1 years) that conducted a 9-week progressive CIT or to a control group (n = 16, aged 70.2 ± 4.5 years). Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors/extensors/lateral flexors (right, left)/rotators (right, left) as well as of spinal mobility in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured before and after the intervention program. Dynamic balance (i.e. walking 10 m on an optoelectric walkway, the Functional Reach test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test) were additionally tested. Program compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92% of the training sessions. Significant group × test interactions were found for the maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors (34%, p training-related improvements were found for spinal mobility in the sagittal (11%, p velocity (9%, p velocity (31%, p training regimen could be used as an adjunct or even alternative to traditional balance and/or resistance training. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. The effects of unstable surface balance training on postural sway, stability, functional ability and flexibility in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepocatych, Svetlana; Ketcham, Caroline J; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Balilionis, Gytis

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of balance training routine, using both sides utilized balance trainer (BOSU) and aerobic step (STEP) on postural sway and functional ability in middle-aged women. Twenty-seven females participated in the study, age 40.6±12.0 years, body mass 72.0±14.0 kg, height 164.0±7.7 cm, BMI 26.5±4.5 kg/m2, and relative body fat 33.1±7.4%. Participants were divided into two groups and performed progressive exercise routine on either STEP or BOSU for three weeks. Pre- and post-test consisted of Postural Sway Test performed on the Biodex Balance System, Functional Ability Test, Sit and Reach Test and Plank. A significant time effect was observed for both groups for sway index(P=0.029) and center of pressure antero-posterior (AP) displacement (P=0.038) but not for sway area or medio-lateral (ML) displacement (P>0.05). In addition, BOSU group had significantly lower Sway Index(P=0.048) and ML range (P=0.035) scores when vision and surface was altered compared to STEP group. A significant time effect was observed in walking-up the stairs (P=0.020), sit and reach test (P=0.035), and plank (Ptraining have a potential to induce adaptive responses in neuromuscular system that enhances postural control, balance and functional ability of women. The training using BOSU may help improve static balance and functional ability in women.

  20. Balance training with multi-task exercises improves fall-related self-efficacy, gait, balance performance and physical function in older adults with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvarsson, Alexandra; Franzén, Erika; Ståhle, Agneta

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of a balance training program including dual- and multi-task exercises on fall-related self-efficacy, fear of falling, gait and balance performance, and physical function in older adults with osteoporosis with an increased risk of falling and to evaluate whether additional physical activity would further improve the effects. Randomized controlled trial, including three groups: two intervention groups (Training, or Training+Physical activity) and one Control group, with a 12-week follow-up. Stockholm County, Sweden. Ninety-six older adults, aged 66-87, with verified osteoporosis. A specific and progressive balance training program including dual- and multi-task three times/week for 12 weeks, and physical activity for 30 minutes, three times/week. Fall-related self-efficacy (Falls Efficacy Scale-International), fear of falling (single-item question - 'In general, are you afraid of falling?'), gait speed with and without a cognitive dual-task at preferred pace and fast walking (GAITRite®), balance performance tests (one-leg stance, and modified figure of eight), and physical function (Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument). Both intervention groups significantly improved their fall-related self-efficacy as compared to the controls (p ≤ 0.034, 4 points) and improved their balance performance. Significant differences over time and between groups in favour of the intervention groups were found for walking speed with a dual-task (p=0.003), at fast walking speed (p=0.008), and for advanced lower extremity physical function (p=0.034). This balance training program, including dual- and multi-task, improves fall-related self-efficacy, gait speed, balance performance, and physical function in older adults with osteoporosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Effects of balance training by knee joint motions on muscle activity in adult men with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seung-Min; Kim, Won-Bok; Yun, Chang-Kyo

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of balance training by applying knee joint movements on muscle activity in male adults with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] 28 adults with functional ankle instability, divided randomly into an experimental group, which performed balance training by applying knee joint movements for 20 minutes and ankle joint exercises for 10 minutes, and a control group, which performed ankle joint exercise for 30 minutes. Exercises were completed three times a week for 8 weeks. Electromyographic values of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscles were obtained to compare and analyze muscle activity before and after the experiments in each group. [Results] The experimental group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis increased without significance. The control group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis and lateral gastrocnemius muscles increased without significance. [Conclusion] In conclusion, balance training by applying knee joint movements can be recommended as a treatment method for patients with functional ankle instability.

  2. The effects of hippotherapy on postural balance and functional ability in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Andréa Gomes; Copetti, Fernando; Angelo, Vera Regina; Chiavoloni, Luana Leonardo; David, Ana Cristina

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of hippotherapy on seated postural balance, dynamic balance, and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy and compared the effects of 12 and 24 sessions on seated postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 15 children with cerebral palsy aged between 5 and 10 years. A hippotherapy protocol was performed for 30 minutes, twice a week, for 12 weeks. Postural balance in a sitting position was measured using an AMTI AccuSway Plus force platform 1 week before initiating the hippotherapy program and after 12 and 24 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) were used before and after 24 sessions. [Results] Significant differences were observed for center of pressure (COP) variables, including medio-lateral (COPml), anteroposterior displacement (COPap), and velocity of displacement (VelCOP), particularly after 24 sessions. There were also significant differences in BBS scores and PEDI score increases associated with functional skills (self-care, social function, and mobility), caregiver assistance (self-care), social function, and mobility. [Conclusion] Hippotherapy resulted in improvement in postural balance in the sitting position, dynamic balance, and functionality in children with cerebral palsy, an effect particularly significant after 24 hippotherapy sessions.

  3. CoDuSe group exercise programme improves balance and reduces falls in people with multiple sclerosis: A multi-centre, randomized, controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Anna; Forsberg, Anette; Gunnarsson, Martin; Nilsagård, Ylva

    2017-09-01

    Imbalance leading to falls is common in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). To evaluate the effects of a balance group exercise programme (CoDuSe) on balance and walking in PwMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale, 4.0-7.5). A multi-centre, randomized, controlled single-blinded pilot study with random allocation to early or late start of exercise, with the latter group serving as control group for the physical function measures. In total, 14 supervised 60-minute exercise sessions were delivered over 7 weeks. Pretest-posttest analyses were conducted for self-reported near falls and falls in the group starting late. Primary outcome was Berg Balance Scale (BBS). A total of 51 participants were initially enrolled; three were lost to follow-up. Post-intervention, the exercise group showed statistically significant improvement ( p = 0.015) in BBS and borderline significant improvement in MS Walking Scale ( p = 0.051), both with large effect sizes (3.66; -2.89). No other significant differences were found between groups. In the group starting late, numbers of falls and near falls were statistically significantly reduced after exercise compared to before ( p balance and reduced perceived walking limitations, compared to no exercise. The intervention reduced falls and near falls frequency.

  4. Effects of a sitting boxing program on upper limb function, balance, gait, and quality of life in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhyuck; Gong, Jihwan; Yim, Jongeun

    2017-01-01

    Boxing training including traditional stretching, muscular strength training, and duration training would be considered to be effective for improved functional stretching, dynamic balance, walking speed, and quality of life. We aimed to investigate upper limb function, balance, gait, and quality of life in stroke patients before and after a sitting boxing program. Twenty-six participants were randomly allocated to a boxing group (n = 13) and control group (n = 13) after the upper limb function, balance, gait, and quality of Life were recorded. The boxing group underwent a sitting boxing program (3 times/week) as well as conventional physical therapy (3 times/week) for 6 weeks. The control group only underwent conventional physical therapy (3 times/week) for 6 weeks. The Manual Functional Test (MFT), non-affected hand grip, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), velocity moment with eye opened, 10-m Walk Test (10 MWT), and Stroke-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire (SS-QOL) were significantly improved in the boxing group (p boxing group compared to the control group (p boxing program group had positive effects on upper extremity function, balance, gait, and quality of life in stroke patients.

  5. Comparison of short-term effects of mobilization with movement and Kinesiotaping on pain, function and balance in patellofemoral pain

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Demirci; Gizem Irem Kinikli; Michael J. Callaghan; Volga Bayrakci Tunay

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the short-term effects of Mobilization with movement (MWM) and Kinesiotaping (KT) on patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP) respect to pain, function and balance. Methods: Thirty-five female patients diagnosed with unilateral PFP were assigned into 2 groups. The first group (n = 18) received two techniques of MWM intervention (Straight Leg-Raise with Traction and Tibial Gliding) while KT was applied to the other group (n = 17). Both groups r...

  6. Balance functions: Multiplicity and transverse momentum dependence of the charge dependent correlations in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078856; Snellings, Raimond; Christakoglou, Panos

    The measurement of charge-dependent correlations between positively and negatively charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle, known as the balance functions, provide insight to the properties of matter created in high-energy collisions. The balance functions are argued to probe the creation time of the particles and are also sensitive to the collective motion of the system. In this thesis, I present the results of the measured balance functions in p--Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02~TeV obtained with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The results are compared with balance functions measured in pp and Pb--Pb collisions at √s=7~TeV and √sNN = 2.76~TeV$, respectively. The width of the balance functions in both pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle for non-identified charged particles decreases with increasing multiplicity in all three systems, for particles with low transverse momentum value pT < 2~GeV/c. For higher values of transverse momentum the balance functions become narrower and...

  7. Comparison of short-term effects of mobilization with movement and Kinesiotaping on pain, function and balance in patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Serdar; Kinikli, Gizem Irem; Callaghan, Michael J; Tunay, Volga Bayrakci

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the short-term effects of Mobilization with movement (MWM) and Kinesiotaping (KT) on patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP) respect to pain, function and balance. Thirty-five female patients diagnosed with unilateral PFP were assigned into 2 groups. The first group (n = 18) received two techniques of MWM intervention (Straight Leg-Raise with Traction and Tibial Gliding) while KT was applied to the other group (n = 17). Both groups received 4 sessions of treatment twice a week for a period of 2 weeks with a 6-week-home exercise program. Pain severity, knee range of motion, hamstring flexibility, and physical performance (10-step stair climbing test, timed up and go test), Kujala Patellofemoral Pain Scoring and Y-Balance test were assessed. These outcomes were evaluated before the treatment, 45 min after the initial treatment, at the end of the 4-session-treatment during 2-week period and 6 weeks later in both groups. Both treatment groups had statistically significant improvements on pain, function and balance (p < 0.05). Pain at rest (p = 0.008) and the hamstring muscle flexibility (p = 0.027) were demonstrated significant improvements in favor of MWM group. Our results demonstrated similar results for both treatment techniques in terms of pain, function and balance. The MWM technique with exercise had a short-term favorable effect on pain at rest and hamstring muscle flexibility than the KT technique with exercise in patients with PFP. Level I, therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations of knee extensor strength and standing balance with physical function in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Liang, Zhiqi; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Bryant, Adam L; Lo, Ngai-Nung; Clark, Ross A

    2011-12-01

    Knee extensor strength is an important correlate of physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis; however, it remains unclear whether standing balance is also a correlate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional associations of knee extensor strength, standing balance, and their interaction with physical function. One hundred four older adults with end-stage knee osteoarthritis awaiting a total knee replacement (mean ± SD age 67 ± 8 years) participated. Isometric knee extensor strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Standing balance performance was measured by the center of pressure displacement during quiet standing on a balance board. Physical function was measured by the self-report Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and by the 10-meter fast-pace gait speed test. After adjustment for demographic and knee pain variables, we detected significant knee strength by standing balance interaction terms for both SF-36 physical function and fast-pace gait speed. Interrogation of the interaction revealed that standing balance in the anteroposterior plane was positively related to physical function among patients with lower knee extensor strength. Conversely, among patients with higher knee extensor strength, the standing balance-physical function associations were, or tended to be, negative. These findings suggest that although standing balance was related to physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis, this relationship was complex and dependent on knee extensor strength level. These results are of importance in developing intervention strategies and refining theoretical models, but they call for further study. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Functional Group Analysis of Biomass Burning Particles Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrell, K.; Lau, A.; Bond, T.; Iraci, L. T.

    2008-12-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of particulate organic carbon in the atmosphere. These particles affect the energy balance of the atmosphere directly by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, and indirectly through their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The chemical composition of biomass burning particles influences their ability to act as CCN, thus understanding the chemistry of these particles is required for understanding their effects on climate and air quality. As climate change influences the frequency and severity of boreal forest fires, the influence of biomass burning aerosols on the atmosphere may become significantly greater. Only a small portion of the organic carbon (OC) fraction of these particles has been identified at the molecular level, although several studies have explored the general chemical classes found in biomass burning smoke. To complement those studies and provide additional information about the reactive functional groups present, we are developing a method for polarity-based separation of compound classes found in the OC fraction, followed by infrared (IR) spectroscopic analysis of each polarity fraction. It is our goal to find a simple, relatively low-tech method which will provide a moderate chemical understanding of the entire suite of compounds present in the OC fraction of biomass burning particles. Here we present preliminary results from pine and oak samples representative of Midwestern United States forests burned at several different temperatures. Wood type and combustion temperature are both seen to affect the composition of the particles. The latter seems to affect relative contributions of certain functional groups, while oak demonstrates at least one additional chemical class of compounds, particularly at lower burning temperatures, where gradual solid-gas phase reactions can produce relatively large amounts of incompletely oxidized products.

  10. Effects of dual-task training on balance and executive functions in Parkinson's disease: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Rocha, Nuno; Santos, Rubim; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of cognitive-motor dual-task training compared with single-task training on balance and executive functions in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Fifteen subjects, aged between 39 and 75 years old, were randomly assigned to the dual-task training group (n = 8) and single-task training group (n = 7). The training was run twice a week for 6 weeks. The single-task group received balance training and the dual-task group performed cognitive tasks simultaneously with the balance training. There were no significant differences between the two groups at baseline. After the intervention, the results for mediolateral sway with eyes closed were significantly better for the dual-task group and anteroposterior sway with eyes closed was significantly better for the single-task group. The results suggest superior outcomes for the dual-task training compared to the single-task training for static postural control, except in anteroposterior sway with eyes closed.

  11. Balanced Hydroxyethylstarch (HES 130/0.4 Impairs Kidney Function In-Vivo without Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Alexander Schick

    Full Text Available Volume therapy is a standard procedure in daily perioperative care, and there is an ongoing discussion about the benefits of colloid resuscitation with hydroxyethylstarch (HES. In sepsis HES should be avoided due to a higher risk for acute kidney injury (AKI. Results of the usage of HES in patients without sepsis are controversial. Therefore we conducted an animal study to evaluate the impact of 6% HES 130/0.4 on kidney integrity with sepsis or under healthy conditions Sepsis was induced by standardized Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis (sCASP. sCASP-group as well as control group (C remained untreated for 24 h. After 18 h sCASP+HES group (sCASP+VOL and control+HES (C+VOL received 50 ml/KG balanced 6% HES (VOL 130/0.4 over 6 h. After 24 h kidney function was measured via Inulin- and PAH-Clearance in re-anesthetized rats, and serum urea, creatinine (crea, cystatin C and Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL as well as histopathology were analysed. In vitro human proximal tubule cells (PTC were cultured +/- lipopolysaccharid (LPS and with 0.1-4.0% VOL. Cell viability was measured with XTT-, cell toxicity with LDH-test. sCASP induced severe septic AKI demonstrated divergent results regarding renal function by clearance or creatinine measure focusing on VOL. Soleley HES (C+VOL deteriorated renal function without sCASP. Histopathology revealed significantly derangements in all HES groups compared to control. In vitro LPS did not worsen the HES induced reduction of cell viability in PTC cells. For the first time, we demonstrated, that application of 50 ml/KG 6% HES 130/0.4 over 6 hours induced AKI without inflammation in vivo. Severity of sCASP induced septic AKI might be no longer susceptible to the way of volume expansion.

  12. Fermionic functional integrals and the renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Joel; Trubowitz, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    This book, written by well-known experts in the field, offers a concise summary of one of the latest and most significant developments in the theoretical analysis of quantum field theory. The renormalization group is the name given to a technique for analyzing the qualitative behavior of a class of physical systems by iterating a map on the vector space of interactions for the class. In a typical nonrigorous application of this technique, one assumes, based on one's physical intuition, that only a certain finite dimensional subspace (usually of dimension three or less) is important. The material in this book concerns a technique for justifying this approximation in a broad class of fermionic models used in condensed matter and high energy physics. This volume is based on the Aisenstadt Lectures given by Joel Feldman at the Centre de Recherches Mathematiques (Montreal, Canada). It is suitable for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in mathematical physics. Included are many problems and so...

  13. The effect of unstable-surface functional exercises on static balance in adolescents with intellectual disability – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Mikołajczyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Independent and safe mobility considerably affects social functioning and performing activities of daily living (ADL. People with intellectual disabilities commonly have a reduced sense of balanced posture. Aim of the research study: Examination static balance in adolescents with moderate intellectual disabilities under the influence of a 12-week programme of functional exercises on unstable surfaces. Material and methods: Static balance was assessed on an Alfa stabilometric platform. A total of 34 adolescents, aged 14–16 years, were involved in the tests. They were divided into two groups: group one took part in a 12-week exercise programme, and group two constituted a control group. Results: A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between the scores of the experimental and control group was revealed after the termination of the exercise programme, and it related to the Centre of Pressure (COP surface area in the balance assessment test with eyes closed. The suggested battery of exercises considerably (p < 0.05 affected the shortening of the path length in the balance assessment test with eyes open. Those differences were not observed in the control group. The experimental group boasted a statistically significant (p < 0.05 shortening of the path length and a smaller surface area covered by the COP in exercises with eyes closed. Conclusions: The suggested training programme improved static balance in intellectually disabled adolescents who took part in regular exercise sessions.

  14. Production of functional proteins: balance of shear stress and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas John (Inventor); Hammond, Timothy Grant (Inventor); Kaysen, James Howard (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for the production of functional proteins including hormones by renal cells in a three dimensional culturing process responsive to shear stress uses a rotating wall vessel. Natural mixture of renal cells expresses the enzyme 1-.alpha.-hydroxylase which can be used to generate the active form of vitamin D: 1,25-diOH vitamin D.sub.3. The fibroblast cultures and co-culture of renal cortical cells express the gene for erythropoietin and secrete erythropoietin into the culture supernatant. Other shear stress response genes are also modulated by shear stress, such as toxin receptors megalin and cubulin (gp280). Also provided is a method of treating an in-need individual with the functional proteins produced in a three dimensional co-culture process responsive to shear stress using a rotating wall vessel.

  15. Effects of truncal motor imagery practice on trunk performance, functional balance, and daily activities in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motor imagery is beneficial to treat upper and lower limbs motor impairments in stroke patients, but the effects of imagery in the trunk recovery have not been reported. Hence, the aim is to test the effects of truncal motor imagery practice on trunk performance, functional balance, and daily activities in acute stroke patients. Methods: This pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted in acute stroke unit. Acute stroke patients with hemodynamic stability, aged between 30 and 70 years, first time stroke, and scoring <20 on trunk impairment scale (TIS were included in the study. Patients in the experimental group practiced trunk motor imagery in addition to physical training. Control group was given conventional physical therapy. The treatment intensity was 90 min/day, 6 days a week for 3 weeks duration. Trunk control test, TIS, brunel balance assessment (BBA, and Barthel index (BI were considered as the outcome measures. Results: Among 23 patients included in the study, 12 and 11 patients, respectively, in the control and experimental groups completed the intervention. Repeated measures ANOVA, i.e., timeFNx01 group factor analysis and effect size showed statistically significant improvements (P = 0.001 in the scores of TIS (1.64, BBA (1.83, and BI (0.67. Conclusion: Motor imagery of trunk in addition to the physical practice showed benefits in improving trunk performance, functional balance, and daily living in acute stroke.

  16. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time...

  17. A Simplification for Exp-Function Method When the Balanced Nonlinear Term Is a Certain Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Zhun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Exp-function method plays an important role in searching for analytic solutions of many nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, we prove that the balancing procedure in the method is unnecessary when the balanced nonlinear term is a product of the dependent variable under consideration and its derivatives. And in this case, the ansatz of the method can be simplified to be with less parameters so as to be easy to calculate.

  18. Balancing measures or a balanced accounting of improvement impact: a qualitative analysis of individual and focus group interviews with improvement experts in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Madalina; Dreischulte, Tobias; Gray, Nicola M; Campbell, Diane; Guthrie, Bruce

    2018-07-01

    As quality improvement (QI) programmes have become progressively larger scale, the risks of implementation having unintended consequences are increasingly recognised. More routine use of balancing measures to monitor unintended consequences has been proposed to evaluate overall effectiveness, but in practice published improvement interventions hardly ever report identification or measurement of consequences other than intended goals of improvement. We conducted 15 semistructured interviews and two focus groups with 24 improvement experts to explore the current understanding of balancing measures in QI and inform a more balanced accounting of the overall impact of improvement interventions. Data were analysed iteratively using the framework approach. Participants described the consequences of improvement in terms of desirability/undesirability and the extent to which they were expected/unexpected when planning improvement. Four types of consequences were defined: expected desirable consequences ( goals ); expected undesirable consequences ( trade-offs ); unexpected undesirable consequences ( unpleasant surprises ); and unexpected desirable consequences ( pleasant surprises ). Unexpected consequences were considered important but rarely measured in existing programmes, and an improvement pause to take stock after implementation would allow these to be more actively identified and managed. A balanced accounting of all consequences of improvement interventions can facilitate staff engagement and reduce resistance to change, but has to be offset against the cost of additional data collection. Improvement measurement is usually focused on measuring intended goals , with minimal use of balancing measures which when used, typically monitor trade-offs expected before implementation. This paper proposes that improvers and leaders should seek a balanced accounting of all consequences of improvement across the life of an improvement programme, including deliberately pausing

  19. The Interaction of Functional and Dysfunctional Emotions during Balance Beam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottyn, Jorge; De Clercq, Dirk; Crombez, Geert; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between functional and dysfunctional emotions, as one of the major tenets of the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) model (Hanin, 2000), was studied in a sport specific setting. Fourteen female gymnasts performed three attempts of a compulsory balance beam routine at three different heights. Heart rate and self-report…

  20. Balance Screening of Vestibular Function in Subjects Aged 4 Years and Older: A Living Laboratory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Bermúdez Rey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the various individual factors that contribute to balance and the relation to fall risk, we performed the modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support, with 1,174 participants between 4 and 83 years of age. This research was conducted in the Living Laboratory® at the Museum of Science, Boston. We specifically focus on balance test condition 4, in which individuals stand on memory foam with eyes closed, and must rely on their vestibular system; therefore, performance in this balance test condition provides a proxy for vestibular function. We looked for balance variations associated with sex, race/ethnicity, health factors, and age. We found that balance test performance was stable between 10 and 39 years of age, with a slight increase in the failure rate for participants 4–9 years of age, suggesting a period of balance development in younger children. For participants 40 years and older, the balance test failure rate increased progressively with age. Diabetes and obesity are the two main health factors we found associated with poor balance, with test condition 4 failure rates of 57 and 19%, respectively. An increase in the odds of having fallen in the last year was associated with a decrease in the time to failure; once individuals dropped below a time to failure of 10 s, there was a significant 5.5-fold increase in the odds of having fallen in the last 12 months. These data alert us to screen for poor vestibular function in individuals 40 years and older or suffering from diabetes, in order to undertake the necessary diagnostic and rehabilitation measures, with a focus on reducing the morbidity and mortality of falls.

  1. Lower limb power rehabilitation (LLPR) using interactive video game for improvement of balance function in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Yin; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Cheen, Jang-Rong; Chen, Liang-Kung; Kao, Chung-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Declined balance functions have adverse effects on elderly population. Lower limbs muscle power training is currently an emerging concept in rehabilitation on individuals with decreased balance and mobility. In this prospective, controlled study, we used a human-computer interactive video-game-based rehabilitation device (LLPR) for training of lower limb muscle power in the elderly. Forty (aged >65 years) individuals were recruited from the community. Twenty participants in the exercise group received 30-min training, twice a week, using the LLPR system. The LLPR system allows participants to perform fast speed sit-to-stand (STS) movements. Twenty age-matched participants in the control group performed slow speed STS movements, as well as strengthening and balance exercises, with the same frequency and duration. The results were compared after 12 sessions (6 weeks) of training. The mechanical and time parameters during STS movement were measured using the LLPR system. Modified falls efficacy scale (MFES), Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), function reach test, five times sit to stand (FTSS) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) were administered to participants as clinical assessments. Results showed that in the exercise group, all the mechanical and time parameters showed significant improvement. In control group, only the maximal vertical ground reaction force (MVGRF) improved significantly. For clinical assessments (balance, mobility, and self-confidence), exercise group showed significantly better scores. The STS movements in video-game-based training mimic real life situations which may help to transfer the training effects into daily activities. The effectiveness of lower limb muscle training is worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Postural balance, its sensory-motor correlates and self-reported functional ability in 75-year-old men and women: A cross-national comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Marianne; Pertti, Era; Avlund, Kirsten

    1999-01-01

    Social medicine, postural balance, functional ability, activities of daily living, physical activity, ageing......Social medicine, postural balance, functional ability, activities of daily living, physical activity, ageing...

  3. Identifying Balance and Fall Risk in Community-Dwelling Older Women: The Effect of Executive Function on Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Muir-Hunter, Susan W.; Clark, Jennifer; McLean, Stephanie; Pedlow, Sam; Van Hemmen, Alysia; Montero Odasso, Manuel; Overend, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The mechanisms linking cognition, balance function, and fall risk among older adults are not fully understood. An evaluation of the effect of cognition on balance tests commonly used in clinical practice to assess community-dwelling older adults could enhance the identification of at-risk individuals. The study aimed to determine (1) the association between cognition and clinical tests of balance and (2) the relationship between executive function (EF) and balance under single- and d...

  4. Well-functioning balancing markets. A prerequisite for wind power integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandezande, Leen; Meeus, Leonardo; Belmans, Ronnie; Saguan, Marcelo; Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the design of balancing markets in Europe taking into account an increasing wind power penetration. In several European countries, wind generation is so far not burdened with full balancing responsibility. However, the more wind power penetration, the less bearable for the system not to allocate balancing costs to the responsible parties. Given the variability and limited predictability of wind generation, full balancing exposure is however only feasible conditionally to well-functioning balancing markets. On that account, recommendations ensuring an optimal balancing market design are formulated and their impact on wind generation is assessed. Taking market-based or cost-reflective imbalance prices as the main objective, it is advised that: (1) the imbalance settlement should not contain penalties or power exchange prices, (2) capacity payments should be allocated to imbalanced BRPs via an additive component in the imbalance price and (3) a cap should be imposed on the amount of reserves. Efficient implementation of the proposed market design may require balancing markets being integrated across borders. (author)

  5. Correlates of Work-Life Balance for Faculty across Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Nida; Szelényi, Katalin; Bresonis, Kate

    2018-01-01

    Very few studies have examined issues of work-life balance among faculty of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. Utilizing data from Harvard University's Collaborative on Academic Careers in Higher Education project, this study examined predictors of work-life balance for 2953 faculty members from 69 institutions. The final sample consisted of…

  6. Sub-cell balanced nodal expansion methods using S4 eigenfunctions for multi-group SN transport problems in slab geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Ser Gi; Lee, Deokjung

    2015-01-01

    A highly accurate S 4 eigenfunction-based nodal method has been developed to solve multi-group discrete ordinate neutral particle transport problems with a linearly anisotropic scattering in slab geometry. The new method solves the even-parity form of discrete ordinates transport equation with an arbitrary S N order angular quadrature using two sub-cell balance equations and the S 4 eigenfunctions of within-group transport equation. The four eigenfunctions from S 4 approximation have been chosen as basis functions for the spatial expansion of the angular flux in each mesh. The constant and cubic polynomial approximations are adopted for the scattering source terms from other energy groups and fission source. A nodal method using the conventional polynomial expansion and the sub-cell balances was also developed to be used for demonstrating the high accuracy of the new methods. Using the new methods, a multi-group eigenvalue problem has been solved as well as fixed source problems. The numerical test results of one-group problem show that the new method has third-order accuracy as mesh size is finely refined and it has much higher accuracies for large meshes than the diamond differencing method and the nodal method using sub-cell balances and polynomial expansion of angular flux. For multi-group problems including eigenvalue problem, it was demonstrated that the new method using the cubic polynomial approximation of the sources could produce very accurate solutions even with large mesh sizes. (author)

  7. Cooperative catalysis by silica-supported organic functional groups

    OpenAIRE

    Margelefsky, Eric L.; Zeidan, Ryan K.; Davis, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid inorganic–organic materials comprising organic functional groups tethered from silica surfaces are versatile, heterogeneous catalysts. Recent advances have led to the preparation of silica materials containing multiple, different functional groups that can show cooperative catalysis; that is, these functional groups can act together to provide catalytic activity and selectivity superior to what can be obtained from either monofunctional materials or homogeneous catalysts. This tutorial...

  8. Comparison of Walking, Muscle Strength, Balance, and Fear of Falling Between Repeated Fall Group, One-time Fall Group, and Nonfall Group of the Elderly Receiving Home Care Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, MiYang; Gu, Mee Ock; Yim, JongEun

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information to develop a program to prevent repeated falls by analyzing the difference in gait, muscle strength, balance, and fear of falling according to their fall experience. The study subjects were 110 elderly individuals aged over 60 years who agreed to their participation in this research. The study participants were categorized into a repeated fall group (n = 40), a one-time fall group (n = 15), and a nonfall group (n = 46) of the elderly. Measurements of gait, muscle strength, balance, and fear of falling were taken in each group. With regard to gait, there were significant differences among three groups in gait cycle (F = 3.50, p = .034), speed (F = 13.06, p balance, the nonfall group had significantly greater results than the one-time fall group and repeated fall group in dynamic balance (F = 10.80, p balance (F = 8.20, p = .001). In the case of the fear of falling, the repeated fall group had significantly higher score than other two groups (F = 20.62, p fall risk factors to enhance gait and balance and lower body muscle strength and reduce the fear of falling to prevent repeated incidences of falls in this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effects of mirror therapy integrated with task-oriented exercise on the balance function of patients with poststroke hemiparesis: a randomized-controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Oh, Duck-Won

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of mirror therapy integrated with task-oriented exercise on balance function in poststroke hemiparesis. Twenty patients with poststroke hemiparesis were assigned randomly to an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG), with 10 individuals each. Participants of the EG and CG received a task-oriented exercise program with a focus on the strengthening of the lower limb and the practice of balance-related functional tasks. An additional option for the EG was front and side wall mirrors to provide visual feedback for their own movements while performing the exercise. The program was performed for 30 min, twice a day, five times per week for 4 weeks. Outcome measures included the Berg balance scale, the timed up-and-go test, and quantitative data (balance index and dynamic limits of stability). In the EG and CG, all variables showed significant differences between pretest and post-test (Phemiparesis.

  10. Wigner functions from the two-dimensional wavelet group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S T; Krasowska, A E; Murenzi, R

    2000-12-01

    Following a general procedure developed previously [Ann. Henri Poincaré 1, 685 (2000)], here we construct Wigner functions on a phase space related to the similitude group in two dimensions. Since the group space in this case is topologically homeomorphic to the phase space in question, the Wigner functions so constructed may also be considered as being functions on the group space itself. Previously the similitude group was used to construct wavelets for two-dimensional image analysis; we discuss here the connection between the wavelet transform and the Wigner function.

  11. Balance, gait, functionality and strength: comparison between elderly fallers and non-fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C. Cebolla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accidental falls are a major health problem related to aging and affect one in every three elderly individuals over the age of sixty. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the muscle strength, gait kinematics parameters, and performance in functional tests between elderly subjects with and without a prior history of falls. In addition, the association between the history of falls and the variables that demonstrated differences between groups were tested. METHOD: 62 elderly subjects participated in the study and were allocated to the group with falls history (FG; n=20; 68.0±6.9 years old or the group without falls history (CG; n=42; 65.5±4.1 years old. Maximal strength, gait kinematics parameters, and functional tests were tested. RESULTS: The FG showed lower muscle strength in the knee flexors (51.45±8.6 vs. 62.09±19 Kg, lower average toe clearance during the swing phase (0.04±0.006 vs. 0.043 ± 0.005 m, and lower performance in the "8-foot up-and-go" test (5.3±0.7 vs. 5.8±0.7 s (p<0.05. There were no associations between any variables and falls, but the increased time in the "8-foot up-and-go" test may double the likelihood of a fall occurring. CONCLUSION: Fallers have reduced lower limb strength, gait alterations, the worst performance in the dynamic balance test, and an increased risk of falls.

  12. Effects of the visual-feedback-based force platform training with functional electric stimulation on the balance and prevention of falls in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Force platform training with functional electric stimulation aimed at improving balance may be effective in fall prevention for older adults. Aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of the visual-feedback-based force platform balance training with functional electric stimulation on balance and fall prevention in older adults. Methods A single-centre, unblinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred and twenty older adults were randomly allocated to two groups: the control group (n = 60, one-leg standing balance exercise, 12 min/d or the intervention group (n = 60, force platform training with functional electric stimulation, 12 min/d. The training was provided 15 days a month for 3 months by physical therapists. Medial–lateral and anterior–posterior maximal range of sway with eyes open and closed, the Berg Balance Scale, the Barthel Index, the Falls Efficacy scale-International were assessed at baseline and after the 3-month intervention. A fall diary was kept by each participant during the 6-month follow-up. Results On comparing the two groups, the intervention group showed significantly decreased (p < 0.01 medial–lateral and anterior–posterior maximal range of sway with eyes open and closed. There was significantly higher improvement in the Berg Balance Scale (p < 0.05, the Barthel Index (p < 0.05 and the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (p < 0.05, along with significantly lesser number of injurious fallers (p < 0.05, number of fallers (p < 0.05, and fall rates (p < 0.05 during the 6-month follow-up in the intervention group. Conclusion This study showed that the visual feedback-based force platform training with functional electric stimulation improved balance and prevented falls in older adults.

  13. Special functions and the theory of group representations

    CERN Document Server

    Vilenkin, N Ja

    1968-01-01

    A standard scheme for a relation between special functions and group representation theory is the following: certain classes of special functions are interpreted as matrix elements of irreducible representations of a certain Lie group, and then properties of special functions are related to (and derived from) simple well-known facts of representation theory. The book combines the majority of known results in this direction. In particular, the author describes connections between the exponential functions and the additive group of real numbers (Fourier analysis), Legendre and Jacobi polynomials and representations of the group SU(2), and the hypergeometric function and representations of the group SL(2,R), as well as many other classes of special functions.

  14. Effects of two proprioceptive training programs on ankle range of motion, pain, functional and balance performance in individuals with ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, Lazaros; Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Pafis, Georgios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2017-09-08

    Following ankle sprain, residual symptoms are often apparent, and proprioceptive training is a treatment approach. Evidence, however, is limited and the optimal program has to be identified. To investigate the effects of two post-acute supervised proprioceptive training programs in individuals with ankle sprain. Participants were recruited from a physiotherapy center for ankle sprain rehabilitation. In a pre-post treatment, blinded-assessor design, 22 individuals were randomly allocated to a balance or a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) group. Both groups received 10 rehabilitation sessions, within a six-week period. Dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), pain, functional and balance performance were assessed at baseline, at the end of training and eight weeks after training. Follow-up data were provided for 20 individuals. Eight weeks after training, statistically significant (pfunctional performance measures for both balance and PNF groups. Eight weeks after training, significant (pfunctional performance in individuals with sprain. Balance programs are also recommended for pain relief.

  15. Effects of the visual-feedback-based force platform training with functional electric stimulation on the balance and prevention of falls in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Liang, Yan-Yi; Chen, Shu-Yan; Sheng, Jing; Ma, Shao-Jun

    2018-01-01

    Force platform training with functional electric stimulation aimed at improving balance may be effective in fall prevention for older adults. Aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of the visual-feedback-based force platform balance training with functional electric stimulation on balance and fall prevention in older adults. A single-centre, unblinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred and twenty older adults were randomly allocated to two groups: the control group ( n  = 60, one-leg standing balance exercise, 12 min/d) or the intervention group ( n  = 60, force platform training with functional electric stimulation, 12 min/d). The training was provided 15 days a month for 3 months by physical therapists. Medial-lateral and anterior-posterior maximal range of sway with eyes open and closed, the Berg Balance Scale, the Barthel Index, the Falls Efficacy scale-International were assessed at baseline and after the 3-month intervention. A fall diary was kept by each participant during the 6-month follow-up. On comparing the two groups, the intervention group showed significantly decreased ( p  Falls Efficacy Scale-International ( p  fall rates ( p  falls in older adults.

  16. Subgroups of class groups of algebraic quadratic function fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kunpeng; Zhang Xianke

    2001-09-01

    Ideal class groups H(K) of algebraic quadratic function fields K are studied, by using mainly the theory of continued fractions of algebraic functions. Properties of such continued fractions are discussed first. Then a necessary and sufficient condition is given for the class group H(K) to contain a cyclic subgroup of any order n, this criterion condition holds true for both real and imaginary fields K. Furthermore, several series of function fields K, including real, inertia imaginary, as well as ramified imaginary quadratic function fields, are given, and their class groups H(K) are proved to contain cyclic subgroups of order n. (author)

  17. Development of a multidimensional balance scale for use with functionally independent older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Debra J; Lucchese, Nicole; Wiersma, Lenny D

    2006-11-01

    To develop and evaluate the validity and reliability of a multidimensional balance scale-the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale-suitable for use with functionally independent older adults. Psychometric evaluation of the scale's content and convergent validity, test-retest and intra- and interrater reliability, and internal rater consistency. Urban community. Forty-six community-residing older adults (mean +/- standard deviation, 75 +/- 6.2 y), with (n = 31) and without identified balance problems (n = 15), participated in the study. Four physical therapists with expertise in the assessment and treatment of balance disorders in older adults also participated in the content validity and/or reliability phases of the study. Not applicable. Spearman rank correlation coefficients for convergent validity, test-retest, intra- and interrater reliability, and homogeneity coefficient values for rater consistency. Test-retest reliability for the total balance scale score was high (rho = .96). Interrater reliability for total score ranged from .94 to .97 whereas intrarater reliability coefficients ranged from .97 to 1.00. Homogeneity (H) coefficients were greater than .90 for 6 of the 10 individual test items and all 10 test items had H coefficients of greater than .75 for both rating sessions. Preliminary results suggest that the FAB scale is a valid and reliable assessment tool that is suitable for use with functionally independent older adults residing in the community.

  18. The effects of Bobath-based trunk exercises on trunk control, functional capacity, balance, and gait: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Muhammed; Avcu, Fatma; Onursal, Ozge; Ayvat, Ender; Savcun Demirci, Cevher; Aksu Yildirim, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Bobath-based individually designed trunk exercises on trunk control, upper and lower extremity function, and walking and balance in stroke patients. The main aim of treatment was to eliminate individual trunk impairments during various patient functions. The study was planned as an assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. A total of 22 patients volunteered to participate in the study. Trunk function, functional capacity, and gait were assessed with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), stroke rehabilitation assessment of movement (STREAM), and a 10-m walking test, respectively. The Berg Balance Test (BBT), functional reach (FR), and timed up-and-go (TUG) tests were used to evaluate balance. After the initial assessment, the patients were divided randomly into two groups, the study group (12 patients) and the control group (10 patients). The mean age of the patients in the study group was 55.91 years (duration of stroke 58.66 months) and that of the control group was 54.00 years (duration of stroke 67.20 months). Individual training programs were determined for the patients in the study group, taking into consideration their evaluation results; and strengthening, stretching, range of motion, and mat exercises were determined for the control group according to their functional level. The participants in both groups were taken into the physiotherapy program for 12 weeks, 3 days a week for 1 hour a day. In group analyses, both groups showed improvement in STREAM, TIS, and TUG tests. Only the study group produced significant gains in the BBT, FR, and 10 m walking tests (P 0.05). Individually developed exercise programs in the Bobath concept improve trunk performance, balance, and walking ability in stroke patients more than do conventional exercises.

  19. How balance task-specific training contributes to improving physical function in older subjects undergoing rehabilitation following hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Brunati, Roberto; Capone, Antonio; Pagliari, Giulia; Secci, Claudio; Zatti, Giovanni; Ferrante, Simona

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a rehabilitation programme including balance task-specific training in improving physical function, pain, activities of daily living (ADL), balance and quality of life in subjects after a hip fracture. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 52 older subjects selected for internal fixation due to extra-capsular hip fracture were randomized to be included in an experimental ( n = 26) and control group ( n = 26). The experimental group underwent a rehabilitation programme based on balance task-specific training. The control group underwent general physiotherapy, including open kinetic chain exercises and walking training. Both groups individually followed programmes of 90-minute sessions five times/week for three weeks. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), a Pain Numerical Rating Scale, the Berg Balance Scale, the Functional Independence Measure and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. The participants were evaluated before and after training, and after 12 months. Significant effects of time, group and time × group were found for all outcome measures in favour of the experimental group. A clinically important between-group difference of 25 points was achieved after training and at follow-up in terms of the primary outcome (WOMAC function before treatment, after treatment and at follow-up was 84.8 (3.7), 39.8 (4.9) and 35.7 (6.2) for the experimental group and 80.9 (5.7), 65.2 (7.1) and 61.0 (11.1) for the control group). An inpatient rehabilitation programme based on balance task-specific training is useful in improving physical function, pain, ADL and quality of life in older patients after hip fracture.

  20. Reliability and Validity of Computerized Force Platform Measures of Balance Function in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Cathy C; Garascia, Chelsea

    2018-01-10

    Postural control declines with aging and is an independent risk factor for falls in older adults. Objective examination of balance function is warranted to direct fall prevention strategies. Force platform (FP) systems provide quantitative measures of postural control and analysis of different aspects of balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of FP measures in healthy older adults. This study enrolled 46 healthy elderly adults, mean age 67.67 (5.1) years, who had no history of falls. They were assessed on 3 standardized tests on the NeuroCom Equitest FP system: limits of stability (LOS), motor control test (MCT), and sensory organization test (SOT). The test battery was administered twice within a 10-day period for test-retest reliability; intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change based on a 95% confidence interval (MDC95) were calculated. FP measures were compared with criterion clinical balance (Mini-BESTest and Functional Gait Assessment) and gait (10-m walk and 6-minute walk) measures to examine concurrent validity using Pearson correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analysis examined whether age and activity level were associated with FP performance. The α level was set at P point excursion measures all demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.90, 0.85, and 0.77, respectively), whereas moderate to good reliability was found for SOT vestibular ratio score (ICC = 0.71). There was large variability in performance in this healthy elderly cohort, resulting in relatively large MDC95 for these measures, especially for the LOS test. Fair correlations were found between LOS end point excursion and clinical balance and gait measures (r = 0.31-0.49), and between MCT average latency and gait measures only (r = -0.32). No correlations were found between SOT measures and clinical balance and gait measures. Age was only marginally

  1. Balance, functional mobility, and fall occurrence in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Erika Pedreira da; Sá, Katia Nunes; Nunes, Rebeca Freitas Reis; Ribeiro Junior, Antônio Carlos; Lira, Síntia Freitas Bastos; Pinto, Elen Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) may lead to reduced functional mobility and balance. It is important to establish specific parameters that identify these changes and predict the risk of falls in these patients. The aim was to compare balance, functional mobility, and occurrence of falls among patients with and without HAM/TSP and to suggest values to predict the risk of falls in these patients. A cross-sectional study in patients with and without HAM/TSP involved balance assessments based on the berg balance scale (BBS) and functional mobility evaluation based on the timed up and go (TUG) test. From reports of falls, the sensitivity, specificity, and best cutoff points for the risk of falls assessed by these instruments were established using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve; 5% alpha was considered. We selected 42 participants: 29 with HAM/TSP and 13 without HAM/TSP. There was a statistically significant difference in the occurrence of falls, balance, and functional mobility between the groups (prisk of falls were defined as 50 points for the BBS and 12.28 seconds for the TUG test. Patients with HAM/TSP present reduced functional mobility and balance in relation to those without HAM/TSP. The risk of falls increased for these patients can be evaluated by the values ​​of 50 points using the BBS and 12.28 seconds using the TUG test.

