Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.
Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic research and development chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond a doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing were the crucible in which aeronautical concepts were advanced and proven to the point that engineers and companies are willing to stake their future to produce and design aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress being made and the challenges to come.
wmmmmmmmmmmmm i ifmu.immM\\]i\\ ßinimm^mmmmviwmmiwui »vimtm twfjmmmmmmi c-f—rmSmn NWC TP 5954 ALOFT Flight Test Report by James D. Ross anrJ I.. M...responsible i"- u conducting the ALOFT Flight Test Program and made contributions to this report: J. Basden , R. ".estbrook, L. Thompson, J. Willians...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 7. AUTMORC«; <oss James D./Xo L. M.y&ohnson IZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Naval
This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Test Center provides an expert workforce and technologically advanced test equipment to conduct the rigorous testing necessary for U.S. Army acquisition and...
Marston, Michael Lawrence
The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and
Post, Ethan A.; Dupzyk, Ian C.; Korzun, Ashley M.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Tanimoto, Rebekah L.; Edquist, Karl T.
NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program has proposed plans for a series of three sub-scale flight tests at Earth for supersonic retropropulsion, a candidate decelerator technology for future, high-mass Mars missions. The first flight test in this series is intended to be a proof-of-concept test, demonstrating successful initiation and operation of supersonic retropropulsion at conditions that replicate the relevant physics of the aerodynamic-propulsive interactions expected in flight. Five sub-scale flight test article concepts, each designed for launch on sounding rockets, have been developed in consideration of this proof-of-concept flight test. Commercial, off-the-shelf components are utilized as much as possible in each concept. The design merits of the concepts are compared along with their predicted performance for a baseline trajectory. The results of a packaging study and performance-based trade studies indicate that a sounding rocket is a viable launch platform for this proof-of-concept test of supersonic retropropulsion.
the airframe for col1A 300 jauges pour un essal dpreuve a ground "proof test" with a 0.8 charge, au sol A charge 0,8 recalant ce modile ; to update...the model. 200 among these 200 de ces jauges ont 6t6 cibl~es bonnes gauges had been wired to be "airworthy", de vol mats le domaine de vol a 4t6 but
Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark
The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.
Walker, R.; Gupta, N.
Recent extensions to optimal control theory applied to meaningful linear models with sufficiently flexible software tools provide powerful techniques for designing flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs). This report describes the principal steps for systematic development of flight trajectory controllers, which can be summarized as planning, modeling, designing, and validating a trajectory controller. The techniques have been kept as general as possible and should apply to a wide range of problems where quantities must be computed and displayed to a pilot to improve pilot effectiveness and to reduce workload and fatigue. To illustrate the approach, a detailed trajectory guidance law is developed and demonstrated for the F-15 aircraft flying the zoom-and-pushover maneuver.
Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.
The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data
Research on a new design of flutter exciter vane using adaptive materials was conducted. This novel design is based on all-moving aerodynamic surface technology and consists of a structurally stiff main spar, a series of piezoelectric actuator elements and an aerodynamic shell which is pivoted around the main spar. The work was built upon the current missile-type all-moving surface designs and change them so they are better suited for flutter excitation through the transonic flight regime. The first portion of research will be centered on aerodynamic and structural modeling of the system. USAF DatCom and vortex lattice codes was used to capture the fundamental aerodynamics of the vane. Finite element codes and laminated plate theory and virtual work analyses will be used to structurally model the aerodynamic vane and wing tip. Following the basic modeling, a flutter test vane was designed. Each component within the structure was designed to meet the design loads. After the design loads are met, then the deflections will be maximized and the internal structure will be laid out. In addition to the structure, a basic electrical control network will be designed which will be capable of driving a scaled exciter vane. The third and final stage of main investigation involved the fabrication of a 1/4 scale vane. This scaled vane was used to verify kinematics and structural mechanics theories on all-moving actuation. Following assembly, a series of bench tests was conducted to determine frequency response, electrical characteristics, mechanical and kinematic properties. Test results indicate peak-to-peak deflections of 1.1 deg with a corner frequency of just over 130 Hz.
Morelli, Eugene A.
Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.
Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.
Marston, Michael L.
These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.
Tashakkor, Scott B.
NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) to be a heavy lift launch vehicle supporting human and scientific exploration beyond earth orbit. SLS will have a common core stage, an upper stage, and different permutations of boosters and fairings to perform various crewed or cargo missions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is writing the Flight Software (FSW) that will operate the SLS launch vehicle. The FSW is developed in an incremental manner based on "Agile" software techniques. As the FSW is incrementally developed, testing the functionality of the code needs to be performed continually to ensure that the integrity of the software is maintained. Manually testing the functionality on an ever-growing set of requirements and features is not an efficient solution and therefore needs to be done automatically to ensure testing is comprehensive. To support test automation, a framework for a regression test harness has been developed and used on SLS FSW. The test harness provides a modular design approach that can compile or read in the required information specified by the developer of the test. The modularity provides independence between groups of tests and the ability to add and remove tests without disturbing others. This provides the SLS FSW team a time saving feature that is essential to meeting SLS Program technical and programmatic requirements. During development of SLS FSW, this technique has proved to be a useful tool to ensure all requirements have been tested, and that desired functionality is maintained, as changes occur. It also provides a mechanism for developers to check functionality of the code that they have developed. With this system, automation of regression testing is accomplished through a scheduling tool and/or commit hooks. Key advantages of this test harness capability includes execution support for multiple independent test cases, the ability for developers to specify precisely what they are testing and how, the ability to add
Davis, S. R.; Tuma, M. L.; Heitzman, K.
In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.
...). The Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) was contracted to mount the HELLAS sensor on the nose of a UH-60L Blackhawk helicopter and to conduct flight tests to evaluate the HELLAS obstacle detection sensor...
Mahmood, A.; Andrews, D. M.; Mccluskey, E. J.
An executable assertion is a logical statement about the variables or a block of code. If there is no error during execution, the assertion statement results in a true value. Executable assertions can be used for dynamic testing of software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and exception and error detection during the operation phase. The present investigation is concerned with the problem of writing executable assertions, taking into account the use of assertions for testing flight software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and for exception handling and error detection during the operation phase The digital flight control system and the flight control software are discussed. The considered system provides autopilot and flight director modes of operation for automatic and manual control of the aircraft during all phases of flight. Attention is given to techniques for writing and using assertions to test flight software, an experimental setup to test flight software, and language features to support efficient use of assertions.
Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).
Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.
The principal mechanism for developing orbital debris environment models, is to make observations of larger pieces of debris in the range of several centimeters and greater using radar and optical techniques. For particles that are smaller than this threshold, breakup and migration models of particles to returned surfaces in lower orbit are relied upon to quantify the flux. This reliance on models to derive spatial densities of particles that are of critical importance to spacecraft make the unique nature of the EFT-1's return surface a valuable metric. To this end detailed post-flight inspections have been performed of the returned EFT-1 backshell, and the inspections identified six candidate impact sites that were not present during the pre-flight inspections. This paper describes the post-flight analysis efforts to characterize the EFT-1 mission craters. This effort included ground based testing to understand small particle impact craters in the thermal protection material, the pre- and post-flight inspection, the crater analysis using optical, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, and numerical simulations.
Mccluskey, E. J.; Andrews, D. M.
The research to develop a testing methodology for flight software is described. An experiment was conducted in using assertions to dynamically test digital flight control software. The experiment showed that 87% of typical errors introduced into the program would be detected by assertions. Detailed analysis of the test data showed that the number of assertions needed to detect those errors could be reduced to a minimal set. The analysis also revealed that the most effective assertions tested program parameters that provided greater indirect (collateral) testing of other parameters. In addition, a prototype watchdog task system was built to evaluate the effectiveness of executing assertions in parallel by using the multitasking features of Ada.
Bachelder, Ed; Klyde, David
The feasibility of using Fused Reality-based simulation technology to enhance flight test capabilities has been investigated. In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests, even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real-world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight tests provide subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety, including the need for ground and control-room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. A Fused Reality(tm) (FR) Flight system was developed that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources or the risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of, and manual interaction with, the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.
Hodges, W. Todd; Walker, Gregory W.
A rotary wing, unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is being developed as a research tool at the NASA Langley Research Center by the U.S. Army and NASA. This development program is intended to provide the rotorcraft research community an intermediate step between rotorcraft wind tunnel testing and full scale manned flight testing. The technologies under development for this vehicle are: adaptive electronic flight control systems incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, small-light weight sophisticated sensors, advanced telepresence-telerobotics systems and rotary wing UAV operational procedures. This paper briefly describes the system's requirements and the techniques used to integrate the various technologies to meet these requirements. The paper also discusses the status of the development effort. In addition to the original aeromechanics research mission, the technology development effort has generated a great deal of interest in the UAV community for related spin-off applications, as briefly described at the end of the paper. In some cases the technologies under development in the free flight program are critical to the ability to perform some applications.
detailed, accessible .-ltand complete test records for his own protection and for the benefit of his successor in case of promotion, transfer or...and pilot display of fuel quantity, low level warning and a " Bingo " fudl warning. 3.0 TEST OBJECT1VES: ACTION Orriclc. On POUTION•’PHONWE [ DATE PCR...TIS No. 46, paragraph 3.11 3.6 To demonstrate that the low level and bingo warning system are consistent L •and meet the requirements of paragraph
Tartt, David M.; Hewett, Marle D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Cooper, James A.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.
The Automated Flight Test Management System (ATMS) is being developed as part of the NASA Aircraft Automation Program. This program focuses on the application of interdisciplinary state-of-the-art technology in artificial intelligence, control theory, and systems methodology to problems of operating and flight testing high-performance aircraft. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation (FTEWS) is presented, with a detailed description of the system, technical details, and future planned developments. The goal of the FTEWS is to provide flight test engineers and project officers with an automated computer environment for planning, scheduling, and performing flight test programs. The FTEWS system is an outgrowth of the development of ATMS and is an implementation of a component of ATMS on SUN workstations.
DeTurris, Dianne J.; Foster, Trevor J.; Barthel, Paul E.; Macy, Daniel J.; Droney, Christopher K.; Talay, Theodore A. (Technical Monitor)
For the past two years, Cal Poly's rocket program has been aggressively exploring the concept of remotely controlled, fixed wing, flyable rocket boosters. This program, embodied by a group of student engineers known as Cal Poly Space Systems, has successfully demonstrated the idea of a rocket design that incorporates a vertical launch pattern followed by a horizontal return flight and landing. Though the design is meant for supersonic flight, CPSS demonstrators are deployed at a subsonic speed. Many steps have been taken by the club that allowed the evolution of the StarBooster prototype to reach its current size: a ten-foot tall, one-foot diameter, composite material rocket. Progress is currently being made that involves multiple boosters along with a second stage, third rocket.
The integrated Flight Test 4 (FT4) will gather data for the UAS researchers Sense and Avoid systems (referred to as Detect and Avoid in the RTCA SC 228 ToR) algorithms and pilot displays for candidate UAS systems in a relevant environment. The technical goals of FT4 are to: 1) perform end-to-end traffic encounter test of pilot guidance generated by DAA algorithms; 2) collect data to inform the initial Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for Detect and Avoid systems. FT4 objectives and test infrastructure builds from previous UAS project simulations and flight tests. NASA Ames (ARC), NASA Armstrong (AFRC), and NASA Langley (LaRC) Research Centers will share responsibility for conducting the tests, each providing a test lab and critical functionality. UAS-NAS project support and participation on the 2014 flight test of ACAS Xu and DAA Self Separation (SS) significantly contributed to building up infrastructure and procedures for FT3 as well. The DAA Scripted flight test (FT4) will be conducted out of NASA Armstrong over an eight-week period beginning in April 2016.
Smith, B. P.; Dutta, S.
The Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) project will be conducting the first flight test of ADEPT, titled Sounding Rocket One (SR-1), in just two months. The need for this flight test stems from the fact that ADEPT's supersonic dynamic stability has not yet been characterized. The SR-1 flight test will provide critical data describing the flight mechanics of ADEPT in ballistic flight. These data will feed decision making on future ADEPT mission designs. This presentation will describe the SR-1 scientific data products, possible flight test outcomes, and the implications of those outcomes on future ADEPT development. In addition, this presentation will describe free-flight ground testing performed in advance of the flight test. A subsonic flight dynamics test conducted at the Vertical Spin Tunnel located at NASA Langley Research Center provided subsonic flight dynamics data at high and low altitudes for multiple center of mass (CoM) locations. A ballistic range test at the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamics Facility (HFFAF) located at NASA Ames Research Center provided supersonic flight dynamics data at low supersonic Mach numbers. Execution and outcomes of these tests will be discussed. Finally, a hypothesized trajectory estimate for the SR-1 flight will be presented.
Hueschen, R. M.
Five flight tests of the Digital Automated Landing System (DIALS) were conducted on the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Research Vehicle (TSRV) -- a modified Boeing 737 aircraft for advanced controls and displays research. These flight tests were conducted at NASA's Wallops Flight Center using the microwave landing system (MLS) installation on runway 22. This report describes the flight software equations of the DIALS which was designed using modern control theory direct-digital design methods and employed a constant gain Kalman filter. Selected flight test performance data is presented for localizer (runway centerline) capture and track at various intercept angles, for glideslope capture and track of 3, 4.5, and 5 degree glideslopes, for the decrab maneuver, and for the flare maneuver. Data is also presented to illustrate the system performance in the presence of cross, gust, and shear winds. The mean and standard deviation of the peak position errors for localizer capture were, respectively, 24 feet and 26 feet. For mild wind conditions, glideslope and localizer tracking position errors did not exceed, respectively, 5 and 20 feet. For gusty wind conditions (8 to 10 knots), these errors were, respectively, 10 and 30 feet. Ten hands off automatic lands were performed. The standard deviation of the touchdown position and velocity errors from the mean values were, respectively, 244 feet and 0.7 feet/sec.
Ott, Melanie N.; Thoma, William Joe; LaRocca, Frank; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Day, Lance
The Photonics Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in the Electrical Engineering Division of the Advanced Engineering and Technologies Directorate has been involved in the design, development, characterization, qualification, manufacturing, integration and anomaly analysis of optical fiber subsystems for over a decade. The group supports a variety of instrumentation across NASA and outside entities that build flight systems. Among the projects currently supported are: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Mars Science Laboratory, the James Webb Space Telescope, the Express Logistics Carrier for the International Space Station and the NASA Electronic Parts. and Packaging Program. A collection of the most pertinent information gathered during project support over the past year in regards to space flight performance of optical fiber components is presented here. The objective is to provide guidance for future space flight designs of instrumentation and communication systems.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight test pilot. 21.37 Section 21.37... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.37 Flight test pilot. Each applicant for a normal... holding an appropriate pilot certificate to make the flight tests required by this part. [Doc. No. 5085...
with restriction removal is based on heuristic approaches to support the reality of flight test in both solution space and computational time. Exact methods for yielding an optimized solution will be discussed however they are not directly applicable to the flight test problem and therefore have not been included in the system.
Fisher, David F.; Fischer, Michael C.
The overall objective of the flight tests on the JetStar aircraft was to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of laminar flow control under representative flight conditions. One specific objective was to obtain laminar flow on the JetStar leading-edge test articles for the design and off-design conditions. Another specific objective was to obtain operational experience on a Laminar Flow Control (LFC) leading-edge system in a simulated airline service. This included operational experience with cleaning requirements, the effect of clogging, possible foreign object damage, erosion, and the effects of ice particle and cloud encounters. Results are summarized.
Hoang, Ty; Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil
The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communications (Comm), and Certification to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Detect and Avoid (DAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project is conducting a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) and flight test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity, and
Miller, Joshua E.
Orbital debris in the millimeter size range can pose a hazard to current and planned spacecraft due to the high relative impact speeds in Earth orbit. Fortunately, orbital debris has a relatively short life at lower altitudes due to atmospheric effects; however, at higher altitudes orbital debris can survive much longer and has resulted in a band of high flux around 700 to 1,500 km above the surface of the Earth. While large orbital debris objects are tracked via ground based observation, little information can be gathered about small particles except by returned surfaces, which until the Orion Exploration Flight Test number one (EFT-1), has only been possible for lower altitudes (400 to 500 km). The EFT-1 crew module backshell, which used a porous, ceramic tile system with surface coatings, has been inspected post-flight for potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage. This paper describes the pre- and post-flight activities of inspection, identification and analysis of six candidate MMOD impact craters from the EFT-1 mission.
Freestone, Kathleen; Simeone, Louis; Robertson, Byran; Frankford, Maytha; Trice, David; Wallace, Kevin; Wilkerson, DeLisa
The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) is one of the components onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, and was designed to detect and locate lightning over the tropics. The LIS flight code was developed to run on a single onboard digital signal processor, and has operated the LIS instrument since 1997 when the TRMM satellite was launched. The software provides controller functions to the LIS Real-Time Event Processor (RTEP) and onboard heaters, collects the lightning event data from the RTEP, compresses and formats the data for downlink to the satellite, collects housekeeping data and formats the data for downlink to the satellite, provides command processing and interface to the spacecraft communications and data bus, and provides watchdog functions for error detection. The Special Test Equipment (STE) software was designed to operate specific test equipment used to support the LIS hardware through development, calibration, qualification, and integration with the TRMM spacecraft. The STE software provides the capability to control instrument activation, commanding (including both data formatting and user interfacing), data collection, decompression, and display and image simulation. The LIS STE code was developed for the DOS operating system in the C programming language. Because of the many unique data formats implemented by the flight instrument, the STE software was required to comprehend the same formats, and translate them for the test operator. The hardware interfaces to the LIS instrument using both commercial and custom computer boards, requiring that the STE code integrate this variety into a working system. In addition, the requirement to provide RTEP test capability dictated the need to provide simulations of background image data with short-duration lightning transients superimposed. This led to the development of unique code used to control the location, intensity, and variation above background for simulated lightning strikes
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While modern ground-based flight simulators continue to improve in fidelity and effectiveness, there remains no substitute for flight test evaluations. In addition...
Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.
The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate neural network-based adaptive controller benefits, with the objective to develop and flight-test control systems using neural network technology to optimize aircraft performance under nominal conditions and stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This open-loop flight test set was performed in preparation for a future phase in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed - pitch frequency sweep and automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. Flight data examination shows that addition of flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved aircraft pitch handling qualities.
Farmer, N. B.
Development flight instrumentation was delivered for 25 Apollo vehicles as Government-furnished equipment. The problems and philosophies of an activity that was concerned with supplying telemetry equipment to a space-flight test program are discussed. Equipment delivery dates, system-design details, and flight-performance information for each mission also are included.
Jones, Justin D.; Lam, Danny
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) team is sending the rover, Curiosity, to Mars, and therefore is physically and technically complex. During my stay, I have assisted the MSL Flight Software (FSW) team in implementing functional test scripts to ensure that the FSW performs to the best of its abilities. There are a large number of FSW requirements that have been written up for implementation; however I have only been assigned a few sections of these requirements. There are many stages within testing; one of the early stages is FSW Internal Testing (FIT). The FIT team can accomplish this with simulation software and the MSL Test Automation Kit (MTAK). MTAK has the ability to integrate with the Software Simulation Equipment (SSE) and the Mission Processing and Control System (MPCS) software which makes it a powerful tool within the MSL FSW development process. The MSL team must ensure that the rover accomplishes all stages of the mission successfully. Due to the natural complexity of this project there is a strong emphasis on testing, as failure is not an option. The entire mission could be jeopardized if something is overlooked.
Costa, Guillermo J.; Arteaga, Ricardo A.
A preliminary survey of existing separation assurance and collision avoidance advancements, technologies, and efforts has been conducted in order to develop a concept of operations for flight testing autonomous separation assurance at Dryden Flight Research Center. This effort was part of the Unmanned Aerial Systems in the National Airspace System project. The survey focused primarily on separation assurance projects validated through flight testing (including lessons learned), however current forays into the field were also examined. Comparisons between current Dryden flight and range assets were conducted using House of Quality matrices in order to allow project management to make determinations regarding asset utilization for future flight tests. This was conducted in order to establish a body of knowledge of the current collision avoidance landscape, and thus focus Dryden s efforts more effectively towards the providing of assets and test ranges for future flight testing within this research field.
The presentation will overview the flight test capabilities at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), to open up partnership collaboration opportunities for Wireless Community to conduct flight testing of aerospace wireless technologies. Also, it will brief the current activities on wireless sensor system at AFRC through SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) proposals, and it will show the current areas of interest on wireless technologies that AFRC would like collaborate with Wireless Community to further and testing.
Miller, Natasha R.
The increased demand for micro Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) driven by military requirements, commercial use, and academia is creating a need for the ability to quickly and accurately conduct low Reynolds Number aircraft design. There exist several open source software programs that are free or inexpensive that can be used for large scale aircraft design, but few software programs target the realm of low Reynolds Number flight. XFLR5 is an open source, free to download, software program that attempts to take into consideration viscous effects that occur at low Reynolds Number in airfoil design, 3D wing design, and 3D airplane design. An off the shelf, remote control airplane was used as a test bed to model in XFLR5 and then compared to flight test collected data. Flight test focused on the stability modes of the 3D plane, specifically the phugoid mode. Design and execution of the flight tests were accomplished for the RC airplane using methodology from full scale military airplane test procedures. Results from flight test were not conclusive in determining the accuracy of the XFLR5 software program. There were several sources of uncertainty that did not allow for a full analysis of the flight test results. An off the shelf drone autopilot was used as a data collection device for flight testing. The precision and accuracy of the autopilot is unknown. Potential future work should investigate flight test methods for small scale UAV flight.
Gregory, Irene M.; Xargay, Enric; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira
This paper presents results of a flight test of the L-1 adaptive control architecture designed to directly compensate for significant uncertain cross-coupling in nonlinear systems. The flight test was conducted on the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model that is an integral part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results presented are for piloted tasks performed during the flight test.
Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.
The guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for an Instrument Pilot Helicopter Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: maneuvering by reference to instruments, IFR navigation, instrument…
Motter, Mark A.; High, James W.
A successful flight test and training campaign of the NASA Flying Controls Testbed was conducted at Naval Outlying Field, Webster Field, MD during 2008. Both the prop and jet-powered versions of the subscale, remotely piloted testbeds were used to test representative experimental flight controllers. These testbeds were developed by the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project s emphasis on new flight test techniques. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The purpose of these testbeds is to quickly and inexpensively evaluate advanced concepts and experimental flight controls, with applications to adaptive control, system identification, novel control effectors, correlation of subscale flight tests with wind tunnel results, and autonomous operations. Flight tests and operator training were conducted during four separate series of tests during April, May, June and August 2008. Experimental controllers were engaged and disengaged during fully autonomous flight in the designated test area. Flaps and landing gear were deployed by commands from the ground control station as unanticipated disturbances. The flight tests were performed NASA personnel with support from the Maritime Unmanned Development and Operations (MUDO) team of the Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division
Mclachlan, B. G.; Bell, J. H.; Espina, J.; Gallery, J.; Gouterman, M.; Demandante, C. G. N.; Bjarke, L.
NASA ARC has conducted flight tests of a new type of aerodynamic pressure sensor based on a luminescent surface coating. Flights were conducted at the NASA ARC-Dryden Flight Research Facility. The luminescent pressure sensor is based on a surface coating which, when illuminated with ultraviolet light, emits visible light with an intensity dependent on the local air pressure on the surface. This technique makes it possible to obtain pressure data over the entire surface of an aircraft, as opposed to conventional instrumentation, which can only make measurements at pre-selected points. The objective of the flight tests was to evaluate the effectiveness and practicality of a luminescent pressure sensor in the actual flight environment. A luminescent pressure sensor was installed on a fin, the Flight Test Fixture (FTF), that is attached to the underside of an F-104 aircraft. The response of one particular surface coating was evaluated at low supersonic Mach numbers (M = 1.0-1.6) in order to provide an initial estimate of the sensor's capabilities. This memo describes the test approach, the techniques used, and the pressure sensor's behavior under flight conditions. A direct comparison between data provided by the luminescent pressure sensor and that produced by conventional pressure instrumentation shows that the luminescent sensor can provide quantitative data under flight conditions. However, the test results also show that the sensor has a number of limitations which must be addressed if this technique is to prove useful in the flight environment.
Wang, Eric; Brown, Jay
The Cassini spacecraft was launched on 15 October 1997 on a Titan IV-B launch vehicle. The spacecraft is comprised of various subsystems, including the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS). The AACS Flight Software (FSW) and its development has been an ongoing effort, from the design, development and finally operations. As planned, major modifications to certain FSW functions were designed, tested, verified and uploaded during the cruise phase of the mission. Each flight software upload involved extensive verification testing. A standardized FSW testing methodology was used to verify the integrity of the flight software. This paper summarizes the flight software testing methodology used for verifying FSW from pre-launch through the prime mission, with an emphasis on flight experience testing during the first 2.5 years of the prime mission (July 2004 through January 2007).
Motter, Mark A.; Logan, Michael J.; French, Michael L.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.
The NASA Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis, Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights, including a fully autonomous demonstration at the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) UAV Demo 2005. Simulations based on wind tunnel data are being used to further develop advanced controllers for implementation and flight test.
Hill, T. A.; Reid, W. M.; Wortman, K. A.
During the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission, a test framework was developed by the Embedded Applications Group in the Space Department at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The test framework is implemented for verification of the Command and Data Handling (C& DH) Flight Software. The RBSP C& DH Flight Software consists of applications developed for use with Goddard Space Flight Center's core Flight Executive (cFE) architecture. The test framework's initial concept originated with tests developed for verification of the Autonomy rules that execute with the Autonomy Engine application of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. The test framework was adopted and expanded for system and requirements verification of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. During the evolution of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software test framework design, a set of script conventions and a script library were developed. The script conventions and library eased integration of system and requirements verification tests into a comprehensive automated test suite. The comprehensive test suite is currently being used to verify releases of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. In addition to providing the details and benefits of the test framework, the discussion will include several lessons learned throughout the verification process of RBSP C& DH Flight Software. Our next mission, Solar Probe Plus (SPP), will use the cFE architecture for the C& DH Flight Software. SPP also plans to use the same ground system as RBSP. Many of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software applications are reusable on the SPP mission, therefore there is potential for test design and test framework reuse for system and requirements verification.
Bauer, Jeffrey T.
This viewgraph presentation reviews the areas that Dryden Flight Research Center has set up for testing small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). It also reviews the requirements and process to use an area for UAS test.
Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.
The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team was to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology, to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions, and to stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. The Intelligent Flight Control System team is currently in the process of implementing a second generation control scheme, collectively known as Generation 2 or Gen 2, for flight testing on the NASA F-15 aircraft. This report describes the Gen 2 system as implemented by the team for flight test evaluation. Simulation results are shown which describe the experiment to be performed in flight and highlight the ways in which the Gen 2 system meets the defined objectives.
...) and AFIT MXTOOLS toolboxes were used to produce the optimal, multiobjective designs. These designs were implemented for flight test on the Calspan VSS I Learjet, simulating the unstable longitudinal dynamics of an F-16 type aircraft...
Teets, Edward H.
Information enclosed is to be shared with students of Atmospheric Sciences, Engineering and High School STEM programs. Information will show the relationship between atmospheric Sciences and aeronautical flight testing.
Gregory, Irene M.; Xargay, Enric; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira
This paper presents new results of a flight test of the L1 adaptive control architecture designed to directly compensate for significant uncertain cross-coupling in nonlinear systems. The flight test was conducted on the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model that is an integral part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results presented include control law evaluation for piloted offset landing tasks as well as results in support of nonlinear aerodynamic modeling and real-time dynamic modeling of the departure-prone edges of the flight envelope.
Motil, Susan M.; Harrivel, Angela R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.
This paper provides an overview of utilizing the NASA KC-135 Reduced Gravity Aircraft for the Foam Optics and Mechanics (FOAM) microgravity flight project. The FOAM science requirements are summarized, and the KC-135 test-rig used to test hardware concepts designed to meet the requirements are described. Preliminary results regarding foam dispensing, foam/surface slip tests, and dynamic light scattering data are discussed in support of the flight hardware development for the FOAM experiment.
White, Molly E.; Hyatt, Andrew J.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Reaction Control System (RCS) is critical to guide the vehicle along the desired trajectory during re--entry. However, this system has a significant impact on the convective heating environment to the spacecraft. Heating augmentation from the jet interaction (JI) drives thermal protection system (TPS) material selection and thickness requirements for the spacecraft. This paper describes the heating environment from the RCS on the afterbody of the Orion MPCV during Orion's first flight test, Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). These jet plumes interact with the wake of the crew capsule and cause an increase in the convective heating environment. Not only is there widespread influence from the jet banks, there may also be very localized effects. The firing history during EFT-1 will be summarized to assess which jet bank interaction was measured during flight. Heating augmentation factors derived from the reconstructed flight data will be presented. Furthermore, flight instrumentation across the afterbody provides the highest spatial resolution of the region of influence of the individual jet banks of any spacecraft yet flown. This distribution of heating augmentation across the afterbody will be derived from the flight data. Additionally, trends with possible correlating parameters will be investigated to assist future designs and ground testing programs. Finally, the challenges of measuring JI, applying this data to future flights and lessons learned will be discussed.
Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Lee, Sam; Cooper, Jon
A flight test of a business jet aircraft with various ice accretions was performed to obtain data to validate flight simulation models developed through wind tunnel tests. Three types of ice accretions were tested: pre-activation roughness, runback shapes that form downstream of the thermal wing ice protection system, and a wing ice protection system failure shape. The high fidelity flight simulation models of this business jet aircraft were validated using a software tool called "Overdrive." Through comparisons of flight-extracted aerodynamic forces and moments to simulation-predicted forces and moments, the simulation models were successfully validated. Only minor adjustments in the simulation database were required to obtain adequate match, signifying the process used to develop the simulation models was successful. The simulation models were implemented in the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD) to enable company pilots to evaluate flight characteristics of the simulation models. By and large, the pilots confirmed good similarities in the flight characteristics when compared to the real airplane. However, pilots noted pitch up tendencies at stall with the flaps extended that were not representative of the airplane and identified some differences in pilot forces. The elevator hinge moment model and implementation of the control forces on the ICEFTD were identified as a driver in the pitch ups and control force issues, and will be an area for future work.
Gilbert, Michael G.
The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern...
Murch, Austin M.
A flight control system architecture for the NASA AirSTAR infrastructure has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. The AirSTAR flight control system provides a flexible framework that enables NASA Aviation Safety Program research objectives, and includes the ability to rapidly integrate and test research control laws, emulate component or sensor failures, inject automated control surface perturbations, and provide a baseline control law for comparison to research control laws and to increase operational efficiency. The current baseline control law uses an angle of attack command augmentation system for the pitch axis and simple stability augmentation for the roll and yaw axes.
Bauer, Jeffrey E.; Clarke, Robert; Burken, John J.
The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has flight tested two X-29A aircraft at low and high angles of attack. The high-angle-of-attack tests evaluate the feasibility of integrated X-29A technologies. More specific objectives focus on evaluating the high-angle-of-attack flying qualities, defining multiaxis controllability limits, and determining the maximum pitch-pointing capability. A pilot-selectable gain system allows examination of tradeoffs in airplane stability and maneuverability. Basic fighter maneuvers provide qualitative evaluation. Bank angle captures permit qualitative data analysis. This paper discusses the design goals and approach for high-angle-of-attack control laws and provides results from the envelope expansion and handling qualities testing at intermediate angles of attack. Comparisons of the flight test results to the predictions are made where appropriate. The pitch rate command structure of the longitudinal control system is shown to be a valid design for high-angle-of-attack control laws. Flight test results show that wing rock amplitude was overpredicted and aileron and rudder effectiveness were underpredicted. Flight tests show the X-29A airplane to be a good aircraft up to 40 deg angle of attack.
Holzman, J. K.; Payne, G. A.
A compressor face rake with an internal valve arrangement to permit nulling was designed, constructed, and tested in the laboratory and in flight at the NASA Flight Research Center. When actuated by the pilot in flight, the nullable rake allowed the transducer zero shifts to be determined and then subsequently removed during data reduction. Design details, the fabrication technique, the principle of operation, brief descriptions of associated digital zero-correction programs and the qualification tests, and test results are included. Sample flight data show that the zero shifts were large and unpredictable but could be measured in flight with the rake. The rake functioned reliably and as expected during 25 hours of operation under flight environmental conditions and temperatures from 230 K (-46 F) to greater than 430 K (314 F). The rake was nulled approximately 1000 times. The in-flight zero-shift measurement technique, as well as the rake design, was successful and should be useful in future applications, particularly where accurate measurements of both steady-state and dynamic pressures are required under adverse environmental conditions.
Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Burken, John; Maine, Trindel A.
Flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system on an F-15 airplane have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane was flown with all flight control surfaces locked both in the manual throttles-only mode and in an augmented system mode. In the latter mode, pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to position the throttles. Flight evaluation results showed that the PCA system can be used to land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure safely. The PCA system was used to recover the F-15 airplane from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Pilots from NASA, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace evaluated the PCA system and were favorably impressed with its capability. Manual throttles-only approaches were unsuccessful. This paper describes the PCA system operation and testing. It also presents flight test results and pilot comments.
Full Text Available experience totalling approximately 7,000 flying hours on forty-five different variants of military aircraft, nearly all in the flight-test environment. He holds a Commercial Pilot’s Licence with a Class I test pilot rating. During his twenty-eight years... of military flight-testing, he was involved in the fixed wing fighter programmes and weapons development testing and amongst others, he was the project test pilot on the Cheetah C, the Mirage IIIRZ/Atar 09K50 engine integration and the Mirage F1 fitted...
Murch, Austin M.; Cox, David E.; Cunningham, Kevin
The NASA AirSTAR system has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient subscale flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. In this paper, software elements of this system are described, with an emphasis on components which allow for rapid prototyping and deployment of aircraft control laws. Through model-based design and automatic coding a common code-base is used for desktop analysis, piloted simulation and real-time flight control. The flight control system provides the ability to rapidly integrate and test multiple research control laws and to emulate component or sensor failures. Integrated integrity monitoring systems provide aircraft structural load protection, isolate the system from control algorithm failures, and monitor the health of telemetry streams. Finally, issues associated with software configuration management and code modularity are briefly discussed.
Larrabee, Trenton Jameson
sensing data using UAVs in formation flight. This has been achieved and well documented before in manned aircraft but very little work has been done on UAV wake sensing especially during flight testing. This document describes the development and flight testing of small unmanned aerial system (UAS) for wind and wake sensing purpose including a Ground Control Station (GCS) and UAVs. This research can be stated in four major components. Firstly, formation flight was obtained by integrating a formation flight controller on the WVU Phastball Research UAV aircraft platform from the Flight Control Systems Laboratory (FCSL) at West Virginia University (WVU). Second, a new approach to wind estimation using an Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is discussed along with results from flight data. Third, wake modeling within a simulator and wake sensing during formation flight is shown. Finally, experimental results are used to discuss the "sweet spot" for energy harvesting in formation flight, a novel approach to cooperative wind estimation, and gust suppression control for a follower aircraft in formation flight.
Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.
In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.
Duke, Eugene L.; Hewett, Marle D.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.; Tartt, David M.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Agarwal, Arvind K.
An automated flight test management system (ATMS) and its use to develop a rapid-prototyping flight research facility for artificial intelligence (AI) based flight systems concepts are described. The ATMS provides a flight test engineer with a set of tools that assist in flight planning and simulation. This system will be capable of controlling an aircraft during the flight test by performing closed-loop guidance functions, range management, and maneuver-quality monitoring. The rapid-prototyping flight research facility is being developed at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) to provide early flight assessment of emerging AI technology. The facility is being developed as one element of the aircraft automation program which focuses on the qualification and validation of embedded real-time AI-based systems.
Research is being conducted to refine current noise regulation of propeller-driven small airplanes. Studies are examining the prospect of a substituting a takeoff procedure of equal stringency for the level flyover certification test presently requir...
Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.
The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.
Knighton, Donna L.
A Flight Test Engineering Database Management System (FTE DBMS) was designed and implemented at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The X-29 Forward Swept Wing Advanced Technology Demonstrator flight research program was chosen for the initial system development and implementation. The FTE DBMS greatly assisted in planning and 'mass production' card preparation for an accelerated X-29 research program. Improved Test Plan tracking and maneuver management for a high flight-rate program were proven, and flight rates of up to three flights per day, two times per week were maintained.
NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) program was established to identify, develop, and eventually qualify to Test [i.e. Technology] Readiness Level (TRL) - 6 aerodynamic decelerators for eventual use on Mars. Through comprehensive Mars application studies, two distinct Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) designs were chosen that afforded the optimum balance of benefit, cost, and development risk. In addition, a Supersonic Disk Sail (SSDS) parachute design was chosen that satisfied the same criteria. The final phase of the multi-tiered qualification process involves Earth Supersonic Flight Dynamics Tests (SFDTs) within environmental conditions similar to those that would be experienced during a Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) mission. The first of these flight tests (i.e. SFDT-1) was completed on June 28, 2014 with two more tests scheduled for the summer of 2015 and 2016, respectively. The basic flight design for all the SFDT flights is for the SFDT test vehicle to be ferried to a float altitude of 120 kilo-feet by a 34 thousand cubic feet (Mcf) heavy lift helium balloon. Once float altitude is reached, the test vehicle is released from the balloon, spun-up for stability, and accelerated to supersonic speeds using a Star48 solid rocket motor. After burnout of the Star48 motor the vehicle decelerates to pre-flight selected test conditions for the deployment of the SIAD system. After further deceleration with the SIAD deployed, the SSDS parachute is then deployed stressing the performance of the parachute in the wake of the SIAD augmented blunt body. The test vehicle/SIAD/parachute system then descends to splashdown in the Pacific Ocean for eventual recovery. This paper will discuss the development of both the test vehicle and the trajectory sequence including design trade-offs resulting from the interaction of both engineering efforts. In addition, the SFDT-1 nominal trajectory design and associated sensitivities will be discussed
Cosentino, Gary B.
This slide presentation reviews some of the projects that have extended NASA Dryden's capabilities in designing, testing, and using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's). Some of the UAV's have been for Science and experimental applications, some have been for flight research and demonstration purposes, and some have been small UAV's for other customers.
Watts, Michael E.; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben; Stephenson, James; Smith, Charles D.
A cooperative flight test campaign between NASA and the U.S. Army was performed from September 2014 to February 2015. The purposes of the testing were to: investigate the effects of altitude variation on noise generation, investigate the effects of gross weight variation on noise generation, establish the statistical variability in acoustic flight testing of helicopters, and characterize the effects of transient maneuvers on radiated noise for a medium-lift utility helicopter. This test was performed at three test sites (0, 4000, and 7000 feet above mean sea level) with two aircraft (AS350 SD1 and EH-60L) tested at each site. This report provides an overview of the test, documents the data acquired and describes the formats of the stored data.
The presentation will overview NASA Armstrong Flight Research Centers flight test capabilities, which can provide various means for flight testing of passive and active wireless sensor systems, also, it will address the needs of the wireless data acquisition solutions for the centers flight instrumentation issues such as additional weight caused by added instrumentation wire bundles, connectors, wire cables routing, moving components, etc., that the Passive Wireless Sensor Technology Workshop may help. The presentation shows the constraints and requirements that the wireless sensor systems will face in the flight test applications.
Deets, Dwain A.; Lock, Wilton P.; Megna, Vincent A.
A new fault-tolerant system software concept employing the primary digital computers as host for the backup software portion has been implemented and flight tested in the F-8 digital fly-by-wire airplane. The system was implemented in such a way that essentially no transients occurred in transferring from primary to backup software. This was accomplished without a significant increase in the complexity of the backup software. The primary digital system was frame synchronized, which provided several advantages in implementing the resident backup software system. Since the time of the flight tests, two other flight vehicle programs have made a commitment to incorporate resident backup software similar in nature to the system described here.
Stachowiak, Susan J.; Bosworth, John T.
In the early 1980s, two F-16 airplanes were modified to extend the fuselage length and incorporate a large area delta wing planform. These two airplanes, designated the F-16XL, were designed by the General Dynamics Corporation (now Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems) (Fort Worth, Texas) and were prototypes for a derivative fighter evaluation program conducted by the United States Air Force. Although the concept was never put into production, the F-16XL prototypes provided a unique planform for testing concepts in support of future high-speed supersonic transport aircraft. To extend the capabilities of this testbed vehicle the F-16XL ship 1 aircraft was upgraded with a digital flight control system. The added flexibility of a digital flight control system increases the versatility of this airplane as a testbed for aerodynamic research and investigation of advanced technologies. This report presents the handling qualities flight test results covering the envelope expansion of the F-16XL with the digital flight control system.
Cassady, Leonard D.; Ray, Eric S.; Truong, Tuan H.
The aerodynamics, both static and dynamic, of a test vehicle are critical to determining the performance of the parachute cluster in a drop test and for conducting a successful test. The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is conducting tests of NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) parachutes at the Army Yuma Proving Ground utilizing the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV). The PTV shape is based on the MPCV, but the height has been reduced in order to fit within the C-17 aircraft for extraction. Therefore, the aerodynamics of the PTV are similar, but not the same as, the MPCV. A small series of wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics cases were run to modify the MPCV aerodynamic database for the PTV, but aerodynamic reconstruction of the flights has proven an effective source for further improvements to the database. The acceleration and rotational rates measured during free flight, before parachute inflation but during deployment, were used to con rm vehicle static aerodynamics. A multibody simulation is utilized to reconstruct the parachute portions of the flight. Aerodynamic or parachute parameters are adjusted in the simulation until the prediction reasonably matches the flight trajectory. Knowledge of the static aerodynamics is critical in the CPAS project because the parachute riser load measurements are scaled based on forebody drag. PTV dynamic damping is critical because the vehicle has no reaction control system to maintain attitude - the vehicle dynamics must be understood and modeled correctly before flight. It will be shown here that aerodynamic reconstruction has successfully contributed to the CPAS project.
Full Text Available This paper presents the design, development and construction of a flight test stand for a quadrotor UAV. As opposed to alternate forms of UAV, the power plant in the case of the quadrotor serves a dual purpose of control and propulsion. Since...
CFD . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Boundary layer transition, hypersonic , flight test 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18...consistent with prior CFD 33,34 and wind tunnel measurements 28,29 at hypersonic conditions that indicated that the centerline is more unstable... Hypersonic Sciences Branch High Speed Systems Division NOVEMBER 2013 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited
Watts, Michael E.; Snider, Royce; Greenwood, Eric; Baden, Joel
A cooperative flight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July, 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 data points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive data base of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone configurations with up to 31 microphones in each configuration were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included DGPS, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test.
