WorldWideScience

Sample records for group formation asma

  1. Asma; tratamiento actual

    OpenAIRE

    Córdoba Mejía, Hernán; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2000-01-01

    ¿Qué es el asma?/ ¿Quiénes pueden tener asma?/ ¿Qué tan frecuente es el asma?/ ¿Cómo hago para saber si tengo asma?/ ¿Hay diferentes tipos de asma?/ ¿Cómo saber cuál es el tipo de asma que se tiene?/ ¿Cómo se trata el asma actualmente?/ ¿Los medicamentos antiasmáticos pueden ser administrados en diferentes formas?

  2. Heterogenitas Asma Berat

    OpenAIRE

    Zubir, Zuhrial; Abidin, Alwinsyah; E.N. Keliat; Triyono

    2016-01-01

    Asma merupakan penyakit yang heterogen, suatu sindrom klinis yang kompleks dengan berbagai faktor yang terlibat di dalamnya seperti faktor genetik dan faktor lingkungan. The 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program’s Expert Panel Report 3, dalam tatalaksana untuk diagnosis dan manajemen asma, mendefinisikan asma sebagai suatu inflamasi kronik yang menyebabkan hiperesponsif jalan napas sehingga menimbulkan gejala episodik berulang yang berhubungan dengan obstruksi jalan napas yang...

  3. Asma inducido por ejercicio

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Zabala, Mª Gracia

    1997-01-01

    Este trabajo consiste en una revisión de artículos y libros que tratan sobre el asma inducido por ejercicio. Principalmente me he basado en cinco artículos realizados en los últimos arios y en diferentes libros que me han servido de apoyo. Algunas consideraciones del asma inducido por el ejercicio son las siguientes: La probabilidad de presentar broncoespasmo, así como la intensidad del mismo, después de realizar ejercicio, se incrementa con la severidad del asma, aunque hay individuos en los...

  4. Asma, obesidad y dieta

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El asma y la obesidad son dos trastornos de gran impacto en la salud pública que han aumentado su prevalencia en los últimos años. Numerosos estudios han relacionado ambas entidades. La mayoría de los estudios prospectivos demuestran que la obesidad es un factor de riesgo para el diagnóstico “de novo” de asma. Además, los resultados de diversos estudios sugieren que así como la ganancia de peso aumenta el riesgo de asma, la pérdida mejora su evolución. En general, l...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of fac-Re(CO)3-aspartic-N-monoacetic acid, a structural analogue of a potential new renal tracer, fac-(99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenc, Jeffrey; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Taylor, Andrew T; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2012-09-01

    The reaction of an aminopolycarboxylate ligand, aspartic-N-monoacetic acid (ASMA), with [Re(CO)3(H2O)3](+) was examined. The tridentate coordination of ASMA to this Re(I) tricarbonyl precursor yielded fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) as a mixture of diastereomers. The chemistry is analogous to that of the Tc(I) tricarbonyl complex, which yields fac-(99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) under similar conditions. The formation, structure, and isomerization of fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) products were characterized by HPLC, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. The two major fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) diastereomeric products each have a linear ONO coordination mode with two adjacent five-membered chelate rings, but they differ in the endo or exo orientation of the uncoordinated acetate group, in agreement with expectations based on previous studies. Conditions have been identified for the expedient isomerization of fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) to a mixture consisting primarily of one major product. Because different isomeric species typically have different pharmacokinetic characteristics, these conditions may provide for the practical isolation of a single (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) species, thus allowing the isolation of the isomer that has optimal imaging and pharmacokinetic characteristics. This information will aid in the design of future (99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals.

  6. Group Formation in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Gabrielle; Wooders, Myrna

    2005-01-01

    Broad and diverse ranges of activities are conducted within and by organized groups of individuals, including political, economic and social activities. These activities have recently become a subject of intense interest in economics and game theory. Some of the topics investigated in this collection are models of networks of power and privilege, trade networks, co-authorship networks, buyer-seller networks with differentiated products, and networks of medical innovation and the adaptation of new information. Other topics are social norms on punctuality, clubs and the provision of club goods and public goods, research and development and collusive alliances among corporations, and international alliances and trading agreements. While relatively recent, the literature on game theoretic studies of group formation in economics is already vast. This volume provides an introduction to this important literature on game-theoretic treatments of situations with networks, clubs, and coalitions, including some applications.

  7. Asma: factores precipitantes

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta, José Eduardo da Silva Maia Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    A asma é uma doença pulmonar crónica caracterizada por obstrução das vias aéreas, inflamação e hiperreactividade brônquica. A asma afecta cerca de 150 milhões de pessoas de todas as idades no Mundo. Em Portugal calcula-se que atinja cerca de 600.000 pessoas incluindo crianças e adultos, calculando-se que afecte cerca de 11% das crianças e 5% dos adultos. A asma é uma doença que provavelmente resulta de uma interacção complexa entre múltiplos factores ambientais e influências...

  8. Asma bronquial y auriculoterapia

    OpenAIRE

    José Ramón Martínez Pérez; Lourdes Leonor Bermúdez Cordoví

    2014-01-01

    El incremento de la morbimortalidad por asma y el manejo del paciente asmático representan problemas difíciles en la medicina moderna, esto fue el motivo para realizar un trabajo de revisión, con el objetivo de abordar aspectos relacionados con la aplicación de la auriculoterapia en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad, así como esclarecer los posibles efectos beneficiosos de esta modalidad terapéutica en la misma. Se concluye que el efecto corrector de la auriculoterapia sobre el asma se explic...

  9. Asma bronquial y auriculoterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Martínez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El incremento de la morbimortalidad por asma y el manejo del paciente asmático representan problemas difíciles en la medicina moderna, esto fue el motivo para realizar un trabajo de revisión, con el objetivo de abordar aspectos relacionados con la aplicación de la auriculoterapia en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad, así como esclarecer los posibles efectos beneficiosos de esta modalidad terapéutica en la misma. Se concluye que el efecto corrector de la auriculoterapia sobre el asma se explica a través de mecanismos neurológicos, humorales, bioeléctricos e inmunológicos que producen broncodilatación, inmunomodulación y respuesta antiinflamatoria. Entre los puntos de la auriculopuntura más utilizados en el tratamiento del asma se incluyen a: shen men, simpático, asma y Ding chuan auricular. Se hacen algunas consideraciones sobre el tema

  10. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive...

  11. Fenotipo de asma en obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyos-Sánchez Bautista de la cruz; Miranda-Machado Pablo Andrés

    2010-01-01

    La obesidad y el asma son enfermedades prevalentes a nivel mundial y el aumento de la prevalencia de ambas, constituye un reto en salud pública. Diversos estudios sugieren una asociación en la obesidad y el asma. El objetivo de los autores fue realizar una revisión de la literatura de la evidencia que permita describir el fenotipo de asma en Obesidad. Los estudios sugieren un fenotipo de asma asociado a la obesidad, caracterizado por antecedentes de bajo peso al nacer, inactividad física en l...

  12. Fisiopatologia da asma grave

    OpenAIRE

    Todo-Bom, Ana; Mota-Pinto, Anabela

    2006-01-01

    Não tem resumo. Transcreve-se o primeiro parágrafo: A história natural da asma e os condicionalismos de uma evolução para formas moderadas ou graves não está completamente estabelecida. Contudo, quer os factores genéticos quer os factores ambientais, serão determinantes na fisiopatologia e no prognóstico da doença. A asma é, por definição, uma doença inflamatória crónica das vias aéreas caracterizada por uma obstrução brônquica generalizada mas variável que é, pelo menos parcialmente, reve...

  13. Asma bronquial y furosemida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Martínez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La compleja fisiopatología del asma bronquial se refleja en el manejo del paciente asmático, constituyendo un problema de salud en la medicina moderna. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, con el objetivo de abordar aspectos relacionados con la aplicación de la furosemida en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad, en busca de esclarecer posibles efectos beneficiosos de esta modalidad terapéutica. Se utilizaron los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed, mediante la cual se accedieron a bases de datos especializadas. De la bibliografía consultada se concluye que el efecto corrector de este fármaco sobre el asma se explica a través de mecanismos que involucran el transporte iónico a través de membranas celulares, produciendo acción directa sobre la vía aérea, efecto antitusígeno, vasodilatación pulmonar, sobre los derivados de la cicloxigenasa y antinflamatorio. Aún no se dispone de datos significativos que permitan concluir con certeza acerca de la efectividad del tratamiento, ya que existen discrepancias entre varios de los estudios realizados. Se recomienda prudencia y proceder con rigurosidad a la hora de experimentar el uso de la furosemida en el asma

  14. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive....... Following research based design methodology an experiment separating the two was initiated.This was to provide for more openness and creativity in contrast to a design in which existing relations seem predominant.......A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive...

  15. Asma ocupacional Occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cebollero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Asma ocupacional es aquella entidad que se desarrolla por causas o condiciones derivadas de un determinado medio laboral y no por estímulos que se encuentran fuera del trabajo. El asma ocupacional constituye hoy en día la enfermedad respiratoria ocupacional más frecuente en la mayoría de los países industrializados y se calcula que la proporción de nuevos casos de asma atribuibles a la exposición laboral se sitúa en torno al 10-15%. Puede desarrollarse tanto por un mecanismo inmunológico como no inmunológico. En su desarrollo influyen el tipo de agente al que se está expuesto, el nivel y modo de exposición y factores genéticos de susceptibilidad. En el proceso diagnóstico concurre la confirmación de que el paciente tiene asma bronquial y la confirmación de que ésta se produce por causa laboral. Como demuestra la historia natural de la enfermedad, un diagnóstico precoz y las consiguientes acciones posteriores redundan en un mejor pronóstico de la misma.Occupational asthma is an entity caused by conditions deriving from a certain work milieu and not from stimuli found outside the workplace. Nowadays, occupational asthma is the most frequent respiratory occupational disease in the majority of the industrialised countries and it is estimated that the proportion of new cases of asthma that can be attributed to exposure at work is around 10-15%. It can be developed due to an immunological mechanism or to a non-immunological mechanism. Influential in its development are the type of agent exposed to, the level and form of exposure and genetic factors of susceptibility. In the diagnostic process there is a concurrent confirmation that the patient has bronchial asthma and that this has been caused by occupational reasons. As shown by the natural history of the disease, an early diagnosis and the consequent posterior actions result in an improved prognosis.

  16. Asma bronquial y furosemida

    OpenAIRE

    José Ramón Martínez Pérez; Lourdes Leonor Bermúdez Cordoví

    2014-01-01

    La compleja fisiopatología del asma bronquial se refleja en el manejo del paciente asmático, constituyendo un problema de salud en la medicina moderna. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, con el objetivo de abordar aspectos relacionados con la aplicación de la furosemida en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad, en busca de esclarecer posibles efectos beneficiosos de esta modalidad terapéutica. Se utilizaron los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed, mediante la cual se accedieron a bases de ...

  17. Asma ocupacional Occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lusia Godoy Fernandes

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A asma relacionada ao trabalho é uma das principais doenças respiratórias ocupacionais em termos de prevalência. Inúmeras substâncias químicas utilizadas nas mais diversas atividades produtivas podem desencadear ou agravar essa doença. A definição e a classificação da asma relacionada ao trabalho são descritas, bem como, suas repercussões epidemiológicas, história natural, critérios diagnósticos, evolução, prognóstico e seus aspectos legais, de forma resumida, objetivando alertar sobre essa doença e suas implicações trabalhistas.Work-related asthma is one of the principal occupational respiratory diseases in terms of prevalence. Innumerable chemical substances used in various production processes can cause or aggravate occupational asthma. This chapter contains a brief description of the definition and classification of work-related asthma, as well as the epidemiological repercussions, natural course, diagnostic criteria, progression and legal aspects of the disease, with the objective of raising an alert regarding this disease and its implications for workers.

  18. Mediadores inflamatorios en el asma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Alvarez Sintes

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los mediadores inflamatorios que intervienen en los cambios característicos del asma bronquial; mastocitos, macrófagos, eosinófilos, neutrófilos, células epiteliales y plaquetas.

  19. Asma y atelectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Fernández Couse

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio de 155 niños, procedentes del cuerpo de guardia del Hospital Docente "José Ramón Martínez" de Guanajay, con el diagnóstico de asma bronquial, ingresados en el Servicio de Respiratorio para identificar posibles complicaciones según el juicio clínico del médico. En el 12,9 % de los pacientes se detectó la atelectasia como complicación, las manifestaciones clínicas de ésta quedaron enmascaradas por las de la crisis de asma bronquial. El pulmón derecho resultó ser el más afectado y la forma lobulillar fue la variedad que predominó. Se identificó un sobre diagnóstico de neumopatías inflamatorias, que se confundió con la atelectasia, lo cual trajo como resultado el uso indiscriminado de agentes antimicrobianos.It is conducted a study of 155 children from the Emergency Room of the "José Ramón Martínez" Teaching Hospital in Guanajay. These patients had a diagnosis of bronchial asthma and were admitted in the Respiratory Service to identify possible complications according to the clinical judgement of the physician. Atelectasis was detected as a complication in 12.9 % of the patients, and its clinical manifestations were masked by those of the bronchial asthma crisis. The right lung was the most affected and the lobular form was the predominant variety. It was detected an overdiagnosis of inflammatory pneumopathies that was confused with atelectasis, resulting in the indiscriminated use antimicrobial agents.

  20. Gambaran Penggunaan Obat Asma pada Pasien Asma di Puskesmas Kota Medan Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira,, V.D.

    2015-01-01

    Asma merupakan masalah kesehatan yang dapat menurunkan kualitas dan produktifitas hidup penderitanya sehingga dibutuhkan penatalaksanaan yang tepat. Penatalaksanaan asma sudah seharusnya bisa dilakukan oleh dokter umum sampai tuntas sesuai dengan Standar Kompetensi Dokter Indonesia dimana puskesmas sebagai ujung tombak terdepan dalam pelayanan kesehatan dilayani oleh dokter umum. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui gambaran penggunaan obat asma pada pasien asma di puskesmas Kot...

  1. Asma ocupacional en envasadores de alimentos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cruz, María Jesús; Albanell, Miquel; Morell Brotad, Ferran; Muñoz, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    ... específica, confirmaron el diagnóstico de asma ocupacional. Si bien el cloruro de polivinilo ha sido el agente involucrado en este tipo de asma, se discuten otros posibles agentes etiológicos...

  2. LATIHAN FISIK MENCETUSKAN ASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afriwardi Afriwardi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAsma yang dicetuskan latihan fisik (exercise-induced asthma merupakan suatu kelainan yang ditandai dengan terjadinya bronkospasme serta hipersekresi mukosa bronkus yang dicetuskan oleh kegiatan olahraga atau aktifitas fisik. Kami melaporkan satu kasus seorang atlet putri karate, umur 24 tahun yang sudah menekuni olahraga selama 10 tahun. Serangan sesak nafas yang kadang menimbulkan mengi dan dada terasa berat seringkali timbul saat melakukan latihan. Pada umumnya sesak dan dada berat akan berkurang setelah latihan dihentikan. Diagnosis ditegakkan dengan anamnesis dan pemeriksaan fisik yang dilakukan pada saat serangan yang terakhir serta adanya catatan medis yang sempat terdokumentasi. Perlu dilakukan kajian yang mendalam terhadap kasus ini karena serangan tersebut sangat mengganggu program latihan yang diberikan untuk atlet tersebut. Penelusuran terhadap faktor pencetus serta pemahaman karakteristik serangan akan sangat membantu pelatih dalam menyiapkan program latihan untuk atlet ini guna memperoleh prestasi terbaik.Kata kunci: exercise induced asthma – diagnosis - program latihanAbstractAsthma triggered by physical exercise (exercise-induced asthma is a marked disorder with the occurrence of bronchospasm and hypersecretion of bronchial mucous triggered by sports or physical activity. We report a case of a karate sportswoman, aged 24 years old who has engaged in sports for 10 years. Shortness of breath attacks that sometimes followed with wheezing and chest heaviness often occurs during exercise. In general, shortness of breath and chest heaviness will decrease after the training is stopped. Diagnosis by interview and physical examination conducted at the time of the attack, and documented n the medical record. In-depth study of the case need to be performed because the attack seriously affects training provided to the athlete. Studying the triggering factors and understanding the characteristics of the attack will greatly help

  3. Asma del lactante, diagnostico, manejo y seguimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Fernádez, Juan Manuel; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2003-01-01

    Cambios en el manejo del lactante con sibilancias/ ¿Cómo distinguir entonces uno del otro?/Programa y clínica de asma del lactante/Elementos del programa de diagnóstico y seguimiento/Diagnóstico de asma del lactante/Estudios complementarios/Grado de severidad del asma/Seguimiento del lactante con asma/Educación sobre la enfermedad/Evitar desencadenantes, medidas de protección ambiental/Tratamiento farmacológico de fondo/Plan para las crisis.

  4. Asma del lactante, diagnostico, manejo y seguimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Fernádez, Juan Manuel; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2003-01-01

    Cambios en el manejo del lactante con sibilancias/ ¿Cómo distinguir entonces uno del otro?/Programa y clínica de asma del lactante/Elementos del programa de diagnóstico y seguimiento/Diagnóstico de asma del lactante/Estudios complementarios/Grado de severidad del asma/Seguimiento del lactante con asma/Educación sobre la enfermedad/Evitar desencadenantes, medidas de protección ambiental/Tratamiento farmacológico de fondo/Plan para las crisis.

  5. Ansiedade e depressão em pacientes com asma: impacto no controle da asma

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Aline Arlindo; Santoro, Ilka Lopes; Dracoulakis,Samir; Caetano,Lilian Ballini; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Existem evidências da associação entre asma e sintomas psiquiátricos e transtornos mentais. Essa associação pode resultar em dificuldades de se atingir o controle da asma. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação de ansiedade e depressão com o controle da asma. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 78 pacientes asmáticos com diagnóstico confirmado de asma moderada a grave e regularmente tratados no Ambulatório de Asma do Hospital São Paulo da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São...

  6. Asma inducida por el ejercicio.

    OpenAIRE

    Laurencena, Soledad

    2010-01-01

    El asma inducido por el ejercicio es una sensación de dificultad respiratoria, con la presencia de tos, sibilancias y opresión torácica tras realizar un esfuerzo físico. Sería el broncoespasmo transitorio que ocurre tras un ejercicio mantenido de tres a ocho minutos de duración al ochenta por ciento o más de la frecuencia cardíaca máxima. Se realizó un estudio transversal, descriptivo no experimental, tomando una muestra de 100 personas, entre 14 y 18 años, que estudian el ...

  7. Asma bronquial. Estado del arte.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Salazar

    2009-01-01

    Para infinidad de personas el asma es su problema de salud. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento varían dependiendo de la magnitud del compromiso y la causa que produce la reacción inflamatoria en los pulmones. La prevención y el tratamiento serán mejores si la población y los pacientes reconocen la necesidad de evitar determinadas exposiciones ambientales y el uso de medicamentos con la frecuencia necesaria. Ahora los médicos generales conocen mejor la fisiología y patología de esta enfermedad y ...

  8. The formation of compact groups of galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马駬; 俞允强

    1999-01-01

    In the compact group of galaxies the galaxies can merge into a few massive ones in a very short time, so they must be formed very recently. On the other hand, according to the theory of structure formation, the denser system should form earlier. By analyzing the apparent paradox, we suggest that the merging process of CDM halo plays an important role in the formation of the compact groups of galaxies: it delays the formation of compact groups of galaxies, and makes the groups of galaxies much denser.

  9. Asma e Gravidez: Tratamento Hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauad Filho Francisco

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar as complicações perinatais decorrentes da associação de asma e gravidez em pacientes que necessitaram hospitalização para controle da crise asmática. Método: análise retrospectiva de 12 casos de asma e gravidez que necessitaram de internação hospitalar e foram assistidos no Departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, no período compreendido entre 1992 e 1996. Os parâmetros analisados foram: idade materna, acompanhamento pré-natal, tempo de permanência hospitalar, tratamento instituído, intercorrências gravídicas, idade gestacional ao parto, tipo de parto, peso ao nascer e índice de Apgar. Resultados: das 12 gestantes asmáticas, 7 não haviam iniciado o seguimento pré-natal antes da internação para o tratamento da crise asmática. Três pacientes apresentaram doença hipertensiva específica da gravidez, sendo um dos casos associado a rotura prematura de membranas e corioamnionite e outro associado a descolamento prematuro de placenta. Foram diagnosticados 2 casos de insuficiência placentária, um deles associado a trabalho de parto prematuro e transfusão feto-fetal em gestação gemelar e outro associado a oligoâmnio. Foi detectado 1 caso de oligoâmnio associado a pneumonia materna e óbito fetal e também 1 caso de polidrâmnio. Além disso, ocorreram 2 casos de parto prematuro e 3 recém-nascidos foram considerados pequenos para a idade gestacional. Conclusões: a prevenção das complicações da asma na gravidez deve ser instituída antes mesmo da concepção, enfatizando-se os aspectos educativos da paciente em relação à doença e afastando-se quando possível os fatores desencadeantes das crises, como os alergênios ambientais e o tabagismo. O tratamento deve ser instituído precocemente e a paciente deve ser acompanhada em conjunto pelo obstetra e pelo pneumologista.

  10. Asma bronquial. Estado del arte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Salazar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Para infinidad de personas el asma es su problema de salud. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento varían dependiendo de la magnitud del compromiso y la causa que produce la reacción inflamatoria en los pulmones. La prevención y el tratamiento serán mejores si la población y los pacientes reconocen la necesidad de evitar determinadas exposiciones ambientales y el uso de medicamentos con la frecuencia necesaria. Ahora los médicos generales conocen mejor la fisiología y patología de esta enfermedad y los mecanismos de acción de los diferentes medicamentos. El tratamiento con aerosol debe comprenderse mejor para evitar efectos colaterales en los pacientes y darles una mejor calidad de vida. Se discuten los nuevos tratamientos para el estado asmático y en las unidades de cuidados intensivos.

  11. Ansiedade e depressão em pacientes com asma: impacto no controle da asma Anxiety and depression in asthma patients: impact on asthma control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Arlindo Vieira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Existem evidências da associação entre asma e sintomas psiquiátricos e transtornos mentais. Essa associação pode resultar em dificuldades de se atingir o controle da asma. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação de ansiedade e depressão com o controle da asma. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 78 pacientes asmáticos com diagnóstico confirmado de asma moderada a grave e regularmente tratados no Ambulatório de Asma do Hospital São Paulo da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo (SP. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos em relação ao status de controle de asma, determinado através do teste de controle da asma, e, posteriormente, comparados em termos de dados demográficos, clínicos e espirométricos, escore do questionário de qualidade de vida para asma e escore da escala hospitalar de ansiedade e depressão. RESULTADOS: A maioria era do sexo feminino. Dos 78 pacientes, 49 (63% foram classificados como tendo asma não controlada. A prevalência de ansiedade e do binômio ansiedade/depressão foi significantemente maior entre os pacientes não controlados do que nos controlados (78% e 100%; p = 0,04 e p = 0,02, respectivamente, enquanto nem prevalência de depressão, nem os dados espirométricos ou de qualidade de vida diferiram entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: Nesta amostra, os pacientes com asma não controlada apresentaram uma maior prevalência de sintomas de ansiedade que aqueles com asma controlada. Na avaliação de pacientes asmáticos, deve-se considerar o impacto negativo dos distúrbios de humor nas estratégias de controle da asma.OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that asthma is associated with an increase in psychiatric symptoms and mental disorders. This association can make it difficult to achieve asthma control. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the level of asthma control is associated with anxiety and depression. METHODS: A crosssectional study involving 78 patients with

  12. The dynamics of group formation among leeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eBisson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Leeches exploring a new environment continuously meet each other and merge in temporary groups. After 2-3 hours, leeches become attracted to each other eventually forming a large and stable group. When their number is reduced, leeches remain solitary, behaving independently. Group formation is facilitated by body injection of serotonin (5-HT and the level of endogenous 5-HT is elevated in leeches forming a large group. In contrast, intravenous injection of 5-HT antagonists prevented injected leeches from joining a large group of conspecifics. When sensilla near the head were ablated or the supraesophageal ganglion disconnected, leeches remained solitary, but explored the environment swimming and crawling. These results suggest that group formation is initiated by a release of 5-HT triggered by sensilla stimulation and its dynamics can be explained by the establishment of a reinforcement dynamics, as observed during human group formation. As 5-HT affects social interactions also in humans, group formation in leeches and humans share a similar dynamics and hormonal control.

  13. Toxocara canis y asma bronquial Toxocara canis and bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles López

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A fin de evaluar la relación entre la infección por Toxocara canis y los síntomas del asma bronquial en niños de una región subtropical con alta prevalencia de toxocariosis, se estudiaron 47 niños con asma y 53 sin asma como grupo control. Se efectuó el examen físico completo, registrándose datos clínicos y epidemiológicos. En los niños con asma se categorizó el patrón de presentación, frecuencia y gravedad de los síntomas con una escala de I a IV. Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos anti-Toxocara canis en ambos grupos mediante el método de ELISA en fase sólida, empleando antígeno de excreción/secreción y se efectuó dosaje de Ig E total. Los resultados muestran una seropositividad del 55% en el total de los niños, del 57.4% en los niños con asma y del 52.8% en los controles. En los niños con sintomatología más grave (grado II, III y IV hubo un 67.7% de seropositivos, mientras que en los niños con síntomas de grado I la seropositividad fue de 37.5% (p = 0.0470. La infección por T. canis actuaría como un co-factor agravante de los síntomas del asma bronquial.In order to evaluate the association between the infection by Toxocara canis and the symptoms of asthma in children from a subtropical region with high prevalence of toxocariasis, 47 asthmatic children and 53 non-asthmatics as a control group were studied. A complete physical examination was performed and clinical and epidemiological data were registered. In asthmatic children the frequency and severity of symptoms were classified in grades I to IV. The presence of anti-Toxocara canis antibodies in both groups was evaluated employing a solid phase ELISA method with excretion/secretion antigens, and total Ig E was also measured. Results showed a total seropositivity of 55%, 57.4% in children with asthma and 52.8% in the control group. Among asthmatics with severe symptoms (grade II, III and IV, there was a 67.7% of seropositivity while in children with

  14. Group formation and ideology. Text and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, M

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the phenomenon of 'mass formation' (Massenbildung) and the production and circulation of ideologies is examined. The explanation of the said relationship must take into account both the social dimension as well as the intrapsychic structure of the ideological. To achieve this a brief review of Freud's ideas on group psychology and of some definitions of ideology, namely those proposed by Ricoeur, Althusser and Habermas is expounded. In the same way as the understanding of the vicissitudes of identification is crucial to gain insight into 'mass formation', the investigation of the processes of idealization is vital to the understanding of the ideological.

  15. ASMA DEL LACTANTE: ACTUALIZACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Javier Mallol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El asma del lactante en los dos primeros años de vida, es la forma de presentación más frecuente, además de episodios recurrentes de sibilancias y tos, es una condición de alta prevalencia; sin embargo, es frecuentemente sub-diagnosticada y sub-tratada. Una elevada proporción de estos lactantes sufren episodios severos, visitas a servicios de urgencia y hospitalizaciones, lo cual altera profundamente su calidad de vida y la de sus padres. El diagnóstico de asma en el lactante es clínico y se basa en la presencia de tos y sibilancias recurrentes, presencia de factores de riesgo para asma, y la respuesta al tratamiento. Los corticoides inhalados son el tratamiento de primera línea y tanto su efecto como la adherencia, deben ser monitoreados. Actualmente, no hay razones científicas ni clínicas para posponer el diagnóstico y tratamiento en lactantes con síntomas de asma, especialmente si la frecuencia y severidad de los episodios alteran la calidad de vida del niño y de su familia.

  16. ASMA SEVERA EN ADULTOS: ENFOQUE DIAGNÓSTICO Y TRATAMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Barría P., DRA.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El asma es una enfermedad frecuente de fisiopatología compleja. El asma severa constituye aproximadamente el 5% de la población de asmáticos, sin embargo representa un desafío clínico y una carga sanitaria importante. Estudios recientes demuestran la existencia de fenotipos en todo el espectro de gravedad. La eosinofilia en esputo y sangre ha demostrado utilidad como marcador de inflamación Th-2 y de respuesta clínica a esteroides, sin embargo aún no existe mucho conocimiento sobre el asma no-eosinofílica. Los tratamientos actuales en asma se enfocan a estrategias de terapia escalonada según severidad, pero en pacientes con asma severa se requiere también del manejo multidisciplinario de las comorbilidades y la determinación del fenotipo, para aplicar terapias más especificas. El desarrollo acelerado de nuevos tratamientos en asma severa como consecuencia del mejor conocimiento de los distintos fenotipos ha ampliado el arsenal terapéutico para un enfrentamiento personalizado y específico en los pacientes con asma severa.

  17. Biofeedback: Infant asthma Biofeedback: asma infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Nombela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The present study is a revision of the different applications of biofeedback in infantile bronchial asthma. The technique may be used on its own (preferably in the motor area or in conjunction with other techniques such as hypnosis, relaxation, etc. However, it should be stated that previous work published in this field is difficult to interpret since results are inconclusive, it is, therefore, difficult to produce a scientific summary.

    KEY WORDS: Biofeedback; infantile asthma; respiratory biofeedback.

    Con este trabajo se pretende hacer una revisión sobre las distintas aplicaciones del biofeedback en el asma bronquial infantil, bien solo (preferentemente en el campo motriz o bien asociado a otras técnicas de hipnosis, relajación, etc. Aunque es necesario manifestar que la producción científica relacionada con el tema, hace que tenga una difícil valoración dado que sus resultados son no concluyentes y discutibles, lo cual dificulta la elaboración de un resumen científico.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Biofeedback; asma infantil; biofeedback respiratorio

  18. Asma, obesidad y dieta Asthma, obesity and diet

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El asma y la obesidad son dos trastornos de gran impacto en la salud pública que han aumentado su prevalencia en los últimos años. Numerosos estudios han relacionado ambas entidades. La mayoría de los estudios prospectivos demuestran que la obesidad es un factor de riesgo para el diagnóstico "de novo" de asma. Además, los resultados de diversos estudios sugieren que así como la ganancia de peso aumenta el riesgo de asma, la pérdida mejora su evolución. En general, los estudios prospectivos en...

  19. Expert group formation using facility location analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neshati, Mahmood; Beigy, Hamid; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimization framework to retrieve an optimal group of experts to perform a multi-aspect task. While a diverse set of skills are needed to perform a multi-aspect task, the group of assigned experts should be able to collectively cover all these required skills. We consid

  20. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.;

    2015-01-01

    , bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...... color space. This supports the idea that at least some galaxies in HCGs are transitioning objects, where a disruption of the existing molecular gas in the system suppresses SF by inhibiting the molecular gas from collapsing and forming stars efficiently. These observations, combined with recent work...

  1. Prostaglandines per tractar l'asma

    OpenAIRE

    Herrerias, Aida; Departament de Farmacologia, de Terapèutica i de Toxicologia

    2009-01-01

    Aproximadament 150 milions de persones arreu del món pateixen asma, sent a les societats més avançades on la incidència és més elevada. I no s’atura. Dades que s’han de tenir molt presents, donat que actualment manquem d’un fàrmac curatiu. A més, si no és correctament avaluada i tractada, aquesta malaltia pot mermar considerablement la qualitat de vida de les persones afectades. En la recerca de nous camins terapèutics, les prostaglandines (PG) han aparegut a escena. Mol·lècules en origen, co...

  2. Conceptos Básicos en Asma Bronquial

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2001-01-01

    Si hay una patología común en medicina, especialmente en pediatría, esta es el asma bronquial.

    Más de cien millones de asmáticos habitan en la tierra; y aunque nunca antes se había sabido tanto de la fisiopatología de esta enfermedad, ni ha habido tantos fármacos y medios de tratarla, en un sinnúmero de casos ni los padres ni los médicos parecen encontrarle salida a tan desesperante situación.

    Nadie más preparado en nuestro medio para analizar este...

  3. Politics and Business Group Formation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2012-01-01

    and managerial independence from government agencies and which derives legitimacy from symbolizing China's economic rise. However, through the nomenklatura system, the Party controls the appointment of the CEOs and presidents of the most important of these enterprises and manages a cadre transfer system which......As a result of economic reform and administrative restructuring in China, a number of powerful state-owned business groups (“national champions”) have emerged within sectors of strategic importance. They are headed by a new corporate elite which enjoys unprecedentedly high levels of remuneration...

  4. Contracts and Insurance Group Formation by Myopic Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazarova, E.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; van Velzen, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper employs a cooperative approach to insurance group formation problems.The insurance group formation is analyzed in terms of stability with respect to one-person deviations.Depending on the exact contractual setting, three stability concepts are proposed: individual, contractual and compens

  5. The formation of group norms in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M

    2000-01-01

    The formation of group norms in computer-mediated communication (CMC) was examined among students who used e-mail as part of a course. A network analysis of group structures revealed that (a) content and form of communication is normative, group norms defining communication patterns within groups, (

  6. The formation of group norms in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M

    2000-01-01

    The formation of group norms in computer-mediated communication (CMC) was examined among students who used e-mail as part of a course. A network analysis of group structures revealed that (a) content and form of communication is normative, group norms defining communication patterns within groups, (

  7. Impacto do tabagismo parental sobre a asma infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco-Javier Gonzalez-Barcala

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a exposição da população infantil à FCA em nossa comunidade e sua relação com os sintomas de asma. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal usando o questionário de estudo ISAAC em crianças e adolescentes da nossa comunidade. Pelo questionário, fez-se a definição por "já ocorreu sibilância", "asma atual", "asma grave" e "asma induzida pelo exercício". O tabagismo parental foi classificado em quatro categorias mutuamente excludentes: 1 nenhum dos pais fuma; 2 somente a mãe fuma; 3 somente o pai fuma; e 4 ambos os pais fumam. Calculou-se a odds ratio da prevalência de sintomas de asma, de acordo com a exposição à FCA, usando regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídas, no total, 10.314 crianças e 10.453 adolescentes. Mais de 51% das crianças e adolescentes foram expostos à FCA em casa. A FCA se associa a uma prevalência mais alta de sintomas de asma, particularmente se a mãe ou ambos os pais fumam. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência da FCA continua a ser alta em nossa comunidade, embora com uma tendência para diminuição nos últimos 15 anos. A FCA se associa a uma prevalência mais alta de asma.

  8. PROSPECTS OF FORMATION FINANCIAL-INDUSTRIAL GROUPS IN UZBEKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Jasurbek Ataniyazov

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we evaluated the possibilities of the formation of financial-industrial groups, with participation of commercial banks and revealed features and prospects of formation financial-industrial groups in Uzbekistan. For the implementation of investment potential and development of financial-industrial integration, crucial are relations between the credit-financial institutions, mainly the commercial banks, and the industrial enterprises. The financial-industrial groups can play im...

  9. Conceptos Básicos en Asma Bronquial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Si hay una patología común en medicina, especialmente en pediatría, esta es el asma bronquial.

    Más de cien millones de asmáticos habitan en la tierra; y aunque nunca antes se había sabido tanto de la fisiopatología de esta enfermedad, ni ha habido tantos fármacos y medios de tratarla, en un sinnúmero de casos ni los padres ni los médicos parecen encontrarle salida a tan desesperante situación.

    Nadie más preparado en nuestro medio para analizar este tema que el Profesor Eduardo De Zubiría, insigne internista y reconocido alergista de la tradicional escuela de La Samaritana, que desarrollara en compañía de su hermano Roberto, y de quienes tuve la fortuna de ser alumno en 1960.

    Eduardo y sus dos hijos De Zubiría Salgado (Eduardo Jr. Y Alberto navegan con autoridad por ese mundo fantástico de los mastocitos, de los eosinófilos y de los linfocitos, de las inmunoglobulinas, de los mediadores, de las linfoquinas y de todo aquello que configura las reacciones alérgicas, el espasmo y la hiperreactividad bronquiales.

    No podría tampoco faltar en la obra el capítulo sobre ácaros, de los expertos Mario Sánchez Medina y Luis Caraballo, quienes desde hace muchos años vienen investigando sobre este tema en Colombia.

    El libro está elaborado con una secuencia muy didáctica, pues comienza con la epidemiología de la enfermedad y continúa, entre otros, con temas fisiopatológicos, discutiendo en detalle aquellas células y mediadores de la inflamación y de la respuesta alérgica, y en particular los anticuerpos, destacándose entre ellos la inmunoglobulina E.

    Los pacientes con hiperreactividad bronquial son más dados a sufrir los ataques espasmódicos que llevan a la obstrucción de las vías aéreas, yen algunos casos a las dramáticas y peligrosas crisis asmáticas, que tan frecuentemente vemos en los servicios de urgencias y que resultan tan onerosos para nuestro sistema de salud.

    El texto

  10. The Formation of Effective Work Groups within an FE Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Fascinated by the diversity of composition in effective work groups in Further Education (FE) classrooms, I studied group formation and composition in level 3 Biology classes over an academic year. Using information from the class teacher, observers and students, the importance of effective work groups (defining effectiveness in terms of…

  11. Enhancing the impact of groups: an evaluation of two group formats for smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, P; Belcher, M; Stapleton, J

    1985-11-01

    The effects of two different group formats constituting part of an otherwise identical smoking cessation programme were evaluated. Each group format was in use for one full calendar year. One hundred and thirty-two smokers were treated in 14 'therapist-oriented' (T-O) groups run in traditional didactic style and 138 in 14 'group-oriented' (G-O) groups, where the primary emphasis was on group resources (group support, group pressure and spontaneous modelling of coping responses). G-O groups were significantly more successful. The two types of groups did not differ in the number of clients who succeeded in stopping smoking just after the first meeting, i.e. before the difference in group formats could have any impact; but in the G-O groups more of those who failed initially persisted in trying and succeeded later in the course. Independently of the format, larger groups were more successful and in addition there was significant variation between single groups regardless of both format and size. Group processes seem to play an important role in smoking cessation and the way in which a group is structured can affect outcome.

  12. Hubungan Faktor Risiko terhadap Kejadian Asma pada Anak di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adefri Wahyudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPrevalensi asma  terus meningkat (5—30% dalam satu dekade terakhir dan lebih dari 50% penderita saat ini adalah anak-anak. Fenomena ini tidak terlepas dari kompleksitas patogenesis asma yang melibatkan faktor genetik dan lingkungan  yang dimulai sejak masa fetal. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan antara faktor genetik, demografi, lingkungan, dan perinatal terhadap kejadian asma anak di RSUP Dr. M.. Djamil Padang. Desain penelitian ini adalah case-control study terhadap pasien rawat inap di bangsal anak. Pemilihan sampel menggunakan teknik simple randomized sampling dengan jumlah 78 pasien (39 kasus dan 39 kontrol. Data didapatkan melalui rekam medis subyek penelitian. Analisis data yang digunakan yaitu univariat dan bivariat dengan chi-square. Hasil uji chi-square menunjukkan usia < 5 tahun (p= 0,364, jenis kelamin laki-laki (p=0,255, berat badan lahir rendah (p=0,358, obesitas (p=0,382  tidak memiliki hubungan bermakna dengan asma anak. Hanya riwayat atopi (p <0,05 yang memiliki hubungan berarti. Riwayat paparan asap rokok dan bulu binatang tidak lengkap; sedangkan  usia gestasional hanya satu kelompok saja sehingga tidak dianalisis. Disimpulkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna antara usia <5 tahun, jenis kelamin laki-laki, prematuritas dan obesitas dengan kejadian asma anak. Hubungan bermakna hanya terdapat pada riwayat atopi dengan kejadian asma anak.Kata kunci: asma anak, faktor risiko, riwayat atopi  AbstractPrevalence of asthma is  still elevating (5—30% at last decade and more than 50% of asthmatic is children. This phenomenon is predicted correlating with the complexity of pathogenesis of asthma (included genetic, environtment and perinatal factors that began from fetal-age. The objectives of this study was to deternine the correlation of genetic, demographic, environtment, perinatal factors to asthma in children in RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Research design was case-control study. The pediatric

  13. Exogenous attention during perceptual group formation and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Fahrettin F; Ogmen, Haluk

    2017-02-01

    Under natural viewing conditions, a large amount of information reaches our senses, and the visual system uses attention and perceptual grouping to reduce the complexity of stimuli in order to make real-time perception possible. Prior studies have shown that attention and perceptual grouping operate in synergy; exogenous attention is deployed not only to the cued item, but also to the entire group. Here, we investigated how attention and perceptual grouping operate during the formation and dissolution of groups. Our results showed that reaction times are higher in the presence of perceptual groups than they are for ungrouped stimuli. On the other hand, attentional benefits of perceptual grouping were observed during both the formation and the dissolution of groups. The dynamics were similar during group formation and dissolution, showing a gradual effect that takes approximately half a second to reach its maximum level. In the case of group dissolution, the attentional benefits persisted for about a quarter of a second after dissolution of the group. Taken together, our results reveal the dynamics of how attention and grouping work in synergy during the transient period when groups form or dissolve.

  14. Obesidad, dieta y asma infantil Obesity, diet and childhood asthma

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Durante las últimas décadas, las prevalencias de obesidad y asma a nivel mundial han aumentado. Al comparar la fase III (2002-03) y la fase I (1994-95) del estudio internacional ISAAC, se aprecia que la prevalencia de asma se incrementó en alrededor de 1 error estandar en el 59% (para niños 6-7 años) y en el 77% (para los de 13-14 años) de los centros en todo el mundo. LA OMS señala que la obesidad y el asma están entre las enfermedades crónicas prioritarias a nivel de salud pública en el mun...

  15. Rinitis alérgica: preludio del asma bronquial

    OpenAIRE

    Cuervo Trujillo, José

    2011-01-01

    1.-Se hace una descripción de la rinitis alérgica, enfermedad general. 2.-Se establece su etiología y modalidad especial en nuestro país. 3.-Se presentan 104 casos estudiados de alergia respiratoria, en el 85 % de los cuales hay coincidencia de rinitis y asma. 4.-8e presenta evidencia de que en esta dualidad patológica la rinitis precede al asma en el 64,4%) de los casos, constituyéndose en un estado preliminar de ésta, de duración variable. 5.-Se establece que la rinitis es una manifestación...

  16. Talking therapy groups on acute psychiatric wards: patients' experience of two structured group formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Jonathan; Bird, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method We report the results of a clinical audit of patients' reactions to two types of talking therapy groups facilitated by assistant psychologists and psychology graduates on three acute wards. Patients' experiences of problem-solving and interpersonal group formats were explored via focus groups and structured interviews with 29 group participants. Results Both group formats generated high satisfaction ratings, with benefits related mostly to generic factors. Clinical implications Adequately trained and supported assistant psychologists and psychology graduates can provide supportive talking groups that patients find helpful. PMID:27512586

  17. PROSPECTS OF FORMATION FINANCIAL-INDUSTRIAL GROUPS IN UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasurbek Ataniyazov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we evaluated the possibilities of the formation of financial-industrial groups, with participation of commercial banks and revealed features and prospects of formation financial-industrial groups in Uzbekistan. For the implementation of investment potential and development of financial-industrial integration, crucial are relations between the credit-financial institutions, mainly the commercial banks, and the industrial enterprises. The financial-industrial groups can play important role in spurring the investments in the real sector of the economy. The financial-industrial can become a basis for improved stability of national economy and for creation of favourable conditions in the development of the real sector.

  18. The History of Galaxy Formation in Groups: An Observational Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Conselice, C J

    2006-01-01

    We present a pedagogical review on the formation and evolution of galaxies in groups, utilizing observational information from the Local Group to galaxies at z~6. The majority of galaxies in the nearby universe are found in groups, and galaxies at all redshifts up to z~6 tend to cluster on the scale of nearby groups (~1 Mpc). This suggests that the group environment may play a role in the formation of most galaxies. The Local Group, and other nearby groups, display a diversity in star formation and morphological properties that puts limits on how, and when, galaxies in groups formed. Effects that depend on an intragroup medium, such as ram-pressure and strangulation, are likely not major mechanisms driving group galaxy evolution. Simple dynamical friction arguments however show that galaxy mergers should be common, and a dominant process for driving evolution. While mergers between L_* galaxies are observed to be rare at z < 1, they are much more common at earlier times. This is due to the increased densit...

  19. Atividade física para portadores de asma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Jornada Krebs

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A asma é uma doença inflamatória crônica caracterizada por hiper-responsividade das vias aéreas inferiores e por limitação variável ao fluxo aéreo, reversível espontaneamente ou com tratamento. Sua manifestação clínica é marcada por episódios recorrentes de sibilância, dispnéia (falta de ar, aperto no peito e tosse, particularmente à noite e pela manhã ao despertar. A doença resulta de uma interação entre genética, exposição ambiental e outros fatores específicos que levam ao desenvolvimento e à manutenção dos sintomas (IV DIRETIZES BRASILEIRAS PARA O MANEJO DA ASMA. A asma é considerada um problema de saúde mundial sendo estimado que 300 milhões de pessoas sejam afetadas pela doença. É, também, um dos principais problemas de saúde na infância e adolescência, sendo causa relevante de queda no rendimento e absenteísmo escolar. A prevalência global da asma varia de 1% a 18% da população em diferentes países. Um importante estudo multicêntrico (International Study for Asthma and Allergies in Childhood – ISAAC apontou ser a prevalência média mundial de asma de 11,6% entre escolares (seis e sete anos, e entre os adolescentes (treze e catorze anos a prevalência mundial média foi de 13,7%.

  20. A New Group-Formation Method for Student Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Jose; Dias, Teresa Galvao; Cunha, Joao Falcao E.

    2009-01-01

    In BSc/MSc engineering programmes at Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP), the need to provide students with teamwork experiences close to a real world environment was identified as an important issue. A new group-formation method that aims to provide an enriching teamwork experience is proposed. Students are asked to answer a…

  1. A New Group-Formation Method for Student Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Jose; Dias, Teresa Galvao; Cunha, Joao Falcao E.

    2009-01-01

    In BSc/MSc engineering programmes at Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP), the need to provide students with teamwork experiences close to a real world environment was identified as an important issue. A new group-formation method that aims to provide an enriching teamwork experience is proposed. Students are asked to answer a…

  2. Exploring Technology Supported Collaborative and Cooperative Group Formation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapina, Mia; Boticki, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on the systematic literature review paper (in progress), which analyzes technology enhanced collaborative and cooperative learning in elementary education worldwide from 2004 to 2015, focusing on the exploration of technology mediated group formation. The review paper reports on only a few cases of technology supported methods…

  3. Cooperation driven by success-driven group formation

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-01-01

    In the traditional setup of public goods game all players are involved in every available groups and the mutual benefit is shared among competing cooperator and defector strategies. But in real life situations the group formation of players could be more sophisticated because not all players are attractive enough for others to participate in a joint venture. What if only those players can initiate a group formation and establish a game who are successful enough to the neighbors? To elaborate this idea we employ a modified protocol and demonstrate that a carefully chosen threshold to establish joint venture could efficiently improve the cooperation level even if the synergy factor would suggest a full defector state otherwise. The microscopic mechanism which is responsible for this effect is based on the asymmetric consequences of competing strategies: while the success of a cooperator provides a long-time well-being for the neighborhood, the temporary advantage of defection cannot be maintained if the protoco...

  4. Group impressions as dynamic configurations: the tensor product model of group impression formation and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Y; Woolcock, J; Kashima, E S

    2000-10-01

    Group impressions are dynamic configurations. The tensor product model (TPM), a connectionist model of memory and learning, is used to describe the process of group impression formation and change, emphasizing the structured and contextualized nature of group impressions and the dynamic evolution of group impressions over time. TPM is first shown to be consistent with algebraic models of social judgment (the weighted averaging model; N. Anderson, 1981) and exemplar-based social category learning (the context model; E. R. Smith & M. A. Zárate, 1992), providing a theoretical reduction of the algebraic models to the present connectionist framework. TPM is then shown to describe a common process that underlies both formation and change of group impressions despite the often-made assumption that they constitute different psychological processes. In particular, various time-dependent properties of both group impression formation (e.g., time variability, response dependency, and order effects in impression judgments) and change (e.g., stereotype change and group accentuation) are explained, demonstrating a hidden unity beneath the diverse array of empirical findings. Implications of the model for conceptualizing stereotype formation and change are discussed.

  5. Acritarchs of the Ediacaran Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Chiglino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report for the first time the occurrence of organic-walled microfossils in Ediacaran limestones and marls of the Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, and the first Precambrian acritarchs so far reported for northeastern Brazil. The assemblage of the Frecheirinha Formation represents a low-diversity microflora comprising Leiosphaeridia, Lophosphaeridium and subordinated Bavlinella (=Sphaerocongregus. Their thermal alteration index (TAI between 4+ and 5, suggests metamorphic temperatures exceeding 200-250°C. Higher temperatures are probably related to intruding granitic plutons (Meruoca, Mucambo. Reported δ13C values of carbonates of -3.5 ‰ VPDB (Vienna-Peedee Belemnite at the base, passing up section into a positive plateau of up to +3.7 ‰, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.7075 and 0.7080 suggest an Ediacaran age. The acritarch assemblage is comparable to the Late Ediacaran Leiosphere Palynoflora (LELP or Kotlin-Rovno assemblage, in broad agreement with chemostratigraphic data. Macrofossils belonging to the Ediacara fauna were reported from the overlying Jaibaras Group, which would constrain even further the depositional age of the Frecheirinha Formation to within ca. 575-555 Ma. A more comprehensive palynological study of the Frecheirinha Formation is necessary to confirm this age assignment.

  6. Acritarchs of the Ediacaran Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiglino, Leticia; Gaucher, Claudio; Sial, Alcides N; Ferreira, Valderez P

    2015-01-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of organic-walled microfossils in Ediacaran limestones and marls of the Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, and the first Precambrian acritarchs so far reported for northeastern Brazil. The assemblage of the Frecheirinha Formation represents a low-diversity microflora comprising Leiosphaeridia, Lophosphaeridium and subordinated Bavlinella (=Sphaerocongregus). Their thermal alteration index (TAI) between 4+ and 5, suggests metamorphic temperatures exceeding 200-250°C. Higher temperatures are probably related to intruding granitic plutons (Meruoca, Mucambo). Reported δ13C values of carbonates of -3.5 ‰ VPDB (Vienna-Peedee Belemnite) at the base, passing up section into a positive plateau of up to +3.7 ‰, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.7075 and 0.7080 suggest an Ediacaran age. The acritarch assemblage is comparable to the Late Ediacaran Leiosphere Palynoflora (LELP) or Kotlin-Rovno assemblage, in broad agreement with chemostratigraphic data. Macrofossils belonging to the Ediacara fauna were reported from the overlying Jaibaras Group, which would constrain even further the depositional age of the Frecheirinha Formation to within ca. 575-555 Ma. A more comprehensive palynological study of the Frecheirinha Formation is necessary to confirm this age assignment.

  7. Star Formation in Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Haynes, Martha P.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Miller, Brendan P.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Troischt, Parker; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team; ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT) Groups project is a coordinated study of gas and star formation properties of galaxies in and around 36 nearby (zALFALFA HI observations, optical observations, and digital databases like SDSS, and incorporates work undertaken by faculty and students at different institutions within the UAT. Here we present results from our wide area Hα and broadband R imaging project carried out with the WIYN 0.9m+MOSAIC/HDI at KPNO, including an analysis of radial star formation rates and extents of galaxies in the NGC 5846, Abell 779, NRGb331, and HCG 69 groups/clusters. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005 and AST-1637339.

  8. CELL FORMATION IN GROUP TECHNOLOGY: A SIMILARITY ORDER CLUSTERING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey C. Onwubolu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping parts into families which can be produced by a cluster of machine cells is the cornerstone of cellular manufacturing, which in turn is the building block for flexible manufacturing systems. Cellular manufacturing is a group technology (GT concept that has recently attracted the attention of manufacturing firms operating under jobshop environment to consider redesigning their manufacturing systems so as to take advantage of increased throughput, reduction in work-in-progress, set-up time, and lead times; leading to product quality and customer satisfaction. The paper presents a generalised approach for machine cell formation from a jobshop using similarity order clustering technique for preliminary cell grouping and considering machine utilisation for the design of nonintergrouping material handling using the single-pass heuristic. The work addresses the shortcomings of cellular manufacturing systems design and implementations which ignore machine utilisations, group sizes and intergroup moves.

  9. Doença Pariodontal: fator associado à asma grave?

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Kaliane Rocha Soledade

    2012-01-01

    A periodontite constitui-se uma doença crônica de grande prevalência na população, com repercussões imunológicas em todo o organismo. Estima-se que a periodontite pode influenciar na hiper-resposta inflamatória em indivíduos com asma, por meio de alterações imuno-inflamatórias, além de servirem como fontes de microrganismos para o desenvolvimento de infecções pulmonares. Objetivo: Avaliar a possível associação entre a presença periodontite e a asma grave. Método: Estudo caso-co...

  10. Ozone-driven photochemical formation of carboxylic acid groups from alkane groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in atmospheric particles, and they play an important role in the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles. During measurements in coastal California in the summer of 2009, carboxylic acid functional groups were highly associated with trajectories from an industrial region with high organic mass (OM, likely from fossil fuel combustion emissions. The concentration of carboxylic acid groups peaked during daytime, suggesting a photochemical secondary formation mechanism. This daytime increase in concentration was tightly correlated with O3 mixing ratio, indicating O3 was the likely driver in acid formation. Based on the diurnal cycles of carboxylic acid and alkane groups, the covariation of carboxylic acid groups with O3, and the composition of the Combustion factor resulted from the factor analyses, gas-phase alkane oxidation by OH radicals to form dihyfrofuran followed by further oxidation of dihydrofuran by O3 is the likely acid formation mechanism. Using the multi-day average of the daytime increase of carboxylic acid group concentrations and m/z 44-based Aged Combustion factor, we estimated the lower-bound contributions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed in 12-h daytime of processing in a single day to be 30% of the carboxylic acid groups and 25–45% of the Combustion factor concentration. These unique ambient observations of photochemically-driven acid formation suggest that gas-phase alkanes might be important sources of SOA formation in this coastal region.

  11. Cooperation driven by success-driven group formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Chen, Xiaojie

    2016-10-01

    In the traditional setup of the public goods game all players are involved in every available group and the mutual benefit is shared among competing cooperator and defector strategies. However, in real life situations the group formation of players could be more sophisticated because not all players are attractive enough for others to participate in a joint venture. What if only those players who are successful enough to the neighbors can initiate a group formation and establish a game? To elaborate this idea we employ a modified protocol and demonstrate that a carefully chosen threshold to establish a joint venture could efficiently improve the cooperation level even if the synergy factor would suggest a full defector state otherwise. The microscopic mechanism that is responsible for this effect is based on the asymmetric consequences of competing strategies: while the success of a cooperator provides a long-time well-being for the neighborhood, the temporary advantage of defection cannot be maintained if the protocol is based on the success of leaders.

  12. THE FORMATION OF CONSCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT GROUPS IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neisa Maria, Martins da Cunha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical proposals, as the Theory of Human Relations, especially the Theory of Group Dynamics and the Conscience Formation, which promote understanding and support for the conduct of the leaders in team management, aiming at a route suitable for questions, reflections, enabling new perceptions of self-consciousness, as Hegel says. It is worth highlighting that through these considerations, it becomes possible to conduct more realistic impacts triggered in the organizational culture, as from a better management of interpersonal relationships within teams, these teams have a training goal or not.

  13. Taller multidisciplinario dirigido a pacientes pediátricos con asma y sus padres, basado en la Guía Internacional para el Manejo del Asma (GINA)

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina E. Bazán Riverón; Mirna Patricia Paredes Rivera; Maricela Osorio Guzmán

    2007-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo mejorar la calidad de vida de pacientes con asma, mediante un taller basado en la Guía Internacional para el Manejo del Asma (GINA). Participó un grupo de 10 pacientes con edades entre 1,5 y 6 años con sus padres; el estudio fue transversal, con un diseño preprueba-posprueba, e incluyó un grupo testigo. El taller multidisciplinario para padres e hijos con asma trató temas de adherencia, tratamiento de sostén y asistencia en crisis; su duración fue de ci...

  14. Antileucotrienos no tratamento da asma e rinite alérgica Antileukotrienes in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Dirceu Ribeiro

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os antagonistas de leucotrienos (ARLT aos outros grupos de medicamentos utilizados para tratar a asma e a rinite alérgica. FONTES DOS DADOS: MEDLINE, LILACS e Biblioteca Cochrane. Palavras chaves: leucotrienos, antileucotrienos, tratamento da asma, tratamento da rinite alérgica, asma e rinite alérgica. Procurou-se agrupar os principais trabalhos e revisões sobre o assunto. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os ARLT são mais eficazes do que placebo e potencializam os efeitos dos corticosteróides inalados. A associação de corticosteróides inalados com agentes beta2 agonistas de longa duração (LABA é mais eficaz do que a associação de cortiscoteróides inalados + ARLT. Embora pareça racional o uso de ARLT na crise aguda de asma e rinite alérgica, mais estudos são necessários para comprovar esse benefício. Os ARLT promovem redução no tempo de hospitalização e no número de crises de sibilância em lactentes com bronquiolite viral aguda pelo vírus respiratório sincicial e na sibilância recorrente após bronquiolite viral aguda. Os ARLT são menos eficazes que os corticosteróides intranasais no manejo da rinite alérgica. Os ARLT são eficazes na asma induzida por exercício (AIE, embora não constituam a primeira linha de tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: Estudos controlados e randomizados mostram que os corticosteróides inalados são as drogas de escolha para o tratamento da asma persistente e rinite alérgica. :Não existem evidências suficientes para recomendar o uso de ARLT como medicamento de primeira linha (monoterapia em crianças com asma (nível I. Nas crianças que não podem usar corticosteróides inalados, os ARLT podem ser uma alternativa (nível II.OBJECTIVE: To compare leukotriene antagonists (LTA to other groups of drugs used in asthma and allergic rhinitis treatment. SOURCES: MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library. Keywords: leukotrienes, antileukotrienes, asthma treatment, allergic rhinitis treatment, asthma and

  15. The evolution of star formation activity in galaxy groups

    CERN Document Server

    Erfanianfar, G; Finoguenov, A; Wuyts, S; Wilman, D; Biviano, A; Ziparo, F; Salvato, M; Nandra, K; Lutz, D; Elbaz, D; Dickinson, M; Tanaka, M; Mirkazemi, M; Balogh, M L; Altieri, M B; Aussel, H; Bauer, F; Berta, S; Bielby, R M; Brandt, N; Cappelluti, N; Cimatti, A; Cooper, M; Fadda, D; Ilbert, O; Floch, E Le; Magnelli, B; Mulchaey, J S; Nordon, R; Newman, J A; Poglitsch, A; Pozzi, F

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of the total star formation (SF) activity, total stellar mass and halo occupation distribution in massive halos by using one of the largest X-ray selected sample of galaxy groups with secure spectroscopic identification in the major blank field surveys (ECDFS, CDFN, COSMOS, AEGIS). We provide an accurate measurement of SFR for the bulk of the star-forming galaxies using very deep mid-infrared Spitzer MIPS and far-infrared Herschel PACS observations. For undetected IR sources, we provide a well-calibrated SFR from SED fitting. We observe a clear evolution in the level of SF activity in galaxy groups. The total SF activity in the high redshift groups (0.5groups at z~0. We show that the level of SF activity is declining more rapidly in the more massive halos than in the more common lower mass ...

  16. Prevalensi Asma Pada mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sumatera Utara tahunajaran 2014/2015

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Asma adalah penyakit atopic dengan gejala klinis yang bervariasi. Penelitian tentang prevalensi asma masih jarang dilakukan di Indonesia, khususnya wilayah Sumatera Utara. Adapun tujuan dari penelitian adalah untukmengetahuiprevalensiasmapadamahasiswaFakultasKedokteranUniversitas Sumatera Utara tahun ajaran 2014/2015.Desain penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan cross-sectionaldampen gumpulan sampel penelitian dengan menggunakan teknik stratified random sampling. Pen...

  17. CORRELAÇÃO ENTRE O ÍNDICE DE MASSA CORPÓREA (IMC), GRAVIDADE E CONTROLE DA ASMA EM PACIENTES PARTICIPANTES DE UM PROGRAMA ESTRUTURADO DE EDUCAÇÃO EM ASMA

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Lucas Santana; Universidade Federal do Maranhão - UFMA; Costa, Maria do Rosário da Silva Ramos; Universidade Federal do Maranhão - UFMA

    2012-01-01

    O aumento do índice de massa corporal (IMC) tem sido associado a uma maior prevalência da asma em adultos. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de correlacionar o IMC com a gravidade e o nível de controle da asma dos pacientes atendidos em um programa estruturado de educação em asma. 182 pacientes diagnosticados como portadores de asma brônquica foram entrevistados e classificou-se a gravidade da asma através da história clínica, dos resultados da espirometria e da medicação prescrita, segundo a ...

  18. Prevalência e gravidade de asma brônquica em adultos obesos com indicação de cirurgia bariátrica Prevalence and severity of asthma in obese adult candidates for bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Maia Davila Melo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de asma em um grupo de adultos obesos, candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica e avaliar a gravidade da asma neste grupo de pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, envolvendo 363 pacientes obesos adultos (índice de massa corpórea > 35 kg/m² avaliados por um médico pneumologista, utilizando a avaliação clínica como instrumento diagnóstico de asma. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação clínica e espirometria e foram divididos em dois grupos (asma e controle. Os pacientes com asma foram classificados conforme a gravidade da doença. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de asma na população de obesos estudada foi de 18,5% (IC95%: 14,5-22,4. Essa prevalência nas mulheres e nos homens foi de 20,4% (IC95%: 16,2-24,5 e 13,7% (IC95%: 10,1-17,2, respectivamente. Havia sintomas de asma nos últimos doze meses em 8,0% (IC95%: 5,2-10,7, e houve manifestação inicial dos sintomas de asma na infância/adolescência em 17,4% (IC95%: 13,5-21,3. No grupo asma, asma intermitente estava presente em 29 pacientes (43,3%; asma persistente leve, em 7 (10,4%; asma moderada, em 25 (37,3%; e asma persistente grave, em 6 (9,0%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de asma neste grupo de adultos obesos, utilizando-se a avaliação clínica como critério diagnóstico, mostrou-se elevada, com predomínio no sexo feminino e com manifestação inicial dos sintomas de asma na infância/adolescência. A gravidade da asma neste grupo de obesos adultos esteve entre os valores médios estimados para a população geral, com uma maior proporção de asma intermitente, asma persistente leve e asma persistente moderadaOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of asthma in a group of obese adult candidates for bariatric surgery and to evaluate the severity of asthma in this group of patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 363 obese adults (body mass index > 35 kg/m² evaluated by a pulmonologist, using clinical evaluation as a

  19. Simultaneous ISAR imaging of group targets flying in formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jie; Xiao Huaitie; Song Zhiyong; Fan Hongqi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging method based on second-order keystone transform (KT) and Sandglass transform for group targets flying in a formation with constant accelerated rectilinear motion in the same radar beam. First, range cur-vature and range walk of each sub-target among group targets are corrected by the second-order KT combined with the quadratic phase term compensation. After range alignment, the signals in each range frequency cell can be modelled as multiple chirp signals and then the Sandglass transform is uti-lized to cross-range imaging, which transforms the time–frequency distribution of the signals in each range frequency cell into beelines parallel to the slow time axis simultaneously. Finally, cross-range profiles of group targets in each range frequency cell are obtained via a projection of the perk of every scatterer in the two-dimensional accumulation plane onto the frequency axis. The advantage of the proposed method is that it can align range profiles of each sub-target simultaneously and image cross-range profiles directly without separating the returned signals, which simplifies the operation procedure. Simulation results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Two formation channels of UCDs in Hickson Compact Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Da Rocha, C; Georgiev, I Y; Hilker, M; Ziegler, B L; de Oliveira, C Mendes

    2010-01-01

    The formation of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) is believed to be interaction driven, and UCDs are abundant in the cores of galaxy clusters, environments that mark the end-point of galaxy evolution. Nothing is known about the properties of UCDs in compact groups of galaxies, environments where most of galaxy evolution and interaction is believed to occur and where UCDs in intermediate state of evolution may be expected. The main goal of this study is to detect and characterize, for the first time, the UCD population of compact groups. For that, 2 groups in different evolutionary stages, HCG 22 and HCG 90, were targeted with VLT/FORS2/MXU. We detect 16 and 5 objects belonging to HCG 22 and HCG 90, respectively, covering the magnitude range -10.0 > M_R > -11.5 mag. Their colours are consistent with old ages covering a broad range in metallicities. Photometric mass estimates put 4 objects in HCG 90 and 9 in HCG 22 in the mass range of UCDs (>2x10^6 M_Sun) for an assumed age of 12 Gyr. These UCDs are on aver...