  2. Multiple diabetic complications, as well as impaired physical and mental function, are associated with declining balance function in older persons with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong XF

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiufang Hong,1,2 Xujiao Chen,2 Jiaojiao Chu,2 Shanshan Shen,2 Qichen Chai,2 Gaobo Lou,2 Lingyan Chen2 1Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, 2Department of Geriatrics, Zhejiang Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate whether there is a difference in balance function between older persons with and without diabetes mellitus (DM, and to identify whether mediating factors, such as diabetic complications, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL score, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score, as well as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, serum total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, are associated with balance function in older persons with DM.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 208 older persons were divided into a DM group (n=80 and a control group who did not have DM (n=128. Balance function was evaluated with the Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA, which includes balance and gait subscales. Activities of daily living (ADL, IADL, and the MMSE were also measured. Fall incidents in last 12 months, the use of walking aids, fear of falling, comorbidities, and polypharmacy were recorded. Diabetic complications were recorded, and HbA1c, FPG, TC, TG, and LDL were measured in the patients of the DM group.Results: Fall incidents in last 12 months were higher in the DM group than in the control group (P<0.01. POMA score as well as ADL and IADL scores were lower in the diabetic group than the control group (P<0.05. Within the diabetic group, the POMA score was positively related to the ADL score (odds ratio [OR], 11.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.076–44.497; P<0.01, IADL score (OR, 16.286; 95% CI, 4.793–55.333; P<0.01, and MMSE score (OR, 10.524; 95% CI, 2.764–40.074; P<0.01, but was negatively related to age (OR, 7.707; 95% CI, 2.035–29.185; P<0.01 and diabetic complication (OR, 6.667; 95% CI, 2.279–19

  3. Correlation between the body balance and functional capacity from elderly with chronic vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Raquel Ferreira de; Gazzola, Juliana Maria; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Paulino, Célia Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular disorders are common among the elderly, mainly resulting in dizziness and imbalance--symptoms which can impact daily routine activities. To study the correlation between body balance and functional capacity and a comparison of risk of falls, actual falls and the functional capacity of the elderly with chronic vestibular dysfunctions. A cross-sectional, clinical and experimental study with 50 senior citizens--60 to 86 years, with chronic peripheral vestibular dysfunction. These participants underwent body balance assessment by the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and functional capacity assessment by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The data was tested using the Spearman correlation and comparison tests, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, being α=5% (0.05). There was a significant correlation between the total DGI score and all FIM scores, especially the total score (r=0.447; pfunctional capacity in elderly patients with the highest risk of falling (pfunctional capacity in elderly patients with peripheral vestibular disorders, that is: the better the balance, the better the individual's functional capacity. In addition, a worse functional capacity increases the individual's risk of falling.

  4. Influence of functional groups on charge transport in molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Jones, Glenn; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2008-01-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT), we analyze the influence of five classes of functional groups, as exemplified by NO2, OCH3, CH3, CCl3, and I, on the transport properties of a 1,4-benzenedithiolate (BDT) and 1,4-benzenediamine (BDA) molecular junction with gold electrodes. Our analysis...... demonstrates how ideas from functional group chemistry may be used to engineer a molecule's transport properties, as was shown experimentally and using a semiempirical model for BDA [Nano Lett. 7, 502 (2007)]. In particular, we show that the qualitative change in conductance due to a given functional group can...... be predicted from its known electronic effect (whether it is sigma/pi donating/withdrawing). However, the influence of functional groups on a molecule's conductance is very weak, as was also found in the BDA experiments. The calculated DFT conductances for the BDA species are five times larger than...

  5. Dual-task functional exercises as an effective way to improve dynamic balance in persons with intellectual disability – continuation of the project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Mikołajczyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Balance disorders are common in people with intellectual disability (ID. Aim of the research: The continuation of the project is aimed at finding out whether extension of the unstable surface dual-task functional exercises programme by another 12 weeks affects the level of dynamic balance in adolescents with ID and what those changes are like after the 8-week summer holidays. Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescents with ID aged 14–16 years (E performed functional exercises for another 12 weeks on unstable surfaces, and a group of 17 individuals with ID were the controls. Dynamic balance was assessed three times: after the first stage of the programme (test 2, after another 12 weeks (test 3, after the 8-week holiday (test 4. ALFA AC An International East stabilometric platform was used for measurements. Results : No statistical differences were discovered in group E, in dynamic balance assessment between test 2 and 3; however, the mean scores in group E, in test 3, were slightly better than in test 2, and notably better than in group C. No significant differences between test 3 and 4 were found in group E either. Conclusions : Extension of the intervention program helped to maintain improved dynamic balance. Discontinuation of the program for the period of 8 weeks resulted in decreased level of balance; however, it was still higher than at the beginning of the project. Dual-task functional exercises based on activities of daily living (ADLs and stimulation of righting reactions may enhance dynamic balance in individuals with ID, but it should be constantly stimulated.

  6. Game-Based Virtual Reality Canoe Paddling Training to Improve Postural Balance and Upper Extremity Function: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Study of 30 Patients with Subacute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Mo; Lee, Kyeong Jin; Song, Chang Ho

    2018-04-27

    BACKGROUND Virtual reality (VR) training with motion-controlled console games can be incorporated into stroke rehabilitation programs. The use of a variety of gaming software can provide the patient with an opportunity to perform activities that are exciting, entertaining, and that may not be feasible in clinical environments. The aim of this preliminary randomized controlled study was to investigate the effects of game-based VR canoe paddling training, when combined with conventional physical rehabilitation programs, on postural balance and upper extremity function in 30 patients with subacute stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty patients, who were within six months following the diagnosis of stroke, were randomly allocated to either the experimental group (n=15) or the control group (n=15). All participants participated in a conventional rehabilitation program. Also, the experimental group (n=15) performed the VR canoe paddling training for 30 minutes each day, three times per week, for five weeks. After five weeks, outcomes of changes in postural balance and upper extremity function were evaluated and compared between the two groups. RESULTS At five weeks, postural balance and upper extremity function showed significant improvements in both patients groups when compared with the baseline measurements (pGame-based VR canoe paddling training is an effective rehabilitation therapy that enhances postural balance and upper extremity function in patients with subacute stroke when combined with conventional physical rehabilitation programs.

  7. Gene Therapy Restores Balance and Auditory Functions in a Mouse Model of Usher Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgrig, Kevin; Shteamer, Jack W; Belyantseva, Inna A; Drummond, Meghan C; Fitzgerald, Tracy S; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Jones, Sherri M; Griffith, Andrew J; Friedman, Thomas B; Cunningham, Lisa L; Chien, Wade W

    2017-03-01

    Dizziness and hearing loss are among the most common disabilities. Many forms of hereditary balance and hearing disorders are caused by abnormal development of stereocilia, mechanosensory organelles on the apical surface of hair cells in the inner ear. The deaf whirler mouse, a model of human Usher syndrome (manifested by hearing loss, dizziness, and blindness), has a recessive mutation in the whirlin gene, which renders hair cell stereocilia short and dysfunctional. In this study, wild-type whirlin cDNA was delivered to the inner ears of neonatal whirler mice using adeno-associated virus serotype 2/8 (AAV8-whirlin) by injection into the posterior semicircular canal. Unilateral whirlin gene therapy injection was able to restore balance function as well as improve hearing in whirler mice for at least 4 months. Our data indicate that gene therapy is likely to become a treatment option for hereditary disorders of balance and hearing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Relationship between functional assessments and exercise-related changes during static balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Daniel R; Harrison, Blain C; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M

    2013-04-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is currently used for injury risk prediction, although researchers have not studied its relationships to injury risk factors. The purpose of this study was to compare FMS scores at rest to changes in static balance after exercise. Second, we examined FMS scores pre and post exercise. Twenty-five participants performed center of pressure (COP) measures and FMS testing. An acclimatization session for the FMS occurred on day 1, whereas day 2 involved COP measures for static balance and FMS testing before and after a 36-minute exercise protocol. Center of pressure standard deviations in the frontal (COPML-SD) and sagittal (COPAP-SD) planes, center of pressure velocity (COP-Velocity), center of pressure area (COP-Area), and FMS scores were recorded. No significant correlations occurred between preexercise FMS scores and change in COP measures. Preexercise hurdle step scores related to preexercise COPML-SD (p = -0.46), COPAP-SD (p = -0.43), and COP-Area (p = -0.50). Preexercise in-line lunge scores related to postexercise COPAP-SD (p = -0.44) and COP-Velocity (p = -0.39), whereas preexercise active straight leg raise (ASLR) scores related to postexercise COPML-SD (p = -0.46). Functional Movement Screen scores were not related to changes in static balance after exercise and may therefore not be useful to predict who will experience greater static balance deficits after exercise. Additionally, FMS scores did not differ before and after exercise. Clinicians aiming to identify injury risk from a general static balance standpoint may find the hurdle step, in-line lunge, and ASLR useful. Clinicians aiming to identify injury risk from a change in static balance standpoint may need to explore other screening tools.

  9. Identifying balance and fall risk in community-dwelling older women: the effect of executive function on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir-Hunter, Susan W; Clark, Jennifer; McLean, Stephanie; Pedlow, Sam; Van Hemmen, Alysia; Montero Odasso, Manuel; Overend, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms linking cognition, balance function, and fall risk among older adults are not fully understood. An evaluation of the effect of cognition on balance tests commonly used in clinical practice to assess community-dwelling older adults could enhance the identification of at-risk individuals. The study aimed to determine (1) the association between cognition and clinical tests of balance and (2) the relationship between executive function (EF) and balance under single- and dual-task testing. Participants (24 women, mean age of 76.18 [SD 16.45] years) completed six clinical balance tests, four cognitive tests, and two measures of physical function. Poor balance function was associated with poor performance on cognitive testing of EF. In addition, the association with EF was strongest under the dual-task timed up-and-go (TUG) test and the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale. Measures of global cognition were associated only with the dual-task performance of the TUG. Postural sway measured with the Standing Balance Test, under single- or dual-task test conditions, was not associated with cognition. Decreased EF was associated with worse performance on functional measures of balance. The relationship between EF and balance was more pronounced with dual-task testing using a complex cognitive task combined with the TUG.

  10. Identifying Balance and Fall Risk in Community-Dwelling Older Women: The Effect of Executive Function on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jennifer; McLean, Stephanie; Pedlow, Sam; Van Hemmen, Alysia; Montero Odasso, Manuel; Overend, Tom

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The mechanisms linking cognition, balance function, and fall risk among older adults are not fully understood. An evaluation of the effect of cognition on balance tests commonly used in clinical practice to assess community-dwelling older adults could enhance the identification of at-risk individuals. The study aimed to determine (1) the association between cognition and clinical tests of balance and (2) the relationship between executive function (EF) and balance under single- and dual-task testing. Methods: Participants (24 women, mean age of 76.18 [SD 16.45] years) completed six clinical balance tests, four cognitive tests, and two measures of physical function. Results: Poor balance function was associated with poor performance on cognitive testing of EF. In addition, the association with EF was strongest under the dual-task timed up-and-go (TUG) test and the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale. Measures of global cognition were associated only with the dual-task performance of the TUG. Postural sway measured with the Standing Balance Test, under single- or dual-task test conditions, was not associated with cognition. Conclusions: Decreased EF was associated with worse performance on functional measures of balance. The relationship between EF and balance was more pronounced with dual-task testing using a complex cognitive task combined with the TUG. PMID:24799756

  11. Plant functional group classifications and a generalized hierarchical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... functional traits ranging from the molecular to the biospherical level, and operating on ... Many researchers have discussed landscape dynamics ... concept groups plant species into distinct clusters accor- ..... simulations. Ecol.

  12. Effects of individual and group exercise programs on pain, balance, mobility and perceived benefits in rheumatoid arthritis with pain and foot deformities

    OpenAIRE

    do Carmo, Carolina Mendes; Almeida da Rocha, Bruna; Tanaka, Clarice

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of individual and group exercise programs on pain, balance, mobility and perceived benefits of rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA) with pain and foot deformities. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with RA pain and foot deformity were allocated into two groups: G1: individual exercise program and G2: group exercise program. The variables analyzed were Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for pain, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) for balance, Timed Up & Go Test (TUG) and Fu...

  13. The Relationship Between Functional Movement, Balance Deficits, and Previous Injury History in Deploying Marine Warfighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Motte, Sarah J; Lisman, Peter; Sabatino, Marc; Beutler, Anthony I; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-06-01

    Screening for primary musculoskeletal injury (MSK-I) is costly and time-consuming. Both the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y-Balance Test (YBT) have been shown to predict future MSK-I. With a goal of optimizing the efficiency of primary MSK-I screening, we studied associations between performance on the FMS and YBT and whether history of MSK-I influenced FMS and YBT scores. In total, 365 deploying Marines performed the FMS and YBT as prescribed. Composite and individual scores were each categorized as high risk or low risk using published injury thresholds: High-risk FMS included composite scores ≤14 and right-to-left (R/L) asymmetry for Shoulder Mobility, In-Line Lunge, Straight Leg Raise, Hurdle Step, or Rotary Stability. High-risk YBT consisted of anterior, posteromedial, and/or posterolateral R/L differences >4 cm and/or composite differences ≥12 cm. Pearson's χ tests evaluated associations between: (a) all FMS and YBT risk groups and (b) previous MSK-I and all FMS and YBT risk groups. Marines with high-risk FMS were twice as likely to have high-risk YBT posteromedial scores (χ = 10.2, p = 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-3.2). History of any MSK-I was not associated with high-risk FMS or high-risk YBT. However, previous lower extremity MSK-I was associated with In-Line Lunge asymmetries (χ = 9.8, p = 0.002, OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6). Overall, we found limited overlap in FMS and YBT risk. Because both methods seem to assess different risk factors for injury, we recommend FMS and YBT continue to be used together in combination with a thorough injury history until their predictive capacities are further established.

  14. Effect of Insoles with a Toe-Grip Bar on Toe Function and Standing Balance in Healthy Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Nakano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the effects of insoles with a toe-grip bar on toe function and standing balance in healthy young women. Methods. Thirty female subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group wore shoes with insoles with a toe-grip bar. The control group wore shoes with general insoles. Both groups wore the shoes for 4 weeks, 5 times per week, 9 hours per day. Toe-grip strength, toe flexibility, static balance (total trajectory length and envelope area of the center of pressure, and dynamic balance (functional reach test were measured before and after the intervention. Results. Significant interactions were observed for toe-grip strength and toe flexibility (F=12.53, p<0.01; F=5.84, p<0.05, resp., with significant improvement in the intervention group compared with that in the control group. Post hoc comparisons revealed that both groups showed significant improvement in toe-grip strength (p<0.01 and p<0.05, resp., with higher benefits observed for the intervention group (p<0.01. Conversely, no significant interaction was observed in the total trajectory length, envelope area, and functional reach test. Conclusions. This study suggests that insoles with a toe-grip bar contribute to improvements in toe-grip strength and toe flexibility in healthy young women.

  15. Using Low Levels of Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation to Improve Balance Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Goel

    Full Text Available Low-level stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS has been associated with improved postural responses in the medio-lateral (ML direction, but its effect in improving balance function in both the ML and anterior-posterior (AP directions has not been studied. In this series of studies, the efficacy of applying low amplitude SVS in 0-30 Hz range between the mastoids in the ML direction on improving cross-planar balance function was investigated. Forty-five (45 subjects stood on a compliant surface with their eyes closed and were instructed to maintain a stable upright stance. Measures of stability of the head, trunk, and whole body were quantified in ML, AP and combined APML directions. Results show that binaural bipolar SVS given in the ML direction significantly improved balance performance with the peak of optimal stimulus amplitude predominantly in the range of 100-500 μA for all the three directions, exhibiting stochastic resonance (SR phenomenon. Objective perceptual and body motion thresholds as estimates of internal noise while subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and were given 1 Hz bipolar binaural sinusoidal electrical stimuli were also measured. In general, there was no significant difference between estimates of perceptual and body motion thresholds. The average optimal SVS amplitude that improved balance performance (peak SVS amplitude normalized to perceptual threshold was estimated to be 46% in ML, 53% in AP, and 50% in APML directions. A miniature patch-type SVS device may be useful to improve balance function in people with disabilities due to aging, Parkinson's disease or in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight.

  16. Investigation of Balance Function Using Dynamic Posturography under Electrical-Acoustic Stimulation in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schwab

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of electrical-acoustic stimulation on vestibular function in CI patients by using the EquiTest and to help answer the question of whether electrically stimulating the inner ear using a cochlear implant influences the balance system in any way. Material and Methods. A test population (=50 was selected at random from among the cochlear implant recipients. Dynamic posturography (using the EquiTest was performed with the device switched off an switched on. Results. In summary, it can be said that an activated cochlear implant affects the function of the vestibular system and may, to an extent, even lead to a stabilization of balance function under the static conditions of dynamic posturography, but nevertheless also to a significant destabilization. Significant improvements in vestibular function were seen mainly in equilibrium scores under conditions 4 and 5, the composite equilibrium score, and the vestibular components as revealed by sensory analysis. Conclusions. Only under the static conditions are significantly poorer scores achieved when stimulation is applied. It may be that the explanation for any symptoms of dizziness lies precisely in the fact that they occur in supposedly noncritical situations, since, when the cochlear implant makes increased demands on the balance system, induced disturbances can be centrally suppressed.

  17. Strength and Power Training Effects on Lower Limb Force, Functional Capacity, and Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Female Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula Born; Pereira, Gleber; Lodovico, Angélica; Bento, Paulo C B; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-03-03

    It has been proposed that muscle power is more effective to prevent falls than muscle force production capacity, as rapid reactions are required to allow the postural control. This study aimed to compare the effects of strength and power training on lower limb force, functional capacity, and static and dynamic balance in older female adults. Thirty-seven volunteered healthy women had been allocated into the strength-training group (n = 14; 69 ± 7.3 years, 155 ± 5.6 cm, 72 ± 9.7 kg), the power-training group (n = 12; 67 ± 7.4 years, 153 ± 5.5 cm, 67.2 ± 7 kg), and control group (n = 11; 65 ± 3.1 years, 154 ± 5.6 cm, 70.9 ± 3 kg). After 12 weeks of training, the strength-training and power-training groups increased significantly maximum dynamic strength (29% and 27%), isometric strength (26% and 37%), and step total time (13% and 14%, dynamic balance), respectively. However, only the power-training group increased the rate of torque development (55%) and the functional capacity in 30-second chair stand (22%) and in time up and go tests (-10%). Empirically, power training may reduce the risk of injuries due to lower loads compared to strength training, and consequently, the physical effort demand during the training session is lower. Therefore, power training should be recommended as attractive training stimuli to improve lower limb force, functional capacity, and postural control of older female adults.

  18. Renormalization group, principle of invariance and functional automodelity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    There exists a remarkable identity of functional equations describing the property of functional automodelity in diverse branches of physics: renormalization group equations in quantum field theory, functional equations of the invariance principle of the one-dimensional transport theory and some others. The origin of this identity is investigated. It is shown that the structure of these equations reflects the simple and general property of transitivity with respect to the way of fixatio of initial on effective degrees of freedom [ru

  19. Executive function in different groups of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Prosen, Simona; Smrtnik Vitulić, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyses the executive function (EF) skills of 369 students of primary education (n = 116), preschool education (n = 72), social pedagogy (n = 54), and biology (n = 128). It explores how the different groups of students use selected executive skills and whether there are any differences between the groups in this respect. Eleven EF skills were self-assessed using the Executive Skills Questionnaire for Students (Dawson & Guare, 2010). All of the groups of students experien...

  20. Change in functional balance after an exercise program with Nintendo Wii in Latino patients with cerebral palsy: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Olave-Godoy, Felipe; Villalobos-Rebolledo, David

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to explore the possibility of improving functional balance using an exercise program with Nintendo and the Balance Board peripheral in subjects with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 4 male outpatients of a neurological center. All participants received an exercise program based on the use of Nintendo with the Balance Board peripheral. Training consisted of three 25-min sessions per week for 6 weeks. Each session was guided by a physical therapist. Timed up-and-go and one-leg standing tests were conducted before and after the intervention. [Results] All subjects showed significant improvements in the results of the timed up-and-go test. However, there were no significant changes in the results of the one-leg standing test. [Conclusion] The exercise protocol involving Nintendo with the Balance Board peripheral appears to improve functional dynamic balance in patients with cerebral palsy. However, static functional balance does not improve after 6 weeks of training.

  1. Effects of a program of cognitive-behavioural group therapy, vestibular rehabilitation, and psychoeducational explanations on patients with dizziness and no quantified balance deficit, compared to patients with dizziness and a quantified balance deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D A; Allum, J H J; Sleptsova, M; Gross, S; Gaab, J; Welge-Lüssen, A; Schaefert, R; Langewitz, W

    2018-02-01

    We examined whether a program combining cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), vestibular rehabilitation (VR) and psychoeducation is equally effective in improving psychometric measures in patients with dizziness independent of a balance deficit. Measures of patients with dizziness only (DO) were compared to those of patients also having a quantified balance deficit (QBD). 32 patients (23 female, 9 male) with persistent dizziness were analysed as 2 groups based on stance and gait balance control: those with QBD (pathological balance) or DO (normal balance). Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) questionnaires were used pre- and post-therapy to assess psychometric measures. Patients then received the same combination therapy in a group setting. The QBD group mean age was 60.6, SD 8.3, and DO group mean age 44.8, SD 12.1, years. Pre-therapy, questionnaire scores were pathological but not different between groups. Balance improved significantly for the QBD group (p=0.003) but not for the DO group. DHI and BSI scores improved significantly in the DO group (0.001balance control improving to near normal. Possibly, greater focus on phobic anxiety during the group therapy program would have improved psychological measures of QBD patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Causal electric charge diffusion and balance functions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Joseph I.; Plumberg, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    We study the propagation and diffusion of electric charge fluctuations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions using the Cattaneo form for the dissipative part of the electric current. As opposed to the ordinary diffusion equation this form limits the speed at which charge can propagate. Including the noise term in the current, which arises uniquely from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we calculate the balance functions for charged hadrons in a simple 1+1-dimensional Bjorken hydrodynamical model. Limiting the speed of propagation of charge fluctuations increases the height and reduces the width of these balance functions when plotted versus rapidity. We also estimate the numerical value of the associated diffusion time constant from anti-de Sitter-space/conformal-field theory.

  3. A Loudness Function for Maintaining Spectral Balance at Changing Sound Pressure Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    Our perception of loudness is a function of frequency as well as sound pressure level as described in ISO226:2003: Normal Equal Loudness Level Contours, which describes the needed sound pressure level for pure tones to be perceived equally loud. At a music performance, this is taking care...... of by the sound engineer by listening to the individual sound sources and adjust and equalize them to the wanted spectral balance including the whole chain of audio equipment and surroundings. At a live venue the sound pressure level will normally change during a concert, and typically increase over time......B is doubling of the effect to the loudspeakers). A level depending digital loudness function has been made based on ISO226:2003, and will be demonstrated. It can maintain the spectral balance at alternating levels and is based on fractional order digital filters. Tutorial. Abstract T3.3 (30th August 16:00 - 17...

  4. Impaired osteoblast function in osteoporosis: comparison between calcium balance and dynamic histomorphometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Arlot, M; Edouard, C; Meunier, P J; Neer, R M; Reeve, J

    1984-01-01

    Osteoblast function was investigated in 27 patients with idiopathic osteoporosis. Transiliac bone biopsy specimens were taken after double labelling with tetracycline, and metabolic calcium balance was studied almost simultaneously. Many of the patients showed poor double labelling of their otherwise unremarkable trabecular osteoid, suggesting impaired formation of bone at many of these surfaces. This phenomenon was not accompanied by increased width of osteoid seams (as seen in osteomalacia)...

  5. The functional assessment Berg Balance Scale is better capable of estimating fall risk in the elderly than the posturographic Balance Stability System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa Vieira; Maia, Roberto Alcantara; Silva, Sonia Maria Cesar de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify which instrument better identifies recurrent falls in the elderly. Ninety-eight old people, with an average age of 80 ± 4 years, were submitted to an assessment of balance and fall risk by means of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the posturographic Balance Stability System (BSS). The BBS was correlated with the BSS (r=-0.27; p=0.008), age (r=-0.38; pfalls (r=-0.25; p=0.013) and the analysis of logistical regression showed that the elderly classified with fall risk on the BBS presented 2.5 (95%CI 1.08-5.78) more chance of identifying who had two falls or more over the last year. The BBS identified that the greater the age the worse the functional balance and demonstrated a greater capacity to identify falls risk suffered over the last year when compared with the BSS.

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Aquatic Exercise Training on Functional Capacity, Balance, and Perceptions of Fatigue in Female Patients With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Shariat, Ardalan; Ingle, Lee; Cleland, Joshua A; Kargarfard, Mina

    2018-02-01

    To assess the effects of an 8-week aquatic exercise training program on functional capacity, balance, and perceptions of fatigue in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Randomized controlled design. Referral center of an MS society. Women (N=32; mean age ± SD, 36.4±8.2y) with diagnosed relapsing-remitting MS. After undergoing baseline testing by a neurologist, participants were allocated to either an intervention (aquatic training program, n=17) or a control group (n=15). The intervention consisted of an 8-week aquatic training program (3 supervised training sessions per week; session duration, 45-60min; 50%-75% estimated maximum heart rate). Six-minute walk test (6-MWT), balance (Berg Balance Scale [BBS]), and perceptions of fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale; [MFIS]) at baseline and after the 8-week intervention. Differences over time between the experimental and control groups were assessed by a 2×2 (group by time) repeated-measures analysis of variance. Thirty-two women completed the 8-week aquatic training intervention (experimental group, n=17; control group, n=15). All outcome measures improved in the experimental group: 6-MWT performance (pretest mean ± SD, 451±58m; posttest mean ± SD, 503±57m; Ptraining improved functional capacity, balance, and perceptions of fatigue in women with MS. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Implement the medical group revenue function. Create competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, C

    1998-01-01

    This article shows medical groups how they can employ new financial management and information technology techniques to safeguard their revenue and income streams. These managerial techniques stem from the application of the medical group revenue function, which is defined herein. This article also describes how the medical group revenue function can be used to create value by employing a database and a decision support system. Finally, the article describes how the decision support system can be used to create competitive advantage. Through the wise use of internally generated information, medical groups can negotiate better contract terms, improve their operations, cut their costs, embark on capital investment programs and improve market share. As medical groups gain market power by improving in these areas, they will be more attractive to potential strategic allies, payers and investment bankers.

  8. Accountability in public health units: using a modified nominal group technique to develop a balanced scorecard for performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Victoria A; Hunter, Duncan; Shortt, Samuel E D

    2003-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the need for accountability instruments applicable across all health units in the public health system. One tool, the balanced scorecard was created for industry and has been successfully adapted for use in Ontario hospitals. It consists of 4 quadrants: financial performance, outcomes, customer satisfaction and organizational development. The aim of the present study was to determine if a modified nominal group technique could be used to reach consensus among public health unit staff and public health specialists in Ontario about the components of a balanced scorecard for public health units. A modified nominal group technique consensus method was used with the public health unit staff in 6 Eastern Ontario health units (n=65) and public health specialists (n=18). 73.8% of the public health unit personnel from all six health units in the eastern Ontario region participated in the survey of potential indicators. A total of 74 indicators were identified in each of the 4 quadrants: program performance (n=44); financial performance (n=11); public perceptions (n=11); and organizational performance (n=8). The modified nominal group technique was a successful method of incorporating the views of public health personnel and specialists in the development of a balanced scorecard for public health.

  9. Impaired osteoblast function in osteoporosis: comparison between calcium balance and dynamic histomorphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlot, M; Edouard, C; Meunier, P J; Neer, R M; Reeve, J

    1984-09-01

    Osteoblast function was investigated in 27 patients with idiopathic osteoporosis. Transiliac bone biopsy specimens were taken after double labelling with tetracycline, and metabolic calcium balance was studied almost simultaneously. Many of the patients showed poor double labelling of their otherwise unremarkable trabecular osteoid, suggesting impaired formation of bone at many of these surfaces. This phenomenon was not accompanied by increased width of osteoid seams (as seen in osteomalacia), indicating that formation of the matrix and its mineralisation were in equilibrium. For the first time, highly significant positive correlations (p less than 0.01) were found between indices of bone formation, determined by labelling with tetracycline, and calcium balance. Thus some patients with osteoporosis who are rapidly losing bone have low rates of formation of trabecular bone both by individual osteoblasts and in relation to available bone surfaces. As histological indices of bone resorption also independently correlated strongly and inversely (p less than 0.01) with calcium balance the rate of initiation of new basic multicellular units by osteoclastic resorption of trabecular surfaces (or the depth of resorption at these surfaces) also appears to be an important determinant of mineral balance. The mechanisms that regulate the effective life span of mature osteoblasts require further investigation, particularly as some promising treatments that can increase trabecular bone volume in osteoporosis, such as parathyroid peptide hPTH (1-34) and sodium fluoride, must work through a reversal of osteoblastic depression.

  10. The Evolution of the Personnel Function in Capital Group (Case of Zywiec Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borkowska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article constitutes a detailed case study on the evolution on the personnel function in Zywiec Group that followed from the restructuring of the member breweries of the capital group. It covers the process of integration of the Group and changes to the human resources management system. It also contains theoretical reflections upon the role of HR specialists in the process of the integration of the companies. The organization of the personnel function has been presented here against a period spanning 3 years of G activity (wider range of HR responsibility, increase in the number of specialists employed in HR, lower age, higher level of education.

  11. Discretization of four types of Weyl group orbit functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrivnák, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The discrete Fourier calculus of the four families of special functions, called C–, S–, S s – and S l -functions, is summarized. Functions from each of the four families of special functions are discretely orthogonal over a certain finite set of points. The generalizations of discrete cosine and sine transforms of one variable — the discrete S s – and S l -transforms of the group F 4 — are considered in detail required for their exploitation in discrete Fourier spectral methods. The continuous interpolations, induced by the discrete expansions, are presented

  12. Functional-light JavaScript balanced, pragmatic FP in JavaScript

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Functional-Light JavaScript is a balanced, pragmatic exploration of Functional Programming in JavaScript. Functional Programming (FP) is an incredibly powerful paradigm for structuring code that yields more robust, verifiable, and readable programs. If you've ever tried to learn FP but struggled with terms like "monad", mathematical concepts like category theory, or symbols like (lambda), you're not alone. Functional-Light programming distills the most vital aspects of FP—function purity, value immutability, composition, and more!—down to approachable JavaScript patterns. Rather than the all-or-nothing dogmatism often encountered in FP, this book teaches you how to improve your programs line by line.

  13. Single or functionalized fullerenes interacting with heme group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Wallison Chaves; Diniz, Eduardo Moraes, E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Avenida dos Portugueses, 1966, CEP 65080-805, São Luís - MA (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    The heme group is responsible for iron transportation through the bloodstream, where iron participates in redox reactions, electron transfer, gases detection etc. The efficiency of such processes can be reduced if the whole heme molecule or even the iron is somehow altered from its original oxidation state, which can be caused by interactions with nanoparticles as fullerenes. To verify how such particles alter the geometry and electronic structure of heme molecule, here we report first principles calculations based on density functional theory of heme group interacting with single C{sub 60} fullerene or with C{sub 60} functionalized with small functional groups (−CH{sub 3}, −COOH, −NH{sub 2}, −OH). The calculations shown that the system heme + nanoparticle has a different spin state in comparison with heme group if the fullerene is functionalized. Also a functional group can provide a stronger binding between nanoparticle and heme molecule or inhibit the chemical bonding in comparison with single fullerene results. In addition heme molecule loses electrons to the nanoparticles and some systems exhibited a geometry distortion in heme group, depending on the binding energy. Furthermore, one find that such nanoparticles induce a formation of spin up states in heme group. Moreover, there exist modifications in density of states near the Fermi energy. Although of such changes in heme electronic structure and geometry, the iron atom remains in the heme group with the same oxidation state, so that processes that involve the iron might not be affected, only those that depend on the whole heme molecule.

  14. An Ai Chi-based aquatic group improves balance and reduces falls in community-dwelling adults: A pilot observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Dinh, Tammy; Hewitt, Melissa; Piper, Ross; Thwaites, Claire

    2016-11-01

    Falls are associated with morbidity, loss of independence, and mortality. While land-based group exercise and Tai Chi programs reduce the risk of falls, aquatic therapy may allow patients to complete balance exercises with less pain and fear of falling; however, limited data exist. The objective of the study was to pilot the implementation of an aquatic group based on Ai Chi principles (Aquabalance) and to evaluate the safety, intervention acceptability, and intervention effect sizes. Pilot observational cohort study. Forty-two outpatients underwent a single 45-minute weekly group aquatic Ai Chi-based session for eight weeks (Aquabalance). Safety was monitored using organizational reporting systems. Patient attendance, satisfaction, and self-reported falls were also recorded. Balance measures included the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Four Square Step Test (FSST), and the unilateral Step Tests. Forty-two patients completed the program. It was feasible to deliver Aquabalance, as evidenced by the median (IQR) attendance rate of 8.0 (7.8, 8.0) out of 8. No adverse events occurred and participants reported high satisfaction levels. Improvements were noted on the TUG, 10-meter walk test, the Functional Reach Test, the FSST, and the unilateral step tests (p falls risk reduced from 38% to 21%. The study was limited by its small sample size, single-center nature, and the absence of a control group. Aquabalance was safe, well-attended, and acceptable to participants. A randomized controlled assessor-blinded trial is required.

  15. Correlation between movement complexity during static standing and balance function in institutionalized older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamagata M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Momoko Yamagata,1 Tome Ikezoe,1 Midori Kamiya,1 Mitsuhiro Masaki,2,3 Noriaki Ichihashi1 1Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 2Department of Physical Therapy, 3Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan Purpose: Sample entropy (SampEn is an analysis to evaluate movement complexity of the center of pressure (COP. A lower value of SampEn indicates lower complexity of COP variability, that is, rigidity, and lower degrees of freedom. Previous studies reported the association of increased SampEn with improved standing balance ability in young subjects. However, no studies have examined these relationships among older adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between SampEn and standing balance ability in older adults.Subjects and methods: The subjects were 33 institutionalized older adults (aged 82.2±6.5 years. COP during static standing was measured. The standard deviation (SD values of COP and SampEn in the sagittal and frontal planes were calculated using time series data. One-leg standing test (OLST, functional reach (FR test, and lateral reach (LR test were also measured to evaluate standing balance ability.Results: OLST, FR, and LR were 6.5±8.3 s, 19.8±5.9 cm, and 18.2±6.4 cm, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that SampEn in the sagittal plane significantly correlated with OLST (r=-0.35 and FR (r=-0.36. However, SampEn in the frontal plane and SD of COP in both sagittal and frontal planes had no relationship with any of the clinical balance tests.Conclusion: Lower SampEn implies rigidity for postural control. In the present study, it was found that lower SampEn in the sagittal plane was related to a higher balance function, which suggests that older adults utilized body rigidity to maintain postural stability as a compensative strategy. Keywords: older adults, posture, balance, standing, complexity

  16. Functional and structural balances of homologous sensorimotor regions in multiple sclerosis fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cogliati Dezza, I; Zito, G; Tomasevic, L

    2015-01-01

    regions-known to be crucial for sensorimotor networks effectiveness-decrease with MS fatigue increase. Functional connectivity measures at rest and during a simple motor task (weak handgrip of either the right or left hand) were derived from primary sensorimotor areas electroencephalographic recordings......Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly disabling symptom. Among the central mechanisms behind it, an involvement of sensorimotor networks is clearly evident from structural and functional studies. We aimed at assessing whether functional/structural balances of homologous sensorimotor...... in 27 mildly disabled MS patients. Structural MRI-derived inter-hemispheric asymmetries included the cortical thickness of Rolandic regions and the volume of thalami. Fatigue symptoms increased together with the functional inter-hemispheric imbalance of sensorimotor homologous areas activities at rest...

  17. Exact solutions of the population balance equation including particle transport, using group analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fubiao; Meleshko, Sergey V.; Flood, Adrian E.

    2018-06-01

    The population balance equation (PBE) has received an unprecedented amount of attention in recent years from both academics and industrial practitioners because of its long history, widespread use in engineering, and applicability to a wide variety of particulate and discrete-phase processes. However it is typically impossible to obtain analytical solutions, although in almost every case a numerical solution of the PBEs can be obtained. In this article, the symmetries of PBEs with homogeneous coagulation kernels involving aggregation, breakage and growth processes and particle transport in one dimension are found by direct solving the determining equations. Using the optimal system of one and two-dimensional subalgebras, all invariant solutions and reduced equations are obtained. In particular, an explicit analytical physical solution is also presented.

  18. Pattern-Driven Architectural Partitioning. Balancing Functional and Non-functional Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, Neil; Avgeriou, Paris

    2007-01-01

    One of the vexing challenges of software architecture is the problem of satisfying the functional specifications of the system to be created while at the same time meeting its non-functional needs. In this work we focus on the early stages of the software architecture process, when initial

  19. Functionalized TiO2 nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Baoli; Li, Duxin; Liu, Qingquan; Zhou, Zhihua; Liao, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO 2 nanoparticle chemistry, and may promote their many potential applications such as in polymer composites and coatings. This paper describes a facile method to prepare functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle with highly reactive isocyanate groups on its surface, via the reaction between toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroxyl on TiO 2 nanoparticle surface. The main effect factors on the reaction of TiO 2 with TDI were studied by determining the reaction extent of hydroxyl groups on TiO 2 surface. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed that reactive isocyanate groups were covalently attached to the TiO 2 nanoparticle surface. The dispersion of the TDI-functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Owing to the TDI molecules covalently bonded on TiO 2 nanoparticle surface, it was established that the TiO 2 nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in toluene, thus indicating that this functionalization method can prevent TiO 2 nanoparticle from agglomerating. -- Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanoparticle was functionalized with toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate. ► Functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in xylene. ► Compatibility of TiO 2 nanoparticle and organic solvent is significantly improved. ► TiO 2 containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO 2 nanoparticle chemistry.

  20. Group functioning of a collaborative family research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S K; Halm, M A; Titler, M G; Craft, M; Kleiber, C; Montgomery, L A; Nicholson, A; Buckwalter, K; Cram, E

    1993-07-01

    Collaborative research teams are an attractive means of conducting nursing research in the clinical setting because of the many opportunities that collaboration can supply. These opportunities include a chance to: (1) network with other nurses who have similar interests, (2) share knowledge and expertise for designing clinical studies that directly affect daily practice, (3) develop instruments, (4) write grant proposals, (5) collect and analyze data, and (6) prepare manuscripts for publication. The effectiveness of research teams, however, is strongly influenced by group functioning. This article describes the functioning of a collaborative family interventions research team of nursing faculty members and CNSs at a large Midwestern university setting. The formation of the group and membership characteristics are described, along with strategies used to identify the research focus and individual and group goals. Aspects related to the influence of the group on members and the internal operations of the group are also addressed. Future strategies to be explored will focus on the size of the group and joint authorship issues. The authors also set forth a number of recommendations for development of collaborative research groups.

  1. Balancing Automatic-Controlled Behaviors and Emotional-Salience States: A Dynamic Executive Functioning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Viola, Thiago W; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding how executive functions are conceptualized in psychopathology. Since several models have been proposed, the major issue lies within the definition of executive functioning itself. Theoretical discussions have emerged, narrowing the boundaries between "hot" and "cold" executive functions or between self-regulation and cognitive control. Nevertheless, the definition of executive functions is far from a consensual proposition and it has been suggested that these models might be outdated. Current efforts indicate that human behavior and cognition are by-products of many brain systems operating and interacting at different levels, and therefore, it is very simplistic to assume a dualistic perspective of information processing. Based upon an adaptive perspective, we discuss how executive functions could emerge from the ability to solve immediate problems and to generalize successful strategies, as well as from the ability to synthesize and to classify environmental information in order to predict context and future. We present an executive functioning perspective that emerges from the dynamic balance between automatic-controlled behaviors and an emotional-salience state. According to our perspective, the adaptive role of executive functioning is to automatize efficient solutions simultaneously with cognitive demand, enabling individuals to engage such processes with increasingly complex problems. Understanding executive functioning as a mediator of stress and cognitive engagement not only fosters discussions concerning individual differences, but also offers an important paradigm to understand executive functioning as a continuum process rather than a categorical and multicomponent structure.

  2. Dominance Weighted Social Choice Functions for Group Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ROSSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In travel domains, decision support systems provide support to tourists in the planning of their vacation. In particular, when the number of possible Points of Interest (POI to visit is large, the system should help tourists providing recommendations on the POI that could be more interesting for them. Since traveling is, usually, an activity that involves small groups of people, the system should take simultaneously into account the preferences of each group's member. At the same time, it also should model possible intra-group relationships, which can have an impact in the group decision-making process. In this paper, we model this problem as a multi-agent aggregation of preferences by using weighted social choice functions, whereas such weights are automatically evaluated by analyzing the interactions of the group's members on Online Social Networks.

  3. Functional Groups Quantification of Chondritic Organics by XANES Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guillou, C.; Bernard, S.

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a new method to quantify the functional group concentration of organics using STXM-XANES. Applied to IOM and in situ FIB sections measurement, it reveals a lower aromaticity than expected from previous NMR results (35% vs. 60%).

  4. Balancing the Fair Treatment of Others While Preserving Group Identity and Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Elenbaas, Laura; Rutland, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Social exclusion and inclusion from groups, as well as the distribution of resources, are fundamental aspects of social life, and serve as sources of conflicts that bear on issues of fairness and equality, beginning in childhood. For the most part, research on social exclusion and allocation of resources has not focused on the issue of group membership. Yet, social exclusion from groups and the denial of resources reflect societal issues pertaining to social inequality and its counterpoint, fair treatment of others. Social inequality occurs when opportunities and resources are distributed unevenly in society, often through group norms about allocation that reflect socially defined categories of persons. This occurs at multiple levels of societal organization, from experiences of exclusion in childhood such as being left out of a play activity, to being denied access to resources as a member of a group. These situations extend to larger level experiences in the adult world concerning social exclusion from voting, for example, or participation in educational institutions. Thus, most decisions regarding social exclusion and the denial of resources involve considerations of group identity and group membership, implicitly or explicitly, which contribute to prejudice and bias, even though this has rarely been investigated in developmental science. Current research illustrating the role of group identity and autonomy regarding decision-making about social exclusion and the denial of resources is reviewed from the Social Reasoning Developmental model, one that integrates social domain theory and developmental social identity theories to investigate how children use moral, conventional, and psychological judgments to evaluate contexts reflecting group identity, group norms, and intergroup dynamics.

  5. Effects of bioDensity Training and Power Plate Whole-Body Vibration on Strength, Balance, and Functional Independence in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T; Judge, Stacey; Malone, Ashley; Moynes, Rebecca C; Conviser, Jason; Skinner, James S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 ± 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22-51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy.

  6. Direct quantification of negatively charged functional groups on membrane surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Surface charge plays an important role in membrane-based separations of particulates, macromolecules, and dissolved ionic species. In this study, we present two experimental methods to determine the concentration of negatively charged functional groups at the surface of dense polymeric membranes. Both techniques consist of associating the membrane surface moieties with chemical probes, followed by quantification of the bound probes. Uranyl acetate and toluidine blue O dye, which interact with the membrane functional groups via complexation and electrostatic interaction, respectively, were used as probes. The amount of associated probes was quantified using liquid scintillation counting for uranium atoms and visible light spectroscopy for the toluidine blue dye. The techniques were validated using self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols with known amounts of charged moieties. The surface density of negatively charged functional groups of hand-cast thin-film composite polyamide membranes, as well as commercial cellulose triacetate and polyamide membranes, was quantified under various conditions. Using both techniques, we measured a negatively charged functional group density of 20-30nm -2 for the hand-cast thin-film composite membranes. The ionization behavior of the membrane functional groups, determined from measurements with toluidine blue at varying pH, was consistent with published data for thin-film composite polyamide membranes. Similarly, the measured charge densities on commercial membranes were in general agreement with previous investigations. The relative simplicity of the two methods makes them a useful tool for quantifying the surface charge concentration of a variety of surfaces, including separation membranes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Decreased Respiratory Muscle Function Is Associated with Impaired Trunk Balance among Chronic Stroke Patients: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeongbong; Cho, Ji-Eun; Hwang, Dal-Yeon; Lee, WanHee

    2018-06-01

    The abdominal muscles play a role in trunk balance. Abdominal muscle thickness is asymmetrical in stroke survivors, who also have decreased respiratory muscle function. We compared the thickness of the abdominal muscles between the affected and less affected sides in stroke survivors. In addition, the relationship between respiratory muscle function and trunk balance was evaluated. Chronic stroke patients (18 men, 15 women; mean age, 58.94 ± 12.30 years; Mini-Mental Status Examination score ≥ 24) who could sit without assist were enrolled. Abdominal muscle thickness during rest and contraction was measured with ultrasonography, and the thickening ratio was calculated. Respiratory muscle function assessment included maximum respiratory pressure, peak flow, and air volume. Trunk function was evaluated using the Trunk Impairment Scale, and trunk balance was estimated based on the center of pressure velocity and path length within the limit of stability in sitting posture. Abdominal muscles were significantly thinner on the affected side, and the thickening ratio was lower in the affected side (P respiratory muscle function was significantly correlated with higher level of trunk function and balance in stroke patients (P respiratory muscle function has positive correlation with trunk function and balance. We propose that respiratory muscle training should be included as part of trunk balance training in chronic stroke patients.