Khurram Shahzad; Ahmad Mirza Safeer Ahmad; Muhammad Asif Khan
This paper describes the ultrasonic testing using Time Flight Diffraction (TOFD) Technique for welded samples having different types and sizes of defects. TOFD is a computerized ultrasonic system, able to scan, store and evaluate indications in terms of location, through thickness and length in a more easy and convenient. Time of Flight Diffraction Technique (TOFD) is more fast and easy technique for ultrasonic testing as we can examine a weld i a single scan along the length of the weld with two probes known as D-scan. It shows the image of the complete weld with the defect information. The examinations were performed on carbon steel samples used for ultrasonic testing using 70 degree probes. The images for different type of defects were obtained. (author)
Hillebrandt, Martin; Meyer, Sebastian; Zander, Martin; Hühne, Christian
The paper describes the results of the deployment testing of the De-Orbit Sail flight hardware, a drag sail for de-orbiting applications, performed by DLR. It addresses in particular the deployment tests of the fullscale sail subsystem and deployment force tests performed on the boom deployment module. For the fullscale sail testing a gravity compensation device is used which is described in detail. It allows observations of the in-plane interaction of the booms with the sail membrane and the...
Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Angelis, A.De; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Goodman, J.; Himel, T.
The Gamma-ray Large Area Space telescope (GLAST) is a gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in 2008. Before the assembly of the Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of GLAST, every component (tray) and module (tower) has been subjected to extensive ground testing required to ensure successful launch and on-orbit operation. This paper describes the sequence and results of the environmental tests performed on an engineering model and all the flight hardware of the GLAST LAT Tracker. Environmental tests include vibration testing, thermal cycles and thermal-vacuum cycles of every tray and tower as well as the verification of their electrical performance.
Phatak, A. V.; Lee, M. G.
The navigation and flight director guidance systems implemented in the NASA/FAA helicopter microwave landing system (MLS) curved approach flight test program is described. Flight test were conducted at the U.S. Navy's Crows Landing facility, using the NASA Ames UH-lH helicopter equipped with the V/STOLAND avionics system. The purpose of these tests was to investigate the feasibility of flying complex, curved and descending approaches to a landing using MLS flight director guidance. A description of the navigation aids used, the avionics system, cockpit instrumentation and on-board navigation equipment used for the flight test is provided. Three generic reference flight paths were developed and flown during the test. They were as follows: U-Turn, S-turn and Straight-In flight profiles. These profiles and their geometries are described in detail. A 3-cue flight director was implemented on the helicopter. A description of the formulation and implementation of the flight director laws is also presented. Performance data and analysis is presented for one pilot conducting the flight director approaches.
Bomben, Craig R.; Smolka, James W.; Bosworth, John T.; Silliams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Burken, John J.; Larson, Richard R.; Buschbacher, Mark J.; Maliska, Heather A.
The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA, has been investigating the use of neural network based adaptive control on a unique NF-15B test aircraft. The IFCS neural network is a software processor that stores measured aircraft response information to dynamically alter flight control gains. In 2006, the neural network was engaged and allowed to learn in real time to dynamically alter the aircraft handling qualities characteristics in the presence of actual aerodynamic failure conditions injected into the aircraft through the flight control system. The use of neural network and similar adaptive technologies in the design of highly fault and damage tolerant flight control systems shows promise in making future aircraft far more survivable than current technology allows. This paper will present the results of the IFCS flight test program conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 2006, with emphasis on challenges encountered and lessons learned.
On the surface of Mars, the Mars Science Laboratory will boot up its flight computers every morning, having charged the batteries through the night. This boot process is complicated, critical, and affected by numerous hardware states that can be difficult to test. The hardware test beds do not facilitate testing a long duration of back-to-back unmanned automated tests, and although the software simulation has provided the necessary functionality and fidelity for this boot testing, there has not been support for the full flexibility necessary for this task. Therefore to perform this testing a framework has been build around the software simulation that supports running automated tests loading a variety of starting configurations for software and hardware states. This implementation has been tested against the nominal cases to validate the methodology, and support for configuring off-nominal cases is ongoing. The implication of this testing is that the introduction of input configurations that have yet proved difficult to test may reveal boot scenarios worth higher fidelity investigation, and in other cases increase confidence in the robustness of the flight software boot process.
Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep
We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.
Haddad Michael E.
On-Orbit Constraints Test (OOCT's) refers to mating flight hardware together on the ground before they will be mated on-orbit or on the Lunar surface. The concept seems simple but it can be difficult to perform operations like this on the ground when the flight hardware is being designed to be mated on-orbit in a zero-g/vacuum environment of space or low-g/vacuum environment on the Lunar/Mars Surface. Also some of the items are manufactured years apart so how are mating tasks performed on these components if one piece is on-orbit/on Lunar/Mars surface before its mating piece is planned to be built. Both the Internal Vehicular Activity (IVA) and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) OOCT's performed at Kennedy Space Center will be presented in this paper. Details include how OOCT's should mimic on-orbit/Lunar/Mars surface operational scenarios, a series of photographs will be shown that were taken during OOCT's performed on International Space Station (ISS) flight elements, lessons learned as a result of the OOCT's will be presented and the paper will conclude with possible applications to Moon and Mars Surface operations planned for the Constellation Program.
Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Burken, John J.; Pappas, Drew
An emergency flight control system using only engine thrust, called Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA), has been developed and flight tested on an MD-11 airplane. In this thrust-only control system, pilot flight path and track commands and aircraft feedback parameters are used to control the throttles. The PCA system was installed on the MD-11 airplane using software modifications to existing computers. Flight test results show that the PCA system can be used to fly to an airport and safely land a transport airplane with an inoperative flight control system. In up-and-away operation, the PCA system served as an acceptable autopilot capable of extended flight over a range of speeds and altitudes. The PCA approaches, go-arounds, and three landings without the use of any non-nal flight controls have been demonstrated, including instrument landing system-coupled hands-off landings. The PCA operation was used to recover from an upset condition. In addition, PCA was tested at altitude with all three hydraulic systems turned off. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only flight control; describes the MD-11 airplane and systems; and discusses PCA system development, operation, flight testing, and pilot comments.
Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Burken, John J.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon
An emergency flight control system that uses only engine thrust, called the propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system, was developed and flight tested on an MD-11 airplane. The PCA system is a thrust-only control system, which augments pilot flightpath and track commands with aircraft feedback parameters to control engine thrust. The PCA system was implemented on the MD-11 airplane using only software modifications to existing computers. Results of a 25-hr flight test show that the PCA system can be used to fly to an airport and safely land a transport airplane with an inoperative flight control system. In up-and-away operation, the PCA system served as an acceptable autopilot capable of extended flight over a range of speeds, altitudes, and configurations. PCA approaches, go-arounds, and three landings without the use of any normal flight controls were demonstrated, including ILS-coupled hands-off landings. PCA operation was used to recover from an upset condition. The PCA system was also tested at altitude with all three hydraulic systems turned off. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only flight control, a history of accidents or incidents in which some or all flight controls were lost, the MD-11 airplane and its systems, PCA system development, operation, flight testing, and pilot comments.
Finchum, Andy; Hubbs, Whitney; Evans, Steve
Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Impact Testing Facility (ITF) serves as an important installation for space and missile related materials science research. The ITF was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960s, then played a major role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As NASA became more interested in launch debris and in-flight impact concerns, the ITF grew to include research in a variety of impact genres. Collaborative partnerships with the DoD led to a wider range of impact capabilities being relocated to MSFC as a result of the closure of Particle Impact Facilities in Santa Barbara, California. The Particle Impact Facility had a 30 year history in providing evaluations of aerospace materials and components during flights through rain, ice, and solid particle environments at subsonic through hypersonic velocities. The facility s unique capabilities were deemed a "National Asset" by the DoD. The ITF now has capabilities including environmental, ballistic, and hypervelocity impact testing utilizing an array of air, powder, and two-stage light gas guns to accommodate a variety of projectile and target types and sizes. Numerous upgrades including new instrumentation, triggering circuitry, high speed photography, and optimized sabot designs have been implemented. Other recent research has included rain drop demise characterization tests to obtain data for inclusion in on-going model development. The current and proposed ITF capabilities range from rain to micrometeoroids allowing the widest test parameter range possible for materials investigations in support of space, atmospheric, and ground environments. These test capabilities including hydrometeor, single/multi-particle, ballistic gas guns, exploding wire gun, and light gas guns combined with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Code (SPHC) simulations represent the widest range of impact test capabilities in the country.
... Synthesized Immersion Research Environment (SIRE) facility. Twelve pilots with a mean of 2652 flight hours performed a simulated flight task in which they were instructed to maintain a prescribed flight path, air speed, and altitude...
Iannicca, Dennis C.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Shalkhauser, Kurt A.
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in cooperation with Rockwell Collins, is working to develop a prototype Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) radio platform as part of NASA Integrated Systems Research Program's (ISRP) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. A primary focus of the project is to work with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry standards bodies to build and demonstrate a safe, secure, and efficient CNPC architecture that can be used by industry to evaluate the feasibility of deploying a system using these technologies in an operational capacity. GRC has been working in conjunction with these groups to assess threats, identify security requirements, and to develop a system of standards-based security controls that can be applied to the GRC prototype CNPC architecture as a demonstration platform. The proposed security controls were integrated into the GRC flight test system aboard our S-3B Viking surrogate aircraft and several network tests were conducted during a flight on November 15th, 2014 to determine whether the controls were working properly within the flight environment. The flight test was also the first to integrate Robust Header Compression (ROHC) as a means of reducing the additional overhead introduced by the security controls and Mobile IPv6. The effort demonstrated the complete end-to-end secure CNPC link in a relevant flight environment.
Vitale, S.; Bender, P.; Brillet, A.; Buchman, S.; Cavalleri, A.; Cerdonio, M.; Cruise, M.; Cutler, C.; Danzmann, K.; Dolesi, R.; Folkner, W.; Gianolio, A.; Jafry, Y.; Hasinger, G.; Heinzel, G.; Hogan, C.; Hueller, M.; Hough, J.; Phinney, S.; Prince, T.; Richstone, D.; Robertson, D.; Rodrigues, M.; Ruediger, A.; Sandford, M.; Schilling, R.; Shoemaker, D.; Schutz, B.; Stebbins, R.; Stubbs, C.; Sumner, T.; Thorne, K.; Tinto, M.; Touboul, P.; Ward, H.; Weber, W.; Winkler, W.
LISA will be the first space-home gravitational wave observatory. It aims to detect gravitational waves in the 0.1 mHz/1 Hz range from sources including galactic binaries, super-massive black-hole binaries, capture of objects by super-massive black-holes and stochastic background. LISA is an ESA approved Cornerstone Mission foreseen as a joint ESA-NASA endeavour to be launched in 2010-11. The principle of operation of LISA is based on laser ranging of test-masses under pure geodesic motion. Achieving pure geodesic motion at the level requested for LISA, 3x10 -15 ms -2 /√Hz at 0.1 mHz, is considered a challenging technological objective. To reduce the risk, both ESA and NASA are pursuing an in-flight test of the relevant technology. The goal of the test is to demonstrate geodetic motion within one order of magnitude from the LISA performance. ESA has given this test as the primary goal of its technology dedicated mission SMART-2 with a launch in 2006. This paper describes the basics of LISA, its key technologies, and its in-flight precursor test on SMART-2
Mobley, B. L.; Smith, S. D.; Van Norman, J. W.; Muppidi, S.; Clark, I
Provide plume induced heating (radiation & convection) predictions in support of the LDSD thermal design (pre-flight SFDT-1) Predict plume induced aerodynamics in support of flight dynamics, to achieve targeted freestream conditions to test supersonic deceleration technologies (post-flight SFDT-1, pre-flight SFDT-2)
Ratvasky, Thomas P.; VanZante, Judith Foss; Sim, Alex
This report presents results from research flights that explored the characteristics of an ice-contaminated tailplane using various simulated ice shapes attached to the leading edge of the horizontal tailplane. A clean leading edge provided the baseline case, then three ice shapes were flown in order of increasing severity. Flight tests included both steady state and dynamic maneuvers. The steady state points were 1G wings level and steady heading sideslips. The primary dynamic maneuvers were pushovers to various G-levels; elevator doublets; and thrust transitions. These maneuvers were conducted for a full range of flap positions and aircraft angle of attack where possible. The analysis of this data set has clearly demonstrated the detrimental effects of ice contamination on aircraft stability and controllability. Paths to tailplane stall were revealed through parameter isolation and transition studies. These paths are (1) increasing ice shape severity, (2) increasing flap deflection, (3) high or low speeds, depending on whether the aircraft is in a steady state (high speed) or pushover maneuver (low speed), and (4) increasing thrust. The flight research effort was very comprehensive, but did not examine effects of tailplane design and location, or other aircraft geometry configuration effects. However, this effort provided the role of some of the parameters in promoting tailplane stall. The lessons learned will provide guidance to regulatory agencies, aircraft manufacturers, and operators on ice-contaminated tailplane stall in the effort to increase aviation safety and reduce the fatal accident rate.
Hannon, Stephen M.; Bagley, Hal R.; Soreide, Dave C.; Bowdle, David A.; Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. Jack
The Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced Inflight Measurements (ACLAIM) is a NASA/Dryden-lead program to develop and demonstrate a 2 micrometers pulsed Doppler lidar for airborne look-ahead turbulence detection and warning. Advanced warning of approaching turbulence can significantly reduce injuries to passengers and crew aboard commercial airliners. The ACLAIM instrument is a key asset to the ongoing Turbulence component of NASA's Aviation Safety Program, aimed at reducing the accident rate aboard commercial airliners by a factor of five over the next ten years and by a factor of ten over the next twenty years. As well, the advanced turbulence warning capability can prevent "unstarts" in the inlet of supersonic aircraft engines by alerting the flight control computer which then adjusts the engine to operate in a less fuel efficient, and more turbulence tolerant, mode. Initial flight tests of the ACLAIM were completed in March and April of 1998. This paper and presentation gives results from these initial flights, with validated demonstration of Doppler lidar wind turbulence detection several kilometers ahead of the aircraft.
Hamden, Erika T.
I will discuss the latest results from the Hamden UV/Vis Detector Lab and our ongoing work using a UV optimized EMCCD in flight. Our lab is currently testing efficiency and performance of delta-doped, anti-reflection coated EMCCDs, in collaboration with JPL. The lab has been set-up to test quantum efficiency, dark current, clock-induced-charge, and read noise. I will describe our improvements to our circuit boards for lower noise, updates from a new, more flexible NUVU controller, and the integration of an EMCCD in the FIREBall-2 UV spectrograph. I will also briefly describe future plans to conduct radiation testing on delta-doped EMCCDs (both warm, unbiased and cold, biased configurations) thus summer and longer term plans for testing newer photon counting CCDs as I move the HUVD Lab to the University of Arizona in the Fall of 2018.
Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. G.; Wells, Edward A.
A multi-engine aircraft, with some or all of the flight control system inoperative, may use engine thrust for control. NASA Dryden has conducted a study of the capability and techniques for this emergency flight control method for the F-15 airplane. With an augmented control system, engine thrust, along with appropriate feedback parameters, is used to control flightpath and bank angle. Extensive simulation studies have been followed by flight tests. This paper discusses the principles of throttles-only control, the F-15 airplane, the augmented system, and the flight results including landing approaches with throttles-only control to within 10 ft of the ground.
This photo (a frontal view) is of one of many segments of the Eastman-Kodak mirror assembly being tested for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). MSFC is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by taking numerous measurements to predict its future performance. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber cooled to approximate the super cold temperatures found in space. During its 27 years of operation, the facility has performed testing in support of a wide array of projects, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Solar A, Chandra technology development, Chandra High Resolution Mirror Assembly and science instruments, Constellation X-Ray Mission, and Solar X-Ray Imager, currently operating on a Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite. The JWST is NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, named in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. It is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space.
Ali, Z A; Glebov, V Yu; Cruz, M; Duffy, T; Stoeckl, C; Roberts, S; Sangster, T C; Tommasini, R; Throop, A; Moran, M; Dauffy, L; Horsefield, C
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD(*) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 1x10(9) to 2x10(19). The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detector tests and calibration will be presented.
Frederick, M A; Banks, D W; Garzon, G A; Matisheck, J R
A flight test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80 inch (203 cm) chord and 40 inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane. The test article was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0° to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, was similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings. (paper)
Wadhams, Tim P; MacLean, Matthew G; Holden, Michael S; Mundy, Erik
As part of an experimental study to obtain detailed heating and pressure data over the full-scale HIFiRE-1 flight geometry, CUBRC has completed a 30-run matrix of ground tests, sponsored by the AFOSR...
Full Text Available In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric turbulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.
A piloted head up display (HUD) flight symbology study (TRISTAR) measuring pilot task performance was conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center by the Tri-Service Flight Symbology Working Group (FSWO...
Kelly, Paul T; Swanney, Maureen P; Frampton, Chris; Seccombe, Leigh M; Peters, Matthew J; Beckert, Lutz E
There is little data available to determine the normal response to normobaric hypoxia inhalation testing (NHIT) and air travel. Quantifying a healthy response may assist in the evaluation of passengers considered at risk for air travel. The aims of this study were: (1) to quantify the degree of desaturation in healthy subjects during a NHIT and air travel; and (2) assess the validity of the NHIT when compared with actual in-flight responses. There were 15 healthy adults (age 23-57; 10 women) who volunteered for this study. Preflight tests included lung function, arterial blood gas, pulse oximetry (SpO2), and NHIT (inspired oxygen 15%). SpO2 and cabin pressure were measured continuously on each subject during a commercial air flight (mean cabin altitude 2178 m; range 1719-2426 m). In-flight oxygenation was compared with the preflight NHIT. Lung function testing results were normal. There was significant desaturation (SpO2) during the NHIT (pre: 98 +/- 2%; post: 92 +/- 2%) and at cruising altitude (pre: 97 +/- 1%; cruise: 92 +/- 2%). There was no difference between the final NHIT SpO2 and the mean in-flight SpO2. There was a significant difference between the lowest in-flight SpO2 (88 +/- 2%) vs. the lowest NHIT SpO2, (90 +/- 2%). Oxygen saturation decreases significantly during air travel in normal individuals. In this group of healthy passengers the NHIT approximates some, but not all, aspects of in-flight oxygenation. These results can be used to describe a normal response to the NHIT and air-travel.
Luchinsky, Dmitry; Hafiychuck, Halyna; Osipov, Slava; Ponizhovskaya, Ekaterina; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Dagostino, Mark; Canabal, Francisco; Mobley, Brandon L.
In this paper we present the results of the analytical and numerical studies of the plume interaction with the base flow in the presence of base out-gassing. The physics-based analysis and CFD modeling of the base heating for single solid rocket motor performed in this research addressed the following questions: what are the key factors making base flow so different from that in the Shuttle ; why CFD analysis of this problem reveals small plume recirculation; what major factors influence base temperature; and why overheating was initiated at a given time in the flight. To answer these questions topological analysis of the base flow was performed and Korst theory was used to estimate relative contributions of radiation, plume recirculation, and chemically reactive out-gassing to the base heating. It was shown that base bleeding and small base volume are the key factors contributing to the overheating, while plume recirculation is effectively suppressed by asymmetric configuration of the flow formed earlier in the flight. These findings are further verified using CFD simulations that include multi-species gas environment both in the plume and in the base. Solid particles in the exhaust plume (Al2O3) and char particles in the base bleeding were also included into the simulations and their relative contributions into the base temperature rise were estimated. The results of simulations are in good agreement with the temperature and pressure in the base measured during the test.
Frost, Chad R.; Hindson, William S.; Moralez. Ernesto, III; Tucker, George E.; Dryfoos, James B.
Two unique sets of flight control laws were designed, tested and flown on the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A Black Hawk helicopter. The first set of control laws used a simple rate feedback scheme, intended to facilitate the first flight and subsequent flight qualification of the RASCAL research flight control system. The second set of control laws comprised a more sophisticated model-following architecture. Both sets of flight control laws were developed and tested extensively using desktop-to-flight modeling, analysis, and simulation tools. Flight test data matched the model predicted responses well, providing both evidence and confidence that future flight control development for RASCAL will be efficient and accurate.
Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato
This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.
The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus
Fatig, Curtis; Ochs, William; Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Adams, Cynthia; Wasiak, Francis; Jones, Ronald; Jackson, Wallace
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project has an extended integration and test (I&T) phase due to long procurement and development times of various components as well as recent launch delays. The JWST Ground Segment and Operations group has developed a roadmap of the various ground and flight elements and their use in the various JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project s building block approach to the eventual operational systems, while not new, is complex and challenging; a large-scale mission like JWST involves international partners, many vendors across the United States, and competing needs for the same systems. One of the challenges is resource balancing so simulators and flight products for various elements congeal into integrated systems used for I&T and flight operations activities. This building block approach to an incremental buildup provides for early problem identification with simulators and exercises the flight operations systems, products, and interfaces during the JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project has completed some early I&T with the simulators, engineering models and some components of the operational ground system. The JWST Project is testing the various flight units as they are delivered and will continue to do so for the entire flight and operational system. The JWST Project has already and will continue to reap the value of the building block approach on the road to launch and flight operations.
Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
The evaluated nuclear data files such as JENDL, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2 are validated by analyzing critical mock-up experiments for various type reactors and assessing applicability for nuclear characteristics such as criticality, reaction rates, reactivities, etc. This is called Benchmark Testing. In the nuclear calculations, the diffusion and transport codes use the group constant library which is generated by processing the nuclear data files. In this paper, the calculation methods of the reactor group constants and benchmark test are described. Finally, a new group constants scheme is proposed. (author)
Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Ali, Aliyah N.; Bui, Trong T.; Ellsworth, Joel C.; Garcia, Christian A.
The aerodynamic effects of compliant flaps installed onto a modified Gulfstream III airplane were investigated. Analyses were performed prior to flight to predict the aerodynamic effects of the flap installation. Flight tests were conducted to gather both structural and aerodynamic data. The airplane was instrumented to collect vehicle aerodynamic data and wing pressure data. A leading-edge stagnation detection system was also installed. The data from these flights were analyzed and compared with predictions. The predictive tools compared well with flight data for small flap deflections, but differences between predictions and flight estimates were greater at larger deflections. This paper describes the methods used to examine the aerodynamics data from the flight tests and provides a discussion of the flight-test results in the areas of vehicle aerodynamics, wing sectional pressure coefficient profiles, and air data.
Thienel, Lee; Stouffer, Chuck
This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in the 1996/97 time frame and the fourth flight of the CTB which will fly in the 1997/98 time frame. The two missions tested two oxygen axially grooved heat pipes, a nitrogen fibrous wick heat pipe and a 2-methylpentane phase change material thermal storage unit. Techniques were found for solving problems with vibration from the cryo-collers transmitted through the compressors and the cold heads, and mounting the heat pipe without introducing parasitic heat leaks. A thermally conductive interface material was selected that would meet the requirements and perform over the temperature range of 55 to 300 K. Problems are discussed with the bi-metallic thermostats used for heater circuit protection and the S-Glass suspension straps originally used to secure the BETSU PCM in the CRYOTP mission. Flight results will be compared to 1-g test results and differences will be discussed.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of advanced technologies for flight testing, measurement, and data acquisition are critical to effectively meeting the future goals and challenges...
Ferlemann, Shelly M.; McClinton, Charles R.; Rock, Ken E.; Voland, Randy T.
The successful Mach 7 flight test of the Hyper-X (X-43) research vehicle has provided the major, essential demonstration of the capability of the airframe integrated scramjet engine. This flight was a crucial first step toward realizing the potential for airbreathing hypersonic propulsion for application to space launch vehicles. However, it is not sufficient to have just achieved a successful flight. The more useful knowledge gained from the flight is how well the prediction methods matched the actual test results in order to have confidence that these methods can be applied to the design of other scramjet engines and powered vehicles. The propulsion predictions for the Mach 7 flight test were calculated using the computer code, SRGULL, with input from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel tests. This paper will discuss the evolution of the Mach 7 Hyper-X engine, ground wind tunnel experiments, propulsion prediction methodology, flight results and validation of design methods.
Jordan, Thomas L.; Bailey, Roger M.
As part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a subscaled flying testbed in order to conduct research experiments in support of the goals of NASA s Aviation Safety Program. This research capability consists of three distinct components. The first of these is the research aircraft, of which there are several in the AirSTAR stable. These aircraft range from a dynamically-scaled, twin turbine vehicle to a propeller driven, off-the-shelf airframe. Each of these airframes carves out its own niche in the research test program. All of the airplanes have sophisticated on-board data acquisition and actuation systems, recording, telemetering, processing, and/or receiving data from research control systems. The second piece of the testbed is the ground facilities, which encompass the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to provide comprehensive support services for conducting flight research using the subscale aircraft, including: subsystem development, integrated testing, remote piloting of the subscale aircraft, telemetry processing, experimental flight control law implementation and evaluation, flight simulation, data recording/archiving, and communications. The ground facilities are comprised of two major components: (1) The Base Research Station (BRS), a LaRC laboratory facility for system development, testing and data analysis, and (2) The Mobile Operations Station (MOS), a self-contained, motorized vehicle serving as a mobile research command/operations center, functionally equivalent to the BRS, capable of deployment to remote sites for supporting flight tests. The third piece of the testbed is the test facility itself. Research flights carried out by the AirSTAR team are conducted at NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The UAV Island runway is a 50 x 1500 paved runway that lies within restricted airspace at Wallops Flight Facility. The
Cosentino, Gary B.
Several examples from the past decade of success stories involving the design and flight test of three true X-planes will be described: in particular, X-plane design techniques that relied heavily upon computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Three specific examples chosen from the author s personal experience are presented: the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, the X-45A Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle, and, most recently, the X-48B Blended Wing Body Demonstrator Aircraft. An overview will be presented of the uses of CFD analysis, comparisons and contrasts with wind tunnel testing, and information derived from the CFD analysis that directly related to successful flight test. Some lessons learned on the proper application, and misapplication, of CFD are illustrated. Finally, some highlights of the flight-test results of the three example X-planes will be presented. This overview paper will discuss some of the author s experience with taking an aircraft shape from early concept and three-dimensional modeling through CFD analysis, wind tunnel testing, further refined CFD analysis, and, finally, flight. An overview of the key roles in which CFD plays well during this process, and some other roles in which it does not, are discussed. How wind tunnel testing complements, calibrates, and verifies CFD analysis is also covered. Lessons learned on where CFD results can be misleading are also given. Strengths and weaknesses of the various types of flow solvers, including panel methods, Euler, and Navier-Stokes techniques, are discussed. The paper concludes with the three specific examples, including some flight test video footage of the X-36, the X-45A, and the X-48B.
Bahm, Catherine; Baumann, Ethan; Martin, John; Bose, David; Beck, Roger E.; Strovers, Brian
The objective of the Hyper-X program was to flight demonstrate an airframe-integrated hypersonic vehicle. On March 27, 2004, the Hyper-X program team successfully conducted flight 2 and achieved all of the research objectives. The Hyper-X research vehicle successfully separated from the Hyper-X launch vehicle and achieved the desired engine test conditions before the experiment began. The research vehicle rejected the disturbances caused by the cowl door opening and the fuel turning on and off and maintained the engine test conditions throughout the experiment. After the engine test was complete, the vehicle recovered and descended along a trajectory while performing research maneuvers. The last data acquired showed that the vehicle maintained control to the water. This report will provide an overview of the research vehicle guidance and control systems and the performance of the vehicle during the separation event and engine test. The research maneuvers were performed to collect data for aerodynamics and flight controls research. This report also will provide an overview of the flight controls related research and results.
Gupta, K. K.; Lung, S. F.; Ibrahim, A. H.
This paper presents detailed description of a novel CFD procedure and comparison of its solution results to that obtained by other available CFD codes as well as actual flight and wind tunnel test data pertaining to the GIII aircraft, currently undergoing flight testing at AFRC.
D. A. Mikhaylin
Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to solving the problem of aircraft flight safety. External threats in the form of aircraft-offenders are considered. The algorithm of collision danger coefficients with aircraft-offenders is presented, оn the basis of which the side-program manager of flight safety monitoring is formed.Two danger coefficients in the horizontal and vertical planes are introduced. Based on various flight situations four possible decisions are offered: absence of any aircraft activity, flight level change, deviation in the horizontal plane and both in vertical and horizontal planes. For each case the formulas of double evaluation are received. They take into account different parameters of aircraft relative motion. Based on these estimates it is possible to build a final expert evaluation for the considered flight situations. It is implemented in the onboard program-manager. The structure of the program is presented. At the program-manager output the expected minimized risk evaluation and the selected alternative of the avoidance of aircraft from the meeting point are formed. The paper presents a detailed description of the procedures to test the performance of the program-manager algorithms. The initial conditions for different flight situations are provided. The simulation results of the algorithm are given. The danger coefficients comparison when performing maneuvers to prevent dangerous approach and in their absence is illustrated. It is shown that the maneuver implementation recommended by program-manager algorithms decreases the resulting danger coefficient. Particular attention was paid to aircraft landing, especially if the landing area had several conflicting aircraft.
Bauer, Guenter S.; Lucas, A. T.
The working group meeting was chaired by Bauer and Lucas.Testing is a vital part of any cold source development project. This applies to specific physics concept verification, benchmarking in conjunction with computer modeling and engineering testing to confirm the functional viability of a proposed system. Irradiation testing of materials will always be needed to continuously extend a comprehensive and reliable information database. An ever increasing worldwide effort to enhance the performance of reactor and accelerator based neutron sources, coupled with the complexity and rising cost of building new generation facilities, gives a new dimension to cold source development and testing programs. A stronger focus is now being placed on the fine-tuning of cold source design to maximize its effectiveness in fully exploiting the facility. In this context, pulsed spallation neutron sources pose an extra challenge due to requirements regarding pulse width and shape which result from a large variety of different instrument concepts. The working group reviewed these requirements in terms of their consequences on the needs for testing equipment and compiled a list of existing and proposed facilities suitable to carry out the necessary development work.
Dowden, Donald J.; Bessette, Denis E.
The AFTI F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System has undergone developmental and demonstration flight testing over a total of 347.3 flying hours in 237 sorties. The emphasis of this phase of the flight test program was on the development of automated guidance and control systems for air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons delivery, using a digital flight control system, dual avionics multiplex buses, an advanced FLIR sensor with laser ranger, integrated flight/fire-control software, advanced cockpit display and controls, and modified core Multinational Stage Improvement Program avionics.
Bull, G.; Bridges, P. D.
A flight test method is described from which propulsive efficiency as well as parasite and induced drag coefficients can be directly determined using relatively simple instrumentation and analysis techniques. The method uses information contained in the transient response in airspeed for a small power change in level flight in addition to the usual measurement of power required for level flight. Measurements of pitch angle and longitudinal and normal acceleration are eliminated. The theoretical basis for the method, the analytical techniques used, and the results of application of the method to flight test data are presented.
Schramm, Jan Martinez; Barth, Tarik; Wagner, Alexander; Hannemann, Klaus
The SHarp Edge Flight EXperiment (SHEFEX) program of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is primarily focused on the investigation of the potential to utilise improved shapes for space vehicles by considering sharp edges and facetted surfaces. One goal is to set up a sky based test facility to gain knowledge of the physics of hypersonic flow, complemented by numerical analysis and ground based testing. Further, the series of SHEFEX flight experiments is an excellent test bed for new technological concepts and flight instrumentation, and it is a source of motivation for young scientist and engineers providing an excellent school for future space-program engineers and managers. After the successful first SHEFEX flight in October 2005, a second flight is scheduled for September 2011 and additional flights are planned for 2015 ff. With the SHEFEX-I flight and the subsequent numerical and experimental post flight analysis, DLR could for the first time close the loop between the three major disciplines of aerothermodynamic research namely CFD, ground based testing and flight.
Brewster, L.; Johnston, A.; Howard, R.; Mitchell, J.; Cryan, S.
The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as AR&D). The crewed missions may also perform rendezvous and docking operations and may require different levels of automation and/or autonomy, and must provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success of the Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the requirements. The relatively low technology readiness level of AR&D relative navigation sensors has been carried as one of the CEV Project's top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce the risk by the testing and analysis of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through hardware-in-the-loop testing and simulation. These activities will provide the CEV Project information to assess the relative navigation sensors maturity as well as demonstrate test methods and capabilities. The first year of this project focused on a series of"pathfinder" testing tasks to develop the test plans, test facility requirements, trajectories, math model architecture, simulation platform, and processes that will be used to evaluate the Contractor-proposed sensors. Four candidate sensors were used in the first phase of the testing. The second phase of testing used four sensors simultaneously: two Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Video Guidance Sensors (AVGS), a laser-based video sensor that uses retroreflectors attached to the target vehicle, and two commercial laser range finders. The multi-sensor testing was conducted at MSFC's Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL
Brewster, Linda L.; Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, A. S.; Carrington, Connie; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Cryan, Scott P.
The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as AR&D). The crewed missions may also perform rendezvous and docking operations and may require different levels of automation and/or autonomy, and must provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success ofthe Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor-proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the requirements. The relatively low technology readiness level of AR&D relative navigation sensors has been carried as one of the CEV Project's top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce the risk by the testing and analysis of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through hardware-in-the-Ioop testing and simulation. These activities will provide the CEV Project information to assess the relative navigation sensors maturity as well as demonstrate test methods and capabilities. The first year of this project focused on a series of "pathfinder" testing tasks to develop the test plans, test facility requirements, trajectories, math model architecture, simulation platform, and processes that will be used to evaluate the Contractor-proposed sensors. Four candidate sensors were used in the first phase of the testing. The second phase of testing used four sensors simultaneously: two Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Video Guidance Sensors (AVGS), a laser-based video sensor that uses retroreflectors attached to the target vehicle, and two commercial laser range finders. The multi-sensor testing was conducted at MSFC's Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL
The need is examined for orbital flight tests of gyroscope, dewar, and other components, in order to reduce the technical and financial risk in performing the relativity experiment. A program is described that would generate engineering data to permit prediction of final performance. Two flight tests are recommended. The first flight would test a dewar smaller than that required for the final flight, but of size and form sufficient to allow extrapolation to the final design. The second flight would use the same dewar design to carry a set of three gyroscopes, which would be evaluated for spinup and drift characteristics for a period of a month or more. A proportional gas control system using boiloff helium gas from the dewar, and having the ability to prevent sloshing of liquid helium, would also be tested.
Stoliker, Patrick C.; Carter, John
In March of 1999, five pilots performed flight tests to evaluate the handling qualities of an F/A-18 research airplane equipped with a small-displacement center stick (ministick) controller that had been developed for the JAS 39 Gripen airplane (a fighter/attack/ reconnaissance airplane used by the Swedish air force). For these tests, the ministick was installed in the aft cockpit (see figure) and production support flight control computers (PSFCCs) were used as interfaces between the controller hardware and the standard F/A-18 flight-control laws. The primary objective of the flight tests was to assess any changes in handling qualities of the F/A-18 airplane attributable to the mechanical characteristics of the ministick. The secondary objective was to demonstrate the capability of the PSFCCs to support flight-test experiments.
Johnson, Matthew; Hannan, Mike; Brandon, Jay; Derry, Stephen
A major motivation of the Ares I-X flight test program was to Design for Data, in order to maximize the usefulness of the data recorded in support of Ares I modeling and validation of design and analysis tools. The Design for Data effort was intended to enable good post-flight characterizations of the flight control system, the vehicle structural dynamics, and also the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. To extract the necessary data from the system during flight, a set of small predetermined Programmed Test Inputs (PTIs) was injected directly into the TVC signal. These PTIs were designed to excite the necessary vehicle dynamics while exhibiting a minimal impact on loads. The method is similar to common approaches in aircraft flight test programs, but with unique launch vehicle challenges due to rapidly changing states, short duration of flight, a tight flight envelope, and an inability to repeat any test. This paper documents the validation effort of the stability analysis tools to the flight data which was performed by comparing the post-flight calculated frequency response of the vehicle to the frequency response calculated by the stability analysis tools used to design and analyze the preflight models during the control design effort. The comparison between flight day frequency response and stability tool analysis for flight of the simulated vehicle shows good agreement and provides a high level of confidence in the stability analysis tools for use in any future program. This is true for both a nominal model as well as for dispersed analysis, which shows that the flight day frequency response is enveloped by the vehicle s preflight uncertainty models.
Winebarger, R. M.; Neely, W. R., Jr.
An attempt has been made to determine the effects of nuclear EM pulses (NEMPs) on aircraft systems, using a highly instrumented NASA F-106B to document the simulated NEMP environment at the Kirtland Air Force Base's Vertically Polarized Dipole test facility. Several test positions were selected so that aircraft orientation relative to the test facility would be the same in flight as when on the stationary dielectric stand, in order to validate the dielectric stand's use in flight configuration simulations. Attention is given to the flight test portions of the documentation program.
Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Yonemoto, Koichi; Hosokawa, Shigeru
ISAS is now developing a small reentry test vehicle, which is 2m long with a 1.5m wing span and weighs about 170 kg, for the purpose of exploring high angle-of-attack aerodynamic attitude control issue in supersonic and hypersonic speed. The flight test, employing 'Rockoon' launch system, is planned as a preliminary design verification for a fully reusable winged rocket named HIMES (Highly Maneuverable Experimental Space) vehicle. This paper describes the results of preflight ground test using a motion table system. This ground system test is called 'physical simulation' aimed at: (1) functional verification of side-jet system, aerodynamic surface actuators, battery and onboard avionics; and (2) guidance and control law evaluation, in total hardware-in-the-loop system. The pressure of side-jet nozzles was measured to provide exact thrust characteristics of reaction control. The dynamics of vehicle motion was calculated in real-time by the ground simulation computer.
Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis,Kyle K.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.
The Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) simulation and flight tests are jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SEVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights (38 flight hours) were conducted over the summer and fall of 2011. The evaluations were flown in Gulfstream.s G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SEVS technology under very low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 ft to 2400 ft visibility) into various airports from Louisiana to Maine. In-situ flight performance and subjective workload and acceptability data were collected in collaboration with ground simulation studies at LaRC.s Research Flight Deck simulator.
The ITER Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) has continued its activities during the period of extension of the EDA with a revised charter on the co-ordination of the development work performed by the Parties and by the JCT leading to a co-ordinated test programme on ITER for a DEMO-relevant tritium breeding blanket. This follows earlier work carried out until July 1998, which formed part of the ITER Final Design Report (FDR), completed in 1998. Whilst the machine parameters for ITER-FEAT have been significantly revised compared to the FDR, testing of breeding blanket modules remains a main objective of the test programme and the development of a reactor-relevant breeding blanket to ensure tritium fuel self-sufficiency is recognized a key issue for fusion. Design work and R and D on breeding blanket concepts, including co-operation with the other Contacting Parties of the ITER-EDA for testing these concepts in ITER, are included in the work plans of the Parties
Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.
The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, anairplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of -2 deg were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.
Cox, David E.; Cunningham, Kevin; Jordan, Thomas L.
Subscale flight-testing provides a means to validate both dynamic models and mitigation technologies in the high-risk flight conditions associated with aircraft loss of control. The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) facility was designed to be a flexible and efficient research facility to address this type of flight-testing. Over the last several years (2009-2011) it has been used to perform 58 research flights with an unmanned, remotely-piloted, dynamically-scaled airplane. This paper will present an overview of the facility and its architecture and summarize the experimental data collected. All flights to date have been conducted within visual range of a safety observer. Current plans for the facility include expanding the test volume to altitudes and distances well beyond visual range. The architecture and instrumentation changes associated with this upgrade will also be presented.
Ganesan, D.; Lindvall, M.; McComas, D.; Bartholomew, M.; Slegel, S.; Medina, B.; Krikhaar, R.; Verhoef, C.; Dharmalingam, G.; Montgomery, L.P.
This paper presents an analysis of the unit testing approach developed and used by the Core Flight Software System (CFS) product line team at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goal of the analysis is to understand, review, and recommend strategies for improving the CFS' existing unit
Fichtl, G. H.; Bilbro, J. W.; Kaufman, J. W.
The flight experiment and operations plans for the Doppler Lidar System (DLS) are provided. Application of DLS to the study of severe storms and local weather penomena is addressed. Test plans involve 66 hours of flight time. Plans also include ground based severe storm and local weather data acquisition.
Mirick, Paul H.
Four cases were selected for comparison with theoretical predictions using stability data obtained during the flight test of the Bearingless Main Rotor (BMR) on a Messerschmidt-Boelkow-Blohm BO 105 helicopter. The four cases selected form the flight test included two ground resonance cases and two air resonance cases. The BMR used four modified BO 105 blades attached to a bearingless hub. The hub consisted of dual fiberglass C-channel beams attached to the hub center at 0.0238R and attached to the blade root at 0.25R with blade pitch control provided by a torque tube. Analyses from Bell Helicopter Textron, Boeing Vertol, and Sikorsky Aircraft were compared with the data and the correlation ranged from very poor-to-poor to poor-to-fair.
Scope and results of the Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group Test Program are described. Seven NR centers from six European Community countries have performed this investigation using eleven NR facilities. Four test items were neutron radiographed using 30 different film/converter combinations. From film density measurements neutron beam components were determined. Radiographic sensitivity was assessed from visual examinations of the radiographs. About 25,000 dimensional measurements were made and were used for the assessment of accuracies of dimensional measurements from neutron radiographs. The report gives a description of the test items used for the Test Program, the film density and dimensional measurements, and concentrates on the assessment of the measuring results. The usefulness of the beam purity and sensitivity indicators was assessed with the conclusion that they are not suitable for neutron radiography of nuclear reactor fuel. Ample information is included in the report about measuring accuracies which can be reached in dimensional measurements of fuel pins. After a general comparison of measuring accuracies is discussed. Results from different NR facilities are treated separately as are the different kinds of dimensions of the fuel pins. Finally human and instrument factors are discussed. After presenting final conclusions (which take into account the above-mentioned factors) results of other investigations about dimensional measurements are shortly reviewed
22]. Raymer points out that most flutter modes are driven by improper balancing of control surfaces, but these flutter modes can be excited...description1.html [cited 2 Feb. 2010]  Nelson, Robert C., Flight Stability and Automatic Control, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Boston...Patuxent River Naval Air Station MD, May 1992, Chap. 10  Raymer , Daniel, P., Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, 4th ed., AIAA Education
Valkov, Steffi B.; Sternberg, Daniel; Marston, Michael
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System Project has conducted a series of flight tests intended to support the reduction of barriers that prevent unmanned aircraft from flying without the required waivers from the Federal Aviation Administration. The 2015 Flight Test Series 3, supported two separate test configurations. The first configuration investigated the timing of Detect and Avoid alerting thresholds using a radar equipped unmanned vehicle and multiple live intruders flown at varying encounter geometries.