  1. Simultaneous ISAR imaging of group targets flying in formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR imaging method based on second-order keystone transform (KT and Sandglass transform for group targets flying in a formation with constant accelerated rectilinear motion in the same radar beam. First, range curvature and range walk of each sub-target among group targets are corrected by the second-order KT combined with the quadratic phase term compensation. After range alignment, the signals in each range frequency cell can be modelled as multiple chirp signals and then the Sandglass transform is utilized to cross-range imaging, which transforms the time–frequency distribution of the signals in each range frequency cell into beelines parallel to the slow time axis simultaneously. Finally, cross-range profiles of group targets in each range frequency cell are obtained via a projection of the perk of every scatterer in the two-dimensional accumulation plane onto the frequency axis. The advantage of the proposed method is that it can align range profiles of each sub-target simultaneously and image cross-range profiles directly without separating the returned signals, which simplifies the operation procedure. Simulation results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Ozone-driven daytime formation of secondary organic aerosol containing carboxylic acid groups and alkane groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylic acids are present in substantial quantities in atmospheric particles, and they play an important role in the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles. During measurements in coastal California in the summer of 2009, carboxylic acid functional groups were exclusively associated with a fossil fuel combustion factor derived from factor analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic measurements and closely correlated with oxygenated organic factors from aerosol mass spectrometry measurements. The high fraction of acid groups and the high ratio of oxygen to carbon in this factor suggest that this factor is composed of secondary organic aerosol (SOA products of combustion emissions from the upwind industrial region (the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Another indication of the photochemically-driven secondary formation of this combustion-emitted organic mass (OM was the daytime increase in the concentrations of acid groups and the combustion factors. This daytime increase closely tracked the O3 mixing ratio with a correlation coefficient of 0.7, indicating O3 was closely associated with the SOA maximum and thus likely the oxidant that resulted in acid group formation. Using a pseudo-Lagrangian framework to interpret this daytime increase of carboxylic acid groups and the combustion factors, we estimate that the carboxylic acid groups formed in a 12-h daytime period of one day ("Today's SOA" accounted for 25–33 % of the measured carboxylic acid group mass, while the remaining 67–75 % (of the carboxylic acid group mass was likely formed 1–3 days previously (the "Background SOA". A similar estimate of the daytime increase in the combustion factors suggests that "Today's SOA" and the "Background SOA" respectively contributed 25–50 % and 50–75 % of the combustion factor (the "Total SOA", for a "Total SOA" contribution to the OM of 60 % for the project average. Further, size

  3. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-19

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce.

  4. Perbedaan status oral higiene dan pengalaman karies gigi pada penderita dan bukan penderita asma usia 20-30 tahun di RSUP H.Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Tirumagal

    2015-01-01

    Asma merupakan penyakit inflamasi kronis pada saluran pernafasan yang ditandai rasa sesak di dada akibat penyumbatan saluran pernafasan. Asma merupakan salah satu penyakit yang dapat berperan sebagai faktor risiko karies gigi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui status oral higiene dan pengalaman karies pada penderita asma. Rancangan penelitian adalah case-control. Populasi penelitian ini adalah penderita asma yang sedang berobat di Poli Pulmonologi (Asma) sedangkan sebagai kontrol, yai...

  5. Investigação de fatores associados à asma de difícil controle Investigation of factors associated with difficult-to-control asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Sousa de Araujo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a freqüência dos fatores associados à asma de difícil controle. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados pacientes com diagnóstico de asma grave do ambulatório de asma do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto. Os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos: asma grave controlada e asma grave de difícil controle. Após nova tentativa de otimização do tratamento para o grupo de difícil controle, foram aplicados questionário e investigação complementar de fatores associados, como exposição ambiental domiciliar e ocupacional, tabagismo, fatores sociais, rinossinusite, doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE, apnéia obstrutiva do sono, insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC, embolia pulmonar, fibrose cística, disfunção de cordas vocais, deficiência de alfa-1 antitripsina e vasculite de Churg-Strauss. RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados 77 pacientes com asma grave, dos quais 47 apresentavam asma de difícil controle, sendo 68,1% do sexo feminino, idade média de 44,4 anos (±14,4 e volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo de 54,7% (±18,3%. Dos diagnósticos encontrados em associação à asma de difícil controle, o mais freqüente foi a pouca adesão ao tratamento (68%. Outros foram as más condições ambientais (34% e ocupacionais (17%, rinossinusite (57%, DRGE (49%, apnéia obstrutiva do sono (2%, ICC (2% e tabagismo (10%. Em todos os casos, pelo menos um desses fatores concomitantes foi diagnosticado. CONCLUSÕES: O fator mais freqüente associado à asma de difícil controle nos indivíduos estudados é a pouca adesão à medicação prescrita. A investigação de co-morbidades é imperativa na avaliação de pacientes com esta forma da doença.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of factors associated with difficult-to-control asthma. METHODS: Patients with severe asthma were selected from the outpatient asthma clinic of the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine Hospital das Cl

  6. Alimentación, estado nutricional y asma bronquial en niños

    OpenAIRE

    Vega, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Determinar la relación entre el estado nutricional, la frecuencia de consumo de alimentos y la periodicidad de síntomas asmáticos en niños y niñas de 2 a 14 años, con diagnóstico de asma bronquial que asisten al Centro de Alergia y Asma de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, entre noviembre del 2012 y junio del 2013. Materiales y Métodos: Investigación descriptiva correlacional de corte transversal. Un total de 95 niños, completaron una encuesta sobre síntomas y tratamientos del asma b...

  7. Alimentación, estado nutricional y asma bronquial en niños

    OpenAIRE

    Vega, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Determinar la relación entre el estado nutricional, la frecuencia de consumo de alimentos y la periodicidad de síntomas asmáticos en niños y niñas de 2 a 14 años, con diagnóstico de asma bronquial que asisten al Centro de Alergia y Asma de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, entre noviembre del 2012 y junio del 2013. Materiales y Métodos: Investigación descriptiva correlacional de corte transversal. Un total de 95 niños, completaron una encuesta sobre síntomas y tratamientos del asma b...

  8. Tendencias en los ingresos hospitalarios y mortalidad por asma en nuestra comunidad

    OpenAIRE

    Aboal Viñas, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Analizar la tendencia de los ingresos hospitalarios y la mortalidad por asma en la población de nuestra comunidad a lo largo de 15 años. Asimismo, se evaluará la influencia del polen ambiental en los ingresos por asma de nuestra área sanitaria. METODOS: Análisis retrospectivo de los ingresos hospitalarios y de la mortalidad por asma en nuestra comunidad a lo largo de 15 años. El análisis de los ingresos hospitalarios se hará de forma diferenciada para la poblac...

  9. Asma e gravidez: repercussões no recém-nascido Asthma and pregnancy: repercussions for neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Doria Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever, numa coorte de nascimentos, aspectos socioeconômicos e comportamentais de gestantes com asma e analisar as repercussões desta sobre alguns parâmetros perinatais. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal e analítico a partir de informações de parturientes da coorte de nascimentos ocorridos no período entre 8 de março e 15 de julho de 2005 nas maternidades da Grande Aracaju (SE. A identificação de asma nas gestantes foi obtida segundo informação destas a partir do diagnóstico emitido anteriormente por um médico. Foram analisadas variáveis epidemiológicas, obstétricas e perinatais. RESULTADOS: Das 4.757 parturientes incluídas no estudo, 299 (6,3% eram asmáticas. As mães asmáticas tinham menor renda familiar e mais frequentemente procuraram assistência no pré-natal e no parto em serviços públicos que as mães sem asma. Embora somente 9,4% das gestantes asmáticas fumaram, e 27,6% ingeriram bebidas alcoólicas, as proporções em relação ao grupo controle foram significativamente maiores. Não se detectou associação entre asma e problemas obstétricos ou do recém-nascido. Não foi encontrada associação entre asma e parto cesariano, prematuridade ou recém-nascido sendo pequeno para a idade gestacional. CONCLUSÕES: O nível socioeconômico inferior parece ser um fator de risco para a asma.OBJECTIVE: To describe socioeconomic and behavioral aspects of pregnant women with asthma and to analyze the effects of maternal asthma on certain perinatal parameters in a birth cohort. METHODS: An observational crosssectional analytical study using data regarding the mothers of a birth cohort at maternity hospitals in the greater metropolitan area of Aracaju, Brazil, between the 8th of March and the 15th of July of 2005. In the pregnant women, asthma was self-reported, based on previous medical diagnosis. Epidemiological, obstetric and perinatal variables were studied. RESULTS: Of the 4,757 mothers included

  10. Asma, obesidad y dieta Asthma, obesity and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Barranco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El asma y la obesidad son dos trastornos de gran impacto en la salud pública que han aumentado su prevalencia en los últimos años. Numerosos estudios han relacionado ambas entidades. La mayoría de los estudios prospectivos demuestran que la obesidad es un factor de riesgo para el diagnóstico "de novo" de asma. Además, los resultados de diversos estudios sugieren que así como la ganancia de peso aumenta el riesgo de asma, la pérdida mejora su evolución. En general, los estudios prospectivos encuentran una asociación positiva entre el índice de masa corporal (IMC basal y el posterior desarrollo de asma, lo que sugiere que es el exceso de peso el que podría favorecer el desarrollo de asma, aunque estos resultados no son tan concluyentes cuando se estudia la asociación entre hiperreactividad bronquial con el IMC. Existen distintos factores que podrían explicar esta asociación. La obesidad es capaz de reducir la compliance pulmonar, los volúmenes pulmonares y el diámetro de de las vías respiratorias periféricas, así como alterar los volúmenes sangüineos pulmonares y la relación ventilación-perfusion. Además, el aumento del funcionamiento normal del tejido adiposo en sujetos obesos conduce a un estado proinflamatorio sistémico, que produce un aumento de las concentraciones séricas de numerosas citoquinas, fracciones solubles de sus receptores y quimiocinas. Muchos de estos mediadores son sintetizados y secretados por células del tejido adiposo y reciben el nombre genérico de adipocinas, entre las que se incluyen IL-6, IL-10, eotaxina, TNF-α, TGF- 1, PCR, leptina y adiponectina. Por ultimo, se han identificado regiones especificas del genoma humano que están relacionadas tanto con el asma como con la obesidad. La mayoría de los estudios apuntan a que la obesidad es capaz de aumentar la prevalencia y la incidencia de asma, aunque este efecto parece ser moderado. El tratamiento de los asmáticos obesos debe incluir un

  11. Esteroides inhalados: pilar fundamental en el tratamiento actual del asma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roidel Pérez Pérez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El asma bronquial es una de las enfermedades a las que más se enfrenta el médico cubano, y un mejor conocimiento de su fisiopatología ha provocado modificaciones en la estrategia terapéutica. Con el propósito de actualizar conocimientos referentes al tema de los antiinflamatorios esteroides y el uso de los dispositivos para la terapia inhalatoria, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, para lo cual se consultó la información disponible en Medline, Medscape, Infomed y Doyma; se realizó además un bosquejo sobre la evolución fisiopatológica del asma y su repercusión en la terapéutica actual; se resumieron los aspectos más importantes de la terapia por vía inhalatoria, los dispositivos empleados para este fin, así como las drogas más usadas; y se concluyó que son fundamentales en el tratamiento del asma y que deben ser usados precozmente en todo asmático crónico, que los efectos adversos son mínimos usados adecuadamente, y que es de importancia capital el uso correcto de esos inhaladores.Bronchial asthma is one of the diseases that is more commonly faced by the Cuban physician, so a better knowledge of its physiopathology has brought about changes in the therapeutic strategy. With the objective of updating knowledge about steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and the use of devices for inhaling therapy, a literature review was made using data available in Medline, Medscape, Infomed and Doyma. This was accompanied by an outline of the physiopathological evolution of asthma and its effect on the present therapy. The most important aspects of inhaling therapy, the devices used as well as the most used drugs were summarized and it was concluded that inhalers are fundamental in asthma treatment, that they should be early used in chronic asthma cases, their adverse effects are minimal if adequately applied and that the correct use of these devices are of vital importance.

  12. Asma bronquial. Atención primaria de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Pino Blanco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo define las pautas a seguir en la atención primaria de salud para logran un adecuado seguimiento y control de los pacientes que sufren enfermedades respiratorias crónicas y en particular el asma bronquial. Se realiza una revisión profunda de las principales guías para el manejo de la enfermedad, así como las mejores evidencias publicadas hasta la fecha.This paper sets out the guidelines in the primary health care to achieve an adequate monitoring and control of patients suffering from chronic respiratory diseases including bronchial asthma. A systematic review on the main guidelines to handle this disease and the best evidence published to this day are presented.

  13. Dispneia, tosse e pieira… será asma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Discussão: O CAQ é uma variante do adenocarcinoma de ocorrência pulmonar rara. Tem origem a partir das glândulas seromucosas da mucosa traqueobrônquica e tem frequentemente localização central. O sintoma de apresentação mais comum é dispneia associada a sibilância, pieira e tosse, frequentemente interpretada como asma. Tem comportamento infiltrativo e crescimento lento. A terapêutica de eleição é a exérese total sempre que possível. As recidivas locais são frequentes. Apesar disso, tem bom prognóstico, com sobrevida de 91 e 76%, respectivamente aos 5 e aos 10 anos.

  14. Asma bronquial. Atención primaria de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Pino Blanco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo define las pautas a seguir en la atención primaria de salud para logran un adecuado seguimiento y control de los pacientes que sufren enfermedades respiratorias crónicas y en particular el asma bronquial. Se realiza una revisión profunda de las principales guías para el manejo de la enfermedad, así como las mejores evidencias publicadas hasta la fecha.This paper sets out the guidelines in the primary health care to achieve an adequate monitoring and control of patients suffering from chronic respiratory diseases including bronchial asthma. A systematic review on the main guidelines to handle this disease and the best evidence published to this day are presented.

  15. A Framework for Semantic Group Formation in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnas, Asma; Davis, Hugh C.; Millard, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration has long been considered an effective approach to learning. However, forming optimal groups can be a time consuming and complex task. Different approaches have been developed to assist teachers allocate students to groups based on a set of constraints. However, existing tools often fail to assign some students to groups creating a…

  16. Roles of the Outer Membrane Protein AsmA of Salmonella enterica in the Control of marRAB Expression and Invasion of Epithelial Cells▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Morales, Francisco; Prieto Ortega, Ana Isabel; Hernández Piñero, Sara Belén; Cota García, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, María Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; García del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesús Pursals, José

    2009-01-01

    A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S....

  17. Asma y tabaquismo, ¿Una asociación bidireccional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Andrés Medina-Páez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El asma es una enfermedad crónica caracterizada por hiperreactividad de la vía aérea que puede desencadenarse por diversos mecanismos, entre los cuáles el tabaquismo evidencia una estrecha asociación con el desarrollo y progresión de la enfermedad pulmonar. A pesar de lo anterior, la asociación del asma en la niñez con el desarrollo del tabaquismo en la adultez no ha sido ampliamente propuesta. En general, se ha reportado que así como el tabaquismo puede preceder el asma en adultez, en otros casos el asma precede esta relación. De tal manera, los asmáticos comienzan a fumar a menor edad y entre mayor es la sintomatología, mayor el riesgo de ser fumador regular. Lo anterior sustenta una probable relación bidireccional entre el tabaquismo y el asma, a pesar que no es clara la dirección del efecto de la condición asmática sobre el hábito tabáquico. De tal forma, el propósito de la presente revisión es describir dicha asociación bidireccional entre el asma y el tabaquismo.

  18. Small Group/Seminar Format for Teaching Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethe, John W.; Griffin, Phillip T.

    1981-01-01

    The design and implementation of the revised format of the freshman behavioral science course at Tulane University School of Medicine is described. The methods of evaluation utilized and the data from the first class of medical students to participate in the new curriculum are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  19. The formation of heterodimers by vancomycin group antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staroske, T; O'Brien, DP; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.;

    2000-01-01

    The formation of heterodimers in mixtures of glycopeptide antibiotics has been detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and dimerization constants have been determined. By using NMR spectroscopy, it has been shown that these heterodimers indeed exist in aqueous solution. Th...

  20. Asma na Gravidez: Revisão do Manejo e Validação do Teste de Controle da Asma

    OpenAIRE

    AGUIAR, Mauro Monteiro de

    2013-01-01

    Esta dissertação origina-se da criação de um ambulatório especializado no atendimento de gestantes asmáticas, no Hospital das Clínicas (hospital de ensino da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco). Os estudos resultantes tiveram como foco principal questões relacionadas à asma na gravidez, sendo concluídos dois artigos de revisão e um artigo original. A revisão narrativa intitulada: “Asma na gravidez: atualização no manejo” discorre sobre os principais aspectos desta patologia em gestantes, pois...

  1. Formation Histories of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Ricotti, M; Ricotti, Massimo; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2004-01-01

    We compare the properties of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group with the simulated galaxies formed before reionization in a cosmological simulation of unprecedented spatial and mass resolution. We find that a subset of the Local Group dwarfs are remarkably similar to the simulated dwarf galaxies in all their properties. Based on this similarity, we propose the hypothesis that Local Group dwarfs form in a variety of ways: some of them are ``true fossils'' of the pre-reionization era, some of them form most of their stars later, after reionization (we call them ``survivors'' of the reionization era), and the rest of them form an intermediate group of ``polluted fossils''. We also identify a simple observational test that is able to falsify our hypothesis.

  2. PANDANGAN DUNIA PENGARANG DAN KONTEKS SOSIAL “RUMAH TANPA JENDELA” KARYA ASMA NADIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muawanah Muawanah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang penelitian ini mengkaji tentang “Pandangan Dunia Pengarang dan Konteks Sosial Novel Rumah Tanpa Jendela Karya Asma Nadia”. Adapun hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 latar belakang kehidupan sosial budaya masyarakat dalam novel RTJ ialah adanya dua kelompok masyarakat yaitu kelompok masyarakat miskin dan masyarakat kaya, pendidikan mahal dan tidak terjangkau, kehidupan religius, budaya pernikahan yang diatur orang tua, kekerasan terhadap anak-anak, anak berkebutuhan khusus, sikap moral dan amoral masyarakat serta anak band tanpa napza, (2 pandangan dunia pengarang bahwa kemiskinan adalah ujian, meskipun hidup dalam deraan kemiskinan prinsip hidup yang baik harus tetap dipertahankan, (3 konteks sosial pandangan dunia pengarang, novel RTJ merupakan gambaran dari masyarakat Jakarta dan bangsa Indonesia. Pembaca dalam memaknai isi novel, disarankan mengambil hal-hal positif yang patut dijadikan pedoman dalam menjalani kehidupan. Bagi pendidik, persoalan-persoalan sosial dalam novel RTJ sangat baik untuk dijadikan bahan pembelajaran.This study discuss about “Novel Rumah Tanpa Jendela written by Asma Nadia: A review of sociology of literature”. The result of this study shows that: (1 the background of social and cultural life of society in the novel RTJ is the existence of two groups of people, namely the poor and the rich one, social and cultural life of the poor and the rich, education is unriecheable,  expensive and halfwau school,  the rules of religious life, culture of arranged marriage of parents, violence against children, education for children with special needs, a moral and unmoral attitude of society and group of band without drugs, (2 point of view of the author that poverty is a test, although living in poverty flogging a good life principle must be maintained, (3 the class of people who represented the author is of the lower class ir poor people. The general public in defining the content of novel, suggested

  3. [A comparative study of individuals' responses to formative and declining groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, K

    1990-04-01

    Using 40 college students as subjects, this experiment was conducted to investigate differences in the influence exerted by formative groups and declining groups of the same size. No significant differences between formative and declining groups were found at the behavioural level, especially with respect to conformity rates. However, significant differences were found between the two groups at internal levels, especially with respect to the confidence exhibited in subjects' responses and the evaluation of group opinions. In formative groups, the confidence of conformers in the group increased but non-conformers showed no change. In declining groups, the confidence of non-conformers increased but conformers showed no change. Moreover, only the conformers continued to support group opinions after the groups broke down, evaluating the group opinions highly in private. The results suggested in general that individuals are influenced by group changes and that they select their own responses by anticipating changes likely to occur in the group.

  4. Relación entre las infecciones respiratorias agudas altas y el asma bronquial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Soler Fonseca

    Full Text Available Introducción: la infección respiratoria es la enfermedad más frecuente en los seres humanos, pues es responsable de la mitad de todas las enfermedades agudas. En Cuba al igual que en el resto del mundo, el asma bronquial constituye un importante problema de salud con incidencia relevante en los niños. Se señala que las infecciones virales están involucradas en la patogénesis del asma, sobre todo en el paciente pediátrico. Objetivo: identificar la influencia de las Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas Altas en la aparición y exacerbación de las crisis de asma bronquial. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo de los pacientes ingresados con asma bronquial en el servicio de enfermedades respiratorias del Hospital Pediátrico Docente de San Miguel del Padrón, durante todo el año 2008. Resultados: el tiempo de evolución de la IRAA más frecuente que desencadenó la crisis de asma bronquial fue de más de 7 días, con un 54,8 %. Un total de 188 pacientes presentaron rinofaringitis aguda catarral relacionada con la aparición de la crisis de asma bronquial, lo que representó el 82,4 % del total de la muestra. Conclusiones: predominó el grupo de 1 a 4 años con manifestaciones respiratorias altas de posible etiología viral sin diferencias apreciables en relación con el sexo. La mayoría de los pacientes que participaron en el estudio presentaron IRAA de etiología viral (Rinofaringitis, que precedieron la aparición y exacerbación de las crisis agudas de asma bronquial.

  5. Influence of Group Formation Choices on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethamraju, Ravi; Borman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    With its multidisciplinary and applied foci, team-working skills are seen as especially critical in business courses in general and in business information systems courses in particular, and are specifically incorporated into desired graduate attributes by many universities. Past research has focused on the benefits of group working but little…

  6. Formation of functional groups on graphite during oxygen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvelbar, Uros [Plasma Laboratory, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia)]. E-mail: uros.cvelbar@guest.arnes.si; Markoli, Bostjan [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 12, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Poberaj, Igor [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Zalar, Anton [Plasma Laboratory, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Kosec, Ladislav [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 12, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Spaic, Savo [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 12, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia)

    2006-12-15

    Improved sample wettability was obtained by oxygen plasma functionalization of pyrolytic graphite. The samples were exposed to highly dissociated oxygen plasma with the density of 1 x 10{sup 16} m{sup -3}, the electron temperature of about 5.5 eV and the density of neutral oxygen atoms of 8 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3} for 20 s. The surface wettability was measured by a contact angle of water drop. The contact angle dropped from original 112{sup o} down to about 1{sup o}. The functional groups were detected by XPS analyses. The survey spectrum showed a substantial increase of oxygen concentration on the surface, while high-resolution analyses showed additional oxygen was bonded onto the graphite surface in the form of C-O polar functional group responsible for the increase of the surface energy.

  7. Roles of the outer membrane protein AsmA of Salmonella enterica in the control of marRAB expression and invasion of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ana I; Hernández, Sara B; Cota, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep

    2009-06-01

    A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S. enterica, suggesting that lack of AsmA activates expression of the marRAB operon. Hence, asmA mutations may enhance bile resistance by inducing gene expression changes in the marRAB-controlled Mar regulon. In silico analysis of AsmA structure predicted the existence of one transmembrane domain. Biochemical analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the asmA gene of S. enterica encodes a protein of approximately 70 kDa located in the outer membrane. Because AsmA is unrelated to known transport and/or efflux systems, we propose that activation of marRAB in asmA mutants may be a consequence of envelope reorganization. Competitive infection of BALB/c mice with asmA(+) and asmA isogenic strains indicated that lack of AsmA attenuates Salmonella virulence by the oral route but not by the intraperitoneal route. Furthermore, asmA mutants showed a reduced ability to invade epithelial cells in vitro.

  8. Caracterización del asma bronquial en un área de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eulalia Prieto Herrera

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal para caracterizar el asma bronquial en 2 grupos básicos de trabajo del Policlínico Comunitario Este, del municipio Camagüey durante el año 1996. El universo estuvo constituido por 260 pacientes dispensarizados como asmáticos, y mediante diseño muestral se tomaron 99 pacientes de 6 consultorios. La encuesta recogió variables como: grado de severidad, antecedentes familiares y personales de enfermedad atópica, momento en que aparecen las crisis y factores ambientales. El 54,5 % de los asmáticos eran ligeros; 68,6 % de los pacientes reconoció padecer de enfermedades atópicas. Existió un alto porcentaje de factores ambientales (95,9 % de polvo, 78,7 % de animales domésticos, 74,7 % de humedad. Se concluyó que la mayoría de los pacientes tenían familiares con enfermedades atópicas, más de la mitad de los pacientes presentaban crisis de asma bronquial con los cambios de temperatura. El polvo hogareño fue el factor ambiental más importante en la investigaciónA descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to characterize bronchial asthma in 2 basic working groups of the Eastern Community Polyclinic, in the municipality of Camagüey, during 1996. 260 patients classified as asthmatic participated in the study. 99 patients were selected from 6 physician's offices as a sample.Variables such as severity degree, family and personal history of atopic disease, moment in which the crisis appears and environmental factors were collected in the survey. 54.5% of the asthmatic patients were mild, whereas 68.6% recognized having atopic diseases. There was a high percentage of environmental factors (95.9% of dust, 78.7% of pets, 74.7% of humidity. It was concluded that most of the patients had relatives with atopic diseases and that more than 50% of the patients had crises of bronchial asthma caused by the temperature changes. Home dust was the most important environmental factor found in the

  9. Charged group surface accessibility determines micelleplexes formation and cellular interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Sen, Soumyo; Král, Petr; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2015-04-01

    Micelleplexes are a class of nucleic acid carriers that have gained acceptance due to their size, stability, and ability to synergistically carry small molecules. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA gene regulator that is consists of 19-22 nucleotides. Altered expression of miRNAs plays an important role in many human diseases. Using a model 22-nucleotide miRNA sequence, we investigated the interaction between charged groups on the micelle surface and miRNA. The model micelle system was formed from methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) mixed with methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide)-b-oligoarginine (mPEG-PLA-Rx, x = 8 or 15). Surface properties of the micelles were varied by controlling the oligoarginine block length and conjugation density. Micelles were observed to have a core-shell conformation in the aqueous environment where the PLA block constituted the hydrophobic core, mPEG and oligoarginine formed a hydrophilic corona. Significantly different thermodynamic behaviors were observed during the interaction of single stranded miRNA with micelles of different surface properties, and the resulting micelleplexes mediated substantial cellular association. Depending upon the oligoarginine length and density, micelles exhibited miRNA loading capacity directly related to the presentation of charged groups on the surface. The effect of charged group accessibility of cationic micelle on micelleplex properties provides guidance on future miRNA delivery system design.Micelleplexes are a class of nucleic acid carriers that have gained acceptance due to their size, stability, and ability to synergistically carry small molecules. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA gene regulator that is consists of 19-22 nucleotides. Altered expression of miRNAs plays an important role in many human diseases. Using a model 22-nucleotide miRNA sequence, we investigated the interaction between charged groups on the micelle surface and miRNA. The

  10. Formation of non-magmatic iron-meteorite group IIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation (INAA) data for metal in 22 nonmagmatic IIE meteorites show narrow ranges in Ir and other refractory siderophiles; the Ir range is a factor of 2.6, a factor of ∼2 smaller than in nonmagmatic IAB-MG, and orders of magnitude smaller than in the large magmatic groups. Siderophile data show no evidence of fractional crystallization. IIE irons can be split into two sets, a larger main-set and a set of 6 Cu- (or FeS) rich irons. Elemental concentrations in metal from veins in H5 chondrite Portales Valley fall within the IIE range with the exceptions of Co (high) and Ga (low). H-group-chondrite and Au-normalized IIE abundances for siderophiles show that IIE irons are ∼30% higher than H in refractory siderophiles Re, Ir and W and are about 30% lower than H chondrites in the volatiles Ga and Sb, inconsistent with proposals that IIE irons formed from H chondrites. The IIE fractionations contrast with those in L chondrites which are about 15% lower than H in the three refractory elements and 40% higher than H in volatiles indicating that IIE irons did not form from H chondrites but from a more reduced and siderophile-rich kind of ordinary chondrite ("HH" chondrites). Most O-isotope data support a close relationship between IIE irons and H or HH chondrites; lower Δ17O in primitive (chondritic) silicates support an HH classification. Literature isotopic data for Ru and Mo also show that IIE metal formed from an ordinary chondrite parent; it appears that the silicates and metal were formed by melting of a single asteroid. There is no evidence for radiogenic (26Al) heating; this, the rapid cooling recorded in the sizes of parental gamma crystal in the metal and the absence of fractional crystallization strongly support the hypothesis that IIE melting was the result of impacts. To summarize, the weight of the evidence favors the conclusion that IIE meteorites were formed by one or more impacts on an HH asteroid. The target probably had a

  11. Group Formation and Empowerment: The Case of Brac and Proshika in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moniruzzaman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study analyses the group formation process followed by Brac and Proshika in Bangladesh. Based upon field observation and interviews, it is apparent that the process of Brac and Proshika’s group formation suffers from internal contradiction in setting group objectives. The NGOs expect the groups to remain principally focused on social and political change, but the group members’ objective is to access credit from NGOs and gain economic benefit. The NGO workers remain almost detached from the process and remain unaware of the real group objectives. This produces a gap between the expectations of the NGOs and the offstage negotiated objectives of the groups. Despite this contradiction, the group approach clearly demonstrates the achievement of some desired empowering effects but not through the desired ways of the NGOs. Paying closer attention to the group formation process will help NGOs achieve their desired objectives better.

  12. Diferensiasi Asma Atopik dengan Nonatopik pada Pasien Rawat Jalan di Klinik Paru-Asma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayudi Santoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a difficulty in asthma management regarding to unclear mechanism of asthma, and a variety of asthma phenotypes that individually require individual therapy and approach. The asthmatic phenotype atopic and nonatopic was clinically difficult to distinguish. The study was analytical descriptive with cross-sectional design. The study aim was to explore the differences of atopic and non-atopic asthmatic characteristics. The study subjects were newly asthmatic patients who were out-patients of An-Nur Lung-Asthmatic Clinic, Bandung, in 2007–2008. In patients examined total IgE, spirometry and skin prick test. There were 198 asthmatic patients comprising 149 (75.3% atopic and 40 (24.7% non-atopic asthma. The median of the non-atopic age was 39 years, while the atopic was 34 years (p=0.039. There was a significant difference between atopic (68.5% and non-atopic (44.9% in complaint of short breath (p=0.003, but non significant in spirometric examination. The history of atopy were present in atopic asthma group (p=0.011, with significance in rhinitis (81.2 vs 61.2 OR=2.7 and urticaria (14.8 vs 4.1 OR=4.0. Non-atopic asthma was not more severe that atopic asthma was known from examination of forced expiratory volume first second (FEV1. Rhinitis patient, having urticaria, have greater risk for atopic asthma. There were no difference in skin prick test results between both groups. The clinical symptoms of atopic group were in line with the positivenes results of IgE examination. Clinical condition of rhinitis and urticaria direct to the diagnosed towards atopic asthma compared than other clinical features or spirometric result.

  13. Faktor Risiko Asma Pada Murid Sekolah Dasar Usia 6-7 Tahun di Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afdal .

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang : Asma merupakan penyakit kronik yang sering dijumpai pada anak. Dilaporkan bahwa prevalens asma meningkat pada anak maupun dewasa. Usia 6-7 tahun merupakan periode dimana prevalens asma dan angka kunjungan ke rumah sakit karena asma lebih tinggi. Terjadinya asma dianggap sebagai interaksi yang kompleks antara faktor genetik dan faktor lingkungan. Faktor genetik sudah dibuktikan dari penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya, tetapi karakteristik faktor risiko lingkungan pada asma belum jelas. Apabila melihat derajat peningkatan kejadian asma, tidak mungkin hanya faktor genetik yang berperan, tetapi peran faktor lingkungan justru yang lebih besar. Tujuan : Untuk mengetahui prevalens dan faktor risiko asma pada anak SD usia 6-7 tahun di Kota Padang.Metoda : Suatu penelitian cross sectional di 20 SD di Kota Padang pada bulan Juni – November 2009 dengan jumlah sampel 879 orang. Terhadap setiap subjek dilakukan penelitian yaitu pembagian kuisioner ISAAC (international study of asthma and allergies in childhood untuk orang tua. Analisis data dilakukan dengan uji chi-square untuk variabel katagorik dan analisis multivariat dengan regresi logistik. Data dianalisis menggunakan peranti lunak komputer.Hasil : Prevalens asma pada murid SD usia 6-7 tahun di Kota Padang berdasarkan kuisioner ISAAC sebesar 8%. Faktor yang paling dominan berpengaruh terhadap kejadian asma adalah atopi ayah atau ibu, diikuti faktor berat badan lahir dan kebiasaan merokok pada ibu serta pemberian obat parasetamol. Sedangkan pemberian ASI dan kontak dengan unggas merupakan faktor protektif terhadap kejadian asma. Kata kunci: faktor risiko, asma, sekolah dasar Abstract Background: Background Asthma is a common chronic disease in children. It had been reported that the prevalence of asthma in children and adults was increasing. The age of 6-7 years is the period where the prevalence and the number of visits to the hospital because of asthma are higher. The

  14. Aparato respiratorio y patologías asociadas a la función respiratoria : asma

    OpenAIRE

    Arce Diego, Yaiza

    2014-01-01

    El asma es una enfermedad crónica que afecta a muchas personas y que logra un gran impacto sobre la calidad de vida de las mismas. En este trabajo se expone en primer lugar una vision básica de la anatomía y la fisiología del aparato respiratorio, así como, una descripción histológica del mismo, para poder comprender más claramente cada una de las enfermedades que afectan a este sistema. El asma es la patología central que hemos abordado en este trabajo. De ella, realizamos una breve descripc...

  15. Prevalencia de asma, rinitis y eczema en escolares de la ciudad de Cuernavaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    TATTO-CANO MARÍA ISABEL; SANÍN-AGUIRRE LUZ HELENA; GONZÁLEZ VÍCTOR; RUIZ-VELASCO SILVIA; ROMIEU ISABELLE

    1997-01-01

    Objetivo. La medición del asma, la rinitis y el eczema ha sido motivo de controversia metodológica por la falta de uniformidad en los diagnósticos operacionales. Con el fin de probar la aplicabilidad de una metodología estandarizada para comparaciones en tiempo y espacio se determinó la prevalencia del asma y de otras enfermedades alérgicas en una muestra aleatoria de escolares (n= 6 238) de 6 a 8 años y de 11 a 14 años residentes de Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Material y métodos. Se aplicó ...

  16. Gambaran Jumlah Eosinofil Darah Tepi Penderita Asma Bronkial di Bangsal Paru RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demas Nico M Manurung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAsma merupakan penyakit gangguan inflamasi kronis saluran pernapasan dengan banyak sel serta elemen seluler yang berperan. Asma dihubungkan dengan hiperresponsif bronkus, keterbatasan aliran udara dan gejala pernapasan yang bersifat reversibel. Salah satu sel yang diketahui berperan besar dalam patogenesis asma adalah eosinofil. Eosinofil melepaskan berbagai mediator seperti Major Basic Protein, Eosinophil Cationic Protein, peroksidase eosinofil, leukotrien C4, serta Platelet-Activating Faktor yang akan merusak epitel saluran napas serta menyebabkan peradangan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari sampai Desember 2012 di Bagian Rekam Medik RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang dengan tujuan untuk melihat gambaran jumlah eosinofil darah tepi pada penderita asma bronkial yang dirawat inap. Penelitian yang dilakukan bersifat deskriptif dengan tinjauan retrospektif. Penelitian dilakukan dengan melihat data rekam medis penderita asma bronkial yang dirawat inap di Bangsal Paru RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang periode Januari 2010-Desember 2012. Dalam periode dua tahun tersebut, diperoleh 18 sampel yang digunakan pada penelitian ini. Hasil yang diperoleh ialah 4 penderita memiliki jumlah eosinofil darah tepi normal (40-400/mm3 (22,22% dan 14 penderita memiliki jumlah eosinofil darah tepi dibawah normal (<40/mm3 (77,78%. Tidak ditemukan penderita asma dengan eosinofilia (>400/mm3. Jumlah eosinofil darah tepi pada penderita asma bronkial lebih banyak dibawah normal.Kata kunci: Asma Bronkial, EosinofilAbstractAsthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells and cellular elements play a role. Asthma is associated with hyperresponsif bronchi, airflow limitation, and respiratory symptomps that are reversible. One of cells which is known to play a major role in asthma pathogenesis is eosinophil. Eosinophil release a variety of mediators such as Major Basic Protein, Eosinophil Cationic Protein, Eosinophil Peroxidase, Leukotriene C4

  17. Asma y rinitis alérgica en pre-escolares en Cali.

    OpenAIRE

    Myriam Arévalo Herrera; Reyes, Marco A.; Leonardo Victoria; Adriana Villegas; Marisol Badiel; Sócrates Herrera

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes. El asma y la rinitis se han convertido en las enfermedades alérgicas más prevalentes en la población infantil en el mundo. Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia y el comportamiento epidemiológico de las enfermedades alérgicas en preescolares de la ciudad de Cali.   Métodos. Se seleccionó una muestra de 198 niños preescolares menores de 6 años y se aplicó el cuestionario ISAAC. Resultados. La prevalencia de asma fue 20.6% y de rinitis alérgica 18.1% y su comportamiento diferente, ...

  18. O impacto da genética na asma infantil Impact of genetics in childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Pinto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar os resultados dos estudos mais importantes e recentes sobre a genética da asma. Estes dados devem auxiliar os clínicos gerais a compreender o impacto da genética sobre este distúrbio complexo e como os genes e polimorfismos influenciam a asma e a atopia. FONTES DOS DADOS: Os dados foram coletados do banco de dados MEDLINE. Os estudos de associação genética foram selecionados do Genetic Association Database, um repositório de estudos de associação genética de doenças e distúrbios complexos organizado pelo National Institutes of Health. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Considerando os dados de diversos importantes estudos de gêmeos sobre a genética da asma, a heritabilidade, que mensura a contribuição dos fatores genéticos para a variância da asma, pode ser estimada entre 0,48 e 0,79. Uma grande quantidade de estudos de associação genética tentou identificar genes de susceptibilidade à asma. Os resultados mais replicados nos estudos de associação genética envolvem as cinco regiões do genoma humano a seguir: 5q31-32, 6p21, 11q12-13, 16p11-12, e 20p13. Recentemente, outro gene de susceptibilidade à asma (ORMDL3, considerado determinante crítico para a asma infantil, foi identificado por um estudo genômico de associação. CONCLUSÕES: É possível estimar que a contribuição genética à asma varia entre 48 e 79%. Diversos loci parecem influenciar a susceptibilidade à asma. Os genes localizados no cromossomo 5q (ADRB2, IL13 e IL4 e o gene ORMDL3, no cromossomo 17, identificado recentemente, parecem ser determinantes para a asma infantil. O diagnóstico e a farmacogenética podem ser as primeiras implicações clínicas de estudos extensivos sobre a genética da asma.OBJECTIVE: To present the most important and recent results of studies on asthma genetics. These data may help general physicians understand the impact of genetics on this complex disorder and how genes and polymorphisms influence asthma and atopy

  19. Applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Group Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblinger, Esther; Pollio, Elisabeth; Dorsey, Shannon

    2016-02-01

    Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a well-established, evidence-based treatment for children who have experienced trauma, has been increasingly utilized in a group format. Group therapy formats are appealing because they can be highly effective and have the potential to reach larger numbers of clients. Moreover, TF-CBT group delivery may be particularly valuable in reducing the feelings of shame, isolation, and stigma experienced by youth and their caregivers in the aftermath of traumatic experiences. This article reviews the group TF-CBT research, discusses the therapeutic benefits of TF-CBT therapy groups, and provides clinical and logistical guidance for implementing TF-CBT in group format, including a session-by-session protocol. Future directions for research and clinical work in this area are also discussed.

  20. Meteorological Support Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG) Instrumentation, Data Format, and Networks Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, James; Roberts, Barry C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of instrumentation discussed at the Meteorological Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG), a reference for data formats currently used by members of the group, a summary of proposed formats for future use by the group, an overview of the data networks of the group's members. This document will be updated as new systems are introduced, old systems are retired, and when the MSICWG community necessitates a change to the formats. The MSICWG consists of personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC), NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG), and the United States Air Force (USAF) 45th Space Wing and Weather Squadron. The purpose of the group is to coordinate the distribution of weather related data to support NASA space launch related activities.

  1. Basic Science of the Fundamentals and Dynamics of Social-Fringe Group Formation and Sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Counseling Psychology Ph ilosophy (3) Mathemancs Human Fact ors (2) Civil Engineering Secondary Political Science (2) Religious St udies ... Mexico , S. Korea). Study of Social Fringe Group Formation Processes: Crystallization vs. Transformation This proposes to use case study analysis to

  2. Networking the seceder model: Group formation in social and economic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Andreas; Holme, Petter

    2004-09-01

    The seceder model illustrates how the desire to be different from the average can lead to formation of groups in a population. We turn the original, agent based, seceder model into a model of network evolution. We find that the structural characteristics of our model closely match empirical social networks. Statistics for the dynamics of group formation are also given. Extensions of the model to networks of companies are also discussed.

  3. Networking the seceder model: Group formation in social and economic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grönlund, A

    2004-01-01

    The seceder model illustrates how the desire to be different than the average can lead to formation of groups in a population. We turn the original, agent based, seceder model into a model of network evolution. We find that the structural characteristics our model closely matches empirical social networks. Statistics for the dynamics of group formation are also given. Extensions of the model to networks of companies are also discussed.

  4. Effect of phosphate activating group on oligonucleotide formation on montmorillonite: the regioselective formation of 3',5'-linked oligoadenylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabahar, K. J.; Cole, T. D.; Ferris, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of amine structure on the montmorillonite-catalyzed oligomerization of the 5'-phosphoramidates of adenosine are investigated. 4-Aminopyridine derivatives yielded oligoadenylates as long as dodecamers with a regioselectivity for 3',5'-phosphodiester bond formation averaging 88%. Linear and cyclic oligomers are obtained and no A5'ppA-containing products are detected. Oligomers as long as the hexanucleotide are obtained using 2-aminobenzimidazole as the activating group. A predominance of pA2'pA is detected in the dimer fraction along with cyclic 3',5'-trimer; no A5'ppA-containing oligomers were detected. Little or no oligomer formation was observed when morpholine, piperidine, pyrazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and 2-pyridone are used as phosphate-activating groups. The effects of the structure of the phosphate activating group on the oligomer structure and chain lengths are discussed.

  5. Dispersal, group formation and kinship in the black-faced lion tamarin (Leontopithecus caissara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Alexandre T A; Nali, Camila; da Fonseca, Gustavo A B

    2014-01-01

    We report on (i) new group formation, (ii) sex differences in dispersal and (iii) dispersal distance over 6 years for 3 social groups of the black-faced lion tamarin (Leontopithecus caissara) in the vicinity of Ariri, São Paulo state, Brazil. The groups were: Bina (monitored for 74 months), BM5 (52 months) and Teca (13 months). Each group was censused once a week and monitored for 3 days each month. Mating opportunities were found to be the incentive for young adult black-faced lion tamarins to either disperse or remain in their kin group. Young adults show delayed dispersal that is related to the cooperative breeding system characteristic of the Callitrichidae and to a low population density which hinders the formation of new breeding pairs. Our findings suggest that in L. caissara (i) both sexes disperse, (ii) successful immigration is related to breeding opportunities in an existing group, (iii) female immigration motivates male emigration and the formation of new groups, and (iv) emigrants tend to form new groups close to their natal groups. These patterns of dispersal and formation of new groups are efficient because the species has been able to avoid loss of genetic diversity despite their small population size. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Comportamiento del asma bronquial en Cuba e importancia de la prevención de las enfermedades alérgicas en infantes Behavior of bronchial asthma in Cuba and importance of the prevention from allergic diseases in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Abdo Rodríguez

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available El asma es una enfermedad frecuente que continúa siendo difícil de diagnosticar, sobre todo en la primera infancia; y además, es de difícil tratamiento, a pesar de los avances medicamentosos de los últimos años. Por tales razones, las organizaciones de salud pública y los organismos que se ocupan de ella a nivel mundial, cada día enfocan su atención, fundamentalmente, al capítulo de la prevención, particularmente, en el niño propenso a ser asmático. Se analizan las estadísticas relacionadas con el asma bronquial de los años 2001-2004 en Cuba, específicamente en lo referente a: prevalencia en pacientes dispensarizados por asma según grupos de edad y sexo; número de pacientes dispensarizados por asma según grupos de edad; tasa de prevalencia de pacientes dispensarizados por asma según provincias; así como las principales causas de egresos hospitalarios con diagnóstico de asma según estado al egreso. Se presentan recomendaciones prácticas para la prevención de enfermedades alérgicas en infantes con riesgo.Asthma is a frequent disease that is still difficult to diagnose, mainly in early childhood. It is also difficult to treat, in spite of the medical advances attained in the last years. For these reasons, the health public organizations and the bodies having to do with it at the world level focus their attention mainly on prevention, particularly in the child that is prone to be asthmatic. The statistics related to bronchial asthma from 2001 to 2004 in Cuba, specially what refers to the prevalence in patients suffering from asthma categorized by age and sex, the number of asthmatic patients categorized by age groups, the rate of prevalence of asthmatic patients categorized by province, as well as the main causes of hospital discharges with asthma diagnosis according to their state at discharge, are analyzed. Practical recommendations are given for the prevention of allergic diseases in infants at risk.

  7. Micromorphologic evidence for paleosol development in the Endicott group, Siksikpuk formation, Kingak(?) shale, and Ipewik formation, western Brooks range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; White, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Micromorphologic evidence indicates the presence of paleosols in drill-core samples from four sedimentary units in the Red Dog area, western Brooks Range. Well-developed sepic-plasmic fabrics and siderite spherules occur in claystones of the Upper Devonian through Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate (Endicott Group), the Pennsylvanian through Permian Siksikpuk Formation (Etivluk Group), the Jurassic through Lower Cretaceous Kingak(?) Shale, and the Lower Cretaceous Ipewik Formation. Although exposure surfaces have been previously recognized in the Endicott Group and Kingak Shale on the basis of outcrop features, our study is the first microscopic analysis of paleosols from these units, and it provides the first evidence of subaerial exposure in the Siksikpuk and Ipewik Formations. Regional stratigraphic relations and geochemical data support our interpretations. Paleosols in the Siksikpuk, Kingak, and Ipewik Formations likely formed in nearshore coastal-plain environments, with pore waters subjected to inundation by the updip migration of slightly brackish ground water, whereas paleosols in the Kanayut Conglomerate probably formed in a more distal setting relative to a marine basin.

  8. Asma y rinitis alérgica en pre-escolares en Cali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Arévalo Herrera

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El asma y la rinitis se han convertido en las enfermedades alérgicas más prevalentes en la población infantil en el mundo. Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia y el comportamiento epidemiológico de las enfermedades alérgicas en preescolares de la ciudad de Cali.   Métodos. Se seleccionó una muestra de 198 niños preescolares menores de 6 años y se aplicó el cuestionario ISAAC. Resultados. La prevalencia de asma fue 20.6% y de rinitis alérgica 18.1% y su comportamiento diferente, presentándose con más frecuencia el asma en niños de estratos bajos 27% vs 13% en estratos altos. En cambio, en niños de estrato alto la rinitis fue más prevalente (29.3% vs 8.1%, p=0.0002. El antecedente familiar de alergia fue más frecuente en los niños con asma que con rinitis (40.9% vs 9.1, p

  9. Relação entre o índice de massa corporal e a gravidade da asma em adultos

    OpenAIRE

    Pelegrino,Nilva Regina Gelamo; Faganello,Márcia Maria; Sanchez,Fernanda Figueirôa; Padovani,Carlos Roberto; Godoy, Irma de [UNESP

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O aumento do índice de massa corporal (IMC) tem sido associado a uma maior prevalência da asma em adultos. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar a associação entre a prevalência da obesidade e a gravidade da asma. MÉTODOS: Prontuários de duzentos asmáticos acima dos 20 anos de idade foram avaliados retrospectivamente. A asma foi classificada quanto à gravidade através da história clínica e do diagnóstico registrados, dos resultados da espirometria e da medicação prescrita. O I...

  10. Asociación inversa entre asma y defectos del tubo neural: estudio ecológico binacional

    OpenAIRE

    Mario H Vargas; Patricia Campos-Bedolla; Patricia Segura

    2012-01-01

    Los donadores de metilo como el ácido fólico previenen defectos del tubo neural (DTN), pero estudios recientes sugieren que también favorecen el desarrollo de asma. En este trabajo exploramos una posible asociación ecológica entre DTN y asma. Material y métodos. Se consultaron bases de datos de México y EUA para obtener información sobre distribución geográfica (por estado) y tendencia temporal (por año) de DTN y asma. Resultados. Los estados con menor frecuencia de DTN tuvieron mayor frecuen...

  11. Asma y alergia por el colorante carmín Asthma and allergy due to carmine dye

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    El carmín de cochinilla o simplemente carmín (E120) es un colorante rojo que se obtiene de las hembras desecadas del insecto Dactylopius coccus Costa (cochinilla). Hemos evaluado la prevalencia de sensibilización y asma por carmín en una fábrica de colorantes naturales tras diagnosticar dos de sus trabajadores de asma ocupacional. La incidencia acumulada de sensibilización y asma ocupacional por carmín en nuestra fábrica es de 48,1% y 18,5% respectivamente, datos que obligan a implantar medid...

  12. Protocolos de actuación, diagnóstico y tratamiento del asma como enfermedad profesional

    OpenAIRE

    Granados Salvadó, Montse; Rovira Celma, Gabriel; Baños Garcia, Montse

    2010-01-01

    El asma ocupacional es la enfermedad respiratoria de causa profesional mas frecuente en los países desarrollados. Se calcula que entre 10 y 15% de los casos de asma diagnosticados corresponden a asma ocupacional. Es una patología con importantes repercusiones clínicas, sociales y económicas, que condicionan un tratamiento correcto y la adaptación del puesto de trabajo. Se ha descrito mas de 300 sustancias capaces de producir esta enfermedad y cada día aparecen nuevos compues...

  13. Capsular polysaccharide of Group B Streptococcus mediates biofilm formation in the presence of human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fan Di; Mallet, Adeline; Caliot, Elise; Gao, Cherry; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an asymptomatic colonizer of human mucosal surfaces that is responsible for sepsis and meningitis in neonates. Bacterial persistence and pathogenesis often involves biofilm formation. We previously showed that biofilm formation in medium supplemented with glucose is mediated by the PI-2a pilus. Here, biofilm formation was tested in cell culture medium supplemented with human plasma. GBS strains were able to form biofilms in these conditions unlike Group A Streptococcus (GAS) or Staphylococcus aureus. Analysis of mutants impaired for various surface components revealed that the GBS capsule is a key component in this process.

  14. Prevalencia del asma bronquial en una población pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireya Brooks Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Introducción: la prevalencia de asma bronquial en la atención primaria, así como los factores que más inciden en ella, facilitan el tratamiento de esta enfermedad en la población pediátrica. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de asma bronquial en la población infantil del municipio 10 de Octubre. Métodos: se realizó un estudio poblacional descriptivo, con el propósito de determinar la prevalencia de asma bronquial en la población infantil del municipio 10 Octubre, a partir de los casos identificados con esta enfermedad. El marco muestral estuvo constituido por los pacientes en edades comprendidas entre los 0-19 años, pertenecientes al universo poblacional de 8 policlínicos del municipio. Se aplicó la distribución por grupos de edades y sexo de la población en estudio, particularizando los dispensarizados por asma. Resultados: el área de salud que aportó el mayor número de pacientes dispensarizados fue la correspondiente al Policlínico "Raúl Gómez García", con 20,4 %. El grupo etario más afectado fue el de 15 a 19 años, con 33,7 % (adolescencia tardía. La prevalencia de asma bronquial en edad infantil del municipio 10 de Octubre fue de un 15,9 %. Conclusiones: el grupo de edad 15-19 años resultó ser el más representativo, y el que, a su vez, mostró superioridad en cuanto a pacientes afectados por asma, condición que puede incrementar los riesgos en el seguimiento de la enfermedad. Existió correspondencia de la prevalencia identificada en el municipio 10 de Octubre, con los estándares nacionales e internacionales de prevalencia del asma.

  15. Educação de pacientes com asma: atuação do enfermeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BETTENCOURT ANA RITA DE CÁSSIA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Programas de educação em asma levam a melhor controle da asma e são uma das recomendações dos consensos. Os programas devem incluir uma enfermeira no grupo educacional que aplicará o programa estruturado. A proposta da intervenção é mudar a vida diária do paciente e sua família e melhorar o controle da doença e qualidade de vida. Objetivo: Padronizar e aplicar um modelo estruturado de pós-consulta, como parte de atendimento multidisciplinar dentro de um programa educativo para pacientes asmáticos em um ambulatório de um hospital público e acompanhamento das mudanças no conhecimento da asma e qualidade de vida. Método: Estudo longitudinal, prospectivo, com duração de seis meses, realizado no ambulatório de Pneumologia do Hospital São Paulo (Unifesp/EPM, dentro de um programa de educação para pacientes asmáticos, em que foram agendadas seis consultas, com intervalo de quatro semanas, com os seguintes temas: o que é asma, medicações de alívio e prevenção, diário de sintomas e escore de dispnéia, uso correto do aerossol, discussão dos fatores desencadeantes e profilaxia, e também reconhecer os sinais de descontrole da asma. Um modelo padronizado do questionário de conhecimentos sobre asma e outro sobre qualidade de vida foram aplicados no início, durante e no final do estudo. Resultados: 26 asmáticos foram acompanhados por seis meses e mostraram melhora significante na identificação dos problemas relacionados ao manejo da asma, como também nos índices de qualidade de vida. Conclusão: O modelo de atendimento, como também as técnicas de treinamento, foram adequadas e úteis no desenvolvimento de um programa educativo estruturado para pacientes asmáticos.

  16. Epigenetics in asthma Epigenética en asma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Caraballo

    2009-11-01

    ="EN-US">genes, respectively.

    Smoking, bacterial and viral infections, maternal diet and environmental pollution are also factors that trigger epigenetic processes such as histone acetylation and induction of inflammatory cytokines, inactivation of histone deacetytransferases, polarization of the immune response toward the Th2 type and increased production of IgE and cytokines of this profile. We review the epigenetic effects resulting from therapy with corticosteroids and theophylline, and other factors that might influence the risk of asthma in childhood such as maternal intake of fruits, vegetables, fish oils, vitamins, minerals, and the use of probiotics and antibiotics during pregnancy.

    El asma es una enfermedad respiratoria crónica con alta heredabilidad. Se ha propuesto que en su patogénesis participan varios genes con efectos variables al igual que factores ambientales, y se ha sugerido que los mecanismos epigenéticos pueden mediar parte del efecto de los factores ambientales en el comienzo y la evolución de la enfermedad. La epigenética describe los cambios en la expresión génica heredables durante las mitosis y meiosis que no son codificados en la secuencia de ADN. Ellos incluyen la metilación o desmetilación del ADN y la acetilación, desacetilación, ubiquitinación, sumoilación y fosforilación de histonas, cambios en los microARN y alteraciones cromatínicas. En esta revisión se describen hallazgos que establecen una relación entre algunos mecanismos epigenéticos y el

  17. Exploring Teacher Beliefs and Use of Acceleration, Ability Grouping, and Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missett, Tracy C.; Brunner, Marguerite M.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Moon, Tonya R.; Azano, Amy Price

    2014-01-01

    Few academic interventions for gifted students have generated more empirical support than acceleration and ability grouping, and formative assessment is advocated as a tool that educators can use to appropriately integrate accelerative practices and ability grouping into the classroom. However, the empirical support for accelerative practices,…

  18. A Genetic Algorithm Approach for Group Formation in Collaborative Learning Considering Multiple Student Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Julian; Ovalle, Demetrio A.; Vicari, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Considering that group formation is one of the key processes in collaborative learning, the aim of this paper is to propose a method based on a genetic algorithm approach for achieving inter-homogeneous and intra-heterogeneous groups. The main feature of such a method is that it allows for the consideration of as many student characteristics as…

  19. A Genetic Algorithm Approach for Group Formation in Collaborative Learning Considering Multiple Student Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Julian; Ovalle, Demetrio A.; Vicari, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Considering that group formation is one of the key processes in collaborative learning, the aim of this paper is to propose a method based on a genetic algorithm approach for achieving inter-homogeneous and intra-heterogeneous groups. The main feature of such a method is that it allows for the consideration of as many student characteristics as…

  20. Group Enrollment and Open Gym Format Decreases Cardiac Rehabilitation Wait Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Justin M; Klint, Zachary W; Jagoda, Allison M; McNatt, Jeremy K; Abney, Lesa R; Huang, Shi; Liddle, David G; Frontera, Walter R; Freiberg, Matthew S

    2017-09-01

    Wait times for the first cardiac rehabilitation (CR) session are inversely related to CR participation rates. We hypothesized that changing from individually scheduled appointments to a group enrollment and open gym format, in which patients were enrolled during group intake sessions and could arrive for subsequent CR sessions any time during open gym periods, would decrease wait times. A total of 603 patients enrolled in CR at Vanderbilt University Medical Center from July 2012 to December 2014 were included in the study. We evaluated the effect of changing to a group enrollment and open gym format after adjusting for referral diagnosis, insurance status, seasonality, and other factors. We compared outcomes, including exercise capacity and quality of life, between the 2 groups. Patients in the group enrollment and open gym format had significantly lower average wait times than those receiving individual appointments (14.9 vs 19.5 days, P < .001). After multivariable adjustment, the new CR delivery model was associated with a 22% (3.7 days) decrease in average wait times (95% CI, 1.9-5.6, P < .001). Patients completing CR had equally beneficial changes in 6-minute walk distance and Patient Health Questionnaire scores between the 2 groups, although there was no significant difference in participation rates or the number of sessions attended. Implementation of a group enrollment and open gym format was associated with a significant decrease in wait times for first CR sessions. This CR delivery model may be an option for programs seeking to decrease wait times.

  1. Experimental and Kinetic Investigation of the Influence of OH Groups on NOX Formation

    KAUST Repository

    Bohon, Myles

    2016-05-04

    This work investigates the influence of one or more OH groups present on the fuel molecule and the resultant formation of NOX emissions. Combustion of oxygenated fuels has been increasing globally and such fuels offer significant potential in the reduction of pollutant emissions. One such emission class is the oxides of nitrogen, which typically form through a combination of two regimes: the thermal and non-thermal mechanisms. While thermal NO formation can be reduced by lowering the combustion temperature, non-thermal NO formation is coupled to the fuel chemistry. An experimental and computational investigation of NOX formation in three different burner configurations and under a range of equivalence ratios and temperature regimes explored the differences in NO formation. Measurements of temperature profiles and in-flame species concentrations, utilizing both probed and non-intrusive laser based techniques, allowed for the investigation of NO formation through non-thermal pathways and the differences that exist between fuels with varying numbers of OH groups. The first burner configuration was composed of a high swirl liquid spray burner with insulted combustion chamber walls designed specifically for the combustion of low energy density fuels. In this system the combustion of alcohols and glycerol (the largest by-product of biodiesel production), along with other fuels with multiple hydroxyl groups, was studied. Measurements of the mean flame temperature and exhaust gas measurements of NOX showed significant reductions in non-thermal NO concentrations with increasing numbers of OH groups. An accompanying modeling study and detailed reaction path analysis showed that fuel decomposition pathways through formaldehyde were shown a preference due to the presence of the OH groups which resulted in reduced contributions to the hydrocarbon radical pools subsequent reductions to the Prompt NO mechanism. Two burner configurations with reduced dimensionality facilitated

  2. Morphological Composition of z~0.4 groups: The site of S0 formation

    CERN Document Server

    Wilman, D J; Mulchaey, J S; McGee, S L; Balogh, M L; Bower, R G

    2008-01-01

    The low redshift Universe (z99.999% confidence. Indeed the S0 fraction in groups is at least as high as in z~0.4 clusters and X-ray selected groups, which have more luminous Intra Group Medium (IGM). An 97% confident excess of S0s at >=0.3Mpc from the group centre at fixed luminosity, tells us that formation is not restricted to, and possibly even avoids, the group cores. Interactions with a bright X-ray emitting IGM cannot be important for the formation of the majority of S0s in the Universe. In contrast to S0s, the fraction of elliptical galaxies in groups at fixed luminosity is similar to the field, whilst the brightest ellipticals are strongly enhanced towards the group centres (>99.999% confidence within 0.3Mpc). We conclude that the group and sub-group environments must be dominant for the formation of S0 galaxies, and that minor mergers, galaxy harassment and tidal interactions are the most likely responsible mechanisms. This has implications not only for the inferred pre-processing of cluster galaxies...

  3. Formation of five- and seven-membered rings enabled by the triisopropylsilyl auxiliary group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanov, Dmitry L; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    A highly convenient synthetic pathway to 2-indanones from aldehydes was established. The introduction of a triisopropylsilyl group greatly facilitated Meinwald rearrangement of the intermediate epoxides and alleviated the necessity of polysubstitution for the clean formation of indenes and cyclopentadienes via cyclodehydration of allylic alcohols; unprecedented freedom with respect to the product structure was thus achieved. The developed methodology could also be applicable to the formation of seven-membered rings leading to dibenzo[7]annulenes and dibenzosuberones.

  4. Resistenze al flusso delle vie aeree e reattanza polmonare in bambini affetti da obesità e asma

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduzione: L’eccesso ponderale e l’asma bronchiale stanno diventando le malattie croniche dell’età evolutiva di più comune riscontro nel mondo e vi sono diversi studi epidemiologici presenti in letteratura che concordano nell’evidenziare un simultaneo incremento dell’incidenza di entrambe le condizioni, sollevando la possibilità di un potenziale meccanismo patogenetico condiviso. Inoltre, i pazienti che presentano sia eccesso ponderale che asma bronchiale sembrano rappresentare un’...

  5. Do I Know You? How Individual Recognition Affects Group Formation and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Groups in nature can be formed by interactions between individuals, or by external pressures like predation. It is reasonable to assume that groups formed by internal and external conditions have different dynamics and structures. We propose a computational model to investigate the effects of individual recognition on the formation and structure of animal groups. Our model is composed of agents that can recognize each other and remember previous interactions, without any external pressures, in order to isolate the effects of individual recognition. We show that individual recognition affects the number and size of groups, and the modularity of the social networks. This model can be used as a null model to investigate the effects of external factors on group formation and persistence. PMID:28125708

  6. Local Group Dwarf Galaxies and the Star Formation Law at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, N Yu

    2000-01-01

    I show how the existing observational data on Local Group dwarf galaxies can be used to estimate the average star formation law during the first 3 Gyr of the history of the universe. I find that the observational data are consistent with the orthodox Schmidt law with a star formation efficiency of about 4 percent if the star formation is continuous (during the first 3 Gyr). The efficiency is proportionally higher if most of the gas in the dwarfs was consumed (and never replenished) in a short time interval well before the universe turned 3 Gyr.

  7. A formation scenario of young stellar groups in the region of the Scorpio Centaurus OB association

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, V G; De la Reza, R; Bazzanella, B

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the role played by Lower Centaurus Crux (LCC) and Upper Centaurus Lupus (UCL), both subcomponents of the Scorpio Centaurus OB association (Sco-Cen), in the formation of the groups beta Pictoris, TW Hydrae and the eta Chamaeleontis cluster. The dynamical evolution of all the stellar groups involved and of the bubbles and shells blown by LCC and UCL are calculated and followed from the past to the present. This leads to a formation scenario in which (1) the groups beta Pictoris, TW Hydrae were formed in the wake of the shells created by LCC and UCL, (2) the young cluster eta Chamaeleontis was born as a consequence of the collision of the shells of LCC and UCL, and (3) the formation of Upper Scorpius (US), the other main subcomponent of the Sco-Cen association, may have been started by the same process that created eta Chamaeleontis.

  8. Illusory correlation and group impression formation in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, S A

    2000-07-01

    This study investigated whether a greater illusory correlation bias is present in older adults' memory and evaluative judgment for majority and minority social groups and, if so, whether this bias might be due to an age-related decline in the ability to engage in on-line processing of group-trait information. Young and older adults read desirable and undesirable trait adjectives about the members of 2 groups under either no-distraction or distraction conditions. Group A had twice as many members as Group B and, for both groups, desirable traits occurred twice as often as undesirable traits. Afterwards, participants completed group-trait memory and evaluative judgment tasks. Greater illusory correlation in memory and evaluative judgment after distraction suggested that diverting resources to competing tasks produced deficits in both memory for specific group-trait information and on-line group impression formation. Older adults' memory for specific group-trait information was disrupted more by distraction than was young adults' memory. However, there were no age differences in evaluative judgment after either distraction condition, suggesting that on-line impression formation activities remain intact in old age. These findings are interpreted within the framework of fuzzy trace theory.

  9. Nifedipine Asma y Nifedipina: estudio comparativo del efecto profiláctivo de la Nifedipina frente al Ketotifeno y placebo en Asma Alérgica Infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Montoya

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Between July 1984 and December 1986 a double blind randomized study was conducted at the Allergy Clinic of the Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Medellín, Colombia, in order to compare the effects of Nifedipine, Ketotifen and placebo on allergic asthma in children; each drug and the placebo were administered orally every 12 hours for a period of 4 months to a group of 20 children. The objective was to evaluate the usefulness of Nifedipine In the prophylactic management of allergic asthma in this population and to compare it with Ketotifen, a provenly efficacious drug, and placebo.

     

    AII patients were older than 5 years and had suffered the disease for more than 2 years. Nifedipine treated patients showed a reduction In the frequency of their asthmatic crisis (17 patients; 85% and in their intensity and duration (16 patients; 80%; a similar reduction was observed In the need for bronchodilators; 18 patients {90% reported beneficial effects with this drug and medical evaluation confirmed Improvement In 14 {70%.

     

    These results resembled those obtained with Ketotifen and both were statistically superior to placebo {p<0.05. Pulmonary function tests, pulse rate and blood pressure did not show any significant changes. Secondary effects were minimal and self-Limited.

     

    It is concluded that Nifedipine can be an alternative drug for the treatment of mild to moderate allergic asthma In children. If calcium antagonists with higher

  10. Taller multidisciplinario dirigido a pacientes pediátricos con asma y sus padres, basado en la Guía Internacional para el Manejo del Asma (GINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina e. Bazán Riverón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene como objetivo mejorar la calidad de vida de pacientes con asma, mediante un taller basado en la Guía Internacional para el Manejo del Asma (GINA. Participó un grupo de 10 pacientes con edades entre 1,5 y 6 años con sus padres; el estudio fue transversal, con un diseño preprueba-posprueba, e incluyó un grupo testigo. El taller multidisciplinario para padres e hijos con asma trató temas de adherencia, tratamiento de sostén y asistencia en crisis; su duración fue de cinco horas.Los resultados muestran mediante el estadístico t de Student que los grupos testigo y experimental en la preprueba son homogéneos; así mismo, en el grupo experimental se comprobó que el cambio entre la pre y posprueba es significativo para los indicadores:visitas no programadas t = 0,000206037, conocimiento de padres t = 0,000727699, crisist = 0,000135318 y factores de riesgo t = 0,000003192 (para todos los casos p < 0,01.Se analizó también el comportamiento del grupo testigo y se observa que no tiene cambios significativos; en relación con la comparación de la posprueba entre el grupo testigo y el experimental, se aprecian diferencias significativas. Las conclusionesse centran en los beneficios de la intervención multidisciplinaria y la eficiencia del taller basado en la GINA.