  8. Local hybrid functionals with orbital-free mixing functions and balanced elimination of self-interaction error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Piotr de; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    The recently introduced density overlap regions indicator (DORI) [P. de Silva and C. Corminboeuf, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10(9), 3745–3756 (2014)] is a density-dependent scalar field revealing regions of high density overlap between shells, atoms, and molecules. In this work, we exploit its properties to construct local hybrid exchange-correlation functionals aiming at balanced reduction of the self-interaction error. We show that DORI can successfully replace the ratio of the von Weizsäcker and exact positive-definite kinetic energy densities, which is commonly used in mixing functions of local hybrids. Additionally, we introduce several semi-empirical parameters to control the local and global admixture of exact exchange. The most promising of our local hybrids clearly outperforms the underlying semi-local functionals as well as their global hybrids

  9. Designing a balanced scorecard for a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan: a modified Delphi group exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Jafri, Syed M Wasim; Abbas, Farhat; Shah, Mairaj; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Brommels, Mats; Tomson, Goran

    2010-01-01

    Balanced Scorecards (BSC) are being implemented in high income health settings linking organizational strategies with performance data. At this private university hospital in Pakistan an elaborate information system exists. This study aimed to make best use of available data for better performance management. Applying the modified Delphi technique an expert panel of clinicians and hospital managers reduced a long list of indicators to a manageable size. Indicators from existing documents were evaluated for their importance, scientific soundness, appropriateness to hospital's strategic plan, feasibility and modifiability. Panel members individually rated each indicator on a scale of 1-9 for the above criteria. Median scores were assigned. Of an initial set of 50 indicators, 20 were finally selected to be assigned to the four BSC quadrants. These were financial (n = 4), customer or patient (n = 4), internal business or quality of care (n = 7) and innovation/learning or employee perspectives (n = 5). A need for stringent definitions, international benchmarking and standardized measurement methods was identified. BSC compels individual clinicians and managers to jointly work towards improving performance. This scorecard is now ready to be implemented by this hospital as a performance management tool for monitoring indicators, addressing measurement issues and enabling comparisons with hospitals in other settings. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effects of a multimodal exercise program on balance, functional mobility and fall risk in older adults with cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, E; Sztruhár Jónásné, I; Karóczi, C K; Korpos, A; Gondos, T

    2013-10-01

    Exercise programs have important role in prevention of falls, but to date, there are conflicting findings about the effects of exercise programs on balance, functional performance and fall risk among cognitively impaired older adults. AIM. To investigate the effects of a multimodal exercise program on static and dynamic balance, and risk of falls in older adults with mild or moderate cognitive impairment. A randomized controlled study. A long-term care institute. Cognitively impaired individuals aged over 60 years. Eighty-six participants were randomized to an exercise group providing multimodal exercise program for 12 months or a control group which did not participate in any exercise program. The Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment scale, Timed Up and Go test, and incidence of falls were measured at baseline, at 6 months and at 12 months. There was a significant improvement in balance-related items of Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment scale in the exercise group both at 6 month and 12 month (Pfalls. Our results confirmed that a 12-month multimodal exercise program can improve the balance in cognitively impaired older adults. Based on our results, the multimodal exercise program may be a promising fall prevention exercise program for older adults with mild or moderate cognitive impairment improving static balance but it is supposed that more emphasis should be put on walking component of exercise program and environmental fall risk assessment.

  11. A minimalist functional group (MFG) approach for surrogate fuel formulation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani; Naser, Nimal; Issayev, Gani; Touitou, Jamal; Ghosh, Manik Kumer; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Farooq, Aamir; Dooley, Stephen; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    Surrogate fuel formulation has drawn significant interest due to its relevance towards understanding combustion properties of complex fuel mixtures. In this work, we present a novel approach for surrogate fuel formulation by matching target fuel functional groups, while minimizing the number of surrogate species. Five key functional groups; paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, naphthenic CH–CH and aromatic C–CH groups in addition to structural information provided by the Branching Index (BI) were chosen as matching targets. Surrogates were developed for six FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline target fuels, namely FACE A, C, F, G, I and J. The five functional groups present in the fuels were qualitatively and quantitatively identified using high resolution H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A further constraint was imposed in limiting the number of surrogate components to a maximum of two. This simplifies the process of surrogate formulation, facilitates surrogate testing, and significantly reduces the size and time involved in developing chemical kinetic models by reducing the number of thermochemical and kinetic parameters requiring estimation. Fewer species also reduces the computational expenses involved in simulating combustion in practical devices. The proposed surrogate formulation methodology is denoted as the Minimalist Functional Group (MFG) approach. The MFG surrogates were experimentally tested against their target fuels using Ignition Delay Times (IDT) measured in an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT), as specified by the standard ASTM D6890 methodology, and in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM). Threshold Sooting Index (TSI) and Smoke Point (SP) measurements were also performed to determine the sooting propensities of the surrogates and target fuels. The results showed that MFG surrogates were able to reproduce the aforementioned combustion properties of the target FACE gasolines across a wide range of conditions

  12. A minimalist functional group (MFG) approach for surrogate fuel formulation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani

    2018-03-20

    Surrogate fuel formulation has drawn significant interest due to its relevance towards understanding combustion properties of complex fuel mixtures. In this work, we present a novel approach for surrogate fuel formulation by matching target fuel functional groups, while minimizing the number of surrogate species. Five key functional groups; paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, naphthenic CH–CH and aromatic C–CH groups in addition to structural information provided by the Branching Index (BI) were chosen as matching targets. Surrogates were developed for six FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline target fuels, namely FACE A, C, F, G, I and J. The five functional groups present in the fuels were qualitatively and quantitatively identified using high resolution H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A further constraint was imposed in limiting the number of surrogate components to a maximum of two. This simplifies the process of surrogate formulation, facilitates surrogate testing, and significantly reduces the size and time involved in developing chemical kinetic models by reducing the number of thermochemical and kinetic parameters requiring estimation. Fewer species also reduces the computational expenses involved in simulating combustion in practical devices. The proposed surrogate formulation methodology is denoted as the Minimalist Functional Group (MFG) approach. The MFG surrogates were experimentally tested against their target fuels using Ignition Delay Times (IDT) measured in an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT), as specified by the standard ASTM D6890 methodology, and in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM). Threshold Sooting Index (TSI) and Smoke Point (SP) measurements were also performed to determine the sooting propensities of the surrogates and target fuels. The results showed that MFG surrogates were able to reproduce the aforementioned combustion properties of the target FACE gasolines across a wide range of conditions

  13. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Results: Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Conclusion: Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Clinical Relevance: Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant. PMID:24790688

  14. Relationship of the functional movement screen in-line lunge to power, speed, and balance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin H; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C

    2014-05-01

    The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Descriptive laboratory study. Level 3. Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant.

  15. Adapted physical activity is beneficial on balance, functional mobility, quality of life and fall risk in community-dwelling older women: a randomized single-blinded controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, E; Prókai, L; Mészáros, L; Gondos, T

    2013-06-01

    Exercise programmes have important role in prevention of falls, but to date, we have little knowledge about the effects of Adapted Physical Activity programme on balance of older women. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an Adapted Physical Activity programme on balance, risk of falls and quality of life in community-dwelling older women. This was a randomized controlled study. Community, in a local sport centre. Older women aged over 60 years. Seventy-six women were randomised to an exercise group providing Adapted Physical Activity programme for 25 weeks or a control group (in which they did not participate in any exercise programme). The one-leg stance test, Timed Up and Go test, incidence of fall and the quality of life (SF-36V2) were measured at baseline and after 25 weeks. The one-leg stance test and the Timed Up and Go test in the exercise group was significantly better than in the control group after the intervention period (P=0.005; P=0.001, respectively). The Physical Functioning, Vitality and General Health subdomains of quality of life were also significantly better in the exercise group compared to the control group (P=0.004; P=0.005; P=0.038, respectively). Relative risk was 0.40 (90% CI 0.174 to 0.920) and the number needed to treat was 5 (95% CI 2.3 to 23.3). This 25-week Adapted Physical Activity programme improves static balance, functional mobility, as well as Physical Functioning, Vitality and General Health subdomains of quality of life. Based on our results, the Adapted Physical Activity programme may be a promising fall prevention exercise programme improving static balance and functional mobility for community-dwelling older women.

  16. Evolution of Functional Groups during Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovikj, Filip [Department; Tran, Chi-Cong [Department; Kaliaguine, Serge [Department; Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Garcia-Perez, Manuel [Department

    2017-07-14

    In this paper, we examine the evolution of functional groups (carbonyl, carboxyl, phenol, and hydroxyl) during stabilization at 100–200 °C of two typical wood derived pyrolysis oils from BTG and Amaron in a batch reactor over Ru/C catalyst for 4h. An aqueous and an oily phase were obtained. The content of functional groups in both phases were analyzed by GC/MS, 31P-NMR, 1H-NMR, elemental analysis, KF titration, carbonyl groups by Faix, Folin – Ciocalteu method and UV-Fluorescence. The consumption of hydrogen was between 0.007 and 0.016 g/g oil, and 0.001-0.020 g of CH4/g of oil, 0.005-0.016 g of CO2/g oil and 0.03-0.10 g H2O/g oil were formed. The content of carbonyl, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups in the volatile GC-MS detectable fraction decreased (80, 65, and ~70% respectively), while their behavior in the total oil and hence in the non-volatile fraction was more complex. The carbonyl groups initially decreased having minimum at ~125-150°C and then increased, while the hydroxyl groups had reversed trend. This might be explained by initial hydrogenation of the carbonyl groups to form hydroxyls, followed by continued dehydration reactions at higher temperatures that may increase their content. The 31P-NMR was on the limit of its sensitivity for the carboxylic groups to precisely detect changes in the non-volatile fraction, however the more precise titration method showed that the concentration of carboxylic groups in the non-volatile fraction remains constant with increased stabilization temperature. The UV-Fluorescence results show that repolymerization increases with temperature. ATR-FTIR method coupled with deconvolution of the region between 1490 and 1850 cm-1 showed to be a good tool for following the changes in carbonyl groups and phenols of the stabilized pyrolysis oils. The deconvolution of the IR bands around 1050 and 1260 cm-1 correlated very well with the changes in the 31P-NMR silent O groups (likely ethers). Most of the H2O formation could be

  17. Balance, functional mobility, and fall occurrence in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pedreira da Fonseca

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP may lead to reduced functional mobility and balance. It is important to establish specific parameters that identify these changes and predict the risk of falls in these patients. The aim was to compare balance, functional mobility, and occurrence of falls among patients with and without HAM/TSP and to suggest values to predict the risk of falls in these patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in patients with and without HAM/TSP involved balance assessments based on the berg balance scale (BBS and functional mobility evaluation based on the timed up and go (TUG test. From reports of falls, the sensitivity, specificity, and best cutoff points for the risk of falls assessed by these instruments were established using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve; 5% alpha was considered. RESULTS: We selected 42 participants: 29 with HAM/TSP and 13 without HAM/TSP. There was a statistically significant difference in the occurrence of falls, balance, and functional mobility between the groups (p<0.05. Good accuracy was determined for the BBS (77% and TUG test (70% and the cutoff points for the risk of falls were defined as 50 points for the BBS and 12.28 seconds for the TUG test. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HAM/TSP present reduced functional mobility and balance in relation to those without HAM/TSP. The risk of falls increased for these patients can be evaluated by the values of 50 points using the BBS and 12.28 seconds using the TUG test.

  18. Functional renormalization group approach to the two dimensional Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, A; Kopietz, P [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Hasselmann, N [International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de BrasIlia, Caixa Postal 04667, 70910-900 BrasIlia, DF (Brazil)], E-mail: hasselma@itp.uni-frankfurt.de, E-mail: sinner@itp.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the small frequency and momentum structure of the weakly interacting Bose gas in two dimensions using a functional renormalization group approach. The flow equations are derived within a derivative approximation of the effective action up to second order in spatial and temporal variables and investigated numerically. The truncation we employ is based on the perturbative structure of the theory and is well described as a renormalization group enhanced perturbation theory. It allows to calculate corrections to the Bogoliubov spectrum and to investigate the damping of quasiparticles. Our approach allows to circumvent the divergences which plague the usual perturbative approach.

  19. Correlation between center of pressure and functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan

    OpenAIRE

    Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Cartes-Vel?squez, Ricardo; Salgado-M?ndez, Rodrigo; Castro-Ram?rez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between center of pressure and functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi. [Subjects and Methods] For the study, nine non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi who were able to maintain a standing posture and walk independently were recruited. Timed one-leg standing and timed up-and-go tests were used as functional balance tests and force platform to measure the center of pressure. The Pearson correlation coeffic...

  20. Bidirectional and Multi-User Telerehabilitation System: Clinical Effect on Balance, Functional Activity, and Satisfaction in Patients with Chronic Stroke Living in Long-Term Care Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Hwa Lin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The application of internet technology for telerehabilitation in patients with stroke has developed rapidly. Objective: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of a bidirectional and multi-user telerehabilitation system on balance and satisfaction in patients with chronic stroke living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs. Method: This pilot study used a multi-site, blocked randomization design. Twenty-four participants from three LTCFs were recruited, and the participants were randomly assigned into the telerehabilitation (Tele and conventional therapy (Conv groups within each LTCF. Tele group received telerehabilitation but the Conv group received conventional therapy with two persons in each group for three sessions per week and for four weeks. The outcome measures included Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Barthel Index (BI, and the telerehabilitation satisfaction of the participants. Setting: A telerehabilitation system included “therapist end” in a laboratory, and the “client end” in LTCFs. The conventional therapy was conducted in LTCFs. Results: Training programs conducted for both the Tele and Conv groups showed significant effects within groups on the participant BBS as well as the total and self-care scores of BI. No significant difference between groups could be demonstrated. The satisfaction of participants between the Tele and the Conv groups also did not show significant difference. Conclusions: This pilot study indicated that the multi-user telerehabilitation program is feasible for improving the balance and functional activity similar to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke living in LTCFs.

  1. Computing the effective action with the functional renormalization group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codello, Alessandro [CP3-Origins and the Danish IAS University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Percacci, Roberto [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Rachwal, Leslaw [Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China); Tonero, Alberto [ICTP-SAIFR and IFT, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    The ''exact'' or ''functional'' renormalization group equation describes the renormalization group flow of the effective average action Γ{sub k}. The ordinary effective action Γ{sub 0} can be obtained by integrating the flow equation from an ultraviolet scale k = Λ down to k = 0. We give several examples of such calculations at one-loop, both in renormalizable and in effective field theories. We reproduce the four-point scattering amplitude in the case of a real scalar field theory with quartic potential and in the case of the pion chiral Lagrangian. In the case of gauge theories, we reproduce the vacuum polarization of QED and of Yang-Mills theory. We also compute the two-point functions for scalars and gravitons in the effective field theory of scalar fields minimally coupled to gravity. (orig.)

  2. Model parameters for representative wetland plant functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amber S.; Kiniry, James R.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T.; Attebury, Kelly; Lang, Megan; McCarty, Gregory W.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Effland, William R.; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands provide a wide variety of ecosystem services including water quality remediation, biodiversity refugia, groundwater recharge, and floodwater storage. Realistic estimation of ecosystem service benefits associated with wetlands requires reasonable simulation of the hydrology of each site and realistic simulation of the upland and wetland plant growth cycles. Objectives of this study were to quantify leaf area index (LAI), light extinction coefficient (k), and plant nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) concentrations in natural stands of representative plant species for some major plant functional groups in the United States. Functional groups in this study were based on these parameters and plant growth types to enable process-based modeling. We collected data at four locations representing some of the main wetland regions of the United States. At each site, we collected on-the-ground measurements of fraction of light intercepted, LAI, and dry matter within the 2013–2015 growing seasons. Maximum LAI and k variables showed noticeable variations among sites and years, while overall averages and functional group averages give useful estimates for multisite simulation modeling. Variation within each species gives an indication of what can be expected in such natural ecosystems. For P and K, the concentrations from highest to lowest were spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), cattail (Typha spp.), and hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). Spikerush had the highest N concentration, followed by smartweed, bulrush, reed canary grass, and then cattail. These parameters will be useful for the actual wetland species measured and for the wetland plant functional groups they represent. These parameters and the associated process-based models offer promise as valuable tools for evaluating environmental benefits of wetlands and for evaluating impacts of various agronomic practices in

  3. Evaluation of spectral zeta-functions with the renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Li, Shanshan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate spectral zeta-functions of certain network Laplacians that can be treated exactly with the renormalization group. As specific examples we consider a class of Hanoi networks and those hierarchical networks obtained by the Migdal–Kadanoff bond moving scheme from regular lattices. As possible applications of these results we mention quantum search algorithms as well as synchronization, which we discuss in more detail. (paper)

  4. Disordered systems and the functional renormalization group, a pedagogical introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we review basic facts about disordered systems, especially the existence of many metastable states and and the resulting failure of dimensional reduction. Besides techniques based on the Gaussian variational method and replica-symmetry breaking (RSB), the functional renormalization group (FRG) is the only general method capable of attacking strongly disordered systems. We explain the basic ideas of the latter method and why it is difficult to implement. We finally review current progress for elastic manifolds in disorder (Author)

  5. Nonthermal fixed points and the functional renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berges, Juergen; Hoffmeister, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Nonthermal fixed points represent basic properties of quantum field theories, in addition to vacuum or thermal equilibrium fixed points. The functional renormalization group on a closed real-time path provides a common framework for their description. For the example of an O(N) symmetric scalar theory it reveals a hierarchy of fixed point solutions, with increasing complexity from vacuum and thermal equilibrium to nonequilibrium

  6. Effect of a rehabilitation program using virtual reality for balance and functionality of chronic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Henrique Souza Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aimed to investigate the effect of a rehabilitation program using virtual reality (VR in addition to conventional therapy for improvement of balance (BERG scale and functional independence (FIM scale in chronic stroke patients. Ten individuals, mean age of 51.4 (± 6.7 years, participated of eight 60-minute sessions comprising kinesiotherapy (15min, Nintendo Wii (30min and Learning transfer (15min exercises. After training, nonparametric statistical analysis showed significant improvement in total FIM (p= .01 and BERG scores (p= .00, and in some of their subitems: FIM - dressing lower body (p= .01, transfer to bathtub/shower (p= .02 and locomotion: stairs (p= .03; BERG - reaching forward with outstretched arm (p= .01, retrieving object from the floor (p= .04, turning 360º (p= .01, placing alternate foot on step (p≤ .01, standing with one foot in front (p= .01, and one leg stand (p= .03. These findings suggest a positive influence of virtual reality exercises adjunct to conventional therapy on rehabilitation of balance and functionality post stroke, and indicate the feasibility of the proposed VR-based rehabilitation program.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE ENERGY SYSTEM BALANCE EFFICIENCY PROVIDED WITH THE DIFFERENT GROUPS OF GENERATING PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Maksymovа

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently methods of efficiency analysis are being developed and applied, based on optimization tasks for various types and modes. Usually, the optimization criterion for these objectives is efficiency that can be calculated in various ways, for which there is no concurrent views. The target function based on minimization of given cost that allows comparing options with the same useful effect is used to search for the best indicators of power plants operated within the system. Marginal costs on the amount of difference in the useful effect are introduced to the target function in case of various useful effects. The criterion of selecting the best power plant from an economic point of view is the difference between the reduced costs of the considered and the basic options, but this approach does not allow using the results for long-term projections. Such approach depends on the situation and does not reflect the real costs. The value of the target function to optimize the effectiveness of the technical-economic method is not "marginal" and does not allow assessing the impact of various processes on the overall option efficiency. Therefore, the development of the efficiency criterion that considers the changing needs of the energy system is relevant for analyzing the power plant.

  8. Maintaining a balance: a focus group study on living and coping with chronic whiplash-associated disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihlebæk Camilla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little qualitative insight into how persons with chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorder cope on a day to day basis. This study seeks to identify the symptoms persons with Whiplash-Associated Disorder describe as dominating and explore their self-initiated coping strategies. Methods Qualitative study using focus groups interviews. Fourteen Norwegian men and women with Whiplash-Associated Disorder (I or II were recruited to participate in two focus groups. Data were analyzed according to a phenomenological approach, and discussed within the model of Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS. Results Participants reported neck and head pain, sensory hypersensitivity, and cognitive dysfunction following their whiplash injury. Based on the intensity of symptoms, participants divided everyday life into good and bad periods. In good periods the symptoms were perceived as manageable. In bad periods the symptoms intensified and took control of the individual. Participants expressed a constant notion of trying to balance their three main coping strategies; rest, exercise, and social withdrawal. In good periods participants experienced coping by expecting good results from the strategies they used. In bad periods they experienced no or negative relationships between their behavioral strategies and their complaints. Conclusions Neck and head pain, sensory hypersensitivity, and cognitive dysfunction were reported as participants' main complaints. A constant notion of balancing between their three main coping strategies; rest, exercise, and social withdrawal, was described.

  9. Application of quantile functions for the analysis and comparison of gas pressure balance uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnath Vishal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally in the field of pressure metrology uncertainty quantification was performed with the use of the Guide to the Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM; however, with the introduction of the GUM Supplement 1 (GS1 the use of Monte Carlo simulations has become an accepted practice for uncertainty analysis in metrology for mathematical models in which the underlying assumptions of the GUM are not valid. Consequently the use of quantile functions was developed as a means to easily summarize and report on uncertainty numerical results that were based on Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper, we considered the case of a piston–cylinder operated pressure balance where the effective area is modelled in terms of a combination of explicit/implicit and linear/non-linear models, and how quantile functions may be applied to analyse results and compare uncertainties from a mixture of GUM and GS1 methodologies.

  10. Enhanced balance associated with coordination training with stochastic resonance stimulation in subjects with functional ankle instability: an experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Cathleen N

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are common injuries that often lead to functional ankle instability (FAI, which is a pathology defined by sensations of instability at the ankle and recurrent ankle sprain injury. Poor postural stability has been associated with FAI, and sports medicine clinicians rehabilitate balance deficits to prevent ankle sprains. Subsensory electrical noise known as stochastic resonance (SR stimulation has been used in conjunction with coordination training to improve dynamic postural instabilities associated with FAI. However, unlike static postural deficits, dynamic impairments have not been indicative of ankle sprain injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of coordination training with or without SR stimulation on static postural stability. Improving postural instabilities associated with FAI has implications for increasing ankle joint stability and decreasing recurrent ankle sprains. Methods This study was conducted in a research laboratory. Thirty subjects with FAI were randomly assigned to either a: 1 conventional coordination training group (CCT; 2 SR stimulation coordination training group (SCT; or 3 control group. Training groups performed coordination exercises for six weeks. The SCT group received SR stimulation during training, while the CCT group only performed coordination training. Single leg postural stability was measured after the completion of balance training. Static postural stability was quantified on a force plate using anterior/posterior (A/P and medial/lateral (M/L center-of-pressure velocity (COPvel, M/L COP standard deviation (COPsd, M/L COP maximum excursion (COPmax, and COP area (COParea. Results Treatment effects comparing posttest to pretest COP measures were highest for the SCT group. At posttest, the SCT group had reduced A/P COPvel (2.3 ± 0.4 cm/s vs. 2.7 ± 0.6 cm/s, M/L COPvel (2.6 ± 0.5 cm/s vs. 2.9 ± 0.5 cm/s, M/L COPsd (0.63 ± 0.12 cm vs. 0.73 ± 0

  11. Wetting transitions: A functional renormalization-group approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.S.; Huse, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    A linear functional renormalization group is introduced as a framework in which to treat various wetting transitions of films on substrates. A unified treatment of the wetting transition in three dimensions with short-range interactions is given. The results of Brezin, Halperin, and Leibler in their three different regimes are reproduced along with new results on the multicritical behavior connecting the various regimes. In addition, the critical behavior as the coexistence curve is approached at complete wetting is analyzed. Wetting in the presence of long-range substrate-film interactions that fall off as power laws is also studied. The possible effects of the nonlinear terms in the renormalization group are examined briefly and it appears that they do not alter the critical behavior found using the truncated linear renormalization group

  12. Alfacalcidol improves muscle power, muscle function and balance in elderly patients with reduced bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacht, E; Ringe, Johann D

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of daily therapy with 1 mcg alfacalcidol (Doss(®)-TEVA/AWD-pharma) on muscle power, muscle function, balance performance and fear of falls in an open, multi-centered, uncontrolled, prospective study on a cohort of patients with reduced bone mass. Among the 2,097 participants, 87.1% were post-menopausal women and 12.9% were men. Mean age was 74.8 years and mean body mass index (BMI) 26.3 kg/m². A total of 75.3% of the study population had osteoporosis, 81% a diagnosis of "increased risk of falls" and 70.1% had a creatinine clearance (CrCl) of power tests at onset and after 3 and 6 months: the timed up and go test (TUG) and the chair rising test (CRT). At baseline and after 6 months, participants performed the tandem gait test (TGT) and filled out a questionnaire evaluating fear of falling. Successful performance in the muscle tests is associated with a significantly lower risk of falls and non-vertebral fractures in elderly patients (successful test performance: TUG ≤ 10 s (sec), CRT ≤ 10 s, TGT ≥ 8 steps). A significant improvement in the performance of the two muscle tests was proved already after 3 months of treatment with alfacalcidol and further increased by the end of the therapeutic intervention. There were significant increases in the number of participants able to successfully perform the tests: 24.6% at baseline and 46.3% at the end of trial for the TUG (P balance test (TGT) increased from 36.0% at onset to 58.6% at the end of the trial (P power, muscle function and balance and reduces fear of falls. The significant improvement in the three muscle and balance tests and fear of falls may have a preventative effect on falls and fractures. We suggest that the quantitative risk tests used in this study could be reliable surrogate parameters for the risk of falls and fractures in elderly patients.

  13. Morphological and functional diversity of primary producers group in savannas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, E.

    1996-01-01

    The meaning of biological diversity for the operation and stability of natural ecosystems is matter of great theoretical and practical interest. The appearance and permanency of species in a given atmosphere indicates its capacity to compete with other species with similar habit and requirements, and to accumulate the resources that allow its reproduction. On the other hand, the coexistence of similar species in the same ecosystem allows to wonder if ever biological redundancy exists, that is to say, if several species coexist with the same function inside the ecosystem, so that the disappearance of one of them would not have biological significant consequences. A strategy to simplify the analysis of relationships between biodiversity and ecosystems operation is by grouping species with similar function, called functional groups. In this work the the primary producers functional group is analyzed, essentially superiors plants, in a savannas ecosystems. The analysis establishes that the gives the primary producers group is heterogeneous and complex, so much morphological as functionally: 1) the structural complexity and diversity forms of life in an savannas ecosystem are associated with the stratified exploitation of resources over (light) and under the floor (nourishment and water). Changes in diversity that affect the system structure will probably also affect its operations. 2 )Very similar morphological species can differ physiologically up to constitute production units with contrasting nutritional requirements. The echo-physiologic analysis of this differentiation can explain the habitat preferences that are naturally observed. 3) The long-time permanency of rare species, of low frequency, show the inability of dominant species to capture all the available resources. 4) The primary producers and the floor microorganisms have strong interactions. Changes in the community composition can generate significant changes in other community. These biotic interactions

  14. The balanced ideological antipathy model: explaining the effects of ideological attitudes on inter-group antipathy across the political spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Mallinas, Stephanie R; Furman, Bryan J

    2015-12-01

    We introduce the balanced ideological antipathy (BIA) model, which challenges assumptions that right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO) predict inter-group antipathy per se. Rather, the effects of RWA and SDO on antipathy should depend on the target's political orientation and political objectives, the specific components of RWA, and the type of antipathy expressed. Consistent with the model, two studies (N = 585) showed that the Traditionalism component of RWA positively and negatively predicted both political intolerance and prejudice toward tradition-threatening and -reaffirming groups, respectively, whereas SDO positively and negatively predicted prejudice (and to some extent political intolerance) toward hierarchy-attenuating and -enhancing groups, respectively. Critically, the Conservatism component of RWA positively predicted political intolerance (but not prejudice) toward each type of target group, suggesting it captures the anti-democratic impulse at the heart of authoritarianism. Recommendations for future research on the relationship between ideological attitudes and inter-group antipathy are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. The functional assessment Berg Balance Scale is better capable of estimating fall risk in the elderly than the posturographic Balance Stability System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Vieira Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify which instrument better identifies recurrent falls in the elderly. Ninety-eight old people, with an average age of 80±4 years, were submitted to an assessment of balance and fall risk by means of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS and the posturographic Balance Stability System (BSS. The BBS was correlated with the BSS (r=-0.27; p=0.008, age (r=-0.38; p<0.001 and number of falls (r=-0.25; p=0.013 and the analysis of logistical regression showed that the elderly classified with fall risk on the BBS presented 2.5 (95%CI 1.08-5.78 more chance of identifying who had two falls or more over the last year. The BBS identified that the greater the age the worse the functional balance and demonstrated a greater capacity to identify falls risk suffered over the last year when compared with the BSS.

  16. An anterior cruciate ligament injury does not affect the neuromuscular function of the non-injured leg except for dynamic balance and voluntary quadriceps activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zult, Tjerk; Gokeler, Alli; van Raay, Jos J A M; Brouwer, Reinoud W; Zijdewind, Inge; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    The function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patients' non-injured leg is relevant in light of the high incidence of secondary ACL injuries on the contralateral side. However, the non-injured leg's function has only been examined for a selected number of neuromuscular outcomes and often without appropriate control groups. We measured a broad array of neuromuscular functions between legs of ACL patients and compared outcomes to age, sex, and physical activity matched controls. Thirty-two ACL-deficient patients (208 ± 145 days post-injury) and active and less-active controls (N = 20 each) participated in the study. We measured single- and multi-joint neuromuscular function in both legs in each group and expressed the overall neuromuscular function in each leg by calculating a mean z-score across all neuromuscular measures. A group by leg MANOVA and ANOVA were performed to examine group and leg differences for the selected outcomes. After an ACL injury, duration (-4.3 h/week) and level (Tegner activity score of -3.9) of sports activity decreased and was comparable to less-active controls. ACL patients showed bilateral impairments in the star excursion balance test compared to both control groups (P ≤ 0.004) and for central activation ratio compared to active controls (P ≤ 0.002). There were between-leg differences within each group for maximal quadriceps and hamstring strength, voluntary quadriceps activation, star excursion balance test performance, and single-leg hop distance (all P joint proprioception, and static balance. Overall neuromuscular function (mean z-score) did not differ between groups, but ACL patients' non-injured leg displayed better neuromuscular function than the injured leg (P neuromuscular deficits despite reductions in physical activity after injury. Therapists can use the non-injured leg as a reference to assess the injured leg's function for tasks measured in the present study, excluding dynamic balance and quadriceps

  17. Surface functional groups in capacitive deionization with porous carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatifar, Ali; Oyarzun, Diego I.; Palko, James W.; Hawks, Steven A.; Stadermann, Michael; Santiago, Juan G.; Stanford Microfluidics Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising technology for removal of toxic ions and salt from water. In CDI, an applied potential of about 1 V to pairs of porous electrodes (e.g. activated carbon) induces ion electromigration and electrostatic adsorption at electrode surfaces. Immobile surface functional groups play a critical role in the type and capacity of ion adsorption, and this can dramatically change desalination performance. We here use models and experiments to study weak electrolyte surface groups which protonate and/or depropotante based on their acid/base dissociation constants and local pore pH. Net chemical surface charge and differential capacitance can thus vary during CDI operation. In this work, we present a CDI model based on weak electrolyte acid/base equilibria theory. Our model incorporates preferential cation (anion) adsorption for activated carbon with acidic (basic) surface groups. We validated our model with experiments on custom built CDI cells with a variety of functionalizations. To this end, we varied electrolyte pH and measured adsorption of individual anionic and cationic ions using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC) techniques. Our model shows good agreement with experiments and provides a framework useful in the design of CDI control schemes.

  18. Impedance function of a group of vertical piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.P.; Arx, G.A. von

    1978-01-01

    Impedance and transfer functions of a group of vertical piles located in any desired configuration in plan in a horizontally stratified soil layer are derived. Hysteretic and radiation damping are accounted for. The method separates the piles and the soil, introducing unknown interaction forces. The total flexibility matrix of the soil is constructed, superposing the (complex) flexibility coefficients caused by the interaction forces of a single pile only. The dependence of the impedance and transfer functions on the oscllating frequency for foundations with different numbers of piles is investigated. Pile-soil-pile interaction is shown to be very important for all modes of vibration. The procedure is used in the seismic analysis of a reactor building. (Author)

  19. Balancing risk and benefit: maintenance of a thawed Group A plasma inventory for trauma patients requiring massive transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Chelsea R; Gupta, Rajan; von Recklinghausen, Friedrich M; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Dunbar, Nancy M

    2013-06-01

    Transfusion of plasma and red blood cell (RBC) units in a balanced ratio approximating 1:1 has been shown in retrospective studies to be associated with improved outcomes for trauma patients. Our low-volume rural trauma center uses a trauma-activated transfusion algorithm. Plasma is thawed upon activation to avoid wastage. However, the time required for plasma thawing has made achievement of a 1:1 ratio early in resuscitation challenging. In this study, the time required for plasma thawing is characterized, and a potential solution is proposed. A retrospective chart study of 38 moderately and massively transfused (≥6 U in the first 24 hours) trauma patients admitted from January 2008 to March 2012 was performed. We evaluated the time required to dispense plasma and the number of RBCs dispensed before plasma in these patients. The average time between the dispense of RBCs and plasma was 26 minutes (median, 28; range, 0-48 minutes). The average number of RBCs dispensed before plasma was 8 U (median, 7 U; range, 0-24 U). Nearly one third of massively transfused patients had 10 RBCs or greater dispensed before plasma was available. There exists the potential for delayed plasma availability owing to time required for thawing, which may compromise the ability to provide balanced plasma to RBC transfusion to trauma patients. Maintenance of a thawed Group AB plasma inventory may not be operationally feasible for rural centers with low trauma volumes. Use of a thawed Group A plasma inventory is a potential alternative to ensure rapid plasma availability. Therapeutic study, level V.

  20. Evaluation of group electronegativities and hardness (softness) of group 14 elements and containing functional groups through density functional theory and correlation with NMR spectra data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivas-Reyes, R.; Aria, A.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum Chemical calculations for group 14 elements of Periodic Table (C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) and their functional groups have been carried out using Density Functional Theory (DFT) based reactivity descriptors such as group electronegativities, hardness and softness. DFT calculations were performed for a large series of tetra coordinated Sn compounds of the CH 3 SnRR'X type, where X is a halogen and R and R' are alkyl, halogenated alkyl, alkoxy, or alkyl thio groups. The results were interpreted in terms of calculated electronegativity and hardness of the SnRR'X groups, applying a methodology previously developed by Geerlings and coworkers (J. Phys. Chem. 1993, 97, 1826). These calculations allowed to see the regularities concerning the influence of the nature of organic groups RR' and inorganic group X on electronegativities and hardness of the SnRR'X groups; in this case, it was found a very good correlation between the electronegativity of the fragment and experimental 119 Sn chemical shifts, a property that sensitively reflects the change in the valence electronic structure of molecules. This work was complemented with the study of some compounds of the EX and ER types, where E= C, Si, Ge, Sn and R= CH 3 , H, which was performed to study the influence that the central atom has on the electronegativity and hardness of molecules, or whether these properties are mainly affected for the type of ligand bound to the central atom. All these calculations were performed using the B3PW91 functional together with the 6-3 1 1 + + G basis set level for H, C, Si, Ge, F, Cl and Br atoms and the 3-21G for Sn and I atoms. (author)

  1. Evaluation of group electronegativities and hardness (softness) of group 14 elements and containing functional groups through density functional theory and correlation with NMR spectra data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivas-Reyes, R.; Aria, A. [Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas. Grupo de Quimica Cuantica y Computacional]. E-mail: rvivasr@unicartagena.edu.co

    2008-07-01

    Quantum Chemical calculations for group 14 elements of Periodic Table (C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) and their functional groups have been carried out using Density Functional Theory (DFT) based reactivity descriptors such as group electronegativities, hardness and softness. DFT calculations were performed for a large series of tetra coordinated Sn compounds of the CH{sub 3}SnRR'X type, where X is a halogen and R and R' are alkyl, halogenated alkyl, alkoxy, or alkyl thio groups. The results were interpreted in terms of calculated electronegativity and hardness of the SnRR'X groups, applying a methodology previously developed by Geerlings and coworkers (J. Phys. Chem. 1993, 97, 1826). These calculations allowed to see the regularities concerning the influence of the nature of organic groups RR' and inorganic group X on electronegativities and hardness of the SnRR'X groups; in this case, it was found a very good correlation between the electronegativity of the fragment and experimental {sup 119}Sn chemical shifts, a property that sensitively reflects the change in the valence electronic structure of molecules. This work was complemented with the study of some compounds of the EX and ER types, where E= C, Si, Ge, Sn and R= CH{sub 3}, H, which was performed to study the influence that the central atom has on the electronegativity and hardness of molecules, or whether these properties are mainly affected for the type of ligand bound to the central atom. All these calculations were performed using the B3PW91 functional together with the 6-3 1 1 + + G basis set level for H, C, Si, Ge, F, Cl and Br atoms and the 3-21G for Sn and I atoms. (author)

  2. Balancing functional and nutritional quality of oils and fats: Current requirements and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Bremt Karen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oils and fats play an important role in the structure, aroma and stability of a wide variety of food products, as well as in their nutritional properties. For Puratos, a producer of ingredients for bakery, patisserie and chocolate sector, functionality and taste are of utmost importance, but the company also wants to contribute to the balanced diet of consumers. Vegetable oils and fats are used in margarines and releasing agents, vegetable creams, compound chocolate, fillings and emulsifiers. Each application requires an oil or fat with specific physicochemical properties in order to ensure the optimal structure, stability and taste of the end product. Traditionally, (partially hydrogenated vegetable oils deliver important functional characteristics concerning crystallization behaviour, directly linked with the workability, melting properties, stability and mouth feel of the food product. However, due to negative nutritional implications, trans fats are to be replaced by healthier alternatives, preferably not by saturated fats. Consumers – and in some regions, legal instances – demand transfree or hydro-free products while not compromising on taste. Alternative fats and oils will be discussed concerning their functional and nutritional properties.

  3. PTT functional recovery in early stage II PTTD after tendon balancing and calcaneal lengthening osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhault, Jean; Noël, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The decision to offer surgery for Stage II posterior tibial tendon deficiency (PTTD) is a difficult one since orthotic treatment has been documented to be a viable alternative to surgery at this stage. Taking this into consideration we limited our treatment to bony realignment by a lengthening calcaneus Evans osteotomy and tendon balancing. The goal of the study was to clinically evaluate PTT functional recovery with this procedure. The patient population included 17 feet in 13 patients. Inclusion was limited to early Stage II PTTD flatfeet with grossly intact but deficient PTT. Deficiency was assessed by the lack of hindfoot inversion during single heel rise test. The surgical procedure included an Evans calcaneal opening wedge osteotomy with triceps surae and peroneus brevis tendon lengthening. PTT function at follow up was evaluated by an independent examiner. Evaluation was performed at an average of 4 (range, 2 to 6.3) years. One case presented postoperative subtalar pain that required subtalar fusion. Every foot could perform a single heel rise with 13 feet having active inversion of the hindfoot during elevation. The results of this study provide evidence of PTT functional recovery without augmentation in early Stage II. It challenges our understanding of early Stage II PTTD as well as the surgical guidelines recommending PTT augmentation at this specific stage.

  4. Carbon source/sink function of a subtropical, eutrophic lake determined from an overall mass balance and a gas exchange and carbon burial balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Xing Yangping; Xie Ping; Ni Leyi; Rong Kewen

    2008-01-01

    Although studies on carbon burial in lake sediments have shown that lakes are disproportionately important carbon sinks, many studies on gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface have demonstrated that lakes are supersaturated with CO 2 and CH 4 causing a net release of CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In order to more accurately estimate the net carbon source/sink function of lake ecosystems, a more comprehensive carbon budget is needed, especially for gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface. Using two methods, overall mass balance and gas exchange and carbon burial balance, we assessed the carbon source/sink function of Lake Donghu, a subtropical, eutrophic lake, from April 2003 to March 2004. With the overall mass balance calculations, total carbon input was 14 905 t, total carbon output was 4950 t, and net carbon budget was +9955 t, suggesting that Lake Donghu was a great carbon sink. For the gas exchange and carbon burial balance, gaseous carbon (CO 2 and CH 4 ) emission across the water-air interface totaled 752 t while carbon burial in the lake sediment was 9477 t. The ratio of carbon emission into the atmosphere to carbon burial into the sediment was only 0.08. This low ratio indicates that Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink. Results showed good agreement between the two methods with both showing Lake Donghu to be a great carbon sink. This results from the high primary production of Lake Donghu, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic activity. Gaseous carbon emission accounted for about 15% of the total carbon output, indicating that the total output would be underestimated without including gaseous carbon exchange. - Due to high primary production, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic acitivity, subtropical, eutrophic Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink

  5. An -OH group functionalized MOF for ratiometric Fe3+ sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Dong, Yingying; Wu, Yuhang; Ren, Wenjing; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Shunli; Gao, Junkuo

    2018-02-01

    Iron is one of the most important elements in the biochemical processes in all living system, both deficiency or excess of iron will lead to metabolism disorder diseases. However, Fe3+ is one of the most efficient fluorescence quenchers among the transition-metal ions because of its paramagnetic nature. The realization of Fe3+ ratiometric and self-calibrated fluorescent sensor is highly-challenging. We synthesized a novel luminescent -OH functionalized EuOHBDC (Eu2(OH-BDC)3, OH-BDC=2-hydroxyterephthalic acid) by hydrothermal reaction and in situ ligand synthesis, and used it as a rare ratiomatric luminescent sensor for Fe3+ ions. The -OH functional group facilitates both electron transfer and binding interaction between EuOHBDC and Fe3+, which lead to luminescent quenching of ligand-based emission while enhancement of a new peak emission, and thus enables ratiometric detection of Fe3+. The relative fluorescent intensity ratio (I375/I427) increased linearly with increasing Fe3+ concentration in the 10-50 μM range with 1.17 μM (65 ppb) detection limit. The EuOHBDC also shows excellent selectivity towards different metal ions, particularly can discriminate Fe3+ and Fe2+ through different luminescent responses. This result clearly demonstrates the superiority of -OH functionalized MOF for Fe3+ detection, which can contribute to develop high performance luminescent probe for detection of metal ions in environmental and biomedical applications.