Li Li Zhang
Full Text Available The TanSat carbon satellite is to be launched at the end of 2016. In order to verify the performance of its instruments, a flight test of TanSat instruments was conducted in Jilin Province in September, 2015. The flight test area covered a total area of about 11,000 km2 and the underlying surface cover included several lakes, forest land, grassland, wetland, farmland, a thermal power plant and numerous cities and villages. We modeled the column-average dry-air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2 surface based on flight test data which measured the near- and short-wave infrared (NIR reflected solar radiation in the absorption bands at around 760 and 1610 nm. However, it is difficult to directly analyze the spatial distribution of XCO2 in the flight area using the limited flight test data and the approximate surface of XCO2, which was obtained by regression modeling, which is not very accurate either. We therefore used the high accuracy surface modeling (HASM platform to fill the gaps where there is no information on XCO2 in the flight test area, which takes the approximate surface of XCO2 as its driving field and the XCO2 observations retrieved from the flight test as its optimum control constraints. High accuracy surfaces of XCO2 were constructed with HASM based on the flight’s observations. The results showed that the mean XCO2 in the flight test area is about 400 ppm and that XCO2 over urban areas is much higher than in other places. Compared with OCO-2’s XCO2, the mean difference is 0.7 ppm and the standard deviation is 0.95 ppm. Therefore, the modelling of the XCO2 surface based on the flight test of the TanSat instruments fell within an expected and acceptable range.
Preliminary test results of a flight management algorithm for fuel conservative descents in a time based metered traffic environment. [flight tests of an algorithm to minimize fuel consumption of aircraft based on flight time
Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.
A flight management algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering the airplane fuel efficiently to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control is discussed. The algorithm provides a 3-D path with time control (4-D) for a test B 737 airplane to make an idle thrust, clean configured descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path is calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithms and the results of the flight tests are discussed.
Yergensen, Stephen; Rhea, Donald C.
Presented are some of the critical issues and objectives pertaining to configuration management for the NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of Ames Research Center. The primary mission of the WATR is to provide a capability for the conduct of aeronautical research flight test through real-time processing and display, tracking, and communications systems. In providing this capability, the WATR must maintain and enforce a configuration management plan which is independent of, but complimentary to, various research flight test project configuration management systems. A primary WATR objective is the continued development of generic research flight test project support capability, wherein the reliability of WATR support provided to all project users is a constant priority. Therefore, the processing of configuration change requests for specific research flight test project requirements must be evaluated within a perspective that maintains this primary objective.
Miller, Eric James
weather data from certain flights and analyzing the type of precipitation that the plane is flying through. During flight tests there is a probe on the bottom of the aircraft that gathers information on the size and shape of the particles that it is flying through. The data can then be viewed on a computer. After grouping the weather into certain groups we can then pick certain groups which we think should be analyzed farther. The goal is to remove all the ice particles because they do not contribute to the icing on an aircraft. We use a 2D analyzer which measures the droplet size and categorizes the drops into bins of certain sizes. We can then look at what the characteristics of the weather that we were flying through such as the temperature and dew point and compare this with the size of the drops that the 2D analyzer measured. We can then look at what type and shape of ice that formed on the wing during this time period. Having this data will help us to reproduce these conditions using LEWICE and the wind tunnel. Having consistency among the tests will make things more accurate. With respect to weather forecasting we will be able to learn which conditions can lead to icing. Better accuracy in weather reporting will lead to fewer run-ins with icing which will also lead to fewer accidents.
Presentation 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 May 2018 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 412th Test Engineering Group Vision for Future Knowledge Management (KM... Engineering Group 307 E. Popson Ave Edwards AFB, CA 93523 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 412TW-PA...centers for the TENG test customers to allow the data to be readily available within minutes of a flight, for the data to be organized so that the engineer
Swenson, H. N.; Hamlin, J. R.; Wilson, G. W.
An ongoing series of joint NASA/FAA helicopter Microwave Landing System (MLS) flight tests was conducted at Ames Research Center. This paper deals with tests done from the spring through the fall of 1983. This flight test investigated and developed solutions to the problem of manually flying curved-path and steep glide slope approaches into the terminal area using the MLS and flight director guidance. An MLS-equipped Bell UH-1H helicopter flown by NASA test pilots was used to develop approaches and procedures for flying these approaches. The approaches took the form of Straight-in, U-turn, and S-turn flightpaths with glide slopes of 6 deg, 9 deg, and 12 deg. These procedures were evaluated by 18 pilots from various elements of the helicopter community, flying a total of 221 hooded instrument approaches. Flying these curved path and steep glide slopes was found to be operationally acceptable with flight director guidance using the MLS.
Electrical, mechanical, thermal, and neutron response data indicate that microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are viable candidates as miniature, ruggedized neutron detectors for flight test applications in future weapon systems
Jones, Daniel S.; Brooks, Syri J.; Barnes, Marvin W.; McCauley, Rachel J.; Wall, Terry M.; Reed, Brian D.; Duncan, C. Miguel
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion Flight Test Office was tasked with conducting a series of flight tests in several launch abort scenarios to certify that the Orion Launch Abort System is capable of delivering astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment, away from a failed booster. The first of this series was the Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle, which was successfully flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This report provides a brief overview of the three propulsive subsystems used on the Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle. An overview of the propulsive systems originally planned for future flight-test vehicles is also provided, which also includes the cold gas Reaction Control System within the Crew Module, and the Peacekeeper first stage rocket motor encased within the Abort Test Booster aeroshell. Although the Constellation program has been cancelled and the operational role of the Orion spacecraft has significantly evolved, lessons learned from Pad Abort 1 and the other flight-test vehicles could certainly contribute to the vehicle architecture of many future human-rated space launch vehicles
Schunk, Richard G.; Humphries, William R.
The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressed. The immediate goals and current activities of the test program are discussed. Also described are the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) and the initial ECLSS test configuration. Future plans for the ECLSS test program and the CMIF are summarized.
system Significant hexavalent chrome reduction in finish system Potential exposure level of spray applied chromated conversion coating not as...Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company Qualification and Flight Test of Non- Chrome Primers for C-130 Aircraft Scott Jones Lockheed Martin...00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Qualification and Flight Test of Non- Chrome Primers for C-130 Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT
Runway 22 or on Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards AFB. 17 On the basis of the findings of the Environmental Assessment, no significant impact to human...FLIGHT TEST CENTER Environmental Assessment for Flight Test to the Edge of Space Page 5-3 Bowles, A.E., S. Eckert, L . Starke, E. Berg, L . Wolski, and...Numbers. Anne Choate, Laura 20 Pederson , Jeremy Scharfenberg, Henry Farland. Washington, D.C. September. 21 Jeppesen Sanderson, Incorporated 22
Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Calvet, C.; Fourtine, S.; Feuillatre, O.
This paper presents the results from in-flight measurements of single event upsets (SEU) in static random access memories (SRAM) caused by the atmospheric radiation environment at aircraft altitudes. The memory devices were carried on commercial airlines at high altitude and mainly high latitudes. The SEUs were monitored by a Component Upset Test Equipment (CUTE), designed for this experiment. The in flight results are compared to ground based testing with neutrons from three different sources
Maine, Trindel; Burken, John; Burcham, Frank; Schaefer, Peter
The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center conducted flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft system on an F-15 airplane. This system was designed to explore the feasibility of providing safe emergency landing capability using only the engines to provide flight control in the event of a catastrophic loss of conventional flight controls. Control laws were designed to control the flightpath and bank angle using only commands to the throttles. Although the program was highly successful, this paper highlights some of the challenges associated with using engine thrust as a control effector. These challenges include slow engine response time, poorly modeled nonlinear engine dynamics, unmodeled inlet-airframe interactions, and difficulties with ground effect and gust rejection. Flight and simulation data illustrate these difficulties.
Hemminger, Edgar G.; Posey, Alan J.; Dube, Michael J.
The effect of various lubricants and other compounds on fastener torque-tension relationships is evaluated. Testing was performed using a unique test apparatus developed by Posey at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. A description of the test methodology, including associated data collection and analysis will be presented. Test results for 300 series CRES and A286 heat resistant fasteners, torqued into various types of inserts will be presented. The primary objective of this testing was to obtain torque-tension data for use on NASA flight projects.
Kamsler, W. F.; Case, C. W.; Kinney, E. L.; Gyure, J.
Based on an analysis of previously developed test oriented languages and a study of test language requirements, a high order language was designed to enable test and flight engineers to checkout and operate the proposed space shuttle and other NASA vehicles and experiments. The language is called ALOFT (a language oriented to flight engineering and testing). The language is described, its terminology is compared to similar terms in other test languages, and its features and utilization are discussed. The appendix provides the specifications for ALOFT.
Proctor, Margaret P.; Oswald, Fred B.; Krants, Timothy L.
Scuffing-like damage has been found on the tooth surfaces of gears 5 and 6 of the NASA space shuttle rudder/speed brake power drive unit (PDU) number 2 after the occurrence of a transient back-driving event in flight. Tests were conducted using a pair of unused spare flight gears in a bench test at operating conditions up to 2866 rpm and 1144 in.-lb at the input ring gear and 14,000 rpm and 234 in.-lb at the output pinion gear, corresponding to a power level of 52 hp. This test condition exceeds the maximum estimated conditions expected in a backdriving event thought to produce the scuffing damage. Some wear marks were produced, but they were much less severe than the scuffing damaged produced during shuttle flight. Failure to produce scuff damage like that found on the shuttle may be due to geometrical variations between the scuffed gears and the gears tested herein, more severe operating conditions during the flight that produced the scuff than estimated, the order of the test procedures, the use of new hydraulic oil, differences between the dynamic response of the flight gearbox and the bench-test gearbox, or a combination of these. This report documents the test gears, apparatus, and procedures, summarizes the test results, and includes a discussion of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations.
Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, James
The Early Flight Fission-Test Facility (EFF-TF) can assist in the design and development of systems through highly effective non-nuclear testing of nuclear systems when technical issues associated with near-term space fission systems are 'non-nuclear' in nature (e.g. system's nuclear operations are understood). For many systems, thermal simulators can be used to closely mimic fission heat deposition. Axial power profile, radial power profile, and fuel pin thermal conductivity can be matched. In addition to component and subsystem testing, operational and lifetime issues associated with the steady state and transient performance of the integrated reactor module can be investigated. Instrumentation at the EFF-TF allows accurate measurement of temperature, pressure, strain, and bulk core deformation (useful for accurately simulating nuclear behavior). Ongoing research at the EFF-TF is geared towards facilitating research, development, system integration, and system utilization via cooperative efforts with DOE laboratories, industry, universities, and other Nasa centers. This paper describes the current efforts for the latter portion of 2003 and beginning of 2004. (authors)
Arteaga, Ricardo; Dandachy, Mike; Truong, Hong; Aruljothi, Arun; Vedantam, Mihir; Epperson, Kraettli; McCartney, Reed
Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California and Vigilant Aerospace Systems collaborated for the flight-test demonstration of an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast based collision avoidance technology on a small unmanned aircraft system equipped with the uAvionix Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast transponder. The purpose of the testing was to demonstrate that National Aeronautics and Space Administration / Vigilant software and algorithms, commercialized as the FlightHorizon UAS"TM", are compatible with uAvionix hardware systems and the DJI Phantom 4 small unmanned aircraft system. The testing and demonstrations were necessary for both parties to further develop and certify the technology in three key areas: flights beyond visual line of sight, collision avoidance, and autonomous operations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Vigilant Aerospace Systems have developed and successfully flight-tested an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid system on the Phantom 4 small unmanned aircraft system. The Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid system architecture is especially suited for small unmanned aircraft systems because it integrates: 1) miniaturized Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast hardware; 2) radio data-link communications; 3) software algorithms for real-time Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast data integration, conflict detection, and alerting; and 4) a synthetic vision display using a fully-integrated National Aeronautics and Space Administration geobrowser for three dimensional graphical representations for ownship and air traffic situational awareness. The flight-test objectives were to evaluate the performance of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid collision avoidance technology as installed on two small unmanned aircraft systems. In December 2016, four flight tests
Rothhaar, Paul M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Bacon, Barton J.; Gregory, Irene M.; Grauer, Jared A.; Busan, Ronald C.; Croom, Mark A.
Control of complex Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft traversing from hovering to wing born flight mode and back poses notoriously difficult modeling, simulation, control, and flight-testing challenges. This paper provides an overview of the techniques and advances required to develop the GL-10 tilt-wing, tilt-tail, long endurance, VTOL aircraft control system. The GL-10 prototype's unusual and complex configuration requires application of state-of-the-art techniques and some significant advances in wind tunnel infrastructure automation, efficient Design Of Experiments (DOE) tunnel test techniques, modeling, multi-body equations of motion, multi-body actuator models, simulation, control algorithm design, and flight test avionics, testing, and analysis. The following compendium surveys key disciplines required to develop an effective control system for this challenging vehicle in this on-going effort.
Bonner, Malcolm A; Wilson, Glenn F
.... Because flying is a complex task, several measures are required to derive the best evaluation. This article describes the use of heart rate to augment the typical performance and subjective measures used in test and evaluation...
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) William J. Hughes Technical Center is : in the unique position of having the facilities designed to test Mode S radars : and transponders. A vendor supplied an early production model of a Mode S : transponder...
Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Iannicca, Dennis C.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Smith, Albert E.
This report provides an overview and results from the unmanned aircraft (UA) Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Generation 5 prototype radio validation flight test campaign. The radios used in the test campaign were developed under cooperative agreement NNC11AA01A between the NASA Glenn Research Center and Rockwell Collins, Inc., of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Measurement results are presented for flight tests over hilly terrain, open water, and urban landscape, utilizing radio sets installed into a NASA aircraft and ground stations. Signal strength and frame loss measurement data are analyzed relative to time and aircraft position, specifically addressing the impact of line-of-sight terrain obstructions on CNPC data flow. Both the radio and flight test system are described.
Smith, Stephen C.; Shirakata, Norm; Moes, Timothy R.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Conners, Timothy H.
A flight experiment has been proposed to investigate the performance of an aerospike rocket motor installed in a lifting body configuration. An SR-71 airplane would be used to carry the aerospike configuration to the desired flight test conditions. Wind-tunnel tests were completed on a 4-percent scale SR-71 airplane with the aerospike pod mounted in various locations on the upper fuselage. Testing was accomplished using sting and blade mounts from Mach 0.6 to Mach 3.2. Initial test objectives included assessing transonic drag and supersonic lateral-directional stability and control. During these tests, flight simulations were run with wind-tunnel data to assess the acceptability of the configurations. Early testing demonstrated that the initial configuration with the aerospike pod near the SR-71 center of gravity was unsuitable because of large nosedown pitching moments at transonic speeds. The excessive trim drag resulting from accommodating this pitching moment far exceeded the excess thrust capability of the airplane. Wind-tunnel testing continued in an attempt to find a configuration suitable for flight test. Multiple configurations were tested. Results indicate that an aft-mounted model configuration possessed acceptable performance, stability, and control characteristics.
West, Edward; Pavelitz, Steve; Kobayashi, Ken; Robinson, Brian; Cirtain, Johnathan; Gaskin, Jessica; Winebarger, Amy
This paper will describe a new EUV test facility that is being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test EUV telescopes. Two flight programs, HiC - high resolution coronal imager (sounding rocket) and SUVI - Solar Ultraviolet Imager (GOES-R), set the requirements for this new facility. This paper will discuss those requirements, the EUV source characteristics, the wavelength resolution that is expected and the vacuum chambers (Stray Light Facility, Xray Calibration Facility and the EUV test chamber) where this facility will be used.
Two orbital test plans were prepared to verify one of the passive cryogenic storage tank/feedline candidate designs. One plan considered the orbital test article to be launched as a dedicated payload using an Atlas F burner launching configuration. The second plan proposed to launch the orbital test article as a secondary payload on the Titan E/Centaur proof flight. The secondary payload concept was pursued until January 1973, when work to build the hardware for this phase of the contract was terminated for lack of a sponsor for the flight. The dedicated payload launched on an Atlas F is described.
João Otávio Falcão Arantes Filho
Full Text Available This paper applies the frequency response methodology to characterize and analyze the flying qualities of longitudinal and lateral axes of a rotary-wing aircraft, AS355-F2. Using the results, it is possible to check the suitability of the aircraft in accordance with ADS-33E-PRF standard, whose flying qualities specifications criteria are based on parameters in the frequency domain. The key steps addressed in the study involve getting, by means of flight test data, the closed-loop dynamic responses including the design of the instrumentation and specification of the sensors to be used in the flight test campaign, the definition of the appropriate maneuvers characteristics for excitation of the aircraft, the planning and execution of the flight test to collect the data, and the proper data treatment, processing and analysis after the flight. After treatment of the collected data, single input-single output spectral analysis is performed. The results permit the analysis of the flying qualities characteristics, anticipation of the demands to which the pilot will be subjected during closed-loop evaluations and check of compliance with the aforementioned standard, within the range of consistent excitation frequencies for flight tests, setting the agility level of the test aircraft.
Full Text Available To satisfy the validation requirements of flight control law for advanced aircraft, a wind tunnel based virtual flight testing has been implemented in a low speed wind tunnel. A 3-degree-of-freedom gimbal, ventrally installed in the model, was used in conjunction with an actively controlled dynamically similar model of aircraft, which was equipped with the inertial measurement unit, attitude and heading reference system, embedded computer and servo-actuators. The model, which could be rotated around its center of gravity freely by the aerodynamic moments, together with the flow field, operator and real time control system made up the closed-loop testing circuit. The model is statically unstable in longitudinal direction, and it can fly stably in wind tunnel with the function of control augmentation of the flight control laws. The experimental results indicate that the model responds well to the operator’s instructions. The response of the model in the tests shows reasonable agreement with the simulation results. The difference of response of angle of attack is less than 0.5°. The effect of stability augmentation and attitude control law was validated in the test, meanwhile the feasibility of virtual flight test technique treated as preliminary evaluation tool for advanced flight vehicle configuration research was also verified.
Altmaier, Elizabeth Mitchell; Woodward, Margaret
Studied test-anxious college students (N=43) who received either vicarious desensitization, study skills training, or both treatments; there was also a no-treatment control condition. Self-report measures indicated that vicarious desensitization resulted in lower test and trait anxiety than study skills training alone or no treatment. (Author)
Ahmad, Nashat N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Bowles, Roland L.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.; Gloudesman, Thijs; van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco
This paper describes a methodology for the integration and evaluation of fast-time wake models with flight data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted detailed flight tests in 1995 and 1997 under the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Program to characterize wake vortex decay and wake encounter dynamics. In this study, data collected during Flight 705 were used to evaluate NASA's fast-time wake transport and decay models. Deterministic and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to define wake hazard bounds behind the wake generator. The methodology described in this paper can be used for further validation of fast-time wake models using en-route flight data, and for determining wake turbulence constraints in the design of air traffic management concepts.
The NASA SR-71A successfully completed its first cold flow flight as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California on March 4, 1998. During a cold flow flight, gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen are cycled through the linear aerospike engine to check the engine's plumbing system for leaks and to check the engine operating characterisitics. Cold-flow tests must be accomplished successfully before firing the rocket engine experiment in flight. The SR-71 took off at 10:16 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty-seven minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.58 before landing at Edwards at 12:13 p.m. PST. 'I think all in all we had a good mission today,' Dryden LASRE Project Manager Dave Lux said. Flight crew member Bob Meyer agreed, saying the crew 'thought it was a really good flight.' Dryden Research Pilot Ed Schneider piloted the SR-71 during the mission. Lockheed Martin LASRE Project Manager Carl Meade added, 'We are extremely pleased with today's results. This will help pave the way for the first in-flight engine data-collection flight of the LASRE.' The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous
Denham, Casey; Owens, D. Bruce
Flight dynamics research was conducted to collect and analyze rotary balance wind tunnel test data in order to improve the aerodynamic simulation and modeling of a low-cost small unmanned aircraft called FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research). The impetus for using FASER was to provide risk and cost reduction for flight testing of more expensive aircraft and assist in the improvement of wind tunnel and flight test techniques, and control laws. The FASER research aircraft has the benefit of allowing wind tunnel and flight tests to be conducted on the same model, improving correlation between wind tunnel, flight, and simulation data. Prior wind tunnel tests include a static force and moment test, including power effects, and a roll and yaw damping forced oscillation test. Rotary balance testing allows for the calculation of aircraft rotary derivatives and the prediction of steady-state spins. The rotary balance wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST). Rotary balance testing includes runs for a set of given angular rotation rates at a range of angles of attack and sideslip angles in order to fully characterize the aircraft rotary dynamics. Tests were performed at angles of attack from 0 to 50 degrees, sideslip angles of -5 to 10 degrees, and non-dimensional spin rates from -0.5 to 0.5. The effects of pro-spin elevator and rudder deflection and pro- and anti-spin elevator, rudder, and aileron deflection were examined. The data are presented to illustrate the functional dependence of the forces and moments on angle of attack, sideslip angle, and angular rate for the rotary contributions to the forces and moments. Further investigation is necessary to fully characterize the control effectors. The data were also used with a steady state spin prediction tool that did not predict an equilibrium spin mode.
Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz
The research topic relates to the subject of deep foundations supported on continuous flight auger (CFA) piles and screw displacement piles (SDP). The authors have decided to conduct model tests of foundations supported on the group of piles mentioned above and also the tests of the same piles working as a single. The tests are ongoing in Geotechnical Laboratory of Gdaňsk University of Technology. The description of test procedure, interpretation and analysis of the preliminary testing series results are presented in the paper.
Full Text Available The research topic relates to the subject of deep foundations supported on continuous flight auger (CFA piles and screw displacement piles (SDP. The authors have decided to conduct model tests of foundations supported on the group of piles mentioned above and also the tests of the same piles working as a single. The tests are ongoing in Geotechnical Laboratory of Gdaňsk University of Technology. The description of test procedure, interpretation and analysis of the preliminary testing series results are presented in the paper.
ground station hardware and software. B. Space- based Platforms There are already in place several satellite based options to collecting and... Transceive data over very long range at low to very high altitudes DARPA: XS-1 Ground Based Aircraft Based Space Based Future Data...412TW-PA-15264 AIR FORCE TEST CENTER EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE , CALIFORNIA AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE REPORT
descent data by digital computer routines is common practice at both military and contractor test facilities. The Wautomatic data reduction process...inability to reach ruider pedals or foot controls , inability to fit through emergency egrean openlngs, etc. CONTROl. DESIGN Contiols must meot various...most important controls should be the easiest to reach and manipulate. Controls should never be located such that the hand or arm manipulating the
with current (I). P V I (2.1) This is significant because the battery discharge test will not lineup perfectly with Figure 12...accordance with the charging procedures . 3. NPS-SCAT Power Budget A power budget analysis was performed to determine if the NPS-SCAT is self...using procedures developed by Marissa Brummitt, and with the assistance of Adam Hill, NPS-SCAT Program Manager. 1. ELaNa IV Random Vibration Levels
Nesel, Michael C.; Hammons, Kevin R.
Enhancements to the real-time processing and display systems of the NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range are described. Display processing has been moved out of the telemetry and radar acquisition processing systems super-minicomputers into user/client interactive graphic workstations. Real-time data is provided to the workstations by way of Ethernet. Future enhancement plans include use of fiber optic cable to replace the Ethernet.
A viewgraph presentation of flight tests performed on the F/A active aeroelastic wing airplane is shown. The topics include: 1) F/A-18 AAW Airplane; 2) F/A-18 AAW Control Surfaces; 3) Flight Test Background; 4) Roll Control Effectiveness Regions; 5) AAW Design Test Points; 6) AAW Phase I Test Maneuvers; 7) OBES Pitch Doublets; 8) OBES Roll Doublets; 9) AAW Aileron Flexibility; 10) Phase I - Lessons Learned; 11) Control Law Development and Verification & Validation Testing; 12) AAW Phase II RFCS Envelopes; 13) AAW 1-g Phase II Flight Test; 14) Region I - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 15) Region I - Subsonic 1-g 360 Roll; 16) Region II - Supersonic 1-g Rolls; 17) Region II - Supersonic 1-g 360 Roll; 18) Region III - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 19) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (open-loop); 20) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (closed-loop); 21) AAW Phase II Elevated-g Flight Test; 22) Region I - Subsonic 4-g RPO; and 23) Phase II - Lessons Learned
Gheorghe, Popan; Gheorghe, Gh. Ion; Gabriel, Todoran
The topics covered in the paper are mechatronic systems for determining the distance between the satellites and the design of the displacement system on air cushion table for satellites testing. INCDMTM has the capability to approach the collaboration within European Programms (ESA) of human exploration of outer space through mechatronic systems and accessories for telescopes, mechatronics systems used by the launchers, sensors and mechatronic systems for the robotic exploration programs of atmosphere and Mars. This research has a strong development component of industrial competitiveness many of the results of space research have direct applicability in industrial fabrication.
Wilson, J. W.; Stock, L. V.; Carter, D. J.; Chang, C. K.
A preliminary analysis shows that radiation dose equivalent to 30 years in the geosynchronous environment can be accumulated in a typical composite material exposed to space for 2 years or less onboard a spacecraft orbiting from perigee of 300 km out to the peak of the inner electron belt (approximately 2750 km). Future work to determine spacecraft orbits better tailored to materials accelerated testing is indicated. It is predicted that a range of 10 to the 9th power to 10 to the 10th power rads would be accumulated in 3-6 mil thick epoxy/graphite exposed by a test spacecraft orbiting in the inner electron belt. This dose is equivalent to the accumulated dose that this material would be expected to have after 30 years in a geosynchronous orbit. It is anticipated that material specimens would be brought back to Earth after 2 years in the radiation environment so that space radiation effects on materials could be analyzed by laboratory methods.
Jorgensen, James H.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Mishra S. K.; McElmeel, M. Letticia; Maher, Louise A.; Mulder, Ross; Lancaster, Michael V.; Pierson, Duane L.
Very little is known regarding the affects of the microgravity environment of space flight upon the action of antimicrobial agents on bacterial pathogens. This study was undertaken to develop a simple method for conducting antibacterial susceptibility tests during a Space Shuttle mission. Specially prepared susceptibility test research cards (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, MO) were designed to include 6-11 serial two-fold dilutions of 14 antimicrobial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, a Beta-lactamase inhibitor, vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICS) of the drugs were determined by visual reading of color endpoints in the Vitek research cards made possible by incorporation of a colorimetric growth indicator (alamarBlue(Trademark), Accumed International, Westlake, OH). This study has demonstrated reproducible susceptibility results when testing isolates of Staphylococcus aurezis, Group A Streptococcus, Enterococcusfaecalis, Escherichia coli (beta-lactamase positive and negative strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomoiias aeruginosa. In some instances, the MICs were comparable to those determined using a standard broth microdilution method, while in some cases the unique test media and format yielded slightly different values, that were themselves reproducible. The proposed in-flight experiment will include inoculation of the Vitek cards on the ground prior to launch of the Space Shuttle, storage of inoculated cards at refrigeration temperature aboard the Space Shuttle until experiment initiation, then incubation of the cards for 18-48 h prior to visual interpretation of MICs by the mission's astronauts. Ground-based studies have shown reproducible MICs following storage of inoculated cards for 7 days at 4-8 C to accommodate the mission's time schedule and the astronauts' activities. For comparison, ground-based control
Oriti, Salvatore M.
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) since 2006. A key element of the ASRG project is providing life, reliability, and performance testing of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). For this purpose, the Thermal Energy Conversion branch at GRC has been conducting extended operation of a multitude of free-piston Stirling convertors. The goal of this effort is to generate long-term performance data (tens of thousands of hours) simultaneously on multiple units to build a life and reliability database. The test hardware for operation of these convertors was designed to permit in-air investigative testing, such as performance mapping over a range of environmental conditions. With this, there was no requirement to accurately emulate the flight hardware. For the upcoming ASC-E3 units, the decision has been made to assemble the convertors into a flight-like configuration. This means the convertors will be arranged in the dual-opposed configuration in a housing that represents the fit, form, and thermal function of the ASRG. The goal of this effort is to enable system level tests that could not be performed with the traditional test hardware at GRC. This offers the opportunity to perform these system-level tests much earlier in the ASRG flight development, as they would normally not be performed until fabrication of the qualification unit. This paper discusses the requirements, process, and results of this flight-like hardware design activity.
Hancock, Thomas M., III
This paper details the scientific objectives, experiment design, data collection method, and post flight analysis following the first two flights of the Static Computer Memory Integrity Testing (SCMIT) experiment. SCMIT is designed to detect soft-event upsets in passive magnetic memory. A soft-event upset is a change in the logic state of active or passive forms of magnetic memory, commonly referred to as a "Bitflip". In its mildest form a soft-event upset can cause software exceptions, unexpected events, start spacecraft safeing (ending data collection) or corrupted fault protection and error recovery capabilities. In it's most severe form loss of mission or spacecraft can occur. Analysis after the first flight (in 1991 during STS-40) identified possible soft-event upsets to 25% of the experiment detectors. Post flight analysis after the second flight (in 1997 on STS-87) failed to find any evidence of soft-event upsets. The SCMIT experiment is currently scheduled for a third flight in December 1999 on STS-101.
Full Text Available This paper describes the Flight Dynamics Automation (FDA system for COMS Flight Dynamics System (FDS and its test result in terms of the performance of the automation jobs. FDA controls the flight dynamics functions such as orbit determination, orbit prediction, event prediction, and fuel accounting. The designed FDA is independent from the specific characteristics which are defined by spacecraft manufacturer or specific satellite missions. Therefore, FDA could easily links its autonomous job control functions to any satellite mission control system with some interface modification. By adding autonomous system along with flight dynamics system, it decreases the operator’s tedious and repeated jobs but increase the usability and reliability of the system. Therefore, FDA is used to improve the completeness of whole mission control system’s quality. The FDA is applied to the real flight dynamics system of a geostationary satellite, COMS and the experimental test is performed. The experimental result shows the stability and reliability of the mission control operations through the automatic job control.
Manzo, Michelle A.
In 2007, the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) chartered the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to bring forth and address critical battery-related performance/manufacturing issues for NASA and the aerospace community. A suite of tasks identifying and addressing issues related to Ni-H2 and Li-ion battery chemistries was submitted and selected for implementation. The current NESC funded are: (1) Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries (2) Binding Procurement (3) NASA Lithium-Ion Battery Guidelines (3a) Li-Ion Performance Assessment (3b) Li-Ion Guidelines Document (3b-i) Assessment of Applicability of Pouch Cells for Aerospace Missions (3b-ii) High Voltage Risk Assessment (3b-iii) Safe Charge Rates for Li-Ion Cells (4) Availability of Source Material for Li-Ion Cells (5) NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop This presentation provides a brief overview of the tasks in the 2007 plan and serves as an introduction to more detailed discussions on each of the specific tasks.
Gilruth, R R; Turner, W N
Report presents the results of an analysis made of the aileron control characteristics of numerous airplanes tested in flight by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. By the use of previously developed theory, the observed values of pb/2v for the various wing-aileron arrangements were examined to determine the effective section characteristics of the various aileron types.
Kuriyama, M; Inoue, T; Tobinaga, Y; Tsuji, H [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
The present report evaluated the powered high-lift device (PHLD) distance of upper surface blowing (USB) system, basing the materialization of short distance take-off and landing (STOL) performance, one of the main flight test purposes by the Aska'', quiet STOL research aircraft, which evaluation was then added with reporting its flight test result to cover several topics. As prototypical, a C-1 tactical transport aircraft produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries was modified to the aska'' together with the following change in design for the STOL flight test: Adoption was made of a PHLD of USB system where the wing surface was mounted with four turbofan jet engines thereon. Application was made of a boundary layer control (BLC) to the main wing leading edge and aileron. Mounting was made of a stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) using a triple system digital computer. Fitting was made of a vortex generator for the prevention from peeling by jet exhaust. As a result of flight test, the recorded distance was confirmed to be 1580ft in landing and 1670ft in take-off. 5 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.
Cumming, Stephen B.; Cliatt, Larry James; Frederick, Michael A.; Smith, Mark S.
As part of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) program, a 747SP airplane was modified to carry a 2.5 meter telescope in the aft section of the fuselage. The resulting airborne observatory allows for observations above 99 percent of the water vapor in the atmosphere. The open cavity created by the modifications had the potential to significantly affect the airplane in the areas of aerodynamics and acoustics. Several series of flight tests were conducted to clear the airplanes operating envelope for astronomical observations, planned to be performed between the altitudes of 39,000 feet and 45,000 feet. The flight tests were successfully completed. Cavity acoustics were below design limits, and the overall acoustic characteristics of the cavity were better than expected. The modification did have some effects on the stability and control of the airplane, but these effects were not significant. Airplane air data systems were not affected by the modifications. This paper describes the methods used to examine the aerodynamics and acoustic data from the flight tests and provides a discussion of the flight test results in the areas of cavity acoustics, stability and control, and air data.
Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Cliatt, Larry J.; Frederick, Michael A.
As part of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy program, a 747SP airplane was modified to carry a 2.5-m telescope in the aft section of the fuselage. The resulting airborne observatory allows for observations above 99 percent of the water vapor in the atmosphere. The open cavity created by the modifications had the potential to significantly affect the airplane in the areas of aerodynamics and acoustics. Several series of flight tests were conducted to clear the operating envelope of the airplane for astronomical observations, planned to be performed between the altitudes of 35,000 ft and 45,000 ft. The flight tests were successfully completed. Cavity acoustics were below design limits, and the overall acoustic characteristics of the cavity were better than expected. The modification did have some effects on the stability and control of the airplane, but these effects were not significant. Airplane air data systems were not affected by the modifications. This paper describes the methods used to examine the aerodynamics and acoustic data from the flight tests and provides a discussion of the flight-test results in the areas of cavity acoustics, stability and control, and air data.
Cucarella, Guillermina Castillejo; Cichocki, Andrzej; Burla, M.
This paper highlights design, realization, testing and flight results of the Radio Frequency developments (RF) for ESA's second Young Engineers' Satellite (YES2), that included GPS systems, an intersatellite UHF link and a re-entry capsule telemetry and recovery system. The YES2 piggybacked on the
Dudder, Gordon B.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Herbillion, Georges M.
The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to support illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and accepted as credible. The principal objectives of the Round Robin Tests are to prioritize forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Round Robin, and previous Plutonium Round Robin, have made tremendous contributions to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the nine participating internal laboratories. A prioritized list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Current work is focused on the extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The HEU Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability is combined with the appropriate knowledge/database, it results in a significant capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific process or facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in the current capabilities including procedures for non-nuclear forensics and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The results of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a ''recommended protocol'' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases.
Dudder, Gordon B.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Herbillion, Georges M.
The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to support illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and accepted as credible. The principal objectives of the Round Robin Tests are to prioritize forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Round Robin, and previous Plutonium Round Robin, have made tremendous contributions to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the nine participating internal laboratories. A prioritized list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Current work is focused on the extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The HEU Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability is combined with the appropriate knowledge/database, it results in a significant capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific process or facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in the current capabilities including procedures for non-nuclear forensics and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The results of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a ''recommended protocol'' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases
Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Assa'ad, Amal H; Bahna, Sami L; Bock, S Allan; Sicherer, Scott H; Teuber, Suzanne S
Oral food challenges are procedures conducted by allergists/immunologists to make an accurate diagnosis of immediate, and occasionally delayed, adverse reactions to foods. The timing of the challenge is carefully chosen based on the individual patient history and the results of skin prick tests and food specific serum IgE values. The type of the challenge is determined by the history, the age of the patient, and the likelihood of encountering subjective reactions. The food challenge requires preparation of the patient for the procedure and preparation of the office for the organized conduct of the challenge, for a careful assessment of the symptoms and signs and the treatment of reactions. The starting dose, the escalation of the dosing, and the intervals between doses are determined based on experience and the patient's history. The interpretation of the results of the challenge and arrangements for follow-up after a challenge are important. A negative oral food challenge result allows introduction of the food into the diet, whereas a positive oral food challenge result provides a sound basis for continued avoidance of the food.
Bue, Grant; Vogel, Matt; Makinen, Janice; Tsioulos, Gus
The spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME) is being developed to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits and to take advantage of recent advances in micropore membrane technology. This results in a robust heat-rejection device that is potentially less sensitive to contamination than is the sublimator. The Membrana Celgard X50-215 microporous hollow-fiber (HoFi) membrane was selected after recent extensive testing as the most suitable candidate among commercial alternatives for continued SWME prototype development. The current design was based on a previous design that grouped the fiber layers into stacks, which were separated by small spaces and packaged into a cylindrical shape. This was developed into a full-scale prototype consisting of 14,300 tube bundled into 30 stacks, each of which is formed into a chevron shape and separated by spacers and organized into three sectors of 10 nested stacks. The new design replaced metal components with plastic ones, and has a custom built flight like backpressure valve mounted on the side of the SWME housing to reduce backpressure when fully open. The spacers that provided separation of the chevron fiber stacks were eliminated. Vacuum chamber testing showed improved heat rejection as a function of inlet water temperature and water vapor backpressure compared with the previous design. Other tests pushed the limits of tolerance to freezing and showed suitability to reject heat in a Mars pressure environment with and without a sweep gas. Tolerance to contamination by constituents expected to be found in potable water produced by distillation processes was tested in a conventional way by allowing constituents to accumulate in the coolant as evaporation occurs. For this purpose, the SWME cartridge has endured an equivalent of 30 EVAs exposure and demonstrated minimal performance decline.
Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice; Vogel, Mtthew; Honas, Matt; Dillon, Paul; Colunga, Aaron; Truong, Lily; Porwitz, Darwin; Tsioulos, Gus
The spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME) is being developed to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits and to take advantage of recent advances in micropore membrane technology. This results in a robust heat-rejection device that is potentially less sensitive to contamination than is the sublimator. The current design was based on a previous design that grouped the fiber layers into stacks, which were separated by small spaces and packaged into a cylindrical shape. This was developed into a full-scale prototype consisting of 14,300 tube bundled into 30 stacks, each of which is formed into a chevron shape and separated by spacers and organized into three sectors of 10 nested stacks. The new design replaced metal components with plastic ones, eliminated the spacers, and has a custom built flight like backpressure valve mounted on the side of the SWME housing to reduce backpressure when fully open. A number of tests were performed in order to improve the strength of the polyurethane header that holds the fibers in place while the system is pressurized. Vacuum chamber testing showed similar heat rejection as a function of inlet water temperature and water vapor backpressure was similar to the previous design. Other tests pushed the limits of tolerance to freezing and showed suitability to reject heat in a Mars pressure environment with and without a sweep gas. Tolerance to contamination by constituents expected to be found in potable water produced by distillation processes was tested in a conventional way by allowing constituents to accumulate in the coolant as evaporation occurs. For this purpose, the SWME cartridge has endured an equivalent of 30 EVAs exposure and demonstrated acceptable performance decline.
Lau, Kei Y.; Holden, M. S.
This paper discusses one specific aspect of the Shuttle Retrun-To-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC), the test flow field calibration. It showed the versatility of the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock Tunnel (LENS) II wind tunnel for an aerothermal test with unique and demanding requirements. CFD analyses were used effectively to extend the test range at the low end of the Mach range. It demonstrated how ground test facility and CFD synergy can be utilitzed iteratively to enhance the confidence in the fedility of both tools. It addressed the lingering concerns of the aerothermal community on use of inpulse facility and CFD analysis. At the conclusion of the test program, members from the NASA Marshall (MSFC), CUBRC and USA (United Space Alliance) Consultants (The Grey Beards) were asked to independently verify the flight scaling data generated by Boeing for flight certification of the re-designed external tank (ET) components. The blind test comparison showed very good results.
McCrink, Matthew Henry
This dissertation provides a flight-testing framework for assessing the performance of fixed-wing, small-scale unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) by leveraging sub-system models of components unique to these vehicles. The development of the sub-system models, and their links to broader impacts on sUAS performance, is the key contribution of this work. The sub-system modeling and analysis focuses on the vehicle's propulsion, navigation and guidance, and airframe components. Quantification of the uncertainty in the vehicle's power available and control states is essential for assessing the validity of both the methods and results obtained from flight-tests. Therefore, detailed propulsion and navigation system analyses are presented to validate the flight testing methodology. Propulsion system analysis required the development of an analytic model of the propeller in order to predict the power available over a range of flight conditions. The model is based on the blade element momentum (BEM) method. Additional corrections are added to the basic model in order to capture the Reynolds-dependent scale effects unique to sUAS. The model was experimentally validated using a ground based testing apparatus. The BEM predictions and experimental analysis allow for a parameterized model relating the electrical power, measurable during flight, to the power available required for vehicle performance analysis. Navigation system details are presented with a specific focus on the sensors used for state estimation, and the resulting uncertainty in vehicle state. Uncertainty quantification is provided by detailed calibration techniques validated using quasi-static and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) ground based testing. The HIL methods introduced use a soft real-time flight simulator to provide inertial quality data for assessing overall system performance. Using this tool, the uncertainty in vehicle state estimation based on a range of sensors, and vehicle operational environments is
Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Lucy, Melvin H.; Massie, Jeffrey J.
The NASA Langley Research Center, Engineering Directorate, Electronic System Branch, is responsible for providing pyrotechnic support capabilities to Langley Research Center unmanned flight and ground test projects. These capabilities include device selection, procurement, testing, problem solving, firing system design, fabrication and testing; ground support equipment design, fabrication and testing; checkout procedures and procedure?s training to pyro technicians. This technical memorandum will serve as a guideline for the design, fabrication and testing of electropyrotechnic firing systems. The guidelines will discuss the entire process beginning with requirements definition and ending with development and execution.
Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.; Smith, P. J.
Experiments on pilot decision making are described. The development of models of pilot decision making in critical in flight events (CIFE) are emphasized. The following tests are reported on the development of: (1) a frame system representation describing how pilots use their knowledge in a fault diagnosis task; (2) assessment of script norms, distance measures, and Markov models developed from computer aided testing (CAT) data; and (3) performance ranking of subject data. It is demonstrated that interactive computer aided testing either by touch CRT's or personal computers is a useful research and training device for measuring pilot information management in diagnosing system failures in simulated flight situations. Performance is dictated by knowledge of aircraft sybsystems, initial pilot structuring of the failure symptoms and efficient testing of plausible causal hypotheses.
Dempsey, Paula J.; Mosher, Marianne; Huff, Edward M.
A method for defining thresholds for vibration-based algorithms that provides the minimum number of false alarms while maintaining sensitivity to gear damage was developed. This analysis focused on two vibration based gear damage detection algorithms, FM4 and MSA. This method was developed using vibration data collected during surface fatigue tests performed in a spur gearbox rig. The thresholds were defined based on damage progression during tests with damage. The thresholds false alarm rates were then evaluated on spur gear tests without damage. Next, the same thresholds were applied to flight data from an OH-58 helicopter transmission. Results showed that thresholds defined in test rigs can be used to define thresholds in flight to correctly classify the transmission operation as normal.