  11. The anatomy of the NGC 5044 group -- II. Stellar populations and star-formation histories

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, J Trevor; Rasmussen, Jesper; Brough, Sarah; Forbes, Duncan A

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of galaxy properties in groups and clusters holds important information on galaxy evolution and growth of structure in the Universe. While clusters have received appreciable attention in this regard, the role of groups as fundamental to formation of the present day galaxy population has remained relatively unaddressed. Here we present stellar ages, metallicities and alpha-element abundances derived using Lick indices for 67 spectroscopically confirmed members of the NGC 5044 galaxy group with the aim of shedding light on galaxy evolution in the context of the group environment. We find that galaxies in the NGC 5044 group show evidence for a strong relationship between stellar mass and metallicity, consistent with their counterparts in both higher and lower mass groups and clusters. Galaxies show no clear trend of age or alpha-element abundance with mass, but these data form a tight sequence when fit simultaneously in age, metallicity and stellar mass. In the context of the group environment, ...

  12. You want to give a good impression? Be honest! Moral traits dominate group impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco; Sacchi, Simona; Rusconi, Patrice; Cherubini, Paolo; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2012-03-01

    Research has shown that warmth and competence are core dimensions on which perceivers judge others and that warmth has a primary role at various phases of impression formation. Three studies explored whether the two components of warmth (i.e., sociability and morality) have distinct roles in predicting the global impression of social groups. In Study 1 (N= 105) and Study 2 (N= 112), participants read an immigration scenario depicting an unfamiliar social group in terms of high (vs. low) morality, sociability, and competence. In both studies, participants were asked to report their global impression of the group. Results showed that global evaluations were better predicted by morality than by sociability or competence-trait ascriptions. Study 3 (N= 86) further showed that the effect of moral traits on group global evaluations was mediated by the perception of threat. The importance of these findings for the impression-formation process is discussed.

  13. A functional group oxidation model (FGOM for SOA formation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from a volatile organic compound (VOC involves multiple generations of oxidation that include functionalization and fragmentation of the parent carbon backbone and likely particle-phase oxidation and/or accretion reactions. Despite the typical complexity of the detailed molecular mechanism of SOA formation and aging, a relatively small number of functional groups characterize the oxidized molecules that constitute SOA. Given the carbon number and set of functional groups, the volatility of the molecule can be estimated. We present here a functional group oxidation model (FGOM that represents the process of SOA formation and aging. The FGOM contains a set of parameters that are to be determined by fitting of the model to laboratory chamber data: total organic aerosol concentration, and O : C and H : C atomic ratios. The sensitivity of the model prediction to variation of the adjustable parameters allows one to assess the relative importance of various pathways involved in SOA formation. An analysis of SOA formation from the high- and low-NOx photooxidation of four C12 alkanes (n-dodecane, 2-methylundecane, hexylcyclohexane, and cyclododecane using the FGOM is presented, and comparison with the statistical oxidation model (SOM of Cappa et al. (2013 is discussed.

  14. A Functional Group Oxidation Model (FGOM for SOA formation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from a volatile organic compound (VOC involves multiple generations of oxidation that include functionalization and fragmentation of the parent carbon backbone and, likely, particle-phase oxidation and/or accretion reactions. Despite the typical complexity of the detailed molecular mechanism of SOA formation and aging, a relatively small number of functional groups characterize the oxidized molecules that constitute SOA. Given the carbon number and set of functional groups, the volatility of the molecule can be estimated. We present here a Functional Group Oxidation Model (FGOM that represents the process of SOA formation and aging. The FGOM contains a set of parameters that are to be determined by fitting of the model to laboratory chamber data: total organic aerosol concentration, and O:C and H:C atomic ratios. The sensitivity of the model prediction to variation of the adjustable parameters allows one to assess the relative importance of various pathways involved in SOA formation. An analysis of SOA formation from the high- and low-NOx photooxidation of four C12 alkanes (n-dodecane, 2-methylundecane, hexylcyclohexane, and cyclododecane using the FGOM is presented, and comparison with the Statistical Oxidation Model (SOM of Cappa et al. (2012 is discussed.

  15. Prevalência e gravidade de asma brônquica em adultos obesos com indicação de cirurgia bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Saulo Maia Davila; Melo,Valdinaldo Aragão de; Menezes Filho,Raimundo Sotero; Alves Júnior,Antônio J

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de asma em um grupo de adultos obesos, candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica e avaliar a gravidade da asma neste grupo de pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, envolvendo 363 pacientes obesos adultos (índice de massa corpórea > 35 kg/m²) avaliados por um médico pneumologista, utilizando a avaliação clínica como instrumento diagnóstico de asma. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação clínica e espirometria e foram divididos em dois grupos (asma e control...

  16. Porcentaje de casos de asma de difícil control en niños del área sanitaria de Badajoz y factores asociados

    OpenAIRE

    Habernau Mena, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    El asma es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en niños. Objetivos: Estimar el porcentaje de casos de asma de difícil control (ADC) en un grupo de pacientes con asma mal controlada. Evaluar y comparar factores asociados Métodos: Estudio observacional transversal. Se incluyeron niños de 5 a 14 años con criterios de asma mal controlado, durante un período de 6 meses. Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos y clínicos, y tratamiento farmacológico. Se realizaron pruebas de función ...

  17. Estimation of Formation Enthalpies of Organic Pollutants from a New Structural Group Contribution Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Bagheri; Afshin Bakhtiari; Masoume Jaberi

    2013-01-01

    Chemical stability and reactivity of organic pollutants is dependent to their formation enthalpies.The main objective of this study is to provide simple straightforward strategy for prediction of the formation enthalpies of wide range organic pollutants only from their structural functional groups.Using such an extended dataset comprising 1694 organic chemicals from 77 diverse material classes benefits the generalizability and reliability of the study.The new suggested collection of 12 functional groups and a simple linear regression lead to promising statistics of R2=0.958,Q2Loo =0.956,and δAEE=57 kJ·mol-1 for the whole dataset.Moreover,unknown experimental formation enthalpies for 27 organic pollutants are estimated by the presented approach.The resultant model needs no technical software/calculations,and thus can be easily applied by a non-specialist user.

  18. Comparing Two Cooperative Small Group Formats Used with Physical Therapy and Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eon, Marcel; Proctor, Peggy; Reeder, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study compared "Structured Controversy" (a semi-formal debate like small group activity) with a traditional open discussion format for medical and physical therapy students. We found that those students who had participated in Structured Controversy changed their personal opinion on the topic more than those who were in the Open Discussion…

  19. Effect of Peer Evaluation Format on Student Engagement in a Group Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    Active participation in classrooms often involves group work. In order to examine the effect of using peer evaluations as part of that experience, this study measured the influence of four formats of peer evaluation on students' perceptions of fairness of the peer evaluation method, its impact on peer engagement, and peer evaluation scores. The…

  20. CDC: Consejos de exfumadores: El Consejo de Jessica Sobre el Asma PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-19

    La exposición al humo de segunda mano puede provocar un ataque de asma que puede ser mortal. Este anuncio de servicio público de 30 segundos de la campaña de los CDC “Consejos de exfumadores”, muestra a Jessica, la madre de un niño pequeño que tiene ataques de asma por la exposición al humo de segunda mano. Su consejo es que las personas no sientan pena de decirles a otras que no fumen cerca de sus hijos.  Created: 3/19/2012 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  1. Manejo da asma aguda em adultos na sala de emergência: evidências atuais

    OpenAIRE

    Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth; Perin,Christiano

    2009-01-01

    Asma é uma doença com uma alta prevalência em nosso meio e ao redor do mundo. Embora novas opções terapêuticas tenham sido recentemente desenvolvidas, parece haver um aumento mundial na sua morbidade e mortalidade. Em muitas instituições, as exacerbações asmáticas ainda se constituem em uma emergência médica muito comum. As evidências têm demonstrado que o manejo da asma aguda na sala de emergência concentra decisões cruciais que podem determinar o desfecho desta situação clínica. Nesta revis...

  2. Controvérsias no manejo farmacológico da asma aguda infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amantéa Sérgio Luís

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: apresentar uma revisão acerca de questões controversas, relativas ao manejo farmacológico utilizado nos pacientes pediátricos portadores de asma aguda. Fontes dos dados: foram utilizadas informações de artigos publicados em revistas científicas nacionais e internacionais, selecionadas das bases de dados Lilacs e Medline. Síntese dos dados: o artigo foi estruturado em tópicos, apresentando aspectos consensuais no tratamento farmacológico da asma infantil. Questões relacionadas à utilização de inaladores dosimetrados versus nebulizadores, o papel das drogas ß2-adrenérgicas utilizadas pela via endovenosa, bem como das metilxantinas e do sulfato de magnésio, são abordados de maneira crítica. Conclusões: os ß2-agonistas administrados pela via inalatória, associados aos coricosteróides, permanecem o tratamento de eleição para episódios agudos de asma na população pediátrica. Tanto os nebulizadores quanto os inaladores dosimetrados, acoplados a espaçadores, são efetivos para alívio dos sintomas agudos. Pacientes refratários ao tratamento convencional, que evoluem para quadros de asma aguda grave, devem ter considerada a utilização de drogas ß2-agonistas pela via endovenosa, desde que adequadamente monitorizados. Quanto às metilxantinas e ao sulfato de magnésio, devem ser considerados alternativas secundárias para pacientes selecionados.

  3. Study on the Formation Mechanism of Oxygen-containing Groups on the Surfaces of Hypercrosslinked Polystyrenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Hua MENG; Ai Min LI; Lin WU; Fu Qiang LIU; Quan Xing ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    The synthetic parameters were changed to explore the formation mechanism of the oxygen-containing groups on the surfaces of the hypercrosslinked polymers. The FT-IR spectra and the Boehm titration were used to characterize the surface chemistry of the synthesized polymers. The GC-MS was applied to analyze nitrobenzene which was the solvent in the reaction.The functionalities such as carbonyls and phenols were formed through the oxidation of residual chloromethyl groups by nitrobenzene and the carboxylic groups were formed through further oxidation by oxygen. The nitrobenzene was deoxidized to nitrosobenzene and further to aniline.

  4. The formation of objects in the group matrix: Reflections on creative therapy with clay

    OpenAIRE

    Winship, G.; Haigh, R

    1998-01-01

    In this article describes an experimental group experience where five people worked in silence for 20 minutes around a 2 ft square slate using clay as a medium for communication as part of a creative therapy session on an inpatient psychiatric ward. The interaction culminated in a group sculpt. It is suggested that the process of the sculpting may throw some light on the formation of objects in the unconscious group matrix. The article is intended as a contribution towards the debate about th...

  5. The Ultraviolet and Infrared Star Formation Rates of Compact Group Galaxies: An Expanded Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkic, Laura; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Desjardins, Tyler D.; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Cardiff, Ann H.; Durell, Pat R.

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended time-scales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by Tzanavaris et al. (2010) and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 m photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFRUV) using the UVOT uvw2 photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 m photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFRIR). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-red), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-blue) have redder UV colours, lower specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-poor groups. We find the SFRs to be continuously distributed with a peak at about 1 M yr1, indicating this might be the most common value in compact groups. In contrast, the specific SFR distribution is bimodal, and there is a clear distinction between star-forming and quiescent galaxies. Overall, our results suggest that the specific SFR is the best tracer of gas depletion and galaxy evolution in compact groups.

  6. F-formation detection: individuating free-standing conversational groups in images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Setti

    Full Text Available Detection of groups of interacting people is a very interesting and useful task in many modern technologies, with application fields spanning from video-surveillance to social robotics. In this paper we first furnish a rigorous definition of group considering the background of the social sciences: this allows us to specify many kinds of group, so far neglected in the Computer Vision literature. On top of this taxonomy we present a detailed state of the art on the group detection algorithms. Then, as a main contribution, we present a brand new method for the automatic detection of groups in still images, which is based on a graph-cuts framework for clustering individuals; in particular, we are able to codify in a computational sense the sociological definition of F-formation, that is very useful to encode a group having only proxemic information: position and orientation of people. We call the proposed method Graph-Cuts for F-formation (GCFF. We show how GCFF definitely outperforms all the state of the art methods in terms of different accuracy measures (some of them are brand new, demonstrating also a strong robustness to noise and versatility in recognizing groups of various cardinality.

  7. F-formation detection: individuating free-standing conversational groups in images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Francesco; Russell, Chris; Bassetti, Chiara; Cristani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Detection of groups of interacting people is a very interesting and useful task in many modern technologies, with application fields spanning from video-surveillance to social robotics. In this paper we first furnish a rigorous definition of group considering the background of the social sciences: this allows us to specify many kinds of group, so far neglected in the Computer Vision literature. On top of this taxonomy we present a detailed state of the art on the group detection algorithms. Then, as a main contribution, we present a brand new method for the automatic detection of groups in still images, which is based on a graph-cuts framework for clustering individuals; in particular, we are able to codify in a computational sense the sociological definition of F-formation, that is very useful to encode a group having only proxemic information: position and orientation of people. We call the proposed method Graph-Cuts for F-formation (GCFF). We show how GCFF definitely outperforms all the state of the art methods in terms of different accuracy measures (some of them are brand new), demonstrating also a strong robustness to noise and versatility in recognizing groups of various cardinality.

  8. Função pulmonar persistentemente reduzida em crianças e adolescentes com asma Persistent pulmonary function impairment in children and adolescents with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Luisi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A asma é a doença pulmonar crônica mais comum na infância, caracterizada por inflamação brônquica. Algumas crianças com asma podem apresentar função pulmonar persistentemente reduzida. A prevalência e etiologia dessa anormalidade em crianças com asma em países em desenvolvimento ainda não são conhecidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a proporção de pacientes com função pulmonar reduzida, sem resposta a tratamento, em um grupo de crianças e adolescentes com asma, e descrever as características fenotípicas da amostra. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados pacientes ambulatoriais (5-17 anos diagnosticados com asma persistente através de um questionário padronizado. Esses pacientes foram submetidos a espirometria e teste cutâneo para aeroalérgenos comuns. Definiu-se como função pulmonar persistentemente reduzida apresentar relação VEF1/CVF OBJECTIVE: Asthma is the most common chronic pulmonary disease, characterized by bronchial inflammation. Some children with asthma have persistent pulmonary function impairment. The prevalence and etiology of this abnormality in children with asthma in developing countries remain unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of patients with impaired pulmonary function who were unresponsive to treatment in a group of children and adolescents with asthma, and to describe the phenotypic characteristics of the sample. METHODS: Using a standardized questionnaire, we selected outpatients (5-17 years of age diagnosed with persistent asthma. These patients underwent spirometry and skin prick tests for sensitivity to common aeroallergens. Persistent pulmonary function impairment was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio < 0.80, even after 10 days of treatment with bronchodilators and oral corticosteroids. We used the atopic index to differentiate between patients with little or no response to the skin prick test and those with a strong response (cut-off point: 4 allergens

  9. Formation of Amine Groups on the Surface of GaN: A Method for Direct Biofunctionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    the formation of surface sensitive GaN /AlGaN two- dimensional electron gas HEMT devices [5–14]. Furthermore, GaN is robust in aqueous solutions [15...variations are particularly detrimental to GaN HEMT sensors, as they are highly sensitive to the separation between the target and the device surface. Because...locate /apsuscFormation of amine groups on the surface of GaN : A method for direct biofunctionalization R. Stine, B.S. Simpkins, S.P. Mulvaney, L.J

  10. Modern WTO coalitions and groups in the formation of the global trade policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Tsyhankova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It reveals the nature of the concepts «coalition» and «informal group» in the framework of the international economic organizations, realizes their comparative analysis and classifies the coalitions based on the circle of the covered activity directions, on the belonging to the regional integration groups, similarity of the level of development and type of unification structure. There has been observed an evolution of the coalition movement in the framework of the World Trade Organization, researched the modern influence mechanism of coalitions and informal groups on the processes of formation of the global trade policy alongside its definition. There were formulated positive aspects of Ukraine’s participation in the WTO coalitions and groups and characterized potential cooperation groups.

  11. The formation of young athletes’ specialization on the example of rhythmic gymnastics group exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syvash I.S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to substantiate the approach to the formation of specializations gymnasts in the initial stages and preliminary basic training. On this basis, to develop the technology selection, orientation and training of athletes in rhythmic gymnastics group exercises. Material : an expert survey of 46 coaches and judges of Ukraine calisthenics different skills training for gymnasts to group exercise. The study involved 50 athletes who are at the initial stages and preliminary basic training. Results : the necessity of forming specialization. Presented educational technology selection, orientation and training gymnasts in group calisthenics exercises. Investigated the components and benefits of the proposed technology. Systematized criteria for selecting gymnasts to group exercise. Conclusions: experimentally proven technology selection, orientation and training of athletes in the group exercise. The main results of the study have been practically implemented in the training process of training young athletes.

  12. From Miao to Miaozu- Alterity in the Formation of Modern Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the Miao ethnic group has been known for its long and tragic history. This image, however, was formed only during the modern era. Using a historiographical approach, this paper reviews and analyzes the process through which the Chinese Miaoemerged as a modern ethnic group. Specifically, it focuses on the transition from Miao as a blanket term for non-Han ethnic groups in southern China during the pre-modern period to Miaozu as a modern ethnic group, originally constructed in the context of theemergence of Chinese nationalism at the beginning of the 20th century in the context of the domineering Other of Han culture and eventuating in the official recognition of fifty-six minority nationalities (shaoshu minzu in the 1950s. Based on this study, thispaper then goes on to a theoretical discussion on the question of alterity in the formation of ethnic groups.

  13. The Ultraviolet and Infrared Star Formation Rates of Compact Group Galaxies: An Expanded Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Lenkic, Laura; Gallagher, Sarah; Desjardins, Tyler; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Hornschemeier, Ann; Durrell, Pat; Gronwall, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended timescales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by \\citet{tzanavaris10} and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 \\micron\\ photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFR$_{\\mathrm{UV}}$) using the UVOT uvw2photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 \\micron\\ photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFR$_{\\mathrm{IR}}$). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-"red"), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific star formation rates, and tend to lie in H~{\\sc i}-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-"blue") have redder ...

  14. Obesidade e asma: associação ou epifenômeno?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Smiljanic Andrade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre obesidade e asma pela comparação entre idade, gênero, classificação inicial e controle da asma, valores de volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 e fluxo expiratório forçado entre 25 e 75% (FEF25-75% basais com os índices de massa corpórea (IMC em adolescentes asmáticos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 120 pacientes (1,9 masculino:1 feminino asmáticos com mediana de idade de 14,1 anos (9 a 20,1 anos, classificados quanto ao controle e gravidade da asma e avaliados pela espirometria utilizando VEF1 e FEF25-75% basais. Esses dados foram descritos pela frequência, médias e desvio padrão ou medianas e variação, sendo analisados pelos testes de ANOVA, teste t não pareado, teste exato de Fisher, Kruskal-Wallis e pela correlação de Pearson, considerando-se significante p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os gêneros em relação à classificação inicial da asma e ao nível de controle. Receberam classificação inicial persistente 91,7% (100 casos, sendo que 106 casos (88,3% encontravam-se parcial ou totalmente controlados. Não houve diferença estatística entre os pacientes controlados e os demais em relação ao IMC. Não foram encontradas correlações significantes entre zIMC e VEF1 e entre zIMC e FEV25-75%, analisando-se todos os pacientes e apenas pacientes com sobrepeso ou obesos. CONCLUSÕES: Neste estudo, não foi encontrada correlação significante entre sobrepeso/obesidade e asma, utilizando-se parâmetros clínicos, antropométricos e espirométricos.

  15. Factores ambientales relacionados con la gravedad del asma ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATED TO ASTHMA SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL OYARZÚN G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available factores determinantes de la gravedad del asma. Se revisan brevemente las fuentes y los efectos respiratorios y sobre la salud de los principales contaminantes intradomiciliarios. Existe evidencia abundante sobre las respuestas de los asmáticos a la exposición a aeroalergenos intradomiciliarios, tales como los alergenos de los ácaros domésticos. Para alergenos de mascotas, algunos estudios encuentran que una exposición temprana en la vida se asocia a sensibilización y enfermedad alérgica, en tanto que otros comunican un efecto protector. Los efectos de contaminantes intradomiciliarios de la combustión han sido menos caracterizados. Sin embargo, algunos estudios sugieren que ellos podrían estar asociados con exacerbaciones del asma. La exposición a humo de tabaco ha sido relacionada con exacerbación de asma infantil. Además la prevalencia de asma infantil y los ingresos hospitalarios por asma en adultos también se han relacionado con la exposición a humo de tabaco. La exposición de atópicos y asmáticos a contaminantes atmosféricos (O3 y NO2 aumentan la respuesta de las vías aéreas a los aeroalergenos. Por lo tanto, el control de los contaminantes atmosféricos podría disminuir cualquier interacción de contaminantes con alergenos en atópicos y asmáticosThis article review the role played by indoor and atmospheric air pollutants as factors determining asthma severity. Respiratory and health effects and sources of main indoor air pollutants are briefly reviewed. There is abundant evidence of asthmatic responses to indoor aeroallergens, such as exposure to house mite allergens. For pet allergens, some studies found that an early exposure in life was associated to sensitization and allergic disease, whereas others reported a protective effect. The effects of combustion indoor air pollutants have been less characterized. However, some studies suggest that they can be associated to exacerbations of asthma. Environmental tobacco

  16. Impacto del sobrepeso y la obesidad en el asma infantil Impact of the overweight and obesity in the pediatric asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vidal G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La evidencia sugiere que el sobrepeso y la obesidad alterarían el control y la función pulmonar de los niños asmáticos. Objetivo: Medir el impacto del sobrepeso y obesidad en el control y función pulmonar de una población de niños asmáticos persistentes. Material y Método: Se realizó evaluación nutricional, medición de control de asma y espirometría a niños asmáticos persistentes entre 5 y 15 anos, controlados en una Unidad de Enfermedades Respiratorias. Se determinó la presencia de síntomas de asma, los parámetros que permiten precisar su adecuado manejo y algunos factores predisponentes según estado nutricional. Las diferencias entre grupos se evaluaron a través del chi cuadrado de Mantel-Haenszel y el de tendencia, considerándose significativos valores de p Introduction: Evidence suggests that overweight and obesity alter the control and lung function in asthmatic children. Aim: Measure the impact of overweight and obesity in the control and lung function of a population of persistent asthma in children. Material and Method: Nutritional evaluation, asthma control and spirometry were performed in patients with persistent asthma, 5 to 15 years of age controlled in a pediatric respiratory unit. We determined the presence of asthma symptoms, specific parameters for the management and predisposing factors according to the nutritional status. Differences between groups were evaluated using chisquare Mantel-Haenszel and trend; a p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 219 patientes were studied, males 60.3%, average age of8.5 years-old. The frequency of overweight and obesity reached 63.5%. Normal weight 36.5%, overweight 30.6% and obese 32.9%. Uncontrolled asthma (normal weight 37.5%, with overweight and obese 65.5%, p = 0.0001, abnormal spirometry (normal weight 27.5%, with overweight and obese 45.3%,p = 0.01. Uncontrolled asthma linear trend (normal weight 37.5%, overweight 67.2%, obese 63.9%, p = 0

  17. Prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of interdisciplinary student aging interest groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine J; Vandenberg, Edward V; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and posttest of attitudes toward interdisciplinary education and knowledge about aging. Twenty-nine of 32 responding institutions funded by the Reynolds Foundation conducted a group; only medical students participated in one half of these groups. Panel presentations were the most prevalent group activity. Evaluation of their group revealed that an interprofessional service learning experience had the greatest impact on student perceptions of the educational preparation and competency of other disciplines. At posttest, medical students in their group had significantly less positive perceptions of actual cooperation between disciplines than did physical therapy or pharmacy students. Aging interest groups conducted by institutions funded by the Reynolds Foundation did not have a high level of interdisciplinary participation. Intermittent exposure to other disciplines during a small number of group activities may be insufficient to overcome "disciplinary split" and achieve interprofessional team orientation without changes in the structure of medical education.

  18. Contribution of methyl group to secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbon photooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Qi, Li; Cocker, David R.

    2017-02-01

    The complete atmospheric oxidation pathways leading to secondary organic aerosol remain elusive for aromatic compounds including the role of methyl substitutes on oxidation. This study investigates the contribution of methyl group to Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation during the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons under low NOx condition by applying methyl carbon labeled aromatic hydrocarbons ((13C2) m-xylene and (13C2) p-xylene). Particle and gas phase oxidation products are analyzed by a series of mass spectrometers (HR-TOF-AMS, PTR-MS and SIFT-MS). The methyl group carbon containing oxidation products partition to the particle-phase at a lower rate than the carbons originating from the aromatic ring as a result of ring opening reactions. Further, the methyl carbon in the original aromatic structure is at least 7 times less likely to be oxidized when forming products that partition to SOA than the aromatic ring carbon. Therefore, oxidation of the methyl group in xylenes exerts little impact on SOA formation in current study. This study provides supporting evidence for a recent finding - a similarity in the SOA formation and composition from aromatic hydrocarbons regardless of the alkyl substitutes.

  19. Risk factors in pediatric asthmatic patients. Cases and control studies. Factores de riesgo en el asma pediátrica: un estudio de casos y controles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaney Gonzalez Iglesias

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma constitutes the first disease among chronic diseases in children. The morbid-mortality promoted to continue being elevated in spite of the new therapies. For this reason it is a disease with high priority for investigation in pediatric ages. Method: A control and case group study was carried out. The samples was composed by 72 asthmatic children from three General Comprehensive doctor offices from Palmira health area located in Cienfuegos Province, Cuba; and a control group of 72 children apparently healthy from the same population. A questionnaire with the different risk variables was elaborated. Odds ratio technique was used to estimate the risk. Results: low weight at birth, family history of asthma, brochiolitis antecedent and the excessive usage of antibiotics in children under 1 year old were the main risks found. Conclusions: It is conclusive that the exposure to home allergen plus a genetic favorable factor, the prematurity, and brochiolitis constituted the most outstanding elements to suffer from asthma in the population studied.

    Fundamento: El asma constituye la primera de las enfermedades crónicas de la infancia. La morbi-mortalidad que provoca sigue siendo elevada a pesar de las nuevas terapias, por esta razón es una enfermedad de alta prioridad para la investigación en las edades pediátricas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles. Para ello se tomó el total de los 72 niños asmáticos de tres consultorios médicos del área de salud de Palmira, provincia de Cienfuegos, Cuba y un grupo control de 72 niños aparentemente sanos de la misma población. Se elaboró un cuestionario con las diferentes variables de riesgo. Se empleó la razón de productos cruzados u odds ratio para estimar el riesgo. Resultados: Los principales riesgos encontrados fueron el bajo peso al nacer, el

  20. The ultraviolet and infrared star formation rates of compact group galaxies: an expanded sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkić, Laura; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Desjardins, Tyler D.; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Durrell, Pat R.; Gronwall, Caryl

    2016-07-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended time-scales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by Tzanavaris et al. (2010) and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 μm photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFRUV) using the UVOT uvw2 photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 μm photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFRIR). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-`red'), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific SFRs, and tend to lie in H I-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-`blue') have redder UV colours, lower specific SFRs, and tend to lie in H I-poor groups. We find the SFRs to be continuously distributed with a peak at about 1 M⊙ yr-1, indicating this might be the most common value in compact groups. In contrast, the specific SFR distribution is bimodal, and there is a clear distinction between star-forming and quiescent galaxies. Overall, our results suggest that the specific SFR is the best tracer of gas depletion and galaxy evolution in compact groups.

  1. The anatomy of the NGC5044 group - II. Stellar populations and star formation histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, J. Trevor; Proctor, Robert N.; Rasmussen, Jesper; Brough, Sarah; Forbes, Duncan A.

    2009-07-01

    The distribution of galaxy properties in groups and clusters holds important information on galaxy evolution and growth of structure in the Universe. While clusters have received appreciable attention in this regard, the role of groups as fundamental to formation of the present-day galaxy population has remained relatively unaddressed. Here, we present stellar ages, metallicities and α-element abundances derived using Lick indices for 67 spectroscopically confirmed members of the NGC5044 galaxy group with the aim of shedding light on galaxy evolution in the context of the group environment. We find that galaxies in the NGC5044 group show evidence for a strong relationship between stellar mass and metallicity, consistent with their counterparts in both higher and lower mass groups and clusters. Galaxies show no clear trend of age or α-element abundance with mass, but these data form a tight sequence when fitted simultaneously in age, metallicity and stellar mass. In the context of the group environment, our data support the tidal disruption of low-mass galaxies at small group-centric radii, as evident from an apparent lack of galaxies below ~109Msolar within ~100kpc of the brightest group galaxy. Using a joint analysis of absorption- and emission-line metallicities, we are able to show that the star-forming galaxy population in the NGC5044 group appears to require gas removal to explain the ~1.5dex offset between absorption- and emission-line metallicities observed in some cases. A comparison with other stellar population properties suggests that this gas removal is dominated by galaxy interactions with the hot intragroup medium.

  2. Origin and evolution of palaeokarst within the Lower Ordovician (Ibexian) Goodwin Formation (Pogonip Group)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; J.; Kervin; Adam; D.; Woods

    2012-01-01

    Palaeokarst within the Lower to Middle Ordovician Goodwin Formation, Pogonip Group (upper Ibexian-lower Whiterockian) was examined in detail at Meiklejohn Peak, Nevada USA in order to determine its origin, evolution, and relationship to sea level change. Detailed outcrop and petrographic examination of dolostone breccias and host rock reveals that palaeokarst was formed and affected by two distinct cycles of sea level change. A relative transgression resulted in deposition of lagoonal, ooid shoal, and shallow subtidal facies as sea level rose. Exposure of the carbonate platform led to the formation of multiple phreatic caves below the water table, as well as the development of numerous vadose conduits from the downward percolation of meteoric waters. Vadose water flow through early cave-wall and cave-roof collapse breccias resulted in rounding of smaller breccias clasts via physical transport and corrosion, while subsidence of subsurface karst led to the formation of a palaeodoline at the exposure surface. A second relative transgression deposited lagoonal sediments over the older karst; subsequent re-exposure of the carbonate platform resulted in the development of small breccia pockets as well as grikes within the youngest lagoonal sediments, and may have led to further corrosion of the older, deeper subsurface karst. The distal location of the study area within the carbonate platform suggests karst formation was the result of a substantial drop in relative sea level; the presence of multiple generations of palaeokarst imply that at least two higher-frequency cycles of sea-level change overprint the larger regression.

  3. Comportamiento clínico-epidemiológico del asma bronquial en menores de 15 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de la Vega Pažitková

    Full Text Available Introducción: el asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente de la infancia, cuya prevalencia estimada en Cuba es de 8,2 %. La identificación y el control de los factores de riesgo constituyen un pilar importante en el manejo de esta entidad. Objetivos: caracterizar el comportamiento clínico-epidemiológico del asma bronquial en menores de 15 años del policlínico Ana Betancourt. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, durante el período del mes de abril de 2010 a marzo de 2011. Inicialmente se aplicó el cuestionario ISSAC para identificar un posible subregistro de asma. Se empleó la clasificación Global Initiative for Asthma 2007, que permitió agrupar clínicamente a los menores en cuatro categorías. Finalmente se aplicó, a la totalidad de la muestra, un cuestionario para la identificación de los factores de riesgo. Resultados: se identificó una morbilidad oculta de 9,3 %. Con asma leve intermitente: 30 pacientes; leve persistente: 21; moderado persistente: 28 y con asma severa: 14. La totalidad de los pacientes tenían antecedentes familiares de atopia y desencadenaban las crisis con los cambios climáticos. El 95,0 % era sensible a inhalantes respiratorios y en el 64,0 % de los hogares se detectó la presencia de fumadores. Conclusiones: el asma bronquial persiste como una enfermedad infradiagnosticada. En el orden epidemiológico, los antecedentes familiares de atopia y los cambios de tiempo, aventajaron a los restantes factores de riesgo asociados.

  4. Prevalencia de asma, rinitis y eczema en escolares de la ciudad de Cuernavaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATTO-CANO MARÍA ISABEL

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. La medición del asma, la rinitis y el eczema ha sido motivo de controversia metodológica por la falta de uniformidad en los diagnósticos operacionales. Con el fin de probar la aplicabilidad de una metodología estandarizada para comparaciones en tiempo y espacio se determinó la prevalencia del asma y de otras enfermedades alérgicas en una muestra aleatoria de escolares (n= 6 238 de 6 a 8 años y de 11 a 14 años residentes de Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Material y métodos. Se aplicó la metodología propuesta por el International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC para determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, la rinitis y el eczema. La información de prevalencia tanto actual como acumulada para dichos padecimientos se obtuvo a través de un cuestionario estandarizado contestado por los padres de los niños. Resultados. La prevalencia acumulada de asma por diagnóstico médico y sibilancia fue de 5.8% (5.2-6.4 y 21.8% (20.7-22.9 respectivamente; la prevalencia de sibilancia en los últimos 12 meses fue de 8.9% en el grupo de 6 a 8 años contra 6.6% en el de 11 a 14 años, p< 0.001. La prevalencia de diagnóstico médico de rinitis fue de 4.9% (4.3-5.5. Con relación a los síntomas típicos de rinitis, en los últimos 12 meses la prevalencia fue de 9.6% (6 a 8 años y de 10.1% (11 a 14 años. La prevalencia de eczema por diagnóstico médico fue de 4.1% (3.6-4.6. La prevalencia de síntomas de eczema en los últimos 12 meses fue de 10.1% (6 a 8 años y de 10.6% (11 a 14 años. Los síntomas severos de asma fueron significativamente más prevalentes en el grupo de 6 a 8 años y en los meses de otoño. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de asma tanto por diagnóstico médico como por síntomas resulta relativamente baja en relación con otros estudios realizados con la misma metodología. Se analizan las bondades del uso de una metodología estandarizada.

  5. Tratamento profilático da asma Prophylactic treatment of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Rubim de Moura

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: rever os conceitos básicos, os princípios da terapia inalatória, as formas de apresentação da asma e seu tratamento, e as particularidades da assistência ao asmático nos países em via de desenvolvimento. Fontes dos dados: a revisão bibliográfica fundamentou-se em pesquisa direta e nas bases de dados Medline, HighWire e MD Consult. Síntese dos dados: a pesquisa científica fornece evidências amplamente consagradas sobre os planos de tratamento para a asma e, na atualidade, elege a corticoterapia inalatória como tratamento de primeira linha. Alternativamente, outras classes de medicamentos, tais como os beta-agonistas de ação duradoura e os antileucotrienos podem ser considerados. Conclusões: no nível individual, o tratamento da asma está satisfatoriamente equacionado; entretanto, percebe-se que o grande desafio colocado para os profissionais e autoridades de saúde, reside na disponibilização e no acesso das drogas que compõem estes planos terapêuticos pelas populações de baixa renda.Objective: to review basic concepts, inhalation therapy, classification of asthma and peculiarities of asthma in developing countries. Sources: direct search in the Medline, HighWire and MD Consult databases. Summary of the findings: inhaled corticosteroids are the drugs of choice for the treatment of asthma. Alternatively, other drugs, such as long-acting beta-agonists and antileukotrienes could be considered. Conclusions: at an individual level, asthma treatment presents a satisfactory outcome. However, the great challenge for public health professionals and authorities is to provide treatment for asthmatic patients from low-income families living in developing countries.

  6. Asma de riesgo vital caracterización e identificación de los fenotipos implicados /

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Pariente, José

    2009-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 12 novembre 2010 Aunque en la mayoría de los casos el asma es una enfermedad leve, que con un tratamiento adecuado permite llevar una vida prácticamente normal, existen otras formas mucho más graves de la enfermedad. En determinadas circunstancias, los pacientes pueden incluso fallecer a consecuencia del asma, o bien sufrir exacerbaciones que comprometen seriamente su vida. Los estudios previos que han analizado a estos pacientes muestran que la etiología y patogenia...

  7. PIPS-A: Un programa de intervención psicosocial protocolizado para pacientes con asma bronquial

    OpenAIRE

    Fasciglione, María Paola; Castañeiras,Claudia Elena

    2009-01-01

    El asma bronquial es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de las vías aéreas respiratorias, caracterizada por episodios recurrentes de sibilancias, disnea, opresión torácica, tos y secreciones. La prevalencia de esta enfermedad respiratoria está aumentando en todo el mundo (World Health Organization [WHO], 2004). En la actualidad se sabe que los mecanismos que conducen al desarrollo y expresión del asma, comprometen complejas interacciones entre genes y entre éstos y factores ambientales. A pe...

  8. Análisis de los ingresos hospitalarios por asma: características y factores pronóstico

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Álvarez, Uxío

    2016-01-01

    El asma es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de las vías respiratorias que se caracteriza por la aparición de episodios recurrentes y variables en su intensidad de síntomas respiratorios (tos, sibilancias, opresión torácica, disnea…), limitación al flujo aéreo e hiperreactividad bronquial, teniendo como sustrato patológico la presencia de inflamación a nivel bronquial. Se considera el asma un problema de salud pública que afecta a 300 millones de personas en el mundo, si b...

  9. Asma agudo severo en niños: ¿Fenotipo diferente? Severe asthma in children: A different phenotype?

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Lozano C; Leticia Yáñez P; Michelangelo Lapadula A; Carlos Fernández C; Alex Alcántara P; Pilar Rodríguez G; Felipe Burgos F; Dolores Zúñiga P; Mónica Lafourcade R

    2012-01-01

    La magnitud de la respuesta al tratamiento de una exacerbación de asma es variable entre los pacientes y una proporción significativa de ellos debe hospitalizarse. Objetivos: Definir el perfil de los niños que se hospitalizaron por asma grave y los posibles indicadores y determinantes de la respuesta desfavorable al tratamiento. Método: Estudio prospectivo en niños de 4 años o más, con búsqueda etiológica de la exacerbación y estudio de perfil inflamatorio en esputo. Resultados: 60 niños entr...

  10. Conhecimento e impacto sobre o manejo das crises de pacientes portadores de asma

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Jeorge Wagner da Conceição; Silva,Anderson Aquiles; Oliveira,Flávia Márcia

    2008-01-01

    A asma é uma patologia crônica caracterizada por episódios recorrentes de obstrução das vias aéreas. O objetivo do estudo consiste em avaliar o conhecimento dos pacientes asmáticos e os possíveis impactos sobre o manejo da doença. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo utilizando entrevista como instrumento. A amostra foi constituída por 30 pacientes asmáticos, que apresentaram crise, seguida de internação em Unidades de Pronto-Atendimento de Coronel Fabriciano, Ipatinga e Timóteo, em junho e ju...

  11. Intolerancia a la aspirina en pacientes con poliposis nasal y asma bronquial

    OpenAIRE

    Gajardo O,Pilar; Fonseca A,Ximena

    2009-01-01

    La tríada de la aspirina, caracterizada por intolerancia a la aspirina, asma bronquial y poliposis nasal, fue descrita inicialmente por Widal en 1922. La prevalencia de intolerancia a la aspirina en la población general es de aproximadamente 6%, pero estudios han revelado que hasta 78% de los pacientes con poliposis nasal padecen la triada. La presentación clínica consiste en un patrón característico evolutivo de la aparición de los síntomas, presentándose en primer lugar rinitis, luego polip...

  12. Komunikasi Dokter dengan Sikap Konkordansi pada Pasien Tuberkulosis Paru, Hipertensi, dan Asma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Patriani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengobatan penyakit kronik tidak hanya membutuhkan ketersediaan obat dan petugas kesehatan yaitu dokter, tetapi juga tiga faktor yakni kepatuhan (compliance, aderensi (adherency, dan konkordansi ( concordance. Ketiga faktor tersebut sangat penting dalam upaya penanganan penyakit kro-nik, termasuk tuberkulosis (TB paru, hipertensi, dan asma. Untuk mewujudkan sikap konkordansi, dibutuhkan komunikasi efektif antara dokter dan pasien. Komunikasi yang terjalin efektif akan meningkatkan pemahaman dan motivasi dalam diri pasien untuk mengikuti nasihat dari dokter. Adapun penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh tingginya angka penderita dan angka kegagalan berobat ( drop out pasien tuberkulosis paru, hipertensi, asma di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Kota Mataram. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat hubungan komunikasi dokter dan karakteristik pasien dengan sikap konkordansi pasien. Penelitian dengan desain studi potong lintang ini dilakukan terhadap 174 pasien TB paru, hipertensi, dan asma sebagai responden. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pendidikan, pengeluaran, dan komunikasi merupakan variabel yang berhubungan dengan sikap konkordansi pada pasien TB paru, hipertensi, dan asma. Rekomedasi tindak lanjut dari penelitian ini adalah peningkatan fasilitas ruangan untuk meningkatkan kenyamanan komunikasi pasien dan dokter, penyelenggaraan program pengembangan kemampuan komunikasi dokter, dan survei berkala untuk menilai proses komunikasi dokter-pasien. The therapy of chronic diseases is not only needed drugs supply and health staff, that is physician, but also three factors such as compliance, adherence, and concordance. The three of factors are crucial in the handling of chronic diseases like lung tuberculosis, hypertension, and asthma. To accomplish a concordance attitude is needed an effective communication between physician and patient. The effective communication may increase the understanding and motivation of patients to comply the physician

  13. Seguridad de los beta 2 agonistas (ß 2 A) en asma bronquial

    OpenAIRE

    Oscanoa, Teodoro; Hospital Almenara

    2014-01-01

    RESUMENLos broncodilatadores beta 2 agonistas (B2A), forman parte muy importante en la farmacoterapia del asma bronquial, enfermedad que avanza en el mundo, de manera epidémica. Los B2A, son prescritos a millones de personas en el mundo, por consiguiente; los aspectos de seguridad son de interés público. Los broncodilatadores B2A de acción corta (Short-Acting B2 Agonists o SABA) como salbutamol inhalatorio, según las evidencias actuales, confirman su seguridad, en su uso como fármaco de resca...

  14. Asma ocupacional en peluquería: una revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Doria, Holguer Camilo; Parada Báez, Angélica Paola; Sanchez Gilede, Andrea Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo pretende realizar una revisión de la literatura vigente acerca del asma ocupacional secundaria a la exposición de los factores de riesgo identificados en peluquería. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en las bases de datos PubMed y Cochrane de artículos de revistas indexadas con las palabras claves “Asthma occupational, hairdressers, hairdresser, work related asthma”. Aplicando los criterios de selección descritos, se revisaron 26 artículos en total donde se incluían reportes d...

  15. Side-group size effects on interfaces and glass formation in supported polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjie; Song, Jake; Hsu, David D.; Keten, Sinan

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies on glass-forming polymers near interfaces have emphasized the importance of molecular features such as chain stiffness, side-groups, molecular packing, and associated changes in fragility as key factors that govern the magnitude of Tg changes with respect to the bulk in polymer thin films. However, how such molecular features are coupled with substrate and free surface effects on Tg in thin films remains to be fully understood. Here, we employ a chemically specific coarse-grained polymer model for methacrylates to investigate the role of side-group volume on glass formation in bulk polymers and supported thin films. Our results show that bulkier side-groups lead to higher bulk Tg and fragility and are associated with a pronounced free surface effect on overall Tg depression. By probing local Tg within the films, however, we find that the polymers with bulkier side-groups experience a reduced confinement-induced increase in local Tg near a strongly interacting substrate. Further analyses indicate that this is due to the packing frustration of chains near the substrate interface, which lowers the attractive interactions with the substrate and thus lessens the surface-induced reduction in segmental mobility. Our results reveal that the size of the polymer side-group may be a design element that controls the confinement effects induced by the free surface and substrates in supported polymer thin films. Our analyses provide new insights into the factors governing polymer dynamics in bulk and confined environments.

  16. Interaction of hydrogen with ZnO nanopowders--evidence of hydroxyl group formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kester W J; Field, Matthew R; Ou, Jian Zhen; Latham, Kay; Spencer, Michelle J S; Yarovsky, Irene; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2012-01-13

    There have been many investigations to reveal the nature of the hydrogen gas and ZnO nanopowder interaction at elevated temperatures, while at present no conclusive description of such an interaction has been confidently reported. In this work, we demonstrate that a hydroxyl group is formed during this interaction, depending on size and relative crystallinity of nanopowders. Our in situ Raman spectroscopy investigations show that the interaction directly affects the intensity of the Raman signal at 483 cm(-1), relative to the peak at 519 cm(-1). Ex situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy also show extra peaks at 44° and 1618 cm(-1), respectively, after hydrogenation. These peaks were all identified as surface hydroxyl groups, which can be related to the formation of water on the ZnO nanopowder surfaces.

  17. Prevalencia de asma, rinitis y eczema en escolares de la ciudad de Cuernavaca, México Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema ins schoolchildren from Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ISABEL TATTO-CANO

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. La medición del asma, la rinitis y el eczema ha sido motivo de controversia metodológica por la falta de uniformidad en los diagnósticos operacionales. Con el fin de probar la aplicabilidad de una metodología estandarizada para comparaciones en tiempo y espacio se determinó la prevalencia del asma y de otras enfermedades alérgicas en una muestra aleatoria de escolares (n= 6 238 de 6 a 8 años y de 11 a 14 años residentes de Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Material y métodos. Se aplicó la metodología propuesta por el International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC para determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, la rinitis y el eczema. La información de prevalencia tanto actual como acumulada para dichos padecimientos se obtuvo a través de un cuestionario estandarizado contestado por los padres de los niños. Resultados. La prevalencia acumulada de asma por diagnóstico médico y sibilancia fue de 5.8% (5.2-6.4 y 21.8% (20.7-22.9 respectivamente; la prevalencia de sibilancia en los últimos 12 meses fue de 8.9% en el grupo de 6 a 8 años contra 6.6% en el de 11 a 14 años, pObjective. The measurement of asthma, rhinitis and eczema have been subject of controversy due to lack of a standardized methodology. To test the applicability of a standardized methodology for comparisons of time and space we determined the prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases in a random sample of schoolchildren (n= 6 238 from 6 to 8 and 11 to 14 years of age living in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Material and methods. The methodology proposed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC to determine prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinitis and eczema was applied. Current and accumulated information on prevalence was obtained by means of a standardized questionnaire answered by the children’s parents. Results. The accumulated prevalence of asthma by medical diagnosis and wheezing was 5.8% (5

  18. Star formation history and evolution of gas-rich dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group

    CERN Document Server

    Grossi, M; Pritzl, B J; Knezek, P M; Gallagher, J S; Minchin, R F; Freeman, K C

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the properties of three unusual dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group discovered with the HIPASS survey. From their optical morphology they appear to be low surface brightness dwarf spheroidals, yet they are gas-rich (M_{HI}/L_{B} > 1) with gas-mass-to-stellar light ratios larger than typical dwarf irregular galaxies. Therefore these systems appear different from any dwarfs of the Local Group. They should be favoured hosts for starburst, whereas we find a faint star formation region in only one object. We have obtained 21-cm data and Hubble Space Telescope photometry in V and I bands, and have constructed Colour Magnitude Diagrams (CMDs) to investigate their stellar populations and to set a constraint on their age. From the comparison of the observed and model CMDs we infer that all three galaxies are at least older than 2 Gyr (possibly even as old as 10 Gyr) and remain gas-rich because their star formation rates (SFRs) have been very low (< 10^{-3} M_{sun}/yr) throughout. In such systems, sta...

  19. Experiencia de un Programa de Control de Asma Bronquial en Puerto Montt, Chile Report of a bronchial asthma control program in Puerto Montt, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO RIQUELME O

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El asma es una patología de comportamiento clínico variable y generalmente sub tratada. Material y métodos: En Puerto Montt se implementó un Programa de Control de Asma Bronquial integrado con el nivel primario de atención, que clasifica los pacientes usando criterios de gravedad. Se analizó la evolución de 135 asmáticos en 6 controles trimestrales cubriendo 18 meses de seguimiento. Resultados: Hubo disminución progresiva y significativa de los niveles de severidad, de síntomas diurnos y nocturnos, aumento de la capacidad de ejercicio (p = 0,001 y del flujo espiratorio máximo (PEF (0,0001. Se identificó un subgrupo de asmáticos graves (12,5% responsables de la gran mayoría de las consultas en urgencia y de las hospitalizaciones. Conclusiones: El manejo organizado de los pacientes asmáticos permitió obtener ventajas clínicas objetivablesAsthma is a disease with a variable clinical behaviour and usually insufficiently treated and managed. Methods: An Asthma Control Program was implemented in Puerto Montt, Chile, with the out patient participation of the primary medical care system. This Program classifies the asthmatic patients by using preestablished criteria of severity. We analyzed the evolution of 135 patients through six quarterly medical controls covering 18 months of follow up. Results: Patients diminished progressively and significantly their severity levels and their daily and nocturnal symptoms. Besides a significant increase of physical capacity (p = 0.001 and peak expiratory flow (PEF (p = 0.0001 was observed. A series of severe asthmatic patients (12.5% was identified. This group concentrated most of the emergency consultations and hospitalizations. Conclusions: An organized management of asthmatic patients has allowed us to show objectively clinical improvements in these patients after entering to this program

  20. QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY GROUPS: CENTRALS, SATELLITES, AND GALACTIC CONFORMITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobel, Christian; Lilly, Simon J.; Woo, Joanna; Kovač, Katarina, E-mail: christian.knobel@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-10

    We re-examine the fraction of low-redshift Sloan Digital Sky Survey satellites and centrals in which star formation has been quenched, using the environment quenching efficiency formalism that separates out the dependence of stellar mass. We show that the centrals of the groups containing the satellites are responding to the environment in the same way as their satellites (at least for stellar masses above 10{sup 10.3} M {sub ☉}), and that the well-known differences between satellites and the general set of centrals arise because the latter are overwhelmingly dominated by isolated galaxies. The widespread concept of ''satellite quenching'' as the cause of environmental effects in the galaxy population can therefore be generalized to ''group quenching''. We then explore the dependence of the quenching efficiency of satellites on overdensity, group-centric distance, halo mass, the stellar mass of the satellite, and the stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR) of its central, trying to isolate the effect of these often interdependent variables. We emphasize the importance of the central sSFR in the quenching efficiency of the associated satellites, and develop the meaning of this ''galactic conformity'' effect in a probabilistic description of the quenching of galaxies. We show that conformity is strong, and that it varies strongly across parameter space. Several arguments then suggest that environmental quenching and mass quenching may be different manifestations of the same underlying process. The marked difference in the apparent mass dependencies of environment quenching and mass quenching which produces distinctive signatures in the mass functions of centrals and satellites will arise naturally, since, for satellites at least, the distributions of the environmental variables that we investigate in this work are essentially independent of the stellar mass of the satellite.

  1. Prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in children and adolescents with asthma Prevalência de defeitos do desenvolvimento do esmalte dentário em crianças e adolescentes com asma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigho Pelisson Guergolette

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of developmental defects of enamel (DDEs in relation to asthma severity, symptom onset and pharmacological treatment in pediatric asthma patients. METHODS: Children and adolescents (68 asthma patients and 68 controls, 5-15 years of age and residents of the city of Londrina, Brazil, were enrolled in the study. Medical and dental histories were collected through the use of a structured questionnaire. Each participant underwent a dental examination in which the examiner employed the DDE index. RESULTS: Of the 68 asthma group subjects, 61 (89.7% presented dental enamel defects, compared with only 26 (38.2% of those in the control group. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we estimated the risk of DDEs in permanent dentition to be 11 times higher in pediatric subjects with asthma than in those without (OR = 11.88, p = 0.0001. The occurrence of dental enamel defects correlated with greater asthma severity (p = 0.0001 and earlier symptom onset (p = 0.0001. However, dental enamel defects did not correlate with the initiation of treatment (p = 0.08 or the frequency of medication use (p = 0.93. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with severe, early-onset asthma are at increased risk of dental enamel defects and therefore require priority dental care.OBJETIVO: Avaliou-se a prevalência de developmental defects of enamel (DDEs, defeitos de desenvolvimento do esmalte dentário em pacientes pediátricos com asma e sua relação com a severidade da asma, o início dos sintomas e o tratamento medicamentoso. MÉTODOS: Os participantes do estudo eram residentes do município de Londrina (PR, com 5 a 15 anos, sendo 68 asmáticos e 68 controles. Foram levantados dados retrospectivos da história médica e de saúde bucal da população do estudo através de um questionário estruturado. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a um exame dental. Para a avaliação dos defeitos de desenvolvimento do

  2. La Auriculopuntura con semillas en el tratamiento del asma bronquial en edad pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Hervis Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo investigativo en el Policlínico Docente "19 de Abril" durante el año 1996 en el que se incluyó a 97 niños portadores de asma bronquial, cuyas edades oscilaban entre 1 y 14 años. Fueron tratados con auriculopuntura usando el método de pega y presión, con semillas Wang Bu Liu Xin, desarrollado por la escuela de la profesora Huan Li Chung. Se obtuvo una disminución del uso de medicamentos durante la crisis y la intercrisis, así como del número de pacientes clasificados como asmáticos severos y moderados; incrementándose por ende el total de pacientes con asma ligera.A descriptive and investigative study was conducted at the "19 de Abril" Teaching Polyclinic during 1996. 97 children carriers of bronchial asthma, who were between 1 and 14 years old, were treated with auriculopuncture by the method of sticking and pressuring with Wang Bu Liu Xin seeds, a method that is developed by the school of professor Huan Li Chung. It was possible to reduce the use of drugs during the crises and intercrises, as well as the number of patients classified as severe and moderate asthmatic patients. As a result, there was an increase of patients with mild asthma.

  3. Comportamiento del asma bronquial en adolescentes tratados en el Policlínico Universitario "Ana Betancourt" Course of bronchial asthma in adolescents seen in "Ana Betancourt" University Polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de la Vega Pazitková

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el asma infantil representa una entidad que aún no ha logrado ser bien definida y delimitada, lo que establece variadas interpretaciones de su epidemiología, diagnóstico y, consecuentemente de su tratamiento. Objetivos: estimar la prevalencia global de asma en adolescentes tratados en consultorios médicos de familia del Policlínico Universitario "Ana Betancourt". Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, que incluyó a 81 adolescentes de ambos sexos con edades entre 11 y 18 años, pertenecientes a dos consultorios médicos de familia del Grupo Básico de Trabajo No. 2, del Policlínico Universitario "Ana Betancourt", del municipio Playa, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2006 y enero de 2007. Como herramienta de trabajo se utilizó el cuestionario: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, instrumento validado internacionalmente. Resultados: la cifra total de asmáticos ascendió a 52 adolescentes con un discreto predominio del sexo masculino y de los casos ligeros de la enfermedad, para una prevalencia global de 64,1 %. Se encontró un subregistro de 20,9 %. Conclusiones: en ambos consultorios se constata una elevada prevalencia de asma bronquial en la población de adolescentes con mayor afectación en los varones. Los pacientes exhiben mayoritariamente las formas ligeras de la enfermedad. Se encuentra un importante subregistro para el asma bronquial en los adolescentes tratados en el Policlínico Universitario "Ana Betancourt"Introduction: the bronchial asthma is a even defined entity establishing some interpretations of its epidemiology, diagnosis and consequently of its treatment. Objectives: to estimate the global prevalence of asthma in adolescents seen in family medical consulting rooms from "Ana Betancourt" University Polyclinic. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 81 adolescents of both sexes aged between 11 and 18 from family

  4. Asma aguda em adultos na sala de emergência: o manejo clínico na primeira hora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DALCIN PAULO DE TARSO ROTH

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Asma é doença com alta prevalência em nosso meio e ao redor do mundo. Embora novas opções terapêuticas tenham sido recentemente desenvolvidas, parece haver aumento mundial na sua morbidade e mortalidade. Em muitas instituições, as exacerbações asmáticas ainda constituem emergência médica muito comum. As evidências têm demonstrado que a primeira hora no manejo da asma aguda na sala de emergência concentra decisões cruciais que podem determinar o desfecho desta situação clínica. Nesta revisão não-sistemática, os autores enfocaram a primeira hora da avaliação e tratamento do paciente com asma aguda na sala de emergência, descrevendo uma estratégia apropriada para o seu manejo. São consideradas as seguintes etapas: diagnóstico, avaliação da gravidade, tratamento farmacológico, avaliação das complicações e decisão sobre onde se realizará o tratamento adicional. Espera-se que estas recomendações contribuam para que o médico clínico tome a decisão apropriada na primeira hora do manejo da asma aguda.

  5. Influence of Reprocessing in the formation of functional groups during low density polyethylene aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício M. Selonke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in polymer recycling has increased. However, in every reprocessing step the material undergoes shear stress and is affected by temperature and oxygen. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of multiple extrusion in the generation of functional groups, namely hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and transvinylene. Low density polyethylene was reprocessed three times in a single screw extruder. In each recycling step hot pressed films were prepared. These films were submitted to a heat treatment in an oven with air circulation and renovation to proceed with aging tests at different times and temperatures. The results obtained showed that all functional groups had their concentration increased with the increase in number of reprocessing, the aging time and temperature of the heat treatment. The factorial design was applied to verify the influence of these parameters. All the parameters had significant effects, since their regression coefficients had the same order of magnitude, with the most influential parameter being the aging temperature, followed by the aging time and number of extrusions. Most of the interactions were influential, indicating that the formation of functional groups depends upon their interaction, and not only on their isolated effects.

  6. Star formation quenching in simulated group and cluster galaxies: When, how, and why?

    CERN Document Server

    Bahe, Yannick M

    2014-01-01

    Star formation is observed to be suppressed in group and cluster galaxies compared to the field. To gain insight into the quenching process, we have analysed ~2000 galaxies formed in the GIMIC suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. The time of quenching varies from ~2 Gyr before accretion (first crossing of r200,c) to >4 Gyr after, depending on satellite and host mass. Once begun, quenching is rapid (>~ 500 Myr) in low-mass galaxies (M* < 10^10 M_Sun), but significantly more protracted for more massive satellites. The simulations predict a substantial role of outflows driven by ram pressure -- but not tidal forces -- in removing the star-forming interstellar matter (ISM) from satellite galaxies, especially dwarfs (M* ~ 10^9 M_Sun) where they account for nearly two thirds of ISM loss in both groups and clusters. Immediately before quenching is complete, this fraction rises to ~80% even for Milky Way analogues (M* ~ 10^10.5 M_Sun) in groups (M_host ~ 10^13.5 M_Sun). We show that (i) ISM stripping ...

  7. Evolution of Compact and Fossil Groups of Galaxies from Semi-analytical Models of Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhang, Amin; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Mamon, Gary A.; Dariush, Ali. A.; Raouf, Mojtaba

    2017-05-01

    We compare the mean mass assembly histories of compact and fossil galaxy groups in the Millennium Dark Matter Simulation and an associated semi-analytic galaxy formation model. Tracing the halo mass of compact groups (CGs) from z = 0 to z = 1 shows that, on average, 55% of the halo mass in CGs is assembled since z˜ 1, compared to 40% of the halo mass in fossil groups (FGs) on the same time interval, indicating that compared to FGs, CGs are relatively younger galaxy systems. At z = 0, for a given halo mass, FGs tend to have a larger concentration than CGs. Investigating the evolution of CG’s parameters reveals that they become more compact with time. CGs at z = 0.5 see their magnitude gaps increase exponentially, but it takes ˜10 Gyr for them to reach a magnitude gap of 2 mag. The slow growth of the magnitude gap leads to only a minority (˜41%) of CGs selected at z = 0.5 turning into a FG by z = 0. Also, while three-quarters of FGs go through a compact phase, most fail to meet the CG isolation criterion, leaving only ˜30% of FGs fully satisfying the CG selection criteria. Therefore, there is no strong link of CGs turning into FGs or FGs originating from CGs. The relation between CGs and FGs is thus more complex, and in most cases, FGs and CGs follow different evolutionary tracks.

  8. Padronização e estudo da resposta imune de modelos experimentais de asma utilizando ácaros para o teste de novas drogas

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Ana Tereza Cerqueira

    2010-01-01

    A asma é uma das doenças crônicas mais prevalentes em âmbito mumdial. Estudos epidemiológicos indicam que os ácaros mais frequentemente envolvidos na asma e na rinite alérgica em países tropicais e subtropicais são, respectivamente, Blomia tropicalis (BtE) e Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp). Embora ácaros sejam os agentes alergizantes mais importantes, o modelo experimental de alergia, a ovalbumina (Ova), é o mais abundantemente utilizado na literatura para o estudo da asma....

  9. Correlación entre calidad de vida de niños con asma y conocimientos de los cuidadores sobre la enfermedad

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Otálora, Rolando

    2010-01-01

    El asma es la enfermedad crónica más común en niñez y la valoración de la calidad de vida de estos pacientes es considerada piedra angular dentro del manejo integral del niño con asma. Objetivo Establecer la correlación entre la calidad de vida de niños con asma y el nivel de conocimiento de los padres y/o cuidadores sobre los aspectos de la enfermedad de sus hijos, en una población atendida en Consulta externa del Instituto Roosevelt. Método: estudio Correlacional cross sectional en paciente...

  10. Correlación entre calidad de vida de niños con asma y conocimientos de los cuidadores sobre la enfermedad

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Otálora, Rolando

    2010-01-01

    El asma es la enfermedad crónica más común en niñez y la valoración de la calidad de vida de estos pacientes es considerada piedra angular dentro del manejo integral del niño con asma. Objetivo Establecer la correlación entre la calidad de vida de niños con asma y el nivel de conocimiento de los padres y/o cuidadores sobre los aspectos de la enfermedad de sus hijos, en una población atendida en Consulta externa del Instituto Roosevelt. Método: estudio Correlacional cross sectional en paciente...

  11. Prevalência de asma em escolares Prevalence of asthama in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Amorim

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência dos sintomas e da doença de asma em crianças, em razão da alta freqüência de pacientes pediátricos com sintomas sugestivos da doença e da falta de dados de prevalência nesta população. MÉTODOS: Num estudo transversal, foram avaliados 2.735 escolares na faixa etária de 6-7 anos (crianças e 3.509 na de 13-14 anos (adolescentes, escolhidos por amostragem aleatória. Os dados foram coletados em 1998-99 utilizando-se o questionário escrito traduzido do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC, previamente testado e validado. O questionário dirigido às crianças foi respondido pelos seus responsáveis, enquanto os adolescentes responderam em sala de aula. Os dados foram transcritos e analisados pelo programa EPI-info. RESULTADOS: Taxa de devolução: 73,2% (6-7 anos e 94% (13-14 anos. Prevalência dos sintomas nas crianças e adolescentes: sibilos alguma vez, 46,7% e 44,3% (p OBJECTIVE: to assess the prevalence of asthma symptoms and of asthma in children due to the high frequency of pediatrics patients with symptoms suggestive of the disease and to the lack of data regarding prevalence of asthma in this population. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study with 2,735 school-age children aged 6-7 years and 3,509 adolescents aged 13-14 years selected by random sampling. Data were collected between 1998 and 1999 using a translated version of the questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children, which has been previously tested and approved. Guardians were responsible for answering the questionnaire of younger children, whereas adolescents answered their own, in classroom. The data were computed and analyzed using EPI-info software. RESULTS: The response rates for questionnaires were 73.2% (6-7-years old and 94% (13-14 years old. The prevalence of symptoms in children and adolescents were, respectively: wheezing ever 46.7% and 44.3% (P<0.05; wheezing

  12. Asma y deficiencia de subclases de IgG Asthma and IgG subclases deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Santamaría Ortiz

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudiaron 45 pacientes asmáticos adultos de difícil manejo, de más de 5 años de evolución, 37 de ellos esteroide dependientes y 8 no dependientes, con asma alérgica o intrínseca y algunos con Infecciones respiratorias recurrentes de predominio viral. Por nefelometría se midieron los niveles séricos de las IgsG, M y A, y por ELISA se determinó la IgE total. Se encontraron 4 pacientes con deficiencia de IgG total, en el grupo de los esteroide dependientes. Mediante ELISA tipo sandwich y con anticuerpos monoclonales específicos para las sub clases de IgG se investigaron los niveles sé ricos de IgG1, 2, 3 y 4. En el 55.6% de los enfermos se encontraron una O más deficiencias de sub clases. No hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos esteroide y no esteroide dependientes, ni entre los asmáticos alérgicos e intrínsecos, ni entre los con infección recurrente o sin ella. predominó la deficiencia de IgG1; en total el 46.7% de los pacientes tenían deficiencia aislada o combinada de IgG1, el 31.1% de IgG2, el 24.4% de IgG3 y el 17.8% de Igd4. La alta incidencia de deficiencia de sub clases podría deberse a la acción de los esteroides o a una alteración en la regulación de la síntesis de Igs producida por un defecto Inmune primario. Esta deficiencia sería la responsable del comportamiento agresivo de la enfermedad.

    We studied 45 adult asthmatic patients with difficult to care disease and who had more than five years of evolution; they suffered from elther allergic or intrinsic asthma and some had experienced recurrent respiratory tract infections. predominantly of viral etiology. Serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by nephelometry and total lgE was determined by an Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Total lg

  13. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies II. Searching For Signatures of Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2014-01-01

    We search for signatures of reionization in the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies (10$^4$ $<$ M$_{\\star}$ $<$ 10$^9$ M$_{\\odot}$). The SFHs are derived from color-magnitude diagrams using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. Only five quenched galaxies (And V, And VI, And XIII, Leo IV, Hercules) are consistent with forming the bulk of their stars before reionization, when full uncertainties are considered. Observations of 13 of the predicted `true fossils' identified by Bovill & Ricotti show that only two (Hercules and Leo IV) indicate star formation quenched by reionization. However, both are within the virial radius of the Milky Way and evidence of tidal disturbance complicates this interpretation. We argue that the late-time gas capture scenario posited by Ricotti for the low mass, gas-rich, and star-forming fossil candidate Leo T is observationally indistinguishable from simple gas retention. Given the ambiguity between environment...

  14. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. II. Searching for signatures of reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We search for signatures of reionization in the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies (10{sup 4} < M{sub *} < 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}). The SFHs are derived from color-magnitude diagrams using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. Only five quenched galaxies (And V, And VI, And XIII, Leo IV, and Hercules) are consistent with forming the bulk of their stars before reionization, when full uncertainties are considered. Observations of 13 of the predicted 'true fossils' identified by Bovill and Ricotti show that only two (Hercules and Leo IV) indicate star formation quenched by reionization. However, both are within the virial radius of the Milky Way and evidence of tidal disturbance complicates this interpretation. We argue that the late-time gas capture scenario posited by Ricotti for the low mass, gas-rich, and star-forming fossil candidate Leo T is observationally indistinguishable from simple gas retention. Given the ambiguity between environmental effects and reionization, the best reionization fossil candidates are quenched low mass field galaxies (e.g., KKR 25).

  15. The relation between star formation, morphology and local density in high redshift clusters and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Poggianti, Bianca M; Finn, Rose; Bamford, Steven; De Lucia, Gabriella; Varela, Jesus; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Halliday, Claire; Noll, Stefan; Saglia, Roberto; Zaritsky, Dennis; Best, Philip; Clowe, Douglas; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Jablonka, Pascale; Pello, Roser; Rudnick, Gregory; Simard, Luc; von der Linden, Anja; White, Simon

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how the [OII] properties and the morphologies of galaxies in clusters and groups at z=0.4-0.8 depend on projected local galaxy density, and compare with the field at similar redshifts and clusters at low-z. In both nearby and distant clusters, higher-density regions contain proportionally fewer star-forming galaxies, and the average [OII] equivalent width of star-forming galaxies is independent of local density. However, in distant clusters the average current star formation rate (SFR) in star-forming galaxies seems to peak at densities ~15-40 galaxies Mpc^{-2}. At odds with low-z results, at high-z the relation between star-forming fraction and local density varies from high- to low-mass clusters. Overall, our results suggest that at high-z the current star formation (SF) activity in star-forming galaxies does not depend strongly on global or local environment, though the possible SFR peak seems at odds with this conclusion. We find that the cluster SFR normalized by cluster mass anticorrelate...

  16. Star Formation Suppression in Compact Group Galaxies: A New Path to Quenching?

    CERN Document Server

    Alatalo, K; Lisenfeld, U; Bitsakis, T; Lanz, L; Lacy, M; Charmandaris, V; Cluver, M; Dopita, M A; Guillard, P; Jarrett, T; Kewley, L J; Nyland, K; Ogle, P M; Rasmussen, J; Rich, J A; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Xu, C K; Yun, M

    2015-01-01

    We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H$_2$-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H$_2$ bright galaxies, with CARMA. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and early-type galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies show star formation suppression of $\\langle$S$\\rangle$=10$\\pm$5, distributed bimodally, with five objects exhibiting suppressions of S$\\gtrsim$10 and depletion timescales $\\gtrsim$10Gyr. This star formation inefficiency is also seen in the efficiency per freefall time. We investigate the gas-to-dust ratios of these galaxies to determine if an incorrect conversion caused the apparent suppression and find that HCGs have normal ratios. It is likely that the cause of the suppression in these objects is associated with shocks injecting turbulence int...

  17. O cuidado materno no manejo da asma infantil contribuição da enfermagem transcultural El cuidado materno en el manejo del asma infantil - contribución de enfermería transcultural Maternal care in the management of child asthma: the contributions of transcultural nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Maíra Domingues Bernardes Silva; Leila Rangel da Silva; Inês Maria Meneses dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    O objeto deste estudo são as práticas culturais do cuidado materno no manejo da asma infantil. Objetivos: descrever o conhecimento e o cuidado materno sobre a asma infantil e analisar o cuidado materno no manejo da asma infantil. Estudo descritivo-exploratório desenvolvido a partir de questionários e entrevistas com mães de crianças com asma, no período de setembro de 2008 janeiro de 2009. Após análise temática dos dados, emergiram três categorias: 1) Conceito e manejo da asma na visão das mã...

  18. Mecanismos inmunológicos implicados en la patología del asma alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Alexander Pazmiño

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El asma es una enfermedad que afecta a personas de todas las edades. La OMS estima que en la actualidad afecta a 235 millones personas en todo el mundo. Para Colombia se estima que la prevalencia de esta enfermedad es aproximadamente del 12%. El asma se caracteriza por una inflamación de las vías respiratorias y por cambios estructurales en los tejidos de las mismas: como hiperplasia epitelial de las células caliciformes, depósito de colágeno subepitelial e hipertrofia del músculo liso. La inmunopatología del asma alérgica involucra tanto la respuesta humoral como la celular, que colectivamente llevan a un estado de hiperreactividad de la vía respiratoria (AHR. Las células que, en el momento, están implicadas en la cascada inflamatoria del asma atópica son: células epiteliales de la vía aérea, las diferentes subpoblaciones de células T y B, mastocitos, células dendríticas, eosinófilos, basófilos, macrófagos, células iNKT y plaquetas, además de la red de citoquinas, quimioquinas y señales co-estimulatorias y regulatorias correspondientes a cada una de las subpoblaciones celulares que orquestan este proceso. Este artículo revisa algunos de los procesos celulares y moleculares más importantes e implicados en la inmunopatogénesis del asma atópica.

  19. Star Formation and Environmental Quenching of GEEC2 Group Galaxies at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, Angus; McGee, Sean L; Wilman, David J; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Bower, Richard G; Hou, Annie; Mulchaey, John S; Parker, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    We present new analysis from the GEEC2 spectroscopic survey of galaxy groups at $0.8group and field sample show a significant enhancement in star formation, which suggests that quenching is the primary process in the transition from the star-forming to the quiescent state. To model the environmental quenching scenario, we have tested the use of different exponential quenching timescales and delays between satellite accretion and the onset of quenching. We find that with no delay, the quenching timescale needs to be long in order to match the observed quiescent fraction, but then this model produces too many intermediate galaxies. Fixing a delay time of 3 Gyr, as suggested from the local universe, produces too few quiescent galaxies. The observed fractions are be...

  20. Chemical Evolution and Star Formation History of the Disks of Spirals in Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.

    2011-05-01

    Milky Way (MW), M31 and M33 are the only three spiral galaxies in our Local group. MW and M31 have similar mass, luminosity and morphology, while M33 is only about one tenth of MW in terms of its baryonic mass. Detailed theoretical researches on these three spirals will help us to understand the formation and evolution history of both spiral galaxies and Local group. Referring to the phenomenological chemical evolution model adopted in MW disk, a similar model is established to investigate the star formation and chemical enrichment history of these three local spirals. Firstly, the properties of M31 disk are studied by building a similar chemical evolution model which is able to successfully describe the MW disk. It is expected that a simple unified phenomenological chemical evolution model could successfully describe the radial and global properties of both disks. Comparing with the former work, we adopt an extensive data set as model constraints, including the star formation profile of M31 disk derived from the recent UV data of GALEX. The comparison among the observed properties of these two disks displays very interesting similarities in their radial profiles when the distance from the galactic center is expressed in terms of the corresponding scale length. This implies some common processes in their formation and evolution history. Based on the observed data of the gas mass surface density and SFR surface density, the SFR radial profile of MW can be well described by Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law (K-S law) or modified K-S law (SFR is inversely proportional to the distance from the galactic center), but this is not applicable to the M31 disk. Detailed calculations show that our unified model describes fairly well all the main properties of the MW disk and most properties of M31 disk, provided that the star formation efficiency of M31 disk is adjusted to be twice as large as that of MW disk (as anticipated from the lower gas fraction of M31). However, the

  1. Budesonida inalatória em crianças com asma aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani Geórgia K. M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia de budesonida na forma de suspensão, em dose única para inalação, como tratamento adjunto ao b2 inalatório, comparada com dose única de prednisona por via oral, em pacientes com crise aguda de asma. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo, randômico, paralelo, duplo-cego, duplo-placebo. Foram selecionadas 49 crianças, com idade entre 2 e 7 anos, em crise aguda de asma, que, após inalação com salbutamol (0,15 mg/kg, foram divididas em três grupos. O grupo I foi tratado com placebo via oral e inalatório; o grupo II, com prednisona via oral (1 mg/kg e placebo inalatório; e o grupo III, budesonida inalatória (2 mg e placebo via oral. As avaliações foram realizadas pela aplicação de um escore clínico e medida da saturação transcutânea da hemoglobina, seqüencialmente até 72 horas. Caso o escore clínico fosse igual ou superior ao da avaliação inicial, e a saturação inferior à primeira avaliação, a inalação com b2 adrenérgico era repetida. RESULTADOS: A melhora do escore clínico foi progressiva a partir de 30 minutos, e não houve diferença significativa nos três grupos estudados. Ocorreu aumento significativo da saturação da hemoglobina em relação ao valor inicial, com 2 horas no grupo prednisona, 4 horas no grupo budesonida e 24 horas no grupo placebo. CONCLUSÃO: O número de inalações com broncodilatador foi semelhante nos três grupos, com uma média de 2,9 no grupo placebo; 2,7 no grupo prednisona; e 2,5 no grupo budesonida. Em geral, as drogas estudadas foram bem toleradas, com efeitos colaterais semelhantes ao placebo. A administração de dose única de budesonida inalatória associada ao salbutamol, na crise moderada de asma, promoveu melhora clínica comparável à da prednisona oral. A recuperação da saturação transcutânea da hemoglobina foi mais rápida com prednisona.

  2. Significados culturais da asma infantil Cultural meanings of the infantile asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os significados culturais da asma infantil com origem na mãe-cuidadora. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Pesquisa qualitativa realizada em 2004, no município de Fortaleza, CE. Foi utilizada a observação participante com abordagem etnográfica e entrevistas com sete mães acompanhantes de seus filhos em unidade de emergência hospitalar. Os significados das falas das mães foram identificados utilizando-se a técnica de análise temática. ANÁLISE DOS RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas duas categorias de discussão; na primeira, "desinformação sobre a doença", foi possível perceber que as mães não são informadas sobre a doença do filho. Na segunda categoria, "cuidado cultural", as mães referem informações sobre os cuidados e utilizam recursos do saber popular para prevenir a asma dos filhos, como o cuidado ambiental e a utilização de remédios caseiros à base de plantas medicinais. CONCLUSÕES: As características de desinformação e desconhecimento materno em relação à asma do filho mostram a necessidade de haver um trabalho educativo intenso, dialógico e problematizador em estreita colaboração com o tratamento, visando à melhoria do prognóstico da doença.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cultural meanings of infantile asthma from the perspective of the mother/carer of the child. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES: Qualitative research conducted in 2004, in the city of Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil. An ethnographic approach was utilized, consisting of participant observation and interviews with seven mothers, accompanying their children in a hospital emergency ward. Thematic analysis was the technique employed when identifying the meanings of mothers' discourse. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS: Two discussion categories were identified: "disinformation on illness" in which it was possible to perceive that the mothers were not informed with respect to their children's illness; and "cultural care" in which they relate information on

  3. Tipificação do HLA nos fenótipos alérgico e não alérgico da asma

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Megumi Takejima

    2015-01-01

    A asma é uma doença heterogênea caracterizada por um processo inflamatório crônico das vias aéreas inferiores que está associado ao desenvolvimento da hiperresponsividade brônquica e remodelamento da via aérea. Atualmente, a asma é considerada uma síndrome, ou ao menos uma doença com diversos fenótipos. Tradicionalmente, dois fenótipos são bem definidos pela clínica e exames subsidiários: asma alérgica e asma não alérgica. Eles são diferentes quanto á idade de início, apresentação clínica, hi...

  4. SOCIAL COMPETENCE FORMATION AMONG TEENAGERS FROM HUMANIST TREND MULTIPLE-AGED GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa A. Krapivina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problems of social development of adolescents in multiple-aged groups (MAG.Methods. The methods involve socio-personal approach, consideration of the subject in a certain ideological humanistic orientation, comparative analysis, and comparison of historical facts, the study of social phenomena of different ages, long-term scientific observations, reflections, a retrospective analysis of personal experience.Results. The author describes objective conditions for the uprise of extremist, subcultural youth of multiple-aged groups, and the reasons whence they begin to perform distinctive functions that are specific for teenagers. Options for models of MAG humanistic educational systems formed in Russian and foreign social and pedagogical practice are listed. A complex of pedagogical conditions provided for the formation of social competence of adolescents in multiple-aged associations of humanistic orientation is considered. It has been found that this type of system is characterized by the following features: the principle of voluntary association of people, independence of subjects, rapid adaptation to changing socio-cultural situation, a variety of activities by interests, alternating change of activities, conflict resolution within the team, a high level of team spirit, selfmanagement, the creative nature of educational process, upbringing, socialization and self-realization. A brief description of conditions for development of fundamental human values among adolescents and formation of new specific complicated humanistic human and personal relations in global world is given.Scientific novelty. The author studies the following concepts: educational system of multiple-aged associations, teenager social competence, ambivalent behavior, emotional and moral compass of personality, invisible assets of the team, emergent effect of multiple-aged groups, inter-age communication. It was found that the specificity of MAG educational

  5. Los antihistamínicos H1 de primera generación en el tratamiento del asma bronquial ¿si o no?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Zapata Martínez

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión sobre el uso de los antihistáminicos H1 de primera generación en el tratamiento del asma bronquial. Se concluye que sólo deben tenerse en cuenta para el trata miento de pacientes asmáticos con rinitis alérgica crónica cuando no estén en un ataque agudo de asma.

  6. Adaptive Row-grouped CSR Format for Storing of Sparse Matrices on GPU

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We present new adaptive format for storing sparse matrices on GPU. We compare it with several other formats including CUSPARSE which is today probably the best choice for processing of sparse matrices on GPU in CUDA. Contrary to CUSPARSE which works with common CSR format, our new format requires conversion. However, multiplication of sparse-matrix and vector is significantly faster for many atrices. We demonstrate it on set of 1 600 matrices and we show for what types of matrices our format is profitable.

  7. De la rinitis al asma: ¿una o dos enfermedades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Álvarez

    Full Text Available La frecuente asociación entre la rinitis y el asma alérgicos puede ser consecuencia de su mera coexistencia en el tiempo. También es posible que ambas entidades sean los polos opuestos de una misma enfermedad que afecta al aparato respiratorio o diferentes manifestaciones clínicas de una enfermedad sistémica caracterizada por la respuesta inmunológica anómala frente al alergeno. Las interacciones entre fosas nasales y vías aéreas bronquiales han sido ampliamente estudiadas desde el aspecto epidemiológico, fisiopatológico, etiológico y farmacológico. Los datos existentes a este respecto y sus implicaciones prácticas se revisan a continuación.

  8. Características epidemiológicas del asma en un grupo de pacientes adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrero de Lizarazo Elvira

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo epidemiológico con el propósito de contribuir al conocimiento de las características epidemiológicas del asma en un grupo de 38 pacientes adultos asmáticos que consultaron al hospital Santa Clara de Bogotá D.C. durante los meses de octubre y noviembre de 1987. Mediante el análisis del comportamiento de los factores de riesgo asociados a las variables de persona, tiempo y lugar, se establecieron categorías de interés para plantear alternativas de enfermería tendientes a la prevención de la enfermedad y a limitar el número de crisis.

  9. Crisis aguda de Asma Bronquial. Diagnóstico y tratamiento estandarizado

    OpenAIRE

    Anelia de la Caridad Rojas-Pérez; Andrés Andrés-atos; Dalila Chacón-Bonet; Mariela Parra-Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de intervención en 150 pacientes con diagnóstico de Asma Bronquial que acudieron con crisis aguda al Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital Pediátrico de Holguín, de Enero del 2009 hasta Diciembre del 2010; para evaluar la evolución de los mismos después de la aplicación de Guías de Buenas Prácticas. Se aplicó tratamiento a los pacientes según lo establecido, observando su respuesta. Predominó el grupo de 4 a 8 años del sexo masculino, el 52 % de los pacientes pr...

  10. Características del asma bronquial en niños de Cali.

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Alberto Tafur; Jorge Victoria; Diego Saa Navia

    2009-01-01

    Para determinar las características del asma en Cali, se estudiaron 147 niños, atendidos en la consulta externa de pneumología del Hospital Infantil Club Noel de Cali entre octubre, 1994 y diciembre, 1995, seleccionados por orden de llegada sin exclusión por severidad o cualquier otro factor. El grupo estuba compuesto por 89 niños y 58 niñas (p < 0.05), con edades entre menos de 1 año y 13 años, con un promedio de 4.6 años. Casi 22.6% de los niños provenían del SILOS 2 de Cali. Los síntomas e...

  11. Prevalencia de asma no controlada y factores asociados en niños de 3 a 14 años que asisten a los servicios de emergencia y consulta externa del Hospital IESS José Carrasco Arteaga. Cuenca, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Criollo Aguilar, María Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    El nivel de severidad del asma se puede modificar en un mismo paciente. La clasificación del asma según el grado de control es: asma controlada y no controlada. La prevalencia de asma no controlada a nivel mundial esta aumentado según estudios en los últimos años y sus causas están asociadas a factores ambientales y personales. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de asma no controlada y los factores asociados en niños de 3 a 14 años con asma atendidos en el Hospital José Carrasco Arteaga...

  12. The emergence of the non-profit foundation as a significant organizational format for group practice in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J R

    1988-01-01

    The non-profit foundation is fast becoming a factor in the organizational structure of group practices. A growing number of group practices have adopted this format as a means of positioning themselves for survival and success in the turbulent, changing environment of the health care delivery system.

  13. Ultraviolet+Infrared Star Formation Rates: Hickson Compact Groups with Swift and SPitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Gallagher, S. C.; Johnson, K. E.; Gronwall, C.; Immler, S.; Reines, A. E.; Hoversten, E.; Charlton, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    We present Swift UVOT ultraviolet (UV; 1600-3000 A) data with complete three-band UV photometry for a sample of 41 galaxies in 11 nearby (star formation rate, SFR(sub TOTAL). We use Spitzer MIPS 24 micron photometry to estimate SFR(sub IR), the component of SFR(sub TOTAL) that suffers dust extinction in the UV and is re-emitted in the IR. By combining the two components, we obtain SFR(sub TOTAL) estimates for all HCG galaxies. We obtain total stellar mass, M(sub *) estimates by means of Two Micron All Sky Survey K(sub s)-band luminosities, and use them to calculate specific star formation rates, SSFR is identical with SFR(sub TOTAL)/ M (sub *). SSFR values show a clear and significant bimodality, with a gap between low (approximately 1.2 x lO)exp -10)/yr) systems. We compare this bimodality to the previously discovered bimodality in alpha-IRAC, the MIR activity index from a power-law fit to the Spitzer IRAC 4.5-8 micron data for these galaxies. We find that all galaxies with alpha-IRAC 0) are in the high- (low-) SSFR locus, as expected if high levels of star-forming activity power MIR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and a hot dust continuum. Consistent with this finding, all elliptical/SO galaxies are in the low-SSFR locus, while 22 out of 24 spirals / irregulars are in the high-SSFR locus, with two borderline cases. We further divide our sample into three subsamples (I, II, and III) according to decreasing H I richness of the parent galaxy group to which a galaxy belongs. Consistent with the SSFR and alpha-IRAC bimodality, 12 out of 15 type I (11 out of 12 type III) galaxies are in the high- (low-) SSFR locus, while type II galaxies span almost the full range of SSFR values. We use the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (SINGS) to construct a comparison subsample of galaxies that (1) match HCG galaxies in J-band total galaxy luminosity and (2) are not strongly interacting and largely isolated. This selection eliminates mostly low

  14. The Magellanic Satellites Survey: Searching for Hierarchical Structure Formation within the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtol, Keith; Magellanic Satellites Survey (MagLiteS)

    2017-01-01

    A generic prediction of galaxy formation in the standard cosmological model with cold dark matter is the hierarchical assembly of structure on mass scales ranging from ultra-faint galaxies to galaxy clusters. In the Local Group, dozens of galaxies have been found orbiting the Milky Way and Andromeda. The question of whether the largest Milky Way satellites, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, brought in their own entourage of satellites has been a long standing puzzle, and has garnered renewed interest following the recent discovery of more than a dozen ultra-faint galaxy candidates in the southern hemisphere. The on-going Magellanic Satellites Survey (MagLiteS) aims to complete an annulus of contiguous deep optical imaging with Blanco/DECam around the periphery of the Magellanic Clouds, enabling a systematic search for ultra-faint galaxies and other low-surface-brightness stellar substructures associated with the Magellanic system. I will report on the progress of MagLiteS and discuss science highlights from the first observing season, including a new ultra-faint galaxy candidate located ~11 kpc from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  15. A Multiwavelength View of Star Formation in Interacting Galaxies in the Pavo Group

    CERN Document Server

    Machacek, M; Jones, C; Forman, W R; Bastian, N

    2008-01-01

    We combine Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared (MIR) and Chandra X-ray observations of the dominant galaxies NGC6872 and NGC6876 in the Pavo group with archival optical and HI data to study interaction-induced star formation. In spiral galaxy NGC6872, 8.0 and 5.8 micron nonstellar emission having colors consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is concentrated in clumps in three regions: in a 5 kpc radius outer ring about the center of the spiral galaxy, in a bridge of emission connecting NGC6872's northern spiral arm to IC4970, and along the full extent of NGC6872's tidal arms. PAH emission is correlated with young star clusters and dense HI regions. We find no strong differences in the MIR colors of star-forming regions in the spiral galaxy NGC6872 as a function of position relative to the tidally interacting companion galaxy IC4970. We find 11 very luminous X-ray sources (>~ (0.5 - 5) x 10^{39} ergs/s) clustered to the southwest in NGC6872, near bright star-forming regions. In NGC6872's tidal features,...

  16. Sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Shadlinsky

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups. The lymphoid apparatus of trachea and bronchi has been studied. taken from 58 humans of different age and both sexes, died or perished in accidents without pathologies of respiratory and immune systems was studied via microscopical methods. The trachea and bronchi principalis were fixated in 10% solution of formalin and in water Karnua. The longitudinal and transverse pieces were taken from cartilaginous and membranaceus walls of the upper, middle and lower one-third of the trachea and each bronchi principalis. These cuts 5-7 urn in thickness were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, azure-2-eosin, with hematoxylin-picrofucsin by Van-Gizon technique, with methyl green-pironin by Brashe technique (after fixation in water Karnua and reaction by Grymelius. The results of the research showed that during postnatal ontogenesis the sex related differences are observed in cell composition of the trachea and bronchi princiapalis' lymphoid structures. In adolescent, juvenile and 1-st mature period in females the percentage of small and big lymphocytes, cells with mitosis, plasma cells is more, but the percentage of medium lymphocytes and cells with degeneration is less than in males

  17. Crisis aguda de Asma Bronquial. Diagnóstico y tratamiento estandarizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelia de la Caridad Rojas-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de intervención en 150 pacientes con diagnóstico de Asma Bronquial que acudieron con crisis aguda al Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital Pediátrico de Holguín, de Enero del 2009 hasta Diciembre del 2010; para evaluar la evolución de los mismos después de la aplicación de Guías de Buenas Prácticas. Se aplicó tratamiento a los pacientes según lo establecido, observando su respuesta. Predominó el grupo de 4 a 8 años del sexo masculino, el 52 % de los pacientes presentaron crisis ligeras, buena respuesta al uso de broncodilatadores en aerosol, se aplicó la Prednisona por vía oral en la mayoría de los casos que lo requirieron, el 68,7 % realizó tratamiento domiciliario con respuestas controladas y solo en el 31,3 % se decidió ingreso hospitalario lo que permitió arribar a la siguiente conclusión: Con la aplicación de Guías de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas par a el manejo de la exacerbación aguda del Asma Bronquial se logró una clasificación adecuada de la severidad de la misma, buena respuesta a los tratamientos utilizados y disminución de los ingresos hospitalarios.

  18. Cambrian Ichnofossils from the Zhoujieshan Formation (Quanji Group) Overlying Tillites in the Northern Margin of the Qaidam Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Wang; Xunlian Wang; Ye Wang

    2015-01-01

    The Quanji Group is composed of siliciclastics and carbonates and was deposited on a relatively stable block, in the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin, NW China. It is one of the research hotspots in the Qilian-Qinling-Kunlun tectonic zones. However, it has long been argued whether the up-per Quanji Group should be assigned to the Precambrian or the Cambrian for lack of convincing fossil evidence. The discovery of ichnofossils, including Rusophycus, Cruziana, Dimorphichnus, Treptichnus, Skolithos, Arenicolites, Palaeophycus, and Helminthopsis, indicates that the upper member of the Zhou-jieshan Formation (top Quanji Group) is Cambrian in age, and at least above the Treptichnus (Phycodes) pedum Biozone, the lowermost biozone in the Cambrian. The lower member of the Zhoujieshan Forma-tion should belong to the Cambrian. During the time when the upper member of the Zhoujieshan For-mation was deposited, the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin was dominated by the Cruziana Ichno-facies, characterizing a lower-energy shelf (shallow) sea environment with moderate-rich oxygen con-tents. In addition, the conglomerates in the Hongtiegou Formation of the Quanji Group underlying the Zhoujieshan Formation were generally regarded as tillites. However, the dolostones of the lower member of the Zhoujieshan Formation are, in lithology and geochemistry, different from the typical cap-dolostones of the Doushantuo Formation in South China, so it is necessary to further study the ori-gins of the lower member of the Zhoujieshan Formation and the conglomerates of the Hongtiegou For-mation.

  19. Estudo comparativo entre o manejo da asma em uma unidade de referência da rede pública de Porto Alegre (RS e as proposições do III Consenso Brasileiro no Manejo da Asma Asthma management in a public referral center in Porto Alegre in comparison with the guidelines established in the III Brazilian Consensus on Asthma Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Mattos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se as diretrizes do III Consenso Brasileiro no Manejo da Asma estão sendo aplicadas em uma população de asmáticos em um hospital de referência da rede pública de Porto Alegre (RS. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes adultos que iniciaram tratamento entre 1999 e 2002 foram avaliados. O tratamento recebido foi classificado em concordante ou discordante do Consenso. As características clínicas da asma e a freqüência do tratamento por especialista foram comparadas entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados os prontuários de 357 pacientes, com média de idade de 41 anos, sendo 106 homens (29,7% e 251 mulheres (70,3%, 33 tabagistas (9,2%. O tratamento foi considerado discordante em 246 pacientes (70%, sendo que, neste grupo, houve ausência de tratamento com corticóide inalatório em pacientes com asma persistente em 174 deles (71%. Volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo normal, idade entre doze e dezoito anos e asma intermitente foram observados com maior freqüência entre os pacientes com tratamento concordante (p OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the guidelines put forth in the III Brazilian Consensus on Asthma Management are being applied in a population of asthma patients treated at a public hospital that is a referral center for asthma in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: All adult asthma patients who began their treatment between 1999 and 2002 were evaluated. The treatment given was classified as consistent or inconsistent with the Consensus guidelines. The clinical features of asthma and the frequency of treatment provided by a specialist were compared between the two groups (those receiving guideline-consistent treatment and those receiving guideline-inconsistent treatment. RESULTS: The charts of 357 patients were evaluated. The study sample consisted of 106 males (29.9% and 251 females (70.3%. The mean age was 41 years, and 33 (9.2% of the patients were smokers. The treatment was considered

  20. Alcohol and Group Formation: A Multimodal Investigation of the Effects of Alcohol on Emotion and Social Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Sayette, Michael A.; Creswell, Kasey G.; Dimoff, John D.; Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Heckman, Bryan W.; Kirchner, Thomas R.; Levine, John M.; Moreland, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    We integrated research on emotion and on small groups to address a fundamental and enduring question facing alcohol researchers: What are the specific mechanisms that underlie the reinforcing effects of drinking? In one of the largest alcohol-administration studies yet conducted, we employed a novel group-formation paradigm to evaluate the socioemotional effects of alcohol. Seven hundred twenty social drinkers (360 male, 360 female) were assembled into groups of 3 unacquainted persons each an...

  1. Asma e ascaridíase em crianças de 2 a 10 anos de um bairro de periferia Asthma and ascariasis in children aged two to ten living in a low income suburb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Nascimento Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a associação entre asma e ascaridíase em crianças do bairro Pedregal, da cidade de Campina Grande (Paraíba, onde são baixos os indicadores de desenvolvimento humano. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: foi aplicado o questionário padrão do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC, em 1.095 crianças, mas apenas 742 o responderam e entregaram a amostra fecal para realização do exame parasitológico. A faixa etária das 742 crianças incluídas no estudo transversal foi de 2 a 10 anos de idade. A associação entre asma e ascaridíase foi estudada pelo índice Kappa. As análises das variáveis demográficas e clínicas, comparando os dois grupos, foram realizadas pelo teste do qui-quadrado (chi² ou o teste t de Student para os dados quantitativos (contínuos. RESULTADOS: nas 742 crianças, as proporções dos sexos foram semelhantes: 51,9% (n = 385 do masculino e 48,1% (n = 357 do feminino. Nessas crianças, a prevalência de asma foi de 59,7% (n = 443 e da ascaridíase de 56,3% (n = 418, sendo semelhante (chi² = 0,27; p > 0,60 a freqüência de asma no grupo portador de ascaridíase (60,5% ou sem essa helmintíase (58,6%. CONCLUSÃO: apesar da elevada freqüência dos agravos estudados, não há aparente associação entre asma e ascaridíase na população estudada.OBJECTIVE: to assess the relation between children with asthma and ascariasis in the low income neighborhood of Pedregal, in Campina Grande (Paraíba, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHOD: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISSAC standard questionnaire was distributed to 1,095 children but only 742 of them answered it and provided stool samples for parasite examination. The cross-sectional study included those 742 children, whose age ranged from 2 to 10 years. The association between asthma and ascariasis was studied through Kappa rating. Demographic and clinic variants comparing the two groups were analyzed by chi-square test

  2. Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia: II. The morphogenus Glossopteris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Iannuzzi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia. This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004, was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil. Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia. Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descrição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii

  3. Fatores associados ao controle da asma em pacientes pediátricos em centro de referência Factores asociados al control del asma en pacientes pediátricos en centro de referencia Factors associated with asthma control in a pediatric reference center

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Mika Kinchoku; Irai Santana Oliveira; Letícia Abe Watanabe; Fomin,Ângela Bueno F.; CASTRO, Ana Paula B. M.; Cristina Miuki A. Jacob; Antonio Carlos Pastorino

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever os dados epidemiológicos, clínicos e os fatores associados ao controle da asma em pacientes asmáticos seguidos em um ambulatório pediátrico especializado. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de pacientes asmáticos ambulatoriais, para os quais eram fornecidas medicações profiláticas. A classificação da asma, as etapa de tratamento e a avaliação do controle seguiram a IV Diretrizes Brasileiras para o Manejo da Asma, de 2006. Os fatores avaliados foram: outras alergias, obesidade, im...

  4. Report of the IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides and File Format Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Hilton, James L; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Bell, Steven A; Capitaine, Nicole; Fienga, Agnes; Folkner, William M; Gastineau, Mickael; Pavlov, Dmitry; Pitjeva, Elena V; Skripnichenko, Vladimir I; Wallace, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides recommends the use of the Spacecraft and Planet Kernel (SPK) format as a standard format for the position ephemerides of planets and other natural solar system bodies, and the use of the Planetary Constants Kernel (PCK) format for the orientation of these bodies. It further recommends that other supporting data be stored in a text PCK. These formats were developed for use by the SPICE Toolkit by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The CALCEPH library developed by the Institut de mecanique celeste de calcul des ephemerides (IMCCE) is also able to make use of these files. High accuracy ephemerides available in files conforming to the SPK and PCK formats include: the Development Ephemerides (DE) from JPL, Integrateur Numerique Planetaire de l'Observatoire de Paris (INPOP) from IMCCE, and the Ephemerides Planets and the Moon (EPM), developed by the Institute for Applied Astronomy (IAA...

  5. Efectividad de la fisioterapia respiratoria en el tratamiento del asma infantil. Una revisión sistemática.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Roncero, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: El asma afecta a más de 200 millones de personas a nivel mundial, en España afecta al 3-4 % de la población adulta y al 8% de la infantil. En la mayor parte de los casos se diagnostica en la infancia, sobre todo antes de los 8 años de vida, por eso es tan importante enseñar a controlar el asma en la población pediátrica, pues se diagnostica muy temprano y al ser una enfermedad crónica, van a tener que convivir con ella, el resto de su vida. Métodos: Se realizan diferentes bús...

  6. La relación entre el asma y la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Solano-Ortiz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Asma y enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC son enfermedades pulmonares comunes con semejanzas y diferencias. Estudios genéticos recientes han dado información importante acerca de los múltiples loci susceptibles para cada enfermedad. Estudios del genoma han mostrado resultados similares en al menos una región cromosomal en ambas enfermedades, así como también evidencia de la interacción con factores ambientales (por ejemplo, el fumado activo en los pacientes con EPOC, o el pasivo en aquellos con asma. Existen pocos estudios recientes acerca del remodelamiento de la vía aérea y su importancia en pacientes asmáticos persistentes crónicos, lo que podría explicar de cierta forma la progresión de estas personas a enfermedades pulmonares obstructivas crónicas.

  7. Controvérsias na associação entre diabetes mellitus tipo 1 e asma

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    p.930-937 Objetivo: Revisão crítica da literatura sobre a associação entre asma e diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1). Fonte dos dados: Pesquisa bibliográfica na base de dados MEDLINE e LILACS nos últimos vinte anos. Síntese dos dados: Muitos estudos mostram associação inversa entre asma, atopia e o risco de desenvolver DM1. De acordo com a “Hipótese da Higiene”, o risco de doenças alérgicas diminui com infecções precoces na infância no sentido de afastar-se do perfil Th2, predominante ao na...

  8. Eosinofilia en esputo versus óxido nítrico en aire exhalado: aplicación clínica en el asma Eosinophils in induced sputum versus nitric oxide in exhaled air: clinical utility in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Álvarez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. La eosinofilia en esputo inducido permite optimizar el tratamiento antiinflamatorio en el asma pero sus requerimientos técnicos hacen poco viable su aplicación clínica. Evaluamos si el óxido nítrico (FE NO, un marcador inflamatorio de fácil medición, podía suplir a la eosinofilia en esputo, así como la relación que ambos índices mostraban con aspectos clínicos y funcionales del asma. Métodos. Se estudiaron 106 asmáticos (50 con tratamiento antiinflamatorio [AB+] y 56 sin él [AB-] y 15 controles. Tras completar un cuestionario clínico, se les realizó medición de FE NO, espirometría forzada e inducción de esputo. Se calculó el valor de pendiente de la curva concentración-respuesta (CCR obtenida tras la inhalación de salino hipertónico. Resultados. Los resultados de FE NO y de eosinofilia en esputo fueron valorables en 100% y 81% de los casos respectivamente. Los valores de FE NO fueron superiores en AB- que en AB+ y en éstos respecto a controles. La eosinofilia, mayor en asmáticos que en controles aunque sin diferencias entre AB+ y AB-, se correlacionó con la FE NO y se comportó de forma paralela a la pendiente CCR. Había correlación entre el nivel de control del asma y los índices inflamatorios (eosinofilia y FE NO en el grupo AB- pero no en el AB+. Conclusión. La obtención de FE NO es rápida, sencilla y da resultados inmediatos que se correlacionan con la actividad del asma. Puede desempeñar un papel relevante en el diagnóstico y manejo terapéutico inicial de asma, aunque se necesitan más estudios para evaluar su aplicación en la monitorización a largo plazo de la enfermedad, por la influencia tan notable que tiene sobre sus niveles el tratamiento antiinflamatorio.Background. Assessment of eosinophils in induced sputum can help to optimize anti-inflammatory therapy in bronchial asthma, but this is a very demanding technique. The aim of the study is to compare nitric oxide in exhaled air (Fe

  9. O cuidado materno no manejo da asma infantil contribuição da enfermagem transcultural El cuidado materno en el manejo del asma infantil - contribución de enfermería transcultural Maternal care in the management of child asthma: the contributions of transcultural nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Domingues Bernardes Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objeto deste estudo são as práticas culturais do cuidado materno no manejo da asma infantil. Objetivos: descrever o conhecimento e o cuidado materno sobre a asma infantil e analisar o cuidado materno no manejo da asma infantil. Estudo descritivo-exploratório desenvolvido a partir de questionários e entrevistas com mães de crianças com asma, no período de setembro de 2008 janeiro de 2009. Após análise temática dos dados, emergiram três categorias: 1 Conceito e manejo da asma na visão das mães cuidadoras; 2 Asma como sofrimento e risco para a vida dos filhos; 3 Plantas medicinais, simpatias e religiosidade no cuidado do filho com asma. Concluiu-se que é importante respeitarmos a cultura das mães cuidadoras das crianças com asma, para que seus valores possam ser preservados, acomodados e reestruturados junto ao cuidado profissional.El objeto de este estudio es analizar las prácticas culturales de la atención materna en el manejo del asma infantil. Objetivos: describir el conocimiento y el cuidado de la madre en relación con el asma infantil y analizar la atención materna en el manejo del asma infantil. Estudio exploratorio-descriptivo desarrollado a partir de cuestionarios y entrevistas con madres de niños con asma, en el período comprendido entre Septiembre de 2008 y Enero del 2009. Tras el análisis temático de los datos, surgieron tres categorías: 1 Concepto y manejo del asma en la visión de las madres que cuidan de sus hijos con asma, 2 El asma como sufrimiento y riesgo para la vida de los hijos, 3 Plantas medicinales, rituales y religiosidad en el cuidado del hijo con asma. Se concluyó que es importante respetar la cultura de las madres que cuidan de los niños con asma, de modo que sus valores puedan ser preservados, acomodados y reestructurados junto a la atención profesional.The object of this study is the cultural practices of maternal care in the management of childhood asthma. Objectives: to describe both

  10. La sobreprotección parental como factor asociado en el asma bronquial en niños

    OpenAIRE

    Caso Espina, María Elvira; Universidad Iberoamericana, Campus Santa Fe

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio intenta constatar la asociación que existe entre el asma bronquial y la sobreprotección parental. El objetivo fue promover la prevención de dicha enfermedad para evitar síntomas que son consecuencia de la actitud específica de los padres hacia sus hijos asmáticos. Asimismo, dentro del tratamiento se incluyen factores emocionales, lo que permite tratarlos desde la práctica psicoterapéutica.

  11. The Formation of Group Affect and Team Effectiveness : The Moderating Role of Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanghe, Jacqueline; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

    2010-01-01

    In the current research we use the social identity perspective to enhance our understanding of group affect (i.e. a collectively shared pattern of affective states among group members). Because higher identification (i.e. the extent to which group members define themselves in terms of their group me

  12. The Suppression of Star Formation and the Effect of Galaxy Environment in Low-Redshift Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Bai, Lei; Ponman, Trevor J; Raychaudhury, Somak; Dariush, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between galaxies and their surroundings is central to building a coherent picture of galaxy evolution. Here we use GALEX imaging of a statistically representative sample of 23 galaxy groups at z=0.06 to explore how local and global group environment affect the UV properties and dust-corrected star formation rates of their member galaxies. The data provide star formation rates out to beyond 2R_200 in all groups, down to a completeness limit and limiting galaxy stellar mass of 0.06 M_sun/yr and 10^8 M_sun, respectively. At fixed galaxy stellar mass, we find that the fraction of star-forming group members is suppressed relative to the field out to an average radius of R ~ 1.5 Mpc ~ 2R_200, mirroring results for massive clusters. For the first time we also report a similar suppression of the specific star formation rate within such galaxies, on average by 40% relative to the field, thus directly revealing the impact of the group environment in quenching star formation within infallin...

  13. Image encryption schemes for joint photographic experts group and graphics interchange format formats based on three-dimensional baker with compound chaotic sequence generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shiyu; Tong, Xiaojun; Zhang, Miao

    2013-01-01

    We propose several methods to transplant the compound chaotic image encryption scheme with permutation based on three-dimensional (3-D) baker onto image formats such as the joint photographic experts group (JPEG) and graphics interchange format (GIF). The new methods avert the discrete cosine transform and quantization, which result in floating point precision loss, and succeed to encrypt and decrypt JPEG images lossless. The ciphered JPEG images generated by our solution own much better randomness than most other existing schemes. Our proposed method for GIF keeps the property of animation successfully. The security test results indicate the proposed methods have high security, and the speed of our algorithm is faster than classical solutions. Since JPEG and GIF image formats are popular contemporarily, we show that the prospect of chaotic image encryption is promising.

  14. Fractured-aquifer hydrogeology from geophysical logs: Brunswick group and Lockatong Formation, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Roger H.; Senior, Lisa A.; Decker, Edward R.

    2000-01-01

    The Brunswick Group and the underlying Lockatong Formation are composed of lithified Mesozoic sediments that constitute part of the Newark Basin in southeastern Pennsylvania. These fractured rocks form an important regional aquifer that consists of gradational sequences of shale, siltstone, and sandstone, with fluid transport occurring primarily in fractures. An extensive suite of geophysical logs was obtained in seven wells located at the borough of Lansdale, Pennsylvania, in order to better characterize the areal hydrogeologic system and provide guidelines for the refinement of numerical ground water models. Six of the seven wells are approximately 120 m deep and the seventh extends to a depth of 335 m. Temperature, fluid conductivity, and flowmeter logs are used to locate zones of fluid exchange and to quantify transmissivities. Electrical resistivity and natural gamma logs together yield detailed stratigraphic information, and digital acoustic televiewer data provide magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall from which almost 900 fractures are identified.Analyses of the geophysical data indicate that the aquifer penetrated by the deep well can be separated into two distinct structural domains, which may, in turn, reflect different mechanical responses to basin extension by different sedimentary units:1. In the shallow zone (above 125 m), the dominant fracture population consists of gently dipping bedding plane partings that strike N46°E and dip to the northwest at about 11 degrees. Fluid flow is concentrated in the upper 80 m along these subhorizontal fractures, with transmissivities rapidly diminishing in magnitude with depth.2. The zone below 125 m marks the appearance of numerous high-angle fractures that are orthogonal to the bedding planes, striking parallel but dipping steeply southeast at 77 degrees.This secondary set of fractures is associated with a fairly thick (approximately 60 m) high-resistivity, low-transmissivity sandstone unit that is

  15. Relación entre la severidad de las manifestaciones de asma bronquial y el cumplimiento del tratamiento intercrisis Relation between the severity of bronchial asthma manifestations and the fulfilment of the inter-crisis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de la Vega Pazitková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: En la última década han aumentado la morbilidad y la mortalidad por asma bronquial. Se estima que esta enfermedad la padecen actualmente 300 millones de personas en el mundo. En Cuba, el asma bronquial constituye también un importante problema de salud. OBJETIVO: Establecer la relación entre el cumplimiento del tratamiento en periodos intercrisis y la severidad de las manifestaciones clínicas de la enfermedad. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 119 pacientes con diagnóstico de asma bronquial pertenecientes al policlínico "Ana Betancourt". Para la recolección de datos se aplicaron cuestionarios de forma individual a los pacientes o a los familiares que están directamente al cuidado de estos. Los pacientes fueron agrupados según la Guía española para el manejo del asma de 2009. RESULTADOS: Se detectaron 23 pacientes asmáticos intermitentes, 42 persistentes leves, 36 persistentes moderados y 18 persistentes graves. El 95 % de los pacientes estudiados desencadenaba la crisis con inhalantes respiratorios. En el 79 % de los hogares se detectó la presencia de fumadores. Solo el 41 % de los pacientes cumplía el tratamiento correctamente en los periodos intercrisis. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una relación directa entre la severidad de las manifestaciones clínicas del asma bronquial y el no cumplimiento del tratamiento intercrisis, lo que puede condicionar la exacerbación de la enfermedad.INTRODUCTION: In past decade the morbidity and mortality from bronchial asthma have increased. This is a diseased suffered nowadays by 300 millions of persons in the world. In Cuba, the bronchial asthma is also an important health problem. OBJECTIVE: To establish the relation between the fulfilment of treatment in inter-crisis period and the severity of the clinical manifestations of this entity. METHODS: A total of 119 patients diagnosed with bronchial asthma from the "Ana Betancourt" Polyclinic were studied. In data collection authors applied individual

  16. The role of diagnosticity in stereotype formation: perceiving group means and variances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, T E; Stangor, C

    1992-09-01

    Three experiments tested the hypotheses that while forming stereotypes of social groups, people abstract the central tendency and variability of different attribute dimensions to determine which ones best differentiate the groups and that more differentiating dimensions are more likely to become stereotypical in the sense of becoming strongly associated with the groups in memory. Supporting these hypotheses. Experiment 1 found that, after viewing behaviors performed by members of 2 groups, Ss characterized the groups more in terms of attribute dimensions indicating larger differences between the central tendencies of the groups, and Experiment 2 showed that this effect did not occur when Ss formed impressions of only 1 group. Experiment 3 found that Ss also characterized groups more in terms of attribute dimensions indicating lower within-group variability.

  17. Social factors shaping the formation of a multi-stakeholder trails network group for the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Robinson; Steven Selin; Chad Pierskalla

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results and management implications of a longitudinal research study examining the social factors affecting the formation of a trails network advisory group for the Monongahela National Forest (MNF) in West Virginia. A collaborative process of creating an MNF trails network with input from local users and stakeholders has been largely...

  18. The Dawn of the Red: Star formation histories of group galaxies over the past 5 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    McGee, Sean L; Wilman, David J; Bower, Richard G; Mulchaey, John S; Parker, Laura C; Oemler, Augustus

    2010-01-01

    We examine the star formation properties of group and field galaxies in two surveys, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; at z ~ 0.08) and the Group Environment and Evolution Collaboration (GEEC; at z ~ 0.4). Using UV imaging from the GALEX space telescope, along with optical and, for GEEC, near infrared photometry, we compare the observed spectral energy distributions to large suites of stellar population synthesis models. This allows us to accurately determine star formation rates and stellar masses. We find that star forming galaxies of all environments undergo a systematic lowering of their star formation rate between z=0.4 and z=0.08 regardless of mass. Nonetheless, the fraction of passive galaxies is higher in groups than the field at both redshifts. Moreover, the difference between the group and field grows with time and is mass-dependent, in the sense the the difference is larger at low masses. However, the star formation properties of star forming galaxies, as measured by their average specific star f...

  19. Asma agudo severo en niños: ¿Fenotipo diferente? Severe asthma in children: A different phenotype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lozano C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La magnitud de la respuesta al tratamiento de una exacerbación de asma es variable entre los pacientes y una proporción significativa de ellos debe hospitalizarse. Objetivos: Definir el perfil de los niños que se hospitalizaron por asma grave y los posibles indicadores y determinantes de la respuesta desfavorable al tratamiento. Método: Estudio prospectivo en niños de 4 años o más, con búsqueda etiológica de la exacerbación y estudio de perfil inflamatorio en esputo. Resultados: 60 niños entre 4 y 15 años. El 50% tenía diagnóstico previo de asma sin uso regular de corticoesteroides inhalados en dos tercios. Hospitalizaciones previas por asma en el 40%. La etiología de la exacerbación fue identificada en el 52% siendo los agentes más frecuentes Rhinovirus, Metapneumovius, VRS y Mycoplasma pneumoniae. El perfil inflamatorio fue determinado en 33 niños: eosinofílico en 36% y eosinoflico/neutroflico en 64%. Comentario: El asma severa con exacerbaciones graves sería un fenotipo cuyos aspectos destacados en esta cohorte serían: niños con hospitalizaciones previas, falta de tratamiento profiláctico, infección viral como desencadenante frecuente, patrón inflamatorio combinado del esputo y rinitis atópica.Background: The magnitude of response to treatment of asthma exacerbations is variable and a significant proportion of them need hospitalization. Objectives: to define the profile of children that were hospitalized for severe asthma and the possible indicators and determinants of their poor responsiveness. Methods: a prospective study in 60 children 4 years or more of age with a search of the ethiology of the exacerbation and a study of the inflammatory profile in sputum. Results: 60 children between 4 and 15 years. 50% had a previous diagnosis of asthma without regular use of inhaled corticosteroids in two thirds. 40% had previous admissions for asthma. Etiology of the exacerbation was identified in 52% with Rhinovirus, human

  20. El papel del músculo liso bronquial y los nervios en la fisiopatología del asma bronquial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Picó Bergantiños

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Gran cantidad de evidencia se ha recopilado en los últimos años con relación a la naturaleza inflamatoria del asma bronquial, lo que ha traído como consecuencia la revisión obligada de aspectos importantes de su fisiopatología, y entre estos aspectos consideramos de sumo interés el papel que juega el músculo liso bronquial y los nervios en la génesis y desarrollo de esta enfermedad. La proteína quinasa C (PKC está involucrada en la contracción mantenida del músculo liso bronquial in vitro, y puede por tanto ser de particular importancia en pacientes con asma crónica. El incremento del engrosamiento del músculo liso de las vías aéreas es otra característica llamativa en algunos pacientes con asma, y puede tener lugar tanto en las partes proximales como distales de las vías aéreas. La tos y la "apretazón" en el pecho son síntomas comunes en el asma y probablemente estos síntomas están mediados por la activación de aferentes nerviosos. Finalmente se expresan las posibles interrogantes futuras que pudieran definir las investigaciones en el campo de la fisiopatología del asma en lo relacionado con el músculo liso bronquial y la inervación pulmonarThe great deal of evidence that has been collected for the last years in connection with the inflammatory nature of bronchial asthma have led us to make an obliged review of some important aspects of its physiopathology. Among these aspects, we consider it is very interesting the role played by the airway smooth muscle and nerves in the genesis and development of this disease. The protein kinase C (PKC is involved in the maintained contraction of the airway smooth muscle in vitro and it may be of particular significance in patients with chronic asthma. The thickening of the airway smooth muscle is another characteristic of some patients with asthma and it may occur in the proximal parts and in the distal parts of the airways. Cough and chest "squeeze" are common symptoms in asthma

  1. Consumo de alimentos y asma en niños escolares de Cuernavaca Food consumption and asthma in school children in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Inés Gutiérrez-Delgado

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Evaluar la relación entre la dieta y el desarrollo de asma y rinitis alérgica en escolares de Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se aplicó el cuestionario ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood a 5 460 niños de entre 6 a 8 y 11 a 14 años de edad, de nivel primaria, seleccionados de manera aleatoria. Se formaron seis grupos de alimentos a partir de un análisis de clusters jerárquico y se evaluó la relación con los padecimientos a través de modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS:El consumo de comida rápida tuvo un efecto adverso sobre la sibilancia actual (RM=1.82; IC95%=1.16-2.87 y el consumo de golosinas sobre más de tres episodios de sibilancia (RM=2.26; IC95%=1.04-4.95 y síntomas nasales sin gripa o catarro (RM=1.35; IC95%=1.06-1.71. CONCLUSIONES:Este estudio provee evidencia de que la dieta juega un papel muy importante, ya que el consumo abundante de comida rápida y golosinas incrementa el riesgo de asma y rinitis.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the relation between diet and the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis in schoolchildren from Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS:We apply the ISAAC's questionnaire in 5460 schoolchildren from 6 to 8 and 11-14-year-old of elementary level selected in random form. Six groups of food were formed using a hierarchic clusters analysis and the association was evaluated using logistic regression models. RESULTS:The consumption of fast food had an adverse effect for current wheezing (OR=1.82; CI95%=1.16-2.87 and the consumption of tidbits for more than three episodes of wheezing (OR=2.26; CI95%=1.04-4.95 and nasal symptoms without cold, OR=1.35 (IC95%;1.06-1.71. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides evidence that the diet plays a very important role since the high consumption of fast food and tidbits increased the risk of asthma and rhinitis symptoms.

  2. Características del asma bronquial en niños de Cali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Tafur

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar las características del asma en Cali, se estudiaron 147 niños, atendidos en la consulta externa de pneumología del Hospital Infantil Club Noel de Cali entre octubre, 1994 y diciembre, 1995, seleccionados por orden de llegada sin exclusión por severidad o cualquier otro factor. El grupo estuba compuesto por 89 niños y 58 niñas (p < 0.05, con edades entre menos de 1 año y 13 años, con un promedio de 4.6 años. Casi 22.6% de los niños provenían del SILOS 2 de Cali. Los síntomas en más de 50% de los niños fueron tos nocturna, ronquido al pecho, tos seca, silbido al pecho, rinorrea, dificultad para respirar y tos con expectoración. La principal causa desencadenante fue el frío en 67.3%. Dos terceras partes de los niños había asistido a urgencias durante el último año pero sólo la tercera parte requirió hospitalización. Los antecedentes personales más frecuentes fueron ojeras y dermatitis atópica y entre los familiares, el asma en 51%. La exposición ambiental más común fue residir a una distancia menor de 100 metros de una vía de alto tráfico. En los exámenes de laboratorio 63% tenían elevación de la IgE, en la radiografía de tórax 76% presentaban algún hallazgo y 61% mostraban edema de los senos maxilares. Se discuten los hallazgos en relación con artículos de la literatura mundial.

  3. Comportamiento del asma bronquial en la edad pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Jiménez Fontao

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico, con un modelo de diseño del tipo casos y controles en la población de niños que acuden al Círculo Infantil "Sueños del Ché", con el fin de determinar la posible influencia de algunos factores de riesgo para padecer de asma bronquial. La investigación se realizó durante el curso escolar 1996-1997. El material de estudio quedó conformado por 166 niños, 21 de los cuales eran asmáticos (GE, el resto (145 eran los supuestamente sanos y conformaron el grupo control (GC. Como instrumento epidemiológico se utilizó el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza al 95 %, así como la prueba de Chi cuadrado. El sexo masculino predominó entre los enfermos y las manifestaciones alérgicas fueron más frecuentes entre los niños enfermos, así como en aquellos cuyos familiares era fumadores o que padecían de asma bronquial. El ketotifeno consiguió el 50 % de mejoría entre los enfermos, y la presencia de vectores y/o animales en el hogar no resultó un factor importante a considerarAn observational analytic case-control study was conducted in the population of children attending the "Sueños del Ché" Day Care Center in order to determine the possible influence of some risk factors on bronchial asthma. The investigation was made during the academic course 1996-1997. 166 children, 21 of whom were asthmatics (SG, and other 145 apparently sound (CG took part in the study. The relative risk and its confidence interval of 95 %, as well as the Chi square test were used as an epidemiological tool. Males prevailed among the sick and the allergic manifestations were more common in ill children and in those whose relatives were smokers or suffered from bronchial asthma. An improvement of 50 % was attained with the admnistration of ketotifen. The presence of vectors and/or animals at home was not an important factor to be considered

  4. Non-parametric star formation histories for 5 dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the local group

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, X; Valls-Gabaud, D; Gilmore, Gerard; Valls-Gabaud, David

    2000-01-01

    We use recent HST colour-magnitude diagrams of the resolved stellar populations of a sample of local dSph galaxies (Carina, LeoI, LeoII, Ursa Minor and Draco) to infer the star formation histories of these systems, $SFR(t)$. Applying a new variational calculus maximum likelihood method which includes a full Bayesian analysis and allows a non-parametric estimate of the function one is solving for, we infer the star formation histories of the systems studied. This method has the advantage of yielding an objective answer, as one need not assume {\\it a priori} the form of the function one is trying to recover. The results are checked independently using Saha's $W$ statistic. The total luminosities of the systems are used to normalize the results into physical units and derive SN type II rates. We derive the luminosity weighted mean star formation history of this sample of galaxies.

  5. Faktor Risiko dan Faktor Pencetus yang Mempengaruhi Kejadian Asma pada Anak di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnaniyah Usman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAsma merupakan gangguan inflamasi kronik saluran pernafasan yang sering dijumpai pada anak. Penyakit ini memiliki banyak faktor risiko dan faktor pencetus. Beberapa diantara faktor tersebut adalah jenis kelamin, usia, riwayat atopi, makanan, perubahan cuaca, aktivitas, berat badan lahir, status gizi, pemberian ASI dan debu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor risiko dan faktor pencetus yang mempengaruhi kejadian asma pada anak di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Ini adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan desain cross-sectional. Penelitian dilakukan dengan melakukan wawancara pada responden yang telah ditetapkan sebagai subjek penelitian. Subjek penelitian adalah seluruh pasien anak baik rawat jalan maupun rawat inap yang telah didiagnosis asma oleh dokter di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang yang memenuhi kriteria. Penelitian dilakukan dari Februari sampai Maret 2013. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor risiko dan faktor pencetus yang mempengaruhi asma pada anak adalah perubahan cuaca (65,91%, debu (63,64%, jenis kelamin (52,80%, makanan (43,19%, urtikaria pada anak (38,64%, rhinitis pada anak (34,09%, dermatitis atopi pada ibu (31,82%, dermatitis atopi pada anak (29,55%, aktivitas (27,27%, rhinitis pada ibu (22,72%, asma pada ibu (22,72%, urtikaria pada ayah (20,45%, berat badan lahir <2500 gram (15,91% dan status gizi (obesitas 2,28%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, kejadian asma banyak terjadi pada laki-laki, sebagian besar dipengaruhi oleh perubahan cuaca dan debu, riwayat atopi terbanyak pada anak adalah urtikaria, riwayat atopi terbanyak pada orangtua adalah dermatitis atopi pada ibu dan status gizi serta berat badan lahir pasien sebagian besar normal.Kata kunci: asma pada anak, faktor risiko, faktor pencetus AbstractAsthma is a cronic inflammatory disorder of respiratory tract that is often found in children. It has many risk faktor and inducer. Some of these risk are gender, age, history of atopy, food, climate change

  6. Distribuição da gravidade da asma na infância Distribution of severity of asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Magalhães Simões

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a distribuição dos padrões de gravidade da asma em uma amostra populacional de crianças em Salvador (BA. MÉTODOS: Questionário epidemiológico (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood - ISAAC foi aplicado juntamente com questionário elaborado com base em critérios de gravidade adotados na prática clínica (Global Initiative for Asthma - GINA em 417 crianças de 5 a 12 anos com sintomas de asma nos últimos 12 meses. Com base nas questões do ISAAC, as crianças foram classificadas em asma grave e não grave. De acordo com os critérios clínicos da GINA, quatro categorias de gravidade foram criadas: intermitente, persistente leve, persistente moderada e grave. RESULTADOS: Noventa crianças (22,3% apresentaram indicadores de gravidade segundo o ISAAC. Com base nos critérios da GINA, havia 143 crianças com asma intermitente, 160 com asma leve persistente, 51 com asma moderada e 43 com asma grave. A concordância entre os dois questionários foi de 81,3%, com índice kappa de 0,5. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria das crianças asmáticas em Salvador possui asma persistente. Há bom nível de concordância na identificação da asma grave, entre a classificação epidemiológica e a clínica.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the distribution of asthma severity in a population-based sample of children from Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: An epidemiologically oriented questionnaire (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, ISAAC and a questionnaire based on criteria used in clinical practice (The Global Initiative for Asthma, GINA were administered simultaneously to 417 children aged 5 to 12 years who reported symptoms of asthma in the past 12 months. According to the ISAAC instrument, children were classified into severe and non-severe asthma, whereas GINA clinical criteria produced four categories of severity: intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent and severe asthma. RESULTS: Ninety children reported

  7. An Agent-Based Simulation for Investigating the Impact of Stereotypes on Task-Oriented Group Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mahsa; Sukthankar, Gita

    In this paper, we introduce an agent-based simulation for investigating the impact of social factors on the formation and evolution of task-oriented groups. Task-oriented groups are created explicitly to perform a task, and all members derive benefits from task completion. However, even in cases when all group members act in a way that is locally optimal for task completion, social forces that have mild effects on choice of associates can have a measurable impact on task completion performance. In this paper, we show how our simulation can be used to model the impact of stereotypes on group formation. In our simulation, stereotypes are based on observable features, learned from prior experience, and only affect an agent's link formation preferences. Even without assuming stereotypes affect the agents' willingness or ability to complete tasks, the long-term modifications that stereotypes have on the agents' social network impair the agents' ability to form groups with sufficient diversity of skills, as compared to agents who form links randomly. An interesting finding is that this effect holds even in cases where stereotype preference and skill existence are completely uncorrelated.

  8. Lower miocene larger foraminifera and petroleum potential of the Tai Formation, Mergui Group, Andaman Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polachan, Songpope; Racey, Andrew

    Tertiary larger foraminifera are recorded for the first time from Thailand. The fauna studied is restricted mainly to the reefal carbonate of the Tai Formation, which rests unconformably on the pre-Late Eocene quartz-chlorite schist basement in the Central High region of the Mergui Basin. The formation is broadly correlatable with the Peutu Formation of the North Sumatra Basin. The Tai Formation can be divided into three units at the type locality; a basal unit of interbedded anhydrite, dolomite, shale and sandstone; a middle unit of coral/algal reefal limestones, and an upper unit of calcarenites interbedded with silty shales and sandstones. The middle and upper units have yielded a fauna comprising; Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) japonica, Spiroclypeus yabeii, Cycloclypeus eidae, Cycloclypeus sp. A, Heterostegina sp. A, Lepidocyclina (N) sp. A, Miogypsina sp. A, and Miogypsinoides sp. L. (N) japonica and Miogypsinoides sp. can range up into the Middle Miocene (Lower Tf) whilst C. eidae can range down into the Upper Oligocene (Lower Te). The fauna is typical of the Indo-West Pacific Miocene faunal province of Adams (1970) and shows closer affinities to the faunas of Indonesia than those of India-Pakistan.

  9. Permian bivalves of the Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin, and their biostratigraphic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Guimarães Simões

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A small and poorly diversified bivalve fauna from Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin (State of Santa Catarina,Mafra Municipality, is described in this paper for the first time, based on new findings. The fauna is recorded in a 30 cmthick interval of fine sandstone locally at the top of Taciba Formation, in the Butiá quarry. The studied fossil-bearing sandstonebed is a marine intercalation recording a brief eustatic rise in sea-level, probably following glacier retreat and climateamelioration at the end of a broad glacial scenario. The fauna is mainly dominated by productid brachiopods, which are notdescribed here, and rare mollusk shells (bivalves and gastropods. Two bivalve species were identified: Myonia argentinensis(Harrington, 1955, and Aviculopecten multiscalptus (Thomas, 1928. The presence of Myonia argentinensis is noteworthysince this species is also present in the Baitaca assemblage found in marine siltstones (Baitaca assemblage of theRio do Sul Formation, cropping out at the Teixeira Soares region, Paraná State. This species is also recorded in the bivalvefauna from the Bonete Formation, Pillahinco Group, Sauce Grande Basin, Buenos Aires Province, in Argentina. Hence, themarine bivalves of the Taciba Formation are associated with the transgressive event that characterizes the Eurydesma fauna,indicating a Late Asselian-Sakmarian age for the bivalve fauna. Presence of the Myonia argentinensis megadesmid speciesreinforces the Gondwanic nature of the studied fauna.

  10. ETOP 14, a FORTRAN code to process ENDF/B data into the 68-group PHROG library format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimesey, R.A.; Singer, G.L.; Millsap, D.A.

    1976-07-01

    ETOP 14 processes neutron cross section data from the ENDF/B format to the 68-group PHROG fast spectrum code. Major changes have accompanied modifications in the ENDF/B format and modifications to the PHROG code necessitated by changes in the ENDF/B format. A large number of program changes have been made to increase the program's efficiency and accuracy in treating specific cross sections. The present version of the program will process all Version 4 ENDF/B formats except the Adler-Adler multilevel resonance formula. ETOP 14 calculates infinitely dilute capture and fission cross sections and an infinitely dilute elastic scattering matrix for these materials over the resonance range. This limitation will be corrected in the near future. Some reaction cross sections which are only prominent above 10 MeV are ignored by ETOP 14. The code in its present form can be easily extended above 10 MeV. The maximum number of multigroups permitted is 99 even though the PHROG library is presently limited to 68 quarter lethargy groups. The present report assumes a complete familiarity with the ENDF/B format.

  11. Educational Outcomes of Small-Group Discussion Versus Traditional Lecture Format in Dental Students' Learning and Skills Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge.

  12. Presence of the dinosaur Scelidosaurus indicates Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation (Glen Canyon Group, northern Arizona)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padian, Kevin

    1989-05-01

    The Glen Canyon Group (Moenave, Wingate, Kayenta and Navajo Formations) of northern Arizona represents an extensive outcrop of early Mesozoic age terrestrial sediments. The age of these formations has long been disputed because independent stratigraphic data from marine tie-ins, paleobotanical and palynological evidence, and radiometric calibrations have been scanty or absent. The fauna of the Kayenta Formation in particular has been problematic because it has appeared to contain both typical Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa Here I report that the principal evidence for Late Triassic taxa, dermal scutes previously assigned to an aetosaur, in fact belongs to the thyreophoran ornithischian dinosaur Scelidosaurus, previously known only as a washed-in form found in marine sediments in the Early Jurassic of England. The presence of this dinosaur represents the first vertebrate biostratigraphic tie-in of the Glen Canyon Group horizons with reliably dated marine deposits in Europe. Together with revised systematic assessments of other vertebrates and independent evidence from fossil pollen, it supports an Early Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation and most or all of the Glen Canyon Group.

  13. The effect of natural organic matter polarity and molecular weight on NDMA formation from two antibiotics containing dimethylamine functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey-Roback, Shannon L; Krasner, Stuart W; Suffet, Irwin H Mel

    2016-12-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a disinfection byproduct preferentially formed in chloraminated water. NDMA may be formed from certain chemicals containing dimethylamine (DMA) functional groups. This reaction may be slowed by the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). In this study, NOM fractionated by size or polarity was tested for its ability to slow or impede the formation of NDMA from two DMA-containing precursors, the antibiotics tetracycline and spiramycin. The high molecular weight NOM fractions (>10KDa) were shown to be the most effective in reducing the amount of NDMA formed from the precursor chemicals. The filtrate of a C-18 non-polar cartridge was also effective at reducing NDMA formation from tetracycline (spyramycin not tested). Therefore, polar and charged NOM components may be responsible for the reduction in NDMA formation. A possible mechanism for the reduction of NDMA formation from tetracycline is complexation due to the hydrogen bonding of the DMA functional group on tetracycline to polar phenolic functional groups in the NOM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Geochemistry of tourmalines associated with iron formation and quartz veins of the Morro da Pedra Preta Formation, Serra do Itaberaba Group (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garda Gianna M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourmalines of intermediate schorl-dravite composition occur in iron formation (including metachert and tourmalinites, metasediments, calc-silicate and metabasic/intermediate rocks of the Morro da Pedra Preta Formation, a volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Serra do Itaberaba Group (northeast of São Paulo City, southeastern Brazil. The Morro da Pedra Preta Formation is crosscut by quartz veins that contain both intermediate schorl-dravite and an alkali-deficient, Cr-(V-bearing tourmaline, in which the occupancy of the X-site is ϑ0.51Ca0.33Na0.15, characterizing it as intermediate to foitite and magnesiofoitite end-members. Mg# values for this tourmaline are higher than those for intermediate schorl-dravite. Raman spectroscopy also confirms the presence of two groups of tourmalines. Stable isotope data indicate sediment waters as fluid sources, rather than fluids from magmatic/post-magmatic sources. Delta18O compositions for tourmalines, host metachert, and quartz veins are similar, showing that fluid equilibration occurred during crystallization of both quartz and tourmaline. Syngenetic, intermediate schorl-dravite tourmalines were formed under submarine, sedimentary-exhalative conditions; amphibolite-grade metamorphism did not strongly affect their compositions. Younger tourmalines of compositions intermediate to foitite and magnesiofoitite reflect the composition of the host rocks of quartz veins, due to fluid percolation along faults and fractures that caused leaching of Cr (and V and the crystallization of these alkali-deficient, Cr-(V-bearing tourmalines.

  15. Lithostratigraphy of the Calico Hills Formation and Prow Pass Tuff (Crater Flat Group) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Lithostratigraphic relations within the Calico Hills Formation and Prow Pass Tuff (Crater Flat Group) were reconstructed from analysis of core samples and observation of outcrop exposures. The Calico Hills Formation is composed of five nonwelded pyroclastic units (each formed of one or more pyroclastic-flow deposits) that overlie an interval of bedded tuff and a basal volcaniclastic sandstone unit. The Prow Pass Tuff is divided into four pyroclastic units and an underlying interval of bedded tuff. The pyroclastic units of the Prow Pass Tuff are distinguished by the sizes and amounts of their pumice and lithic clasts and their degree of welding. Pyroclastic units of the Prow Pass Tuff are distinguished from those of the Calico Hills Formation by their phenocryst assemblage, chemical composition, and ubiquitous siltstone lithic clasts. Downhole resistivity tends to mirror the content of authigenic minerals, primarily zeolites, in both for-mations and may be useful for recognizing the vitric-zeolite boundary in the study area. Maps of zeolite distribution illustrate that the bedded tuff and basal sandstone units of the Calico Hills Formation are altered over a wider area than the pyroclastic units of both the Calico Hills Formation and the upper Prow Pass Tuff.

  16. Functional-Group-Tolerant, Silver-Catalyzed N-N Bond Formation by Nitrene Transfer to Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Lourdes; Dorel, Ruth; Pablo, Óscar; Escofet, Imma; Sameera, W M C; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Maseras, Feliu; Díaz-Requejo, M Mar; Echavarren, Antonio M; Pérez, Pedro J

    2017-02-15

    Silver(I) promotes the highly chemoselective N-amidation of tertiary amines under catalytic conditions to form aminimides by nitrene transfer from PhI═NTs. Remarkably, this transformation proceeds in a selective manner in the presence of olefins and other functional groups without formation of the commonly observed aziridines or C-H insertion products. The methodology can be applied not only to rather simple tertiary amines but also to complex natural molecules such as brucine or quinine, where the products derived from N-N bond formation were exclusively formed. Theoretical mechanistic studies have shown that this selective N-amidation reaction proceeds through triplet silver nitrenes.

  17. Contaminación biológica intradomiciliaria y su relación con síntomas respiratorios indicativos de asma bronquial en preescolares de Bucaramanga, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Berena Herrera

    2011-03-01

    Conclusiones. La exposición a contaminantes biológicos intramurales (ácaros y hongos, los antecedentes personales de prematuridad, neumonía o rinitis y el antecedente familiar de asma, incrementan la probabilidad de presentación de síntomas indicativos de asma bronquial en la población estudiada.

  18. Item Construction Using Reflective, Formative, or Rasch Measurement Models: Implications for Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Gischlar, Karen L.; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Measures that accurately capture the phenomenon are critical to research and practice in group work. The vast majority of group-related measures were developed using the reflective measurement model rooted in classical test theory (CTT). Depending on the construct definition and the measure's purpose, the reflective model may not always be the…

  19. Bridging the gender divide : an experimental analysis of group formation in African villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barr, A.; Dekker, M.; Fafchamps, M.

    2009-01-01

    Assortative matching occurs in many social contexts. We experimentally investigate gender assorting in sub-Saharan villages. In the experiment, co-villagers could form groups to share winnings in a gamble choice game. The extent to which grouping arrangements were or could be enforced and, hence,

  20. Fenótipos clínicos de asma grave Clinical phenotypes of severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseliane de Souza Araújo Alves

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer os fenótipos clínicos em portadores de asma grave. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 111 pacientes em um ambulatório especializado. Os pacientes foram avaliados e acompanhados de maneira sistemática, estabelecendo-se ao final do acompanhamento a adesão e o controle ou não da doença por dados clínicos e funcionais. A resistência ao tratamento foi definida como o não preenchimento, ao final do acompanhamento, por pelo menos seis meses, dos critérios de controle de asma, apesar do uso correto e adesão à medicação. Os fenótipos foram determinados por análise fatorial e comparados por testes diversos. RESULTADOS: Ao final, 88 pacientes foram considerados aderentes e 23 não aderentes. Por análise fatorial do grupo aderente, quatro fenótipos foram determinados: o fenótipo 1 (28 pacientes, formado pelos pacientes resistentes ao tratamento, com maior freqüência de sintomas noturnos, maior número de exacerbações e uso mais freqüente de broncodilatador de resgate; o fenótipo 2 (48 pacientes, formado pelos pacientes com obstrução persistente, com menores valores de relação volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo/capacidade vital forçada na avaliação inicial, idade mais avançada e maior tempo de doença; o fenótipo 3 (42 pacientes, representa os pacientes com rinossinusite alérgica, sendo constituído de não fumantes com obstrução predominantemente reversível; e o fenótipo 4 (15 pacientes, formado por casos com história de intolerância à aspirina associado à asma quase fatal. CONCLUSÕES: Um número significativo de portadores de ama grave não adere ao tratamento. Muitos pacientes com asma grave têm obstrução irreversível, mas o fenótipo clínico mais relevante é constituído pelos pacientes resistentes ao tratamento habitual.OBJECTIVE: To characterize clinical phenotypes of severe asthma. METHODS: A total of 111 patients were retrospectively evaluated at a

  1. Toxic tau oligomer formation blocked by capping of cysteine residues with 1,2-dihydroxybenzene groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Misato; Almeida, Osborne F X; Sumioka, Akio; Maeda, Sumihiro; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Saito, Akiko; Miyasaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Masaaki; Koyama, Hiroko; Yoshiike, Yuji; Sugimoto, Hachiro; Ihara, Yasuo; Takashima, Akihiko

    2015-12-16

    Neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated tau fibrils, are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; the neurofibrillary tangle load correlates strongly with clinical progression of the disease. A growing body of evidence indicates that tau oligomer formation precedes the appearance of neurofibrillary tangles and contributes to neuronal loss. Here we show that tau oligomer formation can be inhibited by compounds whose chemical backbone includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Specifically, we demonstrate that 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-containing compounds bind to and cap cysteine residues of tau and prevent its aggregation by hindering interactions between tau molecules. Further, we show that orally administered DL-isoproterenol, an adrenergic receptor agonist whose skeleton includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene and which penetrates the brain, reduces the levels of detergent-insoluble tau, neuronal loss and reverses neurofibrillary tangle-associated brain dysfunction. Thus, compounds that target the cysteine residues of tau may prove useful in halting the progression of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies.

  2. Divergent Mechanistic Routes for the Formation of gem-Dimethyl Groups in the Biosynthesis of Complex Polyketides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poust, S; Phelan, RM; Deng, K; Katz, L; Petzold, CJ; Keasling, JD

    2015-01-07

    The gem-dimethyl groups in polyketide-derived natural products add steric bulk and, accordingly, lend increased stability to medicinal compounds, however, our ability to rationally incorporate this functional group in modified natural products is limited. In order to characterize the mechanism of gem-dimethyl group formation, with a goal toward engineering of novel compounds containing this moiety, the gem-dimethyl group producing polyketide synthase (PKS) modules of yersiniabactin and epothilone were characterized using mass spectrometry. The work demonstrated, contrary to the canonical understanding of reaction order in PKSs, that methylation can precede condensation in gem-dimethyl group producing PKS modules. Experiments showed that both PKSs are able to use dimethylmalonyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) as an extender unit. Interestingly, for epothilone module8, use of dimethylmalonyl-ACP appeared to be the sole route to form a gem-dimethylated product, while the yersiniabactin PKS could methylate before or after ketosynthase condensation.

  3. Specific Involvement of Pilus Type 2a in Biofilm Formation in Group B Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Cesira L.; Berti, Francesco; Necchi, Francesca; Reguzzi, Valerio; Ghezzo, Claudia; Telford, John Laird; Grandi, Guido; Maione, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the primary colonizer of the anogenital mucosa of up to 30% of healthy women and can infect newborns during delivery and cause severe sepsis and meningitis. Persistent colonization usually involves the formation of biofilm and increasing evidences indicate that in pathogenic streptococci biofilm formation is mediated by pili. Recently, we have characterized pili distribution and conservation in 289 GBS clinical isolates and we have shown that GBS has three pilus types, 1, 2a and 2b encoded by three corresponding pilus islands, and that each strain carries one or two islands. Here we have investigated the capacity of these strains to form biofilms. We have found that most of the biofilm-formers carry pilus 2a, and using insertion and deletion mutants we have confirmed that pilus type 2a, but not pilus types 1 and 2b, confers biofilm-forming phenotype. We also show that deletion of the major ancillary protein of type 2a did not impair biofilm formation while the inactivation of the other ancillary protein and of the backbone protein completely abolished this phenotype. Furthermore, antibodies raised against pilus components inhibited bacterial adherence to solid surfaces, offering new strategies to prevent GBS infection by targeting bacteria during their initial attachment to host epithelial cells. PMID:20169161

  4. Specific involvement of pilus type 2a in biofilm formation in group B Streptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cira Daniela Rinaudo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is the primary colonizer of the anogenital mucosa of up to 30% of healthy women and can infect newborns during delivery and cause severe sepsis and meningitis. Persistent colonization usually involves the formation of biofilm and increasing evidences indicate that in pathogenic streptococci biofilm formation is mediated by pili. Recently, we have characterized pili distribution and conservation in 289 GBS clinical isolates and we have shown that GBS has three pilus types, 1, 2a and 2b encoded by three corresponding pilus islands, and that each strain carries one or two islands. Here we have investigated the capacity of these strains to form biofilms. We have found that most of the biofilm-formers carry pilus 2a, and using insertion and deletion mutants we have confirmed that pilus type 2a, but not pilus types 1 and 2b, confers biofilm-forming phenotype. We also show that deletion of the major ancillary protein of type 2a did not impair biofilm formation while the inactivation of the other ancillary protein and of the backbone protein completely abolished this phenotype. Furthermore, antibodies raised against pilus components inhibited bacterial adherence to solid surfaces, offering new strategies to prevent GBS infection by targeting bacteria during their initial attachment to host epithelial cells.

  5. Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Analysis of Spatially-Resolved Star-Formation in Nearby Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Rose; Collova, Natasha; Spicer, Sandy; Whalen, Kelly; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, we are conducting a survey of the gas and star-formation properties of galaxies in 36 groups and clusters in the local universe. The galaxies in our sample span a large range of galactic environments, from the centers of galaxy groups and clusters to the surrounding infall regions. One goal of the project is to map the spatial distribution of star-formation; the relative extent of the star-forming and stellar disks provides important information about the internal and external processes that deplete gas and thus drive galaxy evolution. We obtained wide-field H-alpha observations with the WIYN 0.9m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory for galaxies in the vicinity of the MKW11 and NRGb004 galaxy groups and the Abell 1367 cluster. We present a preliminary analysis of the relative size of the star-forming and stellar disks as a function of galaxy morphology and local galaxy density, and we calculate gas depletion times using star-formation rates and HI gas mass. We will combine these results with those from other UAT members to determine if and how environmentally-driven gas depletion varies with the mass and X-ray properties of the host group or cluster. This work has supported by NSF grants AST-0847430, AST-1211005 and AST-1637339.

  6. Hierarchical Formation in Action: Characterizing Accelerated Galaxy Evolution in Compact Groups Using Whole-Sky WISE Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zucker, Catherine; Johnson, Kelsey; Gallagher, Sarah; Alatalo, Katherine; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups provide an environment to study the growth of galaxies amid multiple prolonged interactions. With their dense galaxy concentrations and relatively low velocity dispersions, compact groups mimic the conditions of hierarchical galaxy assembly. Compact group galaxies are known to show a bimodality in $Spitzer$ IRAC infrared colorspace: galaxies are preferentially either quiescent with low specific star formation rates, or are prolifically forming stars---galaxies with moderate levels of specific star formation are rare. Previous $Spitzer$ IRAC studies identifying this "canyon" have been limited by small number statistics. We utilize whole-sky WISE data to study 163 compact groups, thereby tripling our previous sample and including more galaxies with intermediate mid-IR colors indicative of moderate specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We define a distinct WISE mid-IR color-space ($\\log[{\\frac{\\rm f_{12}}{\\rm f_{4.6}}}]$ vs. $\\log[{\\frac{\\rm f_{22}}{\\rm f_{3.4}}}]$) that we use to identify canyon...

  7. Formation of Carbonyl and Carboxyl Groups on Cellulosic Pulps: Effect on Alkali Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Perrin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ozone bleaching generates carbonyl groups on the cellulose polymer when applied to unbleached kraft pulps. This suggests that pulp fully bleached with a totally chlorine-free (TCF sequence may contain more oxidized groups than standard elemental chlorine-free (ECF bleached pulp. A fully bleached pulp was treated with sodium hypochlorite to form oxidized groups (mostly carbonyls on the pure carbohydrates, which were investigated during subsequent alkaline treatment. Carbonyl groups had a strong impact on color development during alkaline treatment. Among the carbonyls, the keto groups were the most active. This was confirmed by the behavior of carbohydrate model compounds that contained aldehyde, keto, and/or carboxyl groups when subjected to alkaline conditions. A subsequent hydrogen peroxide (P stage effectively decreased the carbonyl content, which reduced yellowing during alkaline treatment. However, the oxidized cellulose was severely depolymerized. The addition of magnesium sulfate (Mg into the P stage minimized depolymerization while maintaining some of the carbonyls in the carbohydrates. It is proposed that Mg cations can hinder alkaline β-elimination, possibly by forming a complex with the carbonyl groups.

  8. Vías de administración de los corticosteroides en pacientes con crisis moderada de asma Ways of administration of corticosteroids in moderate asthma crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dotres Martínez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: identificar las diferencias entre la administración de corticosteroides sistémicos parenterales y orales en el tratamiento de la crisis moderada de asma bronquial y el costo de su aplicación. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y aplicado, realizado en 105 pacientes asmáticos que acudieron al hospital pediátrico "Juan Manuel Márquez", entre el 1 de septiembre de 2009 y el 31 de mayo de 2011. Se organizaron tres grupos: grupo A, se administró hidrocortisona vía intramuscular; grupo B, metilprednisolona intramuscular y grupo C, prednisona oral. La selección y ubicación de los pacientes en los grupos fue al azar. Resultados: la duración de la crisis según vía de administración del corticosteroide fue de 1 a 3 días en 26 (74,3 % pacientes del grupo A, 24 (68,6 % asmáticos en el grupo B y 32 (91,4 % enfermos en el grupo C. La evolución de la crisis, con respecto a los días de dificultad respiratoria y la duración de la tos nocturna, tuvieron un comportamiento similar en los tres grupos. El costo del corticosteroide sistémico en el grupo A fue 13 veces superior al del grupo C y en el grupo B, fue 35 veces más que el del grupo C. Conclusiones: los corticoesteroides orales e intramusculares tienen la misma respuesta con respecto a la mejoría de los síntomas en pacientes con crisis moderada de asma bronquial. El uso del fármaco por vía oral conlleva un ahorro sustancial para el país y evita los efectos indeseables de la vía intramuscular.Objective: to determine the differences between the parenteral and the oral administration of systemic corticosteroids in moderate asthma crisis and the cost. Method: prospective and descriptive study performed in 105 patients, who presented with a moderate asthma crisis at "Juan Manuel Marquez" pediatric hospital from September 1, 2009 through May 31st, 2011. The patients were randomly selected and assigned to one of the following groups: Group A was given hydrocortisone

  9. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  10. Formation of Large-Amplitude Wave Groups in an Experimental Model Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Tm= 3.0s with large grouped waves embedded C -46 Figure 95. Spectral Analysis of Phase II, Run 26- Hurricane Camille, ?i=30, Hs= 40.64 cm (16.0 in...Tm= 2.45s with wave group embedded C -47 Figure 96. Spectral Analysis of Phase II, Run 40- Hurricane Camille, ^=46.6, Hs= 26.16 cm (10.3 in.), Tm...1.96s with wave group embedded C -48 Figure 97. Three-dimensional wave surface plots for Phase II, Run 7 D-2 Figure 98. GLRP Single Point Time History

  11. Hydraulic Bureaucracy in a Modern Hydraulic Society – Strategic Group Formation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers

    2009-10-01

    Among these strategic groups, the hydraulic bureaucracy and hydraulic construction business are the most crucial in terms of the specific role they play in the hydraulic landscape of the Mekong delta. Both groups exert considerable influence on water resources management and strive for the same resources, namely public funds (including Overseas Development Aid that is directed to hydraulic infrastructure development. This paper illustrates how both groups have emerged due to the growing need for water resources management in the delta and how they have set up alliances for mutually sharing resources in the long run. Furthermore, it is shown how both groups have adapted their resource-oriented strategies and actions to respond to the changes in the economic and political environment in Vietnam’s recent history.

  12. Space charge effects in rectilinear motion. Emittance compensation, pulse lengthening, and halo formation (working group 1 summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. [MIT-Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ferrario, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes the presentations and discussions over a wide range of topics in Working Group I at the Second ICFA Advanced Accelerator Workshop on Physics of High-Brightness Beams held at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), November 9-12, 1999. Latest developments towards to a better understanding of high-brightness photoinjiectors were reported. The design and commissioning of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) were reported. The problem of beam halo formation was discussed in both beam transport systems and the SLAC 50 MW 11.4 GHz periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing klystron amplifier. A new class of corkscrewing elliptic beam equilibria was reported, and applications of such novel beam equilibria in controlling of charge-density and velocity fluctuations, beam halo formation and emittance growth were discussed. Pattern formation in proton rings was also discussed.

  13. Formation of the U.S. Air Force Aviator Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    ABSTRACT The first aviator mental health study groups (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and antidepressants) were approved by the Chief of Aerospace...mental health study groups (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and antidepressants) were approved by the Chief of Aerospace Medicine for the...traffic controllers were now required to meet enhanced medical standards similar to traditional aircrew such as pilots, navigators, and loadmasters. In

  14. Bridging the gender divide: An experimental analysis of group formation in African villages

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Barr; Marcel Fafchamps

    2009-01-01

    Assortative matching occurs in many social contexts. We experimentally investigate gender assorting in sub-Saharan villages. In the experiment, covillagers could form groups to share winnings in a gamble choice game. The extent to which grouping arrangements were or could be enforced and, hence, the distribution of interaction costs were exogeneously varied. Thus, we can distinguish between the effects of homophily and interaction costs on the extent of observed gender assorting. We find that...

  15. Sintomas e fatores de risco para asma entre escolares piauienses Síntomas y factores de riesgo para el asma entre escolares piauienses Symptoms and risk factors for asthma among piauiense schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessianne Carvalho Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar a prevalência de sintomas de asma entre escolares de seis a sete anos do município de Picos-PI; e identificar fatores de risco associados à doença. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com crianças de 6 e 7 anos de Picos em novembro de 2010 a maio de 2011. Para coletar os dados, foi utilizado um formulário adaptado do Internacional Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Os dados foram analisados com base na estatística descritiva e analítica. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 234 crianças da amostra estudada, 56% eram do gênero feminino. A prevalência de diagnóstico médico de asma foi de 7,7%. Os seguintes fatores de risco apresentaram relação estatisticamente significante com a ocorrência de asma (p OBJETIVOS: Analizar la prevalencia de síntomas de asma entre escolares de seis a siete años del municipio de Picos-PI; e identificar factores de riesgo asociados a la enfermedad. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado con niños de 6 y 7 años de Picos en noviembre de 2010 a mayo de 2011. Para recolectar los datos, se utilizo un formulario adaptado del Internacional Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Los datos fueron analizados con base en la estadística descriptiva y analítica. RESULTADOS: De los 234 niños de la muestra estudiada, el 56% era del género femenino. La prevalencia del diagnóstico médico de asma fue de 7,7%. Los siguientes factores de riesgo presentaron relación estadísticamente significativa con la ocurrencia de asma (p OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of asthma symptoms among schoolchildren aged six to seven years in the municipality of Picos-PI; and to identify risk factors associated with the disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with children aged six and seven from Picos, in November 2010 and May 2011. To collect data, we used an adapted form of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics

  16. End Group Effects on the Hydrogel Formation of PEO-PPO-PEO Triblock Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron; Ryu, Chang Y.; Jung, Gyoo Y.; Hwang, Hee Sung

    2012-02-01

    Pluronic F108, a triblock copolymer consisting of outer polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains and an inner polypropylene oxide (PPO) chains, has been shown to be an effective hydrogel matrix for DNA separation by capillary electrophoresis using single-stranded conformation polymorphism. This presentation will discuss a new pathway to potentially enhance the separation abilities of F108 by altering the chain end groups of the block copolymers. F108 is believed to form a micelle in aqueous solutions with the hydrophobic group in the interior, thus we expect considerable interaction between the DNA sample and the end groups found at the hydrophilic brush layers of the micelle. The rheological properties of end group derivatives of F108, in combination of small angle x-ray scattering, can reveal structural differences in the micelles. In particular, gelation temperature of the end group derivatives can be linked to differences in the micelle structure. Dynamic light scattering can also be used to determine the effects of chain end groups on the hydrodynamic size of the block copolymer micelles in dilute solution.

  17. Capacidade aeróbica em crianças e adolescentes com asma intermitente e persistente leve no período intercrises

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes,Eliane Zenir Corrêa de; Trevisan,Maria Elaine; Baldisserotto,Sérgio de Vasconcellos; Portela,Luiz Osório Cruz

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Aferir a capacidade aeróbica de crianças e adolescentes com diagnóstico de asma brônquica intermitente leve ou persistente leve no período intercrises. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 33 crianças e adolescentes com diagnóstico clínico recente de asma leve intermitente e asma leve persistente, no período intercrises, e 36 crianças e adolescentes saudáveis. Foram realizadas avaliação clínica, avaliação do nível basal do nível de atividade física, espirometria antes e após o uso de broncodila...

  18. Petrography, diagenesis and geotechnical properties of the El-Rufuf Formation (Thebes Group), El-Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashed, M. A.; Sediek, K. N.

    1997-10-01

    The El-Rufuf Formation (Thebes Group) outcrops widely in Egypt. It is quarried as an ornamental building stone and used as slabs in walls and floors. It is also important in foundation construction. The geotechnical behaviour of these rocks is commonly related to stratigraphical position, controlled by their petrography and textural and diagenetic features. The El-Rufuf Formation of Naqb Assiut, El-Kharga Oasis, consists of 63 m of micritic and neomorphosed limestones which are marly at the base. Microfacies analysis of these limestones indicates an inner to middle shelf open marine environment. The most common diagenetic features are neomorphism, silicification, dissolution and stylolites. There are clear relationships between the measured compressive strength of rocks and the facies and diagenetic features. Neomorphic sparry limestone has the lowest compressive strength, while cherty biomicritic limestone shows the highest values. Micritic and biomicritic limestones show intermediate values. Some anisotropism of compressive strength values is recorded in the stylolitic limestones and in the foliated marly part of the formation. The present study reveals that the El-Rufuf limestones, according to Deere's (1968) classification, are low to medium strength rocks with low modulus ratios (DL-CL), while the marly parts of the formation are low strength rocks with low modulus ratios (EL). The rocks of the marly part of the El-Rufuf Formation are unstable with regard to water and therefore have a zero softness coefficient.

  19. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G): A new research tool for controlled simultaneous social stress exposure in a group format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dawans, Bernadette; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinrichs, Markus

    2011-05-01

    Psychological stress is an ubiquitous challenge across human cultures affecting mental and physical health. Recent evidence indicates that performance tasks combining elements of socio-evaluative threat and uncontrollability elicit reliable stress responses. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most frequently used psychological protocol in stress research; however, to date it has only been available in a single-subject version. In particular, there is an increasing need in several emerging research fields such as stress research or social neurosciences for a standardized research tool to expose relatively large groups of subjects to controlled simultaneous stress. In search of a laboratory stressor that allows simultaneous stress exposure in a group format, we exposed a total of 25 healthy male participants to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G; public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of a panel of two evaluators in groups of six participants) and a specific control condition. Results showed that the TSST-G induced significant increases in cortisol, heart rate, and psychological stress responses. The TSST-G provides a novel, effective, and economical protocol for experimental paradigms requiring simultaneous stress induction in multiple participants.

  20. Modeling the Formation Process of Grouping Stimuli Sets through Cortical Columns and Microcircuits to Feature Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Klefenz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational model of a self-structuring neuronal net is presented in which repetitively applied pattern sets induce the formation of cortical columns and microcircuits which decode distinct patterns after a learning phase. In a case study, it is demonstrated how specific neurons in a feature classifier layer become orientation selective if they receive bar patterns of different slopes from an input layer. The input layer is mapped and intertwined by self-evolving neuronal microcircuits to the feature classifier layer. In this topical overview, several models are discussed which indicate that the net formation converges in its functionality to a mathematical transform which maps the input pattern space to a feature representing output space. The self-learning of the mathematical transform is discussed and its implications are interpreted. Model assumptions are deduced which serve as a guide to apply model derived repetitive stimuli pattern sets to in vitro cultures of neuron ensembles to condition them to learn and execute a mathematical transform.

  1. Insights into the formation of inorganic heterocycles via cyclocondensation of primary amines with group 15 and 16 halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Tristram; Laitinen, Risto S

    2017-01-31

    Cyclocondensation is a major preparative route for the generation of inorganic heterocycles especially in the case of ring systems involving a Group 15 or 16 element linked to nitrogen. This Perspective will consider recent experimental and computational studies involving the reactions of primary amines (or their synthetic equivalents) with pnictogen and chalcogen halides. The major focus will be a discussion of the identity and role of acyclic intermediates in the reaction pathways to ring formation, as well as the nature of the heterocycles so formed. The similarities and differences between the chemistry of group 15 and 16 systems are emphasised with a view to providing signposts for further investigations.

  2. Prevalencia de asma y otras enfermedades alérgicas en niños escolares de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua Prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases in school children in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Barraza-Villarreal

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, de la rinitis y del eczema en escolares. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado entre abril de 1998 y mayo de 1999 en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, a una muestra aleatoria de 6 174 niños de 53 escuelas. Se aplicó la metodología propuesta por el International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC (etapas 1 y 2 para determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, rinitis y eczema. La información de prevalencia, tanto actual como acumulada para dichos padecimientos, se obtuvo mediante un cuestionario ya estandarizado y contestado por los padres de los niños. El diseño de la muestra se hizo por un muestreo mixto, en el cual se estratificó por nivel de contaminación ambiental. Se estimaron prevalencias actual y acumulada estratificando por grupo de edad, sexo, área e historia familiar de asma. Resultados. La prevalencia acumulada de asma por diagnóstico médico y sibilancia (silbidos fue de 6.8% (IC95% 6.2-7.4 y 20.% (IC95% 19.7-21.8, respectivamente; la prevalencia de sibilancia en los últimos 12 meses fue mayor en el grupo de 6-8 años que en el de 11-14 años(9.7% contra 5.8% (phttp://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To assess the prevalence and severity of asthma and allergic diseases in schoolchildren residing in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1998 to May 1999, among 6 174 children from 53 schools in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. The method used was the one recommended by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC to determine the prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema. Parents were asked to answer a standardized questionnaire on current and cumulative prevalence of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema. A sample stratified by level of pollution was selected. Results. The cumulative prevalence of medically diagnosed asthma and wheezing was 6.8% (95

  3. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces-from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or "homophily").

  4. Doing Violence, Making Race: Southern Lynching and White Racial Group Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smångs, Mattias

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework of how intergroup violence may figure into the activation and maintenance of group categories, boundaries, and identities, as well as the mediating role played by organizations in such processes. The framework's analytical advantages are demonstrated in an application to southern lynchings. Findings from event- and community-level analyses suggest that "public" lynchings, carried out by larger mobs with ceremonial violence, but not "private" ones, perpetrated by smaller bands without public or ceremonial violence, fed off and into the racial group boundaries, categories, and identities promoted by the southern Democratic Party at the turn of the 20th century and on which the emerging Jim Crow system rested. Highlighting that racialized inequalities cannot be properly understood apart from collective processes of racial group boundary and identity making, the article offers clues to the mechanisms by which past racial domination influences contemporary race relations.

  5. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces—from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or “homophily”).

  6. The Nature of Star Formation at 24 microns in the Group Environment at 0.3 < z < 0.55

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, K; Wilman, D J; McGee, S L; Bower, R G; Bai, L; Mulchaey, J S; Parker, L C; Shi, Y; Pierini, D

    2011-01-01

    Galaxy star formation rates (SFRs) are sensitive to the local environment; for example, the high-density regions at the cores of dense clusters are known to suppress star formation. It has been suggested that galaxy transformation occurs largely in groups, which are the intermediate step in density between field and cluster environments. In this paper, we use deep MIPS 24 micron observations of intermediate-redshift (0.3 10.5, corresponding to SFR > 2.7 M_sun/yr. We find that the group and field galaxies have different distributions of morphologies and mass. However, individual group galaxies have star-forming properties comparable to those of field galaxies of similar mass and morphology; that is, the group environment does not appear to modify the properties of these galaxies directly. There is a relatively large number of massive early-type group spirals, along with E/S0 galaxies, that are forming stars above our detection limit. These galaxies account for the nearly comparable level of star-forming activ...

  7. ON THE FORMATION OF AMIDE POLYMERS VIA CARBONYL–AMINO GROUP LINKAGES IN ENERGETICALLY PROCESSED ICES OF ASTROPHYSICAL RELEVANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Förstel, Marko; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Jones, Brant M.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii, 2545 McCarthy Mall, 96822 HI (United States); Sun, Bing J.; Lee, Huan C.; Chang, Agnes H. H., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu, E-mail: hhchang@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-01

    We report on the formation of organic amide polymers via carbonyl–amino group linkages in carbon monoxide and ammonia bearing energetically processed ices of astrophysical relevance. The first group comprises molecules with one carboxyl group and an increasing number of amine moieties starting with formamide (45 u), urea (60 u), and hydrazine carboxamide (75 u). The second group consists of species with two carboxyl (58 u) and up to three amine groups (73 u, 88 u, and 103 u). The formation and polymerization of these linkages from simple inorganic molecules via formamide und urea toward amide polymers is discussed in an astrophysical and astrobiological context. Our results show that long chain molecules, which are closely related to polypeptides, easily form by energetically processing simple, inorganic ices at very low temperatures and can be released into the gas phase by sublimation of the ices in star-forming regions. Our experimental results were obtained by employing reflectron time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, coupled with soft, single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization; they are complemented by theoretical calculations.

  8. Use of formative research and social network theory to develop a group walking intervention: Sumter County on the Move!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, Melinda; Burroughs-Girardi, Ericka; Stoisor-Olsson, Liliana; Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Pekuri, Linda M

    2016-10-01

    Although social support is a frequently cited enabler of physical activity, few studies have examined how to harness social support in interventions. This paper describes community-based formative research to design a walking program for mobilizing naturally occurring social networks to support increases in walking behavior. Focus group methods were used to engage community members in discussions about desired walking program features. The research was conducted with underserved communities in Sumter County, South Carolina. The majority of focus group participants were women (76%) and African American (92%). Several important themes emerged from the focus group results regarding attitudes toward walking, facilitators of and barriers to walking, ideal walking program characteristics, and strategies for encouraging community members to walk. Most noteably, the role of existing social networks as a supportive influence on physical activity was a recurring theme in our formative research and a gap in the existing evidence base. The resulting walking program focused on strategies for mobilizing, supporting and reinforcing existing social networks as mechanisms for increasing walking. Our approach to linking theory, empirical evidence and community-based formative research for the development of a walking intervention offers an example for practitioners developing intervention strategies for a wide range of behaviors.

  9. Prevalência de diagnóstico médico de asma em adultos brasileiros: Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de diagnóstico médico de asma na população adulta brasileira (≥ 18 anos. Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS, de 2013; processo amostral por conglomerado com três estágios de seleção: setor censitário, domicílio e indivíduo. Calculou-se a prevalência e intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95% do desfecho "diagnóstico médico de asma" relatado pelo entrevistado e sua distribuição conforme variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, macrorregiões e zona urbana ou rural do país. Ainda foi investigado o manejo da asma naqueles que responderam afirmativamente sobre o diagnóstico médico; as análises foram ponderadas. Resultados: Foram entrevistados 60.202 adultos. A prevalência do diagnóstico médico de asma foi de 4,4% (IC95% 4,1 - 4,7, maior no sexo feminino, nos de cor branca, com maior escolaridade e moradores na região Sul; entre aqueles com diagnóstico médico, observou-se percentual elevado (38,2% de crises de asma nos últimos 12 meses, com cerca de 80% usando medicação e 15% com limitação severa às atividades diárias. Conclusões: Apesar da estabilidade da prevalência da asma comparada a estudos anteriores no país, ainda são necessárias políticas para melhor manejo da doença.

  10. THE SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION AND THE EFFECT OF THE GALAXY ENVIRONMENT IN LOW-REDSHIFT GALAXY GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Jesper [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mulchaey, John S. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bai, Lei [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Ponman, Trevor J.; Raychaudhury, Somak [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Dariush, Ali, E-mail: jr@dark-cosmology.dk [Physics Department, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the interaction between galaxies and their surroundings is central to building a coherent picture of galaxy evolution. Here we use Galaxy Evolution Explorer imaging of a statistically representative sample of 23 galaxy groups at z Almost-Equal-To 0.06 to explore how local and global group environments affect the UV properties and dust-corrected star formation rates (SFRs) of their member galaxies. The data provide SFRs out to beyond 2R{sub 200} in all groups, down to a completeness limit and limiting galaxy stellar mass of 0.06 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, respectively. At fixed galaxy stellar mass, we find that the fraction of star-forming group members is suppressed relative to the field out to an average radius of R Almost-Equal-To 1.5 Mpc Almost-Equal-To 2R{sub 200}, mirroring results for massive clusters. For the first time, we also report a similar suppression of the specific SFR within such galaxies, on average by 40% relative to the field, thus directly revealing the impact of the group environment in quenching star formation within infalling galaxies. At fixed galaxy density and stellar mass, this suppression is stronger in more massive groups, implying that both local and global group environments play a role in quenching. The results favor an average quenching timescale of {approx}> 2 Gyr and strongly suggest that a combination of tidal interactions and starvation is responsible. Despite their past and ongoing quenching, galaxy groups with more than four members still account for at least {approx}25% of the total UV output in the nearby universe.

  11. Oxo-group-14-element bond formation in binuclear uranium(V) Pacman complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Guy M; Arnold, Polly L; Love, Jason B

    2013-07-29

    Simple and versatile routes to the functionalization of uranyl-derived U(V)-oxo groups are presented. The oxo-lithiated, binuclear uranium(V)-oxo complexes [{(py)3LiOUO}2(L)] and [{(py)3LiOUO}(OUOSiMe3)(L)] were prepared by the direct combination of the uranyl(VI) silylamide "ate" complex [Li(py)2][(OUO)(N")3] (N" = N(SiMe3)2) with the polypyrrolic macrocycle H4L or the mononuclear uranyl (VI) Pacman complex [UO2(py)(H2L)], respectively. These oxo-metalated complexes display distinct U-O single and multiple bonding patterns and an axial/equatorial arrangement of oxo ligands. Their ready availability allows the direct functionalization of the uranyl oxo group leading to the binuclear uranium(V) oxo-stannylated complexes [{(R3Sn)OUO}2(L)] (R = nBu, Ph), which represent rare examples of mixed uranium/tin complexes. Also, uranium-oxo-group exchange occurred in reactions with [TiCl(OiPr)3] to form U-O-C bonds [{(py)3LiOUO}(OUOiPr)(L)] and [(iPrOUO)2(L)]. Overall, these represent the first family of uranium(V) complexes that are oxo-functionalised by Group 14 elements.

  12. Geological Features of Iron Formations and Associate Rock in Bulunkuole Group, West Kunlun, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chaoyang; Wang, He; Ren, Guangli; Wu, Wenying

    2017-05-01

    West Kunlun is located at northwest part of the Tibetan plateau, and it’s divided into North Kunlun terrane, South Kunlun terrane and Tianshuihai terrane. Bulunkuole Group is located in Tianshuihai terrane, and Taaxi, Yelike, Laobing, Zankan, Mokaer and Jiertiekegou iron deposit was found in this terrane. Those iron deposits are set to the important iron ore mineralization belt of Xinjiang and even China. By investigation the geological features, ore distributions, and mineralization characters; and analyze the electron microprobe of magnetite and pyrite, stable isotope of pyrite, magnetite and anhydrite to discussion the tectonic setting and its genesis analysis iron ore deposit in Blunkuole Group, and establish the metallogenic model in this area. By contrastive analyzing of Taaxi, Yelike Zankan-Mokar iron ore deposits in Bulunkuole Group, it was found that all the iron ore deposit share the similar sedimentary environment. Those deposits have 3 ∼ 4 ore bodies, each get a meter to dozens of meters in width, extend to thousands of meters. The wall rocks are biotite quartz schist and plagioclase amphibole schist, and the two rocks interbed usually. It should be distinguish in the stratigraphic correlation of Bulunkuole Group for the influenced by the magma intrusion, such as granite and felsite porphyry.

  13. The Local Group dwarf leo T : HI on the brink of star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan-Weber, Emma V.; Begum, Ayesha; Oosterloo, Tom; Pal, Sabyasachi; Irwin, Michael J.; Belokurov, Vasily; Evans, N. Wyn; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    We present Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) andWesterbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) observations of the recently discovered Local Group dwarf galaxy, Leo T. The peak HI column density is measured to be 7 x 1020 cm(-2), and the total HI mass is 2.8 x 10(5) M-circle dot,, based on a dista

  14. Does Like Seek Like?: The Formation of Working Groups in a Programming Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou Gozalo, Eduard; Hernández-Fernández, Antoni; Arias, Marta; Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

    2017-01-01

    In a course of the degree of computer science, the programming project has changed from individual to teamed work, tentatively in couples (pair programming). Students have full freedom to team up with minimum intervention from teachers. The analysis of the working groups made indicates that students do not tend to associate with students with a…

  15. Group Formation in Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Contexts: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Sofiane; Macedo, Joaquim; Bendella, Fatima; Santos, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Learners are becoming increasingly divers. They may have much personal, social, cultural, psychological, and cognitive diversity. Forming suitable learning groups represents, therefore, a hard and time-consuming task. In Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (MCSCL) environments, this task is more difficult. Instructors need to consider…

  16. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, Domenico; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Lotti, Tullio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Borghi, Loris; Caione, Paolo; Carini, Marco; Caudarella, Renata; Ferraro, Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gelosa, Marco; Guttilla, Andrea; Illiano, Ester; Martino, Marangella; Meschi, Tiziana; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miano, Roberto; Napodano, Giorgio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Rendina, Domenico; Rocco, Francesco; Rosa, Marco; Sanseverino, Roberto; Salerno, Annamaria; Spatafora, Sebastiano; Tasca, Andrea; Ticinesi, Andrea; Travaglini, Fabrizio; Trinchieri, Alberto; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-07-07

    Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidence-based guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. HYPERCALCIURIA: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium) could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary

  17. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Results: Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidencebased guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. Conclusions: General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. Hypercalciuria: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of

  18. Mecanismos de acción y resistencia a glucocorticoides en asma y enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibey Alvarado-González

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El asma bronquial y la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica son dos problemas mayores de salud: su incidencia se encuentra en aumento y representan, indiscutiblemente, una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad a nivel mundial. Los glucocorticoides se han posicionado como la droga de elección en el tratamiento de padecimientos inmunológicos e inflamatorios crónicos, como el asma bronquial y la enfermedad obstructiva crónica. Estas drogas suprimen la inflamación en múltiples vías moleculares, característica que les confiere destacada eficacia. Su principal acción en dosis terapéuticas se produce por la transrepresión de genes inflamatorios activos, mediante el reclutamiento y actividad de la enzima histona-desacetilasa-2 y la remodelación de la cromatina. En dosis altas, funcionan más bien como transactivadores, acetilando las histonas y estimulando la transcripción de genes antinflamatorios, y potencialmente, también de varios genes relacionados con efectos secundarios. Además, se les reconoce acciones postranscripcionales, que modifican la estabilidad de secuencias de ARN mensajero. A pesar de esto, una respuesta disminuida a los glucocorticoides se presenta en pacientes con asma severa, en asmáticos que fuman y en quienes tienen enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Varios mecanismos moleculares de resistencia a glucocorticoides han sido identificados. Se están investigando otros tratamientos antinflamatorios que permitan controlar los síntomas de estos pacientes, así como drogas que puedan revertir los mecanismos moleculares de la resistencia. Problemáticamente, estas terapias podrían ser demasiado específicas para resultar eficaces, como es el caso de los esteroides disociados, en el que es difícil separar efectos antinflamatorios y secundarios.

  19. Estudio de las mutaciones en el gen de la filagrina y su relación con diversos fenotipos de asma.

    OpenAIRE

    Cubero Saldaña, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    [ES] En los últimos años se está tratando de comprender las bases genéticas de las enfermedades complejas, entre ellas el asma. Por desgracia en esta enfermedad no se ha llegado a conclusiones sólidas y todavía no se han identificado genotipos que se asocien claramente con la incidencia de asma. En ocasiones se ha descrito cierta asociación génica con la gravedad de la enfermedad. Tal es el caso del gen de la filagrina que codifica una proteína clave de la barrera epidérmica. Se ha detectado...

  20. Componentes C3 e C4 do sistema complemento como biomarcadores no diagnóstico de asma atópica intermitente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Mosca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os componentes séricos C3 e C4 do sistema complemento como possíveis biomarcadores de asma atópica intermitente. MÉTODOS: Determinação dos níveis séricos dos componentes C3 e C4 do complemento em 70 crianças com história de "chiado no peito” entre 3 e 14 anos. Após 2 anos de acompanhamento ambulatorial, seguindo-se critérios de inclusão e exclusão, as crianças foram divididas em 2 grupos: 40 crianças com asma atópica intermitente e 30 crianças sem asma. Não houve uso de corticosteroides inalatórios ou sistêmicos ou de broncodilatadores de ação prolongada em nenhum dos grupos. Os dois grupos apresentaram faixas etárias semelhantes, comparadas pelo teste t de Student. Os resultados dos componentes C3 e C4 mostraram distribuição normal e foram então comparados utilizando-se o teste t de Student, considerando-se significante quando p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Os valores observados no grupo de crianças portadoras de asma atópica intermitente mostraram aumentos significativos para: C3 em 85,0% das crianças; C4 em 87,5%; C3 e C4 em 72,5%; C3 ou C4 em 97,5%, quando comparados aos valores observados das crianças sem asma e da mesma faixa etária. CONCLUSÃO: Observamos um aumento dos valores séricos dos componentes C3 e/ou C4 do sistema complemento na maioria das crianças estudadas portadoras de asma atópica intermitente, em comparação aos valores de crianças sem asma, da mesma faixa etária. Concluímos que a presença de valores aumentados dos componentes C3 e/ou C4 do complemento possa representar um biomarcador no diagnóstico de asma atópica intermitente.

  1. Asma de difícil control en niños y adolescentes: Estrategias diagnóstico-terapéuticas

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Neffen; Santiago Vidaurreta; Ana Balanzat; Mónica Silvia De Gennaro; Verónica Giubergia; Maspero, Jorge F; Ricardo J Saranz; Alejandro M Teper

    2012-01-01

    El asma es una de las enfermedades crónicas más frecuentes en los niños. Si bien la mayoría de los niños con asma responden a bajas dosis de corticoides inhalados y/o antagonistas del receptor de leucotrienos, algunos de ellos permanecen sintomáticos independientemente de cualquier esfuerzo terapéutico, presentando una elevada morbilidad e inclusive mortalidad. Aunque la mayoría de los pacientes controlan los síntomas de forma adecuada, existe un grupo importante que presenta síntomas graves ...

  2. Violência comunitária e prevalência de asma em crianças na periferia de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Guilherme da Costa; Santos, Darci Neves; Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo foi identificar o grau de violência comunitária relatado por cuidadores de crianças entre quatro e 12 anos, além da influência dessa exposição na ocorrência de sintomas de asma nas crianças. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 1.232 cuidadores residentes na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Investigaram-se sintomas de asma nas crianças e atos violentos na comunidade. Aproximadamente 75% dos cuidadores foram vítimas de violência comunitária no último ano, com 2...

  3. Calidad de vida de los niños escolares de 8 a 12 años con asma bronquial del distrito de Tarapoto, mayo - octubre 2009

    OpenAIRE

    López Chumbe, Teobaldo

    2012-01-01

    El asma es una enfermedad crónica que repercute en la falta de bienestar del paciente, sobre todo si éste es un niño de edad escolar cuya característica es el dinamismo en sus actividades cotidianas que se expresa en los juegos: éstos se constituyen en espacios de socialización importantes para su desarrollo, los que son interrumpidos por la enfermedad. El impacto que produce el asma en los niños es variable dados los cambios físicos propios de su edad y el desarrollo cognitivo que influye en...

  4. Conocimientos sobre el tratamiento médico del asma en padres de niños asmáticos

    OpenAIRE

    M.T. Leonardo Cabello; R. Sancho Gutiérrez; L. García Higuera; E. Pérez Belmonte; M.J. Cabero Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo. Determinar el grado de conocimiento sobre el tratamiento del asma de los padres de niños/as asmáticos seguidos en una consulta de Neumología infantil. Material y método. Estudio descriptivo y transversal, mediante encuestas autocumplimentadas. Los conocimientos se evaluaron usando el Newcastle Asthma Knowledge Questionnaire (NAQK). Para analizar el conocimiento concreto sobre el tratamiento del asma, hemos seleccionado las preguntas 10, 11, 12, 18, 19, 20, 27 y 31 del NAQK que h...

  5. Prevalencia de asma y otras enfermedades alérgicas en niños escolares de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    OpenAIRE

    Barraza-Villarreal Albino; Sanín-Aguirre Luz Helena; Téllez-Rojo Martha María; Lacasaña-Navarro Marina; Romieu Isabelle

    2001-01-01

    Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, de la rinitis y del eczema en escolares. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado entre abril de 1998 y mayo de 1999 en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, a una muestra aleatoria de 6 174 niños de 53 escuelas. Se aplicó la metodología propuesta por el International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) (etapas 1 y 2) para determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, rinitis y eczema. La información de prevalenci...

  6. Uso do sulfato de magnésio venoso para tratamento da asma aguda grave da criança no pronto-socorro

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Mara Baraky Bittar; Sérgio Diniz Guerra

    2012-01-01

    A asma aguda grave é uma emergência médica que deve ser diagnosticada e tratada rapidamente. O tratamento inicial inclui broncodilatadores e corticosteróides sistêmicos. Em casos graves, com fraca resposta ao tratamento padrão, o sulfato de magnésio venoso surge como opção terapêutica. O objetivo deste artigo foi revisar a literatura sobre o uso do sulfato de magnésio venoso na asma aguda em crianças no pronto-socorro no que se refere a eficácia, indicação, dosagem, efeitos adversos e contrai...

  7. Descargas de cascarilla de soja en Tarragona y riesgo de epidemias de asma Soybean hull unloading in Tarragona (Spain) and asthma outbreak risk

    OpenAIRE

    Enric Rovira; Anna Cuadras; Pere Gaig; Vanessa Gázquez; Gaspar Dalmau; Susana Gómez-Ollés; Mª Jesús Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Objetivos: Entre 2007 y 2008 se descargaron 215.000 toneladas de cascarilla de soja en el puerto de Tarragona. En la cascarilla se encuentra la proteína causante de las epidemias de asma bronquial. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron estudiar las características de las descargas, la dispersión del alergeno y el riesgo para la población. Métodos: Se recogió información sobre el proceso de descarga, transporte y almacenaje, la meteorología y los casos de asma atendidos en urgencias hospitalari...

  8. Thermochemistry of organic, elementorganic and inorganic species. Part XX. Enthalpies of formation for free radicals of main group elements’ halogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Dmitry; Takhistov, Viatcheslav; Slayden, Suzanne; Liebman, Joel

    2008-03-01

    General trends in thermochemistry for free radicals as the fragments of halogenated molecules of main group elements were found for the first time applying the series of isodesmic (working) reactions following the Benson's comparison of relative stabilities of free radicals in equations R+RH→ RH+R+Q, where Q is stabilization (destabilization) energy. The enthalpies of formation for parent molecules of main group elements' halogenides necessary for application of this and similar equations were presented earlier [A.V. Golovin, V.V. Takhistov, J. Mol. Struct., 784 (2006) 47.]. For fluorinated free radicals rad EF (E = Be-Ra), rad EF 2 ( rad EHF) (E = B-Tl, N-Bi) and rad EF 3 ( rad EH 2F, rad EHF 2) (E = C-Pb) the gradual decrease in stabilization by fluorine atoms was found when coming down the periodic table. This turned to destabilization for Tl, Sb, and Bi, and IVth group of elements (excluding carbon) with increasing destabilization in the row Si Cl > Br > I which was interpreted by involvement of polarizability (PAZ) effect of halogens increasing in this direction. For finding the enthalpies of formation for silicon and germanium-centered free radicals the data on ν ≡ E-H frequencies in IR-spectra were applied. Quite definite tendencies in structure/enthalpy of formation interrelationship were found for chlorinated, brominated and iodinated free radicals of IInd and IIIrd group of elements. In the VIth group the situation with F → Cl → Br → I replacement in stabilization of free radical center appeared completely different compared with II-IV groups. Owing to the high electronegativity of HO-group and low thermodynamic stability of HO rad radical all halogens highly stabilize rad OX radical and perform it in the row F < Cl-Br < I which is explained by increase of PAZ effect in this direction. All halogens are suggested to stabilize other rad EX free radicals (E = S-Po) but essentially less compared with rad OX free radicals. The tendencies in

  9. Informative value of some endocrine homeostatic parameters in the formation of endometrial cancer risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Sidorenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH and 90 patients with Stages I-II endometrial cancer (EC were followed up. The patients’ mean age was 44.3±2.1 years. A control group consisted of 20 healthy women matched for age. Before treatment, the authors determined the blood levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol by radiometric assay and the content of daily excreted cortisol, cortisone, tetrahydrocortisol, tetrahydrocortisone, 11-hydroxy-17-ketosteroids, estrone, estradiol, and pregnanediol by the conventional classical studies.The nature of the impaired synthesis and metabolism of sex and adrenocorticoid hormones and their degree have been found to coincide, which suggest that it is expedient to use these findings to form EC risk groups in patients with AEH in the late reproductive period.

  10. Group I Intron Internal Guide Sequence Binding Strength as a Component of Ribozyme Network Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elizabeth Satterwhite

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Origins-of-life research requires searching for a plausible transition from simple chemicals to larger macromolecules that can both hold information and catalyze their own production. We have previously shown that some group I intron ribozymes possess the ability to help synthesize other ribozyme genotypes by recombination reactions in small networks in an autocatalytic fashion. By simplifying these recombination reactions, using fluorescent anisotropy, we quantified the thermodynamic binding strength between two nucleotides of two group I intron RNA fragments for all 16 possible genotype combinations. We provide evidence that the binding strength (KD between the 3-nucleotide internal guide sequence (IGS of one ribozyme and its complement in another is correlated to the catalytic ability of the ribozyme. This work demonstrates that one can begin to deconstruct the thermodynamic basis of information in prebiotic RNA systems.

  11. SOCIAL COMPETENCE FORMATION AMONG TEENAGERS FROM HUMANIST TREND MULTIPLE-AGED GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Larisa A. Krapivina

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the problems of social development of adolescents in multiple-aged groups (MAG).Methods. The methods involve socio-personal approach, consideration of the subject in a certain ideological humanistic orientation, comparative analysis, and comparison of historical facts, the study of social phenomena of different ages, long-term scientific observations, reflections, a retrospective analysis of personal experience.Results. The author describes objective conditions for the upris...

  12. Effect of double quaternary ammonium groups on micelle formation of partially fluorinated surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Keisuke; Chiba, Nagisa; Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Takeuchi, Emi

    2011-04-15

    To investigate the effect of divalency on the micelle properties, we synthesized divalent cationic surfactants composed of fluorocarbons and double quaternary ammonium groups N,N-dimethyl-N-[2-(N'-trimethylammonium)ethyl]-1-(3-perfluoroalkyl-2-hydroxypropyl) ammonium bromide [C(n)(F)C(3)-2Am; where n (=8 or 10) represents the number of carbon atoms in the fluorocarbon chain]. The double quaternary ammonium groups are continuously combined by the ethylene spacer in the surfactant head group, which clearly distinguishes the molecular design of the surfactant from those of the other typical divalent surfactants, bolaform and gemini types. The presence of the divalent head group results in an advantageous increase in their solubility [i.e., rise in the critical micelle concentration (cmc)]; however, the extra electrostatic repulsion between divalent cations decreases the surface activity in comparison with monovalent homologous fluorinated surfactants. The cmc, surface tension at cmc, and area occupied by a surfactant molecule in aqueous solution at 298.2K are 4.32 mM, 30.6 mN m(-1), and 0.648 nm(2 )molecule(-1), respectively, for C(8)(F)C(3)-2Am, and 1.51 mM, 30.4 mN m(-1), and 0.817 nm(2) molecule(-1), respectively, for C(10)(F)C(3)-2Am. The micellar size and shape were investigated by dynamic light scattering and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrographs show that C(n)(F)C(3)-2Am (n=8 and 10) mainly forms ellipsoidal micelles approximately 10-100 nm in size for n=8 and approximately 10-20 nm in size for n=10. The degree of counterion binding to micelle was determined by selective electrode potential measurements, and the results of 0.7-0.8 agree with the average values for conventional monovalent ionic surfactants.

  13. Polimorfismo genético relacionado con la probabilidad de desarrollar asma ocupacional en trabajadores expuestos a isocianatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Pepe Betancourt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El desarrollo tecnológico ha traído como consecuencia el uso de sustancias químicas potencialmente perjudiciales para la salud de los trabajadores. Particularmente el uso de isocianatos ha resultado en una mayor morbilidad de patología respiratoria, especialmente el asma. Considerando que no todos los trabajadores expuestos desarrollan la enfermedad se ha propuesto un modelo de interacción gen-medioambiental, el cual trata de explicar la predisposición genética que tienen algunos individuos a desarrollar asma ocupacional y otros no. Objetivo: Conocer la evidencia científica relacionada con el polimorfismo genético y la susceptibilidad que tienen los trabajadores expuestos a isocianatos a desarrollar asma ocupacional. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión sistemática mediante una búsqueda bibliográfica utilizando las bases de datos PubMedline, así como en los repositorios Dialnet y ELSEVIER. Se extrajeron los artículos relacionados al objetivo de esta revisión, no se aplicaron filtros de temporalidad, utilizándose los siguientes descriptores: MeSH Major Topic, MeSH Terms. El periodo de búsqueda fue desde el 20 de noviembre de 2013 y finalizó el 15 de diciembre de 2013. El nivel de evidencia se estableció de acuerdo a los criterios GRADE. Resultados: Se analizaron a texto completo 42 artículos, la evidencia científica se sustentó en 11 estudios de casos-controles. Dada la complejidad del polimorfismo genético asociado con la expresión fenotípica de la enfermedad, como limitación de los estudios, los autores coinciden que el tamaño muestral no es suficientemente grande, sin embargo después de ajustar los factores de confusión los artículos encontrados tuvieron un nivel de evidencia B de GRADE. Conclusión: La genética tiene una influencia significativa en el asma ocupacional inducida por isocianatos. El peso de la susceptibilidad genética y de la interacción gen-medioambiente aún no se han

  14. Encuesta sobre cambios en el manejo y tratamiento del asma bronchial Survey on changes in asthma treatment and management

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo A. Raimondi; Martín Sívori

    2004-01-01

    Se realizó una encuesta a 518 especialistas de enfermedades respiratorias de un listado de la totalidad del país. Esta se refería al manejo y al tratamiento del acceso agudo y especialmente al asma estable, en adultos y en niños mayores de 6 años. Se obtuvieron 198 respuestas (38.2% de los cuestionarios enviados). Se compararon los resultados con los obtenidos en una encuesta realizada en 1994. Las respuestas se evaluaron como 0 (nunca), 1 (algunas veces), 2 (a menudo), 3 (siempre). Con estos...

  15. Inmunoterapia con alergenos en niños menores de 5 años con asma bronquial /

    OpenAIRE

    Skrie, Victor Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Tesis (Dr. Medicina)--Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas Introducción: La inmunoterapia con alergenos es el único tratamiento capaz de modificar la historia natural del asma bronquial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud en su Artículo de Opinión “Inmunoterapia con alergenos: Vacunas Terapéuticas para las enfermedades alérgicas” considera la prescripción de vacunas de alérgenos, una contraindicación relativa en niños menores de 5 años. Por ello, la Organización M...

  16. Polimorfismo genético relacionado con la probabilidad de desarrollar asma ocupacional en trabajadores expuestos a isocianatos

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Pepe Betancourt; Tonny Hibsen Da Silva Sánchez; Ivanio Godoy Carus

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El desarrollo tecnológico ha traído como consecuencia el uso de sustancias químicas potencialmente perjudiciales para la salud de los trabajadores. Particularmente el uso de isocianatos ha resultado en una mayor morbilidad de patología respiratoria, especialmente el asma. Considerando que no todos los trabajadores expuestos desarrollan la enfermedad se ha propuesto un modelo de interacción gen-medioambiental, el cual trata de explicar la predisposición genética que tienen alguno...

  17. El látex: Un importante aeroalergeno implicado en el asma ocupacional Latex: An important aeroallergen involved in occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Quirce

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El látex ha pasado a ser uno de los agentes etiológicos más frecuentes de asma ocupacional en la última década, especialmente entre el personal sanitario. La prevalencia de asma ocupacional por látex en las distintas profesiones afectadas varía entre el 2,5 y el 10%, cifras que dan una idea de la gravedad del problema. Las proteínas del látex, adsorbidas en el polvo de almidón de maíz, utilizado como lubricante, son las responsables del asma por guantes de látex. Este polvo de almidón de maíz que recubre el interior de los guantes actuaría como un vehículo para la dispersión de las proteínas alergénicas. Los aeroalergenos de látex se encuentran en distintos tamaños de partículas. Los niveles de aeroalergenos de látex en el ambiente capaces de causar sensibilización y de desencadenar síntomas no están bien definidos. La determinación de estos niveles de exposición al látex es complicada, ya que el látex se trata de una mezcla compleja de alergenos con diferente estabilidad y biodisponibilidad. El bioaerosol de látex se produce principalmente por el uso activo de guantes empolvados, pero las moquetas o alfombras y las tapicerías actúan como importantes reservorios del alergeno. Además, el desplazamiento de las personas desde zonas con gran concentración ambiental de látex constituye una importante vía de dispersión del alergeno, así como probablemente los sistemas de ventilación. Como en otros casos de asma ocupacional el diagnóstico en muchas ocasiones requiere la realización de una prueba de provocación bronquial. Las pruebas de provocación específicas por vía inhalatoria con látex se han realizado por diversos métodos, que pueden agruparse en aquellos que utilizan un extracto acuoso de látex y los consistentes en manipular o sacudir guantes, que por tanto, generan un aerosol de polvo. Cada método tiene sus ventajas e inconvenientes según se describe. Una vez que el paciente sensibilizado inicia

  18. Opinion groups formation and dynamics : structures that last from non lasting entities

    CERN Document Server

    Grauwin, Sébastian

    2015-01-01

    We extend simple opinion models to obtain stable but continuously evolving communities. Our scope is to meet a challenge raised by sociologists of generating "structures that last from non lasting entities". We achieve this by introducing two kinds of noise on a standard opinion model. First, agents may interact with other agents even if their opinion difference is large. Second, agents randomly change their opinion at a constant rate. We show that for a large range of control parameters, our model yields stable and fluctuating polarized states, where the composition and mean opinion of the emerging groups is fluctuating over time.

  19. Chemically mediated group formation in soil-dwelling larvae and pupae of the beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2014-09-01

    Many insects form groups through interactions among individuals, and these are often mediated by chemical, acoustic, or visual cues and signals. In spite of the diversity of soil-dwelling insects, their aggregation behaviour has not been examined as extensively as that of aboveground species. We investigated the aggregation mechanisms of larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus, which live in groups in humus soil. In two-choice laboratory tests, 2nd- and 3rd-instar larvae gathered at conspecific larvae irrespective of the kinship. The ablation of maxillae, which bear chemosensilla, abolished aggregation behaviour. Intact larvae also exhibited aggregation behaviour towards a larval homogenate. These results suggest that larval aggregation is mediated by chemical cues. We also demonstrated that the mature larvae of T. dichotomus built their pupal cells close to a mesh bag containing a conspecific pupal cell, which indicated that larvae utilize chemical cues emanating from these cells to select the pupation site. Thus, the larvae of T. dichotomus may use chemical cues from the conspecifics in two different contexts, i.e. larval aggregation and pupation site selection. Using conspecific cues, larvae may be able to choose suitable locations for foraging or building pupal cells. The results of the present study highlight the importance of chemical information in belowground ecology.

  20. Hierarchical Formation in Action: Characterizing Accelerated Galaxy Evolution in Compact Groups Using Whole-sky WISE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Catherine; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey; Gallagher, Sarah; Alatalo, Katherine; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2016-04-01

    Compact groups provide an environment to study the growth of galaxies amid multiple prolonged interactions. With their dense galaxy concentrations and relatively low velocity dispersions, compact groups mimic the conditions of hierarchical galaxy assembly. Compact group galaxies are known to show a bimodality in Spitzer IRAC infrared color space: galaxies are preferentially either quiescent with low specific star formation rates (SSFRs) or prolifically forming stars—galaxies with moderate levels of specific star formation are rare. Previous Spitzer IRAC studies identifying this “canyon” have been limited by small number statistics. We utilize whole-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data to study 163 compact groups, thereby tripling our previous sample and including more galaxies with intermediate mid-IR colors indicative of moderate SSFRs. We define a distinct WISE mid-IR color space ≤ft({log}≤ft[\\tfrac{{f}12}{{f}4.6}\\right]\\right) versus ≤ft({log}≤ft[\\tfrac{{f}22}{{f}3.4}\\right]\\right) that we use to identify canyon galaxies from the larger sample. We confirm that compact group galaxies show a bimodal distribution in the mid-infrared and identify 37 canyon galaxies with reliable photometry and intermediate mid-IR colors. Morphologically, we find that the canyon harbors a large population of both Sa-Sbc and E/S0 type galaxies, and that they fall on the optical red sequence rather than the green valley. Finally, we provide a catalog of WISE photometry for 567 of 652 galaxies selected from the sample of 163 compact groups.

  1. 联合血清ASMA、ANA检测于慢性丙型肝炎与自身免疫性肝炎鉴别诊断中的应用价值分析%Application Value Analysis of Differential Diagnosis of Chronic Hepatitis C and Autoimmune Hepatitis by Combined Serum ASMA and ANA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌嘉; 李莉; 张晓星; 王丽哲; 丰建宇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the differential diagnostic value of antibody in the serum of the patient's own characteris-tics, the correlation in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and hepatitis c (HCV). Methods 40 patients with AIH and 48 patients with hepatitis C treated from February 2014 to March2015 in the hospital were selected, and their ANA, ASMA and other related autoantibodies were detected, and their relationship with AIH and HCV was analyzed. Results The positive rate of serum ANA and ASMA in AIH patients(89.6%,75.0%)were higher than those in HCV patients (7.5%,20.0%)and the dif-ference was statistically significant (P0.05);The detection rate of ASMA in serum of AIH group was significantly higher than that in HCV group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01); Combined detection of ASMA - AA and ANA - H of two groups of patients was compared, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion Combined detection of ASMA and ANA in patients with AIH and HCV has an significant impact on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the two diseases.%目的:探讨患者自身血清中抗体的特征、相关性于自身免疫性肝炎(AIH)及丙型肝炎(HCV)中的鉴别诊断价值。方法整群选取2014年2月—2015年3月于该院住院治疗的AIH 患者48例及丙型肝炎患者40例,检测其ANA、ASMA等相关自身抗体,分析其与AIH、HCV间关系。结果与HCV患者血清ANA、ASMA阳性率(7.5%,20.0%)对比,AIH患者两项指标均较高(89.6%,75.0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);AIH 患者血清ANA多为高滴度(≥1:160),HCV患者多为低滴度(≤1:80);两组患者ANA均质型差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);AIH组患者血清ASMA肌动蛋白检出率明显高于HCV组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);两组患者ASMA-AA、ANA-H联合检测对比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论对AIH及HCV患者进行ANA、ASMA联合检测,

  2. Phase behavior of semifluorinated catanionic mixtures: head group dependence and spontaneous formation of vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Elena; Olsson, Ulf; Ruso, Juan M; Schulz, Pablo C; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix

    2009-03-15

    Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C(16)TAB)-sodium perfluorooctanoate (C(8)FONa) and hexadecylpyridynium bromide (C(16)PyB)-C(8)FONa catanionic semifluorinated mixtures have been studied by conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and polarizing microscopy. The regular solution theory, applicable for a limited fluorinated molar ratio, does not predict long-range electrostatic interactions. The results are consistent with the fact that in the hydrogenated-rich region the interaction is attractive in both catanionic mixtures. The systems containing pyridinium headgroups were of the stronger interaction. A transition from micelles was found in both mixtures as a function of fluorinated molar ratio. Special attention was devoted to the effect of the head group in the system properties. The information related with the mean vesicle radius measured by DLS was compared with the vesicle size distribution as well as the elastic properties of the bilayer measured with cryo-TEM.

  3. Formation of Silver Nanoplates Layer on Amino Group Grafted Silica Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis PILIPAVICIUS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the self-arrangement of Ag nanoplates on (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES silanized silica coatings was investigated. Silica coatings were made by sol-gel method and silanized in two different ways. The first one includes silanization in acidic 2-propanol solution, the other one – in dry toluene. Coatings were silanized by using different amounts of APTES in case of silanization in 2-propanol. Silver nanoplates layer of functionalized silica coatings was obtained via self-assembly. Coatings were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM, water contact angle measurements (CA, FT-IR analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Research showed that dense Ag nanoplates arrangement occurs when there is a high amount of amino groups on the surface.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.8405

  4. Bronchial asthma in elderlies: an approach to this issue in Cuba Asma bronquial en el adulto mayor: una aproximación a esta temática en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Macías Carrera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and epidemiological behaviour of bronchial asthma in elderlies is almost an unknown topic in the investigations carried out in the field, because studies conducted in adult population approach a single age group from 15 years old on. Bronchial asthma is considered a health problem given its high prevalence: about 10% of the Cuban population suffers from it. In elderlies it is an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease often confused with chronic lung disease, so it is very important to able to evaluate the specific characteristics it presents in elderlies in order to attack the disease effectively, and promote the life quality of asthmatic elderlies.El comportamiento clínico y epidemiológico del asma bronquial en los adultos mayores, resulta un tópico casi desconocido en las investigaciones realizadas en el medio, porque los estudios de la población adulta incorporan a los asmáticos a partir del grupo de edad de 15 años y más. El asma bronquial está considerada como un problema de salud dada su alta prevalencia: alrededor del 10 % de la población en Cuba la padece. En el anciano es una enfermedad subdiagnosticada y subtratada y por lo general confundida con la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, por lo que reviste gran importancia su conocimiento para poder evaluar las peculiaridades presentes en los ancianos y de esta manera combatir esta afección de manera eficaz, y así favorecer la calidad de vida del asmático de la tercera edad.

  5. Asma de difícil control en niños y adolescentes: Estrategias diagnóstico-terapéuticas Poorly controlled asthma: diagnosis and therapeutics in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Neffen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El asma es una de las enfermedades crónicas más frecuentes en los niños. Si bien la mayoría de los niños con asma responden a bajas dosis de corticoides inhalados y/o antagonistas del receptor de leucotrienos, algunos de ellos permanecen sintomáticos independientemente de cualquier esfuerzo terapéutico, presentando una elevada morbilidad e inclusive mortalidad. Aunque la mayoría de los pacientes controlan los síntomas de forma adecuada, existe un grupo importante que presenta síntomas graves de la enfermedad difíciles de controlar (ADC. El objetivo de la presente revisión es discutir los aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos del ACD en los menores de 18 años y su implicancia en la práctica clínica diaria.Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. While most children with asthma respond to low doses of inhaled corticosteroids and /or leukotriene receptor antagonists, some of them remain symptomatic regardless of any therapeutic effort, showing a high morbidity and even mortality. While most of the patients control symptoms adequately, there is a large group with severe symptoms of the disease and difficult to control. The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment of poorly controlled asthma in children and adolescents and its implications in daily clinical practice.

  6. Intermolecular charge flux as the origin of infrared intensity enhancement upon halogen-bond formation of the peptide group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Hajime

    2010-07-01

    The changes in the vibrational properties of the peptide group upon formation of O⋯X and N⋯X halogen bonds are studied theoretically. Calculations are carried out for complexes of N-methylacetamide (NMA), a well known model molecule of the peptide group, with halogen-containing molecules. For comparison, calculations are also carried out for some NMA-water hydrogen-bonding complexes. It is shown that the infrared (IR) intensity of the amide I mode of the peptide group is enhanced significantly (up to about 520 km mol-1 or 2.6 times) upon CO⋯X halogen-bond formation, in spite of rather modest magnitudes of the intermolecular electric field and of the changes in the CO bond length and in the amide I vibrational frequency as compared with the cases of the CO⋯H(D) hydrogen bonding. From the analysis of the changes in the dipole derivative and in the electronic structure, it is shown that this IR intensity enhancement arises from the intermolecular charge flux. For the N⋯X halogen bonding complexes, some characteristic changes in the vibrational properties are seen, among which the IR intensity enhancement of the ND out-of-plane wagging mode is most notable. The reason why such large IR intensity enhancements are seen for these particular vibrational modes is examined.

  7. Group additive values for the gas-phase standard enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity of oxygenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Paschalis D; Sabbe, Maarten K; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Papayannakos, Nikos; Marin, Guy B

    2013-11-25

    A complete and consistent set of 60 Benson group additive values (GAVs) for oxygenate molecules and 97 GAVs for oxygenate radicals is provided, which allow to describe their standard enthalpies of formation, entropies and heat capacities. Approximately half of the GAVs for oxygenate molecules and the majority of the GAVs for oxygenate radicals have not been reported before. The values are derived from an extensive and accurate database of thermochemical data obtained by ab initio calculations at the CBS-QB3 level of theory for 202 molecules and 248 radicals. These compounds include saturated and unsaturated, α- and β-branched, mono- and bifunctional oxygenates. Internal rotations were accounted for by using one-dimensional hindered rotor corrections. The accuracy of the database was further improved by adding bond additive corrections to the CBS-QB3 standard enthalpies of formation. Furthermore, 14 corrections for non-nearest-neighbor interactions (NNI) were introduced for molecules and 12 for radicals. The validity of the constructed group additive model was established by comparing the predicted values with both ab initio calculated values and experimental data for oxygenates and oxygenate radicals. The group additive method predicts standard enthalpies of formation, entropies, and heat capacities with chemical accuracy, respectively, within 4 kJ mol(-1) and 4 J mol(-1) K(-1) for both ab initio calculated and experimental values. As an alternative, the hydrogen bond increment (HBI) method developed by Lay et al. (T. H. Lay, J. W. Bozzelli, A. M. Dean, E. R. Ritter, J. Phys. Chem.- 1995, 99, 14514) was used to introduce 77 new HBI structures and to calculate their thermodynamic parameters (Δ(f)H°, S°, C(p)°). The GAVs reported in this work can be reliably used for the prediction of thermochemical data for large oxygenate compounds, combining rapid prediction with wide-ranging application.

  8. NGC 6845: metallicity gradients and star formation in a complex compact group

    CERN Document Server

    Olave-Rojas, D; Carrasco, E R; de Oliveira, C Mendes; de Mello, D F; Scarano, S

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained Gemini/GMOS spectra of 28 regions located across the interacting group NGC 6845, spanning from the inner regions of the four major galaxies (NGC 6845A, B, C, D) to the tidal tails of NGC 6845A. All regions in the tails are star-forming objects with ages younger than 10 Myr. We derived the gas-phase metallicity gradients across NGC 6845A and its two tails and we find that these are shallower than those for isolated galaxies. NGC 6845A has a gas-phase oxygen central metallicity of \\mbox{12+log(O/H)$\\sim$8.5} and a flat gas-phase metallicity gradient ($\\beta$=0.002$\\pm$0.004 dex kpc$^{-1}$) out to $\\sim$4 $\\times$ R$_{25}$ (to the end of the longest tidal tail). Considering the mass-metallicity relation, the central region of NGC 6845A displays a lower oxygen abundance than the expected for its mass. Taking into account this fact and considering the flat oxygen distribution measured along the eastern tidal tail, we suggest that an interaction event has produced a dilution in the central metallic...

  9. Effectiveness of Making Alcoholics Anonymous Easier: a group format 12-step facilitation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Subbaraman, Meenakshi S; Witbrodt, Jane; Zemore, Sarah E

    2009-10-01

    Most treatment programs recommend clients attend 12-step groups, but many drop out posttreatment. The effectiveness of Making Alcoholics Anonymous [AA] Easier (MAAEZ ), a manual-guided intervention designed to help clients connect with individuals encountered in AA, was tested using an "OFF/ON" design (n = 508). MAAEZ effectiveness was determined by comparing abstinence rates of participants recruited during ON and OFF conditions and by studying the effect of the number of MAAEZ sessions attended. At 12 months, more clients in the ON condition (vs. OFF) reported past 30-day abstinence from alcohol (p = .012), drugs (p = .009), and both alcohol and drugs (p = .045). In multivariate analyses, ON condition participants had significantly increased odds of abstinence from alcohol (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85) and from drugs (OR = 2.21); abstinence odds also increased significantly for each additional MAAEZ session received. MAAEZ appeared especially effective for those with more prior AA exposure, severe psychiatric problems, and atheists/agnostics. MAAEZ represents an evidence-based intervention that is easily implemented in existing treatment programs.

  10. ABO (histo) blood group phenotype development and human reproduction as they relate to ancestral IgM formation: A hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a histo (blood) group) ABO phenotype and the exclusion of an autoreactive IgM or isoagglutinin activity arise apparently in identical glycosylation of complementary domains on cell surfaces and plasma proteins. The fundamental O-glycan emptiness of the circulating IgM, which during the neonatal amino acid sequencing of the variable regions is exerting germline-specific O-GalNAc glycan-reactive serine/threonine residues that in the plasma of the adult human blood group O individuals apparently remain associated with the open glycosidic sites on the ABOH convertible red cell surface, must raise suggestions on a transient expression of developmental glycans, which have been "lost" over the course of maturation. In fact, while the mammalian non-somatic, embryogenic stem cell (ESC)- germ cell (GC) transformation is characterized by a transient and genetically as-yet-undefined trans-species-functional O-GalNAc glycan expression, in the C57BL/10 mouse such expression was potentially identified in growth-dependent, blood group A-like GalNAc glycan-bearing, ovarian glycolipids complementary with the syngeneic anti-A reactive IgM, which does not appear in early ovariectomized animals. This non-somatically encoded, polyreactive, ancestral IgM molecule has not undergone clonal selection and does primarily not differentiate between self and non-self and might, due to amino acid hydroxyl groups, highly suggest substrate competition with subsequent O-glycosylations in ongoing ESC-GC transformations and affecting GC maturation. However, the membrane-bound somatic N/O-glycotransferases, which initiate, after formation of the zygote, the complex construction of the human ABO phenotypes in the trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, are associated and/or completed with soluble enzyme versions exerting identical specificities in plasma and likely competing vice versa by glycosylation of neonatal IgM amino acids, where they suggest to accomplish the clearance of anti

  11. The Pan-STARRS1 Medium-deep Survey: Star Formation Quenching in Group and Cluster Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hung-Yu; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Kai-Yang; Foucaud, Sebastien; Chen, Chin-Wei; Chiueh, Tzihong; Bower, R. G.; Cole, Shaun; Chen, Wen-Ping; Burgett, W. S.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2017-08-01

    We make use of a catalog of 1600 Pan-STARRS1 groups produced by the probability friends-of-friends algorithm to explore how the galaxy properties, i.e., the specific star formation rate (SSFR) and quiescent fraction, depend on stellar mass and group-centric radius. The work is the extension of Lin et al. In this work, powered by a stacking technique plus a background subtraction for contamination removal, a finer correction and more precise results are obtained than in our previous work. We find that while the quiescent fraction increases with decreasing group-centric radius, the median SSFRs of star-forming galaxies in groups at fixed stellar mass drop slightly from the field toward the group center. This suggests that the main quenching process in groups is likely a fast mechanism. On the other hand, a reduction in SSFRs by ˜0.2 dex is seen inside clusters as opposed to the field galaxies. If the reduction is attributed to the slow quenching effect, the slow quenching process acts dominantly in clusters. In addition, we also examine the density-color relation, where the density is defined by using a sixth-nearest-neighbor approach. Comparing the quiescent fractions contributed from the density and radial effect, we find that the density effect dominates the massive group or cluster galaxies, and the radial effect becomes more effective in less massive galaxies. The results support mergers and/or starvation as the main quenching mechanisms in the group environment, while harassment and/or starvation dominate in clusters.

  12. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  13. Coacervate formation from natural glycolipid: one acetyl group on the headgroup triggers coacervate-to-vesicle transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, T; Yanagishita, H; Kitamoto, D

    2004-09-01

    Coacervate (L3 phase) formation of the single component "natural" glycoliped biosurfactant, MEL-A, was observed for the first time by using an optical microscope, a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), and a freeze-fracture electron microscope (FF-TEM). It was also found that only a slight decrease in spontaneous curvature resulting from the absence of one acetyl group on the headgroup induced a drastic morphological change in the 3D self-assembled structure from coacervates (L3 phase) to ordered vesicles (Lalpha phase).

  14. FISSION-TRACK DATING OF A TEPHRA LAYER IN THE ALAT FORMATION OF THE DANDIERO GROUP (DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Attempts to date a biotite separate from a tephra layer recognized near Buia (Danakil Depression, Eritrea) in the liwer part of the Homo remains – bearing Dandiero group (formerly attributed to the Danakil Formation) using the 39Ar/40Ar method failed because of xenocrystic contamination. For this reason it was applied the fission-track method on glass, since no other phases datable with this technique were present. The quality of glass was very poor for fission-track dating, because of the sm...

  15. [Prognostic assessment for formation of a group of cardiovascular high risk among personnel participating in atomic submarines utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosiukin, A E; Vasiliuk, V B; Ivanchenko, A V; Saenko, S A; Semenchuk, O A; Dokhov, M A; Verveda, A B

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound scanning of main vessels (common carotid, internal carotid, common and superficial femoral, posterior tibial arteries) in staffers of shipyard "Nerpa"--branch of JSC "Shipbuilding center Zvezdochka" (Snezhnogorsk city Murmansk region)--engaged into atomic submarines utilization. Findings are atherosclerotic changes in common carotid and common femoral arteries--increased thickness of intima-media complex over the reference values or atherosclerotic plaque formation. The changes were maximal in a group of males aged over 50 with length of service over 25 years. Discriminant analysis helped to suggest a mathematic model to forecast cardiovascular diseases in personnel of "Nerpa" shipyard.

  16. SENTIDOS MÚLTIPLOS DE REPRESENTAÇÕES SOCIAIS ENTRE ADULTOS-IDOSOS ACERCA DA ASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenna Madureira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Compreender as representações sociais, interesse e experiência com grupos educativos idosos com asma. Método: É um estudo qualitativo, com base na Teoria das Representações Sociais e a TNC. Resultados: A representação social da saúde é vista como forma positiva diante de uma boa ação para viver. Sobre a doença, há significado negativo ligando-o com o cotidiano de usuários e da falta de atenção de saúde para doenças crônicas. O autocuidado com a asma está ligado à memória biomédica e hibridismo, quando utiliza o conhecimento das culturas de locais usando remédios fitoterápicos. As experiências e interesses com grupos educativos é uma realidade distante nas áreas pesquisadas. Conclusão: É necessário o incentivo de atividades de grupos educativos em saúde. Um dos destaques da iniciativa é a criação de salas reservadas para os benefícios do grupo relacionados à educação em saúde. As pessoas estão interessadas para atender a prevenção de doenças crônicas e compartilhá-lo.

  17. La relación entre el asma y la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Solano-Ortiz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Asma y enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC son enfermedades pulmonares comunes con semejanzas y diferencias. Estudios genéticos recientes han dado información importante acerca de los múltiples loci susceptibles para cada enfermedad. Estudios del genoma han mostrado resultados similares en al menos una región cromosomal en ambas enfermedades, así como también evidencia de la interacción con factores ambientales (por ejemplo, el fumado activo en los pacientes con EPOC, o el pasivo en aquellos con asma. Existen pocos estudios recientes acerca del remodelamiento de la vía aérea y su importancia en pacientes asmáticos persistentes crónicos, lo que podría explicar de cierta forma la progresión de estas personas a enfermedades pulmonares obstructivas crónicas.Asthma and COPD are common pulmonary diseases with similarities and differences. Recent genetic studies have given important information about multiple susceptible loci for both diseases. Studies of the genome have showed similar results in at least a chromosomal region in both diseases and demonstrate the interaction the environmental factors (for example, active smoking in the patients with COPD, or passive smoking in those with asthma. Currently there are few recent studies about airway remodelling and its importance in chronic persistent asthmatic patients, this might explain in some way the progression of these persons to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.

  18. Exemplos brasileiros de programas de controle de asma Brazilian examples of programs for the control of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcindo Cerci Neto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi o de determinar quais são os programas brasileiros que apresentam experiência no manejo da asma. As informações sobre os programas e suas características foram obtidas via correio eletrônico. As variáveis analisadas eram relacionadas aos asmáticos, ao próprio programa e aos profissionais envolvidos. Utilizou-se a estatística descritiva. Foram analisados 17 programas. Todos os programas possuíam financiamento público, produção de materiais informativos e de treinamento e presença de médico especialista. Concluiu-se que a experiência acumulada em todos os programas pode ser utilizada como um dos pilares para a consolidação de um programa nacional de controle da asma.The aim of this study was to determine which Brazilian programs demonstrate experience in asthma management. Data on and characteristics of those programs were obtained by electronic mail. The variables studied were related to the program itself, its patients and staff. Descriptive statistics were used in the study, which evaluated 17 programs. All programs received public funding, produced educational/training materials and had specialized physicians on staff. We concluded that the experience accumulated by all the programs can be used as one of the pillars of a national program for the control of asthma in Brazil.

  19. Asma y alergia por el colorante carmín Asthma and allergy due to carmine dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Tabar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El carmín de cochinilla o simplemente carmín (E120 es un colorante rojo que se obtiene de las hembras desecadas del insecto Dactylopius coccus Costa (cochinilla. Hemos evaluado la prevalencia de sensibilización y asma por carmín en una fábrica de colorantes naturales tras diagnosticar dos de sus trabajadores de asma ocupacional. La incidencia acumulada de sensibilización y asma ocupacional por carmín en nuestra fábrica es de 48,1% y 18,5% respectivamente, datos que obligan a implantar medidas de prevención. El asma ocupacional causado por inhalación de carmín debe considerarse como un ejemplo más de la capacidad que tienen ciertas partículas proteicas de artrópodos (en este caso las cochinillas de actuar como aeroalergenos . El carmín debe añadirse a la lista de agentes capaces de producir asma ocupacional, cuyo mecanismo, según nuestros estudios, sería inmunológico mediado por anticuerpos IgE frente a diversos alergenos de alto peso molecular, que pueden variar de un paciente a otro. No obstante, dada la existencia de diferentes componentes en el carmín, no puede descartarse la posibilidad de que sustancias de bajo peso molecular, como el ácido carmínico, puedan actuar como haptenos. Además, al tratarse de un colorante ampliamente utilizado como aditivo alimentario, como excipiente farmacéutico y en la composición de numerosos cosméticos, no es de extrañar que puedan aparecer reacciones alérgicas tanto por su ingestión como por el contacto cutáneo directo. Nos encontramos, ante un nuevo ejemplo de un alergeno que puede actuar tanto por vía inhalatoria como digestiva, dando lugar a un síndrome alergológico que puede presentarse clínicamente con manifestaciones tanto de alergia respiratoria como alimentaria.Cochineal carmine, or simply carmine (E120, is a red colouring that is obtained from the dried bodies of the female insect Dactylopius Coccus Costa (the cochineal insect. We have evaluated the prevalence of

  20. Adolescência e manejo da asma: a perspectiva dos assistidos na atenção primária à saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conhecer a influência das características da fase da adolescência no manejo da asma. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa realizado no município de Divinópolis, região centro-oeste de Minas Gerais. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas orientadas por um roteiro de perguntas junto a sete adolescentes asmáticos atendidos na rede de atenção primária à saúde municipal. Resultados: Por meio da análise de conteúdo na modalidade temática foram construídas três categorias analíticas: 1 As relações familiares no tratamento da asma na adolescência; 2 O adolescente asmático e seu grupo; e 3 O papel da escola junto aos adolescentes asmáticos. Conclusões: Os resultados mostraram que o grupo de pares, a família e a escola devem ser mais valorizados pelos profissionais e pelos serviços de saúde, pois essas instâncias se relacionam intimamente com o adolescente e têm papéis importantes no tratamento da asma. A tentativa de atender às demandas do adolescente contribui para a melhoria do manejo da asma.

  1. Doubts about the crucial role of the rising-tube mechanism in the formation of sunspot groups

    CERN Document Server

    Getling, A V; Buchnev, A A

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary processing results are presented for a dataset obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. The idea of the project is to record, nearly simultaneously, the full velocity and magnetic-field vectors in growing active regions and sunspot groups at a photospheric level and distinguish between the manifestations of two mechanisms of sunspot-group formation --- the rising of an flux tube of a strong magnetic field and the in situ amplification and structuring of magnetic field by convection. A young bipolar subregion developing within AR 11313 was observed on 9--10 October 2011. Filtergrams and Dopplergrams were obtained, and one or two spectropolarimetric fast-mode scans were done. Based on the series of filtergrams, the trajectories of corks are computed, using a technique similar to but more reliable than local correlation tracking, and compared with the magnetic maps. Currently, only the vertical magnetic field and the horizontal flows are used for a qualitative analysis. The ...

  2. Substrate selective patterning on lithography defined gold on silica: Effect of end-group functionality on intermolecular layer formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergkvist, Magnus; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Strickland, Aaron D.; Batt, Carl A.

    2008-06-01

    An increasing number of applications in nanobiotechnology and other areas call for defined regions of different chemical functionality to achieve site-specific attachment while minimizing any unwanted surface interactions. In order to generate spatially defined chemical patterns on planar surfaces, standard nanofabrication methods are typically employed. However, when incorporating biological and chemical molecules into complex nanofabricated structures the micro/nanofabrication methods needed are often incompatible with the standard approaches used to achieve chemical patterning. An alternative strategy is to use substrate selective patterning (SSP) where two different organic molecules each have a specific affinity to a particular substrate material via a surface anchoring group. Here we use imaging ellipsometry, an ideally suited technique for measuring monolayer films on patterned substrates, and infrared spectroscopy to investigate SSP of alkanethiols with hydrophilic/hydrophobic moieties in combination with a methoxypolyethylenoxypropyltrichlorosilane reagent (mPEGTCS) on patterned gold on native silicon oxide substrates. One central aspect of SSP that was investigated was the cross-reactivity between the various substrate specific molecules, which can cause multilayer formation. Results showed that when the mPEGTCS reagent was used subsequently after formation of hydrophilic self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers (SAMs), there was an additional layer build-up of silane. No multilayer formation was observed for a hydrophobic alkanethiol SAM. SSP can be a practical method to effectively create localized functional chemistry on spatially defined nanofabricated devices.

  3. Mortalidade por asma em crianças brasileiras de até 19 anos de idade no período entre 1980 a 2007

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    Silvio O. M. Prietsch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a tendência de mortalidade por asma em crianças brasileiras de até 19 anos de idade no período de 1980 a 2007. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo ecológico, de séries temporais, baseado em banco de dados do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, do qual foi extraído o número de óbitos por asma e a população residente de até 19 anos de idade no país como um todo. O coeficiente de mortalidade foi calculado pelo número de óbitos por asma dividido pela população, multiplicando por 100.000. Utilizou-se o teste de regressão linear para avaliar a tendência temporal de mortalidade. Para a análise, estudaram-se separadamente três grupos etários: 1 a 4 anos, 5 a 9 anos e 10 a 19 anos. RESULTADOS: No período estudado, ocorreram 9.051 óbitos por asma no Brasil em menores de 19 anos. Destes, 69% (6.270 registros foram de menores de 5 anos. Observou-se um decréscimo significativo de mortalidade por asma no período em todos os grupos etários. A redução média anual do coeficiente de mortalidade por asma em crianças foi de 0,022 (p < 0,0001. De 1 a 4 anos foi de 0,076, de 5 a 9 anos foi de 0,005, e de 10 a 19 anos foi de 0,004 (p < 0,0001. CONCLUSÃO: A mortalidade por asma em crianças é baixa e mantém a tendência de queda no período estudado em todas as faixas etárias pediátricas.

  4. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  5. Siderophile element systematics of IAB complex iron meteorites: New insights into the formation of an enigmatic group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Emily A.; Bermingham, Katherine R.; Walker, Richard J.

    2016-09-01

    Siderophile trace element abundances and the 187Re-187Os isotopic systematics of the metal phases of 58 IAB complex iron meteorites were determined in order to investigate formation processes and how meteorites within chemical subgroups may be related. Close adherence of 187Re-187Os isotopic data of most IAB iron meteorites to a primordial isochron indicates that the siderophile elements of most members of the complex remained closed to elemental disturbance soon after formation. Minor, presumably late-stage open-system behavior, however, is observed in some members of the sLM, sLH, sHL, and sHH subgroups. The new siderophile element abundance data are consistent with the findings of prior studies suggesting that the IAB subgroups cannot be related to one another by any known crystallization process. Equilibrium crystallization, coupled with crystal segregation, solid-liquid mixing, and subsequent fractional crystallization can account for the siderophile element variations among meteorites within the IAB main group (MG). The data for the sLM subgroup are consistent with equilibrium crystallization, combined with crystal segregation and mixing. By contrast, the limited fractionation of siderophile elements within the sLL subgroup is consistent with metal extraction from a chondritic source with little subsequent processing. The limited data for the other subgroups were insufficient to draw robust conclusions about crystallization processes involved in their formation. Collectively, multiple formational processes are represented in the IAB complex, and modeling results suggest that fractional crystallization within the MG may have been a more significant process than has been previously recognized.

  6. Clinical advances on Bronchial Asthma. Changing perceptions. Avances clínicos en asma bronquial

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    Dianelis Sierra Martínez

    Full Text Available Bronchial Asthma brepresents an important health problem worlwide due to the increment of its incidence in the last years. The general mortality is low in regard to morbidity but it could be potencially lethal. It is consider a frequent disease in our country when it is found in patients older than 15 years old and female sex is more prevalent than the male one. It has influence upon not only the ill person but also in the family ad society. The sanitary education is an important aspect for the correct control of sick patients. Within the following paper it is our intention to update the knowledge about this disease through a bibliographic revision. Epidemiology, physiopathology, classification, complementary explorations, as well as the factors that must be paid attention on its treatment are found among the processed aspects, all which will serve for consultation not only for students but also for professionals of the medical science branch.
    El asma bronquial representa un importante problema de salud en todo el mundo, pues su incidencia se ha incrementado en los últimos tiempos. La mortalidad general es baja en relación a la morbilidad, pero puede ser potencialmente mortal. En nuestro país se considera una enfermedad frecuente, posterior a los 15 años y hay predominio del sexo femenino. Repercute no sólo en el enfermo sino tambien en la familia y en la sociedad. La educación sanitaria es un aspecto importante para el correcto control de los enfermos. Con el presente trabajo se pretende actualizar los conocimientos acerca de esta enfermedad, a través de una revisión bibliográfica. Entre los aspectos tratados se encuentran: la epidemiología, la fisiopatología, la clasificación, las exploraciones complementarias, así como los factores que deben ser atendidos en su tratamiento, todo lo cual servirá para consulta de estudiantes y profesionales de las ciencias médicas.

  7. Remodelamento brônquico na asma Bronchial remodeling in asthma

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    THAIS MAUAD

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available É sabido que certos pacientes asmáticos apresentam perda parcial e irreversível da função respiratória ao longo do tempo. Postula-se que o processo inflamatório crônico em vias aéreas, característico da doença, poderia, através da liberação de diversos mediadores inflamatórios, ocasionar alterações estruturais irreversíveis nas vias aéreas e conseqüente piora da broncoconstrição, contribuindo assim para o fenômeno de perda de função pulmonar. A este processo creditou-se o nome de remodelamento brônquico. Nesta revisão descrevem-se os mecanismos propostos para o remodelamento brônquico, o papel dos diversos mediadores inflamatórios envolvidos e as diversas alterações patológicas observadas em vias aéreas asmáticas. Para cada alteração estrutural descrita, discute-se a possível conseqüência funcional. O entendimento do remodelamento brônquico é importante para o melhor manejo dos pacientes com asma e para a prevenção da deterioração funcional definitiva.The relationship between structure and function in asthma has been extensively studied. All the compartments of the airway have been shown to have some structural alterations contributing to functional defects. The structural alterations are thought to be a consequence of the chronic inflammation present in asthmatic airways, leading ultimately to remodeling. The decline of the ventilatory function over time in some asthmatic patients may be a consequence of airway remodeling. In this review, the authors describe the phenomena leading to airway remodeling and discuss the role of inflammatory mediators involved in this process. The structural alterations of the asthmatic airways are presented and the possible correlated functional defects are discussed.

  8. Personality, Parasites, Political Attitudes, and Cooperation: A Model of How Infection Prevalence Influences Openness and Social Group Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Fincher, Corey L; Walasek, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    What is the origin of individual differences in ideology and personality? According to the parasite stress hypothesis, the structure of a society and the values of individuals within it are both influenced by the prevalence of infectious disease within the society's geographical region. High levels of infection threat are associated with more ethnocentric and collectivist social structures and greater adherence to social norms, as well as with socially conservative political ideology and less open but more conscientious personalities. Here we use an agent-based model to explore a specific opportunities-parasites trade-off (OPTO) hypothesis, according to which utility-maximizing agents place themselves at an optimal point on a trade-off between (a) the gains that may be achieved through accessing the resources of geographically or socially distant out-group members through openness to out-group interaction, and (b) the losses arising due to consequently increased risks of exotic infection to which immunity has not been developed. We examine the evolution of cooperation and the formation of social groups within social networks, and we show that the groups that spontaneously form exhibit greater local rather than global cooperative networks when levels of infection are high. It is suggested that the OPTO model offers a first step toward understanding the specific mechanisms through which environmental conditions may influence cognition, ideology, personality, and social organization. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Topics in Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  9. Star formation in the intragroup medium and other diagnostics of the evolutionary stages of compact groups of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Flores, S; De Mello, D F; Amram, P; Plana, H; Epinat, B; Iglesias-Páramo, J

    2009-01-01

    Context: Compact groups of galaxies are entities that have high densities of galaxies and serve as laboratories to study galaxy interactions, intergalactic star formation and galaxy evolution. Aims: The main goal of this study is to search for young objects in the intragroup medium of seven compact groups of galaxies: HCG 2, 7, 22, 23, 92, 100 and NGC 92 as well as to evaluate the stage of interaction of each group. Methods: We used Fabry-Perot velocity fields and rotation curves together with GALEX NUV and FUV images and optical R-band and HI maps. Results: (i) HCG 7 and HCG 23 are in early stages of interaction, (ii) HCG 2 and HCG 22 are mildly interacting, and (iii) HCG 92, HCG 100 and NGC 92 are in late stages of evolution. We find that all three evolved groups contain populations of young blue objects in the intragroup medium, consistent with ages < 100 Myr, of which several are younger than < 10 Myr. We also report the discovery of a tidal dwarf galaxy candidate in the tail of NGC 92. These three ...

  10. Severidad y nivel de control del asma bronquial en la población pediátrica de Yamanigüey. Moa

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    Alexander Torres Molina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el asma bronquial constituye la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en la infancia. Se estratifica desde el punto de vista clínico-epidemiológico según el grado de severidad y se aboga por su clasificación en cuanto al nivel de control. Objetivo: caracterizar pacientes asmáticos de dos a diecisiete años de edad utilizando como parámetros el grado de severidad y el nivel de control. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y transversal que incluyó 88 niños y adolescentes asmáticos del poblado Yamanigüey en Moa, en el periodo enero-diciembre del 2010, en los cuales se identificaron diferentes variables clínicas y demográficas. Resultados: el 28,02 % de la población infantil padece de asma bronquial. El 53,41 % de los pacientes pertenece al sexo femenino y el 39,78 % tiene entre 14-17 años de edad. Solo tres casos (3,41 % padecen asma severa persistente y son también los no controlados. El 100 % de los pacientes con asma severa persistente y moderada persistente no están controlados o están parcialmente controlados. Conclusiones: predominaron los pacientes con asma intermitente y ligera persistente. Existió relación entre la severidad de la enfermedad y su grado de control.

  11. Prevalencia de rinitis alérgica en pacientes pediátricos que acuden al servicio de emergencia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia por crisis de asma

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    Julio Enrique Perez Lu

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia de rinitis alérgica (RA en los niños que acuden por crisis de asma a la de Emergencia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Determinar la prevalencia de cuadro activo de rinitis y de pacientes con diagnóstico previo de RA en el grupo de estudio. Material y Método: Es un estudio transversal, descriptivo. El tamaño muestral fue de 164 niños (a = 95%; b= 5%. Se realizó un cuestionario mediante una entrevista directa a los padres para encontrar síntomas de RA y síntomas nasales agudos. Se empleó un cuestionario estandarizado internacionalmente y utilizado en un estudio epidemiológico en nuestro medio. Resultados: Ingresaron 169 niños de 2 a 14 años, que acudieron por crisis de asma a la sala de Emergencia del HNCH, entre marzo y junio de 2002. La edad promedio fue de 7 años. El 59% fueron asmáticos moderados, con un puntaje clínico promedio de crisis de ASMA de 5.2. El 82.8% de los pacientes tuvieron síntomas nasales en el momento que acudieron al hospital. El 83.4% presentaron síntomas nasales en los últimos 12 meses, no asociados a resfrío o gripe. Se encontró una prevalencia de RA de 54.4%. El 10.7% tuvieron diagnóstico previo de RA, siendo un valor menor al esperado. Conclusión: La coexistencia de RA y asma es frecuente en nuestro medio. Es necesario reconocerla para un mejor manejo. Hay una falta de conocimiento e información de los padres sobre esta alergia y su relación con el asma. ( Rev Med Hered 2003; 14:111-116 .

  12. Avaliação do crescimento linear de crianças e adolescentes com asma Linear growth evaluation of asthmatic children

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    MARIA ÂNGELA G. MONTEIRO-ANTONIO

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a influência da asma atópica sobre a estatura e a velocidade de crescimento em crianças e adolescentes brasileiros, considerando as condições socioeconômicas, a história natural da doença e o crescimento individual. MÉTODOS: Foram acompanhados 66 pacientes do Ambulatório de Imunologia, Alergia e Pneumologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (HC/Unicamp, com idade entre 4 e 14 anos completos. A altura foi medida ao início do estudo e a cada três meses, e a idade óssea realizada uma vez durante o período de observação. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o desenvolvimento puberal: pré-púbere e púbere. RESULTADOS: Nos 40 pacientes do grupo pré-púbere, com seguimento de 0,5 - 1,3 anos, a média dos escores z da altura/idade foi 0,028±0,978 e a da velocidade de crescimento foi 0,045±1,110. Os 26 pacientes do grupo púbere, com seguimento de 0,6 - 1,5 anos, tiveram a média dos escores z da altura/idade de -0,170±1,209 e a da velocidade de crescimento de -0,042±2,321. No grupo pré-púbere, os pacientes que tiveram uma ou mais pneumonias, apresentaram menor média do escore z da velocidade de crescimento (p=0,04, enquanto nos pacientes púberes, o mesmo se observou em relação ao uso de corticosteróides em dose alta (p=0,02. CONCLUSÕES: O manejo correto da asma, associado ao controle das infecções e à condições de vida favoráveis, permitem que as crianças e adolescentes cresçam normalmente, atingindo seu potencial genético pleno.OBJETIVE: The aim was to assess the effect of atopic asthma on the stature and growth velocity of Brazilian adolescents and children, taking into consideration their socioeconomic conditions, natural disease history and individual growth .METHODS: 66 patients had been seen at the Pneumology, Immunology and Allergy Ambulatory, Unicamp, University Hospital. Their height and weight were measured every 3 months and the bone

  13. Investigations of the Temperature Influence on Formation of Compounds from the BTEX Group During the Thermal Decomposition of Furan Resin

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    M. Kubecki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic binders applied in foundry plants based on synthetic resins, from the one side influence obtaining the required technological properties by the moulding sand and - in consequence - obtaining good quality castings, and on the other side are the source of volatile organic compounds (VOC. Together with synthetic resins their hardeners, which although added in very small amounts emit during their thermal decomposition substances negatively influencing the natural environment, are also used. Both, resins and hardeners only at the influence of high temperatures accompanying moulds pouring with liquid metal generate harmful volatile organic compounds including compounds from the BTEX group. Investigations of the temperature influence on the kind and amount of organic compounds formed during the thermal decomposition of selected binders and hardeners and their mixtures allow to determine temperature ranges the most favourable for emitting harmful substances as well as to compare their emission from the selected materials. The aim of this study was the determination the temperature influence on formation substances from the BTEX group, during thermal decomposition of the selected binder, its hardener and their mixture. The BTEX group emission constitutes one of the basic criteria in assessing the harmfulness of materials applied for moulding and core sands and it can undergo changes in dependence of the applied system resin-hardener. Investigations were carried out on the specially developed system for the thermal decomposition of organic substances in the temperature range: 500ºC - 1300ºC, at the laboratory scale. The investigations subject was the furan resin, its hardener and hardened furan resin. The assessment of the emission degree of the BTEX group in dependence of the system subjected to the temperature influence was performed, within the studies. The temperature range, in which maximal amounts of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and

  14. Delivering a very brief psychoeducational program to cancer patients and family members in a large group format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A J; Edmonds, C V; Williams, D

    1999-01-01

    It is well established that brief psychoeducational programs for cancer patients will significantly improve mean quality of life. As this kind of adjunctive treatment becomes integrated into general cancer management, it will be necessary to devise cost-effective and efficacious programs that can be offered to relatively large numbers of patients. We have developed a very brief 4-session program that provides this service to 40-80 patients and family members per month (and seems capable of serving much larger numbers, depending on the capacity of the facility in which they assemble). Patients meet in a hospital auditorium for a large group, lecture-style program that offers training in basic coping skills: stress management, relaxation training, thought monitoring and changing, mental imagery and goal setting. Over the first year we have treated 363 patients and 150 family members. Improvements were assessed by changes in the POMS-Short Form, and both patients and family members were found to improve significantly over the course of the program. While this is not a randomized comparison, it suggests that the benefits gained from a large group in a classroom are not substantially less than the improvements that have been documented in the usual small group format, where more interactive discussions are possible.

  15. Relevancia clínica de la sensibilización a hongos en pacientes con asma bronquial

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    Ingrid Bissinger Nishikuni

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    El asma y la rinitis son enfermedades prevalentes en la población general y la sensibilización a hongos se ha considerado como un factor de riesgo para el asma grave. La mayoría de los trabajos existentes sobre la sensibilización a hongos se han basado en establecer la asociación entre la existencia de dicha sensibilización, demostrada por prueba cutánea (prick test o por la Ig E sérica específica, y la presencia de síntomas asmáticos, sin establecer la relación entre la exposición y los síntomas. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar los siguientes aspectos: la relevancia clínica y la respuesta inflamatoria frente a la exposición a hongos en pacientes asmáticos sensibilizados a estos; la respuesta bronquial secundaria a la provocación nasal en pacientes sensibilizados a hongos; las características de la rinitis y del asma en pacientes con alergia a hongos. Evaluamos a 18 pacientes asmáticos, 9 de ellos sensibilizados a hongos y los otros 9 sensibilizados a alérgenos diferentes, así como a 7 controles sanos. Encontramos que la provocación nasal produce aumento de los síntomas nasales a los 20 minutos de aplicado acompañado de una disminución del óxido nítrico nasal lo que indica mayor obstrucción del complejo ostiomeatal y una disminución del volumen entre los centímetros 2 y 5 en la rinometría acústica. No hubo alteración del VEF 1 (volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo lo que indica que es un procedimiento seguro en asmáticos.

  16. Glucocorticoids in the treatment of asthma in children Los glucocorticoides en el tratamiento del asma en pediatría

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    Olga Francisca Salazar Blanco

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, asthma is considered an inflammatory disease; steroids could be the drugs of choice for its treatment since they work at different points of the asthmatic reaction, decreasing the infiltration of inflammatory cells, and inhibiting the production of some of them and the release of citokines and other proinflammatory agents; they also diminish mucus secretion in the submucosal glands, improve the response of B2 receptors to bronchodilators and reduce vascular permeability. These and other actions manifest themselves in clinical improvement, less frequent acute crises, hospitalizations and consultations, and lesser deterioration of pulmonary function. Though inhaled corticosteroids are safe and effective drugs in children, they must be used at minimal doses and during the shortest time required by patients. Inadequate use of systemic corticosteroids, either oral or parenteral, can have undesirable effects, some of them irreversible. Corticosteroids neither cure asthma nor reduce its mortality; that is the reason for the active search of other substances or strategies to reduce or block the inflammatory process or the disease itself. El asma se considera hoy una enfermedad inflamatoria para la cual los esteroides podrían ser fármacos de primera elección. Ellos actúan en diferentes puntos de la reacción asmática, disminuyen el infiltrado de células inflamatorias e inhiben la producción de algunas de ellas, así como la liberación de citoquinas y agentes proinflamatorios; reducen la secreción de moco en las glándulas submucosas, mejoran la respuesta de los receptores 82 a los broncodilatadores y controlan la permeabilidad vascular; éstas y otras acciones se traducen en una mejoría clínica de los pacientes que sufren crisis agudas, en disminución del número de hospitalizaciones y consultas y, a largo plazo, en un menor deterioro de la función pulmonar. Los esteroides por vía inhalatoria para el tratamiento del asma son f

  17. A asma e a DPOC na visão do pneumologista Asthma and COPD according to the pulmonologist

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    Hisbello da Silva Campos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar como o pneumologista vê o impacto da asma e da DPOC na sua clientela, e como ele vem tratando essas doenças. MÉTODOS: Inquérito com 227 pneumologistas participantes do VI Congresso de Asma e II Congressos Brasileiros de DPOC e de Tabagismo, realizados em 2007. RESULTADOS: As respostas dos pneumologistas mostraram que a DPOC é um problema de saúde pública igual ou maior que a asma, e que a DPOC causa inúmeros transtornos para o doente e para seus familiares. Na escolha do dispositivo inalatório, a simplicidade de uso é mais importante que o custo, havendo discreta predileção pelos sistemas Aeroliser® e Diskus®. A associação entre budesonida e formoterol foi a conduta terapêutica mais citada para o tratamento continuado do asmático sintomático, enquanto o brometo de tiotrópio foi o medicamento preferido pela maior parte para o tratamento continuado do portador de DPOC. A escolha do esquema para o tratamento continuado do asmático e do portador de DPOC é especialmente influenciada pela publicação de resultados de ensaios terapêuticos na literatura. CONCLUSÕES: A opinião do pneumologista sobre os temas abordados está de acordo com a literatura especializada.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how pulmonologists view the impact that asthma and COPD has on their patients, as well as how they treat these diseases. METHODS: Survey including 227 pulmonologists participating in the VI Brazilian Asthma Conference, II Brazilian COPD Conference and II Brazilian Smoking Conference, all of which were held in 2007. RESULTS: According to the answers given by the pulmonologists, COPD is a public health problem of equal or greater importance than asthma, and COPD causes various disruptions in the lives of patients and their family members. When prescribing an inhalation device, pulmonologists feel that simplicity of use is more important than is the cost. There was a slight preference for the Aeroliser® and Diskus® systems. The

  18. Conhecimento e impacto sobre o manejo das crises de pacientes portadores de asma Conocimiento y impacto sobre el manejo de las crisis de los portadores de asma Knowledge and impact on disease management by asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeorge Wagner da Conceição Vieira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A asma é uma patologia crônica caracterizada por episódios recorrentes de obstrução das vias aéreas. O objetivo do estudo consiste em avaliar o conhecimento dos pacientes asmáticos e os possíveis impactos sobre o manejo da doença. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo utilizando entrevista como instrumento. A amostra foi constituída por 30 pacientes asmáticos, que apresentaram crise, seguida de internação em Unidades de Pronto-Atendimento de Coronel Fabriciano, Ipatinga e Timóteo, em junho e julho de 2005. O conhecimento apresentado pelos sujeitos da pesquisa era regular e estava relacionado ao contato prévio com os fatores desencadeantes. Conseqüentemente, o manejo da crise asmática não estava adequado. Esses resultados demonstram a importância do desenvolvimento de ações de educação em asma pelas equipes de saúde.Asma es una patología crónica, que se caracteriza por episodios de obstrucción de las vías aéreas. El objetivo es analizar el conocimiento de los pacientes e los posibles impactos sobre el manejo de la patología. El enfoque metodológico es cualitativo. Los datos se recolectaron mediante entrevistas. La muestra fue de 30 pacientes asmáticos, que presentaran crisis, seguida de internación en Unidad de Emergencia de Coronel Fabriciano, Ipatinga e Timóteo, en junio y julio de 2005. Los resultados mostraron que el conocimiento de los pacientes era regular o insuficiente para prevenir las crisis. El conocimiento se asoció al contacto de los individuos con los factores de riesgo. Es importante un incremento de la educación en salud para los pacientes con asma.Asthma is a disorder characterized by obstruction episodes of the respiratory tract. A qualitative study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of the asthmatic patients and its impact on disease management. The sample size formed by 30 asthmatic patients was directed by the research question and analytical requirements. The data was collected at

  19. Asma induzida pelo exercício: aspectos atuais e recomendações Asma inducido por el ejercicio: aspectos actuales y recomendaciones Exercise-induced asthma: current aspects and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Laitano; Flávia Meyer

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever os mecanismos da asma induzida pelo exercício (AIE), bem como os efeitos de diferentes tipos de treinamento físico na função pulmonar e nas capacidades aeróbia e anaeróbia. Destaca-se a importância de um diagnóstico correto mediante o teste de exercício e, no manejo, o uso de drogas beta-adrenérgicas e anticolinérgicas. FONTE DOS DADOS: Os artigos foram criteriosamente escolhidos utilizando as bases de dados PubMed e Scielo pelo ano de publicação e dando preferência a ensa...

  20. Group IVA phospholipase A2-associated production of MMP-9 in macrophages and formation of atherosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Hiromi; Hontani, Naoya; Toshida, Issei; Oka, Mayuko; Sato, Takashi; Akiba, Satoshi

    2008-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is involved in atherogenesis, and the production of MMP-9 in macrophages is considered to be mediated by the arachidonic acid cascade. The present study examined the possible involvement of group IVA phospholipase A2 (IVA-PLA2), a key enzyme in the arachidonic acid cascade, in the production of MMP-9 induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in macrophages and high-fat diet-induced formation of atherosclerotic lesions using IVA-PLA2-deficient mice (C57BL/6 background). In wild-type mouse peritoneal macrophages, oxLDL induced an increase in MMP-9 in the culture medium. The oxLDL-promoted production of MMP-9 was markedly reduced in IVA-PLA2-deficient macrophages compared to wild-type macrophages. Feeding of wild-type mice with a high-fat diet caused the formation of early atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root with increases in MMP-9 and macrophages in the lesions and with higher serum levels of total cholesterol. Such lesions were apparently less severe in IVA-PLA2-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet, despite higher total cholesterol levels. Under the conditions, a high-fat diet reduced the serum levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in wild-type mice. However, IVA-PLA2-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet were protected against the decrease in HDL-C levels. The present results suggest that IVA-PLA2 is involved in the oxLDL-induced production of MMP-9 in macrophages and the high-fat diet-induced formation of early atherosclerotic lesions. The protection against the lesions in IVA-PLA2-deficient mice may be ascribable, in part, to the impaired production of MMP-9 and/or the maintained levels of HDL-C.

  1. Diagnóstico de asma alérgica en consultas de alergología y neumología Diagnosis of allergic asthma in allergy and pneumology outpatient clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Borderías; Pilar García-Ortega; Xavier Badia; Jordi Casafont; Gemma Gambús; Montserrat Roset

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia del diagnóstico de asma alérgica en pacientes con asma persistente que acuden a consultas de alergología y neumología y describir el tratamiento clínico de estos pacientes. Métodos: Se incluyó aleatoria y retrospectivamente a 382 pacientes (12-65 años de edad) con diagnóstico de asma persistente (criterios GINA) que acudieron a las consultas de neumología y alergología. Se definió asma alérgica como la presencia de sensibilización a alérgenos comunes en prueba...

  2. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies I. Hubble Space Telescope / Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2014-01-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with $\\tau$ $\\sim$ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs (dTrans), and dwarf ellipticals (dEs) can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH ($\\tau$ $\\sim$ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages $>$ 10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z=2 ranges considerably (80\\%...

  3. Constraining the nature of dark matter with the star formation history of the faintest Local Group dwarf galaxy satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, Alice; Governato, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    $\\Lambda$-Warm Dark Matter (WDM) has been proposed as alternative scenario to $\\Lambda$ cold dark matter (CDM), motivated by discrepancies at the scale of dwarf galaxies, with less small-scale power and realized by collisionless particles with energies in the range $1-3$ keV. We present a new approach to constrain the viability of such WDM models using star formation histories of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Local Group. We compare their high time-resolution star formation histories (SFHs) obtained with HST-based color magnitude diagrams with the range of possible collapse redshifts of their dark matter halos expected in CDM and in different WDM scenarios. The collapse redshift is inferred after determining a plausible infall mass of the subhalo. This is based on the current mass of individual dwarf inferred from stellar kinematics combined with results of cosmological simulations providing information on the subhalo evolution. Since WDM subhalos close to the filtering mass scale form signific...

  4. Trace fossils from Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower to Middle Miocene) of Mizoram India and their palaeoenvironmental significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raghavendra P Tiwari; Chinmoy Rajkonwar; Lalchawimawii; Paul Lalnuntluanga Jehova Malsawma; Victor Z Ralte; Satish J Patel

    2011-12-01

    A detailed ichnological study performed on the Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower to Middle Miocene) of Mizoram, India reveals the occurrence of rich and diverse trace fossils. These have been collected from the two localities in Aizawl, i.e., Bawngkawn and Ropaiabawk, where sandstone-shale sequence is well exposed. Total 20 ichnospecies of 14 ichnogenera have been identified which include Arenicolites isp., Cochlichnus anguineus, Helminthopsis abeli, Laevicyclus mongraensis, Ophiomorpha borneensis, Palaeophycus tubularis, Palaeophycus heberti, Palaeophycus sulcatus, Palaeophycus alternatus, Pholeus abomasoformis, Pholeus bifurcatus, Planolites beverleyensis, Planolites annularis, Polykladichnus irregularis, Rhizocorallium isp., Skolithos linearis, Taenidium satanassi, Teichichnus rectus, Thalassinoides horizontalis and Thalassinoides paradoxicus. Ethologically these ichnogenera display dwelling and feeding activities of the infaunal organisms. Arenicolites, Ophiomorpha, Polykladichnus and Skolithos are the members of the Skolithos ichnofacies while Palaeophycus, Planolites, Rhizocorallium and Thalassinoides are the members of the Cruziana ichnofacies. The presence of Skolithos ichnofacies indicates sandy shifting substrate and high energy conditions in foreshore zone while the Cruziana ichnofacies indicate unconsolidated, poorly sorted soft substrate and low energy condition in the shoreface/offshore zone. These ichnogenera indicate foreshore to shoreface-offshore zone of shallow marine environment for the deposition of the rocks of the Bhuban Formation of Mizoram.

  5. Lagoonal sedimentation and fluctuating salinities in the Vectis Formation (Wealden Group, Lower Cretaceous) of the Isle of Wight, southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D. J.; Ruffell, A.; Wach, G.; Goldring, R.

    1991-06-01

    Sedimentation in the Shepherd's Chine Member of the Vectis Formation is characterised by a cyclicity of four principal facies on which a strong asymmetry has been imprinted by erosional events. The four lithofacies are: (1) very fine to fine sandstones; (2) heterolithic sand/silt and mudstones; (3) parallel-laminated (pinstripe) mudstones; and (4) black mudstones. The biota, principally associated with lithofacies 2 and 3 (as shelly partings and coquinas), can be grouped into five molluscan associations which range from freshwater to quasi-marine. These associations are poorly correlated with the lithofacies, but fluctuate within and between cycles. Salinity and storm frequency increase towards the top of the formation, heralding the main marine Aptian transgression. Lithofacies and biotas indicate deposition in a lagoon that was shallow and temporarily emergent. The cyclicity is thought to represent the more distal phases of the advance and retreat of deltaic sand bodies, derived from a westerly direction, into the lagoon. Major storm events broke the symmetry of the cycles. A deltaic facies, represented by the Barnes High Sandstone Member, is thought to be laterally linked, reworked deltaic sandstone lobes.

  6. Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Altitudes of the top of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation are presented for the wells and test holes presented in this report.

  7. Factores de riesgo asociados con asma alérgica en niños de 4 a 16 años de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Del Castillo Castilla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl asma es una enfermedad pediátrica ampliamente distribuida en el mundo. En la actualidad hay más de 130 millones de personas asmáticas y las proyecciones en salud indican que este número irá en aumento. En Colombia la morbilidad y mortalidad por asma es elevada, a pesar de esto en Santa Marta se desconoce la prevalencia de asma y los factores de riesgo. Con el propósito de determinar los factores de riesgo ambiental y poblacional asociados con el asma alérgica en niños de 4 a 16 años de Santa Marta, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal. Los factores de riesgo y la severidad del asma se establecieron mediante un cuestionario estandarizado. El diagnóstico clínico de asma fue confirmado por espirometría. De un total de 227 niños estudiados, 97 presentaron uno o más episodios de sibilancias o estridor recurrente en los últimos 12 meses, 55 fueron confirmados por espirometría. Se encontró asociación significativa entre la sintomatología de asma, la exposición al polvo casero, el humo del cigarillo, la herencia y el parasitismo intestinal. Ninguna asociación estadística se encontró entre el asma y la desnutrición aguda o crónica. Estos resultados confirman la importancia de los alergenos intradomiciliarios en la sintomatología de asma en el Caribe Colombiano. (Duazary 2008; 1: 9 - 14AbstractAsthma is a pediatric disease widely distributed in the world. At the present time there are more than 130 million asthmatics people and the projections in health indicate that this number wrath in increase. In Colombia the morbidity and mortality of asthma are elevated, in spite of this in Santa Marta the asthma prevalence and risk factors is not known. In order to determine what are the environmental and population risk factors associated with the allergic asthma in children of 4 to 16 years from Santa Marta, a trasversal descriptive study was done. The risk factors and asthma severity were determined by means of a

  8. Padrão alimentar, asma e sibilo atópico e não atópico em crianças e adolescentes: estudo SCAALA, Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana D'Innocenzo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em estudo transversal, a influência do padrão alimentar sobre a ocorrência de sibilo e asma atópica e não atópica em 1.168 crianças e adolescentes em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Sibilo e sintomas de asma nos últimos 12 meses foram obtidos por meio do questionário ISAAC. Atopia foi definida pela presença de IgE específica a aerolérgenos. Questionário de frequência alimentar foi usado para definir padrões alimentares. Empregou-se regressões logística e logística politômica multivariadas. O consumo de pescados reduziu a ocorrência de sibilo em 27% (IC95%: 0,56-0,94 e asma em 37% (IC95%: 0,47-0,83; asma não atópica em 51% (IC95%: 0,31-0,79 e sibilo não atópico em 38% (IC95%: 0,46-0,83. O maior tercil do padrão alimentar reduziu o sibilo em 27% (IC95%: 0,57-0,95, sibilo atópico em 46% (IC95%: 0,30-0,98, asma em 36% (IC95%: 0,49-0,83 e asma atópica em 50% (IC95%: 0,28-0,89. O consumo de pescados pode conferir efeito protetor para sibilo e asma não atópica e o padrão alimentar para sibilo e asma atópica.

  9. New Row-grouped CSR format for storing the sparse matrices on GPU with implementation in CUDA

    CERN Document Server

    Oberhuber, Tomáš; Vacata, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new format for storing sparse matrices. The format is designed to perform well mainly on the GPU devices. We present its implementation in CUDA. The performance has been tested on 1,600 different types of matrices and we compare our format with the Hybrid format. We give detailed comparison of both formats and show their strong and weak parts.

  10. Obesidade e asma: associação ou coincidência? Obesity and asthma: association or coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Fernandes Camilo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A asma e a obesidade estão entre as maiores causas de morbidade na infância e adolescência. A obesidade precoce aumenta as chances de doenças crônicas degenerativas no adulto. Embora a concomitância de ambas as situações clínicas vem sendo demonstrada em vários estudos, os mecanismos intrínsecos dessa associação ainda são pouco conhecidos. Portanto, o objetivo deste artigo foi revisar os principais trabalhos sobre a associação de obesidade e asma e verificar se existe relação de causa e efeito entre ambas. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão sistemática baseada em bases de dados indexadas MEDLINE (PubMed e SciELO. Foram revisados artigos originais (transversal, caso-controle e prospectivo e meta-análises publicados no período de janeiro de 1998 a janeiro de 2008. Foram pesquisados estudos divulgados em língua inglesa, espanhola e portuguesa. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Embora existam muitos estudos sobre as crescentes prevalências da asma e da obesidade, poucos estabelecem relações de causa e efeito entre ambas. Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos e os fatores envolvidos nesse processo ainda são pouco conhecidos. CONCLUSÃO: O rigor metodológico em estudos futuros deverá buscar respostas para melhor entender se existe associação entre asma e obesidade, ou se a relação entre ambas as doenças é coincidência.OBJECTIVE: Asthma and obesity are among the major causes of morbidity in childhood and adolescence. Early obesity increases the chances of chronic degenerative diseases in adults. Although the concomitance or both clinical situations are being demonstrated in various studies, the intrinsic mechanisms of this association are still very little known. Therefore, the objective of this article was to review the main studies on the association of obesity and asthma and check if there is a cause-effect relation between them. SOURCES: Systematic review based on indexed data bases MEDLINE (PubMed and SciELO. Original articles

  11. El componente educativo en el abordaje integral del asma bronquial The educational component in an integrated approach to bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paola Fasciglione

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El asma bronquial es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de las vías respiratorias cuya prevalencia está aumentando en el mundo. Actualmente no se dispone de un tratamiento curativo, y el objetivo principal de todo abordaje es el control de la enfermedad y la optimización de la calidad de vida de los pacientes. En este sentido, durante las últimas décadas se han estado implementando y evaluando programas de intervención complementarios a los tratamientos médicos convencionales. Gran parte de éstos consisten en intervenciones educativas o incluyen algún tipo de componente educativo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar las características y el impacto de las intervenciones educativas en el asma, a través de: a revisión actualizada sobre los diferentes tipos de intervenciones educativas desarrolladas e implementadas para el asma; b identificación de aspectos comunes a todas estas intervenciones; c análisis de los hallazgos de la investigación referidos a su impacto sobre la salud y la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Se concluye que las intervenciones educativas son efectivas para mejorar la salud y la calidad de vida de los pacientes con asma, y para reducir el uso y el costo de recursos sanitarios. Estos hallazgos señalan la importancia de incluir el componente educativo como parte esencial del abordaje integral de esta población clínica. Asimismo, la complejidad inherente al proceso educativo pone de manifiesto la necesidad del trabajo conjunto y complementario entre diferentes profesionales de la salud.Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory chronic disease of the respiratory tract whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. Since there is no curative treatment available, the principal objective of every approach is to control the disease and to improve the quality of life of patients. Over the last few decades, intervention programs supplementing conventional medical treatments have been tested and implemented. The

  12. Impacto del sobrepeso y la obesidad en el asma infantil Impact of the overweight and obesity in the pediatric asthma

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La evidencia sugiere que el sobrepeso y la obesidad alterarían el control y la función pulmonar de los niños asmáticos. Objetivo: Medir el impacto del sobrepeso y obesidad en el control y función pulmonar de una población de niños asmáticos persistentes. Material y Método: Se realizó evaluación nutricional, medición de control de asma y espirometría a niños asmáticos persistentes entre 5 y 15 anos, controlados en una Unidad de Enfermedades Respiratorias. Se determinó la presenci...

  13. Inhibidor del factor de agregación plaquetaria como terapia coadyuvante en pacientes con asma esteroideo-dependiente, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Velásquez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El asma es un desorden inflamatorio crónico de las vías aéreas que causa episodios recurrentes de sibilancias, disnea, opresión torácica y tos. Es una de las condiciones patológicas más frecuentes en la población general. Representa una entidad de alto costo no sólo por los días de incapacidad laboral y estudiantil que genera, sino también para el sistema actual de salud. A pesar de esto es una enfermedad poco entendida y cuyo tratamiento dista mucho de ser ideal.

     

  14. Unusual C-C bond cleavage in the formation of amine-bis(phenoxy) group 4 benzyl complexes: Mechanism of formation and application to stereospecific polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Gowda, Ravikumar R.

    2014-08-11

    Group 4 tetrabenzyl compounds MBn4 (M = Zr, Ti), upon protonolysis with an equimolar amount of the tetradentate amine-tris(phenol) ligand N[(2,4-tBu2C6H2(CH 2)OH]3 in toluene from -30 to 25 °C, unexpectedly lead to amine-bis(phenoxy) dibenzyl complexes, BnCH2N[(2,4- tBu2C6H2(CH2)O] 2MBn2 (M = Zr (1), Ti (2)) in 80% (1) and 75% (2) yields. This reaction involves an apparent cleavage of the >NCH2-ArOH bond (loss of the phenol in the ligand) and formation of the >NCH 2-CH2Bn bond (gain of the benzyl group in the ligand). Structural characterization of 1 by X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the complex formed is a bis(benzyl) complex of Zr coordinated by a newly derived tridentate amine-bis(phenoxy) ligand arranged in a mer configuration in the solid state. The abstractive activation of 1 and 2 with B(C6F 5)3·THF in CD2Cl2 at room temperature generates the corresponding benzyl cations {BnCH2N[(2,4- tBu2C6H2(CH2)O] 2MBn(THF)}+[BnB(C6F5) 3]- (M = Zr (3), Ti, (4)). These cationic complexes, along with their analogues derived from (imino)phenoxy tri- and dibenzyl complexes, [(2,6-iPr2C6H3)N=C(3,5- tBu2C6H2)O]ZrBn3 (5) and [2,4-Br2C6H2(O)(6-CH2(NC 5H9))CH2N=CH(2-adamantyl-4-MeC 6H2O)]ZrBn2 (6), have been found to effectively polymerize the biomass-derived renewable β-methyl-α-methylene- γ-butyrolactone (βMMBL) at room temperature into the highly stereoregular polymer PβMMBL with an isotacticity up to 99% mm. A combined experimental and DFT study has yielded a mechanistic pathway for the observed unusual C-C bond cleavage in the present protonolysis reaction between ZrBn4 and N[(2,4-tBu2C 6H2(CH2)OH]3 for the formation of complex 1, which involves the benzyl radical and the Zr(III) species, resulting from thermal and photochemical decomposition of ZrBn4, followed by a series of reaction sequences consisting of protonolysis, tautomerization, H-transfer, oxidation, elimination, and radical coupling. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  15. Towards a consensus-based biokinetic model for green microalgae - The ASM-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Sæbø, Mariann; Bregua de la Sotilla, Marta; Van Wagenen, Jonathan; Smets, Barth F; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2016-10-15

    Cultivation of microalgae in open ponds and closed photobioreactors (PBRs) using wastewater resources offers an opportunity for biochemical nutrient recovery. Effective reactor system design and process control of PBRs requires process models. Several models with different complexities have been developed to predict microalgal growth. However, none of these models can effectively describe all the relevant processes when microalgal growth is coupled with nutrient removal and recovery from wastewaters. Here, we present a mathematical model developed to simulate green microalgal growth (ASM-A) using the systematic approach of the activated sludge modelling (ASM) framework. The process model - identified based on a literature review and using new experimental data - accounts for factors influencing photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microalgal growth, nutrient uptake and storage (i.e. Droop model) and decay of microalgae. Model parameters were estimated using laboratory-scale batch and sequenced batch experiments using the novel Latin Hypercube Sampling based Simplex (LHSS) method. The model was evaluated using independent data obtained in a 24-L PBR operated in sequenced batch mode. Identifiability of the model was assessed. The model can effectively describe microalgal biomass growth, ammonia and phosphate concentrations as well as the phosphorus storage using a set of average parameter values estimated with the experimental data. A statistical analysis of simulation and measured data suggests that culture history and substrate availability can introduce significant variability on parameter values for predicting the reaction rates for bulk nitrate and the intracellularly stored nitrogen state-variables, thereby requiring scenario specific model calibration. ASM-A was identified using standard cultivation medium and it can provide a platform for extensions accounting for factors influencing algal growth and nutrient storage using wastewater resources.

  16. Impacto da atenção farmacêutica na função pulmonar de pacientes com asma grave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zanghelini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo avaliou a influência do serviço de Atenção Farmacêutica na otimização dos resultados terapêuticos de pacientes com asma grave não controlada, em uso de formoterol associado à budesonida. Utilizou-se o Método Dáder de Seguimento Farmacoterapêutico e o Teste do Controle de Asma (ACT™ para avaliação de resultados, assim como a espirometria. Foram acompanhados 26 pacientes por um período não inferior a seis meses, cuja média de idade foi 55 ± 11 anos, destes, 22 (84% foram do gênero feminino. Na pesquisa verificou-se que 22 (84,6% pacientes apresentaram mais de uma enfermidade associada à asma grave e 24 (92% faziam uso de dois ou mais fármacos. Foram detectados 58 resultados negativos associados aos medicamentos (RNM, com incidência de 2,2 ± 0,99 RNM por usuário. O RNM mais frequente foi insegurança não quantitativa identificada em 11 usuários (43%, sendo 31% desses devido às reações adversas ao medicamento. Foram realizadas 65 intervenções farmacêuticas para resolver os RNM, com média de 2,5 ± 1,2 por paciente, das quais 85% ocorreram na farmácia sem a necessidade de voltar ao médico. Dos resultados clínicos, após as intervenções farmacêuticas, todos os usuários tiveram melhora significativa da asma (p<0,05, porém 2 deles (7,6% ainda apresentaram asma não controlada. Assim, o estudo sinalizou a necessidade do acompanhamento farmacoterapêutico aos usuários com asma grave não controlada para otimização dos resultados clínicos.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reveal distinct patterns of anastomosis formation and hyphal healing mechanisms between different phylogenic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Souza, F.A.; Fernández, F.; Delmas, N.S.; Declerck, S.

    2005-01-01

    The significance of anastomosis formation and the hyphal healing mechanism (HHM) for functionality and integrity of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mycelial network remains poorly documented. Four Glomeraceae and three Gigasporaceae were cultured monoxenically. Anastomosis formation was asses

  18. Tendência temporal de asma em crianças e adolescentes no Brasil no período de 1998 a 2008 Tendencia temporal de asma en niños y adolescentes en Brasil en el período de 1998 a 2008 Time trend of asthma in children and adolescents in Brazil, 1998-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Wehrmeister

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as tendências de asma em crianças e adolescentes entre 1998 e 2008 no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados os dados de prevalência de asma da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios, dos anos de 1998, 2003 e 2008. A amostra foi constituída por 141.402, 144.443 e 134.032 indivíduos em 1998, 2003 e 2008, respectivamente, e a análise foi ajustada pelo desenho amostral. As tendências de asma foram descritas por sexo, regiões do Brasil e local de residência, em crianças (zero a nove anos e adolescentes (dez a 19 anos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de asma entre crianças foi 7,7% em 1998, 8,1% em 2003 e 8,5% em 2008, com um incremento anual de 1%. O maior aumento anual foi observado nas regiões Sudeste e Norte (1,4%. Entre o grupo de adolescentes, a prevalência de asma foi de 4,4% em 1998, 5,0% em 2003 e 5,5% em 2008, com aumento de 2,2% ao ano. Na região Nordeste, o aumento anual na prevalência de asma foi de 3,5%. Os maiores incrementos foram observados entre os meninos e entre moradores da zona rural. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a asma apresentar um decréscimo em países emergentes, no Brasil os resultados apontam um incremento da asma entre crianças e adolescentes no período de 1998 e 2008, especialmente na zona rural.OBJETIVO: Analizar las tendencias de asma en niños y adolescentes entre 1998 y 2008 en Brasil. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los datos de prevalencia de asma de la Investigación Nacional por Muestra de Domicilios, de los años de 1998, 2003 y 2008. La muestra fue constituida por 141.402, 144.443 y 134.032 individuos en 1998, 2003 y 2008, respectivamente y el análisis fue ajustado por el diseño muestral. Las tendencias de asma fueron descritas por sexo, regiones de Brasil y lugar de residencia, en niños (cero a nueve años y adolescentes (diez a 19 años. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de asma entre niños fue de 7,7% en 1998, 8,1% en 2003 y 8,5% en 2008, con un incremento anual de 1%. El mayor aumento anual

  19. Strong far-infrared cooling lines, peculiar CO kinematics, and possible star-formation suppression in Hickson compact group 57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Ogle, P. M.; Rich, J. A.; Xu, C. K. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lisenfeld, U. [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Bitsakis, T. [NASA Herschel Science Center, IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guillard, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris-Sud XI, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Charmandaris, V. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Cluver, M.; Jarrett, T. [Astrophysics Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Dept of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Dopita, M. A.; Kewley, L. J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Freeland, E. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Rasmussen, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Verdes-Montenegro, L. [Departamento Astronomía Extragaláctica, Instituto Astrofísica Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Yun, M., E-mail: kalatalo@ipac.caltech.edu [University of Massachusetts, Astronomy Department, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We present [C II] and [O I] observations from Herschel and CO(1-0) maps from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) of the Hickson compact group HCG 57, focusing on the galaxies HCG 57a and HCG 57d. HCG 57a has been previously shown to contain enhanced quantities of warm molecular hydrogen consistent with shock or turbulent heating. Our observations show that HCG 57d has strong [C II] emission compared to L {sub FIR} and weak CO(1-0), while in HCG 57a, both the [C II] and CO(1-0) are strong. HCG 57a lies at the upper end of the normal distribution of the [C II]/CO and [C II]/FIR ratios, and its far-infrared (FIR) cooling supports a low-density, warm, diffuse gas that falls close to the boundary of acceptable models of a photon-dominated region. However, the power radiated in the [C II] and warm H{sub 2} emissions have similar magnitudes, as seen in other shock-dominated systems and predicted by recent models. We suggest that shock heating of the [C II] is a viable alternative to photoelectric heating in violently disturbed, diffuse gas. The existence of shocks is also consistent with the peculiar CO kinematics in the galaxy, indicating that highly noncircular motions are present. These kinematically disturbed CO regions also show evidence of suppressed star formation, falling a factor of 10-30 below normal galaxies on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We suggest that the peculiar properties of both galaxies are consistent with a highly dissipative, off-center collisional encounter between HCG 57d and 57a, creating ring-like morphologies in both systems. Highly dissipative gas-on-gas collisions may be more common in dense groups because of the likelihood of repeated multiple encounters. The possibility of shock-induced star-formation suppression may explain why a subset of these HCG galaxies has been found previously to fall in the mid-infrared green valley.

  20. Involvement of the nadA gene in formation of G-group aflatoxins in Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jingjing; Zeng, Hongmei; Shima, Yoko; Hatabayashi, Hidemi; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Yabe, Kimiko

    2008-07-01

    The nadA gene is present at the end of the aflatoxin gene cluster in the genome of Aspergillus parasiticus as well as in Aspergillus flavus. RT-PCR analyses showed that the nadA gene was expressed in an aflatoxin-inducible YES medium, but not in an aflatoxin-non-inducible YEP medium. The nadA gene was not expressed in the aflR gene-deletion mutant, irrespective of the culture medium used. To clarify the nadA gene's function, we disrupted the gene in aflatoxigenic A. parasiticus. The four nadA-deletion mutants that were isolated commonly accumulated a novel yellow-fluorescent pigment (named NADA) in mycelia as well as in culture medium. When the mutants and the wild-type strain were cultured for 3 days in YES medium, the mutants each produced about 50% of the amounts of G-group aflatoxins that the wild-type strain produced. In contrast, the amounts of B-group aflatoxins did not significantly differ between the mutants and the wild-type strain. The NADA pigment was so unstable that it could non-enzymatically change to aflatoxin G(1) (AFG(1)). LC-MS measurement showed that the molecular mass of NADA was 360, which is 32 higher than that of AFG(1). We previously reported that at least one cytosol enzyme, together with two other microsome enzymes, is necessary for the formation of AFG(1) from O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) in the cell-free system of A. parasiticus. The present study confirmed that the cytosol fraction of the wild-type A.parasiticus strain significantly enhanced the AFG(1) formation from OMST, whereas the cytosol fraction of the nadA-deletion mutant did not show the same activity. Furthermore, the cytosol fraction of the wild-type strain showed the enzyme activity catalyzing the reaction from NADA to AFG(1), which required NADPH or NADH, indicating that NADA is a precursor of AFG(1); in contrast, the cytosol fraction of the nadA-deletion mutant did not show the same enzyme activity. These results demonstrated that the NadA protein is the cytosol enzyme

  1. Los antihistamínicos H1 de primera generación en el tratamiento del asma bronquial ¿si o no?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Zapata Martínez

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión sobre el uso de los antihistáminicos H1 de primera generación en el tratamiento del asma bronquial. Se concluye que sólo deben tenerse en cuenta para el trata miento de pacientes asmáticos con rinitis alérgica crónica cuando no estén en un ataque agudo de asma.A review on the use of first generation antihistamics H1 in the treatment of bronchial asthma is carried out. It is concluded that they should only be taken into account for treating asthmatic patients with chronic allergic rhinitis when they are not under an acute asthma attack.

  2. Prevalência de diagnóstico médico de asma em adultos brasileiros: Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Fernando César Wehrmeister; Bernardo Horta; Celia Landmann Szwarcwald; Maria Lucia Vieira; Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO: Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de diagnóstico médico de asma na população adulta brasileira (≥ 18 anos). Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS), de 2013; processo amostral por conglomerado com três estágios de seleção: setor censitário, domicílio e indivíduo. Calculou-se a prevalência e intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%) do desfecho "diagnóstico médico de asma" relatado pelo entrevistado e sua distribuição conforme variáv...

  3. Avaliação do grau de controle clínico, espirométrico e da intensidade do processo inflamatório na asma

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Cláudia R. de; Chatkin,José Miguel; Camargos,Paulo Augusto M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Revisar o papel da avaliação clínica, da qualidade de vida, da espirometria, do teste de broncoprovocação e dos marcadores inflamatórios na avaliação da asma. FONTES DOS DADOS: Pesquisa nas bases MEDLINE e LILACS. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A avaliação clínica auxilia na avaliação do controle da asma e é amplamente preconizada. No entanto, os pacientes podem apresentar obstrução e inflamação das vias aéreas a despeito da normalidade clínica. A espirometria quantifica o grau de obstrução da...

  4. Heat evolution of micelle formation, dependence of enthalpy, and heat capacity on the surfactant chain length and head group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatowski, Ella; Kozlov, Michael M; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2002-02-15

    Micelle formation by many surfactants is endothermic at low temperatures but exothermic at high temperatures. In this respect, dissociation of micelles (demicellization) is similar to dissolving hydrocarbons in water. However, a remarkable difference between the two processes is that dissolving hydrocarbons is isocaloric at about 25 degrees C, almost independently of the hydrocarbon chain length, whereas the temperature (T*) at which demicellization of different surfactants is athermal varies over a relatively large range. We have investigated the temperature dependence of the heat of demicellization of three alkylglucosides with hydrocarbon chains of 7, 8, and 9 carbon atoms. At about 25 degrees C, the heat of demicellization of the three studied alkylglucosides varied within a relatively small range (DeltaH=-7.8+/-0.4 kJ/mol). The temperature dependence of DeltaH(demic) indicates that within the studied temperature range the heat capacity of demicellization (DeltaC(P,demic)) is about constant. The value of DeltaC(P,demic) exhibited an apparently linear dependence on the surfactant's chain length (DeltaC(P,demic)/n(CH(2))=47+/-7 kJ/mol K). Our interpretation of these results is that (i) the transfer of the head groups from micelles to water is exothermic and (ii) the temperature dependence of the heat associated with water-hydrocarbon interactions is only slightly affected by the head group. This implies that the deviation of the value of T* from 25 degrees C results from the contribution of the polar head to the overall heat of demicellization. Calorimetric studies of other series of amphiphiles will have to be conducted to test whether the latter conclusion is general.

  5. Estudio de prevalencia y asociación entre síntomas de asma y obesidad en la población pediátrica de Pamplona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Álvarez Zallo

    Full Text Available Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la prevalencia de síntomas de asma y de sobrepeso-obesidad de niños de 6-7años y adolescentes de 13-14 años del área metropolitana de Pamplona, así como analizar si los niños-adolescentes con sobrepeso u obesidad presentan un mayor riesgo de padecer asma y si el sexo modifica esta relación. Métodos: Los datos de síntomas de asma e índice de masa corporal (IMC de 4.413 niños y adolescentes se obtuvieron del cuestionario International Study of Allergies and Asthma fase III. Se realizó regresión logística no condicional para obtener las odds ratios ajustadas (OR y los intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC del 95 % para sobrepeso-obesidad y síntomas de asma en ambos grupos, tomando como referencia el grupo de normopeso. Posteriormente se estratifico por sexo. Resultados: la prevalencia de sobrepeso-obesidad en el grupo de 6-7 años fue de 23,9% y en el grupo de adolescentes de 11,5%. La prevalencia de síntomas de asma en ambos grupos de edad fue inferior a la media española. Los niños de 6-7 años obesos presentaron mayor riesgo de síntomas de asma. Al estratificar por sexo, se observó un aumento de riesgo en todos los síntomas de asma solo en niñas obesas. En el grupo de adolescentes no se observó relación entre obesidad y asma. Conclusiones: La obesidad en niños esta relacionada con los síntomas de asma. Las niñas obesas presentan un mayor riesgo y mayor gravedad de síntomas de asma que los niños.

  6. Associação dos polimorfismos dos genes TGF-beta1, CD14, IL-4, IL-4R e ADAM33 com a gravidade da asma em crianças e adolescentes Association of TGF-beta1, CD14, IL-4, IL-4R and ADAM33 gene polymorphisms with asthma severity in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. J. de Faria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar, em uma amostra de pacientes com asma atópica persistente leve, moderada e grave, a associação entre os polimorfismos dos genes fator de crescimento transformante-beta1 (TGF-beta1 (C-509T e T869C, CD14 (C-159T, IL-4 (C-590T, IL-4R (ILe50Val e ADAM33 (S_2 com a gravidade da asma. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo clínico laboratorial prospectivo em pacientes com asma atópica persistente, comparados a um grupo controle no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Estadual de Campinas nos anos de 2006 e 2007. A análise do polimorfismo T869C do gene TGF-beta1 foi realizada pela técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR + sistema de amplificação refratária de mutação (ARMS. Os outros polimorfismos, C-509T do gene TGF-beta1, C-159T do gene CD14, C-590T da IL-4, ILe50Val da IL-4Ra e S2 do gene ADAM33, foram detectados por PCR e enzima de restrição. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 88 pacientes com asma atópica persistente (27 leves, 23 moderados e 38 graves e 202 indivíduos saudáveis, doadores de sangue. Em relação ao polimorfismo T869C (TGF-beta1, observou-se uma associação entre o genótipo CC e os pacientes com asma grave. Nenhuma associação foi encontrada com os polimorfismos C-509T (TGF-beta1, C-590T (IL4 e S_2 (ADAM33. Quando se comparou a distribuição da freqüência genotípica do polimorfismo C-159T (CD14 na asma grave com o grupo controle, foi observado um resultado significativo com o genótipo TT. Houve associação significativa do genótipo Val/Val (IL-4R com a asma leve. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados indicam que os polimorfismos T869C (TGF-beta1, C-159T (CD14 e Val/Val (IL-4R podem estar envolvidos na modulação da gravidade da asma.OBJECTIVE: To verify the association of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1 (C-509T and T869C, CD14 (C-159T, IL-4 (C-590T, IL-4R (ILe50Val and ADAM33 (S_2 gene polymorphisms with asthma severity in a sample of patients with mild, moderate and severe

  7. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies III. Characterizing Quenching in Low-Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2015-01-01

    We explore the quenching of low-mass galaxies (10^4 < Mstar < 10^8 Msun) as a function of lookback time using the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies. The SFHs were derived from analyzing color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. We find: (1) Lower mass galaxies quench earlier than higher mass galaxies; (2) Inside of virial radius there is no correlation between a satellite's current proximity to a massive host and its quenching epoch; (3) There are hints of systematic differences in quenching times of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites, although the sample sample size and uncertainties in the SFHs of M31 dwarfs prohibit definitive conclusions. Combined with literature results, we qualitatively consider the redshift evolution (z=0-1) of the quenched galaxy fraction over ~7 dex in stellar mass (10^4 < Mstar < 10^11.5 Msun). The quenched fraction of all galaxies generally increases to...

  8. Real-space renormalization group flow in quantum impurity systems: Local moment formation and the Kondo screening cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew K.; Becker, Michael; Bulla, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    The existence of a length scale ξK˜1/TK (with TK the Kondo temperature) has long been predicted in quantum impurity systems. At low temperatures T≪TK, the standard interpretation is that a spin-(1)/(2) impurity is screened by a surrounding “Kondo cloud” of spatial extent ξK. We argue that renormalization group (RG) flow between any two fixed points (FPs) results in a characteristic length scale, observed in real space as a crossover between physical behavior typical of each FP. In the simplest example of the Anderson impurity model, three FPs arise, and we show that “free orbital,” “local moment,” and “strong coupling” regions of space can be identified at zero temperature. These regions are separated by two crossover length scales ξLM and ξK, with the latter diverging as the Kondo effect is destroyed on increasing temperature through TK. One implication is that moment formation occurs inside the “Kondo cloud”, while the screening process itself occurs on flowing to the strong coupling FP at distances ˜ξK. Generic aspects of the real-space physics are exemplified by the two-channel Kondo model, where ξK now separates local moment and overscreening clouds.

  9. Toxin Profile, Biofilm Formation, and Molecular Characterization of Emetic Toxin-Producing Bacillus cereus Group Isolates from Human Stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Su Kyung; Chang, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Sung-Wook; Ok, Gyeongsik; Lee, Nari

    2015-11-01

    Emetic toxin-producing Bacillus cereus group species are an important problem, because the staple food for Korean is grains such as rice. In this study, we determined the prevalence (24 of 129 isolates) of emetic B. cereus in 36,745 stool samples from sporadic food-poisoning cases in Korea between 2007 and 2008. The toxin gene profile, toxin production, and biofilm-forming ability of the emetic B. cereus isolates were investigated. Repetitive element sequence polymorphism polymerase chain reaction fingerprints (rep-PCR) were also used to assess the intraspecific biodiversity of these isolates. Emetic B. cereus was present in 0.07% of the sporadic food-poisoning cases. The 24 emetic isolates identified all carried the nheABC and entFM genes and produced NHE enterotoxin. However, they did not have hemolysin BL toxin or related genes. A relationship between biofilm formation and toxin production was not observed in this study. The rep-PCR fingerprints of the B. cereus isolates were not influenced by the presence of toxin genes, or biofilm-forming ability. The rep-PCR assay discriminated emetic B. cereus isolates from nonemetic isolates, even if this assay did not perfectly discriminate these isolates. Further study on emetic isolates possessing a high degree of diversity may be necessary to evaluate the performance of the subtyping assay to discriminate emetic and nonemetic B. cereus isolates and could provide a more accurate indication of the risk from B. cereus strains.

  10. FISSION-TRACK DATING OF A TEPHRA LAYER IN THE ALAT FORMATION OF THE DANDIERO GROUP (DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIULIO BIGAZZI

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to date a biotite separate from a tephra layer recognized near Buia (Danakil Depression, Eritrea in the liwer part of the Homo remains – bearing Dandiero group (formerly attributed to the Danakil Formation using the 39Ar/40Ar method failed because of xenocrystic contamination. For this reason it was applied the fission-track method on glass, since no other phases datable with this technique were present. The quality of glass was very poor for fission-track dating, because of the small size of grains. In addition, after polishing only few glass shards showed useful surfaces for track counting and only 25 spontaneous tracks were counted. The determined fission-track age - 0.75 +/- 0.16 Ma - is a rejuvenated age due to the presence of a certain amount of annealing of spontaneous tracks. An attempt to apply the plateau method for correcting this apparent age failed. A corrected age of 1.3 +/- 0.3 Ma was computed using the size-correction method. In spite of its low precision, this fission-track age represents a significant result, since it corroborates the attribution to Jaramillo Subchron of the normal magnetozone near the base of which the tephra is located. 

  11. Carbonate facies of the Upper Triassic Ojo Huelos Member, San Pedro Arroyo Formation (Chinle Group), southern New Mexico: Paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Lawrence H.; Lucas, Spencer G.

    2012-10-01

    The Upper Triassic (Adamanian LVF) Ojo Huelos Member of the San Pedro Arroyo Formation (Chinle Group) is a distinctive, carbonate-rich unit that occurs in the lower Chinle section of central New Mexico. The member consists mainly of micritic lime mudstones, ostracodal wackestones to grainstones, peloidal grainstones and distinctive pisolitic rudstones, interbedded with fine-grained siliciclastic mudstones. Most limestones exhibit some evidence of pedogenic brecciation and root penetration, and porous fabrics similar to those of modern limestone tufas occur locally. The interbedded mudstones are typically lenticular and commonly display a blocky ped fabric in which subequant peds are separated by sparry calcite veins. Fossils from the Ojo Huelos Member are freshwater (darwinulid) ostracodes, various freshwater fishes and aquatic/amphibious tetrapods-metoposaurs and phytosaurs. We interpret the carbonate facies as the deposits of carbonate lakes, ponds and wetlands that were partly spring-fed, whereas the interbedded and surrounding mudstones were alluvial in origin. The groundwater and overland hydrology of the region was likely controlled by the relative proximity to an upland recharge area in the Mogollon Highlands to the south, but sedimentary fabrics record strong overprinting by desiccation and pedogenic reworking. Consequently, we interpret the Ojo Huelos Member as recording a climate that varied from subhumid to semi-arid, which caused episodic falls in the hydrologic base-level. This resulted in landscape degradation, exemplified by significant pedogenic and erosional reworking of the carbonate sediments and fluvial incision.

  12. An improved lossless group compression algorithm for seismic data in SEG-Y and MiniSEED file formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huailiang; Tuo, Xianguo; Shen, Tong; Henderson, Mark Julian; Courtois, Jérémie; Yan, Minhao

    2017-03-01

    An improved lossless group compression algorithm is proposed for decreasing the size of SEG-Y files to relieve the enormous burden associated with the transmission and storage of large amounts of seismic exploration data. Because each data point is represented by 4 bytes in SEG-Y files, the file is broken down into 4 subgroups, and the Gini coefficient is employed to analyze the distribution of the overall data and each of the 4 data subgroups within the range [0,255]. The results show that each subgroup comprises characteristic frequency distributions suited to distinct compression algorithms. Therefore, the data of each subgroup was compressed using its best suited algorithm. After comparing the compression ratios obtained for each data subgroup using different algorithms, the Lempel-Ziv-Markov chain algorithm (LZMA) was selected for the compression of the first two subgroups and the Deflate algorithm for the latter two subgroups. The compression ratios and decompression times obtained with the improved algorithm were compared with those obtained with commonly employed compression algorithms for SEG-Y files with different sizes. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm provides a compression ratio of 75-80%, which is more effective than compression algorithms presently applied to SEG-Y files. In addition, the proposed algorithm is applied to the miniSEED format used in natural earthquake monitoring, and the results compared with those obtained using the Steim2 compression algorithm, the results again show that the proposed algorithm provides better data compression.

  13. Impacto de um programa de manejo da asma sobre as hospitalizações e os atendimentos de urgência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. F. Fontes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar as frequências de hospitalização e de atendimentos em serviços de urgência ocorridas em crianças e adolescentes antes e após o ingresso em programa de asma no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Prontuários de 608 pacientes menores de 15 anos e com asma foram avaliados retrospectivamente. As frequências de hospitalização por asma e de atendimentos em serviços de urgência para episódios agudos de broncoespasmo foram avaliadas nos períodos anterior e posterior à admissão no programa que disponibiliza medicamentos, preconiza abordagem integral do paciente e manejo profilático de acordo com a Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA. O período de observação antes do programa (AP teve a duração de 12 meses enquanto o depois do programa (DP variou de 12 a 36 meses. RESULTADOS: No período AP, ocorreram 895 hospitalizações e 5.375 atendimentos em serviços de urgência, e no período DP, ocorreram 180 hospitalizações e 713 atendimentos na urgência. O teste t de Student para amostras pareadas e o modelo de regressão para observações dependentes identificaram efeito significativo do programa em relação às variáveis estudadas (p = 0,000. CONCLUSÕES: A adoção das recomendações do GINA levou à redução significativa nas frequências de hospitalização e atendimentos na urgência em crianças e adolescentes com asma.

  14. Prevalencia de asma y otras enfermedades alérgicas en niños escolares de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraza-Villarreal Albino

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, de la rinitis y del eczema en escolares. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado entre abril de 1998 y mayo de 1999 en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, a una muestra aleatoria de 6 174 niños de 53 escuelas. Se aplicó la metodología propuesta por el International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC (etapas 1 y 2 para determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, rinitis y eczema. La información de prevalencia, tanto actual como acumulada para dichos padecimientos, se obtuvo mediante un cuestionario ya estandarizado y contestado por los padres de los niños. El diseño de la muestra se hizo por un muestreo mixto, en el cual se estratificó por nivel de contaminación ambiental. Se estimaron prevalencias actual y acumulada estratificando por grupo de edad, sexo, área e historia familiar de asma. Resultados. La prevalencia acumulada de asma por diagnóstico médico y sibilancia (silbidos fue de 6.8% (IC95% 6.2-7.4 y 20.% (IC95% 19.7-21.8, respectivamente; la prevalencia de sibilancia en los últimos 12 meses fue mayor en el grupo de 6-8 años que en el de 11-14 años(9.7% contra 5.8% (phttp://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  15. Comportamiento del asma bronquial en un área de salud del policlínico Cerro Behavior of bronchial asthma in a health area of the "Cerro" polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Álvarez Carmenate

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en pediatría y una de las principales causas de consulta. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento del asma bronquial como problema de salud. Métodos: trabajo descriptivo, prospectivo, de corte longitudinal, en 309 niños con edades comprendidas entre 0 y 19 años con el diagnóstico de asma bronquial, atendidos en los 15 consultorios médicos del grupo básico de trabajo A del policlínico universitario "Cerro", en el período comprendido entre el 1º de enero de 2007 y el 31 de diciembre de 2007. Método empírico para la obtención de los datos clínicos epidemiológicos, y como técnica, la encuesta a través de un cuestionario. Resultados: 148 pacientes (48 % se encontraban entre 10 y 14 años, 175 (56,6 % del sexo masculino, 136 (44 % fueron clasificados como persistentes ligeros, 140 (58 % presentaron rinitis y 57 (24 % dermatitis. Había fumadores en las viviendas de 303 pacientes (98 %, hacinamiento en 290 casos (94 % y el polvo en el hogar 284 (92 %. Conclusiones: predominio en el grupo de edades de 10 a 14 años, sexo masculino. En cuanto a la severidad de la enfermedad predominó la forma persistente ligera, las manifestaciones atópicas más frecuentes fueron la rinitis y la dermatitis, los principales factores de riesgo fueron el humo del tabaco, el polvo en el hogar y el hacinamiento, y el tratamiento de elección fue el de la crisis. Se observó la falta de organización y unidad de criterios para el enfoque integral de la política intercrisis o de sostén en la atención de los pacientes.Introduction: bronchial asthma is the more frequent chronic disease in Pediatrics and one of the major causes of consultation. Objective: to describe the behavior of bronchial asthma as a health problem. Methods: a longitudinal, prospective and descriptive study was conducted in 309 children aged between 0 and 19 diagnosed with bronchial asthmas seen in the 15 medical

  16. Características sistémicas y orales de la nefrolitiasis bilateral y asma en niños - Reporte de caso

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    Carmen de la Luz Ayala Escandón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La nefrolitiasis es una enfermedad caracterizada por la formación de cálculos en el riñón, de gran incidencia y alta recurrencia, considerada rara en niños. Cuando no se trata evoluciona con altos índices de complicaciones. El asma es una enfermedad crónica inflamatoria de las vías respiratorias y ocasiona una importante morbilidad y mortalidad. Metodología: Se informa del caso de una niña de 4 años diagnosticada con nefrolitiasis bilateral y asma, referida para atención odontológica. Se incluye: Revisión bibliográfica de las patologías base, metodología clínica utilizada en el estado de salud general y oral, pre y post tratamiento dental. Conclusiones: En concordancia con lo descrito por diversos autores, los niños con nefrolitiasis bilateral y asma tienen un mayor índice de caries, higiene oral deficiente, una alta susceptibilidad a otras infecciones como candidiasis y a menudo exhiben defectos del esmalte, mucosas cianóticas, malposición dental y xerostomía. La prevención primaria es decisiva, una higiene dental apropiada, revisiones odontológicas habituales, así como el uso de broncodilatadores constituyen elementos significativos sobre todo en pacientes de alto riego.

  17. Directing Group in Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling: Copper-Catalyzed Site-Selective C-N Bond Formation from Nonactivated Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Jing; Lu, Xi; Wang, Guan; Li, Lei; Jiang, Wei-Tao; Wang, Yu-Dong; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2016-08-03

    Copper-catalyzed directed decarboxylative amination of nonactivated aliphatic carboxylic acids is described. This intramolecular C-N bond formation reaction provides efficient access to the synthesis of pyrrolidine and piperidine derivatives as well as the modification of complex natural products. Moreover, this reaction presents excellent site-selectivity in the C-N bond formation step through the use of directing group. Our work can be considered as a big step toward controllable radical decarboxylative carbon-heteroatom cross-coupling.

  18. In vitro effect of antibiotics on biofilm formation by Bacteroides fragilis group strains isolated from intestinal microbiota of dogs and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Janice Oliveira; Martins Reis, Ana Catarina; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Pinheiro, Adriana Queiroz; Freire, Rosemary Souza; Oriá, Reinaldo Barreto; de Carvalho, Cibele Barreto Mano

    2014-08-01

    The Bacteroides fragilis group strains colonize the intestinal tract of dogs as commensal bacteria. Nevertheless, they can be opportunistic pathogens responsible for significant morbidity and mortality rates in dogs, like in oral infections, abscesses and wound infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in B. fragilis strains isolated from dogs intestinal microbiota and to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of some antimicrobials on biofilm formation. A total of 30 B. fragilis group strains were tested for susceptibility to ten antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution method. Thirteen B. fragilis strains were tested for biofilm formation and the biofilm producer strains were chosen to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobials on biofilm formation. The isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, metronidazole, imipenem and chloramphenicol. Tetracycline and clindamycin were active against 50% and 33% of the strains, respectively. When biofilm-forming strains were grown in the presence of sub-MICs of imipenem and metronidazole, the inhibition of biofilm formation was observed. In contrast, enrofloxacin at ½ MIC caused a significant increase in biofilm formation in two of four strains examined. In conclusion, the B. fragilis group strains isolated were susceptible to most of the antimicrobials tested and the sub-MIC concentrations of imipenem, metronidazole and clindamycin were able to inhibit the biofilm formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalência de asma em adolescentes na cidade de Fortaleza, CE Prevalence of asthma among adolescents in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima Gomes de Luna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de asma em adolescentes (13-14 anos na cidade de Fortaleza, CE. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal utilizando o questionário do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood e envolvendo 3.015 adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas entre 2006 e 2007. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de "sibilos alguma vez na vida", "sibilos nos últimos doze meses" (asma ativa e "asma alguma vez na vida" (asma diagnosticada foram, respectivamente, 44,1%, 22,6% e 11,6%. As prevalências de "sibilos alguma vez na vida" (p = 0,001, "1-3 crises de sibilos nos últimos 12 meses" (p = 0,001; asma ativa (p = 0,002; "sono interrompido por sibilos menos que uma vez por semana" (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of asthma among adolescents (13-14 years of age in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 3,015 adolescents at public and private schools between 2006 and 2007. The participants completed the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalences of "wheezing ever", "wheezing within the last 12 months" (active asthma and "asthma ever" (physician-diagnosed asthma were 44.1%, 22.6% and 11.6%, respectively. The prevalences of "wheezing ever" (p = 0.001, "1-3 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months" (p = 0.001, active asthma (p = 0.002, "sleep disturbed due to wheezing less than one night per week" (p < 0.001 and "dry cough at night" (p < 0.001 were higher among girls. Private school students presented higher prevalences of "wheezing ever", active asthma, "1-3 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months", "4-12 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months" and physician-diagnosed asthma (p < 0.001 for all, as well as of "exercise-induced wheezing" (p = 0.032. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms in students aged 13-14 years in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, was high, predominantly among girls and private

  20. Uso do sulfato de magnésio venoso para tratamento da asma aguda grave da criança no pronto-socorro

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    Tânia Mara Baraky Bittar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A asma aguda grave é uma emergência médica que deve ser diagnosticada e tratada rapidamente. O tratamento inicial inclui broncodilatadores e corticosteróides sistêmicos. Em casos graves, com fraca resposta ao tratamento padrão, o sulfato de magnésio venoso surge como opção terapêutica. O objetivo deste artigo foi revisar a literatura sobre o uso do sulfato de magnésio venoso na asma aguda em crianças no pronto-socorro no que se refere a eficácia, indicação, dosagem, efeitos adversos e contraindicações. Realizada revisão narrativa por meio das Bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e Cochrane Database of Systmatic Reviews, entre 2000 e 2010. Utilizados os descritores: asthma, children, emergency, magnesium sulfate. Incluídos oito ensaios clínicos controlados, três meta-análises, um estudo retrospectivo, oito artigos de revisão e um estudo transversal. A eficácia do magnésio venoso em crianças foi observada por vários autores, com raros efeitos adversos. Seu uso foi indicado para os pacientes com asma aguda moderada e grave que não responderam ao tratamento inicial com broncodilatador e corticosteróide. As contraindicações em pediatria são poucas. Entre elas estão insuficiência renal e bloqueio atrioventricular. Existem poucos relatos da interação do magnésio com drogas de uso pediátrico. Apesar da segurança, na prática, o magnésio venoso é pouco usado na asma aguda em pediatria. Na maioria das vezes, é indicado tardiamente para impedir falência respiratória e internação na unidade de cuidados intensivos. Os estudos demonstram que o magnésio venoso é uma droga eficaz e segura na criança com asma aguda grave, porém o seu uso no pronto-socorro ainda é limitado.

  1. Substâncias de origem vegetal potencialmente úteis na terapia da asma Natural products from plant origin potentially usefull in the asthma therapy

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    Maria Fernanda P. Corrêa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A asma é uma doença inflamatória crônica, que representa um problema de saúde pública com altos números de óbitos e elevado impacto socioeconômico. A patologia é caracterizada pela fase imediata, mediada pela resposta aguda de células inflamatórias, e a tardia, que é responsável pela resposta com envolvimento de células específicas do sistema imunológico. Atualmente, os principais tipos de fármacos utilizados no tratamento da asma são os broncodilatadores e agentes antiinflamatórios, que aliviam os sintomas de broncoespasmo e diminuem a inflamação das vias aéreas. Entretanto, terapias com esses medicamentos não são totalmente eficazes e provocam efeitos adversos. A escassez de fármacos seguros e o baixo acesso da população carente aos tratamentos utilizados estimulam a busca de novas substâncias potencialmente úteis no tratamento da asma. Produtos naturais de origem vegetal representam um grande potencial farmacológico contra asma, uma vez que podem fornecer moléculas diversas com mecanismos específicos para tratamento e controle da patologia. A busca por terapias mais eficientes e específicas para o processo asmático mostra que a procura nos produtos naturais é promissora e possui um papel importante para a descoberta de novas terapias contra a asma.Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, which represents a huge public health problem in developed and developing countries, has high death rates and elevated socioeconomic implications. The pathology is characterized by two different phases: the initial stage, mediated by acute inflammatory cell response and the late phase, responsible for specific immune cells. Currently, the main drugs used for asthma treatment are bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory agents, which mechanisms focus the relief of symptoms and attenuation of airway inflammation. However, therapies with those drugs have side effects besides they are not totally effective. Poor accessibility in

  2. Má percepção da limitação aos fluxos aéreos em pacientes com asma moderada a grave Poor perception of airflow limitation in patients with moderate to severe asthma

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    ADELMIR SOUZA-MACHADO

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Este estudo avaliou a percepção da obstrução das vias aéreas em pacientes ambulatoriais com asma moderada a grave e a capacidade da ausculta torácica em identificar a limitação aos fluxos aéreos. Métodos: Trinta e três pacientes foram avaliados em sete visitas semanais usando escores de sintomas por meio de escala visual analógica de sintomas (EVAS, 0-100mm, índice clínico de hiper-reatividade brônquica (1-10, a classificação clínica de gravidade da asma (GINA, 1-4 e um escore de ausculta torácica (EAT, 0-5, espirometria e pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE, que foram correlacionados por meio do coeficiente de Spearman. Os pacientes foram classificados como percebedores (--1 £ r Background: This study evaluated the perception of airway obstruction in moderate to severely asthmatic outpatients and the efficiency of chest auscultation in identifying airflow limitation. Methods: 33 subjects were evaluated at seven weekly visits by using symptoms scores determined by visual analogue scales (VAS, 0-100 mm, a clinical index of bronchial hyperreactivity (1-10, the clinical classification of asthma severity (GINA, 1-4 and a thoracic auscultation score (TAS, 0-5, spirometry and peak expiratory flow (PEF, which were correlated by the coefficient of Spearman. Patients were classified as perceivers (--1 <= r < 0 or nonperceivers (0 <= r <= 1 by correlations between VAS for dyspnoea and FEV1. A correlation between auscultation and bronchial obstruction was considered accurate when a r <= --0.5 (TAS vs. FEV1 was found. Results: Seventeen asthmatic patients (51.5% did not accurately perceive the degree of their airways obstruction (nonperceivers. No clinical characteristics distinguished the groups. Only 39.4% of the individual correlations between TAS and FEV1 indicated accurate discrimination by auscultation. Severe asthma was not associated with inaccurate auscultation nor with malperception in this study. Conclusions: A

  3. Anillos vasculares como diagnóstico diferencial del asma Vascular rings in differential diagnosis of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Rioseco S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Las anomalías del arco aórtico y sus ramas son infrecuentes. La presencia de un anillo vascular determina la aparición de sintomatologia relacionada con compresión traqueal o esofágica. El diagnóstico en la edad adulta es extremadamente inusual. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 64 años con diagnóstico de Asma inducida por ejercicio, refractaria a tratamiento, la cual presentó disnea sibilante en relación al ejercicio, que no cedió con tratamiento bien llevado. La curva flujo-volumen sugirió obstrucción variable de la vía aérea central intratorácica, la radiografía de tórax mostró botón aórtico situado a derecha, la tomografía computada del tórax demostró un anillo vascular formado por un arco aórtico derecho, con la arteria subclavia izquierda aberrante, divertículo de Kommerell comprimiendo el esófago y con la aorta descendente que en su trayecto comprime la pared posterior de la tráquea, lo que es corroborado por videobroncoscopía, describiéndose compresión pulsátil, que se exacerbaba con la taquicardia. Se concluye que la paciente tiene un anillo vascular causante de los síntomas descritos y nos orienta a establecer que en el esquema de estudio de pacientes con asma atípica o de difícil manejo, es necesario incluir las malformaciones del arco aórtico en el diagnóstico diferencial, realizando al menos radiografía de tórax y revisando atentamente la gráfica de la curva flujo-volumen.Aortic arch abnormalities and vascular rings are a rare cause of compression of trachea and esophagus causing respiratory and digestive symptoms in adults. We report a 64 years old woman with exercise induced asthma not resolving with adequate treatment. Flow/volume loop shape suggested an intrathoracic major airway obstruction. Chest X ray showed a right sided aortic notch and CT scan revealed a vascular ring composed by a right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and Kommerell's diverticulum compressing

  4. Correlation, sedimentology, structural setting, chemical composition, and provenance of selected formations in Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Group, central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tysdal, Russell G.; Lindsey, David A.; Taggart, Joseph E.

    2003-01-01

    A unit of the Mesoproterozoic Apple Creek Formation of the Lemhi Range previously was correlated with part of the lower subunit of the Mesoproterozoic Yellowjacket Formation in the Salmon River Mountains. Strata currently assigned to the middle subunit of the Yellowjacket Formation lie conformably above the Apple Creek unit in the Salmon River Mountains, and are here renamed the banded siltite unit and reassigned to the Apple Creek Formation. Almost all of the banded siltite unit is preserved within the Salmon River Mountains, where it grades upward into clastic rocks that currently are assigned to the upper subunit of the Yellowjacket Formation and that here are reassigned to the Gunsight Formation. The banded siltite unit of the Apple Creek Formation is composed of a turbidite sequence, as recognized by previous workers. Uppermost strata of the unit were reworked by currents, possibly storm generated, and adjusted to a high water content by developing abundant soft-sediment deformation features. Basal strata of the overlying Gunsight Formation in the Salmon River Mountains display abundant hummocky crossbeds, storm-generated features deposited below fair-weather wave base, that are conformable above the storm-reworked deposits. The hummocky crossbedded strata grade upward into marine shoreface strata deposited above fair-weather wave base, which in turn are succeeded by fluvial strata. Hummocky and shoreface strata are absent from the Gunsight Formation in the Lemhi Range. The major thickness of the Gunsight Formation in both the Salmon River Mountains and the Lemhi Range is composed of fluvial rocks, transitional in the upper part into marine rocks of the Swauger Formation. The fluvial strata are mainly characterized by stacked sheets of metasandstone and coarse siltite; they are interpreted as deposits of braided rivers. The Poison Creek thrust fault of the Lemhi Range extends northwestward through the study area in the east-central part of the Salmon River

  5. A hospitalização por asma e a carência de acompanhamento ambulatorial Asthma-related hospitalizations and lack of outpatient follow-up treatment

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    Emanuel Sarinho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se as crianças e os adolescentes internados por crise aguda de asma em duas unidades de saúde da cidade do Recife faziam acompanhamento ambulatorial preventivo para controle da asma. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de uma série de casos de pacientes internados por asma aos quais foi aplicado um questionário no momento da internação para verificar a freqüência de acompanhamento ambulatorial para tratamento profilático. Foi considerado asmático aquele paciente que apresentou duas ou mais crises de broncoespasmo com boa resposta aos broncodilatadores. RESULTADOS: Do total de 169 pacientes internados por asma, 67% (112/167 - dados referentes a 2 pacientes não foram fornecidos foram atendidos exclusivamente em serviços de urgência no período intercrise. Apesar de haver encaminhamento médico para atendimento ambulatorial em 53,3% (89/167 - dados referentes a 2 pacientes não foram fornecidos dos casos, apenas 16% (27/169 dos pacientes efetivamente freqüentavam um ambulatório específico de asma para tratamento preventivo e somente 13% (22/169 usavam medicação profilática. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria das crianças e dos adolescentes internados por asma não fazia acompanhamento ambulatorial preventivo. Uma série de problemas, tais como a não referência para acompanhamento ambulatorial após a alta hospitalar, a dificuldade de acesso ao ambulatório e a impossibilidade de se obter a medicação profilática gratuitamente, entre outros fatores relacionados ao sistema de saúde, podem ter contribuído para esta baixa taxa de procura por atendimento ambulatorial. Recomenda-se a implementação de uma política de saúde que possibilite o efetivo funcionamento do programa de controle da asma.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the children and adolescents with acute asthma attacks admitted to two public hospitals in the city of Recife, Brazil underwent outpatient follow-up treatment for the prevention and control of asthma

  6. Organik ve Konvansiyonel Tüplü Asma Fidanı Üretim Uygulamalarının Ekonomik Karşılaştırması

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Hulya; ATEŞ, Fadime

    2016-01-01

    Bu çalışmanın amacı organik ve konvansiyonel tüplü asma fidanı üretim maliyet ve karını hesaplamaktır. 2013–2015 üretim döneminde Manisa Bağcılık Araştırma Enstitüsü seralarında yapılan bu çalışma ile tüplü organik ve konvansiyonel asma fidanlarının dekara üretim maliyetlerinin karşılaştırılması yapılmıştır. Dekar bazında üretim maliyeti organik tüplü asma fidanında 19016.03 TL, konvansiyonel tüplü asma fidanında 17144.47 TL olarak belirlenmiştir. Dekara net kar organik tüplü asma fidanı için...

  7. A Search for Triggered Star Formation in the Compact Group of Galaxies NGC 5851, NGC 5852 and CGCG 077-007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Charlotte Alexandra; Basu-Zych, Antara; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; NASA / GSFC X-ray Galaxies Group

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy interactions provide ideal conditions for triggering star formation, and impact galaxy evolution and the structure of the universe. The aim of this research is to study the key factors during galaxy interactions that influence star formation events by studying close pairs of galaxies to find the relationship between interaction properties (e.g. relative velocities and distances, mass ratios, orientation, and merger stage) and star formation rate (SFR). We present our analysis on one compact group of star-forming galaxies CGCG 077-007, NGC 5851, and their quiescent companion NGC 5852. Within this group we investigate the conditions where galaxy interactions cause higher SFR or supermassive black hole accretion (i.e. AGN activity), which might rather quench SFR. Areas of increased star formation are classified by the identification of the most UV bright regions within the galaxies. We find these areas by taking the Swift UVOT W2 filter and subtracting from it the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) z-band image in order to remove the underlying stellar population. The regions identified by this process allow us to conduct a multi-wavelength study of stellar populations within this compact group. We use Spectral Energy Distribution models to fit ultraviolet to mid-infrared photometry from Swift UVOT, SDSS, 2MASS and WISE and measure global star formation histories for the galaxies and for the identified star forming regions within the galaxies. In the future we will include analysis of Swift XRT data to place constraints on AGN activity, and relate to the star formation history. This group serves as a pilot study and we will apply these methods to a sample of 30 galaxy groups and close pairs in order to investigate the relationship between galaxy interactions, SFR, and AGN activity and gain deeper insight into how mergers drive galaxy evolution.

  8. Formation of Monolayers by the Coadsorption of Thiols on Gold: Variation in the Length of the Head Group, Tail Group, and Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    oleophobic monolayer) and the other by a polar or polarizable group (yielding a hydrophilic or oleophilic monolayer). In these systems the contact...to comprise discrete islands, each of which were oleophobic , then the monolayer itself would not be wetted by hexadecane. We observed that hexadecane

  9. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies. III. Characterizing Quenching in Low-mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2015-05-01

    We explore the quenching of low-mass galaxies (104 ≲ {{M}\\star } ≲ 108 {{M}⊙ }) as a function of lookback time using the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies. The SFHs were derived by analyzing color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. We find: (1) lower-mass galaxies quench earlier than higher-mass galaxies; (2) inside of Rvirial there is no correlation between a satellite’s current proximity to a massive host and its quenching epoch; and (3) there are hints of systematic differences in the quenching times of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites, although the sample size and uncertainties in the SFHs of M31 dwarfs prohibit definitive conclusions. Combined with results from the literature, we qualitatively consider the redshift evolution (z = 0-1) of the quenched galaxy fraction over ˜7 dex in stellar mass (104 ≲ {{M}\\star } ≲ 1011.5 {{M}⊙ }). The quenched fraction of all galaxies generally increases toward the present, with both the lowest and highest-mass systems exhibiting the largest quenched fractions at all redshifts. In contrast, galaxies between {{M}\\star } ˜ 108-1010 {{M}⊙ } have the lowest quenched fractions. We suggest that such intermediate-mass galaxies are the least efficient at quenching. Finally, we compare our quenching times with predictions for infall times for low-mass galaxies associated with the MW. We find that some of the lowest-mass satellites (e.g., CVn II, Leo IV) may have been quenched before infall, while higher-mass satellites (e.g., Leo I, Fornax) typically quench ˜1-4 Gyr after infall. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA constract NAS 5-26555.

  10. Instrumentos específicos para avaliar a qualidade de vida em crianças e adolescentes com asma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Roncada

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e descrever os instrumentos específicos que avaliam a QVRS de crianças e adolescentes com asma. FONTES DOS DADOS: Realizamos buscas nas bases de dados PubMed, Ovid e LILACS utilizando várias combinações de descritores (MeSH terms, selecionando artigos originais sobre desenvolvimento de questionários específicos de QVRS, publicados em inglês, português ou espanhol, entre 1990 e 2012. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram identificados 15 instrumentos que preencheram os critérios de inclusão. A maioria dos estudos avaliou confiabilidade mediante consistência interna e/ou reprodutibilidade e/ou sensibilidade às mudanças. A validade foi avaliada mediante a comparação com hígidos (validade discordante ou análise fatorial. CONCLUSÕES: Dos 15 instrumentos, três são os mais utilizados, o PAQLQ, o PedsQL-Asthma e DISABKIDS. Em geral, estes três instrumentos possuem características psicométricas adequadas e são práticos de aplicar, mas apenas o PAQLQ completou a adaptação cultural para o Brasil.

  11. De la rinitis al asma: ¿una o dos enfermedades? From rhinitis to asthma: one or two diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Álvarez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La frecuente asociación entre la rinitis y el asma alérgicos puede ser consecuencia de su mera coexistencia en el tiempo. También es posible que ambas entidades sean los polos opuestos de una misma enfermedad que afecta al aparato respiratorio o diferentes manifestaciones clínicas de una enfermedad sistémica caracterizada por la respuesta inmunológica anómala frente al alergeno. Las interacciones entre fosas nasales y vías aéreas bronquiales han sido ampliamente estudiadas desde el aspecto epidemiológico, fisiopatológico, etiológico y farmacológico. Los datos existentes a este respecto y sus implicaciones prácticas se revisan a continuación.Rhinitis and asthma commonly coexist in allergic patients. This observation might be attributable to their coexistence in time, but it is also possible that both diseases are the opposite poles of a single disease affecting the respiratory system, or even an anomalous systemic immune response to the allergen. Nose-lung interactions have been widely studied from epidemiological, physiopathological, aetiological and pharmacological aspects. In the present article we review this topic and its main clinical implications.

  12. Nuevas técnicas en el estudio del asma New techniques in the study of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Olaguíbel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El asma es consecuencia de la inflamación crónica de la vía aérea que se manifiesta funcionalmente como obstrucción variable al flujo aéreo e hiperreactividad bronquial. Con relativa frecuencia no disponemos de índices objetivos que nos permitan diagnosticar y controlar la enfermedad. Este artículo revisa técnicas adicionales de evaluación del funcionalismo pulmonar (provocación bronquial con adenosín-monofosfato, cuantificación de la resistencia al flujo aéreo por oscilometría de impulsos o pletismografía corporal y de la respuesta inmunoinflamatoria bronquial (inducción de esputo, condensación de aire exhalado, monitorización de óxido nítrico en aire exhalado y nuestra experiencia con su utilización.Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is functionally characterized by variability of lung function and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Its diagnosis and management is commonly hampered by the lack of objective parameters. This article reviews additional techniques for evaluating both, lung function (bronchial challenge with adenosin-monophosphate, lung resistance measurement by either the impulse oscillometry system or whole body pletismography and bronchial immuno-inflammatory response (induced sputum, condensates of exhaled air, monitoring of nitric oxide in exhaled air, as well as our experience with them.

  13. Encuesta sobre cambios en el manejo y tratamiento del asma bronchial Survey on changes in asthma treatment and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Raimondi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta a 518 especialistas de enfermedades respiratorias de un listado de la totalidad del país. Esta se refería al manejo y al tratamiento del acceso agudo y especialmente al asma estable, en adultos y en niños mayores de 6 años. Se obtuvieron 198 respuestas (38.2% de los cuestionarios enviados. Se compararon los resultados con los obtenidos en una encuesta realizada en 1994. Las respuestas se evaluaron como 0 (nunca, 1 (algunas veces, 2 (a menudo, 3 (siempre. Con estos valores se calculó un puntaje medio. Respecto a 1994 se encontró una buena tendencia referente al enfoque diagnóstico con más utilización de la prueba de reversibilidad a los broncodilatadores (2.74 ±2.3 vs 2.30±1.05 y la prueba terapéutica con corticoides (1.26±0.96 vs 0.98±0.84 y menor utilización de las pruebas cutáneas (0.50±0.83 vs 0.88±1.08. Referente al consejo de utilizar la sintomatología o el descenso del pico flujo espiratorio para reconocer el ataque del asma, ambos mejoraron significativamente (2.65±0.66 vs 2.29±0.90 y 1.93±1.05 vs 1.51±1.20, respectivamente. Criterios objetivos para evaluar el ataque de asma no siempre son utilizados por parte del médico y no mejoraron respecto a 1994 (2.14±1.04 vs 2.13±0.70. Referente al tratamiento en agudo, este enfoque mejoró notablemente con la casi totalidad de los encuestados que recomiendan b2 agonistas inhalados tanto en adultos como en niños (primera opción de tratamiento 85.3 vs 57.5% y 81.0 vs 63.4%, respectivamente. En el tratamiento de mantenimiento, se observó una mayor utilización de corticoides inhalados, sobre todo en los niños (2.09±1.01 vs 1.61±1.00, con dosis ahora correctas. Se observó menor utilización de b2 agonistas de acción corta en el tratamiento continuo, 0.40±0.78 vs 1.23±1.10 y 0.21±0.58 vs 1.23±1.00 en adultos y niños, respectivamente. A pesar de esta tendencia positiva en el manejo y tratamiento de asma bronquial no todo está de acuerdo

  14. INDICADORES CLÍNICOS DE PADRÃO RESPIRATÓRIO INEFICAZ EM CRIANÇAS COM ASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOYCE CAROLLE BEZERRA CAVALCANTE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Un estudio transversal, realizado con 147 niños internados con diagnóstico médico de asma, en un Hospital Infantil Público de Fortaleza-CE, fue desarrollado con el objetivo de analizar el esmero de las características definidoras del diagnóstico de Enfermería “Patrón respiratorio ineficaz - PRI” en niños asmáticos. Las características definidoras más frecuentes fueron la disnea (56,4% y la frecuencia respiratoria/min aumentada (50,3%. El diagnóstico de enfermería PRI estuvo presente en 36,1% de la muestra. La característica definidora de mayor sensibilidad fue la disnea. Las características de mayor especifi- cidad para este diagnóstico fueron: pulsación de las narinas, asumir posición de tres puntos y diámetro antero-posterior au- mentado. Se llegó a la conclusión de que los estudios que contribuyen a configurar el perfil de las características definidoras más comunes a una población particular deben ser estimulados, ya que sirven como guía para la práctica de enfermería.

  15. The NGC 672 and NGC 784 Galaxy Groups: Evidence for Galaxy Formation and Growth Along a Nearby Dark Matter Filament

    CERN Document Server

    Zitrin, Adi

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged): We present U, B, V, R, I, H-alpha and NUV photometry of 14 galaxies in the very local Universe (within 10 Mpc that are dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrr), are at low redshift (511-10 Gyr) and one "young" population (<30 Myr) with the recent SF bursts occurring a few to a few 10s of Myr ago, arguing for synchronicity in star formation in these objects. We propose that the ~synchronous star formation in all objects is caused by the accretion of cold gas from intergalactic space onto dark matter haloes arranged along a filament threading the void where these dwarf galaxies reside and point out this galaxy sample as an ideal target to study hierarchical clustering and galaxy formation among very nearby objects.

  16. Asma na gestação: efeitos na vitalidade fetal, complicações maternas e perinatais Asthma during pregnancy: effects on fetal well-being, and maternal and perinatal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Franco Pimentel Mendes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da asma materna sobre a gravidez, analisando as repercussões da gravidade da doença no comprometimento do bem-estar fetal, bem como as complicações maternas e perinatais associadas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de 117 gestações complicadas pela asma materna e sem outras comorbidades, no período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2010. Os critérios de inclusão foram: gestação única; diagnóstico de asma prévio à gestação; início do pré-natal antes da 28ª semana de gravidez; parto realizado na instituição; peso do recém-nascido acima de 500g e idade gestacional no parto acima de 22 semanas; ausência de malformações fetais ou anomalias cromossômicas; ausência de comorbidades maternas. A gravidade da asma foi classificada em intermitente, persistente leve, persistente moderada, persistente grave. Foram analisados os resultados do perfil biofísico fetal e da dopplervelocimetria de artéria umbilical realizados até 14 dias antes do parto. RESULTADOS: Do total de 117 gestantes asmáticas analisadas: 41 (35,0% eram intermitentes, 33 (28,2% persistentes leves, 21 (17,9% persistentes moderadas e 22 (18,8% persistentes graves. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quanto ao tipo de parto: a cesárea foi realizada em 65,8% dos casos, a corticoterapia materna no momento do parto em 20,5%, a idade gestacional no parto apresentou média de 38,6 semanas (DP 1,9 semanas e o peso ao nascimento apresentou média de 3056 g (DP 581 g. O perfil biofísico fetal realizado no período anteparto (n = 90, 76,9% apresentou resultado normal (8 ou 10 em 99% dos casos. A dopplervelocimetria de artéria umbilical foi avaliada em 23,9% (n = 28 das gestantes, e apresentou-se normal em 100% dos casos. O uso de corticoterapia sistêmica foi significativamente (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of maternal asthma on pregnancy, analyzing the consequences of the severity of the disease in the

  17. Fatores de risco, aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais da asma em crianças Risk factors, clinical and laboratory aspects of asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líllian S.L. Moraes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais, e os fatores de risco associados à asma em crianças atendidas no Ambulatório de Pediatria, do Hospital Universitário Júlio Müller. Método: estudo de caso-controle, incluindo 59 crianças asmáticas (casos e 104 não-asmáticas (controles. Os seguintes fatores foram considerados para análise de risco: escolaridade dos pais, exposição aos alérgenos domiciliares, tabagismo passivo, aleitamento materno, renda e antecedentes familiares alérgicos. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue para hemograma e dosagem de IgE total e específica para alérgenos. Realizou-se teste cutâneo de hipersensibilidade imediata pelo método de puntura para os seguintes alérgenos: ácaros, animais, fungos e baratas com controles positivo (histamina e negativo (solução fisiológica.Um modelo de regressão logística foi usado para calcular odds ratio (OR e intervalo de confiança (IC 95% ajustado para outros fatores de risco e confundidores. RESULTADOS: dentre os fatores de risco estudados, sexo, baixa escolaridade, baixa renda, tempo de aleitamento materno e tabagismo passivo não estiveram associados à ocorrência de asma. A exposição aos alérgenos foi semelhante nos dois grupos, a não ser pela maior freqüência de animais nos domicílios dos controles (c²=16,9; P OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the clinical and laboratory aspects and the risk factors associated with asthma in children treated at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic of Hospital Universitário Júlio Müller. METHODS: A case-control study including 59 asthmatic children (cases and 104 nonasthmatic children (controls. The following factors were considered for risk analysis: parents' level of education, domestic exposure to allergens, passive smoking, breast feeding, low income, and family history of allergy. Samples of blood were collected for hemogram and to determine the total serum IgE as well as the one specific to allergens. Immediate

  18. Alluvial-eolian interaction in a Cambrian rift margin: the Pedra das Torrinhas and Pedra Pintada formations (Guaritas Group, RS

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    André Marconato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study of selected outcrops from the Pedra das Torrinhas Formation of the Guaritas Group (Cambrian, Camaquã Basin, near the basin bordering Encantadas Fault Zone. The studied succession includes alluvial fan deposits that pass laterally into eolian deposits. Sedimentary facies and architectural element analysis were performed, followed by sedimentary petrography and microscopic porosity analysis, aiming to characterize the porosity of the deposits and its spatial distribution. The main objective was to contribute to a better understanding of the porosity spatial distribution in depositional systems characterized by the interaction between alluvial and eolian processes, with special reference to deposits formed prior to the development of terrestrial plants. Porosity values are related to depositional processes, with higher porosities associated to eolian dune deposits (mean of 8.4%, and lower porosity related to interdunes (mean of 3.4% and alluvial fans (mean of 4.3%. Architectural elements analysis revealed the spatial relationships of these deposits, a response to the interplay of the eolian and alluvial processes. The integration of porosity data reveals that the interaction of alluvial and eolian processes results in heterogeneous distribution of porosity at the facies association scale. Eolian reworking of alluvial facies increases porosity whereas sheet-flood and other alluvial processes in the interdune areas reduce porosity.O presente trabalho consiste no estudo de afloramentos da Formação Pedra das Torrinhas do Grupo Guaritas (Cambriano, Bacia Camaquã, próximo à Zona de Falha das Encantadas. As sucessões estudadas incluem depósitos de leques aluviais que passam lateralmente para depósitos eólicos. Foram realizadas análises de fácies e de elementos arquiteturais, seguidos de petrografia sedimentar e análise microscópica de porosidade, com o objetivo de caracterizar a porosidade da unidade e sua

  19. Prevalencia y factores asociados al asma en niños de 5 a 14 años de un área rural del sur del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    César V. Munayco; Jesús Aran; Julio Torres-Chang; Luis Saravia; M. Gabriela Soto-Cabezas

    2009-01-01

    Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia y los factores asociados al asma en niños de 5 a 14 años de una zona rural en la provincia de Ica, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en niños de 5 a 14 años del distrito de Santiago, Ica, en el año 2004. Se visitaron a las madres de los niños seleccionados a través de un muestreo aleatorio sistemático y se aplicó un cuestionario basado en el ISAAC, asimismo, se evaluaron factores asociados al asma. Tomando el desarrollo de asma ...

  20. Sistema de Ayuda a la Decisión para el Diagnóstico y Evaluación del Asma en menores de 5 años (ASMASE).

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Sánchez, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Este proyecto se realiza como Trabajo fin de Grado del Grado en Tecnologías de la Información impartido en la Escuela Superior de Informática de Ciudad Real, Con él se pretende la realización de un sistema que ayude al diagnóstico y evaluación del asma. Debido a la amplitud y complejidad del temase ha decidido acotar el problema a tratar, teniendo en cuenta el diagnóstico del asma en niños menores de 5 años. El resultado del hallazgo patológico será en base a probabilidades de padecer asma le...

  1. Evidence for inter- and intraspecies biofilm formation variability among a small group of coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando; Lima, Cláudia Afonso; Brás, Susana; França, Ângela; Cerca, Nuno

    2015-10-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are common bacterial colonizers of the human skin. They are often involved in nosocomial infections due to biofilm formation in indwelling medical devices. While biofilm formation has been extensively studied in Staphylococcus epidermidis, little is known regarding other CoNS species. Here, biofilms from six different CoNS species were characterized in terms of biofilm composition and architecture. Interestingly, the ability to form a thick biofilm was not associated with any particular species, and high variability on biofilm accumulation was found within the same species. Cell viability assays also revealed different proportions of live and dead cells within biofilms formed by different species, although this parameter was particularly similar at the intraspecies level. On the other hand, biofilm disruption assays demonstrated important inter- and intraspecies differences regarding extracellular matrix composition. Lastly, confocal laser scanning microscopy experiments confirmed this variability, highlighting important differences and common features of CoNS biofilms. We hypothesized that the biofilm formation heterogeneity observed was rather associated with biofilm matrix composition than with cells themselves. Additionally, our results indicate that polysaccharides, DNA and proteins are fundamental pieces in the process of CoNS biofilm formation.

  2. INSIGHT ON THE THEROPOD FAUNA FROM THE UBERABA FORMATION (BAURU GROUP, MINAS GERAIS STATE: NEW MEGARAPTORAN SPECIMEN FROM THE LATE CRETACEOUS OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUSTÍN G. MARTINELLI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first bony theropod record from the Campanian Uberaba Formation (Bauru Group is described. It consists of an isolated caudal centrum (CPPLIP 1324 found in the city of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The amphicoelous centrum possesses a length to height ratio of 1.74, deep elliptical lateral pneumatic foramen representing 26% of centrum length with three main sub-circular air chambers, andcamellate internal structure.This combination of features is shared with Aerosteon, Megaraptor, and Orkoraptor from the Late Cretaceous of Argentinaand with the Megaraptora indet. fromthe São José do Rio Preto Formation (Bauru Group, São Paulo State,allowing us to refer it to the Megaraptora clade (Tetanurae, Neovenatoridae. As such, the new specimen represents the second megaraptoran from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil and provides new information on tail anatomy on this bizarre group

  3. Comparação da variação de resposta ao broncodilatador através da espirometria em portadores de asma ou doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Comparison of spirometric changes in the response to bronchodilators of patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Correia Silvestri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O diagnóstico diferencial entre asma e doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC através da resposta aos broncodilatadores inalatórios na espirometria ainda é controverso. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar quais variáveis espirométricas melhor diferenciam asma de DPOC. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado entre abril de 2004 e janeiro de 2006, comparando-se os parâmetros espirométricos de 103 pacientes asmáticos, não fumantes, com os de 108 pacientes portadores de DPOC, fumantes de mais de 10 anos-maço. Todos os pacientes tinham mais de 40 anos e apresentavam doença estável no momento do exame. RESULTADOS: O volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 pré-broncodilatador foi igual nos dois grupos (VEF1 = 51%, mas os portadores de DPOC eram mais velhos (66 ± 9 anos vs. 59 ± 11 anos, p 10% constitui o melhor parâmetro espirométrico para diferenciar asma de DPOC.OBJECTIVE: Making the differential diagnosis between asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD based on the response to inhaled bronchodilators by means of spirometry is controversial. The objective of this study was to identify the most useful spirometric variables in order to distinguish between asthma and COPD. METHODS: Retrospective study conducted from April of 2004 to January of 2006, comparing the spirometric parameters of 103 nonsmoking patients with asthma to those of 108 patients with COPD who were smokers for more than 10 pack-years. All of the patients included in the study were older than 40 and presented stable disease at the time of the test. RESULTS:Initial forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 was the same in the two groups (pre-bronchodilator VEF1 = 51%. However, patients with COPD were older (66 ± 9 years vs. 59 ± 11 years, p 10% is the best spirometric parameter to distinguish asthma from COPD.

  4. O mundo da criança portadora de asma grave na escola El mundo del niño portador de asma grave en la escuela Daily life of children with acute asthma in school settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Issuzu Hirooka de Borba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Compreender o significado que a criança asmática grave e sua família atribuem à doença e suas implicações na escola. MÉTODOS: Estudo de caso qualitativo, desenvolvido no ambulatório de pediatria de um hospital do Município de São Paulo. Foram estudadas três crianças e seus familiares, utilizando observação participante, entrevista e brinquedo terapêutico dramático. RESULTADOS: As demandas do tratamento e as freqüentes crises de asma influenciaram no cotidiano da criança na escola como: falta às aulas; deixar de aprender; restrinção nas brincadeiras e relacionamento conflituoso com colegas. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: Tendo em vista as dificuldades encontradas pelas crianças em freqüentar a escola e conviver com os colegas, recomenda-se um trabalho conjunto entre os profissionais de saúde e da educação, assegurando a manutenção da educação formal e do convívio social salutar.OBJETIVO: Comprender el significado que el niño asmático grave y su familia atribuyen a la enfermedad y sus implicancias en la escuela. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio de caso cualitativo, desarrollado en el consultorio externo de pediatría de un hospital del Municipio de Sao Paulo. Fueron estudiados tres niños y sus familiares, utilizando la observación participante, entrevista y juego terapéutico dramático. RESULTADOS: Las demandas del tratamiento y las frecuentes crisis de asma influenciaron en el cotidiano del niño en la escuela como: falta a las clases; dejar de aprender; restricción en los juegos y relación conflictiva con sus colegas. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES: Teniendo en vista las dificultades encontradas por los niños para frecuentar a la escuela y convivir con sus colegas, se recomineda un trabajo conjunto entre los profesionales de salud y de educación, asegurando la manutención de la educación formal y de la convivencia social saludable.OBJECTIVES: To understand the meaning of asthma and its implications in daily

  5. Asma induzida pelo exercício: aspectos atuais e recomendações Asma inducido por el ejercicio: aspectos actuales y recomendaciones Exercise-induced asthma: current aspects and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Laitano

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os mecanismos da asma induzida pelo exercício (AIE, bem como os efeitos de diferentes tipos de treinamento físico na função pulmonar e nas capacidades aeróbia e anaeróbia. Destaca-se a importância de um diagnóstico correto mediante o teste de exercício e, no manejo, o uso de drogas beta-adrenérgicas e anticolinérgicas. FONTE DOS DADOS: Os artigos foram criteriosamente escolhidos utilizando as bases de dados PubMed e Scielo pelo ano de publicação e dando preferência a ensaios clínicos randomizados, com critérios de seleção da amostra bem definidos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os mecanismos para explicar a AIE permanecem sem conclusão, mas parece haver uma interação fisiológica entre as hipóteses aqui apresentadas. O uso de medicamentos e as freqüentes crises durante o exercício aparecem como fatores limitantes para a prática de exercícios físicos, conduzindo para um estilo de vida sedentário. CONCLUSÃO: Deve-se incentivar a prática de exercícios devidamente prescritos e minimizar as restrições aos sujeitos com AIE.OBJETIVO: Describir los mecanismos del asma inducido por el ejercicio (AIE, así como los efectos de diferentes tipos de entrenamiento físico sobre la función pulmonar y las capacidades aeróbica y anaeróbica. Se destaca la importancia de un diagnóstico correcto mediante el test de ejercicio y el manejo o uso de drogas beta-adrenérgicas y anticolinérgicas. FUENTES: Los artículos fueron cuidadosamente escogidos utilizando las bases de dados de PubMed y Scielo por el año de publicación, dando preferencia a ensayos clínicos randomizados, con criterios de selección de muestra bien definidos. SÍNTESES DE DATOS: Los mecanismos para explicar la AIE permanecen sin conclusión, pero parece haber una interacción fisiológica entre las hipótesis aquí presentadas. El uso de medicamentos y las frecuentes crisis durante el ejercicio aparecen como factores limitantes para la práctica de

  6. Estudio de la obesidad y del sobrepeso como factores de riesgo de la prevalencia y severidad del asma en niños de Valencia Study of the obesity and overweight as a risk factor for asthma and severity of the asthma in children from Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Morales Suárez-Varela

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La obesidad y el sobrepeso se han descrito como factores de riesgo asociados a la prevalencia y severidad del asma en niños y adolescentes. El objetivo del estudio ha sido el valorar el papel de la obesidad en el asma infantil. Ámbito de estudio y sujetos:Estudio realizado en niños y adolescentes entre 8 y 15 años, elegidos por un muestreo aleatorio tipo cluster entre los niños que estudiaban en 80 colegios, el cual representa el 30% de los colegios de la ciudad de Valencia. Material y métodos:El análisis de los datos se organizó en dos grupos, obesos (aquellos niños en un percentil superior al 85 del Índice de Masa Corporal (kg/m2, tomando como referencia la población española y no obesos, cuando no cumplian esta condición. Se calcularon la prevalencia de los diferentes parámetros con un intervalo de confianza al 95%, y el riesgo relativo (RR de los síntomas compatibles con asma entre niños obesos comparándolos con los no obesos. Resultados: No se obtuvo un riesgo relativo significativo para la obesidad con respecto al asma en aquellos niños por encima del percentil 85. Por otra parte, un incremento en el riesgo en relación con la severidad del asma se observó con la obesidad, principalmente en el percentil 85 (RR = 1,51 de sufrir entre 4-12 ataques de pitos y RR = 1,86 de sufrir más de 12 ataques en niños obesos frente a los no obesos Conclusiónes: En este estudio, no identificamos un riesgo más alto de asma entre niños obesos frente a los no obesos, aunque encontramos que hubiera un riesgo más alto de severidad de síntomas asmáticos. En relación con la severidad del asma, observamos un riesgo más alto de ataques de pitos y sibilancias entre los niños obesos en los percentiles 85 y 95 del Indice de Masa Corporal.Background: Obesity and overweight have been described as factors associated with asthma. Our aim was to evaluate the role obesity plays on asthma in children. Scope and subjects: A study

  7. Prevalencia de la deficiencia de Vitamina D en niños entre 5 y 15 años con diagnóstico de asma en la Fundación Hospital de la Misericordia en 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Reyes, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Introducción y Objetivo: Existen fundamentos teóricos de biología molecular y estudios clínicos recientes, que establecen una asociación entre el asma y la deficiencia de vitamina D, siendo esta última un marcador de pobre control de la enfermedad, refractariedad al tratamiento y deterioro de la función pulmonar. No existen datos en la población Colombiana con respecto al tema, por lo cual se busca determinar la frecuencia de la deficiencia de vitamina D en niños con asma, en u...

  8. Análisis estadístico multivariado de los factores que influyen en el control y tratamiento de los pacientes con asma bronquial. caso: hospital de la ciudad de Guayaquil. año 2003-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Palacios, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como objetivo determinar cuales son los factores que influyen en el abandono del control y tratamiento del asma en pacientes del Hospital Militar de División II D.E. “Libertad” diagnosticados con esta enfermedad durante el periodo 2004 – 2005, de forma específica se investiga cuales son los factores que causan que el paciente abandone el control y tratamiento del asma. Se utilizó como fuente principal de datos la historia clínica neumológica. Se conoce que un total ...

  9. Avaliação de critérios para o diagnóstico de asma através de um questionário epidemiológico

    OpenAIRE

    Wandalsen, Neusa Falbo [UNIFESP; Gonzalez,Cássia; Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo; Solé,Dirceu

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar critérios para o diagnóstico de asma em um estudo epidemiológico. MÉTODOS: Adolescentes (13-14 anos) e responsáveis por escolares (6-7 anos) do município de Santo André, São Paulo, responderam o questionário escrito padrão do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Respostas afirmativas quanto a ter sibilos nos últimos 12 meses, ter asma ou ter bronquite (pergunta adicionada ao final do questionário), assim como o escore global do ISAAC acima dos po...

  10. Irritantes químicos y prevalencia de asma y bronquitis crónica en los trabajadores de los servicios de limpieza de los establecimientos de salud de la región Puno, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Uriel Llanqui Gutiérrez

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Estudios realizados en diversas partes del mundo evidencian la presencia de enfermedades respiratorias como asma y bronquitis crónica en trabajadores de los servicios de limpieza hospitalaria, por el uso de productos químicos como cloro y otros irritantes. Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de asma y bronquitis en los trabajadores de los servicios de limpieza de los hospitales de la región Puno, Perú, y establecer su asociación con irritantes químicos. Materiales y métodos: Estud...

  11. Asma de difícil control en niños y adolescentes: Estrategias diagnóstico-terapéuticas Poorly controlled asthma: diagnosis and therapeutics in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Neffen; Santiago Vidaurreta; Ana Balanzat; Mónica Silvia De Gennaro; Verónica Giubergia; Maspero, Jorge F; Ricardo J Saranz; Alejandro M Teper

    2012-01-01

    El asma es una de las enfermedades crónicas más frecuentes en los niños. Si bien la mayoría de los niños con asma responden a bajas dosis de corticoides inhalados y/o antagonistas del receptor de leucotrienos, algunos de ellos permanecen sintomáticos independientemente de cualquier esfuerzo terapéutico, presentando una elevada morbilidad e inclusive mortalidad. Aunque la mayoría de los pacientes controlan los síntomas de forma adecuada, existe un grupo importante que presenta síntomas graves ...

  12. Adolescência e manejo da asma: a perspectiva dos assistidos na atenção primária à saúde

    OpenAIRE

    Alisson Araújo; Regina Lunardi Rocha; Cristina Gonçalves Alvim

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Conhecer a influência das características da fase da adolescência no manejo da asma. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa realizado no município de Divinópolis, região centro-oeste de Minas Gerais. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas orientadas por um roteiro de perguntas junto a sete adolescentes asmáticos atendidos na rede de atenção primária à saúde municipal. Resultados: Por meio da análise de conteúdo na modalida...

  13. Estudio epigenético del asma alérgica mediante el análisis de patrones de metilación

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual de Pedro, Marién

    2011-01-01

    [ES] En esta tesis se estudia el patrón epigenético, en términos de metilación de citosinas, en los linfocitos B de pacientes con asma alérgica e individuos sanos de una forma global, describiendo todo el epigenoma e identificando loci que presenten patrones de metilación diferencial en los linfocitos B de los pacientes alérgicos respecto a los individuos del grupo control. Además se analizan posibles discrepancias en los niveles de expresión de los genes que presenten patrones de metilación ...

  14. Modelos murinos para pesquisas em asma: uma análise crítica atualizada = Murine models for asthma research: an updated critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualdi, Lucien Peroni

    2010-01-01

    Conclusões: novos modelos experimentais devem reproduzir da forma mais próxima possível as características da asma em humanos. Embora o modelo murino apresente inúmeras vantagens em relação a outros modelos animais, as limitações inerentes a esse tipo de estudo devem ser levadas em consideração no momento da extrapolação dos resultados para a doença em humanos

  15. Manejo da asma aguda em adultos na sala de emergência: evidências atuais Management of acute asthma in adults in the emergency room: current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Asma é uma doença com uma alta prevalência em nosso meio e ao redor do mundo. Embora novas opções terapêuticas tenham sido recentemente desenvolvidas, parece haver um aumento mundial na sua morbidade e mortalidade. Em muitas instituições, as exacerbações asmáticas ainda se constituem em uma emergência médica muito comum. As evidências têm demonstrado que o manejo da asma aguda na sala de emergência concentra decisões cruciais que podem determinar o desfecho desta situação clínica. Nesta revisão, enfocaremos a avaliação e o tratamento do paciente com asma aguda na sala de emergência, descrevendo uma estratégia apropriada para o seu manejo. Serão consideradas as seguintes etapas: diagnóstico, avaliação da gravidade, tratamento, avaliação das complicações, decisão sobre onde se realizará o tratamento adicional e orientações por ocasião da alta da emergência. Espera-se que estas recomendações contribuam para que o médico clínico tome as decisões apropriadas durante o manejo da asma aguda na sala de emergência.Asthma is a disease with high prevalence in our country and worldwide. Although new therapeutic approaches have been developed recently, there seems to be a global increase in morbidity and mortality from asthma. In many institutions, asthma exacerbation is still a common medical emergency. Clinical evidence demonstrates that management of acute asthma in the emergency room entails crucial decisions that could determine the clinical outcome. In this review, the authors focus on assessment and treatment of patients with acute asthma and outline an appropriate management strategy. Diagnosis, severity assessment, treatment, complications, decision about where additional treatment will take place and orientations on discharge from the emergency will be considered. It is expected that these recommendations will help physicians to make the appropriate decisions about care of acute asthma in the emergency

  16. Prevalencia de rinitis alérgica en pacientes pediátricos que acuden al servicio de emergencia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia por crisis de asma.

    OpenAIRE

    PEREZ LU, Julio Enrique; CENTENO HUAMAN, Jorge; CHIARELLA ORTIGOZA, Pascual; PEREZ LU, Luis Enrique; SIALER CHAVEZ, Salvador Teodoro

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia de rinitis alérgica (RA) en los niños que acuden por crisis de asma a la de Emergencia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Determinar la prevalencia de cuadro activo de rinitis y de pacientes con diagnóstico previo de RA en el grupo de estudio. Material y Método: Es un estudio transversal, descriptivo. El tamaño muestral fue de 164 niños (α = 95%; β= 5%). Se realizó un cuestionario mediante una entrevista directa a los padres para encontrar síntomas de RA ...

  17. Petrologic and isotopic data from the Cretaceous (Campanian) Blackhawk Formation and Star Point Sandstone (Mesaverde Group), Wasatch Plateau, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Neil S.; Turner, Christine E.; Peterson, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The presence of discrete minerals associated with coal—whether (1) detrital or authigenic constituents of the coals or in thin mudstone or siltstone units interbedded with coals, or (2) authigenic phases that formed along cleats—might influence its utilization as an energy resource. The build-up of sintered ash deposits on the surfaces of heat exchangers in coal-fired power plants, due to the alteration of minerals during combustion of the coal, can seriously affect the functioning of the boiler and enhance corrosion of combustion equipment. In particular, the presence of sodium in coals has been considered a key factor in the fouling of boilers; however, other elements (such as calcium or magnesium) and the amount of discrete minerals burned with coal can also play a significant role in the inefficiency of and damage to boilers. Previous studies of the quality of coals in the Cretaceous (Campanian) Blackhawk Formation of the Wasatch Plateau, Utah, revealed that the sodium content of the coals varied across the region. To better understand the origin and distribution of sodium in these coals, petrologic studies were undertaken within a sedimentological framework to evaluate the timing and geochemical constraints on the emplacement of sodium-bearing minerals, particularly analcime, which previously had been identified in coals in the Blackhawk Formation. Further, the study was broadened to include not just coals in the Blackhawk Formation from various localities across the Wasatch Plateau, but also sandstones interbedded with the coals as well as sandstones in the underlying Star Point Sandstone. The alteration history of the sandstones in both formations was considered a key component of this study because it records the nature and timing of fluids passing through them and the associated precipitation of sodium-bearing minerals; thus, the alteration history could place constraints on the distribution and timing of sodium mineralization in the interbedded or

  18. Formation of Pickering emulsions stabilized via interaction between nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous phase and polymer end groups dissolved in oil phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masahiro; Maeda, Hayata; Fujii, Syuji; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-06-26

    The influence of end groups of a polymer dissolved in an oil phase on the formation of a Pickering-type hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion and on the morphology of HAp nanoparticle-coated microspheres prepared by evaporating solvent from the emulsion was investigated. Polystyrene (PS) molecules with varying end groups and molecular weights were used as model polymers. Although HAp nanoparticles alone could not function as a particulate emulsifier for stabilizing dichloromethane (oil) droplets, oil droplets could be stabilized with the aid of carboxyl end groups of the polymers dissolved in the oil phase. Lower-molecular-weight PS molecules containing carboxyl end groups formed small droplets and deflated microspheres, due to the higher concentration of carboxyl groups on the droplet/microsphere surface and hence stronger adsorption of the nanoparticles at the water/oil interface. In addition, Pickering-type suspension polymerization of styrene droplets stabilized by PS molecules containing carboxyl end groups successfully led to the formation of spherical HAp-coated microspheres.

  19. The group A3 chondrules of Krymka: Further evidence for major evaporative loss during the formation of chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Like Semarkona (type 3.0), Krymka (type 3.1) contains two distinct types of chondrule (namely groups A and B) which differ in their bulk compositions, phase compositions, and CL properties. The group A chondrules in both meteorites show evidence for major loss of material by evaporation(i.e. elemental abundance patterns, size, redox state, olivine-pyroxene abundances). Group A and B chondrules probably formed from common or very similar precursors by the same processes acting with different intensities, group A suffering greater mass-loss by evaporation and reduction of FeO and SiO2. While Krymka chondrules share many primary mineralogical and compositional properties with Semarkona chondrules, the minimal metamorphism it has suffered has also had a significant effect on its chondrules.

  20. Fatores associados ao controle da asma em pacientes pediátricos em centro de referência Factores asociados al control del asma en pacientes pediátricos en centro de referencia Factors associated with asthma control in a pediatric reference center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Mika Kinchoku

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os dados epidemiológicos, clínicos e os fatores associados ao controle da asma em pacientes asmáticos seguidos em um ambulatório pediátrico especializado. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de pacientes asmáticos ambulatoriais, para os quais eram fornecidas medicações profiláticas. A classificação da asma, as etapa de tratamento e a avaliação do controle seguiram a IV Diretrizes Brasileiras para o Manejo da Asma, de 2006. Os fatores avaliados foram: outras alergias, obesidade, imunodeficiências, refluxo gastresofágico e sensibilização alérgica, sendo comparados pacientes com asma controlada ou não com relação à etapa do tratamento, à obesidade e à sensibilização alérgica. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 300 pacientes com asma (1,38M:1F, com mediana de idade de 10,8 anos, e de início dos sintomas de 1,0 ano. A atopia estava presente em 78% dos pais e/ou irmãos. Antecedentes pessoais de doenças alérgicas ocorreram em 292 pacientes (96% rinite, 27% dermatite atópica, 18% conjuntivite alérgica, 6% alergia alimentar. Foram diagnosticados sete casos de deficiência de IgA (DIgA e quatro de IgG2; obesidade em 37/253 (15%, sendo que sobrepeso e obesidade estiveram associados à falta de controle (p=0,023. Em 118 pacientes com multissensibilização, predominaram casos não controlados (22 (19% casos; p=0,049; OR 1,9; IC95% 1,03-3,50. Entre os 180 casos (60% em tratamento nas etapas 3 e 4, 122 (45% estavam controlados e 112 (41% parcialmente controlados. CONCLUSÕES: A rinite foi a alergia mais associada à asma e a prevalência de DIgA foi 20 vezes maior do que na população geral. O controle parcial ou total dos sintomas da asma foi obtido em 85% dos casos. Obesidade/sobrepeso e multissensibilização foram associadas à falta de controle da asma.OBJETIVO: Describir los datos epidemiológicos, clínicos y los factores asociados al control del asma en pacientes asmáticos seguidos en ambulatorio pedi

  1. Cumplimiento del tratamiento para el asma bronquial por los pacientes de un área de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Zapata Martínez

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para conocer el cumplimiento del tratamiento medicamentoso, las causas de no cumplimiento, así como los medicamentos más empleados y el grado de control de los síntomas del asma bronquial y aproximarnos a la calidad de la asistencia médica brindada a los pacientes asmáticos de un área de salud de Villa Clara. La mayoría de los pacientes no cumplían el tratamiento indicado. La causa más frecuente fue la despreocupación. Los pacientes tenían un mal control de los síntomas, y entre los medicamentos indicados predominaron los broncodilatadores inhalados para el tratamiento de los síntomas con pocos medicamentos eficaces para el tratamiento profiláctico y un pobre dominio de la técnica inhalatoria. El mal control de los síntomas no creemos se deba al incumplimiento del tratamiento, sino a deficiencias en la calidad de la prescripciónA study was conducted to know about the fulfilment of the drug therapy, the causes of the nonfulfilment, the most used drugs, the degree of control of the symptoms of bronchial asthma, and the quality of the medical assistance received by the asthmatic patients in a health area of Villa Clara. Most of the patients did not folow the indicated treatment. The most frequent cause was the lackoof preocuppation. Patients proved to have an inadequate control of the symptoms. The inhaled bronchodilators predominated among the drugs prescribed for treating the symptoms. There were a few efficient drugs for the prophylactic treatment and it was observed a poor knowledge about the inhalatory techniques. It is considered that the deficient control of the symptoms is not only due to the nonfulfilment of the treatment but to the deficiencies found in the quality of prescription

  2. Asma bronquial: factores de riesgo de las crisis y factores preventivos Bronchial asthma: risk factors of crises and preventive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Abdo Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, y con motivo de los avances que se realizan en el campo de la investigación del asma bronquial, los conceptos en su prevención han ido cambiando entre los especialistas que lo tratan. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo llevar el conocimiento básico necesario a los profesionales de la medicina, para que a cada paciente asmático, atendido por primera vez, se le determinen los alergenos desencadenantes, los factores agravantes y socioculturales que le rodean y que pueden estar afectándolo. Se aborda la sensibilización a alergenos desde la etapa embrionaria y lactancia en el niño atópico, cuándo debemos considerar a un niño con alto riesgo alérgico, los factores de riesgo más importantes, con experiencias prácticas en el Hospital Universitario “Calixto García”, y las recomendaciones para la prevención de las enfermedades alérgicas en lactantes e infantes de alto riesgo alérgico.En recent years and advances in research field of bronchial asthma, features in its prevention has been changing among specialists treating it. Aim of this paper is to transmit the basic and necessary knowledge to medicine professionals for that in each asthmatic patient treated for the first time, the triggering allergens, aggravating factors, and the surrounded sociocultural ones, affecting him be determined. Authors approach sensitivity to allergens from embryonic stage and the lactation in atopic child, when we must to consider the case of an allergic and in high risk child, the more significant risk factors, with practical experiences in “Calixto García” University Hospital, and recommendations for preventions of allergic diseases in infants and breast-fed child in high risk of allergy.

  3. RECONSTRUCTION OF A LOST CARBONATE FACTORY BASED ON ITS BIOGENIC DETRITUS (TERNATE-TRAVEDONA FORMATION AND GONFOLITE LOMBARDA GROUP - NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNI COLETTI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reconstructs a now completely eroded late Eocene to earliest Oligocene carbonate factory of Northern Italy, through the analysis of a carbonate deep-water-fan sequence (Ternate-Travedona Formation and the limestone detritus dispersed into the late Oligocene clastic-wedge of the Gonfolite Lombarda Group. Textural characteristics and skeletal assemblages of the Gonfolite pebbles were studied and compared to those of the Ternate-Travedona Formation. The same skeletal assemblage and the same taxa were found in samples from both areas, suggesting their common origin. Whereas the Ternate-Travedona Formation skeletal grains were reworked during transport, the Gonfolite Lombarda Group pure-limestone pebbles are pristine fragments of the carbonate platform, that was uplifted and eroded from the late Eocene to the early Oligocene. Using both these sources of information it was possible to reconstruct the late Eocene environment and its facies distribution. The areas undergoing high hydrodynamic energy were dominated by free-living coralline-algal branches, rhodoliths and larger thick-tested benthic foraminifera. A coralline framework, associated with thin-tested benthic foraminifera and boxwork rhodoliths, was present in slightly deeper and sheltered environments. Episodic debris flows, mainly triggered by river floods, supplied the sub-marine fan of the Ternate-Travedona Formation. These events were able to down-cut through the narrow platform and rip off large fragments of the substrate. River runoff probably also supplied large quantities of organic matter, leading to local oxygen-depletion and preservation of organic matter. The combined stressful effects of bottom instability and riverine discharge probably excluded corals from the association. The integrated study of the Ternate-Travedona Formation, and of the limestone pebbles in the Gonfolite Group, have enabled the reconstruction of this otherwise lost Eocene carbonate factory.

  4. A close look at the Centaurus A group of galaxies III. Recent star formation histories of late-type dwarfs around M83

    CERN Document Server

    Crnojević, D; Cole, A A

    2011-01-01

    We study the resolved stellar populations of dwarf galaxies in the nearby Centaurus A/M83 group of galaxies. Our goal is to characterize their evolutionary history and to investigate eventual similarities or differences with the dwarf population in other group environments. This work presents the analysis of five late-type (irregular) dwarfs found in the vicinity of the giant spiral M83. Using archival HST/ACS data, we perform synthetic color-magnitude diagram modeling to derive the star formation histories of these late-type dwarfs. The target objects show heterogeneous star formation histories, with average star formation rates of 0.08 to 0.70x10^{-2} M_odot/yr. Some of them present prolonged, global bursts of star formation (~300-500 Myr). The studied galaxies are all metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~-1.4). We further investigate the spatial extent of different stellar populations, finding that the young stars show a clumpy distribution, as opposed to the smooth, broad extent of the old ones. The actively star forming ...

  5. Use of thermolytic protective groups to prevent G-tetrad formation in CpG ODN type D: structural studies and immunomodulatory activity in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Montserrat; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Ausín, Cristina; Beaucage, Serge L; Verthelyi, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) show promise as immunoprotective agents and vaccine adjuvants. CpG ODN type D were shown to improve clinical outcome in rhesus macaques challenged with Leishmania major. These ODN have a self-complementary core sequence and a 3' end poly(G) track that favors G-tetrad formation leading to multimerization. Although multimerization appears necessary for localization to early endosomes and signaling via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9), it can result in product polymorphisms, aggregation and precipitation, thereby hampering their clinical applications. This study shows that functionalizing the poly(G) track of D ODN with thermolytic 2-(N-formyl-N-methyl)aminoethyl (fma) phosphate/thiophosphate protecting groups (pro-D ODN) reduces G-tetrad formation in solution, while allowing tetrad formation inside the cell where the potassium concentration is higher. Temperature-dependent cleavage of the fma groups over time further promoted formation of stable G-tetrads. Peripheral blood cells internalized pro-D ODN efficiently, inducing high levels of IFNalpha, IL-6, IFNgamma and IP-10 and triggering dendritic cell maturation. Administration of pro-D35 to macaques challenged with L.major significantly increased the number of antigen-specific IFNgamma-secreting PBMC and reduced the severity of the skin lesions demonstrating immunoprotective activity of pro-D ODN in vivo. This technology fosters the development of more efficient immunotherapeutic oligonucleotide formulations for the treatment of allergies, cancer and infectious diseases.

  6. The Ri-elaboration of the Collective Sphere. New Paths of Sociality and Groups-Formation among the New Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pirni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the article is to contribute to the understanding of the reinvention of politics in young generations moving from an in depth sociological examination of the change occurring in the structure of society and in its self-definition. The objective is to grasp the ambiguity and the ambivalence characterizing the ongoing scenery of change. To carry out this analysis, we will refer to Simmel’s seminar theory of society as a network of relations and, along this line, to the contributions of authors such as Beck, Giddens, Touraine, Melucci, Castells, on the development of the late modernity and the network society. The hy-pothesis we follow is that the younger generations present multiple and original synthesis between sub-jectivity and the collective dimension. The emergence of reticular and fluid relations among individuals fosters the process of individualization and the same reinvention of the nature of social ties. We frame the qualitative transformation of the concept of "group" and "collective" as the culmination of a process of individuation, which does not entail a disappearance of intermediate groups, but that multiplies and radically alters their structure. Groups are more and more fluid and their borders porous. Individuals are no longer defined by their belonging to groups, as the same belonging to groups becomes a contingent and a negotiated act

  7. A close look at the Centaurus A group of galaxies IV. Recent star formation histories of late-type dwarfs around CenA

    CERN Document Server

    Crnojević, D; Cole, A A

    2012-01-01

    We study a sample of 5 dwarf irregular galaxies in the CenA/M83 group, which are companions to the giant elliptical CenA. We aim at deriving their physical properties over their lifetime and compare them to those of dwarfs located in different environments. We use archival HST/ACS data and apply synthetic color-magnitude diagram fitting in order to reconstruct the past star formation activity of the target galaxies. The average star formation rate for the studied galaxies ranges from 10^{-3} up to \\sim 7x10^{-2} M_odot/yr, and their mean metallicities correlate with their luminosities (from [Fe/H]\\sim -1.4 up to \\sim -1.0). The form of the star formation histories varies across the sample, with quiescent periods alternating with intermittent enhancements in the star formation (from a few up to several times the average lifetime value). The dwarfs in this sample formed ~35% to ~60% of their stellar content prior to ~5 Gyr ago. The resulting star formation histories for the CenA companions are similar to those ...

  8. Architecture de contrôle / commande sûre et flexible pour la navigation en formation d'un groupe de véhicules

    OpenAIRE

    Vilca Ventura, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the interest of robotics laboratories for the development of dedicated strategies for single vehicle navigation, several laboratories around the world are more and more involved in the general challenging field of cooperative multi-robot navigation. In this context, this work deals with the navigation in formation of a group of Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) dedicated to structured environments. The complexity of this Multi-Robot System (MRS) does not permit the direct use of neither ...

  9. The formation of owners’ corporations in Hong Kong’s private housing estates: A probit evaluation of Mancur Olson’s group theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, PYL; Lai, LWC

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: This paper uses a probit model to analyse 100 observations in terms of three hypotheses about the formation of owners’ corporations in high-density private housing estates in Hong Kong within the context of Mancur Olson’s group theory. The findings do not reject the theory, revealing that it is more likely for an older urban estate with fewer owners to form owners’ corporations. The discussion includes a brief introduction to Olson’s group theory and the development of the probit an...

  10. A discussion group program enhances the conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteroy-Kelly, Marcy A

    2007-01-01

    It has been well-established that discussion groups enhance student learning in large lecture courses. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of a discussion group program on the development of conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course. In the discussion group, students worked on problems based on topics discussed in lecture. The program was evaluated using three assessment tools. First, student responses to pre- and posttests were analyzed. The test question asked the students to demonstrate the relationships between 10 different but related terms. Use of a concept map to link the terms indicated an advanced level of conceptual reasoning skills. There was a 13.8% increase in the use of concept maps from pre- to posttest. Second, the students took a Likert-type survey to determine the perceived impact of the program on their conceptual reasoning skills. Many of the students felt that the program helped them understand and use the main course concepts to logically solve problems. Finally, average exam grades increased as the semester progressed. The average final grade in the course was 75%. Students enrolled in the course the previous year (where the lecture component of the course did not assess or reflect student learning in the discussion group) had an average final grade of 69%. The results of this study demonstrate that the discussion group program improves the conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course.

  11. Transient expiratory flow interruptions (TEFI increase expiratory flow in acute asthma exacerbation Incremento del flujo espiratorio luego de interrupciones transitorias en la exacerbación aguda de asma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Fernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that expiratory flows increase when expirations are rapidly interrupted in stable asthmatic patients. We hypothesized that a similar increase could be obtained in patients with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma treated in the Emergency Room. A total of 30 asthmatic patients were randomly allocated into two groups, the study and the control groups. Patients in the study group were connected to a device with an inspiratory line designed to administer pressurized aerosols. The expiratory line passed through a valve completely interrupting flow at 4 Hz, with an open/closed time ratio of 10/3. The control group patients were also connected to the device, but with the valve kept open. Mean expiratory flow at tidal volume (MEFTV was measured under basal conditions and at 4, 8 and 12 minutes after connecting the patients to the device. All patients received standard treatment throughout the procedure. At all time points MEFTV increased more in the study than in the control group (p Demostramos que el flujo espiratorio máximo, en pacientes asmáticos en estado estable, se incrementaba cuando se generaban rápidas y transitorias interrupciones del flujo. Formulamos la hipótesis de que un incremento similar podría ser observado en pacientes con exacerbación aguda de asma tratados en la sala de emergencias. Un total de 30 pacientes asmáticos fueron distribuidos al azar en dos grupos. Los pacientes del grupo en estudio fueron conectados a un aparato con una vía inspiratoria diseñada para la administración de aerosoles. La vía espiratoria pasaba por una válvula que interrumpía el flujo completamente a 4 hz, con una relación tiempo abierta/tiempo cerrada de 10/3. Los pacientes del grupo control también fueron conectados al aparato pero con la válvula siempre abierta. Se midió el flujo medio de la espiración a volumen circulante en condiciones basales y a los 4, 8 y 12 minutos después de conectado el paciente al equipo. Todos

  12. Area of coal-bearing Mesaverde Formation and Mesaverde Group, southern Piceance Basin assessment area, Colorado (psmvbndg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shape file and coverage of the top of the Rollins Sandstone Member. It outlines the area underlain by the coal-bearing Cameo/Fairfield coal group in the...

  13. Reciprocal altruism and group formation : The degree of segmentation of reciprocal altruists who prefer 'old-helping-partners'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeggelink, E.P.H.; de Vos, H.; Elsas, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    To what degree does reciprocal altruism add to the explanation of the human way of group living? That is the main question of this paper. In order to find an answer to this question, we use the Social Evolution Model (SEM) that has been developed earlier. It allows us to investigate both the conditi

  14. The elusive concept of 'internal objects' (1934-1943). Its role in the formation of the Klein Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshelwood, R D

    1997-10-01

    The author traces a debate about the concept of 'internal objects' that took place between 1937 and 1943 at a time when a group of British analysts was forming around Melanie Klein. The debate is set within a complex of personal, group and organisational dynamics, which the paper makes a start on unravelling. The history of the British Psycho-Analytical Society at this time exemplifies Bion's notion of group schism. The events in the Society's history demonstrate defensive aspects of the interaction between the opposed groups, which support members against various anxieties. These include the stress of the work of analysis, but also in this instance the particular anxieties deriving from the collapse of psychoanalysis in Europe, the state of war of the country as a whole, and the death of Freud shortly after he came to London. This psychoanalytic anxiety/defence model clarifies some aspects of the debate about internal objects, and demonstrates the way in which these various anxieties and defences become organised around a scientific debate in a scientific society.

  15. SSX2 is a novel DNA-binding protein that antagonizes polycomb group body formation and gene repression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Relster, Mette Marie; Greve, Katrine Buch Viden

    2014-01-01

    formation and derepresses PcG target genes. SSX2 further negatively regulates the level of the PcG-associated histone mark H3K27me3 in melanoma cells, and there is a clear inverse correlation between SSX2/3 expression and H3K27me3 in spermatogenesis. However, SSX2 does not affect the overall composition...... and stability of PcG complexes, and there is no direct concordance between SSX2 and BMI1/H3K27me3 presence at regulated genes. This suggests that SSX2 antagonizes PcG function through an indirect mechanism, such as modulation of chromatin structure. SSX2 binds double-stranded DNA in a sequence non......-specific manner in agreement with the observed widespread association with chromatin. Our results implicate SSX2 in regulation of chromatin structure and function....

  16. Formation and geochemical significance of micrometallic aggregates including fissiogenic platinum group elements in the Oklo natural reactor, Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Makiko; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2010-08-01

    Metallic aggregates with a size of a few tens μm and consisting mainly of Ru, Rh, Pd, Te, Pb, As, Sb, S and Bi were found in the acid residue of SD37-S2/CD uraninite taken from Oklo natural reactor zone (RZ) 13. Quantitative analyses of major elements using an electron probe microanalyzer and in situ isotopic analyses of Zr, Mo, Ru, Pb and U using a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe were performed on the metallic aggregates to determine the geochemical behaviors of fission products and actinides and to ascertain the processes of formation of the aggregates in the RZs. The chemical compositions of the aggregates investigated in this study are significantly different from those reported previously, showing lower Pb content and no correlation between the contents of Pb and S in the individual grains. The 235U/ 238U ratios in metallic aggregates vary significantly from 0.00478 to 0.01466, indicating chemical fractionation between U and Pu during the formation of the aggregates. The Pb isotopic data indicate that most of the Pb in the aggregates decayed from 2.05 Ga-old uraninite that existed in the RZ originally and that there was chemical fractionation between U and Pb in some aggregates. The Zr and Mo isotopic ratios, 90Zr/ 91Zr and 95Mo/ 97Mo, for most of the aggregates had small variations, which can be simply explained by constant separate mixing of fissiogenic and nonfissiogenic components. On the other hand, a large variation in the 99Ru/ 101Ru ratio (0.324-1.73) cannot be explained only by a two component mixing theory; thus, chemical fractionation between Tc and Ru during the reactor criticality is suggested. The large variations in the 235U/ 238U and 99Ru/ 101Ru isotopic ratios suggest that the aggregates formed under various redox conditions owing to the radiolysis of water.

  17. Asma de difícil control en niños y adolescentes: Estrategias diagnóstico-terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Neffen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El asma es una de las enfermedades crónicas más frecuentes en los niños. Si bien la mayoría de los niños con asma responden a bajas dosis de corticoides inhalados y/o antagonistas del receptor de leucotrienos, algunos de ellos permanecen sintomáticos independientemente de cualquier esfuerzo terapéutico, presentando una elevada morbilidad e inclusive mortalidad. Aunque la mayoría de los pacientes controlan los síntomas de forma adecuada, existe un grupo importante que presenta síntomas graves de la enfermedad difíciles de controlar (ADC. El objetivo de la presente revisión es discutir los aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos del ACD en los menores de 18 años y su implicancia en la práctica clínica diaria.

  18. Refluxo gastroesofágico e asma na infância: um estudo de sua relação através de monitoramento do pH esofágico Gastroesophageal reflux and asthma in childhood: a study on their relationship using esophageal PH monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz C. Teixeira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar a prevalência do refluxo gastroesofágico em crianças com asma e avaliar se o índice de refluxo tem uma boa sensibilidade e especificidade para o diagnóstico de refluxo gastroesofágico. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 69 crianças de 1 a 5 anos, com asma, através do exame de pHmetria de 24 horas. RESULTADOS: A idade das crianças variou de 12,4 a 63,1 meses, com uma média de 30,79, sendo que 62,3% eram do sexo masculino. O refluxo gastroesofágico foi observado em 68,1% das crianças. Quando separados os pacientes em duas categorias (asma moderada e grave, a associação foi de 58,5 e 82,1%, respectivamente. O refluxo gastroesofágico oculto ocorreu em 31,8% dos casos. O índice de refluxo mostrou uma sensibilidade de 89,4%, especificidade de 95,5%, valor preditivo positivo de 97,7% e valor preditivo negativo de 80,8%. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos neste estudo indicam uma elevada associação entre o refluxo gastroesofágico e a asma e sugerem que o índice de refluxo, como parâmetro único, tem uma boa sensibilidade e especificidade para o diagnóstico da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico.OBJECTIVES: This study aims at verifying the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux in asthmatic children, and at determining the sensitivity and specificity of the reflux index for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. METHODS: Sixty-nine children, aged 1-5 years, with asthma, were studied by 24-hour pH monitoring. The patients were randomly selected. RESULTS: Ages varied from 12.4 to 63.1 months, mean age = 30.79 months, and 62.3% were males. Gastroesophageal reflux was observed in 68.1% of the children. The patients were divided into two groups, moderate and severe asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux was diagnosed in 58.5 and 82.1% of the cases, respectively. Occult gastroesophageal reflux occurred in 31.8% of the cases. The reflux index showed an sensitivity of 89.4%, specificity of

  19. Factores de riesgo de asma bronquial en niños y su relación con la severidad de las manifestaciones clínicas Risk factors of bronchial asthma in children and its relation to severity of clinical manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de la Vega Pazitková

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el asma bronquial es una enfermedad psicosomática que constituye un importante problema de salud mundial. La prevalencia estimada en Cuba es de 8,2 %. La identificación y el control de los factores de riesgo constituyen un pilar importante en el manejo de esta entidad. Objetivos: establecer la relación entre algunos de los factores de riesgo de asma bronquial y la severidad de las manifestaciones clínicas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, que incluyó la totalidad de los niños menores de 15 años de edad, diagnosticados como asmáticos, pertenecientes a cinco consultorios médicos del policlínico "Ana Betancourt" cuya cifra asciende a 76 pacientes, durante el período de abril de 2007 a marzo de 2008. Resultados: Los niños se agruparon según la clasificación Global Initiative for Asthma 2007 en leve intermitente:15, leve persistente:19, moderado persistente:28 y severos:14. El total de los pacientes estudiados tenía antecedentes familiares de atopia y desencadenaban las crisis de asma con los cambios climáticos. El 95 % fue sensible a inhalantes respiratorios. En el 64 % de los hogares se detectó la presencia de fumadores. Solo el 36 % de los pacientes cumplía parcialmente el tratamiento intercrisis. Conclusiones: existe relación directa entre la severidad de las manifestaciones clínicas del asma bronquial y el número de factores de riesgo que la condicionan.Introduction: bronchial asthma is a psychosomatic disease that is a significant problem of world health. In Cuba its prevalence is of 8.2 %. Its identification and the risk factor control are a very essential base in management of this entity. Objectives: to establish the relation among some risk factors of bronchial asthma and the severity of clinical manifestations. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted including all children aged under 15, diagnosed with asthma seen in 5 consulting rooms of "Ana

  20. Strong far-infrared cooling lines, peculiar CO kinematics, and possible star-formation suppression in Hickson compact group 57

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    We present [C II] and [O I] observations from Herschel and CO(1-0) maps from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) of the Hickson compact group HCG 57, focusing on the galaxies HCG 57a and HCG 57d. HCG 57a has been previously shown to contain enhanced quantities of warm ...... galaxies has been found previously to fall in the mid-infrared green valley....

  1. Some Like it Hot: Linking Diffuse X-Ray Luminosity, Baryonic Mass, and Star Formation Rate in Compact Groups of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mulchaey, John S.; Walker, Lisa May; Brandt, Willian N.; Charlton, Jane C.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in 19 compact groups (CGs) of galaxies observed with Chandra. The hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations in L(x-T) and (L(x-sigma), even in CGs where the hot gas is associated with only the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and classify Hickson CGs 19, 22, 40, and 42, and RSCGs 32, 44, and 86 as fossil groups using a new definition for fossil systems that includes a broader range of masses. We find that CGs with total stellar and Hi masses are great than or equal to 10(sup (11.3) solar mass are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint, localized X-ray emission. Additionally, we compare the diffuse X-ray luminosity against both the total UV and 24 micron star formation rates of each CG and optical colors of the most massive galaxy in each of the CGs. The most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because there is no cold gas available for star formation, either because the majority of the baryons in these CGs are in stars or the X-ray halo, or due togas stripping from the galaxies in CGs with hot halos. Finally, the optical colors that trace recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is independent of the recent history of stellar mass assembly in the most massive galaxies.

  2. A re-evaluation of the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Day Point Formation (Chazy Group): A new look at old reefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenberg, J.; Mehrtens, C.J. (Vermont Univ., Burlington, VT (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Day Point Formation (Chazy Group, Middle Ordovician) outcrops in the Champlain Valley of New York and Vermont. The stratigraphy of the Day Point Formation is complex, containing lithologic sequences that are unique at different localities around the Champlain Valley. The formation exhibits complex lateral interfingering of seven lithofacies: (1) Highly bioturbated sandstone with symmetrical and bifurcating ripples. (2) Bioturbated, brachiopod rich, wackestone facies. (3) Planar cross-bedded, interlayered sand and sandy packstone. (4) Interlayered sand and shale grading into sand and limestone layers. (5) Grainstone which, at some localities, contains mound-shaped bryozoan reefs, at other localities thin non-reefal sheet-like layers are present. The grainstone also has planar laminated and cross stratified beds. (6) Fine-grained, calcareous sandstone with planar and herringbone cross bedding, which in places contains small bryozoan reefs and thin sheet-reefs. (7) Planar cross bedded packstone containing bryozoan reefs and thin sheet-like non-reefal layers. The thin reefal layers are found where the mound-shaped reefs are absent. The sand units are found only in the lower portion of the Day Point Formation. The bryozoan reefs and non-reefal layers are associated with the sand beds in the lower portion of the Day Point Formation, and either live within the sand or on top of it. The bryozoans that form the non-reefal layers, found in the limestones, are contained within thin layers of sand. In contrast, no sand is found in the upper section of the Day Point Formation, yet the bryozoan reefs flourish.

  3. Existence of two groups of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis based on biofilm formation, intracellular survival, capsular profile and agr-typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardiau, Marjorie; Caplin, Jonathan; Detilleux, Johann; Graber, Hans; Moroni, Paolo; Taminiau, Bernard; Mainil, Jacques G

    2016-03-15

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is recognised worldwide as an important pathogen causing contagious acute and chronic bovine mastitis. Chronic mastitis account for a significant part of all bovine cases and represent an important economic problem for dairy producers. Several properties (biofilm formation, intracellular survival, capsular expression and group agr) are thought to be associated with this chronic status. In a previous study, we found the existence of two groups of strains based on the association of these features. The aim of the present work was to confirm on a large international and non-related collection of strains the existence of these clusters and to associate them with case history records. In addition, the genomes of eight strains were sequenced to study the genomic differences between strains of each cluster. The results confirmed the existence of both groups based on capsular typing, intracellular survival and agr-typing: strains cap8-positive, belonging to agr group II, showing a low invasion rate and strains cap5-positive, belonging to agr group I, showing a high invasion rate. None of the two clusters were associated with the chronic status of the cow. When comparing the genomes of strains belonging to both clusters, the genes specific to the group "cap5-agrI" would suggest that these strains are better adapted to live in hostile environment. The existence of these two groups is highly important as they may represent two clusters that are adapted differently to the host and/or the surrounding environment.

  4. Studying the evolution of galaxies in compact groups over the past 3 Gyr - II. The importance of environment in the suppression of star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsakis, T; Ciesla, L; Diaz-Santos, T; Appleton, P; Charmandaris, V; Krongold, Y; Guillard, P; Alatalo, K; Zezas, A; Gonzalez, J; Lanz, L

    2016-01-01

    We present an in depth study on the evolution of galaxy properties in compact groups over the past 3 Gyr. We are using the largest multi-wavelength sample to-date, comprised 1770 groups (containing 7417 galaxies), in the redshift range of 0.01formation activity of galaxies in our groups has been substantially reduced (3-10 times). Moreover, their star formation histories as well as their UV-optical and mid-infrared colors are significantly different from those of field and cluster galaxies, indicating that compact group galaxies spend more time transitioning through the green valley. The morphological transformation from late-type spirals into early-type galaxies occurs in the mid-infrared transition zone rather than in the UV-optical green valley. We find evidence of shocks...

  5. Adesão ao tratamento de manutenção em asma (estudo ADERE Compliance with maintenance treatment of asthma (ADERE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Chatkin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a adesão ao tratamento preventivo de asma persistente moderada e grave. MÉTODOS: Médicos de vários Estados do país foram contactados para selecionar asmáticos persistentes moderados ou graves, maiores de doze anos. Os pacientes receberam salmeterol/fluticasona 50/250 µg diskus durante 90 dias (sendo orientados a retornarem as embalagens ao final do estudo para conferência da dosagem total utilizada. Receberam telefonemas da equipe do estudo no início e ao final de 90 dias para que fosse avaliada a adesão. Foi considerado como aderente ao tratamento o asmático que utilizou no mínimo 85% das doses prescritas. As variáveis estudadas foram sexo, idade, cor, estado civil, escolaridade, tabagismo atual, outras atopias, co-morbidades, gravidade da asma, uso de outras medicações e número de hospitalizações por asma. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 131 pacientes oriundos de quinze estados, com taxa geral de adesão de 51,9%. Houve diferença significativa na adesão quanto à gravidade da asma (maior adesão nos casos graves; p = 0,02. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa nas demais variáveis. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa geral de adesão ao tratamento de manutenção da asma foi baixa.OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of compliance with preventive treatment of moderate and severe persistent asthma. METHODS: Physicians at various medical centers across the country were invited to nominate patients for participation in the study. Inclusion criteria were being over the age of 12 and presenting moderate or severe persistent asthma. Participating patients received salmeterol/fluticasone 50/250 µg by dry powder inhaler for 90 days and were instructed to return the empty packages at the end of the study as a means of determining the total quantity used. In order to evaluate compliance, a member of the research team contacted each patient via telephone at the study outset and again at the end of the 90-day study period

  6. Prevalencia de síntomas respiratorios indicativos de asma y asociación con contaminación atmosférica en preescolares de Bucaramanga, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrea Rodríguez

    2010-03-01

    Conclusiones. Es posible que en Bucaramanga los factores de contaminación domiciliaria puedan tener un mayor efecto sobre la presencia de síntomas respiratorios indicativos de asma en menores de siete años que los contaminantes externos.

  7. The crucial role of higher order multiplicity in wide binary formation: a case study using the β-Pictoris moving group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P.; Bayo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The `in situ' formation of very wide binaries is hard to explain as their physical separations are beyond the typical size of a collapsing cloud core (≈5000-10 000 au). Here we investigate the formation process of such systems. We compute population statistics such as the multiplicity fraction, companion-star fraction and physical separation distribution of companions in the β-Pictoris moving group. We compare previous multiplicity studies in younger and older regions and show that the dynamic evolution of a young population with a high degree of primordial multiplicity can lead to a processed separation distribution, similar to the field population. The evolution of outer components is attributed to the dynamical unfolding of higher order (triple) systems; a natural consequence of which is the formation of wide binaries. We find a strong preference for wide systems to contain three or more components (>1000 au: 11/14, 10 000 au: 6 / 7). We argue that the majority of wide binaries identified in young moving groups are primordial. Under the assumption that stellar populations, within our galaxy, have statistically similar primordial multiplicity, we can infer that the paucity of wide binaries in the field is the result of dynamical evolution.

  8. Óxido nítrico em criança com asma persistente Nitric oxide in children with persistent asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nulma S. Jentzsch

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar as diferenças nos valores da fração exalada de óxido nítrico (FeNO em asmáticos atópicos e não-atópicos em uso de tratamento antiinflamatório e comparar a FeNO com a função pulmonar MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 45 asmáticos persistentes moderados e graves, de 6 a 17 anos, selecionados consecutivamente, em uso de medicação antiinflamatória há pelo menos 1 ano. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: atópicos, isto é, com testes cutâneos positivos, e não-atópicos. As avaliações clínico-funcionais e a mensuração da FeNO foram realizadas concomitantemente. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio do sexo masculino (62,5%,sendo que cerca de 85% pertenciam à faixa etária de 6 até 13 anos (média, 10,4 anos. Não foi encontrada, nos dois grupos, significância estatística para a presença de sintomas associados à asma (p = 0,07, rinite alérgica (p = 0,17, alergia alimentar (p = 0,09, necessidade de corticóide sistêmico (p = 0,10, antileucotrieno (p = 0,20 e anti-histamínico (p = 0,70, nem para os três parâmetros usados para avaliar a função pulmonar (VEF1, VEF1/CVF e FEF25-75%, p > 0,14. A freqüência de eczema (p OBJECTIVE: To assess the difference in exhaled nitric oxide levels in atopic and nonatopic asthmatic patients treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, and to compare exhaled nitric oxide measurement with lung function tests. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 45 consecutively selected patients with moderate and severe persistent asthma, aged between 6 and 17 years, and treated with anti-inflammatory drugs for at least 1 year. The patients were split into two groups: atopic ones (with positive skin tests and nonatopic ones. The clinical and functional assessments and the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide were carried out concomitantly. RESULTS: There was a male predominance (62.5%, with an age range between 6 and 13 years (mean of 10.4 years in 85% of the patients. Neither the symptoms

  9. Prevalencia y factores asociados al asma en niños de 5 a 14 años de un área rural del sur del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César V. Munayco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia y los factores asociados al asma en niños de 5 a 14 años de una zona rural en la provincia de Ica, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en niños de 5 a 14 años del distrito de Santiago, Ica, en el año 2004. Se visitaron a las madres de los niños seleccionados a través de un muestreo aleatorio sistemático y se aplicó un cuestionario basado en el ISAAC, asimismo, se evaluaron factores asociados al asma. Tomando el desarrollo de asma como variable de respuesta, se efectuó un modelo de regresión logística binaria a fin de identificar los factores que se le asocian de manera independiente. Resultados. De un total de 200 sujetos, 186 fueron encuestados, 25 de ellos cumplían la definición de asma, la prevalencia global de asma fue de 13,5% (IC95%: 8,8 - 19,8%, predominando ligeramente en los niños menores de 5 años (39% respecto al resto de grupos de edad (16 y 7% para 6 a 10 y 11 a 14 años respectivamente. Dentro de los factores asociados a tener asma se encontraron el antecedente de padecer rinitis, haber recibido antibióticos durante el primer año de vida y tabaquismo del padre en el primer año de vida. Los factores protectores fueron haber tenido diarrea durante el primer año de vida y haber sido vacunados con BCG. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de asma en una zona rural es comparable con la de otras ciudades en el mundo. Se le asocian factores que pueden ser modificados como el tratamiento antibiótico durante el primer año de vida y el tabaquismo paterno.

  10. The Effect of Environment on the Formation of Halpha Filaments and Cool Cores in Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a combined X-ray and Halpha study of 10 galaxy groups and 17 galaxy clusters using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Maryland Magellan Tunable Filter. We find no difference in the morphology or detection frequency of Halpha filaments in groups versus clusters, over the mass range 10^13 < M_500 < 10^15 Msun. The detection frequency of Halpha emission is shown to be only weakly dependent on the total mass of the system, at the 52% confidence level. In contrast, we find that the presence of Halpha filaments is strongly correlated with both the global (89% confidence level) and core (84%) ICM entropy, as well as the X-ray cooling rate (72%). The Halpha filaments are therefore an excellent proxy for the cooling ICM. The Halpha filaments are more strongly correlated with the cooling properties of the ICM than with the radio properties of the BCG; this further supports the scenario where these filaments are directly associated with a thermally-unstable, rapidly cooling ICM, rather...

  11. Hydrophilic group formation and cell culturing on polystyrene Petri-dish modified by ion-assisted reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan E-mail: hama@kist.re.kr; Cho, Jun-Sik; Choi, Doo-Jin; Koh, Seok-Keun

    2001-04-01

    Polystyrene (PS) Petri-dishes were modified by an ion-assisted reaction (IAR) to improve wettability and to supply a suitable surface for cell culturing. Low energy Ar{sup +} ions with 1000 eV were irradiated on the surface of PS in oxygen gas environment. Water contact angles of PS were not reduced much by ion irradiation without oxygen gas and had a value of 40 deg. In the case of ion irradiation with flowing oxygen gas, however, the water contact angles were dropped significantly from 73 deg. to 19 deg. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the hydrophilic groups were formed on the surface of PS by a chemical reaction between unstable chains induced by ion irradiation and the oxygen gas. Newly formed hydrophilic groups were identified as -(C-O)-, -(C=O)- and -(C=O)-O- bonds. The influence of the surface modification on growth of the rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells was investigated. The IAR-treated PS surfaces showed enhanced attachment and growth in PC12 cell culture test.

  12. Contrasting Sr isotope ratios in plagioclase from different formations of the mid-Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkel, W. A.; Wolff, J.; Eckberg, A.; Ramos, F.

    2008-12-01

    Many early Columbia River Basalt flows of the Steens and Imnaha Formations are characterized by abundant, texturally complex, coarse plagioclase phenocrysts. In Imnaha lavas, the feldspars typically have more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr than whole rock and matrix, and may exhibit complex isotopic zoning that is not correlated with An content. Imnaha plagioclase grains are interpreted as variably-contaminated crystals produced when high-crystallinity mid-crustal basaltic intrusions exchanged interstitial melt with adjacent partly-melted crustal rock; this isotopically variable debris was then remobilized by subsequent intrusion of mantle-derived basalt and brought to the surface as an isotopically heterogeneous mixture. In contrast, plagioclase grains in the texturally very similar Steens lavas are isotopically near-homogeneous and 87Sr/86Sr is not significantly displaced from that of the bulk rock. This is consistent with magma- crust interaction at low degrees of crustal melting during the early stages of the Columbia River flood basalt episode, where Steens and Imnaha lavas were erupted from distinct magma systems hosted by different types of crust that exerted different degrees of isotopic leverage on the mantle-derived magmas [1]. Thermal input to the Steens system declined at the same time as the Imnaha magmatic flux increased to ultimately produce the huge outpouring of Grande Ronde lavas, which are mixtures of mantle- and crust-derived liquids, the latter produced during high degrees of crustal melting during the time of peak magmatic flux. [1] Wolff et al. (2008) Nature Geoscience 1, 177-180.

  13. Different cardiovascular neuron groups in the ventral reticular formation of the rostral medulla in rabbits: single neurone studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, E; Ootsuka, Y; Terui, N

    2000-03-15

    To examine whether the cardiovascular neurons of the ventral medulla consist of functionally different kinds of neurons, single neuronal activity of the ventral medulla, activity of the renal sympathetic nerves (RSNA), blood flow of the ear (EarBF) and arterial pressure (AP) were recorded in urethane-anesthetized, vagotomized and immobilized rabbits during electrical stimulation of the aortic nerve (AN, baroreceptor afferent fibers) and electrical stimulation of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) that reduced EarBF but less affected on AP and RSNA. The dorsolateral funiculus of the second cervical cord was stimulated to evoke antidromic spikes of medullary neurons. Two kinds of reticulo-spinal neurons were identified. Activities of one kind of neurons were facilitated by stimulation of DMH (latency 48.6+/-27.6 ms, n=11) but they did not respond to stimulation of the AN. Therefore, it was presumed that these neurons controlled vasomotion of the ear through the vasoconstrictor neurons in the spinal cord but did not participate in regulation of systemic AP. Activities of the other neurons were inhibited by stimulation of the AN (latency 47.8+/-8 4 ms, n=16) but they did not respond to the DMH stimulation. These neurons were identical to those reported previously as the RVLM neurons, and they contributed to regulate systemic AP but might not participate in control of cutaneous vascular movement. The former neurons were located medially to the latter in the reticular formation of the rostral ventral medulla. These results provided evidence at the single neuronal level that the cardiovascular neurons in the ventral medulla were consisted of functionally different sympatho-excitatory neurons and they were located at the different sites in the rostral ventral medulla.

  14. Ekstrak Etanol Propolis Menurunkan Kadar IL-17 Serum pada Mencit Balb/C Model Asma Kronik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati Hadinoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-17 (IL-17 induces the neutrophil recruitment into the respiratory tract while playing a role in the pathogenesis of asthma and determining the severity of disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP Lawu mountain isolates on IL-17 serum levels in Balb/C mice model with chronic asthma. This study was an experimental research laboratory with 28 male Balb/C mice divided into control, asthma, asthma+EEP and asthma+antihistamine groups. The study was conducted at the Histology and Biomedical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, during April to September 2012. A model of chronic asthma was induced in male Balb/C mice using an intraperitoneally (i.p. injection ovalbumin (OVA, 100 μg/mice and aluminum hydroxide (10%, 50 mg/mice in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. Experimental animals were sensitized for 6 weeks with inhaled 2% (w/v OVA aerosol in 0.9% NaCl for 30 minutes/day, 3 days in a week, for asthma, asthma with EEP, and asthma with antihistamine mice model groups. Control mice were not inoculated during the study. Detection of IL-17 serum level was conducted by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA for IL-17 serum level and p<0.05 were used to determine significant differences. Serum levels of IL-17 showed 17.15±8.25 pg/mL in control group and 38.98±7.57 pg/mL in antihistamine, respectively. Ethanol extract of propolis showed significant decreased in IL-17 levels (75.62±17.64 pg/mL vs 45.59±10.69 pg/mL, p<0.001 compared to asthma group. In conclusion, EEP Lawu mountain isolates can decrease IL-17 level in chronic asthma animal models.

  15. Studying with the cloud: the use of online Web-based resources to augment a traditional study group format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa; Sennik, Serena; Zaki, Amna; Trotter, Brendon

    2015-03-01

    Cloud-based applications such as Google Docs, Skype, Dropbox, and SugarSync are revolutionizing the way that we interact with the world. Members of the millennial generation (those born after 1980) are now becoming senior residents and junior attending physicians. We describe a novel technique combining Internet- and cloud-based methods to digitally augment the classic study group used by final-year residents studying for the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada examination. This material was developed by residents and improved over the course of 18 months. This is an innovation report about a process for enhanced communication and collaboration as there has been little research to date regarding the augmentation of learner-driven initiatives with virtual resources.

  16. Usefulness of postoperative hip irradiation in the prevention of heterotopic bone formation in a high risk group of patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLennan, I.; Keys, H.M.; Evarts, C.M.; Rubin, P.

    1984-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification is a complication of total hip arthroplasty in 14 to 30% of patients. Significant functional impairment will occur in up to 28% of patients with ectopic bone. The high risk group includes those with preexisting heterotopic bone in either hip, those suffering from hypertrophic osteoarthritis or ankylosing spondylitis and patients who have had multiple procedures on the hip. Fifty-eight patients (67 hips) were irradiated after surgical removal of ectopic bone (53 hips) or received radiation prophylaxis of heterotopic ossification (14 hips). Ninety-five percent of patients had either no bone visible or insignificant amounts of ectopic bone visible on postoperative hip X-rays. Only 5% of patients showed significant persistence of ectopic bone. Postoperative hip function was dramatically improved compared to preoperative function in all patients treated. The importance of early commencement of irradiation is emphasized.

  17. [The difficult concept of "internal objects" (1934-1943). Its significance for the formation of the Klein group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshelwood, R D

    1996-06-01

    Although the concept of "inner objects" developed by Melanie Klein is hardly a major object of discussion today, it caused a furore in the ranks of the British Psychoanalytical Society in the thirties and forties. Notably the analysts from Vienna were unable to agree to the existence of inner objects engendered via processes of internalisation. The author traces the course of these discussions of a clinical problem and the confusion they caused, placing them at the same time in a specific historical context. He sees the controversy as the expression of conflicts and fears unsettling the British Psychoanalytical Society during that period, caused on the one hand by the necessary integration of the exiled Freud family and on the other by tensions within its own ranks leading ultimately to a division of the Society and the constitution of the Klein Group.

  18. Resposta cardiorrespiratória na asma induzida pelo exercício máximo com incrementos progressivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAMAR FILHO RUY AMAZONAS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Verificar a ocorrência de broncoconstrição induzida por exercício e verificar a resposta cardiorrespiratória durante o exercício máximo em pacientes asmáticos. Pacientes e métodos: Quatorze asmáticos (VEF1 basal de 86,3%, conforme os critérios da American Thoracic Society, foram submetidos a teste de exercício máximo. Foram realizadas curvas fluxo-volume antes, sete e 15 minutos após esforço progressivo máximo. Seis indivíduos (43% apresentaram queda do VEF1 igual ou maior que 15% após esforço máximo (grupo I. Os demais constituíram o grupo II. No grupo I, observou-se redução no VEF1 de 40,9% e 26,7% sete e 15min após o exercício, enquanto no grupo II ocorreu diminuição de 2,6% e aumento de 1,2%. No pico do exercício, os dois grupos atingiram FCmax acima de 91% do valor de referência; a carga máxima foi de 82,7% e 62,5%, o O2max (mL/kg/min de 93,5% e 58,9% e a VEmax de 91,5% e 63,8%, respectivamente, nos grupos I e II. Essas diferenças foram estatisticamente significativas. A correlação da queda percentual do VEF1 (7min pós-exercício com a VEmax (%predito mostrou um coeficiente r = 0,8989 para o grupo I e um r = 0,3629 para o grupo II. Não se observou correlação estatisticamente significativa entre o delta VEF1 e o O2max (% predito. Conclusão: Nos pacientes com asma induzida pelo exercício, a ocorrência de broncoconstrição correlacionou-se com o nível de ventilação máxima, mas não com a aptidão física (O2 máximo.

  19. Millimeter-scale variations of stable isotope abundances in carbonates from banded iron-formations in the Hamersley Group of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, M. E.; Hayes, J. M.; Studley, S. A.; Walter, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Several diamond drill cores from formations within the Hamersley Group of Western Australia have been studied for evidence of short-range variations in the isotopic compositions of the carbonates. For a set of 32 adjacent microbands analyzed in a specimen from the Marra Mamba Iron Formation, carbon isotope compositions of individual microbands ranged from -2.8 to -19.8 per mil compared to PDB and oxygen isotope compositions ranged from 10.2 to 20.8 per mil compared to SMOW. A pattern of alternating abundances was present, with the average isotopic contrasts between adjacent microbands being 3.0 per mil for carbon and 3.1 per mil for oxygen. Similar results were obtained for a suite of 34 microbands (in four groups) from the Bruno's Band unit of the Mount Sylvia Formation. Difficulties were experienced in preparing samples of single microbands from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation, but overall isotopic compositions were in good agreement with values reported by previous authors. Chemical analyses showed that isotopically light carbon and oxygen were correlated with increased concentrations of iron. The preservation of these millimeter-scale variations in isotopic abundances is interpreted as inconsistent with a metamorphic origin for the isotopically light carbon in the BIF carbonates. A biological origin is favored for the correlated variations in 13C and Fe, and it is suggested that the 13C-depleted carbonates may derive either from fermentative metabolism or from anaerobic respiration. A model is presented in which these processes occur near the sediment-water interface and are coupled with an initial oxidative precipitation of the iron.

  20. Asma alérgica, niveles de IgE total y exposición a los acaros del polvo casero en el municipio de Santiago de Tolú, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomón Rodríguez Monterroza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa creciente prevalencia del asma a nivel mundial hace necesaria la investigación de factores que influyen sobre su etiologia y patogénesis. En Colombia la prevalencia de asma es tan alta como en los paises industrializados. Un estudio de historias dinicos en el municipio de Santiago de Tolú (Colombia, mostró un alto porcentaje de consulta por asma y rinitis alérgica en la población infantil. Con el objetivo de determinarla frecuencia de asma en la población general se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, partiendo de la información recolectada con un cuestionario diseñado y probado. Se encuestaron 316 personas, con representatividad de grupos etéreos y estratos socioeconómicos. El diagnóstico fue confirmado mediante espirometria y medición de los niveles de ige total en sangre. Como resultado se encontró que 8,9% de la población mostró sintomas clinicos y espiromet ría positiva paro  asma con niveles de ige total > 100 Ul/ml, siendo los niños entre 5 y 15 años los más afectados (71.5%. La encuesta permitió evaluar la sensibilidad a factores ambientales, siendo el polvo casero y el humo del cigarrillo los más asociados a la enfermedad. La presencia de ácaros en el polvo acumulado en colchones be confirmada, siendo Dennatophagoides pteronyssinusy Momia tropicalis las especies más frecuen-tes. (Duazary 2006; 1: 10- 17