  6. The influence of multiple sensory impairments on functional balance and difficulty with falls among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Samuel J; Garner, John C; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    Studies have looked at the individual associations of sensory impairment on balance, but no population-based studies have examined their combined association on balance and difficulty with falls. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine both the independent associations and combined associations of visual impairment, peripheral neuropathy, and self-reported hearing loss with the odds of reporting difficulty with falls and functional balance. Data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Vision and peripheral neuropathy were objectively measured, and hearing was self-reported. Balance testing consisted of a modified Romberg test. After exclusions, 1662 (40-85years of age) participants provided complete data on the study variables. Sensory impairment was associated with perceived difficulty of falls and functional balance. Participants who presented a single sensory impairment had 29% reduced odds of having functional balance (95% CI=0.54-0.93, p=0.01) and increased odds of reporting difficulty with falls by 61% (95% CI=0.99-2.60, p=0.05). Moreover, our multisensory models showed some evidence of a dose-response relationship, in that sensory impairment of multiple sensory systems was associated with worse balance (OR =0.59, CI=0.35-1.00, p=0.05) and perceived difficulty of falls (OR =5.02, 95% CI=1.99-12.66, p=0.002) when compared to those with less sensory impairment. Multiple sensory impairment is associated with significantly higher odds of both reporting difficulty with falls and balance dysfunction, which may lead to a subsequent fall, ultimately compromising the individual's health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Normative data and the influence of age and gender on power, balance, flexibility, and functional movement in healthy service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Riebel, Mark A; McArthur, Derrick R; Savini, Matthew; Jones, Mackenzie J; Goffar, Stephen L; Kiesel, Kyle B; Plisky, Phillip J

    2014-04-01

    Determine the influence of age and sex and describe normative data on field expedient tests associated with power, balance, trunk stability, mobility, and functional movement in a military population. Participants (n = 247) completed a series of clinical and functional tests, including closed-chain ankle dorsiflexion (DF), Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Y-Balance Test Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ), Y-Balance Test Upper Quarter (YBT-UQ), single leg vertical jump (SLVJ), 6-m timed hop (6-m timed), and triple hop. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Analysis of variance tests were performed to compare the results based on sex and age (30 years). Service members demonstrated DF of 34.2 ± 6.1°, FMS composite score of 16.2 ± 2.2, YBT-LQ normalized composite score of 96.9 ± 8.6%, YBT-UQ normalized composite score of 87.6 ± 9.6%, SLVJ of 26.9 ± 8.6 cm, 6-m hop of 2.4 ± 0.5 seconds, and a triple hop of 390.9 ± 110.8 cm. Men performed greater than women (p power, balance, and trunk stability tests, whereas younger individuals performed better on power, balance, mobility, and functional movement. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Vergence and Standing Balance in Subjects with Idiopathic Bilateral Loss of Vestibular Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoï Kapoula

    Full Text Available There is a natural symbiosis between vergence and vestibular responses. Deficits in vergence can lead to vertigo, disequilibrium, and postural instability. This study examines both vergence eye movements in patients with idiopathic bilateral vestibular loss, and their standing balance in relation to vergence. Eleven patients participated in the study and 16 controls. Bilateral loss of vestibular function was objectified with many tests; only patients without significant response to caloric tests, to video head impulse tests and without vestibular evoked myogenic potentials were included in the study.A LED display with targets at 20, 40, and 100 cm along the median plane was used to elicit vergence eye movements, recorded with the IRIS device.Four conditions were run, each lasting 1 min: fixation of a LED at 40 cm (convergence of 9°, at 150 cm (convergence of 2.3°; this last condition was repeated with eyes closed. Comparison of the eyes closed-eyes open conditions at 150 cm allowed evaluation of the Romberg Quotient. In the forth condition, two LEDS, at 20 and at 100 cm, were light on, one after the other for 1 sec, causing the eyes to converge then diverge. Standing balance was recorded with an accelerometer placed at the back near the center of mass (McRoberts, Dynaport.Relative to controls, convergence eye movements in patients showed significantly lower accuracy, lower mean velocity, and saccade intrusions of significantly higher amplitude.The normalized 90% area of body sway was significantly higher for patients than for controls for all conditions. Yet, similarly to controls, postural stability was better while fixating at near (sustained convergence than at far, or while making active vergence movements. We argue that vestibular loss deteriorates convergence, but even deficient, convergence can be helpful for postural control.

  9. Functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of group 3 innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Gonzalez, Felipe; Hepworth, Matthew R

    2017-03-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), defined by expression of the transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor γt, play key roles in the regulation of inflammation and immunity in the gastrointestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues. ILC3 consist largely of two major subsets, NCR + ILC3 and LTi-like ILC3, but also demonstrate significant plasticity and heterogeneity. Recent advances have begun to dissect the relationship between ILC3 subsets and to define distinct functional states within the intestinal tissue microenvironment. In this review we discuss the ever-expanding roles of ILC3 in the context of intestinal homeostasis, infection and inflammation - with a focus on comparing and contrasting the relative contributions of ILC3 subsets. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Functional renormalization group study of the Anderson–Holstein model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, M A; Kennes, D M; Jakobs, S G; Meden, V

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the spectral and transport properties in the Anderson–Holstein model both in and out of equilibrium using the functional renormalization group (fRG). We show how the previously established machinery of Matsubara and Keldysh fRG can be extended to include the local phonon mode. Based on the analysis of spectral properties in equilibrium we identify different regimes depending on the strength of the electron–phonon interaction and the frequency of the phonon mode. We supplement these considerations with analytical results from the Kondo model. We also calculate the nonlinear differential conductance through the Anderson–Holstein quantum dot and find clear signatures of the presence of the phonon mode. (paper)

  11. Fermi-edge singularity and the functional renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Fabian B.; von Delft, Jan

    2018-05-01

    We study the Fermi-edge singularity, describing the response of a degenerate electron system to optical excitation, in the framework of the functional renormalization group (fRG). Results for the (interband) particle-hole susceptibility from various implementations of fRG (one- and two-particle-irreducible, multi-channel Hubbard–Stratonovich, flowing susceptibility) are compared to the summation of all leading logarithmic (log) diagrams, achieved by a (first-order) solution of the parquet equations. For the (zero-dimensional) special case of the x-ray-edge singularity, we show that the leading log formula can be analytically reproduced in a consistent way from a truncated, one-loop fRG flow. However, reviewing the underlying diagrammatic structure, we show that this derivation relies on fortuitous partial cancellations special to the form of and accuracy applied to the x-ray-edge singularity and does not generalize.

  12. Association between functional alterations of senescence and senility and disorders of gait and balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Teixeira-Leite

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Declines in cognition and mobility are frequently observed in the elderly, and it has been suggested that the appearance of gait disorders in older individuals may constitute a marker of cognitive decline that precedes significant findings in functional performance screening tests. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between functional capacities and gait and balance in an elderly community monitored by the Preventive and Integrated Care Unit of the Hospital Adventista Silvestre in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. METHODS: Elderly individuals (193 females and 90 males were submitted to a broad geriatric evaluation, which included the following tests: 1 a performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA to evaluate gait; 2 a mini-mental state examination (MMSE; 3 the use of Katz and Lawton scales to assess functional capacity; 4 the application of the geriatric depression scale (GDS; and 5 a mini-nutritional assessment (MNA scale. RESULTS: Reductions in MMSE, Katz and Lawton scores were associated with reductions in POMA scores, and we also observed that significant reductions in POMA scores were present in persons for whom the MMSE and Katz scores did not clearly indicate cognitive dysfunction. We also demonstrated that a decline in the scores obtained with the GDS and MNA scales was associated with a decline in the POMA scores. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that significant alterations in the POMA scores were observed prior to the identification of significant alterations in cognitive capacity using either the MMSE or the Katz systems, a prospective study seems warranted to assess the predictive capacity of POMA scores regarding the associated decline in functional capacity.

  13. Association between functional alterations of senescence and senility and disorders of gait and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Leite, Homero; Manhães, Alex C

    2012-07-01

    Declines in cognition and mobility are frequently observed in the elderly, and it has been suggested that the appearance of gait disorders in older individuals may constitute a marker of cognitive decline that precedes significant findings in functional performance screening tests. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between functional capacities and gait and balance in an elderly community monitored by the Preventive and Integrated Care Unit of the Hospital Adventista Silvestre in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Elderly individuals (193 females and 90 males) were submitted to a broad geriatric evaluation, which included the following tests: 1) a performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA) to evaluate gait; 2) a mini-mental state examination (MMSE); 3) the use of Katz and Lawton scales to assess functional capacity; 4) the application of the geriatric depression scale (GDS); and 5) a mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) scale. Reductions in MMSE, Katz and Lawton scores were associated with reductions in POMA scores, and we also observed that significant reductions in POMA scores were present in persons for whom the MMSE and Katz scores did not clearly indicate cognitive dysfunction. We also demonstrated that a decline in the scores obtained with the GDS and MNA scales was associated with a decline in the POMA scores. Considering that significant alterations in the POMA scores were observed prior to the identification of significant alterations in cognitive capacity using either the MMSE or the Katz systems, a prospective study seems warranted to assess the predictive capacity of POMA scores regarding the associated decline in functional capacity.

  14. A kind of balance between exploitation and exploration on kriging for global optimization of expensive functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Huachao; Song, Baowei; Wang, Peng; Huang, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel kriging-based algorithm for global optimization of computationally expensive black-box functions is presented. This algorithm utilizes a multi-start approach to find all of the local optimal values of the surrogate model and performs searches within the neighboring area around these local optimal positions. Compared with traditional surrogate-based global optimization method, this algorithm provides another kind of balance between exploitation and exploration on kriging-based model. In addition, a new search strategy is proposed and coupled into this optimization process. The local search strategy employs a kind of improved 'Minimizing the predictor' method, which dynamically adjusts search direction and radius until finds the optimal value. Furthermore, the global search strategy utilizes the advantage of kriging-based model in predicting unexplored regions to guarantee the reliability of the algorithm. Finally, experiments on 13 test functions with six algorithms are set up and the results show that the proposed algorithm is very promising.

  15. Effects of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program on Dependence in Activities of Daily Living and Balance in Older Adults with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Annika; Littbrand, Håkan; Lindelöf, Nina; Wiklund, Robert; Holmberg, Henrik; Nordström, Peter; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Gustafson, Yngve; Rosendahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a high-intensity functional exercise program on independence in activities of daily living (ADLs) and balance in older people with dementia and whether exercise effects differed between dementia types. Cluster-randomized controlled trial: Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study. Residential care facilities, Umeå, Sweden. Individuals aged 65 and older with a dementia diagnosis, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10 or greater, and dependence in ADLs (N=186). Ninety-three participants each were allocated to the high-intensity functional exercise program, comprising lower limb strength and balance exercises, and 93 to a seated control activity. Blinded assessors measured ADL independence using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Barthel Index (BI) and balance using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at baseline and 4 (directly after intervention completion) and 7 months. Linear mixed models showed no between-group effect on ADL independence at 4 (FIM=1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-1.6-4.3; BI=0.6, 95% CI=-0.2-1.4) or 7 (FIM=0.8, 95% CI=-2.2-3.8; BI=0.6, 95% CI=-0.3-1.4) months. A significant between-group effect on balance favoring exercise was observed at 4 months (BBS=4.2, 95% CI=1.8-6.6). In interaction analyses, exercise effects differed significantly between dementia types. Positive between-group exercise effects were found in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia according to the FIM at 7 months and BI and BBS at 4 and 7 months. In older people with mild to moderate dementia living in residential care facilities, a 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program appears to slow decline in ADL independence and improve balance, albeit only in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Functional renormalisation group equations for supersymmetric field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synatschke-Czerwonka, Franziska

    2011-01-11

    This work is organised as follows: In chapter 2 the basic facts of quantum field theory are collected and the functional renormalisation group equations are derived. Chapter 3 gives a short introduction to the main concepts of supersymmetry that are used in the subsequent chapters. In chapter 4 the functional RG is employed for a study of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, a supersymmetric model which are studied intensively in the literature. A lot of results have previously been obtained with different methods and we compare these to the ones from the FRG. We investigate the N=1 Wess-Zumino model in two dimensions in chapter 5. This model shows spontaneous supersymmetry breaking and an interesting fixed-point structure. Chapter 6 deals with the three dimensional N=1 Wess-Zumino model. Here we discuss the zero temperature case as well as the behaviour at finite temperature. Moreover, this model shows spontaneous supersymmetry breaking, too. In chapter 7 the two-dimensional N=(2,2) Wess-Zumino model is investigated. For the superpotential a non-renormalisation theorem holds and thus guarantees that the model is finite. This allows for a direct comparison with results from lattice simulations. (orig.)

  17. Functional renormalization group and Kohn-Sham scheme in density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haozhao; Niu, Yifei; Hatsuda, Tetsuo

    2018-04-01

    Deriving accurate energy density functional is one of the central problems in condensed matter physics, nuclear physics, and quantum chemistry. We propose a novel method to deduce the energy density functional by combining the idea of the functional renormalization group and the Kohn-Sham scheme in density functional theory. The key idea is to solve the renormalization group flow for the effective action decomposed into the mean-field part and the correlation part. Also, we propose a simple practical method to quantify the uncertainty associated with the truncation of the correlation part. By taking the φ4 theory in zero dimension as a benchmark, we demonstrate that our method shows extremely fast convergence to the exact result even for the highly strong coupling regime.

  18. Pd(II)-Catalyzed C–H Functionalizations Directed by Distal Weakly Coordinating Functional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wan, Li; Zhang, Guofu; Leow, Dasheng; Spangler, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Ortho-C(sp2)–H olefination and acetoxylation of broadly useful synthetic building blocks phenylacetyl Weinreb amides, esters, and ketones are developed without installing an additional directing group. The interplay between the distal weak coordination and the ligand-acceleration is crucial for these reactions to proceed under mild conditions. The tolerance of longer distance between the target C–H bonds and the directing functional groups also allows for the functionalizations of more distal C–H bonds in hydrocinnamoyl ketones, Weinreb amides and biphenyl Weinreb amides. Mechanistically, the coordination of these carbonyl groups and the bisdentate amino acid ligand with Pd(II) centers provides further evidence for our early hypothesis that the carbonyl groups of the potassium carboxylate is responsible for the directed C–H activation of carboxylic acids. PMID:25768039

  19. Functionalization of group-14 two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Mariusz

    2018-06-01

    The great success of graphene has boosted intensive search for other single-layer thick materials, mainly composed of group-14 atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. This new class of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, known as 2D-Xenes, has become an emerging field of intensive research due to their remarkable electronic properties and the promise for a future generation of nanoelectronics. In contrast to graphene, Xenes are not completely planar, and feature a low buckled geometry with two sublattices displaced vertically as a result of the interplay between sp2 and sp3 orbital hybridization. In spite of the buckling, the outstanding electronic properties of graphene governed by Dirac physics are preserved in Xenes too. The buckled structure also has several advantages over graphene. Together with the spin–orbit (SO) interaction it may lead to the emergence of various experimentally accessible topological phases, like the quantum spin Hall effect. This in turn would lead to designing and building new electronic and spintronic devices, like topological field effect transistors. In this regard an important issue concerns the electron energy gap, which for Xenes naturally exists owing to the buckling and SO interaction. The electronic properties, including the magnitude of the energy gap, can further be tuned and controlled by external means. Xenes can easily be functionalized by substrate, chemical adsorption, defects, charge doping, external electric field, periodic potential, in-plane uniaxial and biaxial stress, and out-of-plane long-range structural deformation, to name a few. This topical review explores structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Xenes and addresses the question of their functionalization in various ways, including external factors acting simultaneously. It also points to future directions to be explored in functionalization of Xenes. The results of experimental and theoretical studies obtained so far have many promising features making

  20. Effectiveness of Balancing Everyday Life (BEL) versus standard occupational therapy for activity engagement and functioning among people with mental illness - a cluster RCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Tjörnstrand, Carina; Sandlund, Mikael; Argentzell, Elisabeth

    2017-11-09

    Many with a mental illness have an impoverished everyday life with few meaningful activities and a sedentary lifestyle. The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the 16-week Balancing Everyday Life (BEL) program, compared to care as usual (CAU), for people with mental illness in specialized and community-based psychiatric services. The main outcomes concerned different aspects of subjectively evaluated everyday activities, in terms of the engagement and satisfaction they bring, balance among activities, and activity level. Secondary outcomes pertained to various facets of well-being and functioning. It was hypothesized that those who received the BEL intervention would improve more than the comparison group regarding activity, well-being and functioning outcomes. BEL is a group and activity-based lifestyle intervention. CAU entailed active support, mainly standard occupational therapy. The BEL group included 133 participants and the CAU group 93. They completed self-report questionnaires targeting activity and well-being on three occasions - at baseline, after completed intervention (at 16 weeks) and at a six-month follow-up. A research assistant rated the participants' level of functioning and symptom severity on the same occasions. Non-parametric statistics were used since these instruments produced ordinal data. The BEL group improved more than the CAU group from baseline to 16 weeks on primary outcomes in terms of activity engagement (p life) more than the CAU group from baseline to the follow-up (p = 0.049). No differences were found at that time for activity balance, level of functioning and symptom severity. The BEL program was effective compared to CAU in terms of activity engagement. Their improvements were not, however, greater concerning other subjective perceptions, such as satisfaction with daily activities and self-rated health, and clustering effects lowered the dependability regarding findings of improvements on symptoms and

  1. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Wu, Ming-Long; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Shih, Yi-Yu; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm 3 achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm 3 voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm 3 to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm 3 has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain

  2. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ping-Huei [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Long, E-mail: minglong.wu@csie.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Tzu-Chao [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Yu [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China); Huang, Teng-Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  3. Observations of Adolescent Peer Group Interactions as a Function of Within- and Between-Group Centrality Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Dumas, Tara M.; Mahdy, Jasmine C.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of adolescent (n = 258; M age = 15.45) peer group triads (n = 86) were analyzed to identify conversation and interaction styles as a function of within-group and between-group centrality status. Group members' discussions about hypothetical dilemmas were coded for agreements, disagreements, commands, and opinions. Interactions during…

  4. A Solution to the C-Value Paradox and the Function of Junk DNA: The Genome Balance Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeling, Michael; Xu, Jie; Woodhouse, Margaret; Lisch, Damon

    2015-06-01

    The Genome Balance Hypothesis originated from a recent study that provided a mechanism for the phenomenon of genome dominance in ancient polyploids: unique 24nt RNA coverage near genes is greater in genes on the recessive subgenome irrespective of differences in gene expression. 24nt RNAs target transposons. Transposon position effects are now hypothesized to balance the expression of networked genes and provide spring-like tension between pericentromeric heterochromatin and microtubules. The balance (coordination) of gene expression and centromere movement is under selection. Our hypothesis states that this balance can be maintained by many or few transposons about equally well. We explain known balanced distributions of junk DNA within genomes and between subgenomes in allopolyploids (and our hypothesis passes "the onion test" for any so-called solution to the C-value paradox). Importantly, when the allotetraploid maize chromosomes delete redundant genes, their nearby transposons are also lost; this result is explained if transposons near genes function. The Genome Balance Hypothesis is hypothetical because the position effect mechanisms implicated are not proved to apply to all junk DNA, and the continuous nature of the centromeric and gene position effects have not yet been studied as a single phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Postural balance and functional independence of elderly people according to gender and age: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Benincasa Nakagawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Aging causes changes in men and women. Studies have shown that women have worse postural balance and greater functional dependence than men, but there is no consensus regarding this. The aim of this study was to compare the balance and functional independence of elderly people according to sex and age, and to evaluate the association between postural balance and the number of drugs taken. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional at a state university. METHODS: 202 elderly people were evaluated regarding balance (Berg Scale, independence (Barthel Index, age, sex, number of medications and physical activity. RESULTS: The subjects comprised 117 women (70.2 ± 5.6 years old and 85 men (71.1 ± 6.9 years old. For balance, there was no significant difference regarding sex, but there was a difference regarding age (P < 0.0001. For functional independence, there was a difference regarding sex (P = 0.003, but not regarding age. The variables of age, medications and physical activity were significant for predicting the Berg score. For the Barthel index, only age and sex were significant. Elderly people who took three or more medications/day showed higher risk of falling than those who took up two drugs/day (odds ratio = 5.53, P < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval, 2.3-13.0. CONCLUSIONS: There was no sexual difference in relation to postural balance. However, people who were more elderly presented a high risk of falling. Functional dependence was worse among females. There was an association between the number of medication drugs and risk of falling.

  6. Balancing Justice and Welfare Needs in Family Group Conferences for Children with Harmful Sexual Behavior: The HSB-FGC Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Monique; Parkinson, Kate

    2018-06-12

    In England and Wales, family group conferences (FGCs) are most often found either in the field of youth justice or in the field of child protection, and consequently often have priorities in line with either one of the two systems. On the one hand, FGCs are a restorative justice tool to address offending behavior and hold young perpetrators to account, while giving victims the possibility of contributing to the justice process. On the other hand, FGCs address safeguarding concerns and are used to plan for child safety and protection. In cases where a young person has sexually harmed another young person, that is, has perpetrated harmful sexual behavior (HSB), all young people involved will have both justice and welfare needs. FGCs are emerging as promising mechanisms in such cases, not only because of their ability to deal with both sets of needs for both young people but also because of their potential to address more holistic needs. However, HSB cases are often complex and sensitive, and are not without risk. Drawing on their experiences in research and practice, the authors explore how the holistic needs of both the harmed and harming individual can be balanced within a risk managed HSB-FGC framework.

  7. Glioma surgery with intraoperative mapping-balancing the onco-functional choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennum, Jannick; Engelmann, Christina M; Thomsen, Johanne Asperud; Skjøth-Rasmussen, Jane

    2018-05-01

    Balancing survival versus risk of inducing functional deficits is a challenge when resecting gliomas in or near eloquent areas. Our objectives were to assess deficits prior to and at 6 and 12 months after awake craniotomies with cortical and subcortical mapping in patients with suspected grade 2 gliomas in eloquent areas. We analyzed whether pre- and intraoperative factors were linked to an increased risk of postoperative deficits. Retrospective study of 92 consecutive patients operated between January 2010 and June 2014. All deficits reported by any healthcare professional and KPS-score preoperatively, immediately postoperatively (day 1-10), at 6 months and 12 months, were analyzed. A decrease in neurological and or cognitive function was common in the first days after surgery, with a significant improvement at 6 months after surgery and further improvement at 12 months. Immediately after surgery, 33% of the patients had severe deficits compared to 2% prior to surgery; this improved to 9% at 6 months and 3% at 12 months. However, at 12 months, 18% of the patients had new or worsened minor or moderate deficits and only 10% had no deficits compared to 39% prior to surgery. There were only minor changes in KPS. None of the recorded pre/intraoperative factors were found significantly to influence the risk of moderate/severe late postoperative deficits. A significant amount of the patients in this study experienced new or worsened neurological and or cognitive deficits during follow-up. We found a higher frequency of deficits than normally reported. This is due to the inclusion of mild deficits, the use of patient-reported data, and our focus on cognitive deficits. Our study indicates that the impact of awake craniotomy with mapping on patient outcome is larger than expected. This in no way negates the use of the technique.

  8. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Exercise programs that challenge an individual's balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. STUDIES WERE OBTAINED BY SEARCHING THE FOLLOWING DATABASES: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home-based treatment cannot be made at this

  9. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. Methods Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Results Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. Conclusion The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home

  10. The Importance of Trunk Muscle Strength for Balance, Functional Performance, and Fall Prevention in Seniors : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Kressig, Reto W.; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    Background The aging process results in a number of functional (e.g., deficits in balance and strength/power performance), neural (e.g., loss of sensory/motor neurons), muscular (e.g., atrophy of type-II muscle fibers in particular), and bone-related (e.g., osteoporosis) deteriorations.

  11. Injury history, sex, and performance on the functional movement screen and Y balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimera, Nicole J; Smith, Craig A; Warren, Meghan

    2015-05-01

    Research is limited regarding the effects of injury or surgery history and sex on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Y Balance Test (YBT). To determine if injury or surgery history or sex affected results on the FMS and YBT. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training facilities. A total of 200 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female (n = 92; age = 20.0 ± 1.4 years, body mass index = 22.8 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) and male (n = 108; age = 20.0 ± 1.5 years, body mass index = 27.0 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)) athletes were screened; 170 completed the FMS, and 190 completed the YBT. A self-reported questionnaire identified injury or surgery history and sex. The FMS assessed movement during the patterns of deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, impingement-clearing test, straight-leg raise, trunk stability push-up, press-up clearing test, rotary stability, and posterior-rocking clearing test. The YBT assessed balance while participants reached in anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. The FMS composite score (CS; range, 0-21) and movement pattern score (range, 0-3), the YBT CS (% lower extremity length), and YBT anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral asymmetry (difference between limbs in centimeters). Independent-samples t tests established differences in mean FMS CS, YBT CS, and YBT asymmetry. The Mann-Whitney U test identified differences in FMS movement patterns. We found lower overall FMS CSs for the following injuries or surgeries: hip (injured = 12.7 ± 3.1, uninjured = 14.4 ± 2.3; P = .005), elbow (injured = 12.1 ± 2.8, uninjured = 14.3 ± 2.4; P = .02), and hand (injured = 12.3 ± 2.9, uninjured = 14.3 ± 2.3; P = .006) injuries and shoulder surgery (surgery = 12.0 ± 1.0, no surgery = 14.3 ± 2.4; P lunge: P lunge: P = .01). Female athletes performed worse in FMS movement patterns for trunk (P in the lunge (P = .008), shoulder mobility (P < .001), and straight-leg raise (P < .001). Anterior asymmetry was greater

  12. Plant species and functional group combinations affect green roof ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Macivor, J Scott; Macdougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-03-12

    Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms governing biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in green

  13. A conceptual basis to encode and detect organic functional groups in XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Punnaivanam; Krief, Alain; Vijayasarathi, Durairaj

    2013-06-01

    A conceptual basis to define and detect organic functional groups is developed. The basic model of a functional group is termed as a primary functional group and is characterized by a group center composed of one or more group center atoms bonded to terminal atoms and skeletal carbon atoms. The generic group center patterns are identified from the structures of known functional groups. Accordingly, a chemical ontology 'Font' is developed to organize the existing functional groups as well as the new ones to be defined by the chemists. The basic model is extended to accommodate various combinations of primary functional groups as functional group assemblies. A concept of skeletal group is proposed to define the characteristic groups composed of only carbon atoms to be regarded as equivalent to functional groups. The combination of primary functional groups with skeletal groups is categorized as skeletal group assembly. In order to make the model suitable for reaction modeling purpose, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed to define the functional groups and to encode in XML format appropriate to detect them in chemical structures. The system is capable of detecting multiple instances of primary functional groups as well as the overlapping poly-functional groups as the respective assemblies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analytical applications of resins containing amide and polyamine functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orf, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    Resins are prepared by chemically bonding N,N-dialkylamides and polyamine functional groups to Amberlite XAD-4. These resins are applied to the concentration of metal ions from dilute aqueous solution and the rapid separation of metal ions by high-speed liquid chromatography with continuous on-line detection of the eluent stream. A dibutyl amide resin is used for the separation of uranium(VI), thorium(IV), and zirconium(IV) from each other and several other metal ions. Uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) are determined in the presence of large excesses of foreign metal ions and anions. A practical application of the amide resin is studied by determining uranium in low grade uranium ores. The amide resin is also used for the selective concentration of gold(III) from seawater. A triethylenetetramine resin is used for the separation of copper(II) from equal molar amounts and large excesses of nickel(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), iron(III) and aluminum(III). Copper(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cobalt(II) and cadmium(II) are determined in the presence of large excesses of calcium(II) and magnesium(II). The resin was found to be selective for silver(I) and mercury(II) at low pH values and a rapid separation of equal molar amounts of copper(II) and silver(I) was performed. The resin was also found to have an affinity for anionic metal complexes such as iron(III)-tartrate when the resin is in the hydrogen form. A study of the retention of the anions chromium(III)-tartrate and dichromate at various pH values was performed to better understand the anion exchange properties of the resin. Triethylenetetramine resins were also prepared from polystyrene gel to make a resin with higher capacities for copper

  15. On the Balancing of the SMOS Ocean Salinity Retrieval Cost Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, R.; Camps, A.; Portabella, M.; Talone, M.; Ballabrera, J.; Gourrion, J.; Gabarró, C.; Aretxabaleta, A. L.; Font, J.

    2009-04-01

    producing spurious retrievals. In [4] it has been studied the impact of the different auxiliary salinity uncertainties in the accuracy of the retrieval. It has been shown that using physically-consistent salinity field uncertainties of the order of less than 0.5 psu (either as the standard deviation of the considered SSS field or as the standard deviation of the misfit between the original and the auxiliary SSS field) the SSS term turns out to be too constraining. A half-way solution could be envisaged by using empirical weights (regularization factors) which could smooth the overall influence of the SSS term still using the auxiliary fields with their corresponding physically-sounded uncertainties. This operation should be performed for the SST and wind speed term as well. The need for a comprehensive balancing of the different terms included in the cost function is also stressed by recent studies [5], which point out that the even the observational term (TBs) will need to be properly weighted by an effective ratio, taking into account the specific correlation patterns existing in the MIRAS measurements. Simulated data using the SMOS End-to-end Processor Simulator (SEPS), in its full-mode, including the measured antenna patterns for each antenna and all the instrument errors, are used in this study. The salinity retrieval process and the SSS maps (for each satellite overpass) are performed with UPC SMOS-Level 2 Processor Simulator (SMOS-L2PS). The relative weight for each of the terms included in the cost function (observational and background terms) is assessed in different cost function configurations. Regularization factors are introduced to ensure that SMOS information content is fully exploited. Preliminary results on the cost function balancing will be shown at the conference. References [1] Font, J., G. Lagerloef, D. Le Vine, A. Camps, and O.Z. Zanife, The Determination of Surface Salinity with the European SMOS Space Mission, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 42

  16. Polymer containing functional end groups is base for new polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, S. M.

    1971-01-01

    Butadiene is polymerized with lithium-p-lithiophenoxide to produce linear polymer containing oxy-lithium group at one end and active carbon-lithium group at other end. Living polymers represent new approach to preparation of difunctional polymers in which structural features, molecular weight, type and number of end groups are controlled.

  17. Prediction of functional sites in proteins using conserved functional group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innis, C Axel; Anand, A Prem; Sowdhamini, R

    2004-04-02

    A detailed knowledge of a protein's functional site is an absolute prerequisite for understanding its mode of action at the molecular level. However, the rapid pace at which sequence and structural information is being accumulated for proteins greatly exceeds our ability to determine their biochemical roles experimentally. As a result, computational methods are required which allow for the efficient processing of the evolutionary information contained in this wealth of data, in particular that related to the nature and location of functionally important sites and residues. The method presented here, referred to as conserved functional group (CFG) analysis, relies on a simplified representation of the chemical groups found in amino acid side-chains to identify functional sites from a single protein structure and a number of its sequence homologues. We show that CFG analysis can fully or partially predict the location of functional sites in approximately 96% of the 470 cases tested and that, unlike other methods available, it is able to tolerate wide variations in sequence identity. In addition, we discuss its potential in a structural genomics context, where automation, scalability and efficiency are critical, and an increasing number of protein structures are determined with no prior knowledge of function. This is exemplified by our analysis of the hypothetical protein Ydde_Ecoli, whose structure was recently solved by members of the North East Structural Genomics consortium. Although the proposed active site for this protein needs to be validated experimentally, this example illustrates the scope of CFG analysis as a general tool for the identification of residues likely to play an important role in a protein's biochemical function. Thus, our method offers a convenient solution to rapidly and automatically process the vast amounts of data that are beginning to emerge from structural genomics projects.

  18. GROUP DYNAMICS AND TEAM FUNCTIONING IN ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ZOLTAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In all kind of organization many activities are done by groups and teams. But how are they formed? What factors influence their existence and development? How members of groups and teams are selected? Which are the consequences in organizational context? In order to answer these questions, in the present paper we describe and analyze the main approaches regarding the formation of work groups and work teams (sociometric approach and group dynamics approach, the main factors that affects group dynamics and the FIRO model for evaluation the team members’ needs.

  19. INFLUENCE OF COMPETITIVE EXPERIENCE ON STATIC POSTURAL BALANCE IN A GROUP OF RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS OF HIGH LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Scursatone

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic gymnastics is the unique female sport which includes aspects of both artistic gymnastics and dance and is characterized by the use of small apparatuses (e.g., rope, clubs, ribbon, hoop and ball. Many studies compared the balance ability of athletes from different sports, underlying that gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability (Hrysomallis, 2011; Bressel, Yonker, Kras & Heath, 2007. No literature analysed the influence of  the competitive experience of rhytmic gymnasts on the static postural balance.Objective: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the influence of years of competitive experience, hours of physical training and competition level on static postural balance in elite rhythmic gymnastics female athletes.  

  20. The receptive function of hypothalamic and brainstem centres to hormonal and nutrient signals affecting energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the area postrema (AP) represent targets for hormonal and metabolic signals involved in energy homoeostasis, e.g. glucose, amylin, insulin, leptin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin. Orexigenic neuropeptide Y expressing ARC neurons are activated by food deprivation and inhibited by feeding in a nutrient-dependent manner. PYY and leptin also reverse or prevent fasting-induced activation of the ARC. Interestingly, hypothalamic responses to fasting are blunted in different models of obesity (e.g. diet-induced obesity (DIO) or late-onset obesity). The AP also responds to feeding-related signals. The pancreatic hormone amylin acts via the AP to control energy intake. Amylin-sensitive AP neurons are also glucose-responsive. Furthermore, diet-derived protein attenuates amylin responsiveness suggesting a modulation of AP sensitivity by macronutrient supply. This review gives an overview of the receptive function of the ARC and the AP to hormonal and nutritional stimuli involved in the control of energy balance and the possible implications in the context of obesity. Collectively, there is consistency between the neurophysiological actions of these stimuli and their effects on energy homoeostasis under experimental conditions. However, surprisingly little progress has been made in the development of effective pharmacological approaches against obesity. A promising way to improve effectiveness involves combination treatments (e.g. amylin/leptin agonists). Hormonal alterations (e.g. GLP-1 and PYY) are also considered to mediate body weight loss observed in obese patients receiving bariatric surgery. The effects of hormonal and nutritional signals and their interactions might hold the potential to develop poly-mechanistic therapeutic strategies against obesity.

  1. Stress differentially impacts reserve pools and root exudation: implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon; Karst, Justine; Wiley, Erin; Gaster, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Environmental stress can influence carbon assimilation and the accumulation and distribution of carbon between growth, reserves, and exudation; however, it is unclear how these processes vary by different stress types. Partitioning of carbon to growth and reserves in plants might also vary between different organs. Roots reserves are of particular interest as they link the plant with the soil carbon cycle through exudation. Simple models of diffusion across concentration gradients predict the more C reserves in roots, the more C should be exuded from roots. However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation and loss of C from roots may differ depending on the stress experienced by the plants. In a controlled study we tested whether different types of stresses (shade, cold soil, and drought) have differential effects on the distribution, abundance, and form (sugar vs. starch) of carbohydrates in seedlings, and whether these changes alone could explain differences in root exudation between stress types. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration and pool sizes varied by stress type and between organs. Mass-specific C exudation increased with fine root sugar concentration; however, stress type affected exudation independently of reserve concentration. Seedlings exposed to cold soils exuded the most C on a per root mass basis followed by shade and drought. Through 13C labeling, we also found that depending on the stress type, aspen seedlings may be less able to control the loss of C to the soil compared with unstressed seedlings, resulting in more C leaked to the rhizosphere. The loss of C beyond that predicted by simple concentration gradients might have important implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance. If stressed plants lose proportionally more carbon to the soil, existing interactions between plants and soils may decouple under stress, and may include unexpected C fluxes between trees, soils and the atmosphere with a changing climate.

  2. Efficacy of Nintendo Wii Training on Mechanical Leg Muscle Function and Postural Balance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Martin G; Laessoe, Uffe; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Older adults show increased risk of falling and major risk factors include impaired lower extremity muscle strength and postural balance. However, the potential positive effect of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on muscle strength and postural balance in older adults is unknown....... METHODS: This randomized controlled trial examined postural balance and muscle strength in community-dwelling older adults (75±6 years) pre- and post-10 weeks of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training (WII, n = 28) or daily use of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer insoles (controls [CON], n = 30). Primary...... end points were maximal muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction) and center of pressure velocity moment during bilateral static stance. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and baseline level showed that the WII group had higher maximal voluntary contraction...

  3. An altered redox balance and increased genetic instability characterize primary fibroblasts derived from xeroderma pigmentosum group A patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlanti, Eleonora; Pietraforte, Donatella; Iorio, Egidio; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara; Zijno, Andrea; D’Errico, Mariarosaria; Simonelli, Valeria; Sanchez, Massimo; Fattibene, Paola; Falchi, Mario; Dogliotti, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Increased levels and different types of intracellular radical species as well as an altered glutathione redox state characterize XP-A human cells when compared to normal. • A more glycolytic metabolism and higher ATP levels are associated with alteration of mitochondrial morphology and response to mitochondrial toxicants when XPA is defective. • XP-A human cells show increased spontaneous micronuclei frequency, a hallmark of cancer risk. - Abstract: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)-A patients are characterized by increased solar skin carcinogenesis and present also neurodegeneration. XPA deficiency is associated with defective nucleotide excision repair (NER) and increased basal levels of oxidatively induced DNA damage. In this study we search for the origin of increased levels of oxidatively generated DNA lesions in XP-A cell genome and then address the question of whether increased oxidative stress might drive genetic instability. We show that XP-A human primary fibroblasts present increased levels and different types of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to normal fibroblasts, with O_2_−· and H_2O_2 being the major reactive species. Moreover, XP-A cells are characterized by decreased reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios as compared to normal fibroblasts. The significant increase of ROS levels and the alteration of the glutathione redox state following silencing of XPA confirmed the causal relationship between a functional XPA and the control of redox balance. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ("1H NMR) analysis of the metabolic profile revealed a more glycolytic metabolism and higher ATP levels in XP-A than in normal primary fibroblasts. This perturbation of bioenergetics is associated with different morphology and response of mitochondria to targeted toxicants. In line with cancer susceptibility, XP-A primary fibroblasts showed increased spontaneous micronuclei (MN) frequency, a hallmark of cancer

  4. An altered redox balance and increased genetic instability characterize primary fibroblasts derived from xeroderma pigmentosum group A patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlanti, Eleonora [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Pietraforte, Donatella; Iorio, Egidio; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara [Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Zijno, Andrea; D’Errico, Mariarosaria; Simonelli, Valeria [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Sanchez, Massimo [Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fattibene, Paola [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Falchi, Mario [National AIDS Center, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Dogliotti, Eugenia, E-mail: dogliotti@iss.it [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Increased levels and different types of intracellular radical species as well as an altered glutathione redox state characterize XP-A human cells when compared to normal. • A more glycolytic metabolism and higher ATP levels are associated with alteration of mitochondrial morphology and response to mitochondrial toxicants when XPA is defective. • XP-A human cells show increased spontaneous micronuclei frequency, a hallmark of cancer risk. - Abstract: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)-A patients are characterized by increased solar skin carcinogenesis and present also neurodegeneration. XPA deficiency is associated with defective nucleotide excision repair (NER) and increased basal levels of oxidatively induced DNA damage. In this study we search for the origin of increased levels of oxidatively generated DNA lesions in XP-A cell genome and then address the question of whether increased oxidative stress might drive genetic instability. We show that XP-A human primary fibroblasts present increased levels and different types of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to normal fibroblasts, with O{sub 2−}· and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} being the major reactive species. Moreover, XP-A cells are characterized by decreased reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios as compared to normal fibroblasts. The significant increase of ROS levels and the alteration of the glutathione redox state following silencing of XPA confirmed the causal relationship between a functional XPA and the control of redox balance. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) analysis of the metabolic profile revealed a more glycolytic metabolism and higher ATP levels in XP-A than in normal primary fibroblasts. This perturbation of bioenergetics is associated with different morphology and response of mitochondria to targeted toxicants. In line with cancer susceptibility, XP-A primary fibroblasts showed increased spontaneous micronuclei (MN) frequency, a

  5. An altered redox balance and increased genetic instability characterize primary fibroblasts derived from xeroderma pigmentosum group A patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlanti, Eleonora; Pietraforte, Donatella; Iorio, Egidio; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara; Zijno, Andrea; D'Errico, Mariarosaria; Simonelli, Valeria; Sanchez, Massimo; Fattibene, Paola; Falchi, Mario; Dogliotti, Eugenia

    2015-12-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)-A patients are characterized by increased solar skin carcinogenesis and present also neurodegeneration. XPA deficiency is associated with defective nucleotide excision repair (NER) and increased basal levels of oxidatively induced DNA damage. In this study we search for the origin of increased levels of oxidatively generated DNA lesions in XP-A cell genome and then address the question of whether increased oxidative stress might drive genetic instability. We show that XP-A human primary fibroblasts present increased levels and different types of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to normal fibroblasts, with O₂₋• and H₂O₂ being the major reactive species. Moreover, XP-A cells are characterized by decreased reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios as compared to normal fibroblasts. The significant increase of ROS levels and the alteration of the glutathione redox state following silencing of XPA confirmed the causal relationship between a functional XPA and the control of redox balance. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR) analysis of the metabolic profile revealed a more glycolytic metabolism and higher ATP levels in XP-A than in normal primary fibroblasts. This perturbation of bioenergetics is associated with different morphology and response of mitochondria to targeted toxicants. In line with cancer susceptibility, XP-A primary fibroblasts showed increased spontaneous micronuclei (MN) frequency, a hallmark of cancer risk. The increased MN frequency was not affected by inhibition of ROS to normal levels by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biopsychosocial Characteristics, Using a New Functional Measure of Balance, of an Elderly Population with CLBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Hulla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the biopsychosocial characteristics of chronic low back pain (CLBP in an understudied but increasingly larger part of the population: the elderly (i.e., 65 years and older. A new innovative physical functioning measure (postural control, which is a proxy for the common problem of slips and falls in the elderly was part of this biopsychosocial evaluation. Also, the National Institutes of Health (NIH-developed Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS was also part of this comprehensive evaluation. Two demographically-matched groups of elderly participants were evaluated: one with CLBP (n = 24; and the other without (NCLBP, n = 24. Results revealed significant differences in most of these measures between the two groups, further confirming the importance of using a biopsychosocial approach for future studies of pain and postural control in the elderly.

  7. Wii Fit balance training or progressive balance training in patients with chronic stroke: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatar, Gozde Iyigun; Yildirim, Sibel Aksu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Wii Fit balance training (WBT) and progressive balance training (PBT) approaches on balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] A total of 30 patients were randomized into the WBT (n=15) and PBT (n=15) groups. [Methods] All of the subjects received exercise training based on a neurodevelopemental approach in addition to either Wii Fit or progressive balance training for total of 1 hour a day, 3 days per week for 4 weeks. Primary measurements were static balance function measured with a Wii Balance Board and dynamic balance function assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, Dynamic Gait Index, and Functional Reach Test. Secondary measures were balance confidence assessed with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale and activities of daily living evaluated with the Frenchay Activity Index. [Results] There was not remarkable difference between the two treatments in dynamic balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Although both of the approaches were found to be effective in improving the balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living, neither of them were more preferable than the other for the treatment of balance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:25995576

  8. Wii Fit balance training or progressive balance training in patients with chronic stroke: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatar, Gozde Iyigun; Yildirim, Sibel Aksu

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Wii Fit balance training (WBT) and progressive balance training (PBT) approaches on balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] A total of 30 patients were randomized into the WBT (n=15) and PBT (n=15) groups. [Methods] All of the subjects received exercise training based on a neurodevelopemental approach in addition to either Wii Fit or progressive balance training for total of 1 hour a day, 3 days per week for 4 weeks. Primary measurements were static balance function measured with a Wii Balance Board and dynamic balance function assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, Dynamic Gait Index, and Functional Reach Test. Secondary measures were balance confidence assessed with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale and activities of daily living evaluated with the Frenchay Activity Index. [Results] There was not remarkable difference between the two treatments in dynamic balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Although both of the approaches were found to be effective in improving the balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living, neither of them were more preferable than the other for the treatment of balance in patients with chronic stroke.

  9. Perceived In-Group Homogeneity as a Function of Group Membership Salience and Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Ting; Ottati, Victor

    1995-01-01

    Considers two determinants--one cognitive and the other motivational--of perceptual fluctuations of in-group variation. Results indicate that when motivation to protect social or personal identity from threat is absent, priming the in-group social category promotes a homogeneous and cohesive view of the in-group. (RJM)

  10. Functional conjugated pyridines via main-group element tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolar, Monika; Baumgartner, Thomas

    2018-03-29

    Pyridine-based materials have seen widespread attention for the development of n-type organic materials. In recent years, the incorporation of main-group elements has also explored significant advantages for the development and tunability of organic conjugated materials. The unique chemical and electronic structure of main-group elements has led to several enhancements in conventional organic materials. This Feature article highlights recent main-group based pyridine materials by discussing property enhancements and application in organic electronics.

  11. Zeta Functions, Renormalization Group Equations, and the Effective Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, D.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Molina-Paris, C.; Visser, M.