Brandon, Jay M.; Derry, Stephen D.; Heim, Eugene H.; Hueschen, Richard M.; Bacon, Barton J.
The flight test of the Ares I-X vehicle provides a unique opportunity to reduce risk of the design of the Ares I vehicle and test out design, math modeling, and analysis methods. One of the key features of the Ares I design is the significant static aerodynamic instability coupled with the relatively flexible vehicle - potentially resulting in a challenging controls problem to provide adequate flight path performance while also providing adequate structural mode damping and preventing adverse control coupling to the flexible structural modes. Another challenge is to obtain enough data from the single flight to be able to conduct analysis showing the effectiveness of the controls solutions and have data to inform design decisions for Ares I. This paper will outline the modeling approaches and control system design to conduct this flight test, and also the system identification techniques developed to extract key information such as control system performance (gain/phase margins, for example), structural dynamics responses, and aerodynamic model estimations.
Lackey, J.; Hadfield, C.
Recent mishaps and incidents on Class IV aircraft have shown a need for establishing quantitative longitudinal high angle of attack (AOA) pitch control margin design guidelines for future aircraft. NASA Langley Research Center has conducted a series of simulation tests to define these design guidelines. Flight test results have confirmed the simulation studies in that pilot rating of high AOA nose-down recoveries were based on the short-term response interval in the forms of pitch acceleration and rate.
The Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology (SEXTANT) is a technology demonstration enhancement to the Neutron-star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission. NICER is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity that will be hosted on the International Space Station (ISS). SEXTANT will, for the first time, demonstrate real-time, on-board X-ray Pulsar Navigation (XNAV), a significant milestone in the quest to establish a GPS-like navigation capability available throughout our Solar System and beyond. This paper gives an overview of the SEXTANT system architecture and describes progress prior to environmental testing of the NICER flight instrument. It provides descriptions and development status of the SEXTANT flight software and ground system, as well as detailed description and results from the flight software functional and performance testing within the high-fidelity Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) X-ray Navigation Laboratory Testbed (GXLT) software and hardware simulation environment. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation results are presented, using the engineering model of the NICER timing electronics and the GXLT pulsar simulator-the GXLT precisely controls NASA GSFC's unique Modulated X-ray Source to produce X-rays that make the NICER detector electronics appear as if they were aboard the ISS viewing a sequence of millisecond pulsars
Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David
Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.
Different aspects of Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing are currently taking place at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Unique to this testing is the variety of test areas and the fact that all are located in one building. The north high bay of building 4755, the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), contains the following test areas: the Subsystem Test Area, the Comparative Test Area, the Process Material Management System (PMMS), the Core Module Simulator (CMS), the End-use Equipment Facility (EEF), and the Pre-development Operational System Test (POST) Area. This paper addresses the facility that supports these test areas and briefly describes the testing in each area. Future plans for the building and Space Station module configurations will also be discussed.
Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R.; Miller, C. A.; Richards, J. T.; Warren, L. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.
After prolonged exposure to a given gravitational environment the transition to another is accompanied by adaptations in the sensorimotor subsystems, including the vestibular system. Variation in the adaptation time course of these subsystems, and the functional redundancies that exist between them make it difficult to accurately assess the functional capacity and physical limitations of astro/cosmonauts using tests on individual subsystems. While isolated tests of subsystem performance may be the only means to address where interventions are required, direct measures of performance may be more suitable for assessing the operational consequences of incomplete adaptation to changes in the gravitational environment. A test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is currently being used in the JSC Neurosciences Laboratory as part of a series of measures to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate postflight locomotor dysfunction. In the current protocol, subjects visual acuity is determined using Landolt ring optotypes presented sequentially on a computer display. Visual acuity assessments are made both while standing and while walking at 1.8 m/s on a motorized treadmill. The use of a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm reduces the required number of optotype presentations and the results can be presented immediately after the test. The difference between the walking and standing acuity measures provides a metric of the change in the subject s ability to maintain gaze fixation on the visual target while walking. This functional consequence is observable regardless of the underlying subsystem most responsible for the change. Data from 15 cosmo/astronauts have been collected following long-duration (approx. 6 months) stays in space using a visual target viewing distance of 4.0 meters. An investigation of the group mean shows a change in DVA soon after the flight that asymptotes back to baseline approximately one week following their return to earth. The
Hindson, William S.
A flight investigation was conducted to evaluate a multi-mode flight control system designed according to the most recent recommendations for handling qualities criteria for new military helicopters. The modes and capabilities that were included in the system are those considered necessary to permit divided-attention (single-pilot) lowspeed and hover operations near the ground in poor visibility conditions. Design features included mode-selection and mode-blending logic, the use of an automatic position-hold mode that employed precision measurements of aircraft position, and a hover display which permitted manually-controlled hover flight tasks in simulated instrument conditions. Pilot evaluations of the system were conducted using a multi-segment evaluation task. Pilot comments concerning the use of the system are provided, and flight-test data are presented to show system performance.
Koppen, Sandra V.
In support of NASA's Fly-By-Light/Power-By-Wire (FBL/PBW) program, a series of flight tests were conducted by NASA Langley Research Center in February, 1995. The NASA Boeing 757 was flown past known RF transmitters to measure both external and internal radiated fields. The aircraft was instrumented with strategically located sensors for acquiring data on shielding effectiveness and internal coupling. The data are intended to support computational and statistical modeling codes used to predict internal field levels of an electromagnetic environment (EME) on aircraft. The software was an integral part of the flight tests, as well as the data reduction process. The software, which provided flight test instrument control, data acquisition, and a user interface, executes on a Hewlett Packard (HP) 300 series workstation and uses BP VEEtest development software and the C programming language. Software tools were developed for data processing and analysis, and to provide a database organized by frequency bands, test runs, and sensors. This paper describes the data acquisition system on board the aircraft and concentrates on the software portion. Hardware and software interfaces are illustrated and discussed. Particular attention is given to data acquisition and data format. The data reduction process is discussed in detail to provide insight into the characteristics, quality, and limitations of the data. An analysis of obstacles encountered during the data reduction process is presented.
Ockey, Gary J.
The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…
Full Text Available This paper presents the nonlinear six degrees of freedom dynamic modeling of a fixed wing micro air vehicle. The static derivatives of the micro air vehicle are obtained through the wind tunnel testing. The propeller effects on the lift, drag, pitching moment and side force are quantified through wind tunnel testing. The dynamic derivatives are obtained through empirical relations available in the literature. The trim conditions are computed for a straight and constant altitude flight condition. The linearized longitudinal and lateral state space models are obtained about trim conditions. The variations in short period mode, phugoid mode, Dutch roll mode, roll subsidence mode and spiral mode with respect to different trim operating conditions is presented. A stabilizing static output feedback controller is designed using the obtained model. Successful closed loop flight trials are conducted with the static output feedback controller.
Yen, J. G.; Viswanathan, S.; Matthys, C. G.
A flight flutter testing technique is described in which the rotor controls are oscillated by series actuators to excite the rotor and airframe modes of interest, which are then allowed to decay. The moving block technique is then used to determine the damped frequency and damping variation with rotor speed. The method proved useful for tracking the stability of relatively well damped modes. The results of recently completed flight tests of an experimental soft-in-plane rotor are used to illustrate the technique. Included is a discussion of the application of this technique to investigation of the propeller whirl flutter stability characteristics of the NASA/Army XV-15 VTOL tilt rotor research aircraft.
Holt, Greg N.; Brown, Aaron
The Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) mission successfully flew on Dec 5, 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy launch vehicle. The goal of Orions maiden flight was to stress the system by placing an uncrewed vehicle on a high-energy trajectory replicating conditions similar to those that would be experienced when returning from an asteroid or a lunar mission. The Orion navigation team combined all trajectory data from the mission into a Best Estimated Trajectory (BET) product. There were significant challenges in data reconstruction and many lessons were learned for future missions. The team used an estimation filter incorporating radar tracking, onboard sensors (Global Positioning System and Inertial Measurement Unit), and day-of-flight weather balloons to evaluate the true trajectory flown by Orion. Data was published for the entire Orion EFT-1 flight, plus objects jettisoned during entry such as the Forward Bay Cover. The BET customers include approximately 20 disciplines within Orion who will use the information for evaluating vehicle performance and influencing future design decisions.
Jason N. Gross
Full Text Available An experimental analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS flight data collected onboard a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV is conducted in order to demonstrate that postprocessed kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP solutions with precisions approximately 6 cm 3D Residual Sum of Squares (RSOS can be obtained on SUAVs that have short duration flights with limited observational periods (i.e., only ~≤5 minutes of data. This is a significant result for the UAV flight testing community because an important and relevant benefit of the PPP technique over traditional Differential GPS (DGPS techniques, such as Real-Time Kinematic (RTK, is that there is no requirement for maintaining a short baseline separation to a differential GNSS reference station. Because SUAVs are an attractive platform for applications such as aerial surveying, precision agriculture, and remote sensing, this paper offers an experimental evaluation of kinematic PPP estimation strategies using SUAV platform data. In particular, an analysis is presented in which the position solutions that are obtained from postprocessing recorded UAV flight data with various PPP software and strategies are compared to solutions that were obtained using traditional double-differenced ambiguity fixed carrier-phase Differential GPS (CP-DGPS. This offers valuable insight to assist designers of SUAV navigation systems whose applications require precise positioning.
Mabe, James H.; Calkins, Frederick T.; Ruggeri, Robert T.
In August of 2005 The Boeing Company conducted a full-scale flight test utilizing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators to morph an engine's fan exhaust to correlate exhaust geometry with jet noise reduction. The test was conducted on a 777-300ER with GE-115B engines. The presence of chevrons, serrated aerodynamic surfaces mounted at the trailing edge of the thrust reverser, have been shown to greatly reduce jet noise by encouraging advantageous mixing of the free, and fan streams. The morphing, or Variable Geometry Chevrons (VGC), utilized compact, light weight, and robust SMA actuators to morph the chevron shape to optimize the noise reduction or meet acoustic test objectives. The VGC system was designed for two modes of operation. The entirely autonomous operation utilized changes in the ambient temperature from take-off to cruise to activate the chevron shape change. It required no internal heaters, wiring, control system, or sensing. By design this provided one tip immersion at the warmer take-off temperatures to reduce community noise and another during the cooler cruise state for more efficient engine operation, i.e. reduced specific fuel consumption. For the flight tests a powered mode was added where internal heaters were used to individually control the VGC temperatures. This enabled us to vary the immersions and test a variety of chevron configurations. The flight test demonstrated the value of SMA actuators to solve a real world aerospace problem, validated that the technology could be safely integrated into the airplane's structure and flight system, and represented a large step forward in the realization of SMA actuators for production applications. In this paper the authors describe the development of the actuator system, the steps required to integrate the morphing structure into the thrust reverser, and the analysis and testing that was required to gain approval for flight. Issues related to material strength, thermal environment, vibration
Automiated Battery of Performance-based Tests, NAMRL 1354, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, FL, 1990. 13. Human Performance...ability of an aircraft to remain airborne well beyond the limits of its human operator. This capacity for longer flights, coupled with a tendency for short...Measurement, Final Report, Air Force Human Resources Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX, 1983. 5. Stein, E.S., Measurement of Pilot Performance: A Master Journeyman
STATES AIR FORCE AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2017-0172 LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW CALCULATIONS FOR THE HIFIRE-5B FLIGHT TEST Roger L. Kimmel Hypersonic Sciences...stationary instabilities of the three-dimensional flow as the grid becomes finer. It may not be possible to obtain a strictly laminar basic state on a very...fine grid. A basic state solution was desired for the laminar flow calculations, and the oscillations observed in Fig. 3 were judged to be undesirable
Bosworth, John T.; Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.
Adaptive flight control systems have the potential to be more resilient to extreme changes in airplane behavior. Extreme changes could be a result of a system failure or of damage to the airplane. A direct adaptive neural-network-based flight control system was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System airplane and subjected to an inflight simulation of a failed (frozen) (unmovable) stabilator. Formation flight handling qualities evaluations were performed with and without neural network adaptation. The results of these flight tests are presented. Comparison with simulation predictions and analysis of the performance of the adaptation system are discussed. The performance of the adaptation system is assessed in terms of its ability to decouple the roll and pitch response and reestablish good onboard model tracking. Flight evaluation with the simulated stabilator failure and adaptation engaged showed that there was generally improvement in the pitch response; however, a tendency for roll pilot-induced oscillation was experienced. A detailed discussion of the cause of the mixed results is presented.
Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.
The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (pperformance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely contributors to impaired functional tasks that are ambulatory in nature (See abstract Functional Task Test: 1). Interestingly, no significant changes in central activation capacity were detected. Therefore, impairments in muscle function in response to short-duration space flight are likely myocellular rather than neuromotor in nature.
Today's radiologic technology students must learn to collaborate and communicate to function as part of the health care team. Innovative educational techniques such as cooperative learning (working collectively in small groups) and group testing (collaborating on tests) can foster these skills. Assess students' familiarity with and opinions about cooperative learning and group testing before and after participation in a semester-long course incorporating these methods. Twenty-eight students enrolled in a baccalaureate-level radiologic technology program in Louisiana were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester. Results showed that students were more knowledgeable about and more accepting of cooperative learning and group testing after participating in the course. However, some students continued to prefer independent learning. Students are open to new learning methods such as cooperative learning and group testing. These techniques can help them develop the skills they will need to function collaboratively in the workplace.
Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal
This study evaluates a traffic management concept designed to enable simultaneous operations of multiple small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace system (NAS). A five-day flight-test activity is described that examined the feasibility of operating multiple UAS beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) of their respective operators in the same airspace. Over the five-day campaign, three groups of five flight crews operated a total of eleven different aircraft. Each group participated in four flight scenarios involving five simultaneous missions. Each vehicle was operated BVLOS up to 1.5 miles from the pilot in command. Findings and recommendations are presented to support the feasibility and safety of routine BVLOS operations for small UAS.
Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal
This study evaluates a traffic management concept designed to enable simultaneous operations of multiple small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace system (NAS). A five-day flight-test activity is described that examined the feasibility of operating multiple UAS beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) of their respective operators in the same airspace. Over the five-day campaign, three groups of five flight crews operated a total of eleven different aircraft. Each group participated in four flight scenarios involving five simultaneous missions. Each vehicle was operated BVLOS up to 1.5 miles from the pilot in command. Findings and recommendations are presented to support the feasibility and safety of routine BVLOS operations for small UAS.
The performance of a device for electromagnetically heating and positioning containerless melts during space processing was evaluated during a 360 second 0-g suborbital sounding rocket flight. Components of the electromagnetic containerless processing package (ECPP), its operation, and interface with the rocket are described along with flight and qualification tests results.
Bennett, R. M.
Modal identification results presented were obtained from recent flight flutter tests of a drone vehicle with a research wing (DAST ARW-1 for Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing, Aeroelastic Research Wing-1). This vehicle is equipped with an active flutter suppression system (FSS). Frequency and damping of several modes are determined by a time domain modal analysis of the impulse response function obtained by Fourier transformations of data from fast swept sine wave excitation by the FSS control surface on the wing. Flutter points are determined for two different altitudes with the FSS off. Data are given for near the flutter boundary with the FSS on.
Jex, H. R.; Mitchell, D. G.
The slow flight speed, very light wing loading, and neutral stability of the Gossamer Condor and the Gossamer Albatross emphasized apparent-mass aerodynamic effects and unusual modes of motion response. These are analyzed, approximated, and discussed, and the resulting transfer functions and dynamic properties are summarized and compared. To verify these analytical models, flight tests were conducted with and electrically powered Gossamer Albatross II. Sensors were installed and their outputs were telemetered to records on the ground. Frequency sweeps of the various controls were made and the data were reduced to frequency domain measures. Results are given for the response of: pitch rate, airspeed and normal acceleration from canard-elevator deflection; roll rate and yaw rate from canard-rudder tilt; and roll rate and yaw rate from wing warp. The reliable data are compared with the analytical predictions.
The STS-114 Space Shuttle Discovery Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) flight crew is shown at Pad 39-B. Eileen Collins, Commander introduces the astronauts. Andrew Thomas, mission specialist talks about his primary responsibility of performing boom inspections, Wendy Lawrence, Mission Specialist 4 (MS4) describes her role as the robotic arm operator supporting Extravehicular Activities (EVA), Stephen Robinson, Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) talks about his role as flight engineer, Charlie Camarda, Mission Specialist 5 (MS5) says that his duties are to perform boom operations, transfer operations from the space shuttle to the International Space Station and spacecraft rendezvous. Soichi Noguchi, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) from JAXA, introduces himself as Extravehicular Activity 1 (EVA1), and Jim Kelley, Pilot will operate the robotic arm and perform pilot duties. Questions from the news media about the safety of the external tank, going to the International Space Station and returning, EVA training, and thoughts about the Space Shuttle Columbia crew are answered.
Champey, P.; Kobayashi, K.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Hyde, D.; Robertson, B.; Beabout, B.; Beabout, D.; Stewart, M.
The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras were built and tested for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint MSFC, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) and Institut D'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS) sounding rocket mission. The CLASP camera design includes a frame-transfer e2v CCD57-10 512 × 512 detector, dual channel analog readout and an internally mounted cold block. At the flight CCD temperature of -20C, the CLASP cameras exceeded the low-noise performance requirements (UV, EUV and X-ray science cameras at MSFC.
Sud, Jastesh; Gay, Robert; Holt, Greg; Zanetti, Renato
Scheduled to launch in September 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion Multi-Purpose-Crew-Vehicle (MPCV's) maiden flight dubbed "Exploration Flight Test -1" (EFT-1) intends to stress the system by placing the uncrewed vehicle on a high-energy parabolic trajectory replicating conditions similar to those that would be experienced when returning from an asteroid or a lunar mission. Unique challenges associated with designing the navigation system for EFT-1 are presented in the narrative with an emphasis on how redundancy and robustness influenced the architecture. Two Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), one GPS receiver and three barometric altimeters (BALTs) comprise the navigation sensor suite. The sensor data is multiplexed using conventional integration techniques and the state estimate is refined by the GPS pseudorange and deltarange measurements in an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that employs the UDUT decomposition approach. The design is substantiated by simulation results to show the expected performance.
DeWittBurns, H.; Craven, Paul; Finckenor, Miria; Nehls, Mary; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason
Understanding the effects of the space environment on materials and systems is fundamental and essential for mission success. If not properly understood and designed for, the effects of the environment can lead to degradation of materials, reduction of functional lifetime, and system failure. In response to this need, the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed world class Space Environmental Effects (SEE) expertise and test facilities to simulate the space environment. Capabilities include multiple unique test systems comprising the most complete SEE testing capability available. These test capabilities include charged particle radiation (electrons, protons, ions), ultraviolet radiation (UV), vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV), atomic oxygen, plasma effects, space craft charging, lunar surface and planetary effects, vacuum effects, and hypervelocity impacts as well as the combination of these capabilities. In addition to the uniqueness of the individual test capabilities, MSFC is the only NASA facility where the effects of the different space environments can be tested in one location. Combined with additional analytical capabilities for pre- and post-test evaluation, MSFC is a one-stop shop for materials testing and analysis. The SEE testing and analysis are performed by a team of award winning experts nationally recognized for their contributions in the study of the effects of the space environment on materials and systems. With this broad expertise in space environmental effects and the variety of test systems and equipment available, MSFC is able to customize tests with a demonstrated ability to rapidly adapt and reconfigure systems to meet customers needs. Extensive flight experiment experience bolsters this simulation and analysis capability with a comprehensive understanding of space environmental effects.
Test Engineer GVE Good Visual Environment HMD Head Mounted Displays HQR Handling Quality Rating HUD Heads Up Display IFR Instrument Flight...may take the form of general questionnaires such as the China Lake Situational Awareness Rating Scale, the Situational Awareness Global Assessment...performed in 5-ft decrements. IFR transit flight duties should also be performed, when simulating flight in IMC. In all cases, internal lighting must
Kegley, Jeff; Burdine, Robert V. (Technical Monitor)
A new cryogenic optical testing capability exists at Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (SOMTC). SOMTC has been performing optical wavefront testing at cryogenic temperatures since 1999 in the X-ray Cryogenic Test Facility's (XRCF's) large vacuum chamber. Recently the cryogenic optical testing capability has been extended to a smaller vacuum chamber. This smaller horizontal cylindrical vacuum chamber has been outfitted with a helium-cooled liner that can be connected to the facility's helium refrigeration system bringing the existing kilowatt of refrigeration capacity to bear on a 1 meter diameter x 2 meter long test envelope. Cryogenic environments to less than 20 Kelvin are now possible in only a few hours. SOMTC's existing instruments (the Instantaneous Phase-shifting Interferometer (IPI) from ADE Phase-Shift Technologies and the PhaseCam from 4D Vision Technologies) view the optic under test through a 150 mm clear aperture BK-7 window. Since activation and chamber characterization tests in September 2001, the new chamber has been used to perform a cryogenic (less than 30 Kelvin) optical test of a 22.5 cm diameter x 127 cm radius of curvature Si02 mirror, a cryogenic survival (less than 30 Kelvin) test of an adhesive, and a cryogenic cycle (less than 20 Kelvin) test of a ULE mirror. A vibration survey has also been performed on the test chamber. Chamber specifications and performance data, vibration environment data, and limited test results will be presented.
Jacklin, Stephen A.; Schumann, Johann; Guenther, Kurt; Bosworth, John
Adaptive control technologies that incorporate learning algorithms have been proposed to enable autonomous flight control and to maintain vehicle performance in the face of unknown, changing, or poorly defined operating environments [1-2]. At the present time, however, it is unknown how adaptive algorithms can be routinely verified, validated, and certified for use in safety-critical applications. Rigorous methods for adaptive software verification end validation must be developed to ensure that. the control software functions as required and is highly safe and reliable. A large gap appears to exist between the point at which control system designers feel the verification process is complete, and when FAA certification officials agree it is complete. Certification of adaptive flight control software verification is complicated by the use of learning algorithms (e.g., neural networks) and degrees of system non-determinism. Of course, analytical efforts must be made in the verification process to place guarantees on learning algorithm stability, rate of convergence, and convergence accuracy. However, to satisfy FAA certification requirements, it must be demonstrated that the adaptive flight control system is also able to fail and still allow the aircraft to be flown safely or to land, while at the same time providing a means of crew notification of the (impending) failure. It was for this purpose that the NASA Ames Confidence Tool was developed . This paper presents the Confidence Tool as a means of providing in-flight software assurance monitoring of an adaptive flight control system. The paper will present the data obtained from flight testing the tool on a specially modified F-15 aircraft designed to simulate loss of flight control faces.
Champey, Patrick R.; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Hyde, D.; Robertson, B.; Beabout, B.; Beabout, D.; Stewart, M.
The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras were built and tested for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and MSFC sounding rocket mission. The CLASP camera design includes a frame-transfer e2v CCD57-10 512x512 detector, dual channel analog readout electronics and an internally mounted cold block. At the flight operating temperature of -20 C, the CLASP cameras achieved the low-noise performance requirements (less than or equal to 25 e- read noise and greater than or equal to 10 e-/sec/pix dark current), in addition to maintaining a stable gain of approximately equal to 2.0 e-/DN. The e2v CCD57-10 detectors were coated with Lumogen-E to improve quantum efficiency (QE) at the Lyman- wavelength. A vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) monochromator and a NIST calibrated photodiode were employed to measure the QE of each camera. Four flight-like cameras were tested in a high-vacuum chamber, which was configured to operate several tests intended to verify the QE, gain, read noise, dark current and residual non-linearity of the CCD. We present and discuss the QE measurements performed on the CLASP cameras. We also discuss the high-vacuum system outfitted for testing of UV and EUV science cameras at MSFC.
A NASA program to develop digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) technology for aircraft applications is discussed. Phase I of the program demonstrated the feasibility of using a digital fly-by-wire system for aircraft control through developing and flight testing a single channel system, which used Apollo hardware, in an F-8C airplane. The objective of Phase II of the program is to establish a technology base for designing practical DFBW systems. It will involve developing and flight testing a triplex digital fly-by-wire system using state-of-the-art airborne computers, system hardware, software, and redundancy concepts. The papers included in this report describe the Phase I system and its development and present results from the flight program. Man-rated flight software and the effects of lightning on digital flight control systems are also discussed.
... flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.405 Section 61.405 Aeronautics and Space..., FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.405 What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? To obtain a...
Kislat, Fabian; Abarr, Quin; Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Dowkontt, Paul; Tang, Jason; Krawczynski, Henric
X-ray polarimetry promises exciting insights into the physics of compact astrophysical objects by providing two observables: the polarization fraction and angle as function of energy. X-Calibur is a balloon-borne hard x-ray scattering polarimeter for the 15- to 60-keV energy range. After the successful test flight in September 2016, the instrument is now being prepared for a long-duration balloon (LDB) flight in December 2018 through January 2019. During the LDB flight, X-Calibur will make detailed measurements of the polarization of Vela X-1 and constrain the polarization of a sample of between 4 and 9 additional sources. We describe the upgraded polarimeter design, including the use of a beryllium scattering element, lower-noise front-end electronics, and an improved fully active CsI(Na) anticoincidence shield, which will significantly increase the instrument sensitivity. We present estimates of the improved polarimeter performance based on simulations and laboratory measurements. We present some of the results from the 2016 flight and show that we solved several problems, which led to a reduced sensitivity during the 2016 flight. We end with a description of the planned Vela X-1 observations, including a Swift/BAT-guided observation strategy.
Adam E Duerr
Full Text Available To maximize fitness, flying animals should maximize flight speed while minimizing energetic expenditure. Soaring speeds of large-bodied birds are determined by flight routes and tradeoffs between minimizing time and energetic costs. Large raptors migrating in eastern North America predominantly glide between thermals that provide lift or soar along slopes or ridgelines using orographic lift (slope soaring. It is usually assumed that slope soaring is faster than thermal gliding because forward progress is constant compared to interrupted progress when birds pause to regain altitude in thermals. We tested this slope-soaring hypothesis using high-frequency GPS-GSM telemetry devices to track golden eagles during northbound migration. In contrast to expectations, flight speed was slower when slope soaring and eagles also were diverted from their migratory path, incurring possible energetic costs and reducing speed of progress towards a migratory endpoint. When gliding between thermals, eagles stayed on track and fast gliding speeds compensated for lack of progress during thermal soaring. When thermals were not available, eagles minimized migration time, not energy, by choosing energetically expensive slope soaring instead of waiting for thermals to develop. Sites suited to slope soaring include ridges preferred for wind-energy generation, thus avian risk of collision with wind turbines is associated with evolutionary trade-offs required to maximize fitness of time-minimizing migratory raptors.
Duerr, Adam E; Miller, Tricia A; Lanzone, Michael; Brandes, Dave; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior; Katzner, Todd
To maximize fitness, flying animals should maximize flight speed while minimizing energetic expenditure. Soaring speeds of large-bodied birds are determined by flight routes and tradeoffs between minimizing time and energetic costs. Large raptors migrating in eastern North America predominantly glide between thermals that provide lift or soar along slopes or ridgelines using orographic lift (slope soaring). It is usually assumed that slope soaring is faster than thermal gliding because forward progress is constant compared to interrupted progress when birds pause to regain altitude in thermals. We tested this slope-soaring hypothesis using high-frequency GPS-GSM telemetry devices to track golden eagles during northbound migration. In contrast to expectations, flight speed was slower when slope soaring and eagles also were diverted from their migratory path, incurring possible energetic costs and reducing speed of progress towards a migratory endpoint. When gliding between thermals, eagles stayed on track and fast gliding speeds compensated for lack of progress during thermal soaring. When thermals were not available, eagles minimized migration time, not energy, by choosing energetically expensive slope soaring instead of waiting for thermals to develop. Sites suited to slope soaring include ridges preferred for wind-energy generation, thus avian risk of collision with wind turbines is associated with evolutionary trade-offs required to maximize fitness of time-minimizing migratory raptors.
Shelton, K. J.; Arthur, J. J.; Prinzel, L. J.; Nicholas, S. N.; Williams, S. P.; Bailey, R. E.
Research, development, test, and evaluation of flight deck interface technologies is being conducted by NASA to proactively identify, develop, and mature tools, methods, and technologies for improving overall aircraft safety of new and legacy vehicles operating in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Under NASA's Aviation Safety Program, one specific area of research is the use of small Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) as a potential equivalent display to a Head-up Display (HUD). Title 14 of the US CFR 91.175 describes a possible operational credit which can be obtained with airplane equipage of a HUD or an "equivalent"' display combined with Enhanced Vision (EV). A successful HWD implementation may provide the same safety and operational benefits as current HUD-equipped aircraft but for significantly more aircraft in which HUD installation is neither practical nor possible. A flight test was conducted to evaluate if the HWD, coupled with a head-tracker, can provide an equivalent display to a HUD. Approach and taxi testing was performed on-board NASA's experimental King Air aircraft in various visual conditions. Preliminary quantitative results indicate the HWD tested provided equivalent HUD performance, however operational issues were uncovered. The HWD showed significant potential as all of the pilots liked the increased situation awareness attributable to the HWD's unique capability of unlimited field-of-regard.
The application of ground-based boresight sources for calibration and testing of tracking antennas usually entails various difficulties, mostly due to unwanted ground effects. To avoid this problem, DLR MORABA developed a small, lightweight, frequency-adjustable S-band boresight source, mounted on a small remote-controlled multirotor aircraft. Highly accurate GPS-supported, position and altitude control functions allow both, very steady positioning of the aircraft in mid-air, and precise waypoint-based, semi-autonomous flights. In contrast to fixed near-ground boresight sources this flying setup enables to avoid obstructions in the Fresnel zone between source and antenna. Further, it minimizes ground reflections and other multipath effects which can affect antenna calibration. In addition, the large operating range of a flying boresight simplifies measurements in the far field of the antenna and permits undisturbed antenna pattern tests. A unique application is the realistic simulation of sophisticated flight paths, including overhead tracking and demanding trajectories of fast objects such as sounding rockets. Likewise, dynamic tracking tests are feasible which provide crucial information about the antenna pedestal performance — particularly at high elevations — and reveal weaknesses in the autotrack control loop of tracking antenna systems. During acceptance tests of MORABA's new tracking antennas, a manned aircraft was never used, since the Flying Boresight surpassed all expectations regarding usability, efficiency, and precision. Hence, it became an integral part of MORABA's standard antenna setup and calibration procedures.
Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Marshall, Wallace F
Cilia and flagella are microtubule-based organelles that protrude from the surface of most cells, are important to the sensing of extracellular signals, and make a driving force for fluid flow. Maintenance of flagellar length requires an active transport process known as intraflagellar transport (IFT). Recent studies reveal that the amount of IFT injection negatively correlates with the length of flagella. These observations suggest that a length-dependent feedback regulates IFT. However, it is unknown how cells recognize the length of flagella and control IFT. Several theoretical models try to explain this feedback system. We focused on one of the models, the "time-of-flight" model, which measures the length of flagella on the basis of the travel time of IFT protein in the flagellar compartment. We tested the time-of-flight model using Chlamydomonas dynein mutant cells, which show slower retrograde transport speed. The amount of IFT injection in dynein mutant cells was higher than that in control cells. This observation does not support the prediction of the time-of-flight model and suggests that Chlamydomonas uses another length-control feedback system rather than that described by the time-of-flight model. © 2017 Ishikawa and Marshall. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
... the Administrator, a manufacturer of electric vehicles must create separate test groups based on the... electric motor. ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General...
... F & R flight testing regardless of the airplane's systems complexity or level of automation. After... than some transport category airplanes of the 1960s and earlier. The NPRM contains more of the...
... undergo F & R flight testing regardless of the airplane's systems complexity or level of automation. After... airplanes that weigh 6,000 pounds or less to be more complex and integrated than some transport category...
Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lanzi, Raymond J.; Ward, Philip R.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Engineering and Safety Center designed, developed and flew the alternative Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as risk mitigation for the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort system already in development. The NESC was tasked with both formulating a conceptual objective system design of this alternative MLAS as well as demonstrating this concept with a simulated pad abort flight test. Less than 2 years after Project start the MLAS simulated pad abort flight test was successfully conducted from Wallops Island on July 8, 2009. The entire flight test duration was 88 seconds during which time multiple staging events were performed and nine separate critically timed parachute deployments occurred as scheduled. This paper provides an overview of the guidance navigation and control technical approaches employed on this rapid prototyping activity; describes the methodology used to design the MLAS flight test vehicle; and lessons that were learned during this rapid prototyping project are also summarized.
Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Cerisano, J.; Kofman, I.; Reschke, M.
Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a concern for astronauts returning from long-duration space flight. One countermeasure that has been used to protect against OI after short-duration bed rest and space flight is the use of lower body and abdominal compression garments. However, since the end of the Space Shuttle era we have not been able to test crewmembers during the first 24 hours after landing on Earth. NASA's Pilot Field Test provided us the opportunity to test cardiovascular responses of crewmembers wearing the Russian Kentavr compression garment during a stand test at multiple time points throughout the first 24 hours after landing. HYPOTHESIS We hypothesized that the Kentavr compression garment would prevent an increase in heart rate (HR) >15 bpm during a 3.5-min stand test. METHODS: The Pilot Field Test was conducted up to 3 times during the first 24 hours after crewmembers returned to Earth: (1) either in a tent adjacent to the Soyuz landing site in Kazakhstan (approx.1 hr) or after transportation to the Karaganda airport (approx. 4 hr); (2) during a refueling stop in Scotland (approx.12 hr); and (3) upon return to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) (approx.24 hr). We measured HR and arterial pressure (finger photoplethysmography) for 2 min while the crewmember was prone and throughout 3.5 min of quiet standing. Eleven crewmembers consented to participate; however, 2 felt too ill to start the test and 1 stopped 30 sec into the stand portion of the test. Of the remaining 8 crewmembers, 2 did not wear the Russian Kentavr compression garment. Because of inclement weather at the landing site, 5 crewmembers were flown by helicopter to the Karaganda airport before initial testing and received intravenous saline before completing the stand test. One of these crewmembers wore only the portion of the Russian Kentavr compression garment that covered the lower leg and thus lacked thigh and abdominal compression. All crewmembers continued wearing the Russian Kentavr
Silbert, M. N.
The development and flight testing of a specially configured 16.6 ft Disc Band Gap (DBG) Spin Parachute is discussed. The parachute is integrated with a modified Super Arcas launch vehicle. Total payload weight was 17.6 lbs including the Spin Parachute and a scientific payload, and lift-off weight was 100.3 lbs. The Super Arcas vehicle was despun from 18.4 cps. After payload separation at 244,170 ft the Spin Parachute and its payload attained a maximum spin rate of 2.4 cps. Total suspended weight of the Spin Parachute and its payload was 14.64 lbs.
Melchiorri, A.; Ade, P.A.R.; De Bernardis, P.; Bock, J.J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Crill, B.P.; De Troia, G.; Farese, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Gasperis, G. de; Giacometti, M.; Hristov, V.V.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Masi, S.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Miglio, L.; Netterfield, C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Vittorio, N.
We use the power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background, measured during the North American test flight of the BOOMERANG experiment, to constrain the geometry of the universe. Within the class of Cold Dark Matter models, we find the overall fractional energy density of the universe, Omega, is constrained to be 0.85 < or = Omega < or = 1.25 at the 68 percent confidence level. Combined with the COBE measurement and the high redshift supernovae data we obtain new constraints on the fractional matter density and the cosmological constant
Melchiorri, A; De Bernardis, P; Bock, J J; Borrill, J; Boscaleri, A; Crill, B P; De Troia, G; Farese, P; Ferreira, P G; Ganga, K; De Gasperis, G; Giacometti, M; Hristov, V V; Jaffe, A H; Lange, A E; Masi, S; Mauskopf, P D; Miglio, L; Netterfield, C B; Pascale, E; Piacentini, F; Romeo, G
We use the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background, measured during the North American test flight of the BOOMERANG experiment, to constrain the geometry of the universe. Within the class of Cold Dark Matter models, we find that the overall fractional energy density of the universe, Omega, is constrained to be 0.85 < Omega < 1.25 at the 68% confidence level. Combined with the COBE measurement and the high redshift supernovae data we obtain new constraints on the fractional matter density and the cosmological constant.
Murman, E. M.
The capability for calculating transonic flows for realistic configurations and conditions is discussed. Various phenomena which were modeled are shown to have the same order of magnitude on the influence of predicted results. It is concluded that CFD can make the following contributions to the task of correlating wind tunnel and flight test data: some effects of geometry differences and aeroelastic distortion can be predicted; tunnel wall effects can be assessed and corrected for; and the effects of model support systems and free stream nonuniformities can be modeled.
Glebov, V Yu; Forrest, C; Knauer, J P; Pruyne, A; Romanofsky, M; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M J; Stoeckl, C; Caggiano, J A; Carman, M L; Clancy, T J; Hatarik, R; McNaney, J; Zaitseva, N P
A new neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector with a bibenzyl crystal as a scintillator has been designed and manufactured for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This detector will replace a nTOF20-Spec detector with an oxygenated xylene scintillator currently operational on the NIF to improve the areal-density measurements. In addition to areal density, the bibenzyl detector will measure the D-D and D-T neutron yield and the ion temperature of indirect- and direct-drive-implosion experiments. The design of the bibenzyl detector and results of tests on the OMEGA Laser System are presented.
35 5.10 Signal Strength Telemetry Output ( SSTO ) (Test Number 10) ............ 38 5.11 Operational...All command outputs and monitor outputs shall respond properly. TOP 05-2-543 25 July 2011 38 5.10 Signal Strength Telemetry Output ( SSTO ...Test Number 10). a. Purpose. This test verifies that the signal strength telemetry output ( SSTO ) voltage is monotonic and directly related to the
Gong, Chester; Wu, Minghong G.; Santiago, Confesor
The Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System project, or UAS Integration in the NAS, aims to reduce technical barriers related to safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS. The UAS Integration in the NAS Project conducted a flight test activity, referred to as Flight Test 3 (FT3), involving several Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) research prototype systems between June 15, 2015 and August 12, 2015 at the Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC). This report documents the flight testing and analysis results for the NASA Ames-developed JADEM-Autoresolver DAA system, referred to as 'Autoresolver' herein. Four flight test days (June 17, 18, 22, and July 22) were dedicated to Autoresolver testing. The objectives of this test were as follows: 1. Validate CPA prediction accuracy and detect-and-avoid (DAA, formerly known as self-separation) alerting logic in realistic flight conditions. 2. Validate DAA trajectory model including maneuvers. 3. Evaluate TCAS/DAA interoperability. 4. Inform final Minimum Operating Performance Standards (MOPS). Flight test scenarios were designed to collect data to directly address the objectives 1-3. Objective 4, inform final MOPS, was a general objective applicable to the UAS in the NAS project as a whole, of which flight test is a subset. This report presents analysis results completed in support of the UAS in the NAS project FT3 data review conducted on October 20, 2015. Due to time constraints and, to a lesser extent, TCAS data collection issues, objective 3 was not evaluated in this analysis.
Davis, Stephan R.
The Ares I-X flight test, launched in 2009, is the first test of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. This development flight test evaluated the flight dynamics, roll control, and separation events, but also provided early insights into logistical, stacking, launch, and recovery operations for Ares I. Operational lessons will be especially important for NASA as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Constellation Program, which is designed to be less labor-intensive. The mission team itself comprised only 700 individuals over the life of the project compared to the thousands involved in Shuttle and Apollo missions; while missions to and beyond low-Earth orbit obviously will require additional personnel, this lean approach will serve as a model for future Constellation missions. To prepare for Ares I-X, vehicle stacking and launch infrastructure had to be modified at Kennedy Space Center's Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) as well as Launch Complex (LC) 39B. In the VAB, several platforms and other structures designed for the Shuttle s configuration had to be removed to accommodate the in-line, much taller Ares I-X. Vehicle preparation activities resulted in delays, but also in lessons learned for ground operations personnel, including hardware deliveries, cable routing, transferred work and custodial paperwork. Ares I-X also proved to be a resource challenge, as individuals and ground service equipment (GSE) supporting the mission also were required for Shuttle or Atlas V operations at LC 40/41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. At LC 39B, several Shuttle-specific access arms were removed and others were added to accommodate the in-line Ares vehicle. Ground command, control, and communication (GC3) hardware was incorporated into the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP). The lightning protection system at LC 39B was replaced by a trio of 600-foot-tall towers connected by a catenary wire to account for the much greater height of the vehicle. Like Shuttle
Wicherts, J.M.; Johnson, W.
It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups
The group work test is an assessment strategy that promotes higher-order thinking skills for solving context-rich problems. With this format, teachers are able to pose challenging, nuanced questions on a test, while providing the support weaker students need to get started and show their understanding. The test begins with a group discussion phase, when students are given a "number-free" version of the problem. This phase allows students to digest the story-like problem, explore solution ideas, and alleviate some test anxiety. After 10-15 minutes of discussion, students inform the instructor of their readiness for the individual part of the test. What follows next is a pedagogical phase change from lively group discussion to quiet individual work. The group work test is a natural continuation of the group work in our daily physics classes and helps reinforce the importance of collaboration. This method has met with success at York Mills Collegiate Institute, in Toronto, Ontario, where it has been used consistently for unit tests and the final exam of the grade 12 university preparation physics course.
Knox, C. E.
A simple airborne flight management descent algorithm designed to define a flight profile subject to the constraints of using idle thrust, a clean airplane configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted), and fixed-time end conditions was developed and flight tested in the NASA TSRV B-737 research airplane. The research test flights, conducted in the Denver ARTCC automated time-based metering LFM/PD ATC environment, demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to the pilots and ATC controllers and resulted in arrival of the airplane over the metering fix with standard deviations in airspeed error of 6.5 knots, in altitude error of 23.7 m (77.8 ft), and in arrival time accuracy of 12 sec. These accuracies indicated a good representation of airplane performance and wind modeling. Fuel savings will be obtained on a fleet-wide basis through a reduction of the time error dispersions at the metering fix and on a single-airplane basis by presenting the pilot with guidance for a fuel-efficient descent.
Perry, J. L.; von Jouanne, R. G.; Turner, E. H.
The International Space Station uses high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. Segment. The pre-flight service life prediction of 1 year for the BFEs is based upon performance engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS Program resources. Thus testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are discussed. Recommendations for realizing significant savings to the ISS Program are presented.
Ali, Z.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Cruz, M.; Duffy, T.; Stoeckl, C.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T.C.; Tommasini, R.; Throop, A; Moran, M.; Dauffy, L.; Horsefield, C.
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Neutron Time of Flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD (D = deuterium, T = tritium, H = hydrogen) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 10 9 to 2 x 10 19 . The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 m and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detectors tests and calibration will be presented
Phillips, Brandon S.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.
To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry (e.g. blocking diodes). Key elements of the space environment which must be accounted for in a PV system design include: Solar Photon Radiation, Charged Particle Radiation, Plasma, and Thermal Cycling. While solar photon radiation is central to generating power in PV systems, the complete spectrum includes short wavelength ultraviolet components, which photo-ionize materials, as well as long wavelength infrared which heat materials. High energy electron radiation has been demonstrated to significantly reduce the output power of III-V type PV cells; and proton radiation damages material surfaces - often impacting coverglasses and antireflective coatings. Plasma environments influence electrostatic charging of PV array materials, and must be understood to ensure that long duration arcs do not form and potentially destroy PV cells. Thermal cycling impacts all components on a PV array by inducing stresses due to thermal expansion and contraction. Given such demanding environments, and the complexity of structures and materials that form a PV array system, mission success can only be ensured through realistic testing in the laboratory. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a broad space environment test capability to allow PV array designers and manufacturers to verify their system's integrity and avoid costly on-orbit failures. The Marshall Space Flight Center test capabilities are available to government, commercial, and university customers. Test solutions are tailored to meet the customer's needs, and can include performance assessments, such as flash testing in the case of PV cells.
Sullivan, R. Bryan; Zerweckh, Siegfried H.
The results of the flight test program of the Daedalus and Light Eagle human powered aircraft in the winter of 1987/88 are given. The results from experiments exploring the Light Eagle's rigid body and structural dynamics are presented. The interactions of these dynamics with the autopilot design are investigated. Estimates of the power required to fly the Daedalus aircraft are detailed. The system of sensors, signal conditioning boards, and data acquisition equipment used to record the flight data is also described. In order to investigate the dynamics of the aircraft, flight test maneuvers were developed to yield maximum data quality from the point of view of estimating lateral and longitudinal stability derivatives. From this data, structural flexibility and unsteady aerodynamics have been modeled in an ad hoc manner and are used to augment the equations of motion with flexibility effects. Results of maneuvers that were flown are compared with the predictions from the flexibility model. To extend the ad hoc flexibility model, a fully flexible aeroelastic model has been developed. The model is unusual in the approximate equality of many structural natural frequencies and the importance of unsteady aerodynamic effects. the Gossamer Albatross. It is hypothesized that this inverse ground effect is caused by turbulence in the Earth's boundary layer. The diameters of the largest boundary layer eddies (which represent most of the turbulent kinetic energy) are proportional to altitude; thus, closer to the ground, the energy in the boundary layer becomes concentrated in eddies of smaller and smaller diameter. Eventually the eddies become sufficiently small (approximately 0.5 cm) that they trip the laminar boundary layer on the wing. As a result, a greater percentage of the wing area is covered with turbulent flow. Consequently the aircraft's drag and the pow er required both increase as the aircraft flies closer to the ground. The results of the flight test program are
Pritchard, Nicholas A.; Tebbs, Joshua M.
Group testing, also known as pooled testing, and inverse sampling are both widely used methods of data collection when the goal is to estimate a small proportion. Taking a Bayesian approach, we consider the new problem of estimating disease prevalence from group testing when inverse (negative binomial) sampling is used. Using different distributions to incorporate prior knowledge of disease incidence and different loss functions, we derive closed form expressions for posterior distributions and resulting point and credible interval estimators. We then evaluate our new estimators, on Bayesian and classical grounds, and apply our methods to a West Nile Virus data set. PMID:21259308
Large Scale Over-the-Air Testing of Group Centric Networking Logan Mercer, Greg Kuperman, Andrew Hunter, Brian Proulx MIT Lincoln Laboratory...performance of Group Centric Networking (GCN), a networking protocol developed for robust and scalable communications in lossy networks where users are...devices, and the ad-hoc nature of the network . Group Centric Networking (GCN) is a proposed networking protocol that addresses challenges specific to
Stenlund, Tova; Eklöf, Hanna; Lyrén, Per-Erik
This study investigated whether different groups of test-takers vary in their reported test-taking behaviour in a high-stakes test situation. A between-group design (N = 1129) was used to examine whether high and low achievers, as well as females and males, differ in their use of test-taking strategies, and in level of reported test anxiety and…
Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron
Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a series of ground acoustic tests with the dual goals of informing analytical judgment, and validating analytical methods when estimating vibroacoustic responses of launch vehicle subsystems. The process of repeatedly correlating finite element-simulated responses with test-measured responses has assisted in the development of best practices for modeling and post-processing. In recent work, force transducers were integrated to measure interface forces at the base of avionics box equipment. Other force data was indirectly measured using strain gauges. The combination of these direct and indirect force measurements has been used to support and illustrate the advantages of implementing the Force Limiting approach for equipment qualification tests. The comparison of force response from integrated system level tests to measurements at the same locations during component level vibration tests provides an excellent illustration. A second comparison of the measured response cases from the system level acoustic tests to finite element simulations has also produced some principles for assessing the suitability of Finite Element Models (FEMs) for making vibroacoustics estimates. The results indicate that when FEM models are employed to guide force limiting choices, they should include sufficient detail to represent the apparent mass of the system in the frequency range of interest.
Theil, S.; Ammann, N.; Andert, F.; Franz, T.; Krüger, H.; Lehner, H.; Lingenauber, M.; Lüdtke, D.; Maass, B.; Paproth, C.; Wohlfeil, J.
Since 2010 the German Aerospace Center is working on the project Autonomous Terrain-based Optical Navigation (ATON). Its objective is the development of technologies which allow autonomous navigation of spacecraft in orbit around and during landing on celestial bodies like the Moon, planets, asteroids and comets. The project developed different image processing techniques and optical navigation methods as well as sensor data fusion. The setup—which is applicable to many exploration missions—consists of an inertial measurement unit, a laser altimeter, a star tracker and one or multiple navigation cameras. In the past years, several milestones have been achieved. It started with the setup of a simulation environment including the detailed simulation of camera images. This was continued by hardware-in-the-loop tests in the Testbed for Robotic Optical Navigation (TRON) where images were generated by real cameras in a simulated downscaled lunar landing scene. Data were recorded in helicopter flight tests and post-processed in real-time to increase maturity of the algorithms and to optimize the software. Recently, two more milestones have been achieved. In late 2016, the whole navigation system setup was flying on an unmanned helicopter while processing all sensor information onboard in real time. For the latest milestone the navigation system was tested in closed-loop on the unmanned helicopter. For that purpose the ATON navigation system provided the navigation state for the guidance and control of the unmanned helicopter replacing the GPS-based standard navigation system. The paper will give an introduction to the ATON project and its concept. The methods and algorithms of ATON are briefly described. The flight test results of the latest two milestones are presented and discussed.
Kelly, Michael J.
The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.
Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Young, Daniel P.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Walker, Steven H.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.
regularity of flight. Only recently has radiofrequency (RF) spectrum been allocated by the International Telecommunications Union specifically for commercial UA C2, LOS communication (L-Band: 960 to 1164 MHz, and C-Band: 5030 to 5091 MHz). The safe and efficient integration of UA into the NAS requires the use of protected RF spectrum allocations and a new data communications system that is both secure and scalable to accommodate the potential growth of these new aircraft. Data communications for UA-referred to as control and non-payload communications (CNPC)-will be used to exchange information between a UA and a ground station (GS) to ensure safe, reliable, and effective UA flight operation. The focus of this effort is on validating and allocating new RF spectrum and data link communications to enable civil UA integration into the NAS. Through a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with Rockwell Collins, Inc., the NASA Glenn Research Center is exploring and performing the necessary development steps to realize a prototype UA CNPC system. These activities include investigating signal waveforms and access techniques, developing representative CNPC radio hardware, and executing relevant testing and validation activities. There is no intent to manufacture the CNPC end product, rather the goals are to study, demonstrate, and validate a typical CNPC system that will allow safe and efficient communications within the L-Band and C-Band spectrum allocations. The system is addressing initial "seed" requirements from RTCA, Inc., Special Committee 203 (SC-203) and is on a path to Federal Aviation Administration certification. This report provides results from the flight testing campaign of the Rockwell Collins Generation 1 prototype radio, referred hereafter as the "radio." The radio sets operate within the 960- to 977-MHz frequency band with both air and ground radios using identical hardware. Flight tests involved one aircraft and one GS. Results include discussion of aircraft flight
Miller, Christopher J.; Goodrick, Dan
The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. The aircraft structure and the control architecture must be designed to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to utilize high structural margins, restrict control surface commands to a limited set of analyzed combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage. An optimal control technique has been explored and shown to achieve desirable vehicle control performance while limiting sensed structural loads to specified values. This technique has been implemented and flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed aircraft. The flight tests illustrate that the approach achieves the desired performance and show promising potential benefits. The flights also uncovered some important issues that will need to be addressed for production application.
Sorokowski, Paul; Skoog, Mark; Burrows, Scott; Thomas, SaraKatie
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) project demonstrated several important collision avoidance technologies. First, the SUAV Auto GCAS design included capabilities to take advantage of terrain avoidance maneuvers flying turns to either side as well as straight over terrain. Second, the design also included innovative digital elevation model (DEM) scanning methods. The combination of multi-trajectory options and new scanning methods demonstrated the ability to reduce the nuisance potential of the SUAV while maintaining robust terrain avoidance. Third, the Auto GCAS algorithms were hosted on the processor inside a smartphone, providing a lightweight hardware configuration for use in either the ground control station or on board the test aircraft. Finally, compression of DEM data for the entire Earth and successful hosting of that data on the smartphone was demonstrated. The SUAV Auto GCAS project demonstrated that together these methods and technologies have the potential to dramatically reduce the number of controlled flight into terrain mishaps across a wide range of aviation platforms with similar capabilities including UAVs, general aviation aircraft, helicopters, and model aircraft.
Lugo, Rafael A.; Tolson, Robert H.; Schoenenberger, Mark
As part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) trajectory reconstruction effort at NASA Langley Research Center, free-flight aeroballistic experiments of instrumented MSL scale models was conducted at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. The models carried an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a flush air data system (FADS) similar to the MSL Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) that provided data types similar to those from the MSL entry. Multiple sources of redundant data were available, including tracking radar and on-board magnetometers. These experimental data enabled the testing and validation of the various tools and methodologies that will be used for MSL trajectory reconstruction. The aerodynamic parameters Mach number, angle of attack, and sideslip angle were estimated using minimum variance with a priori to combine the pressure data and pre-flight computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data. Both linear and non-linear pressure model terms were also estimated for each pressure transducer as a measure of the errors introduced by CFD and transducer calibration. Parameter uncertainties were estimated using a "consider parameters" approach.
Dececchi, T. Alexander; Larsson, Hans C. E.
The origin of avian flight is a classic macroevolutionary transition with research spanning over a century. Two competing models explaining this locomotory transition have been discussed for decades: ground up versus trees down. Although it is impossible to directly test either of these theories, it is possible to test one of the requirements for the trees-down model, that of an arboreal paravian. We test for arboreality in non-avian theropods and early birds with comparisons to extant avian, mammalian, and reptilian scansors and climbers using a comprehensive set of morphological characters. Non-avian theropods, including the small, feathered deinonychosaurs, and Archaeopteryx, consistently and significantly cluster with fully terrestrial extant mammals and ground-based birds, such as ratites. Basal birds, more advanced than Archaeopteryx, cluster with extant perching ground-foraging birds. Evolutionary trends immediately prior to the origin of birds indicate skeletal adaptations opposite that expected for arboreal climbers. Results reject an arboreal capacity for the avian stem lineage, thus lending no support for the trees-down model. Support for a fully terrestrial ecology and origin of the avian flight stroke has broad implications for the origin of powered flight for this clade. A terrestrial origin for the avian flight stroke challenges the need for an intermediate gliding phase, presents the best resolved series of the evolution of vertebrate powered flight, and may differ fundamentally from the origin of bat and pterosaur flight, whose antecedents have been postulated to have been arboreal and gliding. PMID:21857918
T Alexander Dececchi
Full Text Available The origin of avian flight is a classic macroevolutionary transition with research spanning over a century. Two competing models explaining this locomotory transition have been discussed for decades: ground up versus trees down. Although it is impossible to directly test either of these theories, it is possible to test one of the requirements for the trees-down model, that of an arboreal paravian. We test for arboreality in non-avian theropods and early birds with comparisons to extant avian, mammalian, and reptilian scansors and climbers using a comprehensive set of morphological characters. Non-avian theropods, including the small, feathered deinonychosaurs, and Archaeopteryx, consistently and significantly cluster with fully terrestrial extant mammals and ground-based birds, such as ratites. Basal birds, more advanced than Archaeopteryx, cluster with extant perching ground-foraging birds. Evolutionary trends immediately prior to the origin of birds indicate skeletal adaptations opposite that expected for arboreal climbers. Results reject an arboreal capacity for the avian stem lineage, thus lending no support for the trees-down model. Support for a fully terrestrial ecology and origin of the avian flight stroke has broad implications for the origin of powered flight for this clade. A terrestrial origin for the avian flight stroke challenges the need for an intermediate gliding phase, presents the best resolved series of the evolution of vertebrate powered flight, and may differ fundamentally from the origin of bat and pterosaur flight, whose antecedents have been postulated to have been arboreal and gliding.
Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Unruh, Eckehardt
Life Sciences as Related to Space (F) Influence of Spaceflight Environment on Biological Systems (F44) Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for In-flight experiments under microgravity Sensing approaches for ecosystem and human health Author: Peter D. Hansen Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, a Institute for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany Peteremail@example.com Eckehardt Unruh Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, Institute a for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany An immune response by mussel hemocytes is the selective reaction to particles which are identified as foreign by its immune system shown by phagocytosis. Phagocytotic activity is based on the chemotaxis and adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation. The attachment at the surface of the hemocytes and consequently the uptake of the particles or bacteria can be directly quantified in the format of a fluorescent assay. Another relevant endpoint of phagocytosis is oxidative burst measured by luminescence. Phagocytosis-related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonised zymosan. The hemocytes will be stored frozen at -80oC and reconstituted in-flight for the experiment. The assay system of the TRIPLELUX-B Experiment has been performed with a well-defined quantification and evaluation of the immune function phagocytosis. The indicator cells are the hemocytes of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). The signals of the immuno cellular responses are translated into luminescence as a rapid optical reporter system. The results expected will determine whether the observed responses are caused by microgravity and/or radiation (change in permeability, endpoints in genotoxicity: DNA unwinding). The samples for genotoxicity will be processed after returning to earth. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The
The purpose of this study was to derive the criteria/dimensions underlying learners' second-language oral ability scores across three tests: an oral interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. A stimulus tape of 18 speech samples was presented to 3 native speaker rater groups for evaluation. Results indicate that researchers might need to reconsider…
Ellis, Jules L
Many authors adhere to the rule that test reliabilities should be at least .70 or .80 in group research. This article introduces a new standard according to which reliabilities can be evaluated. This standard is based on the costs or time of the experiment and of administering the test. For example, if test administration costs are 7 % of the total experimental costs, the efficient value of the reliability is .93. If the actual reliability of a test is equal to this efficient reliability, the test size maximizes the statistical power of the experiment, given the costs. As a standard in experimental research, it is proposed that the reliability of the dependent variable be close to the efficient reliability. Adhering to this standard will enhance the statistical power and reduce the costs of experiments.
Clark, Ian G.; Adler, Mark; Manning, Rob
NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator Project is developing and testing the next generation of supersonic aerodynamic decelerators for planetary entry. A key element of that development is the testing of full-scale articles in conditions relevant to their intended use, primarily the tenuous Mars atmosphere. To achieve this testing, the LDSD project developed a test architecture similar to that used by the Viking Project in the early 1970's for the qualification of their supersonic parachute. A large, helium filled scientific balloon is used to hoist a 4.7 m blunt body test vehicle to an altitude of approximately 32 kilometers. The test vehicle is released from the balloon, spun up for gyroscopic stability, and accelerated to over four times the speed of sound and an altitude of 50 kilometers using a large solid rocket motor. Once at those conditions, the vehicle is despun and the test period begins. The first flight of this architecture occurred on June 28th of 2014. Though primarily a shake out flight of the new test system, the flight was also able to achieve an early test of two of the LDSD technologies, a large 6 m diameter Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) and a large, 30.5 m nominal diameter supersonic parachute. This paper summarizes this first flight.
Dicarlo, Daniel J.; Brown, Philip W.; Hallissy, James B.
Flight tests of an F-106B aircraft equipped with a leading-edge vortex flap, which represented the culmination of a research effort to examine the effectiveness of the flap, were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the flight tests was to establish a data base on the use of a wing leading-edge vortex flap as a means to validate the design and analysis methods associated with the development of such a vortical flow-control concept. The overall experiment included: refinements of the design codes for vortex flaps; numerous wind tunnel entries to aid in verifying design codes and determining basic aerodynamic characteristics; design and fabrication of the flaps, structural modifications to the wing tip and leading edges of the test aircraft; development and installation of an aircraft research instrumentation system, including wing and flap surface pressure measurements and selected structural loads measurements; ground-based simulation to assess flying qualities; and finally, flight testing. This paper reviews the operational aspects associated with the flight experiment, which includes a description of modifications to the research airplane, the overall flight test procedures, and problems encountered. Selected research results are also presented to illustrate the accomplishments of the research effort.
Newsom, J. R.; Pototzky, A. S.
A drone aircraft equipped with an active flutter suppression system is considered with emphasis on the comparison of modal dampings and frequencies as a function of Mach number. Results are presented for both symmetric and antisymmetric motion with flutter suppression off. Only symmetric results are given for flutter suppression on. Frequency response functions of the vehicle are presented from both flight test data and analysis. The analysis correlation is improved by using an empirical aerodynamic correction factor which is proportional to the ratio of experimental to analytical steady-state lift curve slope. The mathematical models are included and existing analytical techniques are described as well as an alternative analytical technique for obtaining closed-loop results.
Benlloch, J.M.; Castillo, M.V.; Ferrer, A.; Fuster, J.; Higon, E.; Lozano, J.; Salt, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanchis, E.; Cuevas, J.
We describe a method for calibration and test of large-area TOF counters using cosmic radiation. We applied the method to the time-of-flight system of the DELPHI detector at the LEP e + e - storage ring, made of scintillation (NE110) counters (20x350 cm 2 ). The photomultipliers used (EMI 9902KB) reach an average gain of 5x10 8 at 1700 V and the time resolution achieved is 1.2 ns. Using this method we measured the counter efficiencies as a function of the position; we obtained 135 cm for the effective attenuation length and 40 photoelectrons for a minimum-ionizing particle crossing the center of the counter. (orig.)
Greene, Nathanael; Saulsberry, Regor; Yoder, Tommy; Forsyth, Brad; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh
Many decades ago NASA identified a need for low-mass pressure vessels for carrying various fluids aboard rockets, spacecraft, and satellites. A pressure vessel design known as the composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) was identified to provide a weight savings over traditional single-material pressure vessels typically made of metal and this technology has been in use for space flight applications since the 1970's. A typical vessel design consisted of a thin liner material, typically a metal, overwrapped with a continuous fiber yarn impregnated with epoxy. Most designs were such that the overwrapped fiber would carry a majority of load at normal operating pressures. The weight advantage for a COPV versus a traditional singlematerial pressure vessel contributed to widespread use of COPVs by NASA, the military, and industry. This technology is currently used for personal breathing supply storage, fuel storage for auto and mass transport vehicles and for various space flight and aircraft applications. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was recently asked to review the operation of Kevlar 2 and carbon COPVs to ensure they are safely operated on NASA space flight vehicles. A request was made to evaluate the life remaining on the Kevlar COPVs used on the Space Shuttle for helium and nitrogen storage. This paper provides a review of Kevlar COPV testing relevant to the NESC assessment. Also discussed are some key findings, observations, and recommendations that may be applicable to the COPV user community. Questions raised during the investigations have revealed the need for testing to better understand the stress rupture life and age life of COPVs. The focus of this paper is to describe burst testing of Kevlar COPVs that has been completed as a part of an the effort to evaluate the effects of ageing and shelf life on full scale COPVs. The test articles evaluated in this discussion had a diameter of 22 inches for S/N 014 and 40 inches for S/N 011. The
Higuchi, Ken; Takeuchi, Shinsuke; Sato, Eiichi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Namiki, Fumiharu; Tanaka, Kohtaro; Watabe, Yoko
A cryogenic tank made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) shell with aluminum thin liner has been designed as a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank for an ISAS reusable launch vehicle, and the function of it has been proven by repeated flights onboard the test vehicle called reusable vehicle testing (RVT) in October 2003. The liquid hydrogen tank has to be a pressure vessel, because the fuel of the engine of the test vehicle is supplied by fuel pressure. The pressure vessel of a combination of the outer shell of CFRP for strength element at a cryogenic temperature and the inner liner of aluminum for gas barrier has shown excellent weight merit for this purpose. Interfaces such as tank outline shape, bulk capacity, maximum expected operating pressure (MEOP), thermal insulation, pipe arrangement, and measurement of data are also designed to be ready onboard. This research has many aims, not only development of reusable cryogenic composite tank but also the demonstration of repeated operation including thermal cycle and stress cycle, familiarization with test techniques of operation of cryogenic composite tanks, and the accumulation of data for future design of tanks, vehicle structures, safety evaluation, and total operation systems.
The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and
Dennehy, Cornelius J.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Chris J.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.
The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance on an as-needed basis by adapting a classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This was baselined as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to partner with the SLS Program and the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) to flight test the AAC algorithm on a manned aircraft that can achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle and raise the technology readiness of the algorithm early in the program. This document reports the outcome of the NESC assessment.
Burken, John J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Lee, James A.; Kaneshige, John T.
This report describes the improvements and enhancements to a neural network based approach for directly adapting to aerodynamic changes resulting from damage or failures. This research is a follow-on effort to flight tests performed on the NASA F-15 aircraft as part of the Intelligent Flight Control System research effort. Previous flight test results demonstrated the potential for performance improvement under destabilizing damage conditions. Little or no improvement was provided under simulated control surface failures, however, and the adaptive system was prone to pilot-induced oscillations. An improved controller was designed to reduce the occurrence of pilot-induced oscillations and increase robustness to failures in general. This report presents an analysis of the neural networks used in the previous flight test, the improved adaptive controller, and the baseline case with no adaptation. Flight test results demonstrate significant improvement in performance by using the new adaptive controller compared with the previous adaptive system and the baseline system for control surface failures.
Nikolaev, M.N.; Tsiboulia, A.M.; Manturov, G.N.
This paper presents an overview of activities performed to prepare and test the group constants ABBN-90. The ABBN-90 set is designed for application calculations of fast, intermediate and thermal nuclear reactors. The calculations of subgroup parameters are discussed. The processing code system GRUCON is mentioned in comparison to the NJOY code system. Proposals are made for future activities. (author). Figs, tabs
Saraf, Shailendhar; Buchman, Sasha; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Lui, Chin Yang; Soulage, Michael; Faied, Dohy; Hanson, John; Ling, Kuok; Jaroux, Belgacem; Suwaidan, Badr Al; AlRashed, Abdullah; Al-Nassban, Badr; Alaqeel, Faisal; Harbi, Mohammed Al; Salamah, Badr Bin; Othman, Mohammed Bin; Qasim, Bandar Bin; Alfauwaz, Abdulrahman; Al-Majed, Mohammed; DeBra, Daniel; Byer, Robert
The UV-LED mission demonstrates the precise control of the potential of electrically isolated test masses. Test mass charge control is essential for the operation of space accelerometers and drag-free sensors which are at the core of geodesy, aeronomy and precision navigation missions as well as gravitational wave experiments and observatories. Charge management using photoelectrons generated by the 254 nm UV line of Hg was first demonstrated on Gravity Probe B and is presently part of the LISA Pathfinder technology demonstration. The UV-LED mission and prior ground testing demonstrates that AlGaN UVLEDs operating at 255 nm are superior to Hg lamps because of their smaller size, lower power draw, higher dynamic range, and higher control authority. We show laboratory data demonstrating the effectiveness and survivability of the UV-LED devices and performance of the charge management system. We also show flight data from a small satellite experiment that was one of the payloads on KACST’s SaudiSat-4 mission that demonstrates ‘AC charge control’ (UV-LEDs and bias are AC modulated with adjustable relative phase) between a spherical test mass and its housing. The result of the mission brings the UV-LED device Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to TRL-9 and the charge management system to TRL-7. We demonstrate the ability to control the test mass potential on an 89 mm diameter spherical test mass over a 20 mm gap in a drag-free system configuration, with potential measured using an ultra-high impedance contact probe. Finally, the key electrical and optical characteristics of the UV-LEDs showed less than 7.5% change in performance after 12 months in orbit.
Saraf, Shailendhar; Buchman, Sasha; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Lui, Chin Yang; Alfauwaz, Abdulrahman; DeBra, Daniel; Soulage, Michael; Faied, Dohy; Hanson, John; Ling, Kuok; Jaroux, Belgacem; Suwaidan, Badr Al; AlRashed, Abdullah; Al-Nassban, Badr; Alaqeel, Faisal; Harbi, Mohammed Al; Salamah, Badr Bin; Othman, Mohammed Bin; Qasim, Bandar Bin; Al-Majed, Mohammed
The UV-LED mission demonstrates the precise control of the potential of electrically isolated test masses. Test mass charge control is essential for the operation of space accelerometers and drag-free sensors which are at the core of geodesy, aeronomy and precision navigation missions as well as gravitational wave experiments and observatories. Charge management using photoelectrons generated by the 254 nm UV line of Hg was first demonstrated on Gravity Probe B and is presently part of the LISA Pathfinder technology demonstration. The UV-LED mission and prior ground testing demonstrates that AlGaN UVLEDs operating at 255 nm are superior to Hg lamps because of their smaller size, lower power draw, higher dynamic range, and higher control authority. We show laboratory data demonstrating the effectiveness and survivability of the UV-LED devices and performance of the charge management system. We also show flight data from a small satellite experiment that was one of the payloads on KACST’s SaudiSat-4 mission that demonstrates ‘AC charge control’ (UV-LEDs and bias are AC modulated with adjustable relative phase) between a spherical test mass and its housing. The result of the mission brings the UV-LED device Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to TRL-9 and the charge management system to TRL-7. We demonstrate the ability to control the test mass potential on an 89 mm diameter spherical test mass over a 20 mm gap in a drag-free system configuration, with potential measured using an ultra-high impedance contact probe. Finally, the key electrical and optical characteristics of the UV-LEDs showed less than 7.5% change in performance after 12 months in orbit. (paper)
The NASA COBALT Project (CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies) is developing and integrating new precision-landing Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) technologies, along with developing a terrestrial fight-test platform for Technology Readiness Level (TRL) maturation. The current technologies include a third- generation Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) sensor for ultra-precise velocity and line- of-site (LOS) range measurements, and the Lander Vision System (LVS) that provides passive-optical Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) estimates of map-relative position. The COBALT platform is self contained and includes the NDL and LVS sensors, blending filter, a custom compute element, power unit, and communication system. The platform incorporates a structural frame that has been designed to integrate with the payload frame onboard the new Masten Xodiac vertical take-o, vertical landing (VTVL) terrestrial rocket vehicle. Ground integration and testing is underway, and terrestrial fight testing onboard Xodiac is planned for 2017 with two flight campaigns: one open-loop and one closed-loop.
This paper provides a brief description of the Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) test system and also describes a couple of case histories where the system has been successfully applied. The T.O.F.D. system has been contrasted with the conventional manual ultrasonic technique. Whilst the T.O.F.D. system has proven potential, and is without doubt a valuable tool that will continue to gain market share in the inspection industry, conventional manual ultrasonics still has its part to play and will survive for some time to come. One of the outstanding issues facing the T.O.F.D. systems is the question of acceptance testing which is still the predominant convention specified in most standards. Training for a T.O.F.D. system technician is particularly important and the author suggests there are more traps for the unwary than with the conventional manual ultrasonic systems. The overall judgement of the T.O.F.D. system is that it is a most welcome and powerful tool in the hands of the right operator and will do much to boost the prominence of Non-Destructive Testing
Fischer, Paul; Klasner, N.; Wegener, I.
is answered by 1 if Q contains at least one essential object and by 0 otherwise. In the statistical setting the objects are essential, independently of each other, with a given probability p combinatorial setting the number k ... group testing is equal to p* = 12(3 - 5), i.e., the strategy of testing each object individually minimizes the average number of queries iff p >= p* or n = 1. In the combinatorial setting the worst case number of queries is of interest. It has been conjectured that the cut-off point of combinatorial...
Feiveson, Alan H.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Stein, Sydney P.; Platts, Steven H.
time. Actual analysis proceeded in the opposite direction. First we identified those CPs or linear combinations that best predicted OTT survival regardless of what spaceflight conditions led to OTT completion or presyncope. From these, we calculated a summary statistic (one per OTT) that best predicted survival. We then used mixed ]model regression analysis to relate changes in the summary statistic to flight phase and duration. Inference on the effects of phase, duration, and their interaction on OH follows directly from this second analysis. Results: A linear combination (W) of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and stroke volume (SV) was found to be the best predictor of OTT survival using the complete data set of minute-by-minute observations of CPs for each OTT. Furthermore, the log-transformed standard deviation of W (Z = log SW) was found to be a strong predictor of survival in the reduced data set consisting of one observation per OTT. In other words, this measure of variability of W during an OTT was the best indicator of whether or not the subject could complete the 10-min test, with higher variability (i.e. higher values of Z) being associated with greater probability of failure. In the mixed-model regression analysis where Z was now treated as a outcome with flight phase and duration groups (ISS and STS) as predictors, we found that there was a significantly more variability in W (higher values of Z) for both groups at R+0, but with no evidence of an interaction until R+3, when the ISS group still had inflated variability, but not the STS group. Conclusions: Variability of the cardiovascular index W recovers more slowly after long-compared to short-duration spaceflight. Since high variability of W has also been shown to be predictive of OTT failure, a primary manifestation of OH, a logical conclusion is that recovery from OH also is slower after long-duration compared to short-duration spaceflights.
Seawright, Gary L.; Harding, Gherry; Thomas, Frederick C.; Hanson, Robert P.
A microculture plaque neutralization test is described for California-group arboviruses that is as precise and quantitative as the standard test conducted in 60-mm petri dishes. It was shown that there was no significant between-panel or between-day variation in determinations and that a single pipette could be used for all serum-dilution levels within a titration without inoculum carry-over effect. The experimental protocol and statistical methods used produce 50% neutralization end points that meet the assumptions of parametric statistics. This permits the power and versatility of the analysis of variance to be exploited in testing for treatment effects in serological and immunological studies with viruses. Images PMID:4216288
The 1999 Education Group Conference attracted some 60 teachers and educationalists to the salubrious outskirts of the city of Leicester on 2 3 July. The title of the conference was The ICT revolution: just how will ICT change my physics teaching? For those not au courant with current jargon ICT stands for Information and Communications Technology, or, in short, computers. ICT was certainly to the fore from the presenters, who practised what they preached. Every talk was delivered using Microsoft PowerPoint, obsolescent overhead projectors serving only as laptop stands. Animated slides, computer generated and controlled, were projected on to a screen and supplemented as required by (fairly) instant live excerpts from relevant computer programs. The theme of the conference was set by the opening discussion led by the trio PowerPoint, Ian Lawrence (chairman of the Institute of Physics Education Group) and Philip Britton (vice-chair). They gave us the slogan Physics first! with technology, however brilliant or politically correct, only significant and valuable insofar as it helped students learn physics. And learning is a social activity: any system that places one child in front of a computer screen for hours on end should be suspect. Much the same could be said of a voltmeter, of course, and the minimal situation must include a pair of students and a teacher as well as the apparatus. Another message: think of the computer system as just another piece of equipment whose use is determined by the learning task, not as an item that determines the task. Figure 1. Jason Wye, Secretary of the Education Group, opening the Conference. It may not be surprising that the level-headed delegates agreed whole-heartedly with these sentiments, but they were also supported and reinforced by all the speakers as the conference went on. The first speaker was Jerry Wellington, ex-physics teacher, now at the University of Sheffield. In his presentation `Multimedia in science teaching
Properly architected avionics systems can reduce the costs of periodic functional improvements, maintenance, and obsolescence. With this in mind, the U.S. Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) initiated the Manned/Unmanned Common Architecture Program (MCAP) in 2003 to develop an affordable, high-performance embedded mission processing architecture for potential application to multiple aviation platforms. MCAP analyzed Army helicopter and unmanned air vehicle (UAV) missions, identified supporting subsystems, surveyed advanced hardware and software technologies, and defined computational infrastructure technical requirements. The project selected a set of modular open systems standards and market-driven commercial-off-theshelf (COTS) electronics and software, and, developed experimental mission processors, network architectures, and software infrastructures supporting the integration of new capabilities, interoperability, and life cycle cost reductions. MCAP integrated the new mission processing architecture into an AH-64D Apache Longbow and participated in Future Combat Systems (FCS) network-centric operations field experiments in 2006 and 2007 at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico and at the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) in 2008. The MCAP Apache also participated in PM C4ISR On-the-Move (OTM) Capstone Experiments 2007 (E07) and 2008 (E08) at Ft. Dix, NJ and conducted Mesa, Arizona local area flight tests in December 2005, February 2006, and June 2008.
Peterson, Carrie Beth; Mitseva, Anelia; Harpur, Jill
Deliverable 3.3.2: Specification of tests and test groups One of the main goals of the ISISEMD project is to offer innovative ICT services to improve the quality of life of elderly persons with cognitive problems or mild dementia and their informal and formal caregivers who provide every day care...... for them. This will be done via integrating intelligent scalable ICT services which will be tested for a period of 12 months under realistic conditions. Offering the services could not be complete without evaluating quality of life improvement, user acceptance and user satisfaction with a representative...... group of the target user groups. This document is devoted to describing important aspects of services evaluation such as: who the test participants will be, inclusion and exclusion criterion, selection standards, how the test participants will be recruited, ethical considerations, etc. Test methodology...
Mauskopf, P D; De Bernardis, P; Bock, J J; Borrill, J; Boscaleri, A; Crill, B P; De Gasperis, G; De Troia, G; Farese, P; Ferreira, P G; Ganga, K; Giacometti, M; Hanany, S; Hristov, V V; Iacoangeli, A; Jaffe, A H; Lange, A E; Lee, A T; Masi, S; Melchiorri, A; Melchiorri, F; Miglio, L; Montroy, T; Netterfield, C B; Pascale, E; Piacentini, F; Richards, P L; Romeo, G; Ruhl, J E; Scannapieco, E S; Scaramuzzi, F; Stompor, R; Vittorio, N
We describe a measurement of the angular power spectrum of anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from 0.3 degrees to ~10 degrees from the North American test flight of the BOOMERANG experiment. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne telescope with a bolometric receiver designed to map CMB anisotropies on a Long Duration Balloon flight. During a 6-hour test flight of a prototype system in 1997, we mapped > 200 square degrees at high galactic latitudes in two bands centered at 90 and 150 GHz with a resolution of 26 and 16.6 arcmin FWHM respectively. Analysis of the maps gives a power spectrum with a peak at angular scales of ~1 degree with an amplitude ~70 uK.
Mauskopf, P.D.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Crill, B.P.; Bernardis, P. de; DeGasperis, G.; De Troia, G.; Farese, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Lee, A.T.; Masi, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melchiorri, F.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Richards, P.L.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scannapieco, E.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Stompor, R.; Vittorio, N.
We describe a measurement of the angular power spectrum of anisotrophies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from 0.2 deg to approx. 10 deg. from the test flight of the BOOMERANG experiment. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne telescope with a bolometric receiver designed to map CMB anisotrophies on a Long Duration Balloon flight. During a 6-hour test flight of a prototype system in 1997, we mapped > 200 square degrees at high galactic latitudes in two bands centered at 90 and 150 GHz with a resolution of 26 and 16.6 arcmin FWHM respectively. Analysis of the maps gives a power spectrum with a peak at angular scales of approx. 1 deg. with an amplitude of approx. 70-muKcmb
Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.
Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis Contract. An advanced 125 Ah IPV nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. The advanced cell design is in the process of being validated using real time LEO cycle life testing of NWSC, Crane, Indiana. An update of validation test results confirming this technology is presented.
Baxley, Brian; Swieringa, Kurt; Berckefeldt, Rick; Boyle, Dan
NASA's first Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) subproject successfully completed a 19-day flight test of an Interval Management (IM) avionics prototype. The prototype was built based on IM standards, integrated into two test aircraft, and then flown in real-world conditions to determine if the goals of improving aircraft efficiency and airport throughput during high-density arrival operations could be met. The ATD-1 concept of operation integrates advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and the IM avionics to enable multiple time-based arrival streams into a high-density terminal airspace. IM contributes by calculating airspeeds that enable an aircraft to achieve a spacing interval behind the preceding aircraft. The IM avionics uses its data (route of flight, position, etc.) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) state data from the Target aircraft to calculate this airspeed. The flight test demonstrated that the IM avionics prototype met the spacing accuracy design goal for three of the four IM operation types tested. The primary issue requiring attention for future IM work is the high rate of IM speed commands and speed reversals. In total, during this flight test, the IM avionics prototype showed significant promise in contributing to the goals of improving aircraft efficiency and airport throughput.
Roberts, Michael S.; Soler, Monica; Mortenson, Todd; McCoy, LaShelle; Woodward, Spencer; Levine, Howard G.
The Forward Osmosis Bag (FOB) is a personal water purification device for recovery of potable liquid from almost any non-potable water source. The FOB experiment was flown as a sortie mission on STS-135/ULF7 using flight-certified materials and a design based on the X-Pack(TradeMark) from Hydration Technology Innovations (Albany, OR). The primary objective was to validate the technology for use under microgravity conditions. The FOB utilizes a difference in solute concentration across a selectively permeable membrane to draw water molecules from the non-potable water while rejecting most chemical and all microbial contaminants contained within. Six FOB devices were tested on STS-135 for their ability to produce a potable liquid permeate from a feed solution containing 500 mL potassium chloride (15 g/L) amended with 0.1% methyl blue dye (w:v) tracer against an osmotic gradient created by addition of 60 mL of concentrate containing the osmolytes fructose and glucose, and 0.01% sodium fluorescein (w:v) tracer. Three FOB devices were physically mixed by hand for 2 minutes by a crewmember after loading to augment membrane wetting for comparison with three unmixed FOB devices. Hydraulic flux rate and rejection of salt and dye in microgravity were determined from a 60-mL sample collected by the crew on orbit after 6 hours. Post-flight analysis of samples collected on orbit demonstrated that the Forward Osmosis Bag achieved expected design specifications in microgravity. The hydraulic flux rate of water across the membrane was reduced approximately 50% in microgravity relative to ground controls that generated an average of 50 mL per hour using the same water and osmolyte solutions. The membrane rejected both potassium and chloride at >92% and methyl blue dye at >99.9%. Physical mixing of the FOB during water recovery did not have any significant effect on either flux rate or rejection of solutes from the water solution. The absence of buoyancy-driven convection in
E103 3000 200 270090 1800 Fig. 7: Antenna Radiation Pattern Aircraft: D028. Type of Antenna: Monopole Frequency: 1.5 6Nz, Bank Angle: 0±Z Deg. Ref...Pattern: - - - Monopole Mr 70 250 F 4g. 8: S.uae1tpcl S0OA0r a) Test Emitter: Frequency Range UHF -18 GHz Antenna Parabolic Dish Wln Horn Feeds Transmitter...essais d’extinction et rallumages moteur, de flottement, etc.. Un effort sp~cial a 6t consacr6, Ai Istres, A Ia mice en place de moyens et dispositifs
Glaser, Scott T.; Strovers, Brian K.
Airborne infrared astronomy has a long successful history, albeit relatively unknown outside of the astronomy community. A major problem with ground based infrared astronomy is the absorption and scatter of infrared energy by water in the atmosphere. Observing the universe from above 40,000 ft puts the observation platform above 99% of the water vapor in the atmosphere, thereby addressing this problem at a fraction of the cost of space based systems. The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) aircraft is the most ambitious foray into the field of airborne infrared astronomy in history. Using a 747SP (The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) aircraft modified with a 2.5m telescope located in the aft section of the fuselage, the SOFIA endeavors to provide views of the universe never before possible and at a fraction of the cost of space based systems. The modification to the airplane includes moveable doors and aperture that expose the telescope assembly. The telescope assembly is aimed and stabilized using a multitude of on board systems. This modification has the potential to cause aerodynamic anomalies that could induce undesired forces either at the cavity itself or indirectly due to interference with the empennage, both of which could cause handling qualities issues. As a result, an extensive analysis and flight test program was conducted from December 2009 through March 2011. Several methods, including a Lower Order Equivalent Systems analysis and pilot assessment, were used to ascertain the effects of the modification. The SOFIA modification was found to cause no adverse handling qualities effects and the aircraft was cleared for operational use. This paper discusses the history and modification to the aircraft, development of test procedures and analysis, results of testing and analysis, lessons learned for future projects and justification for operational certification.
Lorga, J.F.M.; Rossum, W.L. van; Halsema, D. van; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.
In this paper, the authors propose to describe the development process of a navigation system, concerning Syntectic Aperture Radar (SAR) applications, starting from the motivation for the sensor selection and finalizing with the first flight-test results. Sensors selection was one of the first steps
Hoľko, Michal; Stacho, Jakub
The article deals with numerical analyses of a Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) pile. The analyses include a comparison of calculated and measured load-settlement curves as well as a comparison of the load distribution over a pile's length. The numerical analyses were executed using two types of software, i.e., Ansys and Plaxis, which are based on FEM calculations. Both types of software are different from each other in the way they create numerical models, model the interface between the pile and soil, and use constitutive material models. The analyses have been prepared in the form of a parametric study, where the method of modelling the interface and the material models of the soil are compared and analysed. Our analyses show that both types of software permit the modelling of pile foundations. The Plaxis software uses advanced material models as well as the modelling of the impact of groundwater or overconsolidation. The load-settlement curve calculated using Plaxis is equal to the results of a static load test with a more than 95 % degree of accuracy. In comparison, the load-settlement curve calculated using Ansys allows for the obtaining of only an approximate estimate, but the software allows for the common modelling of large structure systems together with a foundation system.
Hayes, A. C.; Jungman, Gerard; Schulz, A. E.; Boswell, M.; Fowler, M. M.; Grim, G.; Klein, A.; Rundberg, R. S.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilson, D.; Cerjan, C.; Schneider, D.; Sepke, S. M.; Tonchev, A.; Yeamans, C.