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop renormalization group equations for arbitrary quantum field theories from knowledge of an appropriate Seeley-DeWitt coefficient. By formally solving the renormalization group equations to one loop, we renormalization group improve the classical action and use this to derive the leading logarithms in the one-loop effective action for arbitrary quantum field theories. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  12. Functional renormalization group study of fluctuation effects in fermionic superfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Andreas

    2013-03-22

    This thesis is concerned with ground state properties of two-dimensional fermionic superfluids. In such systems, fluctuation effects are particularly strong and lead for example to a renormalization of the order parameter and to infrared singularities. In the first part of this thesis, the fermionic two-particle vertex is analysed and the fermionic renormalization group is used to derive flow equations for a decomposition of the vertex in charge, magnetic and pairing channels. In the second part, the channel-decomposition scheme is applied to various model systems. In the superfluid state, the fermionic two-particle vertex develops rich and singular dependences on momentum and frequency. After simplifying its structure by exploiting symmetries, a parametrization of the vertex in terms of boson-exchange interactions in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels is formulated, which provides an efficient description of the singular momentum and frequency dependences. Based on this decomposition of the vertex, flow equations for the effective interactions are derived on one- and two-loop level, extending existing channel-decomposition schemes to (i) the description of symmetry breaking in the Cooper channel and (ii) the inclusion of those two-loop renormalization contributions to the vertex that are neglected in the Katanin scheme. In the second part, the superfluid ground state of various model systems is studied using the channel-decomposition scheme for the vertex and the flow equations. A reduced model with interactions in the pairing and forward scattering channels is solved exactly, yielding insights into the singularity structure of the vertex. For the attractive Hubbard model at weak coupling, the momentum and frequency dependence of the two-particle vertex and the frequency dependence of the self-energy are determined on one- and two-loop level. Results for the suppression of the superfluid gap by fluctuations are in good agreement with the literature

  13. Hydrological functioning and water balance in a heavily modified hydrographic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnel, Vincent; Brion, Natacha; Elskens, Marc; Claeys, Philippe; Verbanck, Michel A.

    2017-04-01

    Rivers and canals are often the location for the historical settlement of cities and the backbone for their expansion, as they permit the transport of goods and people, the access to water for industrial activities and energy production, and the evacuation of the domestic and industrial wastewaters. In turn, human activities can result in modifications of the natural river systems to allow for instance ship transport or protection against flooding. The complex interconnected hydrographic network composed of the Zenne and the parallel Charleroi-Brussels-Scheldt Canal, which supports the development of the economy and urbanization of Brussels Metropolitan Area (Belgium), is a good example of such an altered system. The natural water course has been profoundly modified by the deviation of rivers to feed the canal, the control of the water flow in the canal by locks and pumps and the overflow exchange of water between the river and the canal for flood protection purposes. Also, the functioning of this system is strongly impacted by urban hydrology in Brussels, which results in amounts of wastewater discharged in the Zenne River that are nearly equivalent to the natural riverine flow. Water and water quality management in such complex and altered systems correspond to difficult tasks. They require, as a first step, a deep understanding of their hydrological functioning. Building an accurate water budget is also a necessary step in the investigation of the pollution sources, sinks, dynamics and mass-balance. In order to assess the water quality and provide insights for water management in the Zenne-Canal hydrographic network (cf. other contributions in this session), we established a detailed box-model representation of the water budget for the whole system, with a particular interest on the importance and the effects of the exchanges of water between the river and the canal. A particularity of this study is that, in contrast to the widespread use of hydrological

  14. Adaptations of prefrontal brain activity, executive functions, and gait in healthy elderly following exergame and balance training: A randomized-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schättin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During aging, the prefrontal cortex (PFC undergoes age-dependent neuronal changes influencing cognitive and motor functions. Motor-learning interventions are hypothesized to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits in older adults. Especially, video game-based physical exercise might have the potential to train motor in combination with cognitive abilities in older adults. The aim of this study was to compare conventional balance training with video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, on the relative power (RP of electroencephalographic (EEG frequencies over the PFC, executive function (EF, and gait performance. Twenty-seven participants (mean age 79.2 ± 7.3 years were randomly assigned to one of two groups. All participants completed 24 trainings including three times a 30min session/week. The EEG measurements showed that theta RP significantly decreased in favor of the exergame group (L(14 = 6.23, p = 0.007. Comparing pre- vs. post-test, EFs improved both within the exergame (working memory: z = -2.28, p = 0.021; divided attention auditory: z = -2.51, p = 0.009; divided attention visual: z = -2.06, p = 0.040; go/no-go: z = -2.55, p = 0.008; set-shifting: z = -2.90, p = 0.002 and within the balance group (set-shifting: z = -2.04, p = 0.042. Moreover, spatio-temporal gait parameters primarily improved within the exergame group under dual-task conditions (speed normal walking: z = -2.90, p = 0.002; speed fast walking: z = -2.97, p = 0.001; cadence normal walking: z = -2.97, p = 0.001; stride length fast walking: z = -2.69, p = 0.005 and within the balance group under single-task conditions (speed normal walking: z = -2.54, p = 0.009; speed fast walking: z = -1.98, p = 0.049; cadence normal walking: z = -2.79, p = 0.003. These results indicate that exergame training as well as balance training positively influence prefrontal cortex activity and/or function in varying proportion.

  15. Application of macrobenthos functional groups to estimate the ecosystem health in a semi-enclosed bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shitao; Zhou, Ran; Qin, Xuebo; Shi, Honghua; Ding, Dewen

    2013-09-15

    In this study, the functional group concept was first applied to evaluate the ecosystem health of Bohai Bay. Macrobenthos functional groups were defined according to feeding types and divided into five groups: a carnivorous group (CA), omnivorous group (OM), planktivorous group (PL), herbivorous group (HE), and detritivorous group (DE). Groups CA, DE, OM, and PL were identified, but the HE group was absent from Bohai Bay. Group DE was dominant during the study periods. The ecosystem health was assessed using a functional group evenness index. The functional group evenness values of most sampling stations were less than 0.40, indicating that the ecosystem health was deteriorated in Bohai Bay. Such deterioration could be attributed to land reclamation, industrial and sewage effluents, oil pollution, and hypersaline water discharge. This study demonstrates that the functional group concept can be applied to ecosystem health assessment in a semi-enclosed bay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Balance Training Enhances Vestibular Function and Reduces Overactive Proprioceptive Feedback in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella K. Wiesmeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Postural control in elderly people is impaired by degradations of sensory, motor, and higher-level adaptive mechanisms. Here, we characterize the effects of a progressive balance training program on these postural control impairments using a brain network model based on system identification techniques.Methods and Material: We analyzed postural control of 35 healthy elderly subjects and compared findings to data from 35 healthy young volunteers. Eighteen elderly subjects performed a 10 week balance training conducted twice per week. Balance training was carried out in static and dynamic movement states, on support surfaces with different elastic compliances, under different visual conditions and motor tasks. Postural control was characterized by spontaneous sway and postural reactions to pseudorandom anterior-posterior tilts of the support surface. Data were interpreted using a parameter identification procedure based on a brain network model.Results: With balance training, the elderly subjects significantly reduced their overly large postural reactions and approximated those of younger subjects. Less significant differences between elderly and young subjects' postural control, namely larger spontaneous sway amplitudes, velocities, and frequencies, larger overall time delays and a weaker motor feedback compared to young subjects were not significantly affected by the balance training.Conclusion: Balance training reduced overactive proprioceptive feedback and restored vestibular orientation in elderly. Based on the assumption of a linear deterioration of postural control across the life span, the training effect can be extrapolated as a juvenescence of 10 years. This study points to a considerable benefit of a continuous balance training in elderly, even without any sensorimotor deficits.

  17. Effect of inhaled N-acetylcysteine monotherapy on lung function and redox balance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yoko; Sugino, Keishi; Ishida, Fumiaki; Tatebe, Junko; Morita, Toshisuke; Homma, Sakae

    2016-05-01

    An oxidant-antioxidant imbalance is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Therefore, administration of antioxidants, such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), may represent a potential treatment option for IPF patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of inhaled NAC monotherapy on lung function and redox balance in patients with IPF. A retrospective observational study was done, involving 22 patients with untreated early IPF (19 men; mean [±S.D.] age, 71.8 [±6.3]y). At baseline and at 6 and 12 months after initiating inhaled NAC monotherapy, we assessed forced vital capacity (FVC) and measured the levels of total glutathione, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione in whole blood (hereafter referred to as the ratio), and of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in urine. To evaluate response to treatment, we defined disease progression as a decrease in FVC of ≥5% from baseline and stable disease as a decrease in FVC of <5%, over a period of 6 months. Change in FVC in the stable group at 6 and 12 months were 95±170mL and -70±120mL, while those in the progressive group at 6 and 12 months were -210±80mL, -320±350mL, respectively. The serial mean change in GSSG from baseline decreased as the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione increased in patients with stable disease, while it increased as this ratio decreased in patients with progressive disease. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that a baseline GSSG level of ≥1.579μM was optimal for identifying treatment responders. Inhaled NAC monotherapy was associated with improved redox imbalance in patients with early IPF. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Exergame and Balance Training modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity during Walking and enhance Executive Function in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eEggenberger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE or balance and stretching training (BALANCE. The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 minutes per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9±6.9 years. Prefrontal cortex (PFC activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p < .05 or trend, r = .25 to .36, while DANCE showed a larger reduction at the end of the 30-second walking task compared to BALANCE in the left PFC (F(1, 31 = 3.54, p = .035, r = .32. These exercise training induced modulations in PFC oxygenation correlated with improved executive functions (p < .05 or trend, r = .31 to .50. The observed reductions in PFC activity may release cognitive resources to focus attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults.

  19. Effects Of Physical Activity On Cognitive Functions, Balance And Risk Of Falls In Elderly Patients With Alzheimer's Dementia [efeitos De Um Programa De Atividade Física Nas Funções Cognitivas, Equilíbrio E Risco De Quedas Em Idosos Com Demência De Alzheimer

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez S.S.S.; Coelho F.G.M.; Gobbi S.; Stella F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effects of regular, systematic and supervised activity on the cognitive functions, balance and risk of falls of elderly patients with Alzheimer's Dementia (AD). Methods: Sixteen elderly patients (mean age 78.5±6.8 years) were divided into two groups: intervention group (IG; n=9) and routine group (RG; n=7). The IG exercised systematically for six months, and both groups were submitted to the following tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Berg Balance Scale (B...

  20. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufer Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yocheved Laufer, Gali Dar, Einat Kodesh Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel Background: Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults.Methods: Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment.Results: Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs.Conclusion: The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as

  1. High but balanced sedimentation and subsidence rates (Moodies Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt), followed by basin collapse: Implication for Archaean tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubeck, Christoph; Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.

    2010-05-01

    top of the underlying Fig Tree Group (Schoongezicht Fm.; Byerly et al., 1996), implying that ca. 2000m of Moodies sandstones and subordinate siltstones and conglomerates were deposited in not more than a few (0-6) Ma. Their comparatively low degree of facies variation and lithological change implies a balance between rates of sediment supply and of subsidence, creating thick stacked units. Ferruginous shales and thin BIFs of the upper Moodies Group suggest that background 'Fig-Tree-style' sedimentation continued during Moodies time but was mostly overwhelmed by the apparently brief but massive influx of medium- to coarse-grained quartzose sediment. Because two progressive unconformities, marking Moodies basin uplift and onset of renewed overall BGB shortening, occur only 50 m above this dated unit, they are likely of a similar age and imply that dominant NW-SE-directed shortening in the BGB began shortly after 3230+-6 Ma. The combination of these new data with published information thus suggest that the Moodies Basin formed after 3225+-6 Ma (i.e., at the earliest at 3231) but was already largely filled and began to be deformed by 3231+-6 (i.e., at the latest by 3225). Moodies deposition thus happened geologically nearly instantaneously following the end of Fig Tree volcanism, took very little time and deposited large volumes of sediments on a rapidly subsiding basement just prior to large-scale BGB deformation. REFERENCES Byerly, G.R., Kroner, A., Lowe, D.R., Todt W., Walsh, M.M., 1996, Prolonged magmatism and time constraints for sediment deposition in the early Archean Barberton greenstone belt: Evidence from the Upper Onverwacht and Fig Tree groups: Precambrian Research, 78, p. 125-138. Eriksson, K.A., 1979, Marginal marine depositional processes from the Archaean Moodies Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa: Evidence and significance: Precambrian Res., 8, p. 153-182. Heubeck, C. and Lowe, D.R., 1994, Depositional and tectonic setting of the Archaean

  2. Direct quantification of negatively charged functional groups on membrane surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    groups at the surface of dense polymeric membranes. Both techniques consist of associating the membrane surface moieties with chemical probes, followed by quantification of the bound probes. Uranyl acetate and toluidine blue O dye, which interact

  3. Group delay functions and its applications in speech technology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (iii) High resolution property: The (anti) resonance peaks (due to complex ... Resolving power of the group delay spectrum: z-plane (a, d, g), magnitude ...... speech signal into syllable-like units, without the knowledge of phonetic transcription.

  4. Functional Modification of Thioether Groups in Peptides, Polypeptides, and Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Deming, TJ

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in the modification of methionine and other thioether-containing residues in peptides, polypeptides, and proteins are reviewed. Properties and potential applications of the resulting functionalized products are also discussed. While much of this work is focused on natural Met residues, modifications at other side-chain residues have also emerged as new thioether-containing amino acids have been incorporated into peptidic materials. Functional modification of thioether-cont...

  5. Does the addition of virtual reality training to a standard program of inpatient rehabilitation improve sitting balance ability and function after stroke? Protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, L; Taillon-Hobson, A; Sveistrup, H; Bilodeau, M; Fergusson, D; Levac, D; Finestone, H

    2016-03-31

    Sitting ability and function are commonly impaired after stroke. Balance training has been shown to be helpful, but abundant repetitions are required for optimal recovery and patients must be motivated to perform rehabilitation exercises repeatedly to maximize treatment intensity. Virtual reality training (VRT), which allows patients to interact with a virtual environment using computer software and hardware, is enjoyable and may encourage greater repetition of therapeutic exercises. However, the potential for VRT to promote sitting balance has not yet been explored. The objective of this study is to determine if supplemental VRT-based sitting balance exercises improve sitting balance ability and function in stroke rehabilitation inpatients. This is a single-site, single-blind, parallel-group randomized control trial. Seventy six stroke rehabilitation inpatients who cannot stand independently for greater than one minute but can sit for at least 20 minutes (including at least one minute without support) are being recruited from a tertiary-care dedicated stroke rehabilitation unit. Participants are randomly allocated to experimental or control groups. Both participate in 10-12 sessions of 30-45 minutes of VRT performed in sitting administered by a single physiotherapist, in addition to their traditional therapy. The experimental group plays five games which challenge sitting balance while the control group plays five games which minimize trunk lean. Outcome measures of sitting balance ability (Function in Sitting Test, Ottawa Sitting Scale, quantitative measures of postural sway) and function (Reaching Performance Scale, Wolf Motor Function Test, quantitative measures of the limits of stability) are administered prior to, immediately following, and one month following the intervention by a second physiotherapist blind to the participant's group allocation. The treatment of sitting balance post-stroke with VRT has not yet been explored. Results from the current study

  6. Changes in balance, functional performance and fall risk following whole body vibration training and vitamin D supplementation in institutionalized elderly women. A 6 month randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, An; Delecluse, Christophe; Boonen, Steven; Claessens, Albrecht L; Milisen, Koen; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2011-03-01

    Falls in the elderly constitute a growing public health problem. This randomized controlled trial investigated the potential benefit of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) training and/or vitamin D supplementation on balance, functionality and estimated fall risk in institutionalized elderly women. A total of 113 women (mean age: 79.6) were randomly assigned to either a WBV or a no-training group, receiving either a conventional dose (880 IU/d) or a high dose (1600 IU/d) of vitamin D3. The WBV group performed exercises on a vibration platform 3×/week. Balance was evaluated by computerized posturography. Functionality was assessed by 10 m walk test, Timed up and Go (TUG) performance and endurance capacity (Shuttle Walk). Fall risk was determined with the Physiological Profile Assessment. Performance on the 10 m walk test and on TUG improved over time in all groups. For none of the parameters, high-dose vitamin D resulted in a better performance than conventional dosing. The improvements in the WBV group in endurance capacity, walking at preferred speed, and TUG were significantly larger than the changes with supplementation alone. No additional benefit of WBV training could be detected on fall risk and postural control, although sway velocity and maximal isometric knee extension strength improved only in the WBV group. This trial showed that a high-dose vitamin D supplementation is not more efficient than conventional dosing in improving functionality in institutionalized elderly. WBV training on top of vitamin D supplementation provided an added benefit with regard to walking, TUG performance, and endurance capacity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MHTGR steam generator on-line heat balance, instrumentation and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapka, R.E.; Howard, W.W.; Etzel, K.T.; Basol, M.; Karim, N.U.

    1991-09-01

    Instrumentation is used to measure the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) steam generator dissimilar metal weld temperature during start-up testing. Additional instrumentation is used to determine an on-line heat balance which is maintained during the 40 year module life. In the process of calibrating the on-line heat balance, the helium flow is adjusted to yield the optimum boiling level in the steam generator relative to the dissimilar metal weld. After calibration is complete the weld temperature measurement is non longer required. The reduced boiling level range results in less restrictive steam generator design constraints

  8. Level 2 and level 2.5 large deviation functionals for systems with and without detailed balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppenau, J; Nickelsen, D; Engel, A

    2016-01-01

    Large deviation functions are an essential tool in the statistics of rare events. Often they can be obtained by contraction from a so-called level 2 or level 2.5 large deviation functional characterizing the empirical density and current of the underlying stochastic process. For Langevin systems obeying detailed balance, the explicit form of the level 2 functional has been known ever since the mathematical work of Donsker and Varadhan. We rederive the Donsker–Varadhan result using stochastic path-integrals. We than generalize the derivation to level 2.5 large deviation functionals for non-equilibrium steady states and elucidate the relation between the large deviation functionals and different notions of entropy production in stochastic thermodynamics. Finally, we discuss some aspects of the contractions to level 1 large deviation functions and illustrate our findings with examples. (paper)

  9. Parameterization of Leaf-Level Gas Exchange for Plant Functional Groups From Amazonian Seasonal Tropical Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, T. F.; Berry, J. A.; Ometto, J. P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant communities exert strong influence over the magnitude of carbon and water cycling through ecosystems by controlling photosynthetic gas exchange and respiratory processes. Leaf-level gas exchange fluxes result from a combination of physiological properties, such as carboxylation capacity, respiration rates and hydraulic conductivity, interacting with environmental drivers such as water and light availability, leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit, and temperature. Carbon balance models concerned with ecosystem-scale responses have as a common feature the description of eco-physiological properties of vegetation. Here we focus on the parameterization of ecophysiological gas-exchange properties of plant functional groups from a pristine Amazonian seasonally dry tropical rain forest ecosystem (FLONA-Tapajós, Santarém, PA, Brazil). The parameters were specific leaf weight, leaf nitrogen content, leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, photosynthetic carboxylation capacity, dark respiration rates, and stomatal conductance to water vapor. Our plant functional groupings were lianas at the top of the canopy, trees at the top of the canopy, mid-canopy trees and undestory trees. Within the functional groups, we found no evidence that leaves acclimated to seasonal changes in precipitation. However, there were life-form dependent distinctions when a combination of parameters was included. Top-canopy lianas were statistically different from top-canopy trees for leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, and stomatal conductance to water vapor, suggesting that lianas are more conservative in the use of water, causing a stomatal limitation on photosynthetic assimilation. Top-canopy, mid canopy and understory groupings were distinct for specific leaf weight, leaf nitrogen content, leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, and photosynthetic carboxylation capacity. The recognition that plant

  10. Effects of climate variability and functional changes on the interannual variation of the carbon balance in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; van der Linden, Leon; Lasslop, G.

    2012-01-01

    scale, direct climatic variability and changes in ecosystem functional properties regulated the IAV of the carbon balance at this site. Correlation analysis showed that the sensitivity of carbon fluxes to climatic variability was significantly higher at shorter than at longer time scales and changed...... seasonally. Ecosystem response anomalies implied that changes in the distribution of climate anomalies during the vegetation period will have stronger impacts on future ecosystem carbon balances than changes in average climate. We improved a published modelling approach which distinguishes the direct....... At the annual time scale as much as 80% of the IAV in NEE was attributed to the variation in photosynthesis and respiration related model parameters. Our results suggest that the observed decadal NEE trend at the investigated site was dominated by changes in ecosystem functioning. In general this study showed...

  11. The preparation of new functionalized [2.2]paracyclophane derivatives with N-containing functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Hopf

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The two isomeric bis(isocyanates 4,12- and 4,16-di-isocyanato[2.2]paracyclophane, 16 and 28, have been prepared from their corresponding diacids by simple routes. The two isomers are versatile intermediates for the preparation of various cyclophanes bearing substituents with nitrogen-containing functional groups, e.g., the pseudo-ortho diamine 8, the bis secondary amine 23, and the crownophanes 18 and 19. Several of these new cyclophane derivatives (18, 19, 22, 26, 28 have been characterized by X-ray structural analysis.

  12. The effect of peculiar complex core balance training on isokinetic muscle functions of the knee and lumbus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myungsun; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of peculiar complex core balance training on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus to provide fundamental data for establishing a training program that focuses on improving the performance and prevention of injury by developing the core and low extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study included a total of ten high school athletes involved in a throwing event for over five years. The subje...

  13. Functional Modification of Thioether Groups in Peptides, Polypeptides, and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Timothy J

    2017-03-15

    Recent developments in the modification of methionine and other thioether-containing residues in peptides, polypeptides, and proteins are reviewed. Properties and potential applications of the resulting functionalized products are also discussed. While much of this work is focused on natural Met residues, modifications at other side-chain residues have also emerged as new thioether-containing amino acids have been incorporated into peptidic materials. Functional modification of thioether-containing amino acids has many advantages and is a complementary methodology to the widely utilized methods for modification at cysteine residues.

  14. PARTIAL RENAL FUNCTIONS AND FLUID-AND-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE IN EXPERIMENTAL FLUOROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Константиновна Ядыкина

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions. The experiment showed that the prolonged exposure to sodium fluoride on the body was accompanied by the development of chronic nephropathy against the persistent disorders of the fluid-and-electrolyte balance and irreversible degenerative-dystrophic changes in the renal parenchyma.

  15. Conditionally exponential convex functions on locally compact groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okb El-Bab, A.S.

    1992-09-01

    The main results of the thesis are: 1) The construction of a compact base for the convex cone of all conditionally exponential convex functions. 2) The determination of the extreme parts of this cone. Some supplementary lemmas are proved for this purpose. (author). 8 refs

  16. Balancing the Ecological Function of Residential Stormwater Ponds with Homeowner Landscaping Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Paul; Hu, Shangchun; Hansen, Gail; Ott, Emily; Nealis, Charles; Morera, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Stormwater ponds are installed in urban developments to provide the ecosystem services of flood control and water treatment. In coastal areas, these ponds are connected to watersheds that can drain directly into protected estuaries, making their design, function, and maintenance critical to environmental protection. However, stormwater ponds in residential areas are increasingly managed as aesthetic amenities that add value to real estate rather than as engineered devices with special maintenance requirements. To help extend the life of neighborhood stormwater systems and improve ecosystem services, homeowners should follow best management practices for nutrient management and add shoreline plantings and non-invasive, beneficial aquatic plants to their ponds. This study used focus group and survey research to document the knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes of homeowners living near stormwater ponds in a master-planned community in Florida. The study was designed to use a social marketing research approach to promote Extension best practices. Findings indicate that many residents were aware of the functional components of stormwater systems and respondents' receptivity to best management practices was mediated by age, their attitudes about water quality and whether their home was adjacent to a pond. These findings can be used to target Extension audiences and improve adoption of stormwater pond best management practices for increased protection of water quality.

  17. The effects of 16-week group exercise program on physical function and mental health of elderly Korean women in long-term assisted living facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kiwol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 16-week group exercise program on the physical function (ie, strength, flexibility, and balance) and mental health (ie, self-esteem and depression) of older elderlyl women (>or=75 years old) compared with younger elderly women (Self-esteem (using Rosenberg's Self-esteem Questionnaire) and depressive symptoms (using Yesavage's Geriatric Depression Scale) were assessed. Two-way analysis of variance was used to examine the differences between the 2 age groups. The intervention program was effective in improving body strength, flexibility, static balance, and self-esteem, regardless of age. Furthermore, older elders receiving the intervention program demonstrated greater improvement in self-esteem than younger elders did, although there were intervention effects in both age groups. Elderly women can realize benefits from a group exercise program that can improve their functional ability and self-esteem, both important to cardiovascular health.

  18. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  19. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D M

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  20. Transformations of functional groups attached to cyclopentadienyl or related ligands in group 4 metal complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinkas, Jiří; Lamač, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 296, JUL 2015 (2015), s. 45-90 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-08531S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Zirconium * Functionalized cyclopentadienyl ligands * Titanium Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 12.994, year: 2015

  1. Benchmark calculations of excess electrons in water cluster cavities: balancing the addition of atom-centered diffuse functions versus floating diffuse functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changzhe; Bu, Yuxiang

    2016-09-14

    Diffuse functions have been proved to be especially crucial for the accurate characterization of excess electrons which are usually bound weakly in intermolecular zones far away from the nuclei. To examine the effects of diffuse functions on the nature of the cavity-shaped excess electrons in water cluster surroundings, both the HOMO and LUMO distributions, vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and visible absorption spectra of two selected (H2O)24(-) isomers are investigated in the present work. Two main types of diffuse functions are considered in calculations including the Pople-style atom-centered diffuse functions and the ghost-atom-based floating diffuse functions. It is found that augmentation of atom-centered diffuse functions contributes to a better description of the HOMO (corresponding to the VDE convergence), in agreement with previous studies, but also leads to unreasonable diffuse characters of the LUMO with significant red-shifts in the visible spectra, which is against the conventional point of view that the more the diffuse functions, the better the results. The issue of designing extra floating functions for excess electrons has also been systematically discussed, which indicates that the floating diffuse functions are necessary not only for reducing the computational cost but also for improving both the HOMO and LUMO accuracy. Thus, the basis sets with a combination of partial atom-centered diffuse functions and floating diffuse functions are recommended for a reliable description of the weakly bound electrons. This work presents an efficient way for characterizing the electronic properties of weakly bound electrons accurately by balancing the addition of atom-centered diffuse functions and floating diffuse functions and also by balancing the computational cost and accuracy of the calculated results, and thus is very useful in the relevant calculations of various solvated electron systems and weakly bound anionic systems.

  2. Specific balance training included in an endurance-resistance exercise program improves postural balance in elderly patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Bechir; Mkacher, Wajdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Frih, Ameur; Ben Salah, Zohra; El May, Mezry; Hammami, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 months of specific balance training included in endurance-resistance program on postural balance in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Forty-nine male patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to an intervention group (balance training included in an endurance-resistance training, n = 26) or a control group (resistance-endurance training only, n = 23). Postural control was assessed using six clinical tests; Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti Mobility Test, Berg Balance Scale, Unipodal Stance test, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scale. All balance measures increased significantly after the period of rehabilitation training in the intervention group. Only the Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scores were improved in the control group. The ranges of change in these tests were greater in the balance training group. In HD patients, specific balance training included in a usual endurance-resistance training program improves static and dynamic balance better than endurance-resistance training only. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation using exercise in haemodialysis patients improved global mobility and functional abilities. Specific balance training included in usual endurance resistance training program could lead to improved static and dynamic balance.

  3. Group characters, symmetric functions, and the Hecke algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Goldschmidt, David M

    1993-01-01

    Directed at graduate students and mathematicians, this book covers an unusual set of interrelated topics, presenting a self-contained exposition of the algebra behind the Jones polynomial along with various excursions into related areas. The book is made up of lecture notes from a course taught by Goldschmidt at the University of California at Berkeley in 1989. The course was organized in three parts. Part I covers, among other things, Burnside's Theorem that groups of order p^aq^b are solvable, Frobenius' Theorem on the existence of Frobenius kernels, and Brauer's characterization of characters. Part II covers the classical character theory of the symmetric group and includes an algorithm for computing the character table of S^n ; a construction of the Specht modules; the "determinant form" for the irreducible characters; the hook-length formula of Frame, Robinson, and Thrall; and the Murnaghan-Nakayama formula. Part III covers the ordinary representation theory of the Hecke algebra, the construction of the ...

  4. Relationship of vestibular balancing function to executive function in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder%注意缺陷多动障碍儿童的前庭平衡功能与执行功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 程嘉; 丰雷; 王玉凤

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨不同前庭平衡功能状态的8~10岁注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)儿童的执行功能特点.方法:对符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版( DSM-Ⅳ)诊断标准的143名ADHD儿童,采用Stroop色字命名任务、Rey复杂图形记忆、连线测试、汉诺塔、言语流畅性任务、数字广度、心理推理能力任务测查执行功能.采用人体动静态姿势测试仪,选用感觉整合测试(SOT)评定平衡功能,以前庭感觉分的中位数为界,分为平衡功能好组(n=71)与平衡差组(n=72).结果:平衡功能好组的Stroop字义命名完成时间[(19.3±5.2) svs.(21.8±8.1)s]、色字命字完成时间[(24.8±8.0)svs.(28.8±11.9)s]均少于平衡功能差组(均P<0.05);平衡功能好组汉诺塔任务完成率高于(78.9% vs.63.9%)平衡功能差组,汉诺塔任务犯规次数[1(0,2)vs.1(1,3)]少于平衡功能差组(均P<0.05).在Rey复杂图形记忆、连线测试、数字广度、心理推理能力任务比较中,两组差异无统计学意义.结论:前庭平衡功能差的ADHD儿童,其执行功能的抑制、计划能力受损更明显.%Objective: To explore the characteristics of executive function of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children in S to 10 years with varying vestibular balancing status. Methods: Totally 143 children who were diagnosed as ADHD according to the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) were selected. They were assessed with the executive function including Stroop color-word test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, Trail Making Test, Tower of Hanoi task, verbal fluency test, Digital Span, theory of mind tests(deceptive container task and false-belief task), and balancing function using SMART EQUITEST Balance Master 8.0 with Sensory Organization Test (SOT). The subjects were divided into two groups according to their vestibular perception scores. The subject whose score was above the median was

  5. Efficacy of Nintendo Wii training on mechanical leg muscle function and postural balance in community-dwelling older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Martin G; Laessoe, Uffe; Hendriksen, Carsten; Nielsen, Ole Bruno Faurholt; Aagaard, Per

    2013-07-01

    Older adults show increased risk of falling and major risk factors include impaired lower extremity muscle strength and postural balance. However, the potential positive effect of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on muscle strength and postural balance in older adults is unknown. This randomized controlled trial examined postural balance and muscle strength in community-dwelling older adults (75±6 years) pre- and post-10 weeks of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training (WII, n = 28) or daily use of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer insoles (controls [CON], n = 30). Primary end points were maximal muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction) and center of pressure velocity moment during bilateral static stance. Intention-to-treat analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and baseline level showed that the WII group had higher maximal voluntary contraction strength (18%) than the control group at follow up (between-group difference = 269 N, 95% CI = 122; 416, and p = .001). In contrast, the center of pressure velocity moment did not differ (1%) between WII and CON at follow-up (between-group difference = 0.23 mm(2)/s, 95% CI = -4.1; 4.6, and p = .92). For secondary end points, pre-to-post changes favoring the WII group were evident in the rate of force development (p = .03), Timed Up and Go test (p = .01), short Falls Efficacy Scale-International (p = .03), and 30-second repeated Chair Stand Test (p = .01). Finally, participants rated the Wii training highly motivating at 5 and 10 weeks into the intervention. Biofeedback-based Wii training led to marked improvements in maximal leg muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction; rate of force development) and overall functional performance in community-dwelling older adults. Unexpectedly, static bilateral postural balance remained unaltered with Wii training. The high level of participant motivation suggests that biofeedback-based Wii exercise may ensure a high degree of compliance to home- and/or community

  6. Beam-energy dependence of charge balance functions from Au + Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, H. F.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S. R.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, Z. M.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, R. M.; Ma, Y. G.; Magdy, N.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solanki, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Q. H.; Yan, W.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    Balance functions have been measured in terms of relative pseudorapidity (Δ η ) for charged particle pairs at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider from Au + Au collisions at √{sNN}=7.7 GeV to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. These results are compared with balance functions measured at the CERN Large Hadron Collider from Pb + Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The width of the balance function decreases as the collisions become more central and as the beam energy is increased. In contrast, the widths of the balance functions calculated using shuffled events show little dependence on centrality or beam energy and are larger than the observed widths. Balance function widths calculated using events generated by UrQMD are wider than the measured widths in central collisions and show little centrality dependence. The measured widths of the balance functions in central collisions are consistent with the delayed hadronization of a deconfined quark gluon plasma (QGP). The narrowing of the balance function in central collisions at √{sNN}=7.7 GeV implies that a QGP is still being created at this relatively low energy.

  7. Duffy blood group antigens: structure, serological properties and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Łukasik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Duffy (Fy blood group antigens are located on seven-transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on erythrocytes and endothelial cells, which acts as atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR1 and malarial receptor. The biological role of the Duffy glycoprotein has not been explained yet. It is suggested that Duffy protein modulate the intensity of the inflammatory response. The Duffy blood group system consists of two major antigens, Fya and Fyb, encoded by two codominant alleles designated FY*A and FY*B which differ by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 125G>A of the FY gene that results in Gly42Asp amino acid change in the Fya and Fyb antigens, respectively. The presence of antigen Fya and/or Fyb on the erythrocytes determine three Duffy-positive phenotypes: Fy(a+b-, Fy(a-b+ and Fy(a+b+, identified in Caucasian population. The Duffy-negative phenotype Fy(a-b-, frequent in Africans, but very rare in Caucasians, is defined by the homozygous state of FY*B-33 alleles. The FY*B-33 allele is associated with a SNP -33T>C in the promoter region of the FY gene, which suppresses erythroid expression of this gene without affecting its expression in other tissues. The FY*X allele, found in Caucasians, is correlated with weak expression of Fyb antigen. Fyx antigen differs from the native Fyb by the Arg89Cys and Ala100Thr amino acid substitutions due to SNPs: 265C>T and 298G>A in FY*B allele. The frequency of the FY alleles shows marked geographic disparities, the FY*B-33 allele is predominant in Africans, the FY*B in Caucasians, while the FY*A allele is dominant in Asians and it is the most prevalent allele globally.

  8. Balancing Herbal Medicine and Functional Food for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases through Modulating Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ming; Wang, Yue-Fei; Fan, Guan-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Shuang-Yong; Zhu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella , while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut. Both herbal medicine and functional food interact with gut microbiome and alter the microbial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids (BAs) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are now correlated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In addition, trimethylamine (TMA)-N-oxide (TMAO) is recently linked to atherosclerosis (AS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Moreover, gut-organs axes may serve as the potential strategy for treating CMDs with the intervention of herbal medicine and functional food. In summary, a balance between herbal medicine and functional food rich in fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides plays a vital role in modulating gut microbiota (phylum Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella ) through SCFAs, BAs, LPS and TMAO signaling regarding CMDs. Targeting gut-organs axes may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for CMDs by herbal medicine and functional food in the future. This review aims to summarize the balance between herbal medicine and functional food utilized for the prevention and

  9. Balancing Herbal Medicine and Functional Food for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases through Modulating Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lyu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs, and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella, while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut. Both herbal medicine and functional food interact with gut microbiome and alter the microbial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, bile acids (BAs and lipopolysaccharides (LPS, which are now correlated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. In addition, trimethylamine (TMA-N-oxide (TMAO is recently linked to atherosclerosis (AS and cardiovascular disease (CVD risks. Moreover, gut-organs axes may serve as the potential strategy for treating CMDs with the intervention of herbal medicine and functional food. In summary, a balance between herbal medicine and functional food rich in fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides plays a vital role in modulating gut microbiota (phylum Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella through SCFAs, BAs, LPS and TMAO signaling regarding CMDs. Targeting gut-organs axes may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for CMDs by herbal medicine and functional food in the future. This review aims to summarize the balance between herbal medicine and functional food utilized for the prevention and

  10. Balancing Herbal Medicine and Functional Food for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases through Modulating Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ming; Wang, Yue-fei; Fan, Guan-wei; Wang, Xiao-ying; Xu, Shuang-yong; Zhu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella, while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut. Both herbal medicine and functional food interact with gut microbiome and alter the microbial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids (BAs) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are now correlated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In addition, trimethylamine (TMA)-N-oxide (TMAO) is recently linked to atherosclerosis (AS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Moreover, gut-organs axes may serve as the potential strategy for treating CMDs with the intervention of herbal medicine and functional food. In summary, a balance between herbal medicine and functional food rich in fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides plays a vital role in modulating gut microbiota (phylum Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella) through SCFAs, BAs, LPS and TMAO signaling regarding CMDs. Targeting gut-organs axes may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for CMDs by herbal medicine and functional food in the future. This review aims to summarize the balance between herbal medicine and functional food utilized for the prevention and treatment

  11. Group- and Individual-Level Responsiveness of the 3-Point Berg Balance Scale and 3-Point Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jing; Lin, Gong-Hong; Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Miau; Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2018-03-01

    To examine both group- and individual-level responsiveness of the 3-point Berg Balance Scale (BBS-3P) and 3-point Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS-3P) in patients with stroke, and to compare the responsiveness of both 3-point measures versus their original measures (Berg Balance Scale [BBS] and Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients [PASS]) and their short forms (short-form Berg Balance Scale [SFBBS] and short-form Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients [SFPASS]) and between the BBS-3P and PASS-3P. Data were retrieved from a previous study wherein 212 patients were assessed at 14 and 30 days after stroke with the BBS and PASS. Medical center. Patients (N=212) with first onset of stroke within 14 days before hospitalization. Not applicable. Group-level responsiveness was examined by the standardized response mean (SRM), and individual-level responsiveness was examined by the proportion of patients whose change scores exceeded the minimal detectable change of each measure. The responsiveness was compared using the bootstrap approach. The BBS-3P and PASS-3P had good group-level (SRM, .60 and SRM, .56, respectively) and individual-level (48.1% and 44.8% of the patients with significant improvement, respectively) responsiveness. Bootstrap analyses showed that the BBS-3P generally had superior responsiveness to the BBS and SFBBS, and the PASS-3P had similar responsiveness to the PASS and SFPASS. The BBS-3P and PASS-3P were equally responsive to both group and individual change. The responsiveness of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P was comparable or superior to those of the original and short-form measures. We recommend the BBS-3P and PASS-3P as responsive outcome measures of balance for individuals with stroke. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reactivity of the functional groups in functional polymers. Use of T-for-H exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Shinobu.

    1997-01-01

    In order to reveal the reactivity of several functional polymers, the following two experiments were carried out: observing the hydrogen-isotope exchange reaction (T-for-H exchange reaction) between one of T-labeled functional polymers and 0.500 mol·l -1 aniline dissolved in p-xylene, observing the degree of the T dispersed from the surface area of the polymer under the several conditions. Consequently, the following six matters have been quantitatively obtained. The T-for-H exchange reaction occurred between each T-labeled polymer and aniline, and is more predominant than other chemical reactions within the range of 50-90degC. The reactivity of the polymers are strongly affected by their matrix structures. The degree of the T dispersed from the surface area of each T-labeled polymer is hardly affected by humidity. The higher the temperature is, the larger is the degree of the T dispersed from the surface area. At the same temperature, the degree of the T dispersed from the surface area of each polymer is strongly affected by the physical form of the polymer even if the polymer has the same functional group as the others, and the T existing in the surface area of a T-labeled glassy polymer is less dispersed than that of a porous one. The degree of the T dispersed from the surface area of a T-labeled polymer is small when the degree of the polymerization of the polymer is high. (author)

  13. The messenger matters: Pollinator functional group influences mating system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jennifer J

    2017-08-01

    The incredible diversity of plant mating systems has fuelled research in evolutionary biology for over a century. Currently, there is broad concern about the impact of rapidly changing pollinator communities on plant populations. Very few studies, however, examine patterns and mechanisms associated with multiple paternity from cross-pollen loads. Often, foraging pollinators collect a mixed pollen load that may result in the deposition of pollen from different sires to receptive stigmas. Coincident deposition of self- and cross-pollen leads to interesting mating system dynamics and has been investigated in numerous species. But, mixed pollen loads often consist of a diversity of cross-pollen and result in multiple sires of seeds within a fruit. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Rhodes, Fant, and Skogen () examine how pollinator identity and spatial isolation influence multiple paternity within fruits of a self-incompatible evening primrose. The authors demonstrate that pollen pool diversity varies between two pollinator types, hawkmoths and diurnal solitary bees. Further, progeny from more isolated plants were less likely to have multiple sires regardless of the pollinator type. Moving forward, studies of mating system dynamics should consider the implications of multiple paternity and move beyond the self- and cross-pollination paradigm. Rhodes et al. () demonstrate the importance of understanding the roles that functionally diverse pollinators play in mating system dynamics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Tax balance in agribusiness as a type of special balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of continuous compounding of business processes inevitably leads to application of increasingly complex instruments for the purposes of financial reporting in agribusiness. In this system the existential place and role of individual elements that alter the existing and acquire new functions comes into question. Balancing implies a regulated and consistent system in which every change leads to the creation of new relations and changing already established relationships. In this regard, in this paper we will focus on the place and role of tax balance in the group of special balances in agribusiness, as a very significant group of accounting instruments. Displaying information for users and situations in which they are used, balances gain their place in this classification. For the purposes of applying financial instruments, referring primarily to balances in agribusiness, it is necessary to know the way of their classification according to their functions. From this aspect, tax balance in agribusiness is a specific report, both in terms of its formal and material structure, which gives it the basis to belong to ordinary as well as special types of balances in agribusiness.

  15. Narrowing of the balance function with centrality in Au+Au collisions at the square root of SNN = 130 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Allgower, C; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Caines, H; Calderónde la Barca Sánchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Corral, M M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Gushin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Yu I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Kollegger, T; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Magestro, D; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mitchell, J; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Rykov, V; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schüttauf, A; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Simon, F; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Thompson, M; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Vander Molen, A M; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, F; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N

    2003-05-02

    The balance function is a new observable based on the principle that charge is locally conserved when particles are pair produced. Balance functions have been measured for charged particle pairs and identified charged pion pairs in Au+Au collisions at the square root of SNN = 130 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider using STAR. Balance functions for peripheral collisions have widths consistent with model predictions based on a superposition of nucleon-nucleon scattering. Widths in central collisions are smaller, consistent with trends predicted by models incorporating late hadronization.

  16. NPY modulates PYY function in the regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Nguyen, A D; Lee, I-C J; Yulyaningsih, E; Riepler, S J; Stehrer, B; Enriquez, R F; Lin, S; Shi, Y-C; Baldock, P A; Sainsbury, A; Herzog, H

    2012-08-01

    Both the neuronal-derived neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) have been implicated in the regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. However, despite similar affinities for the same Y receptors, the co-ordinated actions of these two peptides in energy and glucose homeostasis remain largely unknown. To investigate the mechanisms and possible interactions between PYY with NPY in the regulation of these processes, we utilized NPY/PYY single and double mutant mouse models and examined parameters of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. PYY(-/-) mice exhibited increased fasting-induced food intake, enhanced fasting and oral glucose-induced serum insulin levels, and an impaired insulin tolerance, - changes not observed in NPY(-/-) mice. Interestingly, whereas PYY deficiency-induced impairment in insulin tolerance remained in NPY(-/-) PYY(-/-) mice, effects of PYY deficiency on fasting-induced food intake and serum insulin concentrations at baseline and after the oral glucose bolus were absent in NPY(-/-) PYY(-/-) mice, suggesting that NPY signalling may be required for PYY's action on insulin secretion and fasting-induced hyperphagia. Moreover, NPY(-/-) PYY(-/-) , but not NPY(-/-) or PYY(-/-) mice had significantly decreased daily food intake, indicating interactive control by NPY and PYY on spontaneous food intake. Furthermore, both NPY(-/-) and PYY(-/-) mice showed significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratio during the light phase, with no additive effects observed in NPY(-/-) PYY(-/-) mice, indicating that NPY and PYY may regulate oxidative fuel selection via partly shared mechanisms. Overall, physical activity and energy expenditure, however, are not significantly altered by NPY and PYY single or double deficiencies. These findings show significant and diverse interactions between NPY and PYY signalling in the regulation of different aspects of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF FOUR LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [NOAO, 950 Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J., E-mail: rosst@nmsu.edu, E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu, E-mail: bjat@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color–color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color–color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%–50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution.

  18. The effects of isolated ankle strengthening and functional balance training on strength, running mechanics, postural control and injury prevention in novice runners: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltich, Jennifer; Emery, Carolyn A; Stefanyshyn, Darren; Nigg, Benno M

    2014-12-04

    Risk factors have been proposed for running injuries including (a) reduced muscular strength, (b) excessive joint movements and (c) excessive joint moments in the frontal and transverse planes. To date, many running injury prevention programs have focused on a "top down" approach to strengthen the hip musculature in the attempt to reduce movements and moments at the hip, knee, and/or ankle joints. However, running mechanics did not change when hip muscle strength increased. It could be speculated that emphasis should be placed on increasing the strength of the ankle joint for a "ground up" approach. Strengthening of the large and small muscles crossing the ankle joint is assumed to change the force distribution for these muscles and to increase the use of smaller muscles. This would be associated with a reduction of joint and insertion forces, which could have a beneficial effect on injury prevention. However, training of the ankle joint as an injury prevention strategy has not been studied. Ankle strengthening techniques include isolated strengthening or movement-related strengthening such as functional balance training. There is little knowledge about the efficacy of such training programs on strength alteration, gait or injury reduction. Novice runners will be randomly assigned to one of three groups: an isolated ankle strengthening group (strength, n = 40), a functional balance training group (balance, n = 40) or an activity-matched control group (control, n = 40). Isokinetic strength will be measured using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer. Running kinematics and kinetics will be assessed using 3D motion analysis and a force platform. Postural control will be assessed by quantifying the magnitude and temporal structure of the center of pressure trace during single leg stance on a force platform. The change pre- and post-training in isokinetic strength, running mechanics, and postural control variables will be compared following the interventions

  19. A Novel Group-Fused Sparse Partial Correlation Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Functional Networks in Group Comparison Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoyun; Vaughan, David N; Connelly, Alan; Calamante, Fernando

    2018-05-01

    The conventional way to estimate functional networks is primarily based on Pearson correlation along with classic Fisher Z test. In general, networks are usually calculated at the individual-level and subsequently aggregated to obtain group-level networks. However, such estimated networks are inevitably affected by the inherent large inter-subject variability. A joint graphical model with Stability Selection (JGMSS) method was recently shown to effectively reduce inter-subject variability, mainly caused by confounding variations, by simultaneously estimating individual-level networks from a group. However, its benefits might be compromised when two groups are being compared, given that JGMSS is blinded to other groups when it is applied to estimate networks from a given group. We propose a novel method for robustly estimating networks from two groups by using group-fused multiple graphical-lasso combined with stability selection, named GMGLASS. Specifically, by simultaneously estimating similar within-group networks and between-group difference, it is possible to address inter-subject variability of estimated individual networks inherently related with existing methods such as Fisher Z test, and issues related to JGMSS ignoring between-group information in group comparisons. To evaluate the performance of GMGLASS in terms of a few key network metrics, as well as to compare with JGMSS and Fisher Z test, they are applied to both simulated and in vivo data. As a method aiming for group comparison studies, our study involves two groups for each case, i.e., normal control and patient groups; for in vivo data, we focus on a group of patients with right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  20. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Jonathan; Rynders, Corey A; Sutherlin, Mark; Patrie, James; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p 0.10). These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone.

  1. [Inhibitory proteins of neuritic regeneration in the extracellular matrix: structure, molecular interactions and their functions. Mechanisms of extracellular balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Javier; Uribe-Escamilla, Rebeca; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    After injury of the central nervous system (CNS) in higher vertebrates, neurons neither grow nor reconnect with their targets because their axons or dendrites cannot regenerate within the injured site. In the CNS, the signal from the environment regulating neurite regeneration is not exclusively generated by one molecular group. This signal is generated by the interaction of various types of molecules such as extracellular matrix proteins, soluble factors and surface membrane molecules; all these elements interact with one another generating the matrix's biological state: the extracellular balance. Proteins in the balanced extracellular matrix, support and promote cellular physiological states, including neuritic regeneration. We have reviewed three types of proteins of the extracellular matrix possessing an inhibitory effect and that are determinant of neuritic regeneration failure in the CNS: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycans and tenascin. We also review some of the mechanisms involved in the balance of extracellular proteins such as isomerization, epimerization, sulfation and glycosylation as well as the assemblage of the extracellular matrix, the interaction between the matrix and soluble factors and its proteolytic degradation. In the final section, we have presented some examples of the matrix's role in development and in tumor propagation.

  2. A Generalized Logistic Regression Procedure to Detect Differential Item Functioning among Multiple Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles; Beland, Sebastien; Gerard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of the logistic regression procedure to identify dichotomous differential item functioning (DIF) in the presence of more than two groups of respondents. Starting from the usual framework of a single focal group, we propose a general approach to estimate the item response functions in each group and to test for the presence…

  3. Functional groups grafted nonwoven fabrics for blood filtration-The effects of functional groups and wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Chao [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cao Ye [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China); Sun Kang, E-mail: ksun@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu Jiaxin; Wang Hong [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China)

    2011-01-15

    In this work, the effects of grafted functional groups and surface wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet were investigated by the method of blood filtration. The filter materials, poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabrics bearing different functional groups including hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), sulfonic acid group (SO{sub 3}H) and zwitterionic sulfobetaine group ({sup +}N((CH{sub 3}){sub 2})(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup Circled-Minus }) with controllable wettability were prepared by UV radiation grafting vinyl monomers with these functional groups. Our results emphasized that both surface functional groups and surface wettability had significant effects on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet. In the case of filter materials with the same wettability, leukocytes adhering to filter materials decreased in the order: the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group > the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H, while platelets adhering to filter materials decreased as the following order: the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group. As the wettability of filter materials increased, both leukocyte and platelet adhesion to filter materials declined, except that leukocyte adhesion to the surface bearing OH only remained unchanged.

  4. Customized Noise-Stimulation Intensity for Bipedal Stability and Unipedal Balance Deficits Associated With Functional Ankle Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Scott E.; Linens, Shelley W.; Wright, Cynthia J.; Arnold, Brent L.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Stochastic resonance stimulation (SRS) administered at an optimal intensity could maximize the effects of treatment on balance. Objective: To determine if a customized optimal SRS intensity is better than a traditional SRS protocol (applying the same percentage sensory threshold intensity for all participants) for improving double- and single-legged balance in participants with or without functional ankle instability (FAI). Design: Case-control study with an embedded crossover design. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve healthy participants (6 men, 6 women; age = 22 ± 2 years, height = 170 ± 7 cm, mass = 64 ± 10 kg) and 12 participants (6 men, 6 women; age = 23 ± 3 years, height = 174 ± 8 cm, mass = 69 ± 10 kg) with FAI. Intervention(s): The SRS optimal intensity level was determined by finding the intensity from 4 experimental intensities at the percentage sensory threshold (25% [SRS25], 50% [SRS50], 75% [SRS75], 90% [SRS90]) that produced the greatest improvement in resultant center-of-pressure velocity (R-COPV) over a control condition (SRS0) during double-legged balance. We examined double- and single-legged balance tests, comparing optimal SRS (SRSopt1) and SRS0 using a battery of center-of-pressure measures in the frontal and sagittal planes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral (M-L) center-of-pressure velocity (COPV) and center-of-pressure excursion (COPE), R-COPV, and 95th percentile center-of-pressure area ellipse (COPA-95). Results: Data were organized into bins that represented optimal (SRSopt1), second (SRSopt2), third (SRSopt3), and fourth (SRSopt4) improvement over SRS0. The SRSopt1 enhanced R-COPV (P ≤ .05) over SRS0 and other SRS conditions (SRS0 = 0.94 ± 0.32 cm/s, SRSopt1 = 0.80 ± 0.19 cm/s, SRSopt2 = 0.88 ± 0.24 cm/s, SRSopt3 = 0.94 ± 0.25 cm/s, SRSopt4 = 1.00 ± 0.28 cm/s). However, SRS did not improve R-COPV over SRS0 when data were categorized by sensory threshold

  5. Nutrient intake and balancing among female Colobus angolensis palliatus inhabiting structurally distinct forest areas: Effects of group, season, and reproductive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Noah T; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2018-06-08

    Understanding intraspecific behavioral and dietary variation is critical for assessing primate populations' abilities to persist in habitats characterized by increasing anthropogenic disturbances. While it is evident that some species exhibit considerable dietary flexibility (in terms of species-specific plant parts) in relation to habitat disturbance, it is unclear if primates are characterized by similar variation and flexibility regarding nutrient intake. This study examined the effects of group, season, and reproductive state on nutrient intake and balancing in adult female Colobus angolensis palliatus in the Diani Forest, Kenya. During July 2014 to December 2015, estimates of nutrient intake were recorded for eight females from three groups inhabiting structurally and ecologically distinct forest areas differing in tree species composition and density. There were differences in metabolizable energy (ME) and macronutrient intakes among groups, seasons, and reproductive states. Most notably, females inhabiting one of the more disturbed forest areas consumed less ME and macronutrients compared to females in the more intact forest area. Contrary to prediction, females in early lactation consumed significantly less ME and macronutrients compared to non-lactating and late lactation females. Despite differences in macronutrient intake, the relative contribution of macronutrients to ME were generally more conservative among groups, seasons, and reproductive states. Average daily intake ratios of non-protein energy to available protein ranged from approximately 3.5:1-4.3:1 among groups. These results indicate that female C. a. palliatus demonstrate a consistent nutrient balancing strategy despite significant intergroup differences in consumption of species-specific plant parts. Data from additional colobine species inhabiting different forest types are required to assess the extent to which nutrient balancing is constrained by phylogeny or is more flexible to local

  6. An investigation of the functional groups on the surface of activated carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARYTE DERVINYTE

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons were produced in the laboratory from wood using a 20-run Plackett–Burman experimental design for 19 factors. The obtained batches of activated carbon were analysed by potentiometric titration and FTIR spectroscopy to determine the surface functional groups. The results obtained by potentiometric titration displayed the distribution of individual acidity constants of those groups in the pK range. Considering this parameter, the surface functional groups were divided into carboxyl, lactone and phenol. The linear regression equations reflecting the influence of each operation used for the synthesis on the amount of these functional groups in the obtained activated carbons were generated. The FTIR spectra were used in parallel for the evaluation of the amount and the type of the surface functional groups. Relationships between the two data sets obtained by potentiometric titration and FTIR spectroscopy were evaluated by correlation analysis. It was established that the amount of surface functional groups determined by potentiometric titration positively correlates with the intensity of the peaks of hydrophilic functional groups in the FTIR spectra. At the same time, the negative correlation between potentiometrically determined amount of surface functional groups and the intensity of peaks of hydrophobic functional groups was observed. Most probably, these non-polar formations can take part in the interaction of carbon surface with H+/OH- ions and diminish the strength of existent functional groups.

  7. Functional Group of Spiders in Cultivated Landscape Dominated by Paddy Fields in West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN SUANA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of spiders in all colonized environments is limited by biotic and abiotic factors requiring adaptations with respect to, for example microhabitat choice and hunting behavior. These two factors were frequently used to group spiders into functional groups. In this study our objectives were to (i group of genera of spiders into functional group based on their microhabitat specificity, hunting behavior, and daily activity; and (ii compare the number and composition of functional group of spider at each habitat type and period of paddy growth. The study was conducted at a landscape dominated by paddy fields in Cianjur Watershed for a period of 9 months. Four different habitat types (paddy, vegetable, non-crop, and mixed garden, were sampled using five trapping techniques (pitfall traps, farmcop suction, sweep netting, yellow-pan traps, and sticky traps. The Unweighted Pair-Group Average and the Euclidean Distances were used to generate dendrogram of functional group of spider. We found 14 functional groups of spider at genus level. The number of functional group of spider at four habitat types was differing, but the composition was similar, because all habitats were closed to each other. Habitat structure diversity and disturbance level influenced the number of functional group of spider. Different architecture of vegetation and availability of differ prey during paddy growth, causing the composition of functional group of spider in each period of paddy growth was changed, although its number was unchanged.

  8. Development of a nutritionally balanced pizza as a functional meal designed to meet published dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; Jarlot, Amandine; Aidoo, Kofi E; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-11-01

    To develop a worked example of product reformulation of a very popular 'junk food' to meet nutritional guidelines for public health in a ready meal. Indicative survey of popular Margherita pizzas, followed by product reformulation, applying dietary guidelines to generate a single-item pizza meal containing 30 % daily amounts of energy and all nutrients. An iterative process was used; first to optimize nutrient balance by adjusting the proportions of bread base, tomato-based sauce and mozzarella topping, then adding ingredients to provide specific nutrients and consumer tasting. Urban areas of contrasting socio-economic status. Untrained unselected adults (n 49) and children (n 63), assessing pizza at tasting stations. Most commercial pizzas provide insufficient information to assess all nutrients and traditional Margherita pizza ingredients provide insufficient Fe, Zn, iodine, and vitamins C and B12. Energy content of the portions currently sold as standard range from 837 to 2351 kJ (200 to 562 kcal), and most exceed 30 % Guideline Daily Amounts for saturated fat and Na when a 2510 kJ (600 kcal) notional meal is considered. The 'nutritionally balanced pizza' provides the required energy for a single-item meal (2510 kJ/600 kcal), with all nutrients within recommended ranges: Na (473 mg, ∼45 % below recommended level), saturated fat (<11 % energy) and dietary fibre (13·7 g). Most adults (77 %) and children (81 %) rated it 'as good as' or 'better than' their usual choice. Nutritional guidelines to reduce chronic diseases can be applied to reformulate 'junk food' ready meals, to improve public health through a health-by-stealth approach without requiring change in eating habits.

  9. Does functional capacity, fall risk awareness and physical activity level predict falls in older adults in different age groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Rodacki, Andre Luiz Felix; Pereira, Gléber; Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce

    2018-04-11

    The aims of this study were to examine whether: i) functional capacity and physical activity level differ between fallers and non-fallers older adults, by controlling for fall risk awareness; ii) functional capacity, fall risk awareness and physical activity differ between fallers and non-fallers older adults, by controlling for age; iii) variables and which may predict falls in different age groups. 1826 older adults performed a series of functional tests and reported their fall episodes, fall risk awareness and physical activity level. The overall incidence of falls was high (40.2%), and falls risk awareness scores reduced with age. The older adults with greater falls risk awareness and non-fallers presented better scores in all functional tests and physical activity level (P age groups and differed between fallers and non-fallers, irrespective of age group (P age groups (odds ranging: 1.05-1.09). Handgrip strength and balance scores predicted falls until 79 years (OR = 1.04, 95%CI = 1.01-1.06). The physical activity level predicted falls up to 70 years (OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.06-1.12). Functional mobility was able to predict falls up to 80 years (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.01-1.08). Therefore, according to age, functional capacity, physical activity level and falls risk awareness can be a predictor of falls in older adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Group Analysis for Diesel-like Mixing-Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Daniel J.; McCormick, Robert L.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Fioroni, Gina; George, Anthe; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-12-30

    This report addresses the suitability of hydrocarbon and oxygenate functional groups for use as a diesel-like fuel blending component in an advanced, mixing-controlled, compression ignition combustion engine. The functional groups are chosen from those that could be derived from a biomass feedstock, and represent a full range of chemistries. This first systematic analysis of functional groups will be of value to all who are pursuing new bio-blendstocks for diesel-like fuels.

  11. Effects of Corrective Exercise for Thoracic Hyperkyphosis on Posture, Balance, and Well-Being in Older Women: A Double-Blind, Group-Matched Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Jeong; Hughes, Lynne C; Oh, Duck-Won; Kim, Suhn-Yeop

    2017-09-13

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a corrective exercise for thoracic hyperkyphosis on posture, balance, and well-being in Korean community-dwelling older women. Fifty women 65 years of age and older, recruited from 2 senior centers, participated in this study. Participants were assigned to either the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG) on the basis of convenience of location, and 22 in each were analyzed. Participants in the EG underwent a thoracic corrective exercise program 1 hour each session, twice per week for 8 weeks (a total of 16 sessions), which consisted of specific exercises to enhance breathing, thoracic mobility and stability, and awareness of thoracic alignment. The CG received education on the same thoracic corrective exercise program and a booklet of the exercises. Outcome measures included the extent of postural abnormality (angle of thoracic kyphosis, kyphosis index calculated both in relaxed- and best posture using flexicurve, the ratio of the kyphosis index calculated best posture/relaxed posture, craniovertebral angle, and tragus-to-wall distance), balance (Short Physical Performance Battery and limit of stability), and well-being (Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]). All data were collected by 6 blinded assessors at baseline, at 8 weeks after the completion of intervention, and at 16 weeks for follow-up. For participants of the EG, means of all parameters showed significant improvements over time (P posture, balance, and well-being in older women with thoracic hyperkyphosis. We recommend the use of the therapeutic strategies utilized in this study to enhance thoracic posture, balance, and well-being of older women with thoracic hyperkyphosis. Future research is needed to apply this exercise protocol on a larger and more diverse population.

  12. Balancing Exchange Mixing in Density-Functional Approximations for Iron Porphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Victoria E J; Boyd, Russell J; Johnson, Erin R

    2015-07-14

    Predicting the correct ground-state multiplicity for iron(II) porphyrin, a high-spin quintet, remains a significant challenge for electronic-structure methods, including commonly employed density functionals. An even greater challenge for these methods is correctly predicting favorable binding of O2 to iron(II) porphyrin, due to the open-shell singlet character of the adduct. In this work, the performance of a modest set of contemporary density-functional approximations is assessed and the results interpreted using Bader delocalization indices. It is found that inclusion of greater proportions of Hartree-Fock exchange, in hybrid or range-separated hybrid functionals, has opposing effects; it improves the ability of the functional to identify the ground state but is detrimental to predicting favorable dioxygen binding. Because of the uncomplementary nature of these properties, accurate prediction of both the relative spin-state energies and the O2 binding enthalpy eludes conventional density-functional approximations.

  13. Sex Education and Young People in Group Homes: Balancing Risks, Rights and Resilience in Sexual Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, Malin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from focus group interviews conducted in Swedish government group homes for young people with a history of psychosocial problems, substance misuse and criminal behaviour. Participants were asked to reflect on a newly developed sex education curriculum located within a harm-reduction paradigm prior to its…

  14. The balancing act of establishing a policy agenda : Conceptualizing and measuring drivers of issue prioritization within interest groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halpin, D.R.; Fraussen, B.; Nownes, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Interest groups are important intermediaries in Western democracies, with the potential to offer political linkage and form a bridge between the concerns of citizens and the agendas of political elites. While we know an increasing amount about the issue-based activity of groups, we only have a

  15. Fuel feeds function: Energy balance and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, A; Viergutz, T; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Schweigel-Röntgen, M

    2013-01-01

    A general phenomenon in peripartum mammals is the breakdown of (acquired) immunity. The incidence of parasite load, disease and inflammation often rise during the specific energetically demanding time of pregnancy and lactation. In this period, blood leukocytes display decreased DNA synthesis in response to mitogens in vitro. Leukocyte activation, the phase of the cell cycle preceding the DNA synthetic phase has hardly been investigated, but the few studies suggest that leukocyte activation may also be impaired by the limited energy/nutrient availability. Leukocyte activation is characterized by manifold processes, thus, we used the cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR) as a measure of ATP turnover to support all these processes. We hypothesized that the activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) - in terms of oxygen consumed over basal levels after in vitro stimulation - is altered by energy balance around parturition. We studied peripartum high-yielding dairy cows because they undergo substantial fluctuations in energy intake, energy output and body fat mass. We established a fluorescence-based test strategy allowing for long-term (≥24h) quantification of O(2)-consumption and studied the peripartum period from 5 weeks ante partum to 5 weeks postpartum. In addition, we determined cellular lactate production, DNA/RNA synthesis and cell size and zoo-technical parameters such as animal energy intake and milk yield were assessed, as well as selected plasma parameters, e.g. glucose concentration. The basal OCR of PBMC from pregnant, non-lactating cows (n=6, -5 weeks ante partum) was 1.19±0.15 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) and increased to maximum levels of 2.54±0.49 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC. The basal OCR did not change over the peripartum period. Whereas the activation indices, herein defined as the PHA-induced 24h-increase of OCR above baseline, amounted to 1.1±0.3, 4.2±0.3, 4.1±1.1, 2.1±0.3, and

  16. Comparison of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale to predict falls in community-dwelling adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Yong-Jin; Kim, Gyoung-Mo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the predictive properties of Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales, in a group of independently-functioning community dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-seven community-dwelling older adults (male=39, female=58) who were capable of walking independently on assessment were included in this study. A binary logistic regression analysis of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance S...

  17. A CRM domain protein functions dually in group I and group II intron splicing in land plant chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice

    2007-12-01

    The CRM domain is a recently recognized RNA binding domain found in three group II intron splicing factors in chloroplasts, in a bacterial protein that associates with ribosome precursors, and in a family of uncharacterized proteins in plants. To elucidate the functional repertoire of proteins with CRM domains, we studied CFM2 (for CRM Family Member 2), which harbors four CRM domains. RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that CFM2 in maize (Zea mays) chloroplasts is associated with the group I intron in pre-trnL-UAA and group II introns in the ndhA and ycf3 pre-mRNAs. T-DNA insertions in the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog condition a defective-seed phenotype (strong allele) or chlorophyll-deficient seedlings with impaired splicing of the trnL group I intron and the ndhA, ycf3-int1, and clpP-int2 group II introns (weak alleles). CFM2 and two previously described CRM proteins are bound simultaneously to the ndhA and ycf3-int1 introns and act in a nonredundant fashion to promote their splicing. With these findings, CRM domain proteins are implicated in the activities of three classes of catalytic RNA: group I introns, group II introns, and 23S rRNA.

  18. Health condition and physical function as predictors of adherence in long-term strength and balance training among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Lönnroos, Eija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Häkkinen, Arja

    2015-01-01

    Strength and balance training (SBT) has remarkable health benefits, but little is known regarding exercise adherence in older adults. We examined the adherence to strength and balance training and determinants of adherence among ≥75 year old adults. 182 community-dwelling individuals (aged 75-98 years, 71% female) began group-based SBT as part of a population-based Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for the Good Care of the Elderly study. Training was offered once a week for 2.3 years. Adherence was defined as the proportion of attended sessions relative to offered sessions. Participants were classified based on their adherence level into low (≤33.3%), moderate (33.4-66.5%) and high (≥66.6%) adherers. The mean length of training was 19 ± 9 months, and 68% continued participation for at least two years. The mean training adherence was 55 ± 29% for all participants and 18%, 53% and 82% for low, moderate and high adherers, respectively. High adherence was predicted by female sex; younger age; better cognition; independence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; higher knee extension strength; faster walking speed; and better performance on the Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go tests. Poorer self-perceived health and the use of a walking aid were related to low adherence. Long-term continuation of training is possible for older community-dwelling adults, although poorer health and functional limitations affect training adherence. Our findings have implications for tailoring interventions and support for older adults to optimize their exercise adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ankle-foot orthoses in stroke: Effects on functional balance, weight-bearing asymmetry and the contribution of each lower limb to balance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikamp-Simons, Corien Diana Maria; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, Herman; Geurts, Alexander C.H.; Buurke, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    Background Ankle-foot orthoses are often provided to improve walking in stroke patients, although the evidence of effects on walking and balance control is still inconsistent. This could be caused by a lack of insight into the influence of orthoses on the underlying impairments. These impairments

  20. Two functionally distinct NADP+-dependent ferredoxin oxidoreductases maintain the primary redox balance of Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diep M N; Schut, Gerrit J; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Monika; Poudel, Saroj; Lipscomb, Gina L; Adams, Leslie A; Dinsmore, Jessica T; Nixon, William J; Boyd, Eric S; Bothner, Brian; Peters, John W; Adams, Michael W W

    2017-09-01

    Electron bifurcation has recently gained acceptance as the third mechanism of energy conservation in which energy is conserved through the coupling of exergonic and endergonic reactions. A structure-based mechanism of bifurcation has been elucidated recently for the flavin-based enzyme NADH-dependent ferredoxin NADP + oxidoreductase I (NfnI) from the hyperthermophillic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. NfnI is thought to be involved in maintaining the cellular redox balance, producing NADPH for biosynthesis by recycling the two other primary redox carriers, NADH and ferredoxin. The P. furiosus genome encodes an NfnI paralog termed NfnII, and the two are differentially expressed, depending on the growth conditions. In this study, we show that deletion of the genes encoding either NfnI or NfnII affects the cellular concentrations of NAD(P)H and particularly NADPH. This results in a moderate to severe growth phenotype in deletion mutants, demonstrating a key role for each enzyme in maintaining redox homeostasis. Despite their similarity in primary sequence and cofactor content, crystallographic, kinetic, and mass spectrometry analyses reveal that there are fundamental structural differences between the two enzymes, and NfnII does not catalyze the NfnI bifurcating reaction. Instead, it exhibits non-bifurcating ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase-type activity. NfnII is therefore proposed to be a bifunctional enzyme and also to catalyze a bifurcating reaction, although its third substrate, in addition to ferredoxin and NADP(H), is as yet unknown. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. A generalized Wigner function for quantum systems with the SU(2) dynamical symmetry group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, A B; Romero, J L

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a Wigner-like quasidistribution function to describe quantum systems with the SU(2) dynamic symmetry group. This function is defined in a three-dimensional group manifold and can be used to represent the states defined in several SU(2) invariant subspaces. The explicit differential Moyal-like form of the star product is found and analyzed in the semiclassical limit

  2. Plant-soil feedbacks: role of plant functional group and plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortois, R.; Schröder-Georgi, T.; Weigelt, A.; van der Putten, W.H.; De Deyn, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF), plant trait and functional group concepts advanced our understanding of plant community dynamics, but how they are interlinked is poorly known. To test how plant functional groups (FGs: graminoids, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes) and plant traits relate to PSF, we grew

  3. The Notch Signaling Pathway Is Balancing Type 1 Innate Lymphoid Cell Immune Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Perchet

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Notch pathway is one of the canonical signaling pathways implicated in the development of various solid tumors. During carcinogenesis, the Notch pathway dysregulation induces tumor expression of Notch receptor ligands participating to escape the immune surveillance. The Notch pathway conditions both the development and the functional regulation of lymphoid subsets. Its importance on T cell subset polarization has been documented contrary to its action on innate lymphoid cells (ILC. We aim to analyze the effect of the Notch pathway on type 1 ILC polarization and functions after disruption of the RBPJk-dependent Notch signaling cascade. Indeed, type 1 ILC comprises conventional NK (cNK cells and type 1 helper innate lymphoid cells (ILC1 that share Notch-related functional characteristics such as the IFNg secretion downstream of T-bet expression. cNK cells have strong antitumor properties. However, data are controversial concerning ILC1 functions during carcinogenesis with models showing antitumoral capacities and others reporting ILC1 inability to control tumor growth. Using various mouse models of Notch signaling pathway depletion, we analyze the effects of its absence on type 1 ILC differentiation and cytotoxic functions. We also provide clues into its role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in tissues. We show that modulating the Notch pathway is not only acting on tumor-specific T cell activity but also on ILC immune subset functions. Hence, our study uncovers the intrinsic Notch signaling pathway in ILC1/cNK populations and their response in case of abnormal Notch ligand expression. This study help evaluating the possible side effects mediated by immune cells different from T cells, in case of multivalent forms of the Notch receptor ligand delta 1 treatments. In definitive, it should help determining the best novel combination of therapeutic strategies in case of solid tumors.

  4. Validity and reliability of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board to assess standing balance and sensory integration in highly functional older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglioni-Solano, Pietro; Aragón-Vargas, Luis F

    2014-06-01

    Standing balance is an important motor task. Postural instability associated with age typically arises from deterioration of peripheral sensory systems. The modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance and the Tandem test have been used to screen for balance. Timed tests present some limitations, whereas quantification of the motions of the center of pressure (CoP) with portable and inexpensive equipment may help to improve the sensitivity of these tests and give the possibility of widespread use. This study determines the validity and reliability of the Wii Balance Board (Wii BB) to quantify CoP motions during the mentioned tests. Thirty-seven older adults completed three repetitions of five balance conditions: eyes open, eyes closed, eyes open on a compliant surface, eyes closed on a compliant surface, and tandem stance, all performed on a force plate and a Wii BB simultaneously. Twenty participants repeated the trials for reliability purposes. CoP displacement was the main outcome measure. Regression analysis indicated that the Wii BB has excellent concurrent validity, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between devices with small mean differences and no relationship between the difference and the mean. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated modest-to-excellent test-retest reliability (ICC=0.64-0.85). Standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change were similar for both devices, except the 'eyes closed' condition, with greater standard error of measurement for the Wii BB. In conclusion, the Wii BB is shown to be a valid and reliable method to quantify CoP displacement in older adults.

  5. Fish functional groups in a tropical wetland of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Córdova-Tapia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The characterization of species' functional traits is a major step in the understanding and description of communities in natural habitats. The classification of species into functional groups is a useful tool to identify redundancy and uniqueness. We studied the fish community of a pristine freshwater wetland in the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve by analysing two multidimensional functions: food acquisition and locomotion. We investigated changes in the functional group structure between habitats (permanent and temporary pools and seasons (dry and wet. Six functional groups with different ecological characteristics were detected, two of which had high functional redundancy and three of them were represented by single species with unique ecological functions. In permanent pools during the dry season, functional group richness and diversity were lower, while evenness was higher. During the wet season, all functional groups were detected and similar functional group structure was found between habitats. These results suggest an effect of environmental filtering during the dry season and niche complementarity during the wet season.

  6. The chemical evolution of Kurnub Group paleowater in the Sinai-Negev province-a mass balance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, E.; Jones, B.F.; Weinberger, G.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical evolution of the Kurnub Group paleowater was studied starting from rainwater in recharge areas of the Sinai and along groundwater flowpaths leading to the natural outlets of this regional aquifer. This was achieved by investigating the chemical composition of groundwater, ionic ratios, degrees of saturation with common mineral species, normative analysis of dissolved salts and by modeling of rock/water interaction and mixing processes occurring along groundwater flow paths. The initial groundwater composition used is from the Nakhel well in Sinai. It evolves from desert rainwater percolating through typical Kurnub Group lithology in Sinai. This rainwater dissolves mainly gypsum, halite and dolomite together with smaller amounts of marine aerosol and K-feldspar. At the same time it precipitates calcite, SiO 2 , smectite and degasses CO 2 . Between the area of Nakhel and the northern Negev the chemistry of Kurnub Group waters is influenced by dissolution of halite and lesser amounts of gypsum of surficial origin in recharge areas, small amounts of feldspars and of dolomite cement in sandstones eroded from the Arabo-Nubian igneous massif of Sinai and organic degradation-derived CO 2 . Concomitantly, there is precipitation of calcite, smectite, SiO 2 and probably analcime characteristic of sediments in continental closed basins. North of the Negev, the Kurnub Group fluids are diluted and altered by mixing with Judea Group aquifer groundwaters. On the E there is mixing with residual brines from the water body ancestral to the Dead Sea, prior to discharge into the Arava valley. Rock/water interaction indicated by NETPATH and PHREEQC modeling is in agreement with lithology and facies changes previously observed in the Kurnub Group sequence. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Calculating the knowledge-based similarity of functional groups using crystallographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Paul; Willett, Peter; Gillet, Valerie J.; Verdonk, Marcel L.

    2001-09-01

    A knowledge-based method for calculating the similarity of functional groups is described and validated. The method is based on experimental information derived from small molecule crystal structures. These data are used in the form of scatterplots that show the likelihood of a non-bonded interaction being formed between functional group A (the `central group') and functional group B (the `contact group' or `probe'). The scatterplots are converted into three-dimensional maps that show the propensity of the probe at different positions around the central group. Here we describe how to calculate the similarity of a pair of central groups based on these maps. The similarity method is validated using bioisosteric functional group pairs identified in the Bioster database and Relibase. The Bioster database is a critical compilation of thousands of bioisosteric molecule pairs, including drugs, enzyme inhibitors and agrochemicals. Relibase is an object-oriented database containing structural data about protein-ligand interactions. The distributions of the similarities of the bioisosteric functional group pairs are compared with similarities for all the possible pairs in IsoStar, and are found to be significantly different. Enrichment factors are also calculated showing the similarity method is statistically significantly better than random in predicting bioisosteric functional group pairs.

  8. Effects of Wearable Sensor-Based Balance and Gait Training on Balance, Gait, and Functional Performance in Healthy and Patient Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordt, Katharina; Gerhardy, Thomas; Najafi, Bijan; Schwenk, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Wearable sensors (WS) can accurately measure body motion and provide interactive feedback for supporting motor learning. This review aims to summarize current evidence for the effectiveness of WS training for improving balance, gait and functional performance. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using a WS exercise program were included. Study quality was examined by the PEDro scale. Meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of WS balance training on the most frequently reported outcome parameters. Eight RCTs were included (Parkinson n = 2, stroke n = 1, Parkinson/stroke n = 1, peripheral neuropathy n = 2, frail older adults n = 1, healthy older adults n = 1). The sample size ranged from n = 20 to 40. Three types of training paradigms were used: (1) static steady-state balance training, (2) dynamic steady-state balance training, which includes gait training, and (3) proactive balance training. RCTs either used one type of training paradigm (type 2: n = 1, type 3: n = 3) or combined different types of training paradigms within their intervention (type 1 and 2: n = 2; all types: n = 2). The meta-analyses revealed significant overall effects of WS training on static steady-state balance outcomes including mediolateral (eyes open: Hedges' g = 0.82, CI: 0.43-1.21; eyes closed: g = 0.57, CI: 0.14-0.99) and anterior-posterior sway (eyes open: g = 0.55, CI: 0.01-1.10; eyes closed: g = 0.44, CI: 0.02-0.86). No effects on habitual gait speed were found in the meta-analysis (g = -0.19, CI: -0.68 to 0.29). Two RCTs reported significant improvements for selected gait variables including single support time, and fast gait speed. One study identified effects on proactive balance (Alternate Step Test), but no effects were found for the Timed Up and Go test and the Berg Balance Scale. Two studies reported positive results on feasibility and usability. Only one study was

  9. Balancing Multicultural Competence with Social Justice: Feminist Beliefs and Optimal Psychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Janice D.; Snell, Andrea F.; Tobias, Ann

    2012-01-01

    To identify a multivariate configuration of feminist beliefs best associated with optimal psychological functioning, 215 mostly White college women completed an online survey measuring their feminist beliefs (Feminist Perspectives Scale, Attitudes toward Feminism and the Women's Movement, sense of common fate, and Feminist Identity Composite) and…

  10. A semi-immersive virtual reality incremental swing balance task activates prefrontal cortex: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso Moro, Sara; Bisconti, Silvia; Muthalib, Makii; Spezialetti, Matteo; Cutini, Simone; Ferrari, Marco; Placidi, Giuseppe; Quaresima, Valentina

    2014-01-15

    Previous functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies indicated that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in the maintenance of the postural balance after external perturbations. So far, no studies have been conducted to investigate the PFC hemodynamic response to virtual reality (VR) tasks that could be adopted in the field of functional neurorehabilitation. The aim of this fNIRS study was to assess PFC oxygenation response during an incremental and a control swing balance task (ISBT and CSBT, respectively) in a semi-immersive VR environment driven by a depth-sensing camera. It was hypothesized that: i) the PFC would be bilaterally activated in response to the increase of the ISBT difficulty, as this cortical region is involved in the allocation of attentional resources to maintain postural control; and ii) the PFC activation would be greater in the right than in the left hemisphere considering its dominance for visual control of body balance. To verify these hypotheses, 16 healthy male subjects were requested to stand barefoot while watching a 3 dimensional virtual representation of themselves projected onto a screen. They were asked to maintain their equilibrium on a virtual blue swing board susceptible to external destabilizing perturbations (i.e., randomizing the forward-backward direction of the impressed pulse force) during a 3-min ISBT (performed at four levels of difficulty) or during a 3-min CSBT (performed constantly at the lowest level of difficulty of the ISBT). The center of mass (COM), at each frame, was calculated and projected on the floor. When the subjects were unable to maintain the COM over the board, this became red (error). After each error, the time required to bring back the COM on the board was calculated (returning time). An eight-channel continuous wave fNIRS system was employed for measuring oxygenation changes (oxygenated-hemoglobin, O2Hb; deoxygenated-hemoglobin, HHb) related to the PFC activation (Brodmann Areas 10, 11

  11. Biogeographical boundaries, functional group structure and diversity of Rocky Shore communities along the Argentinean coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie A Wieters

    Full Text Available We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate whether spatial variation in the biomass of functional groups, over geographic (10's km and local (10's m scales, could be associated to species diversity within and among these groups. Functional community structure expressed as abundance (density, cover and biomass and composition of major functional groups was quantified through field surveys at 20 rocky intertidal shores spanning six degrees of latitude along the southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina and extending across the boundaries between the Argentinean and Magellanic Provinces. Patterns of abundance of individual functional groups were not uniformly matched with biogeographical regions. Only ephemeral algae showed an abrupt geographical discontinuity coincident with changes in biogeographic boundaries, and this was limited to the mid intertidal zone. We identified 3-4 main 'groups' of sites in terms of the total and relative abundance of the major functional groups, but these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species richness within the functional group was significantly associated to increased total biomass and reduced spatial variability of the group. These results suggest that species belonging to the same functional group are sufficiently uncorrelated over space (i.e. metres and site-to-site to stabilize patterns of biomass variability and, in this manner, provide a buffer, or "insurance", against

  12. Design and development of a low-cost biphasic charge-balanced functional electric stimulator and its clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendkar, Chandrashekhar; Lenka, Prasanna K; Biswas, Abhishek; Kumar, Ratnesh; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha

    2015-10-01

    Functional electric stimulators that produce near-ideal, charge-balanced biphasic stimulation waveforms with interphase delay are considered safer and more efficacious than conventional stimulators. An indigenously designed, low-cost, portable FES device named InStim is developed. It features a charge-balanced biphasic single channel. The authors present the complete design, mathematical analysis of the circuit and the clinical evaluation of the device. The developed circuit was tested on stroke patients affected by foot drop problems. It was tested both under laboratory conditions and in clinical settings. The key building blocks of this circuit are low dropout regulators, a DC-DC voltage booster and a single high-power current source OP-Amp with current-limiting capabilities. This allows the device to deliver high-voltage, constant current, biphasic pulses without the use of a bulky step-up transformer. The advantages of the proposed design over the currently existing devices include improved safety features (zero DC current, current-limiting mechanism and safe pulses), waveform morphology that causes less muscle fatigue, cost-effectiveness and compact power-efficient circuit design with minimal components. The device is also capable of producing appropriate ankle dorsiflexion in patients having foot drop problems of various Medical Research Council scale grades.

  13. Estimation of an Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Using Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Balance Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). The goal of this project was to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection.

  14. Balanced translocation linked to psychiatric disorder, glutamate, and cortical structure/function

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Pippa A; Duff, Barbara; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Romaniuk, Liana; Watson, Andrew; Whalley, Heather C; Li, Xiang; Dauvermann, Maria R; Moorhead, T William J; Bois, Catherine; Ryan, Niamh M; Redpath, Holly; Hall, Lynsey; Morris, Stewart W; van Beek, Edwin J R

    2016-01-01

    Rare genetic variants of large effect can help elucidate the pathophysiology of brain disorders. Here we expand the clinical and genetic analyses of a family with a (1;11)(q42;q14.3) translocation multiply affected by major psychiatric illness and test the effect of the translocation on the structure and function of prefrontal, and temporal brain regions. The translocation showed significant linkage (LOD score 6.1) with a clinical phenotype that included schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorde...

  15. A balanced view of the cerebrospinal fluid composition and functions: Focus on adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Reynold; Robert Snodgrass, S; Johanson, Conrad E

    2015-11-01

    In this review, a companion piece to our recent examination of choroid plexus (CP), the organ that secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we focus on recent information in the context of reliable older data concerning the composition and functions of adult human CSF. To accomplish this, we define CSF, examine the methodology employed in studying the CSF focusing on ideal or near ideal experiments and discuss the pros and cons of several widely used analogical descriptions of the CSF including: the CSF as the "third circulation," the CSF as a "nourishing liquor," the similarities of the CSF/choroid plexus to the glomerular filtrate/kidney and finally the CSF circulation as part of the "glymphatic system." We also consider the close interrelationship between the CSF and extracellular space of brain through gap junctions and the paucity of data suggesting that the cerebral capillaries secrete a CSF-like fluid. Recently human CSF has been shown to be in dynamic flux with heart-beat, posture and especially respiration. Functionally, the CSF provides buoyancy, nourishment (e.g., vitamins) and endogenous waste product removal for the brain by bulk flow into the venous (arachnoid villi and nerve roots) and lymphatic (nasal) systems, and by carrier-mediated reabsorptive transport systems in CP. The CSF also presents many exogenous compounds to CP for metabolism or removal, indirectly cleansing the extracellular space of brain (e.g., of xenobiotics like penicillin). The CSF also carries hormones (e.g., leptin) from blood via CP or synthesized in CP (e.g., IGF-2) to the brain. In summary the CP/CSF, the third circulation, performs many functions comparable to the kidney including nourishing the brain and contributing to a stable internal milieu for the brain. These tasks are essential to normal adult brain functioning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Balancing the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction, Surface Energetics, and Stability of Metallic MoS2 Nanosheets via Covalent Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Eric E; Zhang, Hanyu; Schuman, Samuel A; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U; Bronstein, Noah D; Ferrere, Suzanne; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Miller, Elisa M

    2018-01-10

    We modify the fundamental electronic properties of metallic (1T phase) nanosheets of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) through covalent chemical functionalization, and thereby directly influence the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), surface energetics, and stability. Chemically exfoliated, metallic MoS 2 nanosheets are functionalized with organic phenyl rings containing electron donating or withdrawing groups. We find that MoS 2 functionalized with the most electron donating functional group (p-(CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NPh-MoS 2 ) is the most efficient catalyst for HER in this series, with initial activity that is slightly worse compared to the pristine metallic phase of MoS 2 . The p-(CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NPh-MoS 2 is more stable than unfunctionalized metallic MoS 2 and outperforms unfunctionalized metallic MoS 2 for continuous H 2 evolution within 10 min under the same conditions. With regards to the entire studied series, the overpotential and Tafel slope for catalytic HER are both directly correlated with the electron donating strength of the functional group. The results are consistent with a mechanism involving ground-state electron donation or withdrawal to/from the MoS 2 nanosheets, which modifies the electron transfer kinetics and catalytic activity of the MoS 2 nanosheet. The functional groups preserve the metallic nature of the MoS 2 nanosheets, inhibiting conversion to the thermodynamically stable semiconducting state (2H) when mildly annealed in a nitrogen atmosphere. We propose that the electron density and, therefore, reactivity of the MoS 2 nanosheets are controlled by the attached functional groups. Functionalizing nanosheets of MoS 2 and other transition metal dichalcogenides provides a synthetic chemical route for controlling the electronic properties and stability within the traditionally thermally unstable metallic state.

  17. The Effectiveness of Transactional Analysis Group-counseling on the Improvement of Couples’ Family Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorban Ali Yahyaee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Family functioning is among the most important factors ensuring the mental health of family members. Disorder or disturbance in family functioning would cause many psychological problems for family members. Current study intended to examine the effectiveness of transactional analysis group counseling on the improvement of couple's family functioning. Materials & Methods: The design of the study is as semi experimental research with pretest and posttest with follow up and control group. Statistical population consists all couples referring to the psychological and counseling centers of Rasht city in 2012. Samples were selected at first by available sampling method and after completing family assessment  device, and obtaining score for enter to research, were placement using random sampling method in two experimental and control groups (N = 8 couples per group. The experimental group participated in 12 sessions of group counseling based on transactional analysis and control group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using covariance analysis. Results: The results show that there are significant differences between the pre-test and post test scores of the experimental group. This difference is significant at the level of 0.05. Therefore it seems that transactional group therapy improved the dimensions of family functioning in couples. Conclusions: The results indicated that transactional analysis group counseling can improve the family functioning and use this approach to working with couples is recommended.

  18. Nest Digging by Leaf-Cutting Ants: Effect of Group Size and Functional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto da Silva Camargo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-cutting ant workers dig underground chambers, for housing their symbiotic fungus, interconnected by a vast quantity of tunnels whose function is to permit the entrance of food (leaves, gaseous exchanges, and movement of workers, offspring, and the queen. Digging is a task executed by a group of workers, but little is known about the group effect and group-constructed functional structures. Thus, we analyzed the structures formed by worker groups (5, 10, 20, and 40 individuals of the leaf-cutting ant, Atta sexdens rubropilosa, for 2 days of excavation. The digging arena was the same for the 4 groups, with each group corresponding to a different density. Our results verified a pattern of tunneling by the workers, but no chamber was constructed. The group effect is well known, since the 40-worker group dug significantly more than the groups of 5, 10, and 20. These groups did not differ statistically from each other. Analysis of load/worker verified that workers of the smallest group carried the greatest load. Our paper demonstrates the group effect on the digging of nests, namely, that excavation is proportional to group size, but without emergence of a functional structure such as a chamber.

  19. Getting the balance right between functional and non-functional requirements: the case of requirement specification in IT procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Johansson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IT procurement represents a business process of high importance, including the ability to articulate requirements that the procurement deals with. Furthermore, specifying requirements is of importance for both procurer and potential supplier, as it functions as central contractual element between the two. The purpose of this article is two-fold: (i to show how established terminology for requirement specification is represented in current call for bids for the procurement of IT; and (ii to introduce an organizing framework that may assist procurers in actively addressing functional requirements and business requirements. Ten “call for bids” were examined from a Swedish national procurement database. From the analysis of the bids, it can be concluded that: (i the call for bids displays a high degree of precision regarding hardware aspects, but less precision regarding software; (ii supplier experience and competence is stressed, but rarely elaborated on in detail; and (iii call for bids vagueness may be used as a lock-in opportunity for suppliers. From the discussion on this, a tentative procurement framework is suggested, aiming on increasing the logical transparency for the procurement of IT.

  20. Keeping the heart in balance: the functional interactions of myoglobin with nitrogen oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flögel, Ulrich; Fago, Angela; Rassaf, Tienush

    2010-01-01

    in the heart. By a dynamic cycle, in which a decrease in tissue O2 tension drives the conversion of Mb from being a NO scavenger under normoxia to a NO producer during hypoxia, mitochondrial respiration is reversibly adapted to the intracellular O2 tension. Therefore, Mb may act as an important O2 sensor...... through which NO can regulate muscle energetics and function. As Mb is widespread throughout the fauna, the diverse oxygen-dependent interactions between Mb and nitrogen oxides may not only be of relevance for mammals but also for other vertebrates as evidenced by comparable phenotypes of ‘artificial...

  1. Functional group quantification of polymer nanomembranes with soft x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Daniel F.; Chan, Edwin P.; Orski, Sara V.; Nieuwendaal, Ryan C.; Stafford, Christopher M.

    2018-03-01

    Polyamide nanomembranes are at the heart of water desalination, a process which plays a critical role in clean water production. Improving their efficiency requires a better understanding of the relationship between chemistry, network structure, and performance but few techniques afford compositional information in ultrathin films (reference materials to establish quantitative relationships between changes in the optical constants and functional group density, and then use the results to evaluate the functional group concentrations of polyamide nanomembranes. We demonstrate that the difference in the amide carbonyl and carboxylic acid group concentrations can be used to calculate the crosslink density, which is shown to vary significantly across three different polyamide chemistries. A clear relationship is established between the functional group density and the permselectivity (α ), indicating that more densely crosslinked materials result in a higher α of the nanomembranes. Finally, measurements on a polyamide/poly(acrylic acid) bilayer demonstrate the ability of this approach to quantify depth-dependent functional group concentrations in thin films.

  2. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong, E-mail: yj@seu.edu.cn [Southeast University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  3. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  4. Group Theory of Wannier Functions Providing the Basis for a Deeper Understanding of Magnetism and Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkehard Krüger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the group theory of optimally-localized and symmetry-adapted Wannier functions in a crystal of any given space group G or magnetic group M. Provided that the calculated band structure of the considered material is given and that the symmetry of the Bloch functions at all of the points of symmetry in the Brillouin zone is known, the paper details whether or not the Bloch functions of particular energy bands can be unitarily transformed into optimally-localized Wannier functions symmetry-adapted to the space group G, to the magnetic group M or to a subgroup of G or M. In this context, the paper considers usual, as well as spin-dependent Wannier functions, the latter representing the most general definition of Wannier functions. The presented group theory is a review of the theory published by one of the authors (Ekkehard Krüger in several former papers and is independent of any physical model of magnetism or superconductivity. However, it is suggested to interpret the special symmetry of the optimally-localized Wannier functions in the framework of a nonadiabatic extension of the Heisenberg model, the nonadiabatic Heisenberg model. On the basis of the symmetry of the Wannier functions, this model of strongly-correlated localized electrons makes clear predictions of whether or not the system can possess superconducting or magnetic eigenstates.

  5. Variation of phytoplankton functional groups modulated by hydraulic controls in Hongze Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Hao, Daping; Doblin, Martina A; Ren, Ying; Wei, Jielin; Feng, Yawei

    2015-11-01

    Hongze Lake is a large, shallow, polymictic, eutrophic lake in the eastern China. Phytoplankton functional groups in this lake were investigated from March 2011 to February 2013, and a comparison was made between the eastern, western, and northern regions. The lake shows strong fluctuations in water level caused by monsoon rains and regular hydraulic controls. By application of the phytoplankton functional group approach, this study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics and analyze their influencing factors. Altogether, 18 functional groups of phytoplankton were identified, encompassing 187 species. In order to seek the best variable describing the phytoplankton functional group distribution, 14 of the groups were analyzed in detail using redundancy analysis. Due to the turbid condition of the lake, the dominant functional groups were those tolerant of low light. The predominant functional groups in the annual succession were D (Cyclotella spp. and Synedra acus), T (Planctonema lauterbornii), P (Fragilaria crotonensis), X1 (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa), C (Cyclotella meneghiniana and Cyclotella ocellata), and Y (Cryptomonas erosa). An opposite relationship between water level and the biomass of predominant groups was observed in the present study. Water level fluctuations, caused by monsoonal climate and artificial drawdown, were significant factors influencing phytoplankton succession in Hongze Lake, since they alter the hydrological conditions and influence light and nutrient availability. The clearly demonstrated factors, which significantly influence phytoplankton dynamics in Hongze Lake, will help government manage the large shallow lakes with frequent water level fluctuations.

  6. Functional group diversity is key to Southern Ocean benthic carbon pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K A Barnes

    Full Text Available High latitude benthos are globally important in terms of accumulation and storage of ocean carbon, and the feedback this is likely to have on regional warming. Understanding this ecosystem service is important but difficult because of complex taxonomic diversity, history and geography of benthic biomass. Using South Georgia as a model location (where the history and geography of benthic biology is relatively well studied we investigated whether the composition of functional groups were critical to benthic accumulation, immobilization and burial pathway to sequestration-and also aid their study through simplification of identification. We reclassified [1], [2] morphotype and carbon mass data to 13 functional groups, for each sample of 32 sites around the South Georgia continental shelf. We investigated the influence on carbon accumulation, immobilization and sequestration estimate by multiple factors including the compositions of functional groups. Functional groups showed high diversity within and between sites, and within and between habitat types. Carbon storage was not linked to a functional group in particular but accumulation and immobilization increased with the number of functional groups present and the presence of hard substrata. Functional groups were also important to carbon burial rate, which increased with the presence of mixed (hard and soft substrata. Functional groups showed high surrogacy for taxonomic composition and were useful for examining contrasting habitat categorization. Functional groups not only aid marine carbon storage investigation by reducing time and the need for team size and speciality, but also important to benthic carbon pathways per se. There is a distinct geography to seabed carbon storage; seabed boulder-fields are hotspots of carbon accumulation and immobilization, whilst the interface between such boulder-fields and sediments are key places for burial and sequestration.

  7. Functional outcomes of inpatient rehabilitation in very elderly patients with stroke: differences across three age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutai, Hitoshi; Furukawa, Tomomi; Wakabayashi, Ayumi; Suzuki, Akihito; Hanihara, Tokiji

    2018-05-01

    Background As the population continues to age rapidly, clarifying the factors affecting the prognosis in very elderly stroke patients is essential to enhance the quality of their rehabilitation. Objectives To compare the functional recovery of elderly stroke patients classified into three age groups and to identify the predictors of functional recovery in the very elderly following acute inpatient rehabilitation. Methods Observational study: We collected data on 461 stroke patients in the neurology and neurosurgery ward and classified them into three age groups (65-74, 75-84, and ≥ 85 years). Functional recovery was compared among groups using the functional independence measure (FIM) at discharge and ADL recovery rate was compared using the Montebello rehabilitation factor score (MRFS). Multiple regression analysis was used to identify and compare the factors associated with functional recovery in each age group. Results Functional recovery in the ≥ 85 years group was lower than that in other age groups. Factors associated with activities of daily living (ADL) status (FIM at discharge) in the ≥ 85 years group were premorbid dependence (β = -0.183, p = 0.011), motor paralysis (β = -0.238, p = 0.001), and cognitive function (β = 0.586, p age increased. Factors associated with ADL recovery rates (MRFS) in the ≥ 85 years group were non-paretic limb function (β = -0.294, p = 0.004) and cognitive function (β = 0.201, p = 0.047). Conclusions This study identified the factors associated with functional recovery among very elderly stroke patients. Effective forms of rehabilitation for very elderly stroke patients that take these factors into consideration need to be investigated.

  8. Relationship between vitamin D and lung function, physical performance and balance on patients with stage I-III chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Yumrutepe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objectives: vitamin D is important for muscle function and it affects different aspects of muscle metabolism. This study aim to determine whether serum 25(OH D levels are related to lung functions, physical performance and balance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods: in 90 patients with COPD and 57 healthy controls lung function tests, physical performance tests (time up and go, gait velocity test, sit-to-stand test, isometric strength, isokinetic strength, static (functional reach test and dynamic (time up and go balance tests and the association of 25(OHD levels with lung functions, physical performance and balance were evaluated. Results: the COPD patients had significantly more deficit in physical function and balance parameters, and in dynamic balance test (p<0.005. Isokinetic knee muscle strength (flexor and extensor in COPD patients was significantly lower than in the controls (p<0.05; FEV1 (p=0.008, FVC (p=0.02, FEV1/FVC (p=0.04, TLC (p=0.01 were lower in COPD patients with vitamin D deficiency [25(OH D less than 15ng/mL] than in COPD patients without vitamin D deficiency. Hand grip test (p=0.000 and isokinetic knee muscle strength (flexor and extensor (p<0.05 were also lower in COPD patients with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was more pronounced in patients with stage III COPD (p<0.05. Conclusion: patients with COPD had worst physical functioning, poor balance and less muscle strength. Severe disturbed lung and peripheral muscle functions are more pronounced in COPD patients with vitamin D deficiency.

  9. The Functioning of Ombudsman (Public Protector in South Africa: Redress and Checks and Balances?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses MONTESH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fi rst South African Ombudsman appointed in 1979 in terms of the Advocate-General Act 118 of 1979, as amended by Advocate-General Amendment Act 55 of 1983, was known as the Advocate-General. The need for this of fi ce was apparent after the facts about the Information Scandal had come to light. The of fi ce of the Advocate-General could be compared to that of the Special Prosecutor of the United States, which was also instituted in similar fashion in the wake of the Watergate scandal. The primary reason for the creation of the of fi ce of the Advocate-General was to maintain honest public administration and orderly government. This of fi ce was replaced by the Ombudsman in 1983 after amending the Advocate General Act by the Ombudsman Act of 1983. Then in 1994 the Constitution Act 108 of 1996 repealed the Interim Constitution Act 200 of 1993 and paved the way for the promulgation of the Public Protector Act 23 of 1994 which made provision for the establishment of the of fi ce and the governing principles of the Public Protector. In view of the above brief explanation, this article seeks to unravel evolution of the Ombudsman in South Africa, the challenges affecting the functioning of the Public Protector including the “independence” of the of fi ce as well as the duplication of functions with other agencies. One case study will be used, namely, the controversial “Arms Deal Joint Investigation” as well a comparative study will be done with the Parliamentary Ombudsman of Sweden.

  10. Unique determination of the effective potential in terms of renormalization group functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chishtie, F. A.; Hanif, T.; McKeon, D. G. C.; Steele, T. G.

    2008-01-01

    The perturbative effective potential V in the massless λφ 4 model with a global O(N) symmetry is uniquely determined to all orders by the renormalization group functions alone when the Coleman-Weinberg renormalization condition (d 4 V/dφ 4 )| φ=μ =λ is used, where μ represents the renormalization scale. Systematic methods are developed to express the n-loop effective potential in the Coleman-Weinberg scheme in terms of the known n-loop minimal-subtraction (MS) renormalization group functions. Moreover, it also proves possible to sum the leading- and subsequent-to-leading-logarithm contributions to V. An essential element of this analysis is a conversion of the renormalization group functions in the Coleman-Weinberg scheme to the renormalization group functions in the MS scheme. As an example, the explicit five-loop effective potential is obtained from the known five-loop MS renormalization group functions and we explicitly sum the leading-logarithm, next-to-leading-logarithm, and further subleading-logarithm contributions to V. Extensions of these results to massless scalar QED are also presented. Because massless scalar QED has two couplings, conversion of the renormalization group functions from the MS scheme to the Coleman-Weinberg scheme requires the use of multiscale renormalization group methods.

  11. Balanceamento e rebalanceamento de linhas de montagem operadas por grupos de trabalho autogerenciados Balancing and rebalancing of assembly lines operated by self-managed work groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio César F. Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa detalhadamente o problema de balanceamento / rebalanceamento das linhas de montagem operadas por grupos de trabalho autogerenciados propondo um modelo otimizante de programação inteira que é tratado computacionalmente com êxito por meio da linguagem de modelagem GAMS ("General Algebraic Modeling System" e solver Zoom. Não encontramos na literatura trabalhos que tenham modelado matematicamente, de forma exata ou heurística, tal problema. Para se estimar a eficiência futura da linha, um dos dados que o modelo necessita, propomos o uso de dois métodos utilizados em outras áreas (curva de aprendizagem e previsão de demanda. Mostra-se a diferença entre problema de balanceamento e de rebalanceamento bem como é feita uma revisão bibliográfica complementar a respeito do problema de balanceamento de linhas. Ela complementa a última revisão dos métodos exatos que é de 1986 e a última dos métodos heurísticos que é de 1998.This paper analyses in details the balancing and rebalancing problem of assembly lines operated by self-managed work groups. It proposes an optimizing integer programming model that is treated computationally with success by means of the modeling language GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System and solver ZOOM. We have not found other works that have presented a heuristic or exact mathematical model for such a problem. For estimating the future line efficiency, one of the parameters that the model requires, we propose the use of two methods used in other areas (learning curve and demand forecasting. Differences between balancing and rebalancing problems are shown and also a complementary bibliographical review about line balancing is accomplished. It complements the last review of exact methods dated on 1986 and the last review of heuristic methods dated on 1998.

  12. Comparison of two balance training programs on balance in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Walia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired balance has been associated with an increased risk for falls and a resulting increase in the mortality rate of elder people. Thus, balance-training interventions have an important place in fall prevention. This study was designed with the purpose of identifying the appropriate balance-training program for community dwelling elderly adults with an active lifestyle. A sample of 70 elderly adults were randomly allocated into two groups: group 1 (n=35 received general balance and mobility exercise; group 2 (n=35 received specific balance strategy training. The intervention consisted of 5 sessions/week for 4 weeks. The outcome measures were Timed up and go test (TUGT and Berg balance scale (BBS. An inter-group (2-way mixed model analysis of co-variance and intra-group (repeated measures analysis was done to find the change in balance scores. After the intervention, the TUGT scores in group 1 were, mean=10.38 s, standard deviation (SD=1.59 s and in group 2 were, mean=9.27 s, SD=1.13 s. Post training, BBS scores for group 1 were, mean=54.69, SD=1.13, and for group 2 were, mean=55.57, SD =0.56. There was a significant group × time effect for TUGT and BBS score. All the subjects showed significant changes in balance scores after balance training interventions. The subjects who participated in the specific balance-strategy training significantly improved their functional mobility, as shown on the TUGT, compared to the general training group.

  13. Stoichiometric balance of protein copy numbers is measurable and functionally significant in a protein-protein interaction network for yeast endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, David O; Johnson, Margaret E

    2018-03-01

    Stoichiometric balance, or dosage balance, implies that proteins that are subunits of obligate complexes (e.g. the ribosome) should have copy numbers expressed to match their stoichiometry in that complex. Establishing balance (or imbalance) is an important tool for inferring subunit function and assembly bottlenecks. We show here that these correlations in protein copy numbers can extend beyond complex subunits to larger protein-protein interactions networks (PPIN) involving a range of reversible binding interactions. We develop a simple method for quantifying balance in any interface-resolved PPINs based on network structure and experimentally observed protein copy numbers. By analyzing such a network for the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) system in yeast, we found that the real protein copy numbers were significantly more balanced in relation to their binding partners compared to randomly sampled sets of yeast copy numbers. The observed balance is not perfect, highlighting both under and overexpressed proteins. We evaluate the potential cost and benefits of imbalance using two criteria. First, a potential cost to imbalance is that 'leftover' proteins without remaining functional partners are free to misinteract. We systematically quantify how this misinteraction cost is most dangerous for strong-binding protein interactions and for network topologies observed in biological PPINs. Second, a more direct consequence of imbalance is that the formation of specific functional complexes depends on relative copy numbers. We therefore construct simple kinetic models of two sub-networks in the CME network to assess multi-protein assembly of the ARP2/3 complex and a minimal, nine-protein clathrin-coated vesicle forming module. We find that the observed, imperfectly balanced copy numbers are less effective than balanced copy numbers in producing fast and complete multi-protein assemblies. However, we speculate that strategic imbalance in the vesicle forming module

  14. Group-ICA model order highlights patterns of functional brain connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed eAbou Elseoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state networks (RSNs can be reliably and reproducibly detected using independent component analysis (ICA at both individual subject and group levels. Altering ICA dimensionality (model order estimation can have a significant impact on the spatial characteristics of the RSNs as well as their parcellation into sub-networks. Recent evidence from several neuroimaging studies suggests that the human brain has a modular hierarchical organization which resembles the hierarchy depicted by different ICA model orders. We hypothesized that functional connectivity between-group differences measured with ICA might be affected by model order selection. We investigated differences in functional connectivity using so-called dual-regression as a function of ICA model order in a group of unmedicated seasonal affective disorder (SAD patients compared to normal healthy controls. The results showed that the detected disease-related differences in functional connectivity alter as a function of ICA model order. The volume of between-group differences altered significantly as a function of ICA model order reaching maximum at model order 70 (which seems to be an optimal point that conveys the largest between-group difference then stabilized afterwards. Our results show that fine-grained RSNs enable better detection of detailed disease-related functional connectivity changes. However, high model orders show an increased risk of false positives that needs to be overcome. Our findings suggest that multilevel ICA exploration of functional connectivity enables optimization of sensitivity to brain disorders.

  15. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, W.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references

  16. Species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five agroforestry classes in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.C.; Peña-Álvarez, B.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.L.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five classes of agroforestry systems: agroforests, animal agroforestry, linear agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, and crops under tree cover in Tabasco, Mexico. Sampling sites were >2 km from natural forest fragments.

  17. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1977-11-08

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references.

  18. Effects of group exercise on functional abilities: Differences between physically active and physically inactive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokorilo, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Satara, Goran; Cvetkovic, Milan; Marinkovic, Dragan; Zvekic-Svorcan, Jelena; Obradovic, Borislav

    2018-03-30

    Aerobic exercises to music can have a positive effect on functional and motor skills of an exerciser, their health, as well as an aesthetic and socio-psychological component. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reactive exercising in a group on functional capabilities in physically active and physically inactive women. A prospective study included 64 healthy women aged 40-60 years. The sample was divided into the experimental group (n= 36), i.e. physically active women who have been engaged in recreational group exercises at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, and the control group (n= 28), which consisted of physically inactive women. All the participants were monitored using the same protocol before and after the implementation of the research. All women had their height, weight, body mass index measured as well as spiroergometric parameters determined according to the Bruce protocol. A univariate analysis of variance has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in maximum speed, the total duration of the test, relative oxygen consumption, absolute oxygen consumption and ventilation during the final measurement. After the training intervention, the experimental group showed improvements in all the parameters analyzed compared with pretest values. The recreational group exercise model significantly improves aerobic capacity and functioning of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is essential for women to be involved more in any form of recreational group exercising in order to improve functional capacity and health.

  19. Evaluation of group A1B erythrocytes converted to type as group O: studies of markers of function and compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Zhuo, Hai-Long; Zhang, Xue; Ji, Shou-Ping; Tan, Ying-Xia; Li, Su-Bo; Jia, Yan-Jun; Xu, Hua; Wu, Qing-Fa; Yun, Zhi-Min; Luo, Qun; Gong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Enzymatic conversion of blood group A1B red blood cells (RBC) to group O RBC (ECO) was achieved by combined treatment with α-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and safety of these A1B-ECO RBC in vitro. Materials and methods A 20% packed volume of A1B RBC was treated with enzymes in 250 mM glycine buffer, pH 6.8. The efficiency of the conversion of A and B antigen was evaluated by traditional typing in test tubes, gel column agglutination technology and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. The physiological and metabolic parameters of native and ECO RBC were compared, including osmotic fragility, erythrocyte deformation index, levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ATP, methaemoglobin, free Na+, and free K+. The morphology of native and ECO RBC was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Residual α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in A1B-ECO RBC was detected by double-antibody sandwich ELISA method. Manual cross-matching was applied to ensure blood compatibility. Results The RBC agglutination tests and FACS results showed that A1B RBC were efficiently converted to O RBC. Functional analysis suggested that the conversion process had little impact on the physiological and metabolic parameters of the RBC. The residual amounts of either α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in the A1B-ECO RBC were less than 10 ng/mL of packed RBC. About 18% of group B and 55% of group O sera reacted with the A1B-ECO RBC in a sensitive gel column cross-matching test. Discussion The conversion process does not appear to affect the morphological, physiological or metabolic parameters of A1B-ECO RBC. However, the A1B-ECO RBC still reacted with some antigens. More research on group O and B sera, which may partly reflect the complexity of group A1 the safety of A1B-ECO RBC is necessary before the application of these RBC in clinical transfusion. PMID:26509826

  20. A standard description and costing methodology for the balance-of-plant items of a solar thermal electric power plant. Report of a multi-institutional working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Standard descriptions for solar thermal power plants are established and uniform costing methodologies for nondevelopmental balance of plant (BOP) items are developed. The descriptions and methodologies developed are applicable to the major systems. These systems include the central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough, hemispherical bowl, and solar pond. The standard plant is defined in terms of four categories comprising (1) solar energy collection, (2) power conversion, (3) energy storage, and (4) balance of plant. Each of these categories is described in terms of the type and function of components and/or subsystems within the category. A detailed description is given for the BOP category. BOP contains a number of nondevelopmental items that are common to all solar thermal systems. A standard methodology for determining the costs of these nondevelopmental BOP items is given. The methodology is presented in the form of cost equations involving cost factors such as unit costs. A set of baseline values for the normalized cost factors is also given.

  1. The visibility function and its effect on the observed characteristics of sunspot groups. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, M.; Kuklin, G.V.; Starkova, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper is an introductory study to a series dealing with the visibility function, the function of foreshortening of sunspot group areas, and with the effect of these functions on the results of the statistical processing of observations, which has to be taken into account in interpreting the results. A ''diagram of observational conditions'' is described, which enables a number of statistical problems of sunspot groups on the rotating Sun to be solved by computer modelling or by graphical methods. Examples are given of the use of this diagram in studying the distribution of the observed lifetime of sunspot groups with a given actual lifetime, of the decrease in the number of sunspot groups towards the limb of the solar disc, of the east-west asymmetry of sunspot group appearance and disappearance. (author)

  2. Quantitative determination of acidic groups in functionalized graphene by direct titration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ederer, J.; Janoš, P.; Ecorchard, Petra; Štengl, Václav; Bělčická, Zuzana; Šťastný, Martin; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Dohnal, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 103, JUN (2016), s. 44-53 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Acid-base titration * Carboxylic functional groups * Graphene oxide * Phenolic functional groups * Proton-binding model Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry ; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2016

  3. On the possibility of localizing of electron group functions using the notion of antisymmetrical orthogonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchin, V.E.; Zapol, B.P.

    1990-11-01

    The authors try to solve the following problems: provided that variation freedom is not restricted and intragroup correlation is taken into account in a given approximation, is it possible to develop for group functions any analogue of the well known (in the case of orbitals) Adams-Gilbert-Kunz method that could give one a possibility to go from delocalized group functions to localized ones seeking for minimization of the intergroup correlation? 20 refs, 1 tab

  4. Linking Keystone Species and Functional Groups: A New Operational Definition of the Keystone Species Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Davic

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups ...

  5. Neural substrates underlying balanced time perspective: A combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yiqun; Chen, Zhiyi; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-08-14

    Balanced time perspective (BTP), which is defined as a mental ability to switch flexibly among different time perspectives Zimbardo and Boyd (1999), has been suggested to be a central component of positive psychology Boniwell and Zimbardo (2004). BTP reflects individual's cognitive flexibility towards different time frames, which leads to many positive outcomes, including positive mood, subjective wellbeing, emotional intelligence, fluid intelligence, and executive control. However, the neural basis of BTP is still unclear. To address this question, we quantified individual's deviation from the BTP (DBTP), and investigated the neural substrates of DBTP using both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) methods VBM analysis found that DBTP scores were positively correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) in the ventral precuneus. We further found that DBTP scores were negatively associated with RSFCs between the ventral precuneus seed region and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), parahippocampa gyrus (PHG), and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). These brain regions found in both VBM and RSFC analyses are commonly considered as core nodes of the default mode network (DMN) that is known to be involved in many functions, including episodic and autobiographical memory, self-related processing, theory of mind, and imagining the future. These functions of the DMN are also essential to individuals with BTP. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural and functional neural basis of BTP, and highlight the crucial role of the DMN in cultivating an individual's BTP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Restoration using Azolla imbricata increases nitrogen functional bacterial groups and genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Yang, Ke

    2017-05-01

    Microbial groups are major factors that influence soil function. Currently, there is a lack of studies on microbial functional groups. Although soil microorganisms play an important role in the nitrogen cycle, systematic studies of the effects of environmental factors on microbial populations in relation to key metabolic processes in the nitrogen cycle are seldom reported. In this study, we conducted a systematic analysis of the changes in nitrogen functional groups in mandarin orange garden soil treated with Azolla imbricata. The structures of the major functional bacterial groups and the functional gene abundances involved in key processes of the soil nitrogen cycle were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The results indicated that returning A. imbricata had an important influence on the composition of soil nitrogen functional bacterial communities. Treatment with A. imbricata increased the diversity of the nitrogen functional bacteria. The abundances of nitrogen functional genes were significantly higher in the treated soil compared with the control soil. Both the diversity of the major nitrogen functional bacteria (nifH bacteria, nirK bacteria, and narG bacteria) and the abundances of nitrogen functional genes in the soil showed significant positive correlations with the soil pH, the organic carbon content, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, and NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N contents. Treatment with 12.5 kg fresh A. imbricata per mandarin orange tree was effective to improve the quality of the mandarin orange garden soil. This study analyzed the mechanism of the changes in functional bacterial groups and genes involved in key metabolic processes of the nitrogen cycle in soil treated by A. imbricata.

  7. [Effect of obesity on pulmonary function in asthmatic children of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xue-Li; Liang, Fan-Mei; Luo, Rong

    2017-05-01

    To study the effect of obesity on pulmonary function in newly diagnosed asthmatic children of different age groups. Two hundred and ninety-four children with newly diagnosed asthma were classified into preschool-age (age (6 to 12.5 years) groups. They were then classified into obese, overweight, and normal-weight subgroups based on their body mass index (BMI). All the children underwent pulmonary function tests, including large airway function tests [forced vital capacity (FVC%) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%)] and small airway function tests [maximal expiratory flow at 25% of vital capacity (MEF25%), maximal expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50%), and maximal expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity (MEF75%)]. The school-age group showed lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% than the preschool-age group (Page group had lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% compared with their counterparts in the preschool-age group (Page group showed lower FVC% and MEF50% than those in the preschool-age group. However, all the pulmonary function parameters showed no significant differences between the obese children in the preschool-age and school-age groups. In the preschool-age group, FVC%, FEV1%, and MEF75% of the obese children were lower than those of the normal-weight children. In the school-age group, only FVC% and FEV1% showed differences between the obese and normal-weight children (Page in children with asthma, and the effect is more obvious in those of preschool age.

  8. Overview on the Surface Functionalization Mechanism and Determination of Surface Functional Groups of Plasma Treated Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Cafer

    2018-01-02

    The use of carbon materials for many applications is due to the unique diversity of structures and properties ranging from chemical bonds between the carbon atoms of the materials to nanostructures, crystallite alignment, and microstructures. Carbon nanotubes and other nanoscale carbonaceous materials draw much attention due to their physical and chemical properties, such as high strength, high resistance to corrosion, electrical and thermal conductivity, stability and a qualified adsorbent. Carbon-based nanomaterials, which have a relatively large specific area and layered structure, can be used as an adsorbent for efficient removal of organic and inorganic contaminants. However, one of the biggest obstacles to the development of carbon-based nanomaterials adsorbents is insolubility and the lack of functional groups on the surface. There are several approaches to introduce functional groups on carbon nanotubes. One of these approaches, plasma applications, now has an important place in the creation of surface functional groups as a flexible, fast, and environmentally friendly method. This review focuses on recent information concerning the surface functionalization and modification of plasma treated carbon nanotube. This review considers the surface properties, advantages, and disadvantages of plasma-applied carbon nanotubes. It also examines the reaction mechanisms involved in the functional groups on the surface.

  9. Group Therapy for Improving Self-Esteem and Social Functioning of College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Ayesha

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of interpersonal group therapy designed to improve self-esteem and social functioning in college students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Participants with documented ADHD diagnoses completed self-report measures of self-esteem and social functioning at the initiation of the study,…

  10. The impact of attitude functions on luxury brand consumption: An age-based group comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, Michael; Hegner, Sabrina; Hegner, Sabrina; Horstmann, Florian; Brinkmann, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to understand the consumption of luxury brands in different age groups. Attitude functions (social-adjustive, value-expressive, hedonic, utilitarian) explain luxury brand consumption among three age groups. A total of 297 respondents between the age of 16 and 59

  11. Sub-grouping and sub-functionalization of the RIFIN multi-copy protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnhammer Erik L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic protozoans possess many multicopy gene families which have central roles in parasite survival and virulence. The number and variability of members of these gene families often make it difficult to predict possible functions of the encoded proteins. The families of extra-cellular proteins that are exposed to a host immune response have been driven via immune selection to become antigenically variant, and thereby avoid immune recognition while maintaining protein function to establish a chronic infection. Results We have combined phylogenetic and function shift analyses to study the evolution of the RIFIN proteins, which are antigenically variant and are encoded by the largest multicopy gene family in Plasmodium falciparum. We show that this family can be subdivided into two major groups that we named A- and B-RIFIN proteins. This suggested sub-grouping is supported by a recently published study that showed that, despite the presence of the Plasmodium export (PEXEL motif in all RIFIN variants, proteins from each group have different cellular localizations during the intraerythrocytic life cycle of the parasite. In the present study we show that function shift analysis, a novel technique to predict functional divergence between sub-groups of a protein family, indicates that RIFINs have undergone neo- or sub-functionalization. Conclusion These results question the general trend of clustering large antigenically variant protein groups into homogenous families. Assigning functions to protein families requires their subdivision into meaningful groups such as we have shown for the RIFIN protein family. Using phylogenetic and function shift analysis methods, we identify new directions for the investigation of this broad and complex group of proteins.

  12. Determination of surface functional groups on mechanochemically activated carbon cloth by Boehm method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Anđelka B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve sorption properties of activated carbon cloth that can be used for wastewater purification, mechanochemical activation was performed in both inert and air atmosphere. Boehm method was used to follow the changes in the number and types of surface groups induced by mechanical milling. The number of the base groups of 0,2493 mmol/g is significantly smaller than the total amount of acidic functional groups, 2,5093 mmol/g. Among the acidic groups present on the surface, the most represented are phenolic groups (2.3846 mmol/g , ie . > 95 % , the carboxylic groups are present far less (0.1173 mmol /g, ie. 4.5 %, while the presence of the lactone group on the surface of ACC is negligible (0.0074 mmol/g ie. under 0.3 %. Mechanochemical activation lead to an increase in the number of acidic and basic groups on the surface of the ACC. The milling in inert atmosphere has dominant effect with respect to the changes in the total number of basic functional groups (compared to milling in an air atmosphere: the number of basic groups of the ACC was 0.8153 mmol/g milled under argon, 0.7933 mmol/g in the air; the number of acidic groups is 2.9807 mmol/g for a sample milled under argon and 3.5313 mmol/g for one milled in the air.

  13. Wigner functions for a class of semi-direct product groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasowska, Anna E; Ali, S Twareque

    2003-01-01

    Following a general method proposed earlier, we construct here Wigner functions defined on coadjoint orbits of a class of semidirect product groups. The groups in question are such that their unitary duals consist purely of representations from the discrete series and each unitary irreducible representation is associated with a coadjoint orbit. The set of all coadjoint orbits (hence UIRs) is finite and their union is dense in the dual of the Lie algebra. The simple structure of the groups and the orbits enables us to compute the various quantities appearing in the definition of the Wigner function explicitly. A large number of examples, with potential use in image analysis, is worked out

  14. Balance impairment in individuals with Wolfram syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Kristen A; Duncan, Ryan P; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Permutt, M Alan; Marshall, Bess; Hershey, Tamara; Earhart, Gammon M

    2012-07-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS), a rare neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities. Although previously unreported, we hypothesized that neurological complications may be detectable in relatively early stages of the disease. As the cerebellum and brainstem seem particularly vulnerable in WFS, we focused on balance functions critically dependent on these regions. The primary goal of this investigation was to compare balance in young individuals with WFS, in relatively early stages of the disease, to an age-matched cohort using a clinically applicable test. Balance was assessed via the mini-BESTest in 13 children, adolescents and young adults with WFS and 30 typically developing age-matched individuals. A significant difference was observed between groups in balance as well as in three of four subcomponents of the mini-BESTest and in two timed tasks related to balance. Mini-BESTest scores were correlated with age among typically developing individuals. In the WFS group, mini-BESTest scores were related to overall motor dysfunction, but not age. Impairments in balance in WFS may occur earlier in the disease process than previously recognized and appear to be related to overall neurological progression rather than chronological age. Recognizing balance impairments and understanding which balance systems contribute to balance deficits in those with WFS may allow for development of effective patient-centered treatment paradigms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Resolving Microzooplankton Functional Groups In A Size-Structured Planktonic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, D.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Follows, M. J.; Jahn, O.; Menden-Deuer, S.

    2016-02-01

    Microzooplankton are important marine grazers, often consuming a large fraction of primary productivity. They consist of a great diversity of organisms with different behaviors, characteristics, and rates. This functional diversity, and its consequences, are not currently reflected in large-scale ocean ecological simulations. How should these organisms be represented, and what are the implications for their biogeography? We develop a size-structured, trait-based model to characterize a diversity of microzooplankton functional groups. We compile and examine size-based laboratory data on the traits, revealing some patterns with size and functional group that we interpret with mechanistic theory. Fitting the model to the data provides parameterizations of key rates and properties, which we employ in a numerical ocean model. The diversity of grazing preference, rates, and trophic strategies enables the coexistence of different functional groups of micro-grazers under various environmental conditions, and the model produces testable predictions of the biogeography.

  16. Development of a Temperature Programmed Identification Technique to Characterize the Organic Sulphur Functional Groups in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Ghauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR technique is employed for the characterisation of various organic sulphur functional groups in coal. The TPR technique is modified into the Temperature Programmed Identification technique to investigate whether this method can detect various functional groups corresponding to their reduction temperatures. Ollerton, Harworth, Silverdale, Prince of Wales coal and Mequinenza lignite were chosen for this study. High pressure oxydesulphurisation of the coal samples was also done. The characterization of various organic sulphur functional groups present in untreated and treated coal by the TPR method and later by the TPI method confirmed that these methods can identify the organic sulphur groups in coal and that the results based on total sulphur are comparable with those provided by standard analytical techniques. The analysis of the untreated and treated coal samples showed that the structural changes in the organic sulphur matrix due to a reaction can be determined.

  17. Differential symptomatology and functioning in borderline personality disorder across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Carol; Solves, Laia; Martínez, Bárbara; Salvador, Ana

    2017-12-01

    There is increasing research aimed at addressing whether patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) may exhibit variations in symptomatology and functioning according to their chronological age. The current study consisted of 169 outpatients diagnosed with BPD, who were divided into four age groups as follows: 16-25 years (n = 41), 26-35 years (n = 43), 36-45 years (n = 45), and 46 and more years (n = 40). Age groups were compared for symptomatology, normal personality traits, psychiatric comorbidities, functioning, and treatment-related features. The younger group had significantly higher levels of physical/verbal aggression and suicide attempts relative to the older group. Conversely, the older group had significantly greater severity of somatization, depression, and anxiety symptoms. In addition, the older group showed significantly greater functional impairment overall and across physical/psychological domains, specifically when compared to the younger group. Overall, these findings may suggest that age-related symptoms should be considered when diagnosing BPD. Also, functional impairments should be the target interventions for older BPD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of saline iontophoresis on skin barrier function and cutaneous irritation in four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Gross, M; Sage, B; Davis, H T; Maibach, H I

    2000-08-01

    The effect of saline iontophoresis on skin barrier function and irritation was investigated in four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Hispanics, Blacks and Asians). Forty healthy human volunteers were recruited according to specific entry criteria. Ten subjects, five males and five females, were assigned to each ethnic group. Skin barrier function was examined after 4 hours of saline iontophoresis at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm(2) on a 6.5 cm(2) area in terms of the measured responses: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, skin temperature and visual scores. There were significant differences in TEWL among the ethnic groups prior to patch application. TEWL at baseline in ethnic groups was in the rank order: Caucasian>Asian>Hispanic>Black. Iontophoresis was generally well tolerated, and skin barrier function was not irreversibly affected by iontophoresis in any group. There was no significant skin temperature change, compared to baseline, in any ethnic groups at any observation point. Edema was not observed. At patch removal, the erythema score was elevated in comparison to baseline in all ethnic groups; erythema resolved within 24 hours. Thus, saline iontophoresis produced reversible changes in skin barrier function and irritation in healthy human subjects.

  19. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  20. Postural balance and self-reported functional ability in 75-year-old men and women: a cross-national comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Era, P; Avlund, K; Jokela, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study postural balance in relation to self-reported functional ability (mobility and ADL) and general physical activity in elderly men and women living in three different Nordic environments. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 448 men and 556 women from among the 75-year-old residents...... of forces than in the mediolateral direction. The performance in the balance tests was also significantly better among the subjects reporting a higher level of general physical activity than in their less active counterparts. Physical activity and than in their less active counterparts. Physical activity...... in Glostrup, Denmark, and Göteborg, Sweden, and all the residents of relevant age (127 men and 261 women) in Jyväskylä, Finland. MEASUREMENTS: Assessment of postural balance with eyes open and closed using a piezoelectric force platform. A structured interview on self-reported functional ability and physical...

  1. The development of an integrated Indonesian health care model using Kano's model, quality function deployment and balanced scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonny, Zagloed, Teuku Yuri M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to present an integrated health care model for Indonesian health care industry. Based on previous researches, there are two health care models in the industry such as decease- and patient-centered care models. In their developments, the patient-centered care model is widely applied due to its capability in reducing cost and improving quality simultaneously. However, there is still no comprehensive model resulting in cost reduction, quality improvement, patient satisfaction and hospital profitability simultaneously. Therefore, this research is intended to develop that model. In doing so, first, a conceptual model using Kano's Model, Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is developed to generate several important elements of the model as required by stakeholders. Then, a case study of an Indonesian hospital is presented to evaluate the validity of the model using correlation analysis. As a result, it can be concluded that the model is validated implying several managerial insights among its elements such as l) leadership (r=0.85) and context of the organization (r=0.77) improve operations; 2) planning (r=0.96), support process (r=0.87) and continual improvement (r=0.95) also improve operations; 3) operations improve customer satisfaction (r=0.89) and financial performance (r=0.93) and 4) customer satisfaction improves the financial performance (0.98).

  2. Tuning of electronic properties and dynamical stability of graphene oxide with different functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabhi, Shweta D.; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2017-09-01

    The structural, electronic and vibrational properties of graphene oxide (GO) with varying proportion of epoxy and hydroxyl functional groups have been studied using density functional theory. The functional groups and oxygen density have an obvious influence on the electronic and vibrational properties. The dependence of band gap on associated functional groups and oxygen density shows a possibility of tuning the band gap of graphene by varying the functional groups as well as oxidation level. The absorption of high oxygen content in graphene leads to the gap opening and resulting in a transition from semimetal to semiconductor. Phonon dispersion curves show no imaginary frequency or no softening of any phonon mode throughout the Brillouin zone which confirms the dynamical stability of all considered GO models. Different groups and different oxygen density result into the varying characteristics of phonon modes. The computed results show good agreement with the experimental observations. Our results present interesting possibilities for engineering the electronic properties of graphene and GO and impact the fabrication of new electronics.

  3. Computational screening of functional groups for capture of toxic industrial chemicals in porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Chul; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Snurr, Randall Q

    2017-12-06

    A thermodynamic analysis using quantum chemical methods was carried out to identify optimal functional group candidates that can be included in metal-organic frameworks and activated carbons for the selective capture of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in humid air. We calculated the binding energies of 14 critical TICs plus water with a series of 10 functional groups attached to a naphthalene ring model. Using vibrational calculations, the free energies of adsorption were calculated in addition to the binding energies. Our results show that, in these systems, the binding energies and free energies follow similar trends. We identified copper(i) carboxylate as the optimal functional group (among those studied) for the selective binding of the majority of the TICs in humid air, and this functional group exhibits especially strong binding for sulfuric acid. Further thermodynamic analysis shows that the presence of water weakens the binding strength of sulfuric acid with the copper carboxylate group. Our calculations predict that functionalization of aromatic rings would be detrimental to selective capture of COCl 2 , CO 2 , and Cl 2 under humid conditions. Finally, we found that forming an ionic complex, H 3 O + HSO 4 - , between H 2 SO 4 and H 2 O via proton transfer is not favorable on copper carboxylate.

  4. Modeling phytoplankton community in reservoirs. A comparison between taxonomic and functional groups-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maggio, Jimena; Fernández, Carolina; Parodi, Elisa R; Diaz, M Soledad; Estrada, Vanina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the formulation of two mechanistic water quality models that differ in the way the phytoplankton community is described. We carry out parameter estimation subject to differential-algebraic constraints and validation for each model and comparison between models performance. The first approach aggregates phytoplankton species based on their phylogenetic characteristics (Taxonomic group model) and the second one, on their morpho-functional properties following Reynolds' classification (Functional group model). The latter approach takes into account tolerance and sensitivity to environmental conditions. The constrained parameter estimation problems are formulated within an equation oriented framework, with a maximum likelihood objective function. The study site is Paso de las Piedras Reservoir (Argentina), which supplies water for consumption for 450,000 population. Numerical results show that phytoplankton morpho-functional groups more closely represent each species growth requirements within the group. Each model performance is quantitatively assessed by three diagnostic measures. Parameter estimation results for seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton community and main biogeochemical variables for a one-year time horizon are presented and compared for both models, showing the functional group model enhanced performance. Finally, we explore increasing nutrient loading scenarios and predict their effect on phytoplankton dynamics throughout a one-year time horizon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Balance circuit classes to improve balance among rehabilitation inpatients: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Daniel; Schurr, Karl; Sherrington, Catherine

    2013-07-20

    Impaired balance and mobility are common among rehabilitation inpatients. Poor balance and mobility lead to an increased risk of falling. Specific balance exercise has been shown to improve balance and reduce falls within the community setting. However few studies have measured the effects of balance exercises on balance within the inpatient setting. A single centre, randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. One hundred and sixty two patients admitted to the general rehabilitation ward at Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital will be recruited. Eligible participants will have no medical contraindications to exercise and will be able to: fully weight bear; stand unaided independently for at least 30 seconds; and participate in group therapy sessions with minimal supervision. Participants will be randomly allocated to an intervention group or usual-care control group. Both groups will receive standard rehabilitation intervention that includes physiotherapy mobility training and exercise for at least two hours on each week day. The intervention group will also receive six 1-hour circuit classes of supervised balance exercises designed to maximise the ability to make postural adjustments in standing, stepping and walking. The primary outcome is balance. Balance will be assessed by measuring the total time the participant can stand unsupported in five different positions; feet apart, feet together, semi-tandem, tandem and single-leg-stance. Secondary outcomes include mobility, self reported physical functioning, falls and hospital readmissions. Performance on the outcome measures will be assessed before randomisation and at two-weeks and three-months after randomisation by physiotherapists unaware of intervention group allocation. This study will determine the impact of additional balance circuit classes on balance among rehabilitation inpatients. The results will provide essential information to guide evidence

  6. Effects of chemical functional groups on elemental mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jing, E-mail: liujing27@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cheney, Marcos A. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States); Wu Fan; Li Meng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-02-15

    A systematic theoretical study using density functional theory is performed to provide molecular-level understanding of the effects of chemical functional groups on mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surfaces. The zigzag and armchair edges were used in modeling the carbonaceous surfaces to simulate different adsorption sites. The edge atoms on the upper side of the models are unsaturated to simulate active sites. All calculations (optimizations, energies, and frequencies) were made at B3PW91 density functional theory level, using RCEP60VDZ basis set for mercury and 6-31G(d) pople basis set for other atoms. The results indicate that the embedding of halogen atom can increase the activity of its neighboring site which in turn increases the adsorption capacity of the carbonaceous surface for Hg{sup 0}. The adsorption belongs to chemisorptions, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. For the effects of oxygen functional groups, lactone, carbonyl and semiquinone favor Hg{sup 0} adsorption because they increase the neighboring site's activity for mercury adsorption. On the contrary, phenol and carboxyl functional groups show a physisorption of Hg{sup 0}, and reduce Hg capture. This result can explain the seemingly conflicting experimental results reported in the literature concerning the influence of oxygen functional groups on mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surface.

  7. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This nerve sends signals to the brain that control hearing (auditory function) and help with balance (vestibular function). But the ears aren't the ... symptoms aren't necessarily a sign of a balance problem — or any other ... stumble and fall sometimes, especially toddlers just learning to walk and ...

  8. Adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds onto modified activated carbons: Effect of oxygen functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Esther; Lemus, Jesús; Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Palomar, José; Martin, María J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • HNO 3 oxidation incorporates a higher amount of functionalities than O 3 oxidation. • The loss of porosity is compensated by the massive incorporation of oxygen groups. • HNO 3 oxidation increases OH groups in AC and the ETM and DMS adsorption capacities. • The oxygen functional groups in the AC surface did not affect the DMDS adsorption. • COSMO-RS predicts the important role of OH groups for VSC adsorption. -- Abstract: The effect of physical and chemical properties of activated carbon (AC) on the adsorption of ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide was investigated by treating a commercial AC with nitric acid and ozone. The chemical properties of ACs were characterised by temperature programme desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AC treated with nitric acid presented a larger amount of oxygen functional groups than materials oxidised with ozone. This enrichment allowed a significant improvement on adsorption capacities for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide but not for dimethyl disulphide. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on the effect of the surface chemistry of AC on the adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds, the quantum-chemical COSMO-RS method was used to simulate the interactions between AC surface groups and the studied volatile sulphur compounds. In agreement with experimental data, this model predicted a greater affinity of dimethyl disulphide towards AC, unaffected by the incorporation of oxygen functional groups in the surface. Moreover, the model pointed out to an increase of the adsorption capacity of AC by the incorporation of hydroxyl functional groups in the case of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide due to the hydrogen bond interactions

  9. Adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds onto modified activated carbons: Effect of oxygen functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Esther, E-mail: esther@lequia.udg.cat [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain); Lemus, Jesús [Universidad de Madrid, Sección de Ingeniería Química, Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain); Palomar, José [Universidad de Madrid, Sección de Ingeniería Química, Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Martin, María J. [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • HNO{sub 3} oxidation incorporates a higher amount of functionalities than O{sub 3} oxidation. • The loss of porosity is compensated by the massive incorporation of oxygen groups. • HNO{sub 3} oxidation increases OH groups in AC and the ETM and DMS adsorption capacities. • The oxygen functional groups in the AC surface did not affect the DMDS adsorption. • COSMO-RS predicts the important role of OH groups for VSC adsorption. -- Abstract: The effect of physical and chemical properties of activated carbon (AC) on the adsorption of ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide was investigated by treating a commercial AC with nitric acid and ozone. The chemical properties of ACs were characterised by temperature programme desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AC treated with nitric acid presented a larger amount of oxygen functional groups than materials oxidised with ozone. This enrichment allowed a significant improvement on adsorption capacities for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide but not for dimethyl disulphide. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on the effect of the surface chemistry of AC on the adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds, the quantum-chemical COSMO-RS method was used to simulate the interactions between AC surface groups and the studied volatile sulphur compounds. In agreement with experimental data, this model predicted a greater affinity of dimethyl disulphide towards AC, unaffected by the incorporation of oxygen functional groups in the surface. Moreover, the model pointed out to an increase of the adsorption capacity of AC by the incorporation of hydroxyl functional groups in the case of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide due to the hydrogen bond interactions.

  10. Intermittent levosimendan infusions in advanced heart failure: favourable effects on left ventricular function, neurohormonal balance, and one-year survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfatto, Gabriella; Della Rosa, Francesco; Villani, Alessandra; Rella, Valeria; Branzi, Giovanna; Facchini, Mario; Parati, Gianfranco

    2012-11-01

    The role of repeated infusions of Levosimendan (LEVO) in patients with chronic advanced heart failure is still unclear. Thirty-three patients with chronic heart failure presenting clinical deterioration were randomized 2:1 to receive monthly infusions of LEVO (n = 22) or Furosemide (Controls, n = 11). At the first drug's administration, noninvasive hemodynamic evaluation was performed; before and after each infusion, we assessed NYHA class, systolic and diastolic function, functional mitral regurgitation, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. Noninvasive hemodynamic in the LEVO group showed vasodilation and decrease in thoracic conductance (index of pulmonary congestion), whereas in Controls, only a reduced thoracic conductance was observed. In the LEVO group, systolic and diastolic function, ventricular volumes, severity of mitral regurgitation, and BNP levels improved over time from baseline and persisted 4 weeks after the last infusion (P < 0.01). In Controls, no change developed over time in cardiac function and BNP levels. In LEVO-treated patients, 1-year mortality tended to be lower than in those treated with Furosemide. In conclusion, serial LEVO infusions in advanced heart failure improved ventricular performance and favorably modulated neurohormonal activation. Multicenter randomized studies are warranted to test the effect of LEVO on long-term outcome.

  11. Thermoregulation of water foraging honeybees--balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and functional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2010-12-01

    Foraging honeybees are subjected to considerable variations of microclimatic conditions challenging their thermoregulatory ability. Solar heat is a gain in the cold but may be a burden in the heat. We investigated the balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and physiological functions of water foraging Apis mellifera carnica honeybees in the whole range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) and solar radiation they are likely to be exposed in their natural environment in Middle Europe. The mean thorax temperature (T(th)) during foraging stays was regulated at a constantly high level (37.0-38.5 °C) in a broad range of T(a) (3-30 °C). At warmer conditions (T(a)=30-39 °C) T(th) increased to a maximal level of 45.3 °C. The endothermic temperature excess (difference of T(body)-T(a) of living and dead bees) was used to assess the endogenously generated temperature elevation as a correlate of energy turnover. Up to a T(a) of ∼30 °C bees used solar heat gain for a double purpose: to reduce energetic expenditure and to increase T(th) by about 1-3 °C to improve force production of flight muscles. At higher T(a) they exhibited cooling efforts to get rid of excess heat. A high T(th) also allowed regulation of the head temperature high enough to guarantee proper function of the bees' suction pump even at low T(a). This shortened the foraging stays and this way reduced energetic costs. With decreasing T(a) bees also reduced arrival body weight and crop loading to do both minimize costs and optimize flight performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward a balanced framework to evaluate and improve the internal functioning of non-profit economic development business incubators : A study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstraeten, J.; Matthyssens, P.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-profit organisations, such as economic development incubators, may adapt the balanced scorecard and strategy map in their efforts to improve their internal functioning. In this paper, we employ qualitative research among non-profit economic development incubators in Antwerp, Belgium, to modify

  13. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, J.; El Haddad, I.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N. [Univ Aix Marseille, CNRS, Lab Chim Provence, Equipe Instrumentat and React Atmospher, UMR 6264, F-13331 Marseille 3 (France); Jaffrezo, J.L. [Univ Grenoble 1, CNRS, UMR 5183, Lab Glaciol and Geophys Environm, F-38402 St Martin Dheres (France)

    2010-07-01

    The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA) is investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCIMS/MS). The determinations of three functional groups contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups, R-COOH and R-CO-R' respectively) and precursor ion (nitro groups, R-NO{sub 2}) scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced through photooxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounts for 1.7% (vehicular) to 13.5% (o-xylene photooxidation) of the organic carbon. Diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively discriminate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France) during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalization rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to discriminate sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assess a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60%. Finally, examples of functional

  14. Hydrological-niche models predict water plant functional group distributions in diverse wetland types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, David C; Nicol, Jason M; Gehrig, Susan L; Harding, Claire; Aldridge, Kane T; Goodman, Abigail M; Brookes, Justin D

    2017-06-01

    Human use of water resources threatens environmental water supplies. If resource managers are to develop policies that avoid unacceptable ecological impacts, some means to predict ecosystem response to changes in water availability is necessary. This is difficult to achieve at spatial scales relevant for water resource management because of the high natural variability in ecosystem hydrology and ecology. Water plant functional groups classify species with similar hydrological niche preferences together, allowing a qualitative means to generalize community responses to changes in hydrology. We tested the potential for functional groups in making quantitative prediction of water plant functional group distributions across diverse wetland types over a large geographical extent. We sampled wetlands covering a broad range of hydrogeomorphic and salinity conditions in South Australia, collecting both hydrological and floristic data from 687 quadrats across 28 wetland hydrological gradients. We built hydrological-niche models for eight water plant functional groups using a range of candidate models combining different surface inundation metrics. We then tested the predictive performance of top-ranked individual and averaged models for each functional group. Cross validation showed that models achieved acceptable predictive performance, with correct classification rates in the range 0.68-0.95. Model predictions can be made at any spatial scale that hydrological data are available and could be implemented in a geographical information system. We show the response of water plant functional groups to inundation is consistent enough across diverse wetland types to quantify the probability of hydrological impacts over regional spatial scales. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory: barrier heights and main group and transition metal energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Rebecca K; Li Manni, Giovanni; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-01-13

    Kohn-Sham density functional theory, resting on the representation of the electronic density and kinetic energy by a single Slater determinant, has revolutionized chemistry, but for open-shell systems, the Kohn-Sham Slater determinant has the wrong symmetry properties as compared to an accurate wave function. We have recently proposed a theory, called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), in which the electronic kinetic energy and classical Coulomb energy are calculated from a multiconfiguration wave function with the correct symmetry properties, and the rest of the energy is calculated from a density functional, called the on-top density functional, that depends on the density and the on-top pair density calculated from this wave function. We also proposed a simple way to approximate the on-top density functional by translation of Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation functionals. The method is much less expensive than other post-SCF methods for calculating the dynamical correlation energy starting with a multiconfiguration self-consistent-field wave function as the reference wave function, and initial tests of the theory were quite encouraging. Here, we provide a broader test of the theory by applying it to bond energies of main-group molecules and transition metal complexes, barrier heights and reaction energies for diverse chemical reactions, proton affinities, and the water dimerization energy. Averaged over 56 data points, the mean unsigned error is 3.2 kcal/mol for MC-PDFT, as compared to 6.9 kcal/mol for Kohn-Sham theory with a comparable density functional. MC-PDFT is more accurate on average than complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) for main-group small-molecule bond energies, alkyl bond dissociation energies, transition-metal-ligand bond energies, proton affinities, and the water dimerization energy.

  16. Thermal regulation of functional groups in running water ecosystems. Progress report, 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, K.W.; Klug, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Upper and lower thermal limits and temperature dependent growth were determined for a number of organisms (or populations) representing various functional groups of stream ecosystems (microconsumers, producers, and macroconsumers, shredders, collectors, scrapers, and predators). Although temperature functions as an overall control parameter, organic substrate (microconsumers) and inorganic nutrients (microconsumers and producers), light (producers) and food quality (macroconsumers) can modify thermal responses. Stream microorganisms typically grow below their thermal optima, community composition being determined by those that can manage the maximum growth at a given temperature utilizing a given organic substrate. Producers in first to third order streams are generally light limited (although nutrient availability is also important). Food quality, primarily a function of microbial biomass in the case of detritivores. can compensate for temperature dependent growth in non-predator macroinvertebrate functional groups. (U.S.)

  17. Wigner functions for noncommutative quantum mechanics: A group representation based construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, S. Hasibul Hassan, E-mail: shhchowdhury@gmail.com [Chern Institute of Mathematics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Ali, S. Twareque, E-mail: twareque.ali@concordia.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    This paper is devoted to the construction and analysis of the Wigner functions for noncommutative quantum mechanics, their marginal distributions, and star-products, following a technique developed earlier, viz, using the unitary irreducible representations of the group G{sub NC}, which is the three fold central extension of the Abelian group of ℝ{sup 4}. These representations have been exhaustively studied in earlier papers. The group G{sub NC} is identified with the kinematical symmetry group of noncommutative quantum mechanics of a system with two degrees of freedom. The Wigner functions studied here reflect different levels of non-commutativity—both the operators of position and those of momentum not commuting, the position operators not commuting and finally, the case of standard quantum mechanics, obeying the canonical commutation relations only.

  18. Pentafluorobenzene end-group as a versatile handle for para fluoro "click" functionalization of polythiophenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufflet, Pierre; Casey, Abby; Xia, Yiren; Stavrinou, Paul N; Heeney, Martin

    2017-03-01

    A convenient method of introducing pentafluorobenzene (PFB) as a single end-group in polythiophene derivatives is reported via in situ quenching of the polymerization. We demonstrate that the PFB-group is a particularly useful end-group due to its ability to undergo fast nucleophilic aromatic substitutions. Using this molecular handle, we are able to quantitatively tether a variety of common nucleophiles to the polythiophene backbone. The mild conditions required for the reaction allows sensitive functional moieties, such as biotin or a cross-linkable trimethoxysilane, to be introduced as end-groups. The high yield enabled the formation of a diblock rod-coil polymer from equimolar reactants under transition metal-free conditions at room temperature. We further demonstrate that water soluble polythiophenes end-capped with PFB can be prepared via the hydrolysis of an ester precursor, and that such polymers are amenable to functionalization under aqueous conditions.

  19. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with amino groups by reacting with supercritical ammonia fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lu; Bai Yongping; Huang Xu; Gao Zhangfei; Meng Linghui; Huang Yudong; Ma Jun

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, supercritical ammonia fluid was utilized to simply functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with amino groups. The successful amino functionalization of MWCNTs was proven and the physicochemical properties of MWCNTs before and after supercritical ammonia fluids modifications were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results also indicated that the supercritical ammonia fluids had the visible effects on the nanostructure of carbon nanotubes. Our novel modification approach provides an easy way to modify MWCNTs with amino groups, which is very useful for realizing 'carbon nanotube economy' in the near future.

  20. Linking Keystone Species and Functional Groups: A New Operational Definition of the Keystone Species Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Davic

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups at lower trophic levels that are structured by competition for a limited resource. The a priori prediction of keystone species has applied value for the conservation of natural areas.

  1. Plant functional groups of potential restoration use in advancing edges of high Andean forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos Castro, Carolina; Bonilla, Maria Argenis

    2011-01-01

    The study of plant functional groups constitutes a useful tool in the identification of ecological characteristics relevant in community regeneration. The aim of this study was to identify plant's functional groups in high Andean forest advance edges and to evaluate their role during secondary succession in abandoned pasture lands. Based on 10 x 10 m vegetation relevees for the shrubby-arboreal stratum and 1 x 1 m plots for the herbaceous stratum and the revision of vital attributes for each of the species found, this study uses a multivariate approach to construct a trait-based emergent group's classification. The most important attributes in the definition of the groups were the dispersion mechanism and the presence of basal trunk ramification in woody species; in addition differences in the presence of vegetative propagation, specific leaf area index and the ratio height/diameter at breast height were found between groups of the shrubby-arboreal stratum. Four distinct groups were defined in the herbaceous layer and five in the shrubby-arboreal layer, each group contains species with similar colonization strategies. Among the defined groups, the herbaceous species dispersed by various abiotic factors, the shrubby species with basal ramification and dispersed by wind and the species dispersed by birds constitute key strategies in forest recovery in adjacent abandoned pasture lands dominated by Holcus lanatus, and facilitate the establishment of secondary forest species.

  2. Water Contact Angle Dependence with Hydroxyl Functional Groups on Silica Surfaces under CO2 Sequestration Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Ning; Li, Weizhong; Song, Yongchen

    2015-12-15

    Functional groups on silica surfaces under CO2 sequestration conditions are complex due to reactions among supercritical CO2, brine and silica. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the effects of hydroxyl functional groups on wettability. It has been found that wettability shows a strong dependence on functional groups on silica surfaces: silanol number density, space distribution, and deprotonation/protonation degree. For neutral silica surfaces with crystalline structure (Q(3), Q(3)/Q(4), Q(4)), as silanol number density decreases, contact angle increases from 33.5° to 146.7° at 10.5 MPa and 318 K. When Q(3) surface changes to an amorphous structure, water contact angle increases 20°. Water contact angle decreases about 12° when 9% of silanol groups on Q(3) surface are deprotonated. When the deprotonation degree increases to 50%, water contact angle decreases to 0. The dependence of wettability on silica surface functional groups was used to analyze contact angle measurement ambiguity in literature. The composition of silica surfaces is complicated under CO2 sequestration conditions, the results found in this study may help to better understand wettability of CO2/brine/silica system.

  3. Significance of Joint Features Derived from the Modified Group Delay Function in Speech Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Hema A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the significance of combining cepstral features derived from the modified group delay function and from the short-time spectral magnitude like the MFCC. The conventional group delay function fails to capture the resonant structure and the dynamic range of the speech spectrum primarily due to pitch periodicity effects. The group delay function is modified to suppress these spikes and to restore the dynamic range of the speech spectrum. Cepstral features are derived from the modified group delay function, which are called the modified group delay feature (MODGDF. The complementarity and robustness of the MODGDF when compared to the MFCC are also analyzed using spectral reconstruction techniques. Combination of several spectral magnitude-based features and the MODGDF using feature fusion and likelihood combination is described. These features are then used for three speech processing tasks, namely, syllable, speaker, and language recognition. Results indicate that combining MODGDF with MFCC at the feature level gives significant improvements for speech recognition tasks in noise. Combining the MODGDF and the spectral magnitude-based features gives a significant increase in recognition performance of 11% at best, while combining any two features derived from the spectral magnitude does not give any significant improvement.

  4. Subtle cytotoxicity and genotoxicity differences in superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with various functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong SC

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seong Cheol Hong1,*, Jong Ho Lee1,*, Jaewook Lee1, Hyeon Yong Kim1, Jung Youn Park2, Johann Cho3, Jaebeom Lee1, Dong-Wook Han11Department of Nanomedical Engineering, BK21 Nano Fusion Technology Division, College of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Pusan National University, 2Department of Biotechnology Research, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan, 3Electronic Materials Lab, Samsung Corning Precision Materials Co, Ltd, Gumi City, Gyeongsangbukdo, Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have been widely utilized for the diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents and drug-delivery carriers, due to their easy transportation to targeted areas by an external magnetic field. For such biomedical applications, SPIONs must have multifunctional characteristics, including optimized size and modified surface. However, the biofunctionality and biocompatibility of SPIONs with various surface functional groups of different sizes have yet to be elucidated clearly. Therefore, it is important to carefully monitor the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of SPIONs that are surfaced-modified with various functional groups of different sizes. In this study, we evaluated SPIONs with diameters of approximately 10 nm and 100~150 nm, containing different surface functional groups. SPIONs were covered with –O-groups, so-called bare SPIONs. Following this, they were modified with three different functional groups – hydroxyl (–OH, carboxylic (–COOH, and amine (–NH2 groups – by coating their surfaces with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS, TEOS-APTMS, or citrate, which imparted different surface charges and sizes to the particles. The effects of SPIONs coated with these functional groups on mitochondrial activity, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species, membrane integrity

  5. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dron

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA is investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS. The determinations of three functional groups contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups, R-COOH and R-CO-R´ respectively and precursor ion (nitro groups, R-NO2 scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced through photooxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounts for 1.7% (vehicular to 13.5% (o-xylene photooxidation of the organic carbon. Diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively discriminate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalisation rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to discriminate sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assess a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60

  6. Chemoselective Reduction and Alkylation of Carbonyl Functions Using Phosphonium Salts as an in Situ Protecting Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Reiya; Fujioka, Hiromichi

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in the chemoselective reduction and alkylation of carbonyl functions using our in situ protection method is described. Methods that enable reversal or control of the reactivity of a carbonyl functional group are potentially useful. They open up new areas of synthetic organic chemistry and change the concept of retrosynthesis because they remove the need for complicated protection/deprotection sequences. In this account, we discuss the strategy and applications of our in situ protection method using phosphonium salts.

  7. Qualitative Comparison of Women's Perspectives on the Functions and Benefits of Group and Individual Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-01-01

    Women's definitions and experiences of the functions and benefits of their routine prenatal care are largely absent from research and public discourse on prenatal care outcomes. This qualitative study aimed to develop a framework of women's prenatal care experiences by comparing the experiences of women in individual and group prenatal care. We conducted serial qualitative interviews with racially diverse low-income women receiving individual prenatal care (n = 14) or group prenatal care (n = 15) through pregnancy and the early postpartum period. We completed 42 second-trimester, 48 third-trimester, and 44 postpartum interviews. Using grounded theory, the semistructured interviews were coded for themes, and the themes were integrated into an explanatory framework of prenatal care functions and benefits. Individual and group participants described similar benefits in 3 prenatal care functions: confirming health, preventing and monitoring medical complications, and building supportive provider relationships. For the fourth function, educating and preparing, group care participants experienced more benefits and different benefits. The benefits for group participants were enhanced by the supportive group environment. Group participants described greater positive influences on stress, confidence, knowledge, motivation, informed decision making, and health care engagement. Whereas pregnant women want to maximize their probability of having a healthy newborn, other prenatal care outcomes are also important: reducing pregnancy-related stress; developing confidence and knowledge for improving health; preparing for labor, birth, and newborn care; and having supportive relationships. Group prenatal care may be more effective in attaining these outcomes. Achieving these outcomes is increasingly relevant in health care systems prioritizing woman-centered care and improved birth outcomes. How to achieve them should be part of policy development and research. © 2016 by the

  8. Characteristics and Changes in Health Status and Life Function among Female Elderly Participants of Group Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hiromi; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of female elderly participants of a group exercise organized by the participants themselves and the changes in their physical, mental, and social health, and life function. Findings of this study will be used for promoting effective preventive care. The subjects whose characteristics were analyzed were 394 participants and 757 nonparticipants of the group exercise. Those whose changes in health were analyzed were 52 participants and 114 nonparticipants. Locomotion Check and self-rated health score were used as indices of physical health. World Health Organization-Five well-being (S-WHO-5-J) index and self-rated life satisfaction level were used as indices of mental health. Satisfaction level of social activities was one of indices of social health. The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence was used as an index of life function. The health-examination data analyzed were Body Mass Index, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and HbA1c level. In the participant group, the proportions of those who lived alone, who were affluent, and who had no job were higher than those in the nonparticipant group. The indices of physical, mental and social health and life function were higher in the participant group. There was no significant difference in the 5-year trend of health-examination data between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the yearly change in the indices of physical health and life function. The S-WHO-5-J index, self-rated life satisfaction level, and satisfaction level of social activities were maintained or improved in the participant group. The results suggest the possible usefulness of the group exercise for maintaining the mental and social health of elderly women.

  9. Utility Function for modeling Group Multicriteria Decision Making problems as games

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Bevilacqua Leoneti

    2016-01-01

    To assist in the decision making process, several multicriteria methods have been proposed. However, the existing methods assume a single decision-maker and do not consider decision under risk, which is better addressed by Game Theory. Hence, the aim of this research is to propose a Utility Function that makes it possible to model Group Multicriteria Decision Making problems as games. The advantage of using Game Theory for solving Group Multicriteria Decision Making problems is to evaluate th...

  10. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fully trust your sense of balance. Loss of balance also raises the risk of falls. This is a serious and even life-threatening ... 65. Balance disorders are serious because of the risk of falls. But occasionally balance problems may warn of another health condition, such ...

  11. Nonperturbative renormalization-group approach preserving the momentum dependence of correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, F.; Dupuis, N.

    2018-05-01

    We present an approximation scheme of the nonperturbative renormalization group that preserves the momentum dependence of correlation functions. This approximation scheme can be seen as a simple improvement of the local potential approximation (LPA) where the derivative terms in the effective action are promoted to arbitrary momentum-dependent functions. As in the LPA, the only field dependence comes from the effective potential, which allows us to solve the renormalization-group equations at a relatively modest numerical cost (as compared, e.g., to the Blaizot-Mendéz-Galain-Wschebor approximation scheme). As an application we consider the two-dimensional quantum O(N ) model at zero temperature. We discuss not only the two-point correlation function but also higher-order correlation functions such as the scalar susceptibility (which allows for an investigation of the "Higgs" amplitude mode) and the conductivity. In particular, we show how, using Padé approximants to perform the analytic continuation i ωn→ω +i 0+ of imaginary frequency correlation functions χ (i ωn) computed numerically from the renormalization-group equations, one can obtain spectral functions in the real-frequency domain.

  12. Surface functional group characterization using chemical derivatization X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CD-XPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagst, Eda

    2011-03-18

    Chemical derivatization - X-ray photolectron spectroscopy (CD-XPS) was applied successfully in order to determine different functional groups on thin film surfaces. Different amino group carrying surfaces, prepared by spin coating, self-assembly and plasma polymerization, were successfully investigated by (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Amino groups were derivatized with the widely used primary amino group tags, pentafluorobenzaldehyde (PFB) and 4-(trifluoromethyl)-benzaldehyde (TFBA), prior to analysis. Primary amino group quantification was then carried out according to the spectroscopical data. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of different terminal groups were prepared and investigated with XPS and spectra were compared with reference surfaces. An angle resolved NEXAFS measurement was applied to determine the orientation of SAMs. Plasma polymerized allylamine samples with different duty cycle, power and pressure values were prepared in order to study the effects of external plasma parameters on the primary amino group retention. CD-XPS was used to quantify the amino groups and experiments show, that the milder plasma conditions promote the retention of amino groups originating from the allylamine monomer. An interlaboratory comparison of OH group determination on plasma surfaces of polypropylene treated with oxygen plasma, was studied. The surfaces were investigated with XPS and the [OH] amount on the surfaces was calculated. (orig.)

  13. Influence of neural mobilization of lower limbs on the functional performance and dynamic balance in asymptomatic individuals: a cross-over randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Guilherme S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To verify the influence of neural mobilization (NM applied to the lower limbs on functional performance and dynamic balance in asymptomatic individuals. Methods. The total of 30 asymptomatic participants (15 women and 15 men; age, 30.1 ± 6.7 years; height, 1.70 ± 0.1 m; body mass, 73.1 ± 13.4 kg were enrolled in this cross-over randomized controlled trial. The participants received NM of the femoral, sciatic, and tibial nerves, as well as static stretching (SS of the following muscles: hamstring, lumbar, piriformis, hip adductors, hip flexors, quadriceps, and triceps surae. The order of applying NM and SS was randomly decided and the interventions were performed at least 48 hours apart. Functional performance was measured by performance in vertical jump (VJ and dynamic balance was measured with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT. Results. There were no differences between NM and SS for height (cm in VJ (p = 0.16 or in the distance reached (% in the SEBT, normalized by lower limb length (dominant limb: anterior, p = 0.35; posterolateral, p = 0.69; posteromedial, p = 0.50 / non-dominant limb: anterior, p = 0.68; posterolateral, p = 1.00; posteromedial, p = 0.77. Conclusions. NM did not exert any influence on functional performance or dynamic balance. Thereby, having no positive or negative impact on performance, NM can be used at any time of treatment.

  14. Exploring excited eigenstates of many-body systems using the functional renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner, Christian; Kennes, Dante Marvin; Karrasch, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    We introduce approximate, functional renormalization group based schemes to obtain correlation functions in pure excited eigenstates of large fermionic many-body systems at arbitrary energies. The algorithms are thoroughly benchmarked and their strengths and shortcomings are documented using a one-dimensional interacting tight-binding chain as a prototypical testbed. We study two "toy applications" from the world of Luttinger liquid physics: the survival of power laws in lowly excited states as well as the spectral function of high-energy "block" excitations, which feature several single-particle Fermi edges.

  15. Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisato Yoshihiko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one year. Methods Forty-three patients with TRD were treated with 12 weekly sessions of group-CBT. Patients were assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R at baseline, at the termination of treatment, and at the 12-month follow-up. Results Thirty-eight patients completed treatment; five dropped out. For the patients who completed treatment, post-treatment scores on the GAF and SF-36 were significantly higher than baseline scores. Scores on the HRSD, DAS, and ATQ-R were significantly lower after the treatment. Thus patients improved on all measurements of psychosocial functioning and mood symptoms. Twenty patients participated in the 12-month follow-up. Their improvements for psychosocial functioning, depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional cognitions were sustained at 12 months following the completion of group-CBT. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect that the addition of cognitive behavioural group therapy to medication on depressive symptoms and social functioning of mildly depressed patients, showing treatment resistance.

  16. Pattern classification and recognition of invertebrate functional groups using self-organizing neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, WenJun

    2007-07-01

    Self-organizing neural networks can be used to mimic non-linear systems. The main objective of this study is to make pattern classification and recognition on sampling information using two self-organizing neural network models. Invertebrate functional groups sampled in the irrigated rice field were classified and recognized using one-dimensional self-organizing map and self-organizing competitive learning neural networks. Comparisons between neural network models, distance (similarity) measures, and number of neurons were conducted. The results showed that self-organizing map and self-organizing competitive learning neural network models were effective in pattern classification and recognition of sampling information. Overall the performance of one-dimensional self-organizing map neural network was better than self-organizing competitive learning neural network. The number of neurons could determine the number of classes in the classification. Different neural network models with various distance (similarity) measures yielded similar classifications. Some differences, dependent upon the specific network structure, would be found. The pattern of an unrecognized functional group was recognized with the self-organizing neural network. A relative consistent classification indicated that the following invertebrate functional groups, terrestrial blood sucker; terrestrial flyer; tourist (nonpredatory species with no known functional role other than as prey in ecosystem); gall former; collector (gather, deposit feeder); predator and parasitoid; leaf miner; idiobiont (acarine ectoparasitoid), were classified into the same group, and the following invertebrate functional groups, external plant feeder; terrestrial crawler, walker, jumper or hunter; neustonic (water surface) swimmer (semi-aquatic), were classified into another group. It was concluded that reliable conclusions could be drawn from comparisons of different neural network models that use different distance

  17. Fourier-space TEM reconstructions with symmetry adapted functions for all rotational point groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Stefano; Navaza, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    A general-purpose and simple expression for the coefficients of symmetry adapted functions referred to conveniently oriented symmetry axes is given for all rotational point groups. The expression involves the computation of reduced Wigner-matrix elements corresponding to an angle specific to each group and has the computational advantage of leading to Fourier-space TEM (transmission electron microscopy) reconstruction procedures involving only real valued unknowns. Using this expression, a protocol for ab initio view and center assignment and reconstruction so far used for icosahedral particles has been tested with experimental data in other point groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Controlled surface functionalization of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles with terminal amino and carboxyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralj, Slavko; Drofenik, Miha; Makovec, Darko

    2011-01-01

    General and versatile methods for the functionalization of superparamagnetic, silica-coated, maghemite nanoparticles by surface amino and/or carboxyl groups have been established. The nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation from aqueous solutions and coated with a thin layer of silica using the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). For the amino functionalization, 3-(2-aminoethylamino)propylmethyldimethoxysilane (APMS) was grafted onto the nanoparticle surfaces in their aqueous suspensions. The grafting process was followed by measurements of the ζ-potential and a determination of the concentration of the surface amino groups with conductometric titrations. The surface concentration of the amino groups could be varied by increasing the amount of APMS in the grafting process up to approximately 2.3 –NH 2 groups per nm 2 . The carboxyl functionalization was obtained in two ways: (i) by a ring-opening linker elongation reaction of the surface amines at the functionalized nanoparticles with succinic anhydride (SA) in non-aqueous medium, and (ii) by reacting the APMS and SA first, followed by grafting of the carboxyl-terminated reagent onto the nanoparticle surfaces. Using the first method, the SA only reacted with the terminal primary amino groups (–NH 2 ) of the surface-grafted APMS molecules. Infra-red spectroscopy (ATR FTIR) and mass spectrometry (HRMS) showed that the second method enables the bonding of up to two SA molecules per one APMS molecule, since the SA reacted with both the primary (–NH 2 ) and secondary amino (–NH–) groups of the APMS molecule. When using both methods, the ratio between the surface amino and carboxyl groups can be controlled.

  19. Functional analysis of the putative peroxidase domain of FANCA, the Fanconi anemia complementation group A protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J; Youssoufian, H

    2001-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder manifested by chromosomal breakage, birth defects, and susceptibility to bone marrow failure and cancer. At least seven complementation groups have been identified, and the genes defective in four groups have been cloned. The most common subtype is complementation group A. Although the normal functions of the gene products defective in FA cells are not completely understood, a clue to the function of the FA group A gene product (FANCA) was provided by the detection of limited homology in the amino terminal region to a class of heme peroxidases. We evaluated this hypothesis by mutagenesis and functional complementation studies. We substituted alanine residues for the most conserved FANCA residues in the putative peroxidase domain and tested their effects on known biochemical and cellular functions of FANCA. While the substitution mutants were comparable to wild-type FANCA with regard to their stability, subcellular localization, and interaction with FANCG, only the Trp(183)-to-Ala substitution (W183A) abolished the ability of FANCA to complement the sensitivity of FA group A cells to mitomycin C. By contrast, TUNEL assays for apoptosis after exposure to H2O2 showed no differences between parental FA group A cells, cells complemented with wild-type FANCA, and cells complemented with the W183A of FANCA. Moreover, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis for the expression of the peroxide-sensitive heme oxygenase gene showed appropriate induction after H2O2 exposure. Thus, W183A appears to be essential for the in vivo activity of FANCA in a manner independent of its interaction with FANCG. Moreover, neither wild-type FANCA nor the W183A mutation appears to alter the peroxide-induced apoptosisor peroxide-sensing ability of FA group A cells. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  20. [Effects of canopy density on the functional group of soil macro fauna in Pinus massoniana plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong Yang; Zhang, Dan Ju; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yan Bo; Zhao, Bo; Wei, Da Ping; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-18

    In order to understand the effects of canopy density on the functional group characteristics of soil macrofauna in Pinus massoniana plantations, we divided the captured soil fauna into five types including xylophages, predators, saprophages, omnivores and fungal feeders. The results showed that 1) Saprozoic feeders had the highest percentage of total individuals, and the omnivores and xylophages occupied higher percentages of total taxa. 2) The individual and group number of the predators, and the group number of xylophages did not change significantly under 0.5-0.6 and then decreased significantly under 0.6-0.9 canopy density. 3) With the increasing canopy density, the individual an dgroup number of predators in litter layer decreased significantly, the saprozoic individual number in 5-10 cm soil layer represented irregular trends. The individual number of xylophage increased with the depth of soil, and the group number in litter layer, the individual and group number in 5-10 cm soil layer decreased significantly. 4) Pielou evenness of xylophage had no significant changes with the canopy density, all the other diversity index of xylophage and saprophage were various with the increasing canopy density. The predatory Simpson index was stable under 0.5-0.8, and then decreased significantly under 0.8-0.9 canopy density. 5) The CCA (canonical correlation analysis) indicated that soil bulk density and moisture content were the main environmental factors affecting functional groups of soil macro fauna. Moisture content greatly impacted on the number of saprophagous individuals. But xylophage and predators were mostly affected by soil bulk density, and the predatory Simpson index was mainly affected by soil pH value and total phosphorus. Our research indicated that the structure of soil macro faunal functional group under 0.7 canopy density was comparatively stable, which would facilitate the maintenance of soil fertility and ecological function in Pinus massoniana

  1. Comparing joint kinematics and center of mass acceleration as feedback for control of standing balance by functional neuromuscular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L; Triolo, Ronald J

    2012-05-06

    The purpose of this study was to determine the comparative effectiveness of feedback control systems for maintaining standing balance based on joint kinematics or total body center of mass (COM) acceleration, and assess their clinical practicality for standing neuroprostheses after spinal cord injury (SCI). In simulation, controller performance was measured according to the upper extremity effort required to stabilize a three-dimensional model of bipedal standing against a variety of postural disturbances. Three cases were investigated: proportional-derivative control based on joint kinematics alone, COM acceleration feedback alone, and combined joint kinematics and COM acceleration feedback. Additionally, pilot data was collected during external perturbations of an individual with SCI standing with functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS), and the resulting joint kinematics and COM acceleration data was analyzed. Compared to the baseline case of maximal constant muscle excitations, the three control systems reduced the mean upper extremity loading by 51%, 43% and 56%, respectively against external force-pulse perturbations. Controller robustness was defined as the degradation in performance with increasing levels of input errors expected with clinical deployment of sensor-based feedback. At error levels typical for body-mounted inertial sensors, performance degradation due to sensor noise and placement were negligible. However, at typical tracking error levels, performance could degrade as much as 86% for joint kinematics feedback and 35% for COM acceleration feedback. Pilot data indicated that COM acceleration could be estimated with a few well-placed sensors and efficiently captures information related to movement synergies observed during perturbed bipedal standing following SCI. Overall, COM acceleration feedback may be a more feasible solution for control of standing with FNS given its superior robustness and small number of inputs required.

  2. Comparing joint kinematics and center of mass acceleration as feedback for control of standing balance by functional neuromuscular stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataraj Raviraj

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the comparative effectiveness of feedback control systems for maintaining standing balance based on joint kinematics or total body center of mass (COM acceleration, and assess their clinical practicality for standing neuroprostheses after spinal cord injury (SCI. Methods In simulation, controller performance was measured according to the upper extremity effort required to stabilize a three-dimensional model of bipedal standing against a variety of postural disturbances. Three cases were investigated: proportional-derivative control based on joint kinematics alone, COM acceleration feedback alone, and combined joint kinematics and COM acceleration feedback. Additionally, pilot data was collected during external perturbations of an individual with SCI standing with functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS, and the resulting joint kinematics and COM acceleration data was analyzed. Results Compared to the baseline case of maximal constant muscle excitations, the three control systems reduced the mean upper extremity loading by 51%, 43% and 56%, respectively against external force-pulse perturbations. Controller robustness was defined as the degradation in performance with increasing levels of input errors expected with clinical deployment of sensor-based feedback. At error levels typical for body-mounted inertial sensors, performance degradation due to sensor noise and placement were negligible. However, at typical tracking error levels, performance could degrade as much as 86% for joint kinematics feedback and 35% for COM acceleration feedback. Pilot data indicated that COM acceleration could be estimated with a few well-placed sensors and efficiently captures information related to movement synergies observed during perturbed bipedal standing following SCI. Conclusions Overall, COM acceleration feedback may be a more feasible solution for control of standing with FNS given its

  3. Performance Comparison of Student-Athletes and General College Students on the Functional Movement Screen and the Y Balance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engquist, Katherine D; Smith, Craig A; Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2015-08-01

    Although various studies have assessed performance of athletes on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y Balance Test (YBT), no study to date has directly evaluated a comparison of performance between athletes and members of the general population. Thus, to better understand the application of the FMS and the YBT to general college students, this study examined whether or not general college students performed similarly to student-athletes on the FMS (composite and movement pattern scores) and the YBT (composite and reach directions). This study evaluated 167 Division I student-athletes and 103 general college students from the same university on the FMS and the YBT. No difference was found in FMS composite scores between student-athletes and general college students. For FMS movement patterns, female student-athletes scored higher than general college students in the deep squat. No difference was found for men in any FMS movement pattern. Female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in YBT composite scores; no difference was found for men in YBT composite scores. In analysis of YBT reach directions, female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in all reach directions, whereas no difference was found in men. Existing research on the FMS composite score in athletic populations may apply to a general college population for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc. Existing research on the YBT in male athletic populations is expected to apply equally to general college males for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc.

  4. Self-consistent embedding of density-matrix renormalization group wavefunctions in a density functional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Neugebauer, Johannes; Knecht, Stefan; Keller, Sebastian; Ma, Yingjin; Reiher, Markus

    2015-01-28

    We present the first implementation of a density matrix renormalization group algorithm embedded in an environment described by density functional theory. The frozen density embedding scheme is used with a freeze-and-thaw strategy for a self-consistent polarization of the orbital-optimized wavefunction and the environmental densities with respect to each other.

  5. Grouping notes through nodes: The functions of Post-It notes in design team cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the way Post-It notes support creative design team practice, focusing on how they function as cognitive externalisations that, through grouping activities, support categorisation qualities associated with semantic long-term memory. We use a multimodal approach, drawing...

  6. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  7. Do seedling functional groups reflect ecological strategies of woody plant species in Caatinga?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Gomes Calaça Menezes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is assumed that morphological traits of seedlings reflect different strategies in response to environmental conditions. The ecological significance of this has been widely documented in rainforests, where habitat structure and species interactions play an important role in community assembly. However, in seasonally dry ecosystems, where environmental filtering is expected to strongly influence community structure, this relationship is poorly understood. We investigated this relationship between functional groups of seedlings and life history traits and tested whether functional group predicts the ecological strategies employed by woody species to deal with the stressful conditions in seasonally dry ecosystems. Seedling functional groups, life history traits and traits that reflect ecological strategies for occupying seasonally dry environments were described for twenty-six plant species. Seedlings of species from the Caatinga vegetation exhibited a functional profile different from that observed in rainforests ecosystems. Phanerocotylar-epigeal seedlings were the most frequently observed groups, and had the largest range of ecological strategies related to dealing with seasonally dry environments, while phanerocotylar-hypogeal-reserve seedlings exhibited an increase in frequency with seasonality. We discuss these results in relation to those observed in other tropical forests and their ecological significance in seasonally dry environments.

  8. Using Differential Item Functioning Procedures to Explore Sources of Item Difficulty and Group Performance Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuneman, Janice Dowd; Gerritz, Kalle

    1990-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) methodology for revealing sources of item difficulty and performance characteristics of different groups was explored. A total of 150 Scholastic Aptitude Test items and 132 Graduate Record Examination general test items were analyzed. DIF was evaluated for males and females and Blacks and Whites. (SLD)

  9. Functional group, biomass, and climate change effects on ecological drought in semiarid grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.; Duniway, Michael C.; Hall, Sonia A.; Jamiyansharav, Khishigbayar; Jia, Gensuo; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Munson, Seth M.; Pyke, David A.; Tietjen, Britta

    2018-01-01

    Water relations in plant communities are influenced both by contrasting functional groups (grasses, shrubs) and by climate change via complex effects on interception, uptake and transpiration. We modelled the effects of functional group replacement and biomass increase, both of which can be outcomes of invasion and vegetation management, and climate change on ecological drought (soil water potential below which photosynthesis stops) in 340 semiarid grassland sites over 30‐year periods. Relative to control vegetation (climate and site‐determined mixes of functional groups), the frequency and duration of drought were increased by shrubs and decreased by annual grasses. The rankings of shrubs, control vegetation, and annual grasses in terms of drought effects were generally consistent in current and future climates, suggesting that current differences among functional groups on drought effects predict future differences. Climate change accompanied by experimentally‐increased biomass (i.e. the effects of invasions that increase community biomass, or management that increases productivity through fertilization or respite from grazing) increased drought frequency and duration, and advanced drought onset. Our results suggest that the replacement of perennial temperate semiarid grasslands by shrubs, or increased biomass, can increase ecological drought both in current and future climates.