We present the first measurements of reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons in an inertial confinement fusion system. The experiments were carried out at the National Ignition Facility, using both Low Foot and High Foot drives and cryogenic plastic capsules. In both cases, the high-energy RIF ( En> 15 MeV) component of the neutron spectrum was found to be about 10-4 of the total. The majority of the RIF neutrons were produced in the dense cold fuel surrounding the burning hotspot of the capsule, and the data are consistent with a compressed cold fuel that is moderately to strongly coupled (Γ˜ 0.6) and electron degenerate (θFermi/θe˜ 4). The production of RIF neutrons is controlled by the stopping power in the plasma. Thus, the current RIF measurements provide a unique test of stopping power models in an experimentally unexplored plasma regime. We find that the measured RIF data strongly constrain stopping models in warm dense plasma conditions, and some models are ruled out by our analysis of these experiments.
Knox, C.E.; Vicroy, D.D.; Simmon, D.A.
A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.
Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M
Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test.
Ahlers, B.; Hutchinson, I.; Ingley, R.
A spectrometer for combined Raman and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is amongst the different instruments that have been pre-selected for the Pasteur payload of the ExoMars rover. It is regarded as a fundamental, next-generation instrument for organic, mineralogical and elemental characterisation of Martian soil, rock samples and organic molecules. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities . The combined Raman / LIBS instrument has been recommended as the highest priority mineralogy instrument to be included in the rover's analytical laboratory for the following tasks: Analyse surface and sub-surface soil and rocks on Mars, identify organics in the search for life and determine soil origin & toxicity. The synergy of the system is evident: the Raman spectrometer is dedicated to molecular analysis of organics and minerals; the LIBS provides information on the sample's elemental composition. An international team, under ESA contract and with the leadership of TNO Science and Industry, has built and tested an Elegant Bread Board (EBB) of the combined Raman / LIBS instrument. The EBB comprises a specifically designed, extremely compact, spectrometer with high resolution over a large wavelength range, suitable for both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS measurements. The EBB also includes lasers, illumination and imaging optics as well as fibre optics for light transfer. A summary of the functional and environmental requirements together with a description of the optical design and its expected performance are described in . The EBB was developed and constructed to verify the instruments' end-to-end functional performance with natural samples. The combined Raman / LIBS EBB realisation and test results of natural samples will be presented. For the Flight Model (FM) instrument, currently in the design phase, the Netherlands will be responsible for the design, development and verification of the
Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.
Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion.
Simpson, Sean L; Lyday, Robert G; Hayasaka, Satoru; Marsh, Anthony P; Laurienti, Paul J
Brain network analyses have moved to the forefront of neuroimaging research over the last decade. However, methods for statistically comparing groups of networks have lagged behind. These comparisons have great appeal for researchers interested in gaining further insight into complex brain function and how it changes across different mental states and disease conditions. Current comparison approaches generally either rely on a summary metric or on mass-univariate nodal or edge-based comparisons that ignore the inherent topological properties of the network, yielding little power and failing to make network level comparisons. Gleaning deeper insights into normal and abnormal changes in complex brain function demands methods that take advantage of the wealth of data present in an entire brain network. Here we propose a permutation testing framework that allows comparing groups of networks while incorporating topological features inherent in each individual network. We validate our approach using simulated data with known group differences. We then apply the method to functional brain networks derived from fMRI data.
Jackson, George L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Marshall, Cheryl; Barth, Janet; Seidleck, Christina; Marshall, Paul
NASA Goddard Spare Flight Center's (GSFC) Dual Rate 1773 (DR1773) Experiment on the Microelectronic and Photonic Test Bed (MPTB) has provided valuable information on the performance of the AS 1773 fiber optic data bus in the space radiation environment. Correlation of preliminary experiment data to ground based radiation test results show the AS 1773 bus is employable in future spacecraft applications requiring radiation tolerant communication links.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the complexity of flight controllers grows so does the cost associated with verification and validation (V&V). Current-generation controllers are reaching...
Lovell, Powell M., Jr.
An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 0.13-scale free-flight model of the Convair XFY-1 airplane in test setups representing the setup proposed for use in the first flight tests of the full-scale airplane in the Moffett Field airship hangar. The investigation was conducted in two parts: first, tests with the model flying freely in an enclosure simulating the hangar, and second, tests with the model partially restrained by an overhead line attached to the propeller spinner and ground lines attached to the wing and tail tips. The results of the tests indicated that the airplane can be flown without difficulty in the Moffett Field airship hangar if it does not approach too close to the hangar walls. If it does approach too close to the walls, the recirculation of the propeller slipstream might cause sudden trim changes which would make smooth flight difficult for the pilot to accomplish. It appeared that the tethering system proposed by Convair could provide generally satisfactory restraint of large-amplitude motions caused by control failure or pilot error without interfering with normal flying or causing any serious instability or violent jerking motions as the tethering lines restrained the model.
Hogge, Edward F.; Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Smalling, Kyle M.; Strom, Thomas H.; Hill, Boyd L.; Quach, Cuong C.
This paper addresses the problem of building trust in the online prediction of a battery powered aircraft's remaining flying time. A series of flight tests is described that make use of a small electric powered unmanned aerial vehicle (eUAV) to verify the performance of the remaining flying time prediction algorithm. The estimate of remaining flying time is used to activate an alarm when the predicted remaining time is two minutes. This notifies the pilot to transition to the landing phase of the flight. A second alarm is activated when the battery charge falls below a specified limit threshold. This threshold is the point at which the battery energy reserve would no longer safely support two repeated aborted landing attempts. During the test series, the motor system is operated with the same predefined timed airspeed profile for each test. To test the robustness of the prediction, half of the tests were performed with, and half were performed without, a simulated powertrain fault. The pilot remotely engages a resistor bank at a specified time during the test flight to simulate a partial powertrain fault. The flying time prediction system is agnostic of the pilot's activation of the fault and must adapt to the vehicle's state. The time at which the limit threshold on battery charge is reached is then used to measure the accuracy of the remaining flying time predictions. Accuracy requirements for the alarms are considered and the results discussed.
Davis, Stephan R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Tuma, Meg
In accordance with the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration and the nation's desire to again send humans to explore beyond Earth orbit, NASA has been tasked to send human beings to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It has been 30 years since the United States last designed and built a human-rated launch vehicle. NASA is now building the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle into orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which will launch the Lunar Surface Access Module and Earth departure stage to rendezvous Orion for missions to the moon. NASA has marshaled unique resources from the government and private sectors to perform the technically and programmatically complex work of delivering astronauts to orbit early next decade, followed by heavy cargo late next decade. Our experiences with Saturn and the Shuttle have taught us the value of adhering to sound systems engineering, such as the "test as you fly" principle, while applying aerospace best practices and lessons learned. If we are to fly humans safely aboard a launch vehicle, we must employ a variety of methodologies to reduce the technical, schedule, and cost risks inherent in the complex business of space transportation. During the Saturn development effort, NASA conducted multiple demonstration and verification flight tests to prove technology in its operating environment before relying upon it for human spaceflight. Less testing on the integrated Shuttle system did not reduce cost or schedule. NASA plans a progressive series of demonstration (ascent), verification (orbital), and mission flight tests to supplement ground research and high-altitude subsystem testing with real-world data, factoring the results of each test into the next one. In this way, sophisticated analytical models and tools, many of which were not available during Saturn and Shuttle, will be calibrated and we will gain confidence in their predictions, as we gain hands-on experience in operating the first
The design, fabrication, and testing phases of a program to obtain long term flight service experience on representative helicopter airframe structural components operating in typical commercial environments are described. The aircraft chosen is the Bell Helicopter Model 206L. The structural components are the forward fairing, litter door, baggage door, and vertical fin. The advanced composite components were designed to replace the production parts in the field and were certified by the FAA to be operable through the full flight envelope of the 206L. A description of the fabrication process that was used for each of the components is given. Static failing load tests on all components were done. In addition fatigue tests were run on four specimens that simulated the attachment of the vertical fin to the helicopter's tail boom.
Yao Dong; Zeng Daogui; Liu Jingbo; Wang Yingming; Li Huiyun
A macro test of the group constant library TPLIB-95 was introduced. The TPLIB-95 is an updated group constant library created by China Nuclear Data Center for LWR fuel assembly calculation program package TPFAP based on the JENDL-3.1 evaluation nuclear data library. The calculations and analyses were carried out by using five thermal reactor benchmark issues, a set of PWR zero-power critical experiments, the first cycle reactor core of 300 MW Qinshan NPP as well as the first cycle reactor core of 900 MW Daya Bay NPP. The calculation results for the thermal reactor benchmark issues showed that the maximum deviation between the calculated and measured values for spectrum indexes is large, like 6.7% for ρ 28 of BAPL-2. However, the maximum deviation for k eff is only 0.29% for TRX-2. The calculation results for zero-power critical experiments showed that the calculated value of k eff obtained by using TPLIB-95 is closer to the measured value compared with the one obtained by using the original library TPLIB. The agreement between the calculated and measured values for critical boron concentration in the first cycle reactor cores in Qinshan NPP and Daya Bay NPP is quite good. The maximum deviation for the critical boron concentration is only 15 x 10 -6 /L. (8 figs., 5 tabs.)
Warne, Russell T.; Doty, Kristine J.; Malbica, Anne Marie; Angeles, Victor R.; Innes, Scott; Hall, Jared; Masterson-Nixon, Kelli
"Above-level testing" (also called "above-grade testing," "out-of-level testing," and "off-level testing") is the practice of administering to a child a test that is designed for an examinee population that is older or in a more advanced grade. Above-level testing is frequently used to help educators design…
Salgård Jensen, Christian; Dam-Nielsen, Casper; Arpi, Magnus
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G can be adequately identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). Previous studies show varying...
Lovell, Powell M., Jr.
An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics in hovering and transition flight of a 0.13-scale flying model of the Convair XFY-1 vertically rising airplane with the lower vertical tail removed. The purpose of the tests was to obtain a general indication of the behavior of a vertically rising airplane of the same general type as the XFY-1 but without a lower vertical tail in order to simplify power-off belly landings in an emergency. The model was flown satisfactorily in hovering flight and in the transition from hovering to normal unstalled forward flight (angle of attack approximately 30deg). From an angle of attack of about 30 down to the lowest angle of attack covered in the flight tests (approximately 15deg) the model became progressively more difficult to control. These control difficulties were attributed partly to a lightly damped Dutch roll oscillation and partly to the fact that the control deflections required for hovering and transition flight were too great for smooth flight at high speeds. In the low-angle-of-attack range not covered in the flight tests, force tests have indicated very low static directional stability which would probably result in poor flight characteristics. It appears, therefore, that the attainment of satisfactory directional stability, at angles of attack less than 10deg, rather than in the hovering and transition ranges of flight is the critical factor in the design of the vertical tail for such a configuration.
Miller, Eric J.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Cruz, Josue; Lokos, William A.
This is the presentation to follow conference paper of the same name. The adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap experiment safety of flight requires that the flap to wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the wing structural load limits are not exceeded. This paper discusses the strain gage load calibration testing and load equation derivation methodology for the ACTE interface fittings. Both the left and right wing flap interfaces will be monitored and each contains four uniquely designed and instrumented flap interface fittings. The interface hardware design and instrumentation layout are discussed. Twenty one applied test load cases were developed using the predicted in-flight loads for the ACTE experiment.
Mohie Aldeen Abd Alzaher Khalifa
Conclusions: The present study supports on-HCT as a reliable, on-invasive and continuous methods determining the requirement for in-flight O2 are relatively constant. Predictive equations considerably overestimate the need for in-flight O2 compared to hypoxic inhalation test. Predictive equations are cheap, readily available methods of flight assessment, but this study shows poor agreement between their predictions and the measured individual hypoxic responses during HCT.
Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; Floyd, S.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Parsons, A.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.
An outside neutron and gamma ray instrumentation test facility has been constructed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to evaluate conceptual designs of gamma ray and neutron systems that we intend to propose for future planetary lander and rover missions. We will describe this test facility and its current capabilities for operation of planetary in situ instrumentation, utilizing a l4 MeV pulsed neutron generator as the gamma ray excitation source with gamma ray and neutron detectors, in an open field with the ability to remotely monitor and operate experiments from a safe distance at an on-site building. The advantage of a permanent test facility with the ability to operate a neutron generator outside and the flexibility to modify testing configurations is essential for efficient testing of this type of technology. Until now, there have been no outdoor test facilities for realistically testing neutron and gamma ray instruments planned for solar system exploration
de Visser, C.C.; Pool, D.M.
As a result of new aviation legislation, from 2019 on all air-carrier pilots are obliged to go through flight simulator-based stall recovery training. For this reason the Control and Simulation division at Delft University of Technology has set up a task force to develop a new methodology for
Stern, Theodore G.; Lyons, John
A flight experiment has demonstrated a modular solar concentrator that can be used as a direct substitute replacement for planar photovoltaic panels in spacecraft solar arrays. The Light Concentrating Panel (LCP) uses an orthogrid arrangement of composite mirror strips to form an array of rectangular mirror troughs that reflect light onto standard, high-efficiency solar cells at a concentration ratio of approximately 3:1. The panel area, mass, thickness, and pointing tolerance has been shown to be similar to a planar array using the same cells. Concentration reduces the panel's cell area by 2/3, which significantly reduces the cost of the panel. An opportunity for a flight experiment module arose on NASA's Small Explorer / Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (SMEX/WIRE) spacecraft, which uses modular solar panel modules integrated into a solar panel frame structure. The design and analysis that supported implementation of the LCP as a flight experiment module is described. Easy integration into the existing SMEX-LITE wing demonstrated the benefits of technology transparency. Flight data shows the stability of the LCP module after nearly one year in Low Earth Orbit.
Wissa, Aimy; Guerreiro, Nelson; Grauer, Jared; Altenbuchner, Cornelia; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Tummala, Yashwanth; Frecker, Mary; Roberts, Richard
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are proliferating in both the civil and military markets. Flapping wing UAVs, or ornithopters, have the potential to combine the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft with excellent performance in low Reynolds number flight regimes. The purpose of this paper is to present new free flight experimental results for an ornithopter equipped with one degree of freedom (1DOF) compliant spines that were designed and optimized in terms of mass, maximum von-Mises stress, and desired wing bending deflections. The spines were inserted in an experimental ornithopter wing spar in order to achieve a set of desired kinematics during the up and down strokes of a flapping cycle. The ornithopter was flown at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in the Air Force Research Laboratory Small Unmanned Air Systems (SUAS) indoor flight facility. Vicon motion tracking cameras were used to track the motion of the vehicle for five different wing configurations. The effect of the presence of the compliant spine on wing kinematics and leading edge spar deflection during flight is presented. Results show that the ornithopter with the compliant spine inserted in its wing reduced the body acceleration during the upstroke which translates into overall lift gains.
arguments about how bad is bad and how good is good; this table should apply in most cases. If you feel you have an exception to the rating table... IFR instrument flight rules --- ILS instrument landing system --- IMC instrument meteorological conditions --- IMU inertial measurement
Lansdorp, B.; Ruiterkamp, R.; Ockels, W.
Non-powered flight vehicles such as kites can provide a means of transmitting wind energy from higher altitudes to the ground via tethers. Although there is increased world wide interest for systems to extract wind energy from higher altitudes with kites, research into kite properties such as the
Ichwanul Hakim, Teuku Mohd; Arifianto, Ony
Turbulence is a movement of air on small scale in the atmosphere that caused by instabilities of pressure and temperature distribution. Turbulence model is integrated into flight mechanical model as an atmospheric disturbance. Common turbulence model used in flight mechanical model are Dryden and Von Karman model. In this minor research, only Dryden continuous turbulence model were made. Dryden continuous turbulence model has been implemented, it refers to the military specification MIL-HDBK-1797. The model was implemented into Matlab Simulink. The model will be integrated with flight mechanical model to observe response of the aircraft when it is flight through turbulence field. The turbulence model is characterized by multiplying the filter which are generated from power spectral density with band-limited Gaussian white noise input. In order to ensure that the model provide a good result, model verification has been done by comparing the implemented model with the similar model that is provided in aerospace blockset. The result shows that there are some difference for 2 linear velocities (vg and wg), and 3 angular rate (pg, qg and rg). The difference is instantly caused by different determination of turbulence scale length which is used in aerospace blockset. With the adjustment of turbulence length in the implemented model, both model result the similar output.
Carson, John M., III; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Hines, Glenn D.; O'Neal, Travis V.; Robertson, Edward A.; Seubert, Carl; Trawny, Nikolas
The COBALT (CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technology) payload is being developed within NASA as a risk reduction activity to mature, integrate and test ALHAT (Autonomous precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology) systems targeted for infusion into near-term robotic and future human space flight missions. The initial COBALT payload instantiation is integrating the third-generation ALHAT Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) sensor, for ultra high-precision velocity plus range measurements, with the passive-optical Lander Vision System (LVS) that provides Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) global-position estimates. The COBALT payload will be integrated onboard a rocket-propulsive terrestrial testbed and will provide precise navigation estimates and guidance planning during two flight test campaigns in 2017 (one open-loop and closed- loop). The NDL is targeting performance capabilities desired for future Mars and Moon Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL). The LVS is already baselined for TRN on the Mars 2020 robotic lander mission. The COBALT platform will provide NASA with a new risk-reduction capability to test integrated EDL Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) components in closed-loop flight demonstrations prior to the actual mission EDL.
Trawny, Nikolas; Huertas, Andres; Luna, Michael E.; Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Martin, Keith E.; Carson, John M.; Johnson, Andrew E.; Restrepo, Carolina; Roback, Vincent E.
The Hazard Detection System (HDS) is a component of the ALHAT (Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology) sensor suite, which together provide a lander Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system with the relevant measurements necessary to enable safe precision landing under any lighting conditions. The HDS consists of a stand-alone compute element (CE), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and a gimbaled flash LIDAR sensor that are used, in real-time, to generate a Digital Elevation Map (DEM) of the landing terrain, detect candidate safe landing sites for the vehicle through Hazard Detection (HD), and generate hazard-relative navigation (HRN) measurements used for safe precision landing. Following an extensive ground and helicopter test campaign, ALHAT was integrated onto the Morpheus rocket-powered terrestrial test vehicle in March 2014. Morpheus and ALHAT then performed five successful free flights at the simulated lunar hazard field constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center, for the first time testing the full system on a lunar-like approach geometry in a relevant dynamic environment. During these flights, the HDS successfully generated DEMs, correctly identified safe landing sites and provided HRN measurements to the vehicle, marking the first autonomous landing of a NASA rocket-powered vehicle in hazardous terrain. This paper provides a brief overview of the HDS architecture and describes its in-flight performance.
Eide, Michael C.; Mathews, Bruce
Westinghouse is developing a lookdown pulse Doppler radar for production as the sensor and processor of a forward looking hazardous windshear detection and avoidance system. A data collection prototype of that product was ready for flight testing in Orlando to encounter low level windshear in corroboration with the FAA-Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR). Airborne real-time processing and display of the hazard factor were demonstrated with TDWR facilitated intercepts and penetrations of over 80 microbursts in a three day period, including microbursts with hazard factors in excess of .16 (with 500 ft. PIREP altitude loss) and the hazard factor display at 6 n.mi. of a visually transparent ('dry') microburst with TDWR corroborated outflow reflectivities of +5 dBz. Range gated Doppler spectrum data was recorded for subsequent development and refinement of hazard factor detection and urban clutter rejection algorithms. Following Orlando, the data collection radar was supplemental type certified for in revenue service on a Continental Airlines Airbus in an automatic and non-interferring basis with its ARINC 708 radar to allow Westinghouse to confirm its understanding of commercial aircraft installation, interface realities, and urban airport clutter. A number of software upgrades, all of which were verified at the Receiver-Transmitter-Processor (RTP) hardware bench with Orlando microburst data to produce desired advanced warning hazard factor detection, included some preliminary loads with automatic (sliding window average hazard factor) detection and annunciation recording. The current (14-APR-92) configured software is free from false and/or nuisance alerts (CAUTIONS, WARNINGS, etc.) for all take-off and landing approaches, under 2500 ft. altitude to weight-on-wheels, into all encountered airports, including Newark (NJ), LAX, Denver, Houston, Cleveland, etc. Using the Orlando data collected on hazardous microbursts, Westinghouse has developed a lookdown pulse Doppler
Liu, Fang; Huang, Wei-fen; Jing, Xiao-lu; Zhang, Ping
To study the related factors of emotional stability in flight. Based on the operable definition of emotional stability in flight and the related literature review, 63 experienced pilots and flight coaches were investigated and the other-rating questionnaire of emotional stability in flight was established. To test the senior nerve system, Uchida Kraeplin (UK) test was administrated on 153 19-21 years old male student pilots of the second grade in the department of flight technique in China Civil Aviation College, who were selected through 13 h flight, 35 h solo flight, and acted as the standardization group. In the end, the correlation was explored between the testing results and their emotional behavioral characteristics in flight. Significant positive correlation was found between emotional feature indexes of emotional stability in flight and excitability in UK test. The excitability in UK test are good predictors for emotional stability in flight.
Stewart, R. A., Jr.
Reviews group behavioral issues from past space missions and simulations such as the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test, Skylab missions, and Shuttle Spacelab I mission. Makes recommendations for future flights concerning commandership, crew selection, and ground-crew communications. Pre- and in-flight behavioral countermeasures are…
Jensen, Christian Salgård; Dam-Nielsen, Casper; Arpi, Magnus
The aim of this study was to investigate whether large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G can be adequately identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). Previous studies show varying results, with an identification rate from below 50% to 100%. Large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G isolated from blood cultures between January 1, 2007 and May 1, 2012 were included in the study. Isolates were identified to the species level using a combination of phenotypic characteristics and 16s rRNA sequencing. The isolates were subjected to MALDI-ToF analysis. We used a two-stage approach starting with the direct method. If no valid result was obtained we proceeded to an extraction protocol. Scores above 2 were considered valid identification at the species level. A total of 97 Streptococcus pyogenes, 133 Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and 2 Streptococcus canis isolates were tested; 94%, 66%, and 100% of S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis, respectively, were correctly identified by MALDI-ToF. In most instances when the isolates were not identified by MALDI-ToF this was because MALDI-ToF was unable to differentiate between S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae. By removing two S. pyogenes reference spectra from the MALDI-ToF database the proportion of correctly identified isolates increased to 96% overall. MALDI-ToF is a promising method for discriminating between S. dysgalactiae, S. canis, and S. equi, although more strains need to be tested to clarify this.
Martos, Borja; Kiszely, Paul; Foster, John V.
As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), a novel pitot-static calibration method was developed to allow rapid in-flight calibration for subscale aircraft while flying within confined test areas. This approach uses Global Positioning System (GPS) technology coupled with modern system identification methods that rapidly computes optimal pressure error models over a range of airspeed with defined confidence bounds. This method has been demonstrated in subscale flight tests and has shown small 2- error bounds with significant reduction in test time compared to other methods. The current research was motivated by the desire to further evaluate and develop this method for full-scale aircraft. A goal of this research was to develop an accurate calibration method that enables reductions in test equipment and flight time, thus reducing costs. The approach involved analysis of data acquisition requirements, development of efficient flight patterns, and analysis of pressure error models based on system identification methods. Flight tests were conducted at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) utilizing an instrumented Piper Navajo research aircraft. In addition, the UTSI engineering flight simulator was used to investigate test maneuver requirements and handling qualities issues associated with this technique. This paper provides a summary of piloted simulation and flight test results that illustrates the performance and capabilities of the NASA calibration method. Discussion of maneuver requirements and data analysis methods is included as well as recommendations for piloting technique.
The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only easy to use, but also high-powered robustly across various scenarios. The usage and advantages of these novel tests are demonstrated on an Alzheimer's disease dataset and simulated data.
Mourey, D. J.
The aspects of flight testing an aeroelastically tailored forward swept research wing on a BQM-34F drone vehicle are examined. The geometry of a forward swept wing, which is incorporated into the BQM-34F to maintain satisfactory flight performance, stability, and control is defined. A preliminary design of the aeroelastically tailored forward swept wing is presented.
Musick, Stephen J.
The biology, physiology, kinematics, and aerodynamics of insect flight have been a longstanding fascination for biologists and engineers. The former three are easily obtained through the observation of the organic species. The latter though, is very difficult to study in this fashion. In many cases, aerodynamic forces and fluid-body interactions can be simulated with computational fluid dynamics; another option is to use dynamically-scaled, experimental set-ups to measure physically these val...
Allen, Michael J.
A guidance and control method was developed to detect and exploit thermals for energy gain. Latency in energy rate estimation degraded performance. The concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology. Many UAVs have similar mission constraints to birds and sailplanes. a) Surveillance; b) Point to point flight with minimal energy; and c) Increased ground speed.
Full Text Available Medical researchers endeavor to identify potentially useful biomarkers to develop marker-based screening assays for disease diagnosis and prevention. Useful summary measures which properly evaluate the discriminative ability of diagnostic markers are critical for this purpose. Literature and existing software, for example, R packages nicely cover summary measures for diagnostic markers used for the binary case (e.g., healthy vs. diseased. An intermediate population at an early disease stage usually exists between the healthy and the fully diseased population in many disease processes. Supporting utilities for three-group diagnostic tests are highly desired and important for identifying patients at the early disease stage for timely treatments. However, application packages which provide summary measures for three ordinal groups are currently lacking. This paper focuses on two summary measures of diagnostic accuracy—volume under the receiver operating characteristic surface and the extended Youden index, with three diagnostic groups. We provide the R package DiagTest3Grp to estimate, under both parametric and nonparametric assumptions, the two summary measures and the associated variances, as well as the optimal cut-points for disease diagnosis. An omnibus test for multiple markers and a Wald test for two markers, on independent or paired samples, are incorporated to compare diagnostic accuracy across biomarkers. Sample size calculation under the normality assumption can be performed in the R package to design future diagnostic studies. A real world application evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological markers for Alzheimer’s disease is used to guide readers through step-by-step implementation of DiagTest3Grp to demonstrate its utility.
Roberts, Barry C.
The following is a summary of the major meteorological/atmospheric projects and research that have been or currently are being accomplished at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Listed below are highlights of work done during the past 6 months in the Engineering Directorate (ED) and in the Science and Mission Systems Office (ZP).
Roberts, Barry C.
The following is a summary of the major meteorological/atmospheric projects and research that have been or currently are being accomplished at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Listed below are highlights of work done during the past 6 months in the Engineering Directorate (ED) and in the Science and Technology Office (ST).
Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco
This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.
Ruf, Joseph; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco
This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco engine analysis is a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.
Bakunowicz, Jerzy; Święch, Łukasz; Meyer, Ralf
In aeronautical research experimental data sets of high quality are essential to verify and improve simulation algorithms. For this reason the experimental techniques need to be constantly refined. The shape, movement or deformation of structural aircraft elements can be measured implicitly in multiple ways; however, only optical, correlation-based techniques are able to deliver direct high-order and spatial results. In this paper two different optical metrologies are used for on-ground preparation and the actual execution of in-flight wing deformation measurements on a PW-6U glider. Firstly, the commercial PONTOS system is used for static tests on the ground and for wind tunnel investigations to successfully certify an experimental sensor pod mounted on top of the test bed fuselage. Secondly, a modification of the glider is necessary to implement the optical method named image pattern correlation technique (IPCT), which has been developed by the German Aerospace Center DLR. This scientific technology uses a stereoscopic camera set-up placed inside the experimental pod and a stochastic dot matrix applied to the area of interest on the glider wing to measure the deformation of the upper wing surface in-flight. The flight test installation, including the preparation, is described and results are presented briefly. Focussing on the compensation for typical error sources, the paper concludes with a recommended procedure to enhance the data processing for better results. Within the presented project IPCT has been developed and optimized for a new type of test bed. Adapted to the special requirements of the glider, the IPCT measurements were able to deliver a valuable wing deformation data base which now can be used to improve corresponding numerical models and simulations.
McCoy, Allen H.
Helicopter external air transportation plays an important role in today's world. For both military and civilian helicopters, external sling load operations offer an efficient and expedient method of handling heavy, oversized cargo. With the ability to reach areas otherwise inaccessible by ground transportation, helicopter external load operations are conducted in industries such as logging, construction, and fire fighting, as well as in support of military tactical transport missions. Historically, helicopter and load combinations have been qualified through flight testing, requiring considerable time and cost. With advancements in simulation and flight test techniques there is potential to substantially reduce costs and increase the safety of helicopter sling load certification. Validated simulation tools make possible accurate prediction of operational flight characteristics before initial flight tests. Real time analysis of test data improves the safety and efficiency of the testing programs. To advance these concepts, the U.S. Army and NASA, in cooperation with the Israeli Air Force and Technion, under a Memorandum of Agreement, seek to develop and validate a numerical model of the UH-60 with sling load and demonstrate a method of near real time flight test analysis. This thesis presents results from flight tests of a U.S. Army Black Hawk helicopter with various external loads. Tests were conducted as the U.S. first phase of this MOA task. The primary load was a container express box (CONEX) which contained a compact instrumentation package. The flights covered the airspeed range from hover to 70 knots. Primary maneuvers were pitch and roll frequency sweeps, steps, and doublets. Results of the test determined the effect of the suspended load on both the aircraft's handling qualities and its control system's stability margins. Included were calculations of the stability characteristics of the load's pendular motion. Utilizing CIFER(R) software, a method for near
Morris, R.A.; Bryant, L.
Topics discussed include: high-pressure diamond cell work; x-ray fluorescence analysis; shroud of turin; laser fusion target inspection; and scanning electron microscope. Organization charts for the M-1 group are included
Chan, David T.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.
A 6%-scale unpowered model of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) ALAS-11-rev3c configuration was tested in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility to obtain static aerodynamic data at flight Reynolds numbers. Subsonic and transonic data were obtained for Mach numbers between 0.3 and 0.95 for angles of attack from -4 to +22 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 to +10 degrees. Data were also obtained at various intermediate Reynolds numbers between 2.5 million and 45 million depending on Mach number in order to examine the effects of Reynolds number on the vehicle. Force and moment data were obtained using a 6-component strain gauge balance that operated both at warm temperatures (+120 . F) and cryogenic temperatures (-250 . F). Surface pressure data were obtained with electronically scanned pressure units housed in heated enclosures designed to survive cryogenic temperatures. Data obtained during the 3-week test entry were used to support development of the LAV aerodynamic database and to support computational fluid dynamics code validation. Furthermore, one of the outcomes of the test was the reduction of database uncertainty on axial force coefficient for the static unpowered LAV. This was accomplished as a result of good data repeatability throughout the test and because of decreased uncertainty on scaling wind tunnel data to flight.
A primary requirement for manned spaceflight is Environmental Health which ensures air and water contaminants, acoustic profiles, microbial flora, and radiation exposures within the cabin are maintained to levels needed for crew health and for vehicle system functionality. The reliance on ground analyses of returned samples is a limitation in the current environmental monitoring strategy that will prevent future Exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. This proposal attempts to address this shortcoming by advancing in-flight analyses of water and air. Ground analysis of in-flight, air and water samples typically employ vapor-phase analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify organic compounds present in the samples. We envision the use of newly-developed direct ionization approaches as the most viable avenue leading towards an integrated analytical platform for the monitoring of water, air, and, potentially bio-samples in the cabin environment. Development of an in-flight instrument capable of analyzing air and water samples would be the logical next step to meeting the environmental monitoring needs of Exploration missions. Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides this specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant subset of common target compounds between air and water. Naturally, the following question arises, "Can the AQM be used for both air and water quality monitoring?" Previous directorate-level IR&D funding led to the development of a water sample introduction method for mass spectrometry using electrothermal vaporization (ETV). This project will focus on the integration of the ETV with a ground-based AQM. The capabilities of this integrated platform will be evaluated using a subset of toxicologically important compounds.
Bever, Glenn A.
An airborne information management system is being developed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This system will improve the state of the art in management data acquisition on-board research aircraft. The design centers around highly distributable, high-speed microprocessors that allow data compression, digital filtering, and real-time analysis. This paper describes the areas of applicability, approach to developing the system, potential for trouble areas, and reasons for this development activity. System architecture (including the salient points of what makes it unique), design philosophy, and tradeoff issues are also discussed.
Gorska, Karolina; Rybak, Jaroslaw; Wyjadlowski, Marek
All the geotechnical works need to be tested because the diversity of soil parameters is much higher than in other fields of construction. Horizontal load tests are necessary to determine the lateral capacity of driven piles subject to lateral load. Various load tests were carried out altogether on the test field in Kutno (Poland). While selecting the piles for load tests, different load combinations were taken into account. The piles with diverse length were chosen, on the basis of the previous tests of their length and integrity. The subsoil around the piles consisted of mineral soils: clays and medium compacted sands with the density index ID>0.50. The pile heads were free. The points of support of the “base” to which the dial gauges (displacement sensors) were fastened were located at the distance of 0.7 m from the side surface of the pile loaded laterally. In order to assure the independence of measurement, additional control (verifying) geodetic survey of the displacement of the piles subject to the load tests was carried out (by means of the alignment method). The trial load was imposed in stages by means of a hydraulic jack. The oil pressure in the actuator was corrected by means of a manual pump in order to ensure the constant value of the load in the on-going process of the displacement of the pile under test. On the basis of the obtained results it is possible to verify the numerical simulations of the behaviour of piles loaded by a lateral force.
Liu Guisheng; Wang Yaoqing; Liu Ping; Zhang Baocheng
Using a code system NSLINK, AMPX master library in WIMS 69 groups structure are made from nuclides relating to 4 newest evaluated nuclear data libraries. Some integrals of 10 thermal reactor benchmark assemblies recommended by the U.S. CSEWG are calculated using rectified PASC-1 code system and compared with foreign results, the authors results are in good agreement with others. 69 group libraries of evaluated data bases in TPFAP interface file are generated with NJOY code system. The k ∞ values of 6 cell lattice assemblies are calculated by the code CBM. The calculated results are analysed and compared
Downing, Micah; Zamot, Noel; Moss, Chris; Morin, Daniel; Wolski, Ed; Chung, Sukhwan; Plotkin, Kenneth; Maglieri, Domenic
Supersonic operations from military aircraft generate sonic booms that can affect people, animals and structures. A substantial experimental data base exists on sonic booms for aircraft in steady flight and confidence in the predictive techniques has been established. All the focus sonic boom data that are in existence today were collected during the 60's and 70's as part of the information base to the US Supersonic Transport program and the French Jericho studies for the Concorde. These experiments formed the data base to develop sonic boom propagation and prediction theories for focusing. There is a renewed interest in high-speed transports for civilian application. Moreover, today's fighter aircraft have better performance capabilities, and supersonic flights ars more common during air combat maneuvers. Most of the existing data on focus booms are related to high-speed civil operations such as transitional linear accelerations and mild turns. However, military aircraft operating in training areas perform more drastic maneuvers such as dives and high-g turns. An update and confirmation of USAF prediction capabilities is required to demonstrate the ability to predict and control sonic boom impacts, especially those produced by air combat maneuvers.
Feo, Teresa J; Prum, Richard O
Asymmetry in flight feather vane width is a major functional innovation associated with the evolution of flight in the ancestors of birds. However, the developmental and morphological basis of feather shape is not simple, and the developmental processes involved in vane width asymmetry are poorly understood. We present a theoretical model of feather morphology and development that describes the possible ways to modify feather development and produce vane asymmetry. Our model finds that the theoretical morphospace of feather shape is redundant, and that many different combinations of parameters could be responsible for vane asymmetry in a given feather. Next, we empirically measured morphological and developmental model parameters in asymmetric and symmetric feathers from two species of parrots to identify which combinations of parameters create vane asymmetry in real feathers. We found that both longer barbs, and larger barb angles in the relatively wider trailing vane drove asymmetry in tail feathers. Developmentally, longer barbs were the result of an offset of the radial position of the new barb locus, whereas larger barb angles were produced by differential expansion of barbs as the feather unfurls from the tubular feather germ. In contrast, the helical angle of barb ridge development did not contribute to vane asymmetry and could be indicative of a constraint. This research provides the first comprehensive description of both the morphological and developmental modifications responsible for vane asymmetry within real feathers, and identifies key steps that must have occurred during the evolution of vane asymmetry. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Hearn, David R.; Digenis, Constantine J.
The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is the primary instrument on the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft (EO-1) and was developed under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The NMP mission objective is to flight-validate advanced technologies that will enable dramatic improvements in performance, cost, mass, and schedule for future, Landsat-like, Earth Science Enterprise instruments. ALI contains a number of innovative features designed to achieve this objective. These include the basic instrument architecture, which employs a push-broom data collection mode, a wide field-of-view optical design, compact multi-spectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. The sensor includes detector arrays that operate in ten bands, one panchromatic, six VNIR and three SWIR, spanning the range from 0.433 to 2.35 μm. Launched on November 21, 2000, ALI instrument performance was monitored during its first year on orbit using data collected during solar, lunar, stellar, and earth observations. This paper will provide an overview of EO-1 mission activities during this period. Additionally, the on-orbit spatial and radiometric performance of the instrument will be compared to pre-flight measurements and the temporal stability of ALI will be presented.
Jordan, Thomas L.; Foster, John V.; Bailey, Roger M.; Belcastro, Christine M.
As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program at Langley Research Center, a dynamically scaled unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and associated ground based control system are being developed to investigate dynamics modeling and control of large transport vehicles in upset conditions. The UAV is a 5.5% (seven foot wingspan), twin turbine, generic transport aircraft with a sophisticated instrumentation and telemetry package. A ground based, real-time control system is located inside an operations vehicle for the research pilot and associated support personnel. The telemetry system supports over 70 channels of data plus video for the downlink and 30 channels for the control uplink. Data rates are in excess of 200 Hz. Dynamic scaling of the UAV, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuation, and control system scaling, is required so that the sub-scale vehicle will realistically simulate the flight characteristics of the full-scale aircraft. This testbed will be utilized to validate modeling methods, flight dynamics characteristics, and control system designs for large transport aircraft, with the end goal being the development of technologies to reduce the fatal accident rate due to loss-of-control.
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Levin, Joel R.; Ferron, John M.
Building on previous arguments for why educational researchers should not provide effect-size estimates in the face of statistically nonsignificant outcomes (Robinson & Levin, 1997), Onwuegbuzie and Levin (2005) proposed a 3-step statistical approach for assessing group differences when multiple outcome measures are individually analyzed…
Brown, T. M.; Smith, Norm
Plans for and early feasibility investigations into the modification of a Lockheed D21B drone to flight test the DRACO Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine are discussed. Modifications include the addition of oxidizer tanks, modern avionics systems, actuators, and a vehicle recovery system. Current study results indicate that the D21B is a suitable candidate for this application and will allow demonstrations of all DRACO engine operating modes at Mach numbers between 0.8 and 4.0. Higher Mach numbers may be achieved with more extensive modification. Possible project risks include low speed stability and control, and recovery techniques.
bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines was tested in a multi-environment variety trial ... of methods available for the analysis of GEI and stability. .... parameters in the kth bilinear term are obtained as the kth component of the .... AMMI ANOVA of grain yield for 16 navy bean lines at fourteen environments during 2010 – 2011 main ...
A viewgraph presentation detailing X-43A Flight controls at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Dryden, Overview and current and recent flight test programs; 2) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Program, Program Overview and Platform Precision Autopilot; and 3) Hyper-X Program, Program Overview, X-43A Flight Controls and Flight Results.
A ‘multiple perspective’ framework for the grouping of nanomaterials Robert Landsiedel presenting the results of the ECETOC Nano Task Force (Josje H.E. Arts a, Mackenzie Hadi b, Athena M. Keene c, Reinhard Kreiling d, Delina Lyon e, Monika Maier f, Karin Michel g, Thomas Petry h, Ursula G. Sauer i, David Warheit j, Karin Wiench k, Robert Landsiedel k) a AkzoNobel, Technology and Engineering, Arnhem, Netherlands b Shell Health, Shell International B.V., The Hague, Netherlands...
Lulich, Tyler D.; Bamford, William A.; Wintermitz, Luke M. B.; Price, Samuel R.
The recent delivery of the first Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Navigator Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission spacecraft is a high water mark crowning a decade of research and development in high-altitude space-based GPS. Preceding MMS delivery, the engineering team had developed receivers to support multiple missions and mission studies, such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) navigation for the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), above the constellation navigation for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) proof-of-concept studies, cis-Lunar navigation with rapid re-acquisition during re-entry for the Orion Project and an orbital demonstration on the Space Shuttle during the Hubble Servicing Mission (HSM-4).
A program is proposed for the ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a radioisotope nuclear heated dynamic power system for use on space missions beginning in the 1980's. This type of electrical power system is based upon and combines two aerospace technologies currently under intense development; namely, the MHW isotope heat source and the closed Brayton cycle gas turbine. This power system represents the next generation of reliable, efficient economic electrical power equipment for space, and will be capable of providing 0.5 to 2.0 kW of electric power to a wide variety of spacecraft for earth orbital and interplanetary missions. The immediate design will be based upon the requirements for the Air Force SURVSATCOM mission. The proposal is presented in three volumes plus an Executive Summary. This volume describes the tasks in the technical program.
Full Text Available The article deals with numerical analyses of a Continuous Flight Auger (CFA pile. The analyses include a comparison of calculated and measured load-settlement curves as well as a comparison of the load distribution over a pile's length. The numerical analyses were executed using two types of software, i.e., Ansys and Plaxis, which are based on FEM calculations. Both types of software are different from each other in the way they create numerical models, model the interface between the pile and soil, and use constitutive material models. The analyses have been prepared in the form of a parametric study, where the method of modelling the interface and the material models of the soil are compared and analysed.
Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.
A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.
Koenig, William J.; Stewart, Michael; Harris, Richard F.
This paper describes how the ORION program is incorporating improvements in the heat shield design and manufacturing processes reducing programmatic risk and ensuring crew safety in support of NASA's Exploration missions. The approach for the EFT-1 heat shield utilized a low risk Apollo heritage design and manufacturing process using an Avcoat TPS ablator with a honeycomb substrate to provide a one piece heat shield to meet the mission re-entry heating environments. The EM-1 mission will have additional flight systems installed to fly to the moon and return to Earth. Heat shield design and producibility improvements have been incorporated in the EM-1 vehicle to meet deep space mission requirements. The design continues to use the Avcoat material, but in a block configuration to enable improvements in consistant and repeatable application processes using tile bonding experience developed on the Space Shuttle Transportation System Program.
Kirk, Lindsay C.
Boundary layer transition was observed in the thermocouple data on the windside backshell of the Orion reentry capsule. Sensors along the windside centerline, as well as off-centerline, indicated transition late in the flight at approximately Mach 4 conditions. Transition progressed as expected, beginning at the sensors closest to the forward bay cover (FBC) and moving towards the heatshield. Sensors placed in off-centerline locations did not follow streamlines, so the progression of transition observed in these sensors is less intuitive. Future analysis will include comparisons to pre-flight predictions and expected transitional behavior will be investigated. Sensors located within the centerline and off-centerline launch abort system (LAS) attach well cavities on the FBC also showed indications of boundary layer transition. The transition within the centerline cavity was observed in the temperature traces prior to transition onset on the sensors upstream of the cavity. Transition behavior within the off centerline LAS attach well cavity will also be investigated. Heatshield thermocouples were placed within Avcoat plugs to attempt to capture transitional behavior as well as better understand the aerothermal environments. Thermocouples were placed in stacks of two or five vertically within the plugs, but the temperature data obtained at the sensors closest to the surface did not immediately indicate transitional behavior. Efforts to use the in depth thermocouple temperatures to reconstruct the surface heat flux are ongoing and any results showing the onset of boundary layer transition obtained from those reconstructions will also be included in this paper. Transition on additional features of interest, including compression pad ramps, will be included if it becomes available.
Gvakharia, A.; Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Conley, S.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. With high atmospheric backgrounds and small relative signals, N2O emissions have been challenging to observe and understand on regional scales with traditional instrumentation. Fast-response airborne measurements with high precision and accuracy can potentially bridge this observational gap. Here we present flight assessments of a new flight system based on an Aerodyne mini-spectrometer as well as a Los Gatos N2O/CO analyzer during the Fertilizer Emissions Airborne Study (FEAST). With the Scientific Aviation Mooney aircraft, we conducted test flights for both analyzers where a known calibration gas was sampled throughout the flight (`null' tests). Clear altitude/cabin-pressure dependencies were observed for both analyzers if operated in an "off-the-shelf' manner. For the remainder of test flights and the FEAST campaign we used a new flight system based on an Aerodyne mini-spectrometer with the addition of a custom pressure control/calibration system. Instead of using traditional approaches with spectral-zeros and infrequent in-flight calibrations, we employ a high-flow system with stable flow control to enable high frequency (2 minutes), short duration (15 seconds) sampling of a known calibration gas. This approach, supported by the null test, enables correction for spectral drift caused by a variety of factors while maintaining a 90% duty cycle for 1Hz sampling from an aircraft. Preliminary in-flight precisions are estimated at 0.05 ppb, 0.1 ppm, 1 ppb, and 10 ppm for N2O, CO2, CO, and H2O respectively. We also present a further 40 hours of inter-comparison in flight with a Picarro 2301-f ring-down spectrometer demonstrating consistency between CO2 and H2O measurements and no altitude dependent error.
Woods, Carol M.; Cai, Li; Wang, Mian
Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when the probability of responding in a particular category to an item differs for members of different groups who are matched on the construct being measured. The identification of DIF is important for valid measurement. This research evaluates an improved version of Lord's chi [superscript 2]…
Burken, John J.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Feather, John; Goldthorpe, Steven; Kahler, Jeffrey A.
A large, civilian, multi-engine transport MD-11 airplane control system was recently modified to perform as an emergency backup controller using engine thrust only. The emergency backup system, referred to as the propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system, would be used if a major primary flight control system fails. To allow for longitudinal and lateral-directional control, the PCA system requires at least two engines and is implemented through software modifications. A flight-test program was conducted to evaluate the PCA system high-altitude flying characteristics and to demonstrate its capacity to perform safe landings. The cruise flight conditions, several low approaches and one landing without any aerodynamic flight control surface movement, were demonstrated. This paper presents results that show satisfactory performance of the PCA system in the longitudinal axis. Test results indicate that the lateral-directional axis of the system performed well at high attitude but was sluggish and prone to thermal upsets during landing approaches. Flight-test experiences and test techniques are also discussed with emphasis on the lateral-directional axis because of the difficulties encountered in flight test.
Watts, Michael E.; Greenwood, Eric; Smith, Charles D.; Snider, Royce; Conner, David A.
A cooperative ight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 test points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive database of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone arrays with up to 31 microphon. es in each were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included Differential Global Positioning System, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test and documents the data acquired.
Briatore, S.; Akhtyamov, R.; Golkar, A.
As small and nanosatellites become increasingly relevant in the aerospace industry1, 2, the need of efficient, lightweight and cost-effective networking solutions drives the need for the development of lightweight and low cost networking and communication terminals. In this paper we propose the design and prototype results of a hybrid optical and radio communication architecture developed to fit the coarse pointing capabilities of nanosatellites, tested through a proxy flight experiment on stratospheric balloons. This system takes advantage of the higher data-rate offered by optical communication channels while relying on the more mature and stable technology of conventional radio systems for link negotiation and low-speed data exchange. Such architecture allows the user to overcome the licensing requirements and scarce availability of high data-rate radio frequency channels in the commonly used bands. Outlined are the architecture, development and test of the mentioned terminal, with focus on the communication part and supporting technologies, including the navigation algorithm, the developed fail-safe approach, and the evolution of the pointing system continuing previous work done in 3. The system has been built with commercial-off-the-shelf components and demonstrated on a stratospheric balloon launch campaign. The paper outlines the results of an in-flight demonstration, where the two platforms successfully established an optical link at stratospheric altitudes. The results are then analyzed and contextualized in plans of future work for nanosatellite implementations.
Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo
The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality.
Mitchell, Kenneth R.; Ng, Kim T.
Results indicated that only significant reductions on test anxiety were obtained for groups given desensitization, but for groups given combinations of desensitization and counseling, improvement occurred in both test anxiety and study skills. (Author)
Perrot, E.; Boulanger, D.; Christophe, B.; Foulon, B.; Lebat, V.; Huynh, P. A.; Liorzou, F.
The GRACE FO mission, led by the JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), is an Earth-orbiting gravity mission, continuation of the GRACE mission, which will produce an accurate model of the Earth's gravity field variation providing global climatic data during five years at least. The mission involves two satellites in a loosely controlled tandem formation, with a micro-wave link measuring the inter-satellites distance variation. Earth's mass distribution non-uniformities cause variations of the inter-satellite distance. This variation is measured to recover gravity, after subtracting the non-gravitational contributors, as the residual drag. ONERA (the French Aerospace Lab) is developing, manufacturing and testing electrostatic accelerometers measuring this residual drag applied on the satellites. The accelerometer is composed of two main parts: the Sensor Unit (including the Sensor Unit Mechanics - SUM - and the Front-End Electronic Unit - FEEU) and the Interface Control Unit - ICU. In the Accelerometer Core, located in the Sensor Unit Mechanics, the proof mass is levitated and maintained at the center of an electrode cage by electrostatic forces. Thus, any drag acceleration applied on the satellite involves a variation on the servo-controlled electrostatic suspension of the mass. The voltage on the electrodes providing this electrostatic force is the output measurement of the accelerometer. The impact of the accelerometer defaults (geometry, electronic and parasitic forces) leads to bias, misalignment and scale factor error, non-linearity and noise. Some of these accelerometer defaults are characterized by tests with micro-gravity pendulum bench on ground and with drops in ZARM catapult. The Critical Design Review was achieved successfully on September 2014. The Engineering Model (EM) was integrated and tested successfully, with ground levitation, drops, Electromagnetic Compatibility and thermal vacuum. The integration of the two Flight Models was done on July 2015. The
Canada's national vehicle scrappage program was designed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-forming emissions by removing personal vehicles with model years of 1995 and older from Canadian road systems. The program will also promote sustainable transportation alternatives and recycling programs to prevent the release of other toxic substances into the environment. Incentives designed to encourage Canadians to scrap older vehicles may include cash incentives and rebates towards the purchase of a new vehicle, free transit passes, and other options designed to support sustainable transportation. This paper discussed a research program conducted to assess target audience responses to the programs and its proposed incentives. The survey was conducted with a series of 20 focus groups located in major cities across Canada. Sessions were comprised of between 6 to 10 participants from lower-income and higher-income households. All groups responded negatively to both the overall policy as well as to specific program elements. The study showed that most participants were not aware that older vehicles emit significantly higher levels of harmful emissions. The research audience did not understand distinctions between smog-producing emissions and GHG emissions. Participants also believed that personal vehicles had a minor negative impact on the environment compared to trucks, industry, and vehicle fleets. Participants felt a sense of pride in the ways in which they had maintained their older vehicles, and also perceived them as safer than newer vehicles. It was concluded that many participants were resistant to facts presented to them about older vehicles, and felt that the incentives were insufficient to trigger action. The effectiveness of advertising materials designed to promote the program was also assessed. 3 tabs., 9 figs.
Kim, Eun Sook; Cao, Chunhua
Considering that group comparisons are common in social science, we examined two latent group mean testing methods when groups of interest were either at the between or within level of multilevel data: multiple-group multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MG ML CFA) and multilevel multiple-indicators multiple-causes modeling (ML MIMIC). The performance of these methods were investigated through three Monte Carlo studies. In Studies 1 and 2, either factor variances or residual variances were manipulated to be heterogeneous between groups. In Study 3, which focused on within-level multiple-group analysis, six different model specifications were considered depending on how to model the intra-class group correlation (i.e., correlation between random effect factors for groups within cluster). The results of simulations generally supported the adequacy of MG ML CFA and ML MIMIC for multiple-group analysis with multilevel data. The two methods did not show any notable difference in the latent group mean testing across three studies. Finally, a demonstration with real data and guidelines in selecting an appropriate approach to multilevel multiple-group analysis are provided.
Bull, John; Mah, Robert; Davis, Gloria; Conley, Joe; Hardy, Gordon; Gibson, Jim; Blake, Matthew; Bryant, Don; Williams, Diane
Failures of aircraft primary flight-control systems to aircraft during flight have led to catastrophic accidents with subsequent loss of lives (e.g. , DC-1O crash, B-747 crash, C-5 crash, B-52 crash, and others). Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) investigated the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control of several airplanes, including the B-720, Lear 24, F-15, C-402, and B-747. A series of three piloted simulation tests have been conducted at Ames Research Center to investigate propulsion control for safely landing a medium size jet transport which has experienced a total primary flight-control failure. The first series of tests was completed in July 1992 and defined the best interface for the pilot commands to drive the engines. The second series of tests was completed in August 1994 and investigated propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) display requirements and various command modes. The third series of tests was completed in May 1995 and investigated PCA full-flight envelope capabilities. This report describes the concept of a PCA, discusses pilot controls, displays, and procedures; and presents the results of piloted simulation evaluations of the concept by a cross-section of air transport pilots.
...) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red blood cells) and to detect antibodies to blood group antigens. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system...
Roback, Vincent; Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reisse, Robert
Two flash lidars, integrated from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA, are lab characterized and flight tested for determination of maximum operational range under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project (in its fourth development and field test cycle) which is seeking to develop a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) and sensing system based on lidar technology capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The flash lidars incorporate pioneering 3-D imaging cameras based on Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Avalanche Photo Diode (InGaAs APD) and novel micro-electronic technology for a 128 x 128 pixel array operating at 30 Hz, high pulse-energy 1.06 micrometer Nd:YAG lasers, and high performance transmitter and receiver fixed and zoom optics. The two flash lidars are characterized on the NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) Sensor Test Range, integrated with other portions of the ALHAT GN&C system from partner organizations into an instrument pod at NASA-JPL, integrated onto an Erickson Aircrane Helicopter at NASA-Dryden, and flight tested at the Edwards AFB Rogers dry lakebed over a field of human-made geometric hazards during the summer of 2010. Results show that the maximum operational range goal of 1 km is met and exceeded up to a value of 1.2 km. In addition, calibrated 3-D images of several hazards are acquired in real-time for later reconstruction into Digital Elevation Maps (DEM's).
Baker, W.M. II.
Purpose of the test was to obtain statistical information on the dynamics of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) module at terminal speeds. Models were designed to aerodynamically and dynamically represent the GPHS module. Normal and high speed photographic coverage documented the motion of the models. This report documents test parameters and techniques for the free-spin tests. It does not include data analysis
Cheynet, Ph.; Velazco, R.; Cheynet, Ph.; Ecoffet, R.; Duzellier, S.; David, J.P.; Loquet, J.G.
The study concerns two 32 K-byte static memories, one from Hitachi (HM62256) and the other (HM65756) from Matra-MHS. The results correspond to around one year of measurement in high radiation orbit and a total of 268 upsets were detected. As a preliminary conclusion it can be stated that the MHS SRAM is probably at least 4 times more sensitive to SEU (single event upset) than the Hitachi SRAM. The Hitachi memory has exhibited what we call ''stuck-at'' bit errors. This kind of event is identified when the same address and data is found in error (fixed read data) for several consecutive read cycles. A confrontation of SEU rates derived from predictions to those measured in flight has shown that: - error rate is underestimated for HM62256 using standard prediction models, - error rate can be under or over-estimated for HM65756 but the dispersion on heavy-ion ground results does not allow us to conclude. (A.C.)
Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.
A simple flight management descent algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering an airplane in a fuel-conservative manner to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control was developed and flight tested. This algorithm provides a three dimensional path with terminal area time constraints (four dimensional) for an airplane to make an idle thrust, clean configured (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted) descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm is described. The results of the flight tests flown with the Terminal Configured Vehicle airplane are presented.
Carson, John M., III; Robertson, Edward A.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Roback, Vincent E.; Trawny, Nikolas; Devolites, Jennifer L.; Hart, Jeremy J.; Estes, Jay N.; Gaddis, Gregory S.
The Autonomous precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project has developed a suite of prototype sensors for enabling autonomous and safe precision land- ing of robotic or crewed vehicles on solid solar bodies under varying terrain lighting condi- tions. The sensors include a Lidar-based Hazard Detection System (HDS), a multipurpose Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL), and a long-range Laser Altimeter (LAlt). Preparation for terrestrial ight testing of ALHAT onboard the Morpheus free- ying, rocket-propelled ight test vehicle has been in progress since 2012, with ight tests over a lunar-like ter- rain eld occurring in Spring 2014. Signi cant work e orts within both the ALHAT and Morpheus projects has been required in the preparation of the sensors, vehicle, and test facilities for interfacing, integrating and verifying overall system performance to ensure readiness for ight testing. The ALHAT sensors have undergone numerous stand-alone sensor tests, simulations, and calibrations, along with integrated-system tests in special- ized gantries, trucks, helicopters and xed-wing aircraft. A lunar-like terrain environment was constructed for ALHAT system testing during Morpheus ights, and vibration and thermal testing of the ALHAT sensors was performed based on Morpheus ights prior to ALHAT integration. High- delity simulations were implemented to gain insight into integrated ALHAT sensors and Morpheus GN&C system performance, and command and telemetry interfacing and functional testing was conducted once the ALHAT sensors and electronics were integrated onto Morpheus. This paper captures some of the details and lessons learned in the planning, preparation and integration of the individual ALHAT sen- sors, the vehicle, and the test environment that led up to the joint ight tests.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here addresses the testing and evaluation of wireless networking technologies for small launch vehicles by leveraging existing nanosat launch...
DeWittBurns, H.; Crave, Paul; Finckenor, Miria; Finchum, Charles; Nehls, Mary; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason
Understanding the effects of the space environment on materials and systems is fundamental and essential for mission success. If not properly understood and designed for, the space environment can lead to materials degradation, reduction of functional lifetime, and system failure. Ground based testing is critical in predicting performance NASA/MSFC's expertise and capabilities make up the most complete SEE testing capability available.
Bellazzini, Marc A; Rankin, Peter M; Quisling, Jason; Gangnon, Ronald; Kohrs, Mike
Increased concerns over the safety of air medical transport have prompted development of novel ways to increase safety. The objective of our study was to determine if an Internet streaming media safety video increased crew safety knowledge. 23 out of 40 crew members took an online safety pre-test, watched a safety video specific to our program and completed immediate and long-term post-testing 6 months later. Mean pre-test, post-test and 6 month follow up test scores were 84.9%, 92.3% and 88.4% respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in all scores (p Streaming media proved to be an accessible and effective supplement to safety training in our study.
Goal:i) Characterization of the role of the main immune reactive cell types contributing to the cellular immune response in the in-vitro DTH and ii) Validation of the in-vitro DTH under different clinical and field conditions. Methods:As positive control whole blood was incubated in the in-vitro DTH, supernatants were gathered after 12, 24 and 48h. Readout parameters of this test are cytokines in the assay's supernatant. To determine the role of T-cells, monocytes and natural killer (NK), these cell populations were depleted using magnetic beads prior to in-vitro-DTH incubation. Validation of the test has occurred under clinical (HIV-patients, ICU) and field-conditions (parabolic/space-flights, confinement). Results:T-cell depletion abandoned almost any IL-2 production and reduced IFN-gamma production irrespective of the type of antigen, whereas CD56 depleted cultures tended to lower IL-2 secretion and IFN-gamma and to parallel a IL-10-increase after viral challenge. This IL-10-increase was seen also in CD14-depleted setups. DTH read-out was significantly different under acute stress (parabolic flight) or chronic stress (ISS), respectively. Preliminary data of HIV infected patients demonstrate that this test can display the contemporary immune status during an antiviral therapy. Conclusion:The in-vitro DTH mirrors adaptive and innate immune activation and may serve as tool also for longitudinal follow up of Th1/Th2 weighed immune response under adverse life conditions on earth and in space. It is planned to implement the assay in the on the ISS (MoCISS).
Miller, Christopher J.
A model reference nonlinear dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline controller for research into simple adaptive elements for advanced flight control laws. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation and in flight. The flight results agree well with the simulation predictions and show good handling qualities throughout the tested flight envelope with some noteworthy deficiencies highlighted both by handling qualities metrics and pilot comments. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as simple as possible to easily allow the addition of the adaptive elements. The flight-test results and how they compare to the simulation predictions are discussed, along with a discussion about how each element affected pilot opinions. Additionally, aspects of the design that performed better than expected are presented, as well as some simple improvements that will be suggested for follow-on work.
Arts, Josje H E; Hadi, Mackenzie; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Keene, Athena M; Kreiling, Reinhard; Lyon, Delina; Maier, Monika; Michel, Karin; Petry, Thomas; Sauer, Ursula G; Warheit, David; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert
The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) 'Nano Task Force' proposes a Decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping) that consists of 3 tiers to assign nanomaterials to 4 main groups, to perform sub-grouping within the main groups and to determine and refine specific information needs. The DF4nanoGrouping covers all relevant aspects of a nanomaterial's life cycle and biological pathways, i.e. intrinsic material and system-dependent properties, biopersistence, uptake and biodistribution, cellular and apical toxic effects. Use (including manufacture), release and route of exposure are applied as 'qualifiers' within the DF4nanoGrouping to determine if, e.g. nanomaterials cannot be released from a product matrix, which may justify the waiving of testing. The four main groups encompass (1) soluble nanomaterials, (2) biopersistent high aspect ratio nanomaterials, (3) passive nanomaterials, and (4) active nanomaterials. The DF4nanoGrouping aims to group nanomaterials by their specific mode-of-action that results in an apical toxic effect. This is eventually directed by a nanomaterial's intrinsic properties. However, since the exact correlation of intrinsic material properties and apical toxic effect is not yet established, the DF4nanoGrouping uses the 'functionality' of nanomaterials for grouping rather than relying on intrinsic material properties alone. Such functionalities include system-dependent material properties (such as dissolution rate in biologically relevant media), bio-physical interactions, in vitro effects and release and exposure. The DF4nanoGrouping is a hazard and risk assessment tool that applies modern toxicology and contributes to the sustainable development of nanotechnological products. It ensures that no studies are performed that do not provide crucial data and therefore saves animals and resources. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Kamsler, W. F.; Case, C. W.; Kinney, E. L.; Gyure, J.
The format material used in an oral presentation of the phase 3 study effort is given. The material includes a description of the language ALOFT and a terminology comparison with other test languages.
Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheiman, David A.; Hoffman, David J.
The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States (US) and Russia to provide approximately 6 kW of photovoltaic power to the Russian space station Mir. After final assembly in Russia, the MCSA was shipped to the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in the summer of 1995 and launched to Mir in November 1995. Program managers were concerned of the potential for MCSA damage during the transatlantic shipment and the associated handling operations. To address this concern, NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) developed an innovative dark-forward electrical test program to assess the gross electrical condition of each generator following shipment from Russia. The use of dark test techniques, which allow the array to remain in the stowed configuration, greatly simplifies the checkout of large area solar arrays. MCSA dark electrical testing was successfully performed at KSC in July 1995 following transatlantic shipment. Data from this testing enabled engineers to quantify the effects of potential MCSA physical damage that would degrade on-orbit electrical performance. In this paper, an overview of the principles and heritage of photovoltaic array dark testing is given. The specific MCSA dark test program is also described including the hardware, software, testing procedures and test results. The current-voltage (4) response of both solar cell circuitry and by-pass diode circuitry was obtained. To guide the development of dark test hardware, software and procedures, a dedicated FORTRAN computer code was developed to predict the dark 4 responses of generators with a variety of feasible damage modes. By comparing the actual test data with the predictions, the physical condition of the generator could be inferred. Based on this data analysis, no electrical short-circuits or open-circuits were detected. This suggested the MCSA did not sustain physical damage that affected electrical performance during handling and shipment from Russia to the US. Good
The business end of a Second Stage (S-II) slowly emerges from the shipping container as workers prepare to transport the Saturn V component to the testing facility at MSFC. The Second Stage (S-II) underwent vibration and engine firing tests. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.
The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+week) data collection in 5 of 10 controls without treatment. Both groups used the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control
de Jong, Daphne
From the 1st of June until the 21st of August, the internship has been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center as part of the Master of Space Studies at the International Space University. The main activities consisted of doing research on UAV flight--testing and the assessing of safety with respect to Beyond--Line--Of--Sight operations. Further activities consisted of accommodating international partners and potential partners at the NASA Ames site, in order to identify mutual interest and future collaboration. Besides those activities, the report describes the planning process of the ISU Space Coast Trip to 10 different space related companies on the west--coast of California. Key words: UAS, UAV, BLOS, Ames, ISU Trip
Werth, Arman Karl
Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.
Trigo, Guilherme F.; Maass, Bolko; Krüger, Hans; Theil, Stephan
Accurate autonomous navigation capabilities are essential for future lunar robotic landing missions with a pin-point landing requirement, since in the absence of direct line of sight to ground control during critical approach and landing phases, or when facing long signal delays the herein before mentioned capability is needed to establish a guidance solution to reach the landing site reliably. This paper focuses on the processing and evaluation of data collected from flight tests that consisted of scaled descent scenarios where the unmanned helicopter of approximately 85 kg approached a landing site from altitudes of 50 m down to 1 m for a downrange distance of 200 m. Printed crater targets were distributed along the ground track and their detection provided earth-fixed measurements. The Crater Navigation (CNav) algorithm used to detect and match the crater targets is an unmodified method used for real lunar imagery. We analyze the absolute position and attitude solutions of CNav obtained and recorded during these flight tests, and investigate the attainable quality of vehicle pose estimation using both CNav and measurements from a tactical-grade inertial measurement unit. The navigation filter proposed for this end corrects and calibrates the high-rate inertial propagation with the less frequent crater navigation fixes through a closed-loop, loosely coupled hybrid setup. Finally, the attainable accuracy of the fused solution is evaluated by comparison with the on-board ground-truth solution of a dual-antenna high-grade GNSS receiver. It is shown that the CNav is an enabler for building autonomous navigation systems with high quality and suitability for exploration mission scenarios.
Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R
Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments.
...-1294, ``Preoperational Testing of On-Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... entitled ``Preoperational Testing of On- Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy...
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Full Text Available Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had been elected with the help of the sociometric test. Analyses were made with the program SPSS 8.0. The discriminative analysis has determined that the differences in the arithmetic means between the groups of basketball players who had most positive points and the group of basketball players who had most negative points in some tests for assessing situation-motor abilities do not exist
Saraf, Shailendhar; Buchman, Sasha; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Lui, Chin Yang; Soulage, Michael; Faied, Dohy; Hanson, John; Ling, Kuok; Jaroux, Belgacem; AlRashed, Abdullah; Nassban, Badr Al; Suwaidan, Badr Al; Harbi, Mohammed Al; Salamah, Badr Bin; Othman, Mohammed Bin
The UV LED mission demonstrates the precise control of the potential of electrically isolated test masses that is essential for the operation of space accelerometers and drag free sensors. Accelerometers and drag free sensors were and remain at the core of geodesy, aeronomy, and precision navigation missions as well as gravitational science experiments and gravitational wave observatories. Charge management using photoelectrons generated by the 254 nm UV line of Hg was first demonstrated on G...
Roback, VIncent E.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Brewster, Paul F.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Kempton, Kevin S.; Reisse, Robert A.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.
A second generation, compact, real-time, air-cooled 3-D imaging Flash Lidar sensor system, developed from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA, is lab characterized and helicopter flight tested under the Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. The ALHAT project is seeking to develop a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) and sensing system based on lidar technology capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The Flash Lidar incorporates a 3-D imaging video camera based on Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Avalanche Photo Diode and novel micro-electronic technology for a 128 x 128 pixel array operating at a video rate of 20 Hz, a high pulse-energy 1.06 µm Neodymium-doped: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, a remote laser safety termination system, high performance transmitter and receiver optics with one and five degrees field-of-view (FOV), enhanced onboard thermal control, as well as a compact and self-contained suite of support electronics housed in a single box and built around a PC-104 architecture to enable autonomous operations. The Flash Lidar was developed and then characterized at two NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) outdoor laser test range facilities both statically and dynamically, integrated with other ALHAT GN&C subsystems from partner organizations, and installed onto a Bell UH-1H Iroquois "Huey" helicopter at LaRC. The integrated system was flight tested at the NASA-Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on simulated lunar approach to a custom hazard field consisting of rocks, craters, hazardous slopes, and safe-sites near the Shuttle Landing Facility runway starting at slant ranges of 750 m. In order to evaluate different methods of achieving hazard detection, the lidar, in conjunction with the ALHAT hazard detection and GN&C system, operates in both a narrow 1deg FOV raster
Full Text Available We propose a new meta-heuristic algorithm named Levy flights multi-verse optimizer (LFMVO, which incorporates Levy flights into multi-verse optimizer (MVO algorithm to solve numerical and engineering optimization problems. The Original MVO easily falls into stagnation when wormholes stochastically re-span a number of universes (solutions around the best universe achieved over the course of iterations. Since Levy flights are superior in exploring unknown, large-scale search space, they are integrated into the previous best universe to force MVO out of stagnation. We test this method on three sets of 23 well-known benchmark test functions and an NP complete problem of test scheduling for Network-on-Chip (NoC. Experimental results prove that the proposed LFMVO is more competitive than its peers in both the quality of the resulting solutions and convergence speed.
This paper explores the viability and development of the first edition of the researcher's mathematical card game, Groups, as a learning tool for elementary group theory, a topic in abstract algebra. "Groups" was play-tested by six undergraduate students in late 2016 who provided feedback on "Groups" from both utility-centric…
Scissons, Edward H.; Njaa, Lloyd J.
The results indicate the effectiveness of both individual desensitization and group desensitization in the treatment of high test anxiety. More research is needed in comparing the effectiveness of group desensitization and individual desensitization with intratreatment variables. (Author)
Ridge, D. G. Fletcher, C. O. Asma , O. Chazot, and J. Thömel, “Oxidation of ZrB2-SiC Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites in Dissociated Air...Fletcher, C. O. Asma , “Characterization of ZrB2-SiC Ceramics Tested by Plasma Stream Oxidation,” poster, 32 th International Conference...Fahrenholtz, W.G., Hilmas, G.E., Zhu, S.M., Ridge, J., Fletcher, D.G., Asma , C.O., and Thomel, J., "Oxidation of ZrB2-SiC Ultrahigh-Temperature
Case, C. W.; Kinney, E. L.; Gyure, J.
Ten, primarily test oriented, computer languages reviewed during the phase 1 study effort are described. Fifty characteristics of ATOLL, ATLAS, and CLASP are compared. Unique characteristics of the other languages, including deficiencies, problems, safeguards, and checking provisions are identified. Programming aids related to these languages are reported, and the conclusions resulting from this phase of the study are discussed. A glossary and bibliography are included. For the reports on phase 2 of the study, see N71-35027 and N71-35029.
Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira; Zou, Xiaotian
In this paper we present a new L(sub 1) adaptive control architecture that directly compensates for matched as well as unmatched system uncertainty. To evaluate the L(sub 1) adaptive controller, we take advantage of the flexible research environment with rapid prototyping and testing of control laws in the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. We apply the L(sub 1) adaptive control laws to the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model. The presented results are from a full nonlinear simulation of the Generic Transport Model and some preliminary pilot evaluations of the L(sub 1) adaptive control law.
Al-Musawi, Nu'man M
Using confirmatory factor analytic techniques on data generated from 200 students enrolled at the University of Bahrain, we obtained some construct validity and reliability data for the Arabic Version of the 1961 Group Personality Projective Test by Cassel and Khan. In contrast to the 5-factor model proposed for the Group Personality Projective Test, a 6-factor solution appeared justified for the Arabic Version of this test, suggesting some variance between the cultural groups in the United States and in Bahrain.
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Bondi, M. J.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Cross, J. L.
This report is designed to be a user's guide and reference manual for users intending to access rotocraft test data via TRENDS, the relational database system which was developed as a tool for the aeronautical engineer with no programming background. This report has been written to assist novice and experienced TRENDS users. TRENDS is a complete system for retrieving, searching, and analyzing both numerical and narrative data, and for displaying time history and statistical data in graphical and numerical formats. This manual provides a 'guided tour' and a 'user's guide' for the new and intermediate-skilled users. Examples for the use of each menu item within TRENDS is provided in the Menu Reference section of the manual, including full coverage for TIMEHIST, one of the key tools. This manual is written around the XV-15 Tilt Rotor database, but does include an appendix on the UH-60 Blackhawk database. This user's guide and reference manual establishes a referrable source for the research community and augments NASA TM-101025, TRENDS: The Aeronautical Post-Test, Database Management System, Jan. 1990, written by the same authors.
Lipa, J. A.; Li, Q.; Chui, T. C. P.; Marek, D.
The status of high resolution tests of the renormalization group theory of cooperative phase transitions performed near the lambda point of helium is described. The prospects for performing improved tests in space are discussed.
Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak
During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.
Prokop, N; Greer, L; Krasowski, M; Flatico, J; Spina, D
This paper describes a novel miniature microcontroller based curve tracing circuit, which was designed to monitor the environmental effects on Silicon Carbide Junction Field Effect Transistor (SiC JFET) device performance, while exposed to the low earth orbit environment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) as a resident experiment on the 7th Materials on the International Space Station Experiment (MISSE7). Specifically, the microcontroller circuit was designed to operate autonomously and was flown on the external structure of the ISS for over a year. This curve tracing circuit is capable of measuring current vs. voltage (I-V) characteristics of transistors and diodes. The circuit is current limited for low current devices and is specifically designed to test high temperature, high drain-to-source resistance SiC JFETs. The results of each I-V data set are transmitted serially to an external telemetered communication interface. This paper discusses the circuit architecture, its design, and presents example results.
Naito, Shinji; Kajiyama, Shigeru; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Tsuchida, Kenji; Tachibana, Yukio; Shigehiro, Katsuya; Mahara, Yoichi.
The device of the present invention comprises a testing device main body disposed to a rail, a movable mechanism positioning from a reference point, a circumferential direction scanning mechanism, an axial direction scanning mechanism, a posture control mechanism, and a testing probe. Upon testing of pipelines, the detection device main body and auxiliary members are moved from a reference point previously set on a rail for numerical control toward pipelines to be tested in a state where the axial direction scanning mechanism and the testing probe are suspended in the axial direction. The testing is conducted by controlling the position of the testing probe in the axial direction of the pipeline by means of the axial direction scanning mechanism, and scanning the testing probe to the outer circumference of the pipeline along the circumferential track by way of the circumferential direction scanning mechanism. The device can be extremely reduced in the thickness, and can be moved with no interference with pipelines and other obstacles by remote operation even under such undesired condition as the pipelines being crowded, so that non-destructive testing can be conducted accurately. (N.H.)
Irvine, Linda; Crombie, Iain K; Swanson, Vivien; Dimova, Elena D; Melson, Ambrose J; Fraser, Tracey M; Barbour, Rosaline; Rice, Peter M; Allan, Sheila
Young women frequently drink alcohol in groups and binge drinking within these natural drinking groups is common. This study describes the design of a theoretically and empirically based group intervention to reduce binge drinking among young women. It also evaluates their engagement with the intervention and the acceptability of the study methods. Friendship groups of women aged 18-35 years, who had two or more episodes of binge drinking (>6 UK units on one occasion; 48g of alcohol) in the previous 30 days, were recruited from the community. A face-to-face group intervention, based on the Health Action Process Approach, was delivered over three sessions. Components of the intervention were woven around fun activities, such as making alcohol free cocktails. Women were followed up four months after the intervention was delivered. The target of 24 groups (comprising 97 women) was recruited. The common pattern of drinking was infrequent, heavy drinking (mean consumption on the heaviest drinking day was UK 18.1 units). Process evaluation revealed that the intervention was delivered with high fidelity and acceptability of the study methods was high. The women engaged positively with intervention components and made group decisions about cutting down. Twenty two groups set goals to reduce their drinking, and these were translated into action plans. Retention of individuals at follow up was 87%. This study successfully recruited groups of young women whose patterns of drinking place them at high risk of acute harm. This novel approach to delivering an alcohol intervention has potential to reduce binge drinking among young women. The high levels of engagement with key steps in the behavior change process suggests that the group intervention should be tested in a full randomised controlled trial.
Abdulla Elezi; Nazim Myrtaj; Florian Miftari
Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević) in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had bee...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative... Work Group (WG) to examine alternative methods for testing the accuracy of commercial measuring devices... participates to promote uniformity among the states in laws, regulations, methods, and testing equipment that...
Kostka, Marion P.; Galassi, John P.
The study compared modified versions of systematic desensitization and covert positive reinforcement to a no-treatment control condition in the reduction of test anxiety. On an anagrams performance test, the covert reinforcement and control groups were superior to the desensitization group. (Author)
Hwang, Meejeong; Kang, Dae Il
Highlights: ► This paper presents a method to estimate the common cause failure probabilities on the common cause component group with mixed testing schemes. ► The CCF probabilities are dependent on the testing schemes such as staggered testing or non-staggered testing. ► There are many CCCGs with specific mixed testing schemes in real plant operation. ► Therefore, a general formula which is applicable to both alternate periodic testing scheme and train level mixed testing scheme was derived. - Abstract: This paper presents a method to estimate the common cause failure (CCF) probabilities on the common cause component group (CCCG) with mixed testing schemes such as the train level mixed testing scheme or the alternate periodic testing scheme. In the train level mixed testing scheme, the components are tested in a non-staggered way within the same train, but the components are tested in a staggered way between the trains. The alternate periodic testing scheme indicates that all components in the same CCCG are tested in a non-staggered way during the planned maintenance period, but they are tested in a staggered way during normal plant operation. Since the CCF probabilities are dependent on the testing schemes such as staggered testing or non-staggered testing, CCF estimators have two kinds of formulas in accordance with the testing schemes. Thus, there are general formulas to estimate the CCF probability on the staggered testing scheme and non-staggered testing scheme. However, in real plant operation, there are many CCCGs with specific mixed testing schemes. Recently, Barros () and Kang () proposed a CCF factor estimation method to reflect the alternate periodic testing scheme and the train level mixed testing scheme. In this paper, a general formula which is applicable to both the alternate periodic testing scheme and the train level mixed testing scheme was derived.
Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack
This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…
Liu, Yuewei; Chen, Weihong
As a nonparametric method, the Kruskal-Wallis test is widely used to compare three or more independent groups when an ordinal or interval level of data is available, especially when the assumptions of analysis of variance (ANOVA) are not met. If the Kruskal-Wallis statistic is statistically significant, Nemenyi test is an alternative method for further pairwise multiple comparisons to locate the source of significance. Unfortunately, most popular statistical packages do not integrate the Nemenyi test, which is not easy to be calculated by hand. We described the theory and applications of the Kruskal-Wallis and Nemenyi tests, and presented a flexible SAS macro to implement the two tests. The SAS macro was demonstrated by two examples from our cohort study in occupational epidemiology. It provides a useful tool for SAS users to test the differences among three or more independent groups using a nonparametric method.
Omega Air, Incorporated, a private organization that provides shipping and transportation services, contracted Marconi Flight Systems, Incorporated, to retrofit a Boeing 707 aircraft with an internal...
Bonanne, Kevin H.
Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging methodology that can be leveraged to enhance many system development processes. MBSE allows for the centralization of an architecture description that would otherwise be stored in various locations and formats, thus simplifying communication among the project stakeholders, inducing commonality in representation, and expediting report generation. This paper outlines the MBSE approach taken to capture the processes of two different, but related, architectures by employing the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) as a standard for architecture description and the modeling tool MagicDraw. The overarching goal of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of MBSE as a means of capturing and designing a mission systems architecture. The first portion of the project focused on capturing the necessary system engineering activities that occur when designing, developing, and deploying a mission systems architecture for a space mission. The second part applies activities from the first to an application problem - the system engineering of the Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT-1) End-to-End Information System (EEIS). By modeling the activities required to create a space mission architecture and then implementing those activities in an application problem, the utility of MBSE as an approach to systems engineering can be demonstrated.
This thesis presents the development and test of a free-streaming readout chain for the Time of Flight (TOF) Wall of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment. In order to contribute to the exploration of the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter, CBM aims at the measurement of rare probes, whose yields and phase space distributions are significantly influenced by their environment. Many of the possible signals, of which the antiprotons was investigated within this thesis, require an excellent Particle Identification (PID) and a new readout paradigm called free-streaming. In CBM, the PID for charged particles is provided by a TOF wall based on Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC). Within the thesis, a central component of the TOF readout chain, the free-streaming ASIC-TDC, was evaluated and pushed from the prototype level to a close to final design, for which it could be demonstrated that it fulfill all the CBM requirements: resolution, rate capability and stability. Additionally, the CBM TOF software in the CBMROOT software framework was reorganized to merge the processing and analysis of real and simulated data. A data unpacker and a realistic digitizer were implemented with a common output data format. The digitizer was used to estimate the data rates and number of components in a free-streaming readout chain for the full wall.
Kelly, Michael J.
The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage (horizontal and vertical tail). This report contains the Appendices to Volume I.
... the relevance, reliability, validity, and effectiveness of the FAA's aeronautical testing and training... Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) Airman Testing Standards and Training Working Group (ATSTWG) AGENCY... Certification Standards (ACS) documents developed by the Airman Testing Standards and Training WG for the...
Molocher, Bernhard; Kaltenecker, Anton; Thum-Jaeger, Andrea; Regensburger, Martin; Formery, Martin
.... FLASH operation is as follows: After handover following an alarm from the missile warning system FLASH enters autonomous passive tracking mode for tracking a missiles and sending a laser beam onto the missile...
Shepherd, O.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Sheehan, W. H.
This is Volume 3 of a three volume final report on the design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 1 describes the design and fabrication of a balloonborne CO2 coherent payload to measure the 10.6 micrometers backscatter from atmospheric aerosols as a function of altitude. Volume 2 describes the Aug. 1987 flight test of Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2. In this volume we describe groundbased lidar development and measurements. A design was developed for installation of the ABLE lidar in the GL rooftop dome. A transportable shed was designed to house the ABLE lidar at the various remote measurement sites. Refurbishment and modification of the ABLE lidar were completed to permit groundbased lidar measurements of clouds and aerosols. Lidar field measurements were made at Ascension Island during SABLE 89. Lidar field measurements were made at Terciera, Azores during GABLE 90. These tasks were successfully completed, and recommendations for further lidar measurements and data analysis were made.
De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Florio, Ada R; Posteraro, Patrizia; Perlin, David S; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was evaluated for testing susceptibility to caspofungin of wild-type and fks mutant isolates of Candida and Aspergillus. Complete essential agreement was observed with the CLSI reference method, with categorical agreement for 94.1% of the Candida isolates tested. Thus, MALDI-TOF MS is a reliable and accurate method to detect fungal isolates with reduced caspofungin susceptibility.
De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Florio, Ada R.; Posteraro, Patrizia; Perlin, David S.; Posteraro, Brunella
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was evaluated for testing susceptibility to caspofungin of wild-type and fks mutant isolates of Candida and Aspergillus. Complete essential agreement was observed with the CLSI reference method, with categorical agreement for 94.1% of the Candida isolates tested. Thus, MALDI-TOF MS is a reliable and accurate method to detect fungal isolates with reduced caspofungin susceptibility. PMID:22535984
Panini, G.C.; Siciliano, F.; Lioi, A.
The main characteristics of a P 3 coupled 219-group neutron 36-group gamma-ray library in the AMPX-II Master Interface Format obtained processing ENDF/B-IV data by means of various AMPX-II System modules are presented in this note both for the more reprocessing aspects and features of the generated component files-neutrons, photon and secondary gamma-ray production cross sections. As far as the neutron data are concerned there is the avaibility of 186 data sets regarding most significant fission products. Results of the additional validation of the neutron data pertaining to eighteen benchmark experiments are also given. Some calculational tests on both neutron and coupled data emphasize the important role of the secondary gamma-ray data in nuclear criticality safety calculations
Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.
.A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.
This report presents the test plan for developing, conducting, and analyzing surveys, interviews, and focus groups for evaluating the Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Prog...
Martin, P. J.
A program to identify surplus solid rocket propellant engines which would be available for a program of functional integrity testing was conducted. The engines are classified as: (1) upper stage and apogee engines, (2) sounding rocket and launch vehicle engines, and (3) jato, sled, and tactical engines. Nearly all the engines were available because their age exceeds the warranted shelf life. The preference for testing included tests at nominal flight conditions, at design limits, and to establish margin limits. The principal failure modes of interest were case bond separation and grain bore cracking. Data concerning the identification and characteristics of each engine are tabulated. Methods for conducting the tests are described.
Bull, John; Mah, Robert; Hardy, Gordon; Sullivan, Barry; Jones, Jerry; Williams, Diane; Soukup, Paul; Winters, Jose
Partial failures of aircraft primary flight control systems and structural damages to aircraft during flight have led to catastrophic accidents with subsequent loss of lives (e.g. DC-10, B-747, C-5, B-52, and others). Following the DC-10 accident at Sioux City, Iowa in 1989, the National Transportation Safety Board recommended 'Encourage research and development of backup flight control systems for newly certified wide-body airplanes that utilize an alternate source of motive power separate from that source used for the conventional control system.' This report describes the concept of a propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), discusses pilot controls, displays, and procedures; and presents the results of a PCA piloted simulation test and evaluation of the B747-400 airplane conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in December, 1996. The purpose of the test was to develop and evaluate propulsion control throughout the full flight envelope of the B747-400 including worst case scenarios of engine failures and out of trim moments. Pilot ratings of PCA performance ranged from adequate to satisfactory. PCA performed well in unusual attitude recoveries at 35,000 ft altitude, performed well in fully coupled ILS approaches, performed well in single engine failures, and performed well at aft cg. PCA performance was primarily limited by out-of-trim moments.
Wijdenes-Pijl, Miranda; Dondorp, Wybo J; Timmermans, Danielle Rm; Cornel, Martina C; Henneman, Lidewij
This study assessed lay perceptions of issues related to predictive genetic testing for multifactorial diseases. These perceived issues may differ from the "classic" issues, e.g. autonomy, discrimination, and psychological harm that are considered important in predictive testing for monogenic disorders. In this study, type 2 diabetes was used as an example, and perceptions with regard to predictive testing based on DNA test results and family history assessment were compared. Eight focus group interviews were held with 45 individuals aged 35-70 years with (n = 3) and without (n = 1) a family history of diabetes, mixed groups of these two (n = 2), and diabetes patients (n = 2). All interviews were transcribed and analysed using Atlas-ti. Most participants believed in the ability of a predictive test to identify people at risk for diabetes and to motivate preventive behaviour. Different reasons underlying motivation were considered when comparing DNA test results and a family history risk assessment. A perceived drawback of DNA testing was that diabetes was considered not severe enough for this type of risk assessment. In addition, diabetes family history assessment was not considered useful by some participants, since there are also other risk factors involved, not everyone has a diabetes family history or knows their family history, and it might have a negative influence on family relations. Respect for autonomy of individuals was emphasized more with regard to DNA testing than family history assessment. Other issues such as psychological harm, discrimination, and privacy were only briefly mentioned for both tests. The results suggest that most participants believe a predictive genetic test could be used in the prevention of multifactorial disorders, such as diabetes, but indicate points to consider before both these tests are applied. These considerations differ with regard to the method of assessment (DNA test or obtaining family history) and also differ from
Cornel Martina C
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed lay perceptions of issues related to predictive genetic testing for multifactorial diseases. These perceived issues may differ from the "classic" issues, e.g. autonomy, discrimination, and psychological harm that are considered important in predictive testing for monogenic disorders. In this study, type 2 diabetes was used as an example, and perceptions with regard to predictive testing based on DNA test results and family history assessment were compared. Methods Eight focus group interviews were held with 45 individuals aged 35-70 years with (n = 3 and without (n = 1 a family history of diabetes, mixed groups of these two (n = 2, and diabetes patients (n = 2. All interviews were transcribed and analysed using Atlas-ti. Results Most participants believed in the ability of a predictive test to identify people at risk for diabetes and to motivate preventive behaviour. Different reasons underlying motivation were considered when comparing DNA test results and a family history risk assessment. A perceived drawback of DNA testing was that diabetes was considered not severe enough for this type of risk assessment. In addition, diabetes family history assessment was not considered useful by some participants, since there are also other risk factors involved, not everyone has a diabetes family history or knows their family history, and it might have a negative influence on family relations. Respect for autonomy of individuals was emphasized more with regard to DNA testing than family history assessment. Other issues such as psychological harm, discrimination, and privacy were only briefly mentioned for both tests. Conclusion The results suggest that most participants believe a predictive genetic test could be used in the prevention of multifactorial disorders, such as diabetes, but indicate points to consider before both these tests are applied. These considerations differ with regard to the method of assessment
Woods, Carol M.
This research introduces, illustrates, and tests a variation of IRT-LR-DIF, called EH-DIF-2, in which the latent density for each group is estimated simultaneously with the item parameters as an empirical histogram (EH). IRT-LR-DIF is used to evaluate the degree to which items have different measurement properties for one group of people versus…
Mitze, Timo; Reinkowski, Janina
as for age-group specific estimates. Thereby, the impact of labor market signals is tested to be of greatest magnitude for workforce relevant age-groups and especially young cohorts between 18 to 25 and 25 to 30 years. This latter result underlines the prominent role played by labor market conditions...
Ramirez, Amelie G; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J; Muñoz, Edgar; Holden, Alan E; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Smith, Selina A; Wong-Kim, Evaon; Wyatt, Stephen W; Suarez, Lucina
This study examined interest in and attitudes toward genetic testing in 5 different population groups. The survey included African American, Asian American, Latina, Native American, and Appalachian women with varying familial histories of breast cancer. A total of 49 women were interviewed in person. Descriptive and nonparametric statistical techniques were used to assess ethnic group differences. Overall, interest in testing was high. All groups endorsed more benefits than risks. There were group differences regarding endorsement of specific benefits and risks: testing to "follow doctor recommendations" (p=0.017), "concern for effects on family" (p=0.044), "distrust of modern medicine" (p=0.036), "cost" (p=0.025), and "concerns about communication of results to others" (p=0.032). There was a significant inverse relationship between interest and genetic testing cost (p<0.050), with the exception of Latinas, who showed the highest level of interest regardless of increasing cost. Cost may be an important barrier to obtaining genetic testing services, and participants would benefit by genetic counseling that incorporates the unique cultural values and beliefs of each group to create an individualized, culturally competent program. Further research about attitudes toward genetic testing is needed among Asian Americans, Native Americans, and Appalachians for whom data are severely lacking. Future study of the different Latina perceptions toward genetic testing are encouraged.
Full Text Available Providing cognitive challenges to zoo-housed animals may provide enriching effects and subsequently enhance their welfare. Primates may benefit most from such challenges as they often face complex problems in their natural environment and can be observed to seek problem solving opportunities in captivity. However, the extent to which welfare benefits can be achieved through programmes developed primarily for cognitive research is unknown. We tested the impact of voluntary participation cognitive testing on the welfare of a socially housed group of crested macaques (Macaca nigra at the Macaque Study Centre (Marwell Zoo. First, we compared the rate of self-directed and social behaviours on testing and non-testing days, and between conditions within testing days. Minimal differences in behaviour were found when comparing testing and non-testing days, suggesting that there was no negative impact on welfare as a result of cognitive testing. Lipsmacking behaviours were found to increase and aggressive interaction was found to decrease in the group as a result of testing. Second, social network analysis was used to assess the effect of testing on associations and interactions between individuals. The social networks showed that testing subjects increased their association with others during testing days. One interpretation of this finding could be that providing socially housed primates with an opportunity for individuals to separate from the group for short periods could help mimic natural patterns of sub-group formation and reunion in captivity. The findings suggest, therefore, that the welfare of captive primates can be improved through the use of cognitive testing in zoo environments.
Friis, Susanne Lunøe; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Simonsen, Bo Thisted
Annually, members of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics are invited to participate in a Relationship Testing Workshop. In 2015, 64 laboratories participated. Here, we present the results from the 2015 workshop, which included relationship testing...
Woods, Carol M.
Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test or questionnaire has different measurement properties for 1 group of people versus another, irrespective of mean differences on the construct. This study focuses on the use of multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) structural equation models for DIF testing, parameterized as item…
The twin pusher propeller-driven engines of the Theseus research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken during a 1996 research flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite
Acar, Elif F.; Sun, Lei
Motivated by genetic association studies of SNPs with genotype uncertainty, we propose a generalization of the Kruskal-Wallis test that incorporates group uncertainty when comparing k samples. The extended test statistic is based on probability-weighted rank-sums and follows an asymptotic chi-square distribution with k-1 degrees of freedom under the null hypothesis. Simulation studies confirm the validity and robustness of the proposed test in finite samples. Application to a genome-wide asso...
The Daedalus 88, with Glenn Tremml piloting, is seen here on its last flight for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an
pseudorange measurement, ρi p denotes the geometric distance between the stations and satellite, dti denotes the receiver’s clock offsets, di p, denotes the...the DGPS data quality. For this purpose a number of over-sea flight legs were included in the trials. The ASHTECH DGPS altitude data output was both...12 where a short leg of a flight trial is represented (the full horizontal track is shown in Figure C-13). Figure C-12: Latitude Error (TANS – 3
Zug, Kathryn A; Pham, Anh Khoa; Belsito, Donald V; DeKoven, Joel G; DeLeo, Vincent A; Fowler, Joseph F; Fransway, Anthony F; Maibach, Howard I; Marks, James G; Mathias, C G Toby; Pratt, Melanie D; Sasseville, Denis; Storrs, Frances J; Taylor, James S; Warshaw, Erin M; Zirwas, Matthew J
Allergic contact dermatitis is common in children. Epicutaneous patch testing is an important tool for identifying responsible allergens. The objective of this study was to provide the patch test results from children (aged ≤18 years) examined by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group from 2005 to 2012. This is a retrospective analysis of children patch-tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 65- or 70-allergen series. Frequencies and counts were compared with previously published data (2001-2004) using χ statistics. A total of 883 children were tested during the study period. A percentage of 62.3% had ≥1 positive patch test and 56.7% had ≥1 relevant positive patch test. Frequencies of positive patch test and relevant positive patch test reaction were highest with nickel sulfate (28.1/25.6), cobalt chloride (12.3/9.1), neomycin sulfate (7.1/6.6), balsam of Peru (5.7/5.5), and lanolin alcohol 50% petrolatum vehicle (5.5/5.1). The ≥1 positive patch test and ≥1 relevant positive patch test in the children did not differ significantly from adults (≥19 years) or from previously tested children (2001-2004). The percentage of clinically relevant positive patch tests for 27 allergens differed significantly between the children and adults. A total of 23.6% of children had a relevant positive reaction to at least 1 supplemental allergen. Differences in positive patch test and relevant positive patch test frequencies between children and adults as well as test periods confirm the importance of reporting periodic updates of patch testing in children to enhance clinicians' vigilance to clinically important allergens.
Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal
Many applications of small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) have been envisioned. These include surveillance of key assets such as pipelines, rail, or electric wires, deliveries, search and rescue, traffic monitoring, videography, and precision agriculture. These operations are likely to occur in the same airspace in the presence of many static and dynamic constraints such as airports, and high wind areas. Therefore, operations of small UAS need to be managed to ensure safety and operation efficiency is maintained. NASA has advanced a concept for UAS Traffic Management (UTM) and has initiated a research effort to refine that concept and develop operational and system requirements. A UTM research platform is in development and flight test activities to evaluate core functions and key assumptions focusing exclusively on UAS operations in different environments are underway. This seminar will present lessons learned from a recent flight test focused on enabling operations of multiple UAS in lower-risk environments within and beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS).
Charles, J. B.; Stenger, M. B.; Phillips, T. R.; Arzeno, N. M.; Lee, S. M. C.
Introduction. We investigated the efficacy of combining fluid loading with sustained lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to reverse orthostatic intolerance associated with weightlessness during and immediately after Space Shuttle missions. Methods. Shuttle astronauts (n=13) underwent 4 hours of LBNP at -30 mm(Hg) and ingested water and salt ( soak treatment) during flight in two complementary studies. In the first study (n=8), pre-flight heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to an LBNP ramp (5-min stages of -10 mm(Hg) steps to -50 mm(Hg) were compared to responses in-flight one and two days after LBNP soak treatment. In the second study (n=5), the soak was performed 24 hr before landing, and post-flight stand test results of soak subjects were compared with those of an untreated cohort (n=7). In both studies, the soak was scheduled late in the mission and was preceded by LBNP ramp tests at approximately 3-day intervals to document the in-flight loss of orthostatic tolerance. Results. Increased HR and decreased BP responses to LBNP were evident early in-flight. In-flight, one day after LBNP soak, HR and BP responses to LBNP were not different from pre-flight, but the effect was absent the second day after treatment. Post-flight there were no between-group differences in HR and BP responses to standing, but all 5 treatment subjects completed the 5-minute stand test whereas 2 of 7 untreated cohort subjects did not. Discussion. Exaggerated HR and BP responses to LBNP were evident within the first few days of space flight, extending results from Skylab. The combined LBNP and fluid ingestion countermeasure restored in-flight LBNP HR and BP responses to pre-flight levels and provided protection of post-landing orthostatic function. Unfortunately, any benefits of the combined countermeasure were offset by the complexity of its implementation, making it inappropriate for routine application during Shuttle flights.
Griner, James H.
NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. This prototype radio is being used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current status of the prototype radio development, and results from phase 1 flight tests conducted during 2013.
Christophersen, J; Menné, T; Tanghøj, P
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of individual explanatory factors, such as sex, age, atopy, test time and presence of diseased skin, on clinical patch test results, by application of multivariate statistical analysis. The study population was 2166 consecutive patients...... patch tested with the standard series of the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) by members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group (DCDG) over a period of 6 months. For the 8 test allergens most often found positive (nickel, fragrance-mix, cobalt, chromate, balsam of Peru, carba......-mix, colophony, and formaldehyde), one or more individual factors were of significance for the risk of being sensitized, except for chromate and formaldehyde. It is concluded that patch test results can be compared only after stratification of the material or by multivariate analysis....
Vecellio, Elia; Georgiou, Andrew; Toouli, George; Eigenstetter, Alex; Li, Ling; Wilson, Roger; Westbrook, Johanna I
Electronic test ordering, via the Electronic Medical Record (EMR), which incorporates computerised provider order entry (CPOE), is widely considered as a useful tool to support appropriate pathology test ordering. Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) are clinically meaningful categories that allow comparisons in pathology utilisation by patient groups by controlling for many potentially confounding variables. This study used DRG data linked to pathology test data to examine changes in rates of test ordering across four years coinciding with the introduction of an EMR in six hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. This method generated a list of high pathology utilisation DRGs. We investigated patients with a Chest pain DRG to examine whether tests rates changed for specific test groups by hospital emergency department (ED) pre- and post-EMR. There was little change in testing rates between EDs or between time periods pre- and post-EMR. This is a valuable method for monitoring the impact of EMR and clinical decision support on test order rates.
Smith, Charles C., Jr.
An experimental investigation has been made to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/5-scale flying model of a jet-powered vertical-attitude VTOL research airplane in hovering and transition flight. The model was powered with either a hydrogen peroxide rocket motor or a compressed-air jet exhausting through an ejector tube to simulate the turbojet engine of the airplane. The gyroscopic effects of the engine were simulated by a flywheel driven by compressed-air jets. In hovering flight the model was controlled by jet-reaction controls which consisted of a swiveling nozzle on the main jet and a movable nozzle on each wing tip; and in forward flight the model was controlled by elevons and a rudder. If the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were not represented, the model could be flown satisfactorily in hovering flight without any automatic stabilization devices. When the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were represented, however, the model could not be controlled without the aid of artificial stabilizing devices because of the gyroscopic coupling of the yawing and pitching motions. The use of pitch and yaw dampers made these motions completely stable and the model could then be controlled very easily. In the transition flight tests, which were performed only with the automatic pitch and yaw dampers operating, it was found that the transition was very easy to perform either with or without the engine gyroscopic effects simulated, although the model had a tendency to fly in a rolled and sideslipped attitude at angles of attack between approximately 25 deg and 45 deg because of static directional instability in this range.
Goswami, Gour Gobinda; Hossain, Mohammad Zariab
Testing purchasing power parity (PPP) using black market exchange rate data has gained popularity in recent times. It is claimed that black market exchange rate data more often support the PPP than the official exchange rate data. In this study, to assess both the long run stability of exchange rate and the short run dynamics, we employ Pooled Mean Group (PMG) Estimation developed by Pesaran et al. (1999) on eight groups of countries based on different criteria. Using the famous Reinhart and ...
This article is intended to show the important considerations, which led to the development of the multichannel group radiator technique. Trends in development and the advantages and disadvantages of the different possibilities are introduced, against the background of experience now available for these configurative variants of ultrasonic test heads. For this reason, a series of experiences and arguments is reported, from the point of view of the developer of the multi-channel group radiator technique. (orig./HP) [de
Tandon, A.; Shahzad, K.; Nunes, Q.; Shrotri, M.; Lunevicius, R.
Background: Although the practice of preoperative testing of ABO group and Rh (D) type for elective cholecystectomy has deep historical roots, it is not evidence-based. We aimed to assess the preoperative blood group and save testing practice for a cohort of patients subjected to elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis between January 2010 and October 2014. Methods: National Health Service (NHS) hospital based, surgical procedure-specific, retrospective study was conducted. A final group consisted of 2,079 adult patients. We estimated the incidence of perioperative blood transfusion attributable to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The results of eight other studies are presented. Results: A preoperative blood group and save test was performed in 907 patients (43.6%), whereas cross-matching was documented in 28 patients (3.1%). None required an intraoperative blood transfusion. Twelve patients (0.58%) underwent blood transfusion postoperatively following laparoscopic cholecystectomy, of which ten were transfused due to severe intra-abdominal bleeding (0.48%). There were no deaths. Conclusions: The likelihood of blood transfusion attributable to elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy is 1:200. A routine preoperative blood group and save testing is unnecessary. It neither alters the management of severe hypovolemia, secondary to perioperative bleeding, nor does it lead to better outcomes. (author)
Acar, Elif F; Sun, Lei
Motivated by genetic association studies of SNPs with genotype uncertainty, we propose a generalization of the Kruskal-Wallis test that incorporates group uncertainty when comparing k samples. The extended test statistic is based on probability-weighted rank-sums and follows an asymptotic chi-square distribution with k - 1 degrees of freedom under the null hypothesis. Simulation studies confirm the validity and robustness of the proposed test in finite samples. Application to a genome-wide association study of type 1 diabetic complications further demonstrates the utilities of this generalized Kruskal-Wallis test for studies with group uncertainty. The method has been implemented as an open-resource R program, GKW. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.
Katsuichirou Hijikata; Hideo Tanaka; Takayuki Hashimoto; Kazushige Fujiwara; Yuji Miyamoto; Osamu Kontani
Extensive vibration tests have been performed on pile-supported structures at a large-scale mining site. Ground motions induced by large-scale blasting operations were used as excitation forces for vibration tests. The main objective of this research is to investigate the dynamic behavior of pile-supported structures, in particular, pile-group effects. Two test structures were constructed in an excavated 4 m deep pit. Their test-structures were exactly the same. One structure had 25 steel piles and the other had 4 piles. The test pit was backfilled with sand of appropriate grain size distributions to obtain good compaction, especially between the 25 piles. Accelerations were measured at the structures, in the test pit and in the adjacent free field, and pile strains were measured. Dynamic modal tests of the pile-supported structures and PS measurements of the test pit were performed before and after the vibration tests to detect changes in the natural frequencies of the soil-pile-structure systems and the soil stiffness. The vibration tests were performed six times with different levels of input motions. The maximum horizontal acceleration recorded at the adjacent ground surface varied from 57 cm/s 2 to 1,683 cm/s 2 according to the distances between the test site and the blast areas. (authors)
The purpose of the established verification system is to provide confidence through adequate monitoring, deter clandestine activities and counteract 'false arms'. The task og the Group of Scientific Experts was to design and test the seismic verification system including designing og the international system, sharing knowledge from national programs, encouraging establishment of new monitoring facilities, development of data analysis procedures, conducting large scale testing and training of experts
Design, Development and Pre-Flight Testing of the Communications, Navigation, and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (Connect) to Investigate Software Defined Radio Architecture on the International Space Station
Over, Ann P.; Barrett, Michael J.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III
The Communication Navigation and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT) is a NASA-sponsored mission, which will investigate the usage of Software Defined Radios (SDRs) as a multi-function communication system for space missions. A softwaredefined radio system is a communication system in which typical components of the system (e.g., modulators) are incorporated into software. The software-defined capability allows flexibility and experimentation in different modulation, coding and other parameters to understand their effects on performance. This flexibility builds inherent redundancy and flexibility into the system for improved operational efficiency, real-time changes to space missions and enhanced reliability/redundancy. The CoNNeCT Project is a collaboration between industrial radio providers and NASA. The industrial radio providers are providing the SDRs and NASA is designing, building and testing the entire flight system. The flight system will be integrated on the Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) on the International Space Station (ISS) after launch on the H-IIB Transfer Vehicle in 2012. This paper provides an overview of the technology research objectives, payload description, design challenges and pre-flight testing results.
Gardner, William N.; Edmondson, James L.
A flight test was made to determine the servoplane effectiveness and stability characteristics of the free-floating horizontal stabilizer to be used on the XF10F airplane. The results of this test indicate that servoplane effectiveness is practically constant through the speed range up to a Mach number of 1.15, and the stabilizer static stability is satisfactory. A loss of damping occurs over a narrow Mach number range near M = 1.0, resulting in dynamic instability of the stabilizer in this narrow range. Above M = 1.0 there is a gradual positive trim change of the stabilizer.
cylinders is suspected to account for the lateral offset. A simple model of the Magnus effect (ref. 23) indicates that it generates force per...The spin also produced a small but measurable Magnus effect . An extreme cg offset produced stability around small end into the wind. The engine...expected. If we assume the flight data for cable angles are accurate to a fraction of a degree, then a Magnus effect similar to that found for spinning
After several years of research and development the Time-Of-Flight detector of ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) has been constructed and is presently fully installed and operative in the experimental area located at the interaction point n.2 of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN. Particle identification in ALICE is essential, as many observables are either mass or flavour dependent, therefore many different techniques are used to cover the largest possible momentum range. As said, the TOF (Time- Of-Flight) detector, of which a comprehensive review is given in Chapter 2, is dedicated to hadron identification at medium momenta. The detector exploits the novel technology based on the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) which guarantees the excellent performance required for a very large time-of-flight array. The construction of the ALICE TOF detector has required the assembly of a large number of MRPC detectors which has been successfully carried out thanks to a careful mass production controlled...
Full Text Available Sensor data-based test selection optimization is the basis for designing a test work, which ensures that the system is tested under the constraint of the conventional indexes such as fault detection rate (FDR and fault isolation rate (FIR. From the perspective of equipment maintenance support, the ambiguity isolation has a significant effect on the result of test selection. In this paper, an improved test selection optimization model is proposed by considering the ambiguity degree of fault isolation. In the new model, the fault test dependency matrix is adopted to model the correlation between the system fault and the test group. The objective function of the proposed model is minimizing the test cost with the constraint of FDR and FIR. The improved chaotic discrete particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is adopted to solve the improved test selection optimization model. The new test selection optimization model is more consistent with real complicated engineering systems. The experimental result verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Askins, B. R.; Davis, S. R.; Heitzman, K. S.; Olsen, R. A.
On October 28, 2009 the Ares I-X flight test rocket launched from Kennedy Space Center and flew its suborbital trajectory as designed. The mission was successfully completed as data from the test, and associated development activities were analyzed, transferred to stakeholders, and well documented. A positive lesson learned from Ares I-X was that the application of lean thinking principles and kaizen practices was very effective in streamlining development activities. Ares I-X, like other historical rocket development projects, was hampered by technical, cost, and schedule challenges and if not addressed boldly could have resulted in cancellation of the test. The mission management team conducted nine major meetings, referred to as lean events, across its elements to assess plans, procedures, processes, requirements, controls, culture, organization, use of resources, and anything that could be changed to optimize schedule or reduce risk. The preeminent aspect of the lean events was the focus on value added activities and the removal or at least reduction in non-value added activities. Trained Lean Six Sigma facilitators assisted the Ares I-X developers in conducting the lean events. They indirectly helped formulate the mission s own unique methodology for assessing schedule. A core team was selected to lead the events and report to the mission manager. Each activity leveraged specialized participants to analyze the subject matter and its related processes and then recommended alternatives and solutions. Stakeholders were the event champions. They empowered and encouraged the team to succeed. The keys to success were thorough preparation, honest dialog, small groups, adherence to the Ares I-X ground rules, and accountability through disciplined reporting and tracking of actions. This lean event formula was game-changing as demonstrated by Ares I-X. It is highly recommended as a management tool to help develop other complex systems efficiently. The key benefits for
... Mfg & NOES (number based criteria based criteria significant chemicals (lbs) industrial of workers... 2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals AGENCY... section 4(a)(1)(B) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to require manufacturers, importers, and...
Pijls, M.; de Kramer, D.; Maj, B.; Pytlak, M.; Swoboda, E.
In an explorative research project, teachers experimented with new ideas to make their students discuss (i.e. show, explain, justify and reconstruct their work) their mathematical ideas with each other. Two kind of special tasks were developed: group tests and mind maps. Also, the role of the
In this study, the aim was to construct a significant structural measurement model comparing students' affective characteristics with their mathematic achievement. According to this model, the aim was to test the measurement invariances between gender sub-groups hierarchically. This study was conducted as basic and descriptive research. Secondary…
M.M.H. Strating (Mathilde); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
textabstractAbstract OBJECTIVE: To test to what extent the four-factor structure of the group innovation inventory (GII) is confirmed for improvement teams participating in a quality improvement collaborative. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental design with baseline and end-measurement after
Full Text Available The Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT is a new test designed to assess the tone identification abilities of children with hearing impairment (HI. Evidence for reliability and sensitivity has been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the known-groups and concurrent validity of the MTIT.The MTIT and Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility test (MPSI were administered in quiet and in noise conditions. The known-groups validity was evaluated by comparing the performance of the MTIT on children with two different levels of HI. The MPSI was included to evaluate the concurrent validity of the MTIT.81 children with HI were recruited in the present study. They were Mandarin-speaking children with profound HI (mean age = 9; 0, n = 41 and with moderate to severe HI (mean age = 8; 9, n = 40.Scores on the MTIT differed between the two groups with different hearing levels suggesting good known-groups validity. A strong relationship between tone and sentence perception both in quiet and in noise provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity.The present study confirmed that the MTIT has good known-groups validity and provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity. The MTIT could be used to evaluate tone identification ability in children with HI with confidence.
Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Hickerton, Chriselle; Savard, Jacqueline; Terrill, Bronwyn; Turbitt, Erin; Gaff, Clara; Gray, Kathleen; Middleton, Anna; Wilson, Brenda; Newson, Ainsley J
Personal genomic testing provides healthy individuals with access to information about their genetic makeup for purposes including ancestry, paternity, sporting ability and health. Such tests are available commercially and globally, with accessibility expected to continue to grow, including in Australia; yet little is known of the views/expectations of Australians. Focus groups were conducted within a multi-stage, cross-disciplinary project (Genioz) to explore this. In mid-2015, 56 members of the public participated in seven focus groups, allocated into three age groups: 18-24, 25-49, and ≥50 years. Three researchers coded transcripts independently and generated themes. Awareness of personal genomic testing was low, but most could deduce what "personal genomics" might entail. Very few had heard of the term "direct-to-consumer" testing, which has implications for organisations developing information to support individuals in their decision-making. Participants' understanding of genetics was varied and drawn from several sources. There were diverse perceptions of the relative influence of genetics and environment on health, mental health, behavior, talent, or personality. Views about having a personal genomic test were mixed, with greater interest in health-related tests if they believed there was a reason for doing so. However, many expressed scepticisms about the types of tests available, and how the information might be used; concerns were also raised about privacy and the potential for discrimination. These exploratory findings inform subsequent stages of the Genioz study, thereby contributing to strategies of supporting Australians to understand and make meaningful and well-considered decisions about the benefits, harms, and implications of personal genomic tests.
Kassavou, Aikaterini; Turner, Andrew; Hamborg, Thomas; French, David P
Little is known about the processes and factors that account for maintenance, with several theories existing that have not been subject to many empirical tests. The aim of this study was to test how well theoretical constructs derived from the Health Action Process Approach, Rothman's theory of maintenance, and Verplanken's approach to habitual behavior predicted maintenance of attendance at walking groups. 114 participants, who had already attended walking groups in the community for at least 3 months, completed a questionnaire assessing theoretical constructs regarding maintenance. An objective assessment of attendance over the subsequent 3 months was gained. Multilevel modeling was used to predict maintenance, controlling for clustering within walking groups. Recovery self-efficacy predicted maintenance, even after accounting for clustering. Satisfaction with social outcomes, satisfaction with health outcomes, and overall satisfaction predicted maintenance, but only satisfaction with health outcomes significantly predicted maintenance after accounting for clustering. Self-reported habitual behavior did not predict maintenance despite mean previous attendance being 20.7 months. Recovery self-efficacy, and satisfaction with health outcomes of walking group attendance appeared to be important for objectively measured maintenance, whereas self-reported habit appeared not to be important for maintenance at walking groups. The findings suggest that there is a need for intervention studies to boost recovery self-efficacy and satisfaction with outcomes of walking group attendance, to assess impact on maintenance.
Keefe, Douglas H; Archer, Kelly L; Schmid, Kendra K; Fitzpatrick, Denis F; Feeney, M Patrick; Hunter, Lisa L
Otosclerosis is a progressive middle-ear disease that affects conductive transmission through the middle ear. Ear-canal acoustic tests may be useful in the diagnosis of conductive disorders. This study addressed the degree to which results from a battery of ear-canal tests, which include wideband reflectance, acoustic stapedius muscle reflex threshold (ASRT), and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), were effective in quantifying a risk of otosclerosis and in evaluating middle-ear function in ears after surgical intervention for otosclerosis. To evaluate the ability of the test battery to classify ears as normal or otosclerotic, measure the accuracy of reflectance in classifying ears as normal or otosclerotic, and evaluate the similarity of responses in normal ears compared with ears after surgical intervention for otosclerosis. A quasi-experimental cross-sectional study incorporating case control was used. Three groups were studied: one diagnosed with otosclerosis before corrective surgery, a group that received corrective surgery for otosclerosis, and a control group. The test groups included 23 ears (13 right and 10 left) with normal hearing from 16 participants (4 male and 12 female), 12 ears (7 right and 5 left) diagnosed with otosclerosis from 9 participants (3 male and 6 female), and 13 ears (4 right and 9 left) after surgical intervention from 10 participants (2 male and 8 female). Participants received audiometric evaluations and clinical immittance testing. Experimental tests performed included ASRT tests with wideband reference signal (0.25-8 kHz), reflectance tests (0.25-8 kHz), which were parameterized by absorbance and group delay at ambient pressure and at swept tympanometric pressures, and TEOAE tests using chirp stimuli (1-8 kHz). ASRTs were measured in ipsilateral and contralateral conditions using tonal and broadband noise activators. Experimental ASRT tests were based on the difference in wideband-absorbed sound power before and after
International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance
Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.
As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.
Walker, Salma C.; Rachmeler, Laurel; Winebarger, Amy; Champey, Patrick; Bethge, Christian
To unveil the complexity of the solar atmosphere, measurement of the magnetic field in the upper chromosphere and transition region is fundamentally important, as this is where the forces transition from plasma to magnetic field dominated. Measurements of the field are also needed to elucidate the energy transport from the lower atmospheric regions to the corona beyond. Such an advance in heliospheric knowledge became possible with the first flight of the international solar sounding rocket mission, CLASP. For the first time, linear polarization was measured in Hydrogen Lyman-Alpha at 121.60 nm in September 2015. For linear polarization measurements in this emission line, high sensitivity is required due to the relatively weak polarization signal compared to the intensity. To achieve this high sensitivity, a low-noise sensor is required with good knowledge of its characterization, including linearity. This work presents further refinement of the linearity characterization of the cameras flown in 2015. We compared the current from a photodiode in the light path to the digital response of the detectors. Pre-flight CCD linearity measurements were taken for all three flight cameras and calculations of the linear fits and residuals were performed. However, the previous calculations included a smearing pattern and a digital saturation region on the detectors which were not properly taken into account. The calculations have been adjusted and were repeated for manually chosen sub-regions on the detectors that were found not to be affected. We present a brief overview of the instrument, the calibration data and procedures, and a comparison of the old and new linearity results. The CLASP cameras will be reused for the successor mission, CLASP2, which will measure the Magnesium II h & k emission lines between 279.45 nm and 280.35 nm. The new approach will help to better prepare for and to improve the camera characterization for CLASP2.
Walker, S. C.; Rachmeler, L.; Winebarger, A. R.; Champey, P. R.; Bethge, C.
To unveil the complexity of the solar atmosphere, measurement of the magnetic field in the upper chromosphere and transition region is fundamentally important, as this is where the forces transition from plasma to magnetic field dominated. Measurements of the field are also needed to shed light on the energy transport from the lower atmospheric regions to the corona beyond. Such an advance in heliospheric knowledge became possible with the first flight of the international solar sounding rocket mission, CLASP. For the first time, linear polarization was measured in H Lyman-Alpha at 121.60 nm in September 2015. For linear polarization measurements in this line, high sensitivity is required due to the relatively weak polarization signal compared to the intensity. To achieve this high sensitivity, a low-noise sensor is required with good knowledge of its characterization, including linearity. This work presents further refinement of the linearity characterization of the cameras flown in 2015. We compared the current from a photodiode in the light path to the digital response of the detectors. Pre-flight CCD linearity measurements were taken for all three flight cameras and calculations of the linear fits and residuals were performed. However, the previous calculations included a smearing pattern and a digital saturation region on the detectors which were not properly taken into account. The calculations have been adjusted and were repeated for manually chosen sub-regions on the detectors that were found not to be affected. We present a brief overview of the instrument, the calibration data and procedures, and a comparison of the old and new linearity results. The CLASP cameras will be reused for the successor mission, CLASP2, which will measure the Mg II h & k lines between 279.45 nm and 280.35 nm. The new approach will help to better prepare for and to improve the camera characterization for CLASP2.
Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.
A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups - bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2) - are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467
Pivetti, Monica; Montali, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Giorgia
This study explores the underlying values and beliefs that guide women's reasoning on prenatal genetic test (PGT) uptake, as framed by their own words, during a group discussion, in a Catholic country such as Italy. Women's reasoning was explored by means of five focus group consisting of seven pregnant women and 13 new mothers. The focus group material content was analysed using the Nudist software. The discourse around PGT was rooted into four frames of reference: The usefulness dimension was used to express the positions in favour of PGT, whereas morality, risk and trust were used to express negative evaluations on such a technology. Participants advocated for themselves the choice of being tested, besides giving some credit to the partner's opinion. Moreover, participants reported little knowledge on PGT. The research shed some light on the frames of reference used by participants to build their positions on PGT uptake, confirming the public's ability to translate scientific accounts into personally meaningful information. A more complete understanding of the reasons for decisions to test would help counsellors to better communicate with women and couples, and to better assist them to make a better informed testing decision. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Moen, Johannes K.
1. A skin test with a crude bacterial extract prepared from group C (Lancefield) hemolytic streptococci was used as a means of detecting possible carriers of the streptococcus causing epizootic lymphadenitis in guinea pigs. A positive test similar to a positive tuberculin reaction was considered presumptive evidence of present or recent infection with this streptococcus. 2. 20 positive reactors were found in 330 supposedly normal guinea pigs. 3. 195 negatively reacting animals were used as a breeding stock which yielded 1,296 progeny over a period of 15 months. None of the breeding stock or their progeny showed evidence of spontaneous lymphadenitis. Skin tests of 100 of the progeny were all negative. 4. The use of this skin test as a means of obtaining guinea pig breeding stock free of the streptococcus causing spontaneous lymphadenitis is suggested. PMID:19870552
Morita, Yasuji; Yamaguchi, Isoo; Fujiwara, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Mizoguchi, Kenichi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kubota, Masumitsu [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)
The 4-Group Partitioning Process was tested in the Partitioning Test Facility installed in a hot cell at NUCEF (Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility) using simulated high-level liquid waste (HLLW) or the simulated HLLW added with a small amount of real HLLW and Tc. Behavior of each element was examined in a series of the following separation steps: pretreatment for HLLW to prepare the feed solution to extraction step, extraction with diisodecylphosphoric acid for the separation of transuranium elements, precipitation by denitration and adsorption step with active carbon for the separation of Tc and platinum group metals, and adsorption with inorganic ion exchangers for the separation of Sr and Cs. It was confined that each element behaved as expected. More than 99.99% of Am were extracted with DIDPA and 99.92% of Am were back-extracted with 4 M nitric acid. In the precipitation step by denitration, ratio of Tc precipitated was 96.2%. The present tests confined the expected performance of each equipment in the Partitioning Test Facility for the separation of elements and gave useful data for the comparison of element behavior with a result of a partitioning test using real HLLW. (author)
Hearin, Andrew P.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Newman, Jeffrey A.
We construct mock catalogs of galaxy groups using subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) and undertake several new tests of the SHAM prescription for the galaxy-dark matter connection. All SHAM models we studied exhibit significant tension with galaxy groups observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The SHAM prediction for the field galaxy luminosity function (LF) is systematically too dim, and the group galaxy LF systematically too bright, regardless of the details of the SHAM prescription. SHAM models connecting r-band luminosity, Mr, to Vacc, the maximum circular velocity of a subhalo at the time of accretion onto the host, faithfully reproduce galaxy group abundance as a function of richness, g(N). However, SHAM models connecting Mr with Vpeak, the peak value of Vmax over the entire merger history of the halo, over-predict galaxy group abundance. Our results suggest that no SHAM model can simultaneously reproduce the observed g(N) and two-point projected galaxy clustering. Nevertheless, we also report a new success of SHAM: an accurate prediction for Phi(m12), the abundance of galaxy groups as a function of magnitude gap m12, defined as the difference between the r-band absolute magnitude of the two brightest group members. We show that it may be possible to use joint measurements of g(N) and Phi(m12) to tightly constrain the details of the SHAM implementation. Additionally, we show that the hypothesis that the luminosity gap is constructed via random draws from a universal LF provides a poor description of the data, contradicting recent claims in the literature. Finally, we test a common assumption of the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) formalism, that the satellite LF need only be conditioned by the brightness of the central galaxy. We find this assumption to be well-supported by the observed Phi(m12).
Marconi, Elizabeth C.M.; Bernardes, Nara T.C.G.; Beserra, Laila A.R.; Silva, Fernanda D.F.; Gregori, Fabio
Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in humans and several animal species. A SYBR-Green Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to diagnose RVA from porcine fecal samples, targeting amplification of a 137-bp fragment of nonstructural protein 5 (NSP5) gene using mRNA of bovine NADH-desidrogenase-5 as exogenous internal control. Sixty-five samples were tested (25 tested positive for conventional PCR and genetic sequencing). The overall agreement (...
Spierings, Michelle; Hubert, Jeroen; Ten Cate, Carel
Humans have a strong tendency to spontaneously group visual or auditory stimuli together in larger patterns. One of these perceptual grouping biases is formulated as the iambic/trochaic law, where humans group successive tones alternating in pitch and intensity as trochees (high-low and loud-soft) and alternating in duration as iambs (short-long). The grouping of alternations in pitch and intensity into trochees is a human universal and is also present in one non-human animal species, rats. The perceptual grouping of sounds alternating in duration seems to be affected by native language in humans and has so far not been found among animals. In the current study, we explore to which extent these perceptual biases are present in a songbird, the zebra finch. Zebra finches were trained to discriminate between short strings of pure tones organized as iambs and as trochees. One group received tones that alternated in pitch, a second group heard tones alternating in duration, and for a third group, tones alternated in intensity. Those zebra finches that showed sustained correct discrimination were next tested with longer, ambiguous strings of alternating sounds. The zebra finches in the pitch condition categorized ambiguous strings of alternating tones as trochees, similar to humans. However, most of the zebra finches in the duration and intensity condition did not learn to discriminate between training stimuli organized as iambs and trochees. This study shows that the perceptual bias to group tones alternating in pitch as trochees is not specific to humans and rats, but may be more widespread among animals.
Tanaka, Hideo; Hijikata, Katsuichirou; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Kazushige; Kontani, Osamu; Miyamoto, Yuji; Suzuki, Atsushi
Extensive vibration tests have been performed on pile-supported structures at a large-scale mining site. Ground motions induced by large-scale blasting operations were used as excitation forces for vibration tests. The main objective of this research is to investigate the dynamic behavior of pile-supported structures, in particular, pile-group effects. Two test structures were constructed in an excavated 4 m deep pit. One structure had 25 steel tubular piles and the other had 4 piles. The super-structures were exactly the same. The test pit was backfilled with sand of appropriate grain size distributions in order to obtain good compaction, especially between the 25 piles. Accelerations were measured at the structures, in the test pit and in the adjacent free field, and pile strains were measured. The vibration tests were performed six times with different levels of input motions. The maximum horizontal acceleration recorded at the adjacent ground surface varied from 57 cm/s 2 to 1683 cm/s 2 according to the distances between the test site and the blast areas. Maximum strains were 13,400 micro-strains were recorded at the pile top of the 4-pile structure, which means that these piles were subjected to yielding
Foust, J. W.
Wind tunnel tests were performed to determine pressures, heat transfer rates, and gas recovery temperatures in the base region of a rocket firing model of the space shuttle integrated vehicle during simulated yawed flight conditions. First and second stage flight of the space shuttle were simulated by firing the main engines in conjunction with the SRB rocket motors or only the SSME's into the continuous tunnel airstream. For the correct rocket plume environment, the simulated altitude pressures were halved to maintain the rocket chamber/altitude pressure ratio. Tunnel freestream Mach numbers from 2.2 to 3.5 were simulated over an altitude range of 60 to 130 thousand feet with varying angle of attack, yaw angle, nozzle gimbal angle and SRB chamber pressure. Gas recovery temperature data derived from nine gas temperature probe runs are presented. The model configuration, instrumentation, test procedures, and data reduction are described.
Sun, Wenhao, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Cai, Xudong [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Meng, Qiao [Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)
Complex automatic protection functions are being added to the onboard software of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation method has been introduced to overcome the difficulties of ground testing that are brought by hardware and environmental limitations. We invented a time-saving approach by reusing the flight data as the data source of the simulation system instead of mathematical models. This is easy to implement and it works efficiently. This paper presents the system framework, implementation details and some application examples.
Morelli, Eugene A.
Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for open loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for optimal input design validation at 5 degrees angle of attack, identification of individual strake effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack, and study of lateral dynamics and lateral control effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific control effectors using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time/amplitude points define each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.
Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Blech, R. A.
The NASA/USAF program on the Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists, in part, of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicles were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that no discharges were obtained with the quartz-fiber-fabric-covered multilayer insulation specimen. The taped aluminized polyester grounding system used on all specimens did not appear to grossly deteriorate with time; however, the specimens require specific external pressure to maintain constant grounding system resistance.
Ek, P.; Taylor, W.R.
The IAEA convened the Advisory Group to (1) consider any available data on transport accidents and any risk assessments performed in Member States, with a view to making a critical study of the continuing adequacy of the package test requirements included in the current version of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (Safety Series No.6, 1973 Revised Edition), and (2) make recommendations concerning the future planning and conduct of this study. The reports and recommendations are presented of the four working groups assigned, i.e., Statistical Data on Accidents and ''Near Accidents'', Incidents of Accidents and Risk Assessments, Review Package Testing Requirements, and Review Basis for the Radiation Levels for Packages
Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel
Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of
Strating, Mathilde M.H.; Nieboer, Anna P.
textabstractAbstract OBJECTIVE: To test to what extent the four-factor structure of the group innovation inventory (GII) is confirmed for improvement teams participating in a quality improvement collaborative. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental design with baseline and end-measurement after intervention. SETTING: This study included quality improvement teams participating in the Care for Better improvement programme for home care, care for the handicapped and the elderly in the Netherlands between 20...
Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio
OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. METHODS: The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurre...