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Sample records for group experimental design

  1. Using Propensity Scores in Quasi-Experimental Designs to Equate Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Forrest C.; Henson, Robin K.

    2010-01-01

    Education research rarely lends itself to large scale experimental research and true randomization, leaving the researcher to quasi-experimental designs. The problem with quasi-experimental research is that underlying factors may impact group selection and lead to potentially biased results. One way to minimize the impact of non-randomization is…

  2. Design and Experimental Evolution of trans-Splicing Group I Intron Ribozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich F. Müller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Group I intron ribozymes occur naturally as cis-splicing ribozymes, in the form of introns that do not require the spliceosome for their removal. Instead, they catalyze two consecutive trans-phosphorylation reactions to remove themselves from a primary transcript, and join the two flanking exons. Designed, trans-splicing variants of these ribozymes replace the 3′-portion of a substrate with the ribozyme’s 3′-exon, replace the 5′-portion with the ribozyme’s 5′-exon, or insert/remove an internal sequence of the substrate. Two of these designs have been evolved experimentally in cells, leading to variants of group I intron ribozymes that splice more efficiently, recruit a cellular protein to modify the substrate’s gene expression, or elucidate evolutionary pathways of ribozymes in cells. Some of the artificial, trans-splicing ribozymes are promising as tools in therapy, and as model systems for RNA evolution in cells. This review provides an overview of the different types of trans-splicing group I intron ribozymes that have been generated, and the experimental evolution systems that have been used to improve them.

  3. Gestalt Intervention Groups for Anxious Parents in Hong Kong: A Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace Suk Man; Khor, Su Hean

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of gestalt intervention groups for anxious Chinese parents in Hong Kong. A non-randomized control group pre-test/post-test design was adopted. A total of 156 parents participated in the project. After 4 weeks of treatment, the intervention group participants had lower anxiety levels, less avoidance of inner experiences, and more kindness towards oneself and mindfulness when compared to control group participants. However, the dimension of self-judgment remained unchanged. The adaptation of gestalt intervention to suit the Chinese culture was discussed.

  4. Experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.

    1983-01-01

    The design of long life, low weight nickel cadmium cells is studied. The status of a program to optimize nickel electrodes for the best performance is discussed. The pore size of the plaque, the mechanical strength and active material loading are considered in depth.

  5. Some Determinants of Public Acceptance of Randomized Control Group Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Jay W.; Wortman, Camille B.

    1976-01-01

    Subjects read a supposedly real news account of a medical experiment in which the scarcity of the treatment employed and the amount of scientific justification for the experiment were experimentally varied. Factors that might influence public attitudes about social experiments are explored. (Author/DEP)

  6. Using an Animal Group Vigilance Practical Session to Give Learners a "Heads-Up" to Problems in Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rands, Sean A.

    2011-01-01

    The design of experimental ecological fieldwork is difficult to teach to classes, particularly when protocols for data collection are normally carefully controlled by the class organiser. Normally, reinforcement of the some problems of experimental design such as the avoidance of pseudoreplication and appropriate sampling techniques does not occur…

  7. Teaching experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Derek J

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of poor design and published concerns over study quality stimulated the development of courses on experimental design intended to improve matters. This article describes some of the thinking behind these courses and how the topics can be presented in a variety of formats. The premises are that education in experimental design should be undertaken with an awareness of educational principles, of how adults learn, and of the particular topics in the subject that need emphasis. For those using laboratory animals, it should include ethical considerations, particularly severity issues, and accommodate learners not confident with mathematics. Basic principles, explanation of fully randomized, randomized block, and factorial designs, and discussion of how to size an experiment form the minimum set of topics. A problem-solving approach can help develop the skills of deciding what are correct experimental units and suitable controls in different experimental scenarios, identifying when an experiment has not been properly randomized or blinded, and selecting the most efficient design for particular experimental situations. Content, pace, and presentation should suit the audience and time available, and variety both within a presentation and in ways of interacting with those being taught is likely to be effective. Details are given of a three-day course based on these ideas, which has been rated informative, educational, and enjoyable, and can form a postgraduate module. It has oral presentations reinforced by group exercises and discussions based on realistic problems, and computer exercises which include some analysis. Other case studies consider a half-day format and a module for animal technicians. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Systems biology: experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens

    2009-02-01

    Experimental design has a long tradition in statistics, engineering and life sciences, dating back to the beginning of the last century when optimal designs for industrial and agricultural trials were considered. In cell biology, the use of mathematical modeling approaches raises new demands on experimental planning. A maximum informative investigation of the dynamic behavior of cellular systems is achieved by an optimal combination of stimulations and observations over time. In this minireview, the existing approaches concerning this optimization for parameter estimation and model discrimination are summarized. Furthermore, the relevant classical aspects of experimental design, such as randomization, replication and confounding, are reviewed.

  9. Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...

  10. Single case design studies in music therapy: resurrecting experimental evidence in small group and individual music therapy clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Kamile; Hitchcock, John H

    2014-01-01

    The profession would benefit from greater and routine generation of causal evidence pertaining to the impact of music therapy interventions on client outcomes. One way to meet this goal is to revisit the use of Single Case Designs (SCDs) in clinical practice and research endeavors in music therapy. Given the appropriate setting and goals, this design can be accomplished with small sample sizes and it is often appropriate for studying music therapy interventions. In this article, we promote and discuss implementation of SCD studies in music therapy settings, review the meaning of internal study validity and by extension the notion of causality, and describe two of the most commonly used SCDs to demonstrate how they can help generate causal evidence to inform the field. In closing, we describe the need for replication and future meta-analysis of SCD studies completed in music therapy settings. SCD studies are both feasible and appropriate for use in music therapy clinical practice settings, particularly for testing effectiveness of interventions for individuals or small groups. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Group Design Problems in Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes group design techniques used within the engineering design graphics sequence at Western Washington University. Engineering and design philosophies such as concurrent engineering place an emphasis on group collaboration for the solving of design problems. (Author/DDR)

  12. Group Design Problems in Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes group design techniques used within the engineering design graphics sequence at Western Washington University. Engineering and design philosophies such as concurrent engineering place an emphasis on group collaboration for the solving of design problems. (Author/DDR)

  13. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  14. Methods and design of a 10-week multi-component family meals intervention: a two group quasi-experimental effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Catherine; Anderson, Sarah E; Dollahite, Jamie S; Hill, Tisa F; Holloman, Chris; Miller, Carla K; Pratt, Keeley J; Gunther, Carolyn

    2017-01-09

    Given the ongoing childhood obesity public health crisis and potential protective effect of family meals, there is need for additional family meals research, specifically experimental studies with expanded health outcomes that focus on the at-risk populations in highest need of intervention. Future research, specifically intervention work, would also benefit from an expansion of the target age range to include younger children, who are laying the foundation of their eating patterns and capable of participating in family meal preparations. The purpose of this paper is to address this research gap by presenting the objectives and research methods of a 10-week multi-component family meals intervention study aimed at eliciting positive changes in child diet and weight status. This will be a group quasi-experimental trial with staggered cohort design. Data will be collected via direct measure and questionnaires at baseline, intervention completion (or waiting period for controls), and 10-weeks post-intervention. Setting will be faith-based community center. Participants will be 60 underserved families with at least 1, 4-10 year old child will be recruited and enrolled in the intervention (n = 30) or waitlist control group (n = 30). The intervention (Simple Suppers) is a 10-week family meals program designed for underserved families from racial/ethnic diverse backgrounds. The 10, 90-min program lessons will be delivered weekly over the dinner hour. Session components include: a) interactive group discussion of strategies to overcome family meal barriers, plus weekly goal setting for caregivers; b) engagement in age-appropriate food preparation activities for children; and c) group family meal for caregivers and children. Main outcome measures are change in: child diet quality; child standardized body mass index; and frequency of family meals. Regression models will be used to compare response variables results of intervention to control group, controlling for

  15. True Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Schuyler W.

    1991-01-01

    This poem, with stanzas in limerick form, refers humorously to the many threats to validity posed by problems in research design, including problems of sample selection, data collection, and data analysis. (SLD)

  16. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive....... Following research based design methodology an experiment separating the two was initiated.This was to provide for more openness and creativity in contrast to a design in which existing relations seem predominant.......A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive...

  17. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive...

  18. Experimental design a chemometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, SN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as ``...an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the p

  19. Experimental Interfaces Involving Visual Grouping During Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Ruecker

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of a number of experimental interface design projects being carried out collaboratively by teams of researchers at the University of Alberta and elsewhere. One goal of this interface research is to explore the principles of rich-prospect browsing interfaces, which I have defined (Author 2003 as those where some meaningful representation of every item in a collection is combined with tools for manipulating the display. Often this manipulation is for the purposes of carrying out some portion of a research task: the interfaces lend themselves to exploratory and synthetic activities, such as knowledge discovery and hypothesis formulation. The projects summarized here begin with a browsing prototype originally designed for the task of pill identification (Given et al. 2005 but subsequently extended into a prototype for browsing conference delegates and other groups of people (Author et al. 2006. Another is a nuanced system based on the mandala (Cheypesh et al. 2006 intended for examining any collection that has been encoded with an XML schema, using combinations of attractors selected by the user from the available tags. Next is the set of specialized interfaces for the Orlando Project (Orlando Team 2006, intended to provide a set of discrete entry points into the deeply-encoded electronic history of women’s writing in the British Isles. Our project on tabular interfaces provides a variety of spaces designed to assist the user in using thesauri for multilingual query enhancement (Anvik et al. 2006. The final project described below is NORA (Unsworth 2004, which relies on the power of the D2K data-mining tools at the National Centre for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to give humanities scholars a workspace for exploring the system-identified features of common documents and further documents that have been recommended by the system. Each of these projects are

  20. Using experimental design to define boundary manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertilsson, Erik; Högberg, Dan; Hanson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    When evaluating human-machine interaction it is central to consider anthropometric diversity to ensure intended accommodation levels. A well-known method is the use of boundary cases where manikins with extreme but likely measurement combinations are derived by mathematical treatment of anthropometric data. The supposition by that method is that the use of these manikins will facilitate accommodation of the expected part of the total, less extreme, population. In literature sources there are differences in how many and in what way these manikins should be defined. A similar field to the boundary case method is the use of experimental design in where relationships between affecting factors of a process is studied by a systematic approach. This paper examines the possibilities to adopt methodology used in experimental design to define a group of manikins. Different experimental designs were adopted to be used together with a confidence region and its axes. The result from the study shows that it is possible to adapt the methodology of experimental design when creating groups of manikins. The size of these groups of manikins depends heavily on the number of key measurements but also on the type of chosen experimental design.

  1. Experimental Interfaces Involving Visual Grouping During Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Stan Ruecker

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of a number of experimental interface design projects being carried out collaboratively by teams of researchers at the University of Alberta and elsewhere. One goal of this interface research is to explore the principles of rich-prospect browsing interfaces, which I have defined (Ruecker 1 as those where some meaningful representation of every item in a collection is combined with tools for manipulating the display. Often this manipulation is for the purpose of carrying out some portion of a research task: the interfaces lend themselves to exploratory and synthetic activities, such as knowledge discovery and hypothesis formulation. The projects summarized here begin with a browsing prototype originally designed for the task of pill identification (Given et al.. This prototype was subsequently extended into a prototype for browsing conference delegates and other groups of people (Ruecker et al.. Another direction is represented by a nuanced system based on the mandala (Cheypesh et al. intended for examining any collection that has been encoded with an XML schema. The Mandala Browser uses combinations of “magnetic axes” selected by the user from the available tags. Next is the set of specialized interfaces for the Orlando Project (Orlando Team, intended to provide a set of discrete entry points into the deeply-encoded electronic history of women’s writing in the British Isles. Our project on tabular interfaces provides a variety of spaces designed to assist the user in using thesauri for multilingual query enhancement (Anvik et al.. The final project described below is NORA (Unsworth, which relies on the power of the D2K data-mining tools at the National Centre for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The goal of NORA is to give humanities scholars a workspace for exploring the system-identified features of common documents and further documents that havebeen

  2. Elements of Bayesian experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivia, D.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    We consider some elements of the Bayesian approach that are important for optimal experimental design. While the underlying principles used are very general, and are explained in detail in a recent tutorial text, they are applied here to the specific case of characterising the inferential value of different resolution peakshapes. This particular issue was considered earlier by Silver, Sivia and Pynn (1989, 1990a, 1990b), and the following presentation confirms and extends the conclusions of their analysis.

  3. Graphical Models for Quasi-Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter M.; Hall, Courtney E.; Su, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and quasi-experimental designs play a central role in estimating cause-effect relationships in education, psychology, and many other fields of the social and behavioral sciences. This paper presents and discusses the causal graphs of experimental and quasi-experimental designs. For quasi-experimental designs the authors demonstrate…

  4. Teaching experimental design to biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolman, J F

    1999-12-01

    The teaching of research design and data analysis to our graduate students has been a persistent problem. A course is described in which students, early in their graduate training, obtain extensive practice in designing experiments and interpreting data. Lecture-discussions on the essentials of biostatistics are given, and then these essentials are repeatedly reviewed by illustrating their applications and misapplications in numerous research design problems. Students critique these designs and prepare similar problems for peer evaluation. In most problems the treatments are confounded by extraneous variables, proper controls may be absent, or data analysis may be incorrect. For each problem, students must decide whether the researchers' conclusions are valid and, if not, must identify a fatal experimental flaw. Students learn that an experiment is a well-conceived plan for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. They enjoy the interactive evaluations of research designs and appreciate the repetitive review of common flaws in different experiments. They also benefit from their practice in scientific writing and in critically evaluating their peers' designs.

  5. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment.

  6. Quasi-Experimental Designs for Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When randomized experiments are infeasible, quasi-experimental designs can be exploited to evaluate causal treatment effects. The strongest quasi-experimental designs for causal inference are regression discontinuity designs, instrumental variable designs, matching and propensity score designs, and comparative interrupted time series designs. This…

  7. Renormalization group theory impact on experimental magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Köbler, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Spin wave theory of magnetism and BCS theory of superconductivity are typical theories of the time before renormalization group (RG) theory. The two theories consider atomistic interactions only and ignore the energy degrees of freedom of the continuous (infinite) solid. Since the pioneering work of Kenneth G. Wilson (Nobel Prize of physics in 1982) we know that the continuous solid is characterized by a particular symmetry: invariance with respect to transformations of the length scale. Associated with this symmetry are particular field particles with characteristic excitation spectra. In diamagnetic solids these are the well known Debye bosons. This book reviews experimental work on solid state physics of the last five decades and shows in a phenomenological way that the dynamics of ordered magnets and conventional superconductors is controlled by the field particles of the infinite solid and not by magnons and Cooper pairs, respectively. In the case of ordered magnets the relevant field particles are calle...

  8. Aromaticity of group 14 organometallics: experimental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vladimir Ya; Sekiguchi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    The long story of aromatic compounds has extended over almost two centuries, since the discovery by Faraday of "bicarburet of hydrogen", or C(6)H(6), now called benzene. Since then, the chemistry of aromatic compounds has been developed extensively; this is reflected in the synthesis of novel classes of aromatic derivatives including charged species, nonclassical (Möbius, three-dimensional, homo-, metalla-) aromatics, and fullerenes. The theory of aromaticity has also undergone a spectacular evolution since the first definition of aromaticity by Hückel; the classification of aromaticity now requires the consideration of versatile criteria: energetic, structural, magnetic, among others. In this Review, we discuss the current state of affairs in the chemistry of aromatic compounds of the heavier Group 14 elements, the latest experimental achievements, as well as future prospects in the field.

  9. Experimental design methods for bioengineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin Gündoğdu, Tuğba; Deniz, İrem; Çalışkan, Gülizar; Şahin, Erdem Sefa; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Experimental design is a form of process analysis in which certain factors are selected to obtain the desired responses of interest. It may also be used for the determination of the effects of various independent factors on a dependent factor. The bioengineering discipline includes many different areas of scientific interest, and each study area is affected and governed by many different factors. Briefly analyzing the important factors and selecting an experimental design for optimization are very effective tools for the design of any bioprocess under question. This review summarizes experimental design methods that can be used to investigate various factors relating to bioengineering processes. The experimental methods generally used in bioengineering are as follows: full factorial design, fractional factorial design, Plackett-Burman design, Taguchi design, Box-Behnken design and central composite design. These design methods are briefly introduced, and then the application of these design methods to study different bioengineering processes is analyzed.

  10. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  11. 单组设计一元定量资料的统计推断与实验设计(一)%Statistical inference and experimental design of univariate quantitative data of single-group design(part one)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡良平; 鲍晓蕾

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the former two issues of this periodical,we have introduced how to correctly express and describe univariate quantitative data of a single-group design,including expressing the data by frequency distribution tables,describing the data by some important indexes,such as the mean,the discrete scale,the maximum and the minimum values,ect.

  12. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirum, Karen; Humburg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Higher education goals include helping students develop evidence based reasoning skills; therefore, scientific thinking skills such as those required to understand the design of a basic experiment are important. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) measures students' understanding of the criteria for good experimental design through their…

  13. Design of Formulated Products: Experimental Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Cheng, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    : computer-aided design (Stage 1), which generates a list of feasible candidates, experimental planning (Stage 2), which generates a list of experiments and checks the available experimental set-ups, and experimental testing (Stage 3), which measures the necessary data and verifies the desirable attributes...

  14. Experimental design and priority PLS regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Rules, ideas and algorithms of the H-principle are used to analyse models that are derived from experimental design. Some of the basic ideas of experimental design are reviewed and related to the methodology of the H-principle. New methods of optimal response surfaces are developed....

  15. Increasing efficiency of preclinical research by group sequential designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Sophie K.; Rex, Andre; Florez-Vargas, Oscar; Karystianis, George; Schneider, Alice; Wellwood, Ian; Siegerink, Bob; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of sequential designs, studies evaluating treatments or experimental manipulations in preclinical experimental biomedicine almost exclusively use classical block designs. Our aim with this article is to bring the existing methodology of group sequential designs to the attention of researchers in the preclinical field and to clearly illustrate its potential utility. Group sequential designs can offer higher efficiency than traditional methods and are increasingly used in clinical trials. Using simulation of data, we demonstrate that group sequential designs have the potential to improve the efficiency of experimental studies, even when sample sizes are very small, as is currently prevalent in preclinical experimental biomedicine. When simulating data with a large effect size of d = 1 and a sample size of n = 18 per group, sequential frequentist analysis consumes in the long run only around 80% of the planned number of experimental units. In larger trials (n = 36 per group), additional stopping rules for futility lead to the saving of resources of up to 30% compared to block designs. We argue that these savings should be invested to increase sample sizes and hence power, since the currently underpowered experiments in preclinical biomedicine are a major threat to the value and predictiveness in this research domain. PMID:28282371

  16. Light Experimental Supercruiser Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    RADIUS-200 TOGW Fifun 118. Arrow Point Design Ptnittmn* Carpet 193 4.3 VEHICLE PARAMETRIC TRADES (Continued) Sustained Load Factor--The third...0.06 ^s’ ^60^^ ^ ^**«» ^ >^^»M00 «^ /^ / —~ <. xf ’"»^C^ ^ -< >^ X*** Fifun 120. Arrow Su$t»lmd Lo§d factor Vtrwt

  17. Some Thoughts on Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Claudio D

    2017-01-01

    Perhaps even more important than the techniques themselves are the quality of the biological questions asked and the design of the experiments devised to answer them. This chapter summarizes some of the key issues and also touches on how the same principles affect scholarly use of the scientific literature and good peer-reviewing practices.

  18. Independent Designing Experimental System by College Students Based on Group Innovation%基于群体创新的大学生自主设计性实验体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱超; 彭湘红

    2014-01-01

    以高分子材料与工程专业特色与江汉大学服务地方的发展战略为出发点,以高分子材料与工程专业的“综合性实验”和“材料产品设计”两门实验课程为基础,从设计理念、目标、组队机制、研究方向选择机制等方面系统介绍了基于群体创新的高分子材料类大学生自主设计性实验体系的架构。这一体系的运行,可以充分锻炼大学生的群体创新能力,提高大学生的工程创新能力。%Beginning with the feature of the major of polymer material & engineering and the developing strategy of Jianghan University which is serving for local area, based on comprehensive experiment curriculum and product designing curriculum of polymer material & engineering,from the aspects of design concept,chief goal,team arrangement and study areas, introduces the independent designing experimental system based on group innovation. The implement of the system will improve the students′ group innovation ability and creative ability in engineering.

  19. Job Design for Learning in Work Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Annika; Brav, Agneta

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--What is required of job design and production planning, if they are to result in a work group taking a self-starting approach and going beyond what is formally required of it? This paper aims to contribute to group research by testing a theoretical model of relations between job design on the one hand (captured as completeness, demand on…

  20. Experimental Design: Review and Comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    and early work in the subject was done by Wald (1943), Hotelling (1944), and Elfving (1952). The major contributions to the area, however, were made by...Kiefer (1958, 1959) and Kiefer and Wolfowitz (1959, 1960), who synthesized and greatly extended the previous work. Although the ideas of optimal...design theory is the general equivalence theorem (Kiefer and Wolfowitz 1960), which links D- and G-optimality. The theorem is phrased in terms of

  1. Chemicals-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure for virtual experimentations related to the design of liquid formulated products. All the experiments that need to be performed when designing a liquid formulated product (lotion), such as ingredients selection and testing, solubility tests, property mea...... on the design of an insect repellent lotion will show that the software is an essential instrument in decision making, and that it reduces time and resources since experimental efforts can be focused on one or few product alternatives....

  2. Design of Uranium Solution Critical Experimental Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI; Da-yong; GUO; Zhi-jia; YAO; Cheng-zhi; SHI; Chen-lei

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 2012, Department of reactor engineering design completes the design and mechanical analysis of Uranium solution critical experimental device. According to user’s requirements and nuclear safety regulations, design and analysis mainly involves two sets of core structure, uranium solution loop, water loop and experimental bench, etc. The core which includes a core vessel, reactor core support, safety rods, control rods, and so on, is used for containing uranium solution and fuel element and fulfilling the

  3. Deception, efficiency, and random groups - Psychology and the gradual origination of the random group design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T

    1997-01-01

    In the life sciences, psychology, and large parts of the other social sciences, the ideal experiment is a comparative experiment with randomly composed experimental and control groups. Historians and practitioners of these sciences generally attribute the invention of this "random group design" to t

  4. An Introduction to Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Design research brings together influences from the whole gamut of social, psychological, and more technical sciences to create a tradition of empirical study stretching back over 50 years (Horvath 2004; Cross 2007). A growing part of this empirical tradition is experimental, which has gained...... in importance as the field has matured. As in other evolving disciplines, e.g. behavioural psychology, this maturation brings with it ever-greater scientific and methodological demands (Reiser 1939; Dorst 2008). In particular, the experimental paradigm holds distinct and significant challenges for the modern...... design researcher. Thus, this book brings together leading researchers from across design research in order to provide the reader with a foundation in experimental design research; an appreciation of possible experimental perspectives; and insight into how experiments can be used to build robust...

  5. Censored Weibull Distributed Data in Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Støtvig, Jeanett Gunneklev

    2014-01-01

    Give an introduction to experimental design. Investigate how four methods handle Weibull distributed censored data, where the four methods are the quick and dirty method, the maximum likelihood method, single imputation and multiple imputation.

  6. Experimental design of a waste glass study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

    1995-04-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150{degrees}C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases.

  7. Chemical-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper presents a software, the virtual Product-Process Design laboratory (virtual PPD-lab) and the virtual experimental scenarios for design/verification of consumer oriented liquid formulated products where the software can be used. For example, the software can be employed for the design...... system engineering community, it is possible now to replace, at least, some of the experimental steps with efficient and validated model-based approaches. For example, the search space can be significantly reduced through computer-aided screenings of the active ingredient (AI), the solvent mixture......, the additives and/or their mixtures (formulations). Therefore, the experimental resources can focus on a few candidate product formulations to find the best product. The virtual PPD-lab allows various options for experimentations related to design and/or verification of the product. For example, the selection...

  8. New product development using experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1998-01-01

    New product development is one of the most powerful but difficult activities in business. It is also a very important factor affecting final product quality. There are many techniques available for new product development. Experimental design is now regarded as one of the most significant techniques. In this article, we will discuss how to use the technique of experimental design in developing a new product - an extrusion press. In order to provide a better understanding of this specific proc...

  9. Lens Design Using Group Indices of Refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    An approach to lens design is described in which the ratio of the group velocity to the speed of light (the group index) in glass is used, in conjunction with the more familiar phase index of refraction, to control certain chromatic properties of a system of thin lenses in contact. The first-order design of thin-lens systems is illustrated by examples incorporating the methods described.

  10. Making design 'work' for all user groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Maria Regina Clemesha

    2013-10-01

    Regina Kennedy, an architect and urbanist with a Master's degree in healthcare facility planning and design, who is currently a programme manager at Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), the state of Qatar's 'premier' non-profit healthcare provider, examines how, during the design process, the right principles can be applied to ensure that hospitals and other healthcare facilities 'work' for all user groups.

  11. Considering RNAi experimental design in parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Johnathan J; Warnock, Neil D; McVeigh, Paul; Marks, Nikki J; Mousley, Angela; Atkinson, Louise; Maule, Aaron G

    2012-04-01

    Almost a decade has passed since the first report of RNA interference (RNAi) in a parasitic helminth. Whilst much progress has been made with RNAi informing gene function studies in disparate nematode and flatworm parasites, substantial and seemingly prohibitive difficulties have been encountered in some species, hindering progress. An appraisal of current practices, trends and ideals of RNAi experimental design in parasitic helminths is both timely and necessary for a number of reasons: firstly, the increasing availability of parasitic helminth genome/transcriptome resources means there is a growing need for gene function tools such as RNAi; secondly, fundamental differences and unique challenges exist for parasite species which do not apply to model organisms; thirdly, the inherent variation in experimental design, and reported difficulties with reproducibility undermine confidence. Ideally, RNAi studies of gene function should adopt standardised experimental design to aid reproducibility, interpretation and comparative analyses. Although the huge variations in parasite biology and experimental endpoints make RNAi experimental design standardization difficult or impractical, we must strive to validate RNAi experimentation in helminth parasites. To aid this process we identify multiple approaches to RNAi experimental validation and highlight those which we deem to be critical for gene function studies in helminth parasites.

  12. Yakima Hatchery Experimental Design : Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Curtis; Marshall, Anne

    1991-08-01

    This progress report details the results and status of Washington Department of Fisheries' (WDF) pre-facility monitoring, research, and evaluation efforts, through May 1991, designed to support the development of an Experimental Design Plan (EDP) for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP), previously termed the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP or Y/KPP). This pre- facility work has been guided by planning efforts of various research and quality control teams of the project that are annually captured as revisions to the experimental design and pre-facility work plans. The current objective are as follows: to develop genetic monitoring and evaluation approach for the Y/KPP; to evaluate stock identification monitoring tools, approaches, and opportunities available to meet specific objectives of the experimental plan; and to evaluate adult and juvenile enumeration and sampling/collection capabilities in the Y/KPP necessary to measure experimental response variables.

  13. Optimal Bayesian Experimental Design for Combustion Kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2011-01-04

    Experimental diagnostics play an essential role in the development and refinement of chemical kinetic models, whether for the combustion of common complex hydrocarbons or of emerging alternative fuels. Questions of experimental design—e.g., which variables or species to interrogate, at what resolution and under what conditions—are extremely important in this context, particularly when experimental resources are limited. This paper attempts to answer such questions in a rigorous and systematic way. We propose a Bayesian framework for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models. While the framework is broadly applicable, we use it to infer rate parameters in a combustion system with detailed kinetics. The framework introduces a utility function that reflects the expected information gain from a particular experiment. Straightforward evaluation (and maximization) of this utility function requires Monte Carlo sampling, which is infeasible with computationally intensive models. Instead, we construct a polynomial surrogate for the dependence of experimental observables on model parameters and design conditions, with the help of dimension-adaptive sparse quadrature. Results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the surrogate, as well as the considerable effectiveness of the experimental design framework in choosing informative experimental conditions.

  14. Optimal experimental design strategies for detecting hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dette, Holger; Pepelyshev, Andrey; Wong, Weng Kee

    2011-12-01

    Hormesis is a widely observed phenomenon in many branches of life sciences, ranging from toxicology studies to agronomy, with obvious public health and risk assessment implications. We address optimal experimental design strategies for determining the presence of hormesis in a controlled environment using the recently proposed Hunt-Bowman model. We propose alternative models that have an implicit hormetic threshold, discuss their advantages over current models, and construct and study properties of optimal designs for (i) estimating model parameters, (ii) estimating the threshold dose, and (iii) testing for the presence of hormesis. We also determine maximin optimal designs that maximize the minimum of the design efficiencies when we have multiple design criteria or there is model uncertainty where we have a few plausible models of interest. We apply these optimal design strategies to a teratology study and show that the proposed designs outperform the implemented design by a wide margin for many situations.

  15. Experimental design in chromatography: a tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, D Brynn

    2012-12-01

    The ability of a chromatographic method to successful separate, identify and quantitate species is determined by many factors, many of which are in the control of the experimenter. When attempting to discover the important factors and then optimise a response by tuning these factors, experimental design (design of experiments, DoE) gives a powerful suite of statistical methodology. Advantages include modelling by empirical functions, not requiring detailed knowledge of the underlying physico-chemical properties of the system, a defined number of experiments to be performed, and available software to accomplish the task. Two uses of DoE in chromatography are for showing lack of significant effects in robustness studies for method validation, and for identifying significant factors and then optimising a response with respect to them in method development. Plackett-Burman designs are widely used in validation studies, and fractional factorial designs and their extensions such as central composite designs are the most popular optimisers. Box-Behnken and Doehlert designs are becoming more used as efficient alternatives. If it is not possible to practically realise values of the factors required by experimental designs, or if there is a constraint on the total number of experiments that can be done, then D-optimal designs can be very powerful. Examples of the use of DoE in chromatography are reviewed. Recommendations are given on how to report DoE studies in the literature.

  16. Experimental design research approaches, perspectives, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational under...

  17. Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it…

  18. Design of 162 MHz RF Experimental Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; Zhi-guo; CAO; Xue-long; GUO; Juan-juan; JI; Bin; FU; Xiao-liang; WEI; Jun-yi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,a 162MHz RF experimental cavity is designed to study the multipacting multiplier effect of the medium and the metal electrode and its relationship with the plate surface characteristics,and to find out the method for inhibiting multipacting multiplier effects.The

  19. New product development using experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1998-01-01

    New product development is one of the most powerful but difficult activities in business. It is also a very important factor affecting final product quality. There are many techniques available for new product development. Experimental design is now regarded as one of the most significant techniques

  20. Reliability of single sample experimental designs: comfortable effort level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W S; Morris, R J; DeGroot, T; Murry, T

    1998-12-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the intrasubject variability across multiple recording sessions-most often disregarded in reporting group mean data or unavailable because of single sample experimental designs. Intrasubject variability was assessed within and across several experimental sessions from measures of speaking fundamental frequency, vocal intensity, and reading rate. Three age groups of men and women--young, middle-aged, and elderly--repeated the vowel /a/, read a standard passage, and spoke extemporaneously during each experimental session. Statistical analyses were performed to assess each speaker's variability from his or her own mean, and that which consistently varied for any one speaking sample type, both within or across days. Results indicated that intrasubject variability was minimal, with approximately 4% of the data exhibiting significant variation across experimental sessions.

  1. Involving students in experimental design: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, A P; Silverthorn, D U; Stratton, D B

    1998-12-01

    Many faculty want to involve students more actively in laboratories and in experimental design. However, just "turning them loose in the lab" is time-consuming and can be frustrating for both students and faculty. We describe three different ways of providing structures for labs that require students to design their own experiments but guide the choices. One approach emphasizes invertebrate preparations and classic techniques that students can learn fairly easily. Students must read relevant primary literature and learn each technique in one week, and then design and carry out their own experiments in the next week. Another approach provides a "design framework" for the experiments so that all students are using the same technique and the same statistical comparisons, whereas their experimental questions differ widely. The third approach involves assigning the questions or problems but challenging students to design good protocols to answer these questions. In each case, there is a mixture of structure and freedom that works for the level of the students, the resources available, and our particular aims.

  2. Design and Experimental Implementation of Bipedal robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejith C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biped robots have better mobility than conventional wheeled robots, but they tend to tip over easily. To be able to walk stably in various environments, such as on rough terrain, up and down slopes, or in regions containing obstacles, it is necessary for the robot to adapt to the ground conditions with a foot motion, and maintain its stability with a torso motion. In this paper, we first formulate the design and walking pattern for a bipedal robot and then a kicking robot has been developed for experimental verification. Finally, the correlation between the design and the walking patterns is described through simulation studies, and the effectiveness of the proposed methods is confirmed by simulation examples and experimental results.

  3. Bioinspiration: applying mechanical design to experimental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, Brooke E; Porter, Marianne E

    2011-07-01

    The production of bioinspired and biomimetic constructs has fostered much collaboration between biologists and engineers, although the extent of biological accuracy employed in the designs produced has not always been a priority. Even the exact definitions of "bioinspired" and "biomimetic" differ among biologists, engineers, and industrial designers, leading to confusion regarding the level of integration and replication of biological principles and physiology. By any name, biologically-inspired mechanical constructs have become an increasingly important research tool in experimental biology, offering the opportunity to focus research by creating model organisms that can be easily manipulated to fill a desired parameter space of structural and functional repertoires. Innovative researchers with both biological and engineering backgrounds have found ways to use bioinspired models to explore the biomechanics of organisms from all kingdoms to answer a variety of different questions. Bringing together these biologists and engineers will hopefully result in an open discourse of techniques and fruitful collaborations for experimental and industrial endeavors.

  4. Fundamentals of statistical experimental design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Easterling, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Professionals in all areas - business; government; the physical, life, and social sciences; engineering; medicine, etc. - benefit from using statistical experimental design to better understand their worlds and then use that understanding to improve the products, processes, and programs they are responsible for. This book aims to provide the practitioners of tomorrow with a memorable, easy to read, engaging guide to statistics and experimental design. This book uses examples, drawn from a variety of established texts, and embeds them in a business or scientific context, seasoned with a dash of humor, to emphasize the issues and ideas that led to the experiment and the what-do-we-do-next? steps after the experiment. Graphical data displays are emphasized as means of discovery and communication and formulas are minimized, with a focus on interpreting the results that software produce. The role of subject-matter knowledge, and passion, is also illustrated. The examples do not require specialized knowledge, and t...

  5. Optimal experimental design strategies for detecting hormesis

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Hormesis is a widely observed phenomenon in many branches of life sciences ranging from toxicology studies to agronomy with obvious public health and risk assessment implications. We address optimal experimental design strategies for determining the presence of hormesis in a controlled environment using the recently proposed Hunt-Bowman model. We propose alternative models that have an implicit hormetic threshold, discuss their advantages over current models, construct and study properties of...

  6. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail: csouvik41@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail: rajibfce@iitr.ac.in

    2016-07-15

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  7. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Souvik; Chowdhury, Rajib

    2016-07-01

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  8. Experimental Investigations on the Efficiency Coefficient of Pile Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Darsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several factors influence on behavior of piles group such as type of soil, number of piles in the group and the distance between piles. In this paper, using a small laboratory model, the influence of these factors on the behavior of piles group has been examined.For this purpose a group of piles in different distances and variable number of piles was allocated in sand under anpressure axial load. The piles are preferably metal; thus to reduce weight a hollow type has been selected.In order to calculate the coefficient of piles group efficiency, a single pile has been experimented. Experimental observations show that the number of piles in the group and the distances between piles in sand have considerable effect on bearing capacity and the coefficient of pile group efficiency and the coefficient of efficiency in this type of soil have constantly been more than 1 and limited to 1 by increasing the distance between piles.

  9. An improved group search optimizer for mechanical design optimization problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Shen; Yunlong Zhu; Ben Niu; Q.H. Wu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an improved group search optimizer (iGSO) for solving mechanical design optimization problems.In the pro-posed algorithm,subpopulations and a co-operation evolutionary strategy were adopted to improve the global search capability and convergence performance.The iGSO is evaluated on two optimization problems of classical mechanical design:spring and pressure vessel.The experimental results are analyzed in comparison with those reported in the literatures.The results show that iGSO has much better convergence performance and is easier to implement in comparison with other existing evolutionary algorithms.

  10. Experimental design of laminar proportional amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellbaum, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program was initiated at Langley Research Center to study the effects of various parameters on the design of laminar proportional beam deflection amplifiers. Matching and staging of amplifiers to obtain high-pressure gain was also studied. Variable parameters were aspect ratio, setback, control length, receiver distance, receiver width, width of center vent, and bias pressure levels. Usable pressure gains from 4 to 19 per stage can now be achieved, and five amplifiers were staged together to yield pressure gains up to 2,000,000.

  11. Set membership experimental design for biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvel Skylar W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This

  12. Set membership experimental design for biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This study shows that our

  13. Experimental Design for the LATOR Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Shao, Michael; Nordtvedt, Kenneth, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental design for the Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity (LATOR) mission. LATOR is designed to reach unprecedented accuracy of 1 part in 10(exp 8) in measuring the curvature of the solar gravitational field as given by the value of the key Eddington post-Newtonian parameter gamma. This mission will demonstrate the accuracy needed to measure effects of the next post-Newtonian order (near infinity G2) of light deflection resulting from gravity s intrinsic non-linearity. LATOR will provide the first precise measurement of the solar quadrupole moment parameter, J(sub 2), and will improve determination of a variety of relativistic effects including Lense-Thirring precession. The mission will benefit from the recent progress in the optical communication technologies the immediate and natural step above the standard radio-metric techniques. The key element of LATOR is a geometric redundancy provided by the laser ranging and long-baseline optical interferometry. We discuss the mission and optical designs, as well as the expected performance of this proposed mission. LATOR will lead to very robust advances in the tests of Fundamental physics: this mission could discover a violation or extension of general relativity, or reveal the presence of an additional long range interaction in the physical law. There are no analogs to the LATOR experiment; it is unique and is a natural culmination of solar system gravity experiments.

  14. The role of experimental typography in designing logotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačnik, Tadeja

    2014-01-01

    Designing logotypes is an important part of graphic design. Great logotypes are designed using custom made typefaces. Therefore, it is very important, especially for the typographic designer, to have practical experience and be up to date with all trends in the field of experimental typefaces design, also called experimental typography. In my thesis statement, I carefully examined the problems of experimental typography - which allows more creative and free typography designing for different ...

  15. The focus group technique in electoral research - an experimental project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTOS NEVES, Manuela Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the application of focus group method in electoral research and its contribution to the strategic planning of campaigns. The methodological approach and analysis were based on the nature of information that this kind of research may provide. The starting point was an experimental research conducted by the campaign of a re-election candidate to the House of Representatives of the state of Espírito Santo.

  16. Manifold Regularized Experimental Design for Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling

    2016-12-02

    Various machine learning and data mining tasks in classification require abundant data samples to be labeled for training. Conventional active learning methods aim at labeling the most informative samples for alleviating the labor of the user. Many previous studies in active learning select one sample after another in a greedy manner. However, this is not very effective because the classification models has to be retrained for each newly labeled sample. Moreover, many popular active learning approaches utilize the most uncertain samples by leveraging the classification hyperplane of the classifier, which is not appropriate since the classification hyperplane is inaccurate when the training data are small-sized. The problem of insufficient training data in real-world systems limits the potential applications of these approaches. This paper presents a novel method of active learning called manifold regularized experimental design (MRED), which can label multiple informative samples at one time for training. In addition, MRED gives an explicit geometric explanation for the selected samples to be labeled by the user. Different from existing active learning methods, our method avoids the intrinsic problems caused by insufficiently labeled samples in real-world applications. Various experiments on synthetic datasets, the Yale face database and the Corel image database have been carried out to show how MRED outperforms existing methods.

  17. Hearing aids and tinnitus--an experimental group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, L; Scott, B; Lindberg, P; Lyttkens, L

    1987-05-01

    From a waiting list consisting of hearing-impaired patients waiting for hearing aids to be fitted, 39 subjects who at interview also stated that they had tinnitus took part in an experimental group study with the aim of investigating the effect of a hearing aid on tinnitus. No subject had any previous experience of hearing aids. The subjects were randomly allocated to a treatment and a waiting list control group. After an initial interview, the routine programme for the fitting of hearing aids started in the treatment group, while the waiting list control group had to wait for 6 weeks before starting the same hearing aid rehabilitation programme. The hearing aids were fitted exclusively for hearing purposes. As expected, the hearing aids improved the hearing capacity, but they did not reduce tinnitus as recorded on a visual analogue scale. According to information obtained at the final interview, there were significant differences in tinnitus between subjects who used their aid for more than 2 hours daily and those who used it for less than 2 hours. However, the results of scaling (pre- and post-fitting) did not support this finding. The discrepancy between the scaling and interview data is probably due to demand characteristics.

  18. Autonomous entropy-based intelligent experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Nabin Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the application of probability and information theory in experimental design, and to do so in a way that combines what we know about inference and inquiry in a comprehensive and consistent manner. Present day scientific frontiers involve data collection at an ever-increasing rate. This requires that we find a way to collect the most relevant data in an automated fashion. By following the logic of the scientific method, we couple an inference engine with an inquiry engine to automate the iterative process of scientific learning. The inference engine involves Bayesian machine learning techniques to estimate model parameters based upon both prior information and previously collected data, while the inquiry engine implements data-driven exploration. By choosing an experiment whose distribution of expected results has the maximum entropy, the inquiry engine selects the experiment that maximizes the expected information gain. The coupled inference and inquiry engines constitute an autonomous learning method for scientific exploration. We apply it to a robotic arm to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Optimizing inquiry involves searching for an experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, the search involves a high-dimensional entropy space. In such cases, a brute force search method will be slow and computationally expensive. We develop an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment. This helps to reduce the number of computations necessary to find the optimal experiment. We also extended the method of maximizing entropy, and developed a method of maximizing joint entropy so that it could be used as a principle of collaboration between two robots. This is a major achievement of this thesis, as it allows the information-based collaboration between two robotic units towards a same

  19. Web Based Learning Support for Experimental Design in Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsen, Tinri; Bisseling, Ton; Hartog, Rob

    An important learning goal of a molecular biology curriculum is a certain proficiency level in experimental design. Currently students are confronted with experimental approaches in textbooks, in lectures and in the laboratory. However, most students do not reach a satisfactory level of competence in the design of experimental approaches. This…

  20. Group 1: Scenario design and development issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, P.

    1981-01-01

    All LOFT scenarios and flight segments should be designed on the basis of a detailed statement of specific objectives. These objectives must state what kind of situation is to be addressed and why. The origin, routing, and destination of a particular scenario should be dictated by the specific objectives for that scenario or leg. Other factors to be considered are the desired weather, climate, etc. Simulator visual system, as well as other capabilities and limitations must be considered at a very early stage of scenario design. The simulator navigation area must be apropriate and must coincide with current Jeppeson charts. Much of the realism of LOFT is destroyed if the crew is unable to use current manuals and other materials.

  1. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non–expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the success of teaching strategies that target conceptual changes. We used BEDCI to diagnose non–expert-like student thinking in experimental design at the p...

  2. Power Analysis Tutorial for Experimental Design Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Details ............................................................ D-1 Appendix E – JMP Monte Carlo Simulation Script...freedom for error. • In Design Expert, when constructing a design, you are asked for delta and sigma . The default model for power analysis is...Designed Experiments. Third Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2009. 12. Muthen, Linda, and Bengt Muthen. “How to Use a Monte Carlo Study to

  3. Experimental design in analytical chemistry--part II: applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Leardi, Riccardo; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the applications of experimental design to optimize some analytical chemistry techniques such as extraction, chromatography separation, capillary electrophoresis, spectroscopy, and electroanalytical methods.

  4. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-13

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  5. EBTS:DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIKIN,A.; ALESSI,J.; BEEBE,E.; KPONOU,A.; PRELEC,K.; KUZNETSOV,G.; TIUNOV,M.

    2000-11-06

    Experimental study of the BNL Electron Beam Test Stand (EBTS), which is a prototype of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), is currently underway. The basic physics and engineering aspects of a high current EBIS implemented in EBTS are outlined and construction of its main systems is presented. Efficient transmission of a 10 A electron beam through the ion trap has been achieved. Experimental results on generation of multiply charged ions with both continuous gas and external ion injection confirm stable operation of the ion trap.

  6. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-24

    Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study

  7. Experimental Plans and Intensive Numerical Aided Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvon Gardan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with new methods to optimize design and subsequent phases, notably in SMEs specialized in manufacturing. SMEs use numerical simulation to verify that the design meets the expectations of the specification, following the current traditional process: CAD model, simulation of its behavior, changes in the CAD model... This process suffers from a number of drawbacks: no overall multi-criteria vision, use of CAD software, by nature "constructive, not considering the overall objectives (even with integration of the parameters or with considering the downstream phases. The research centre DINCCS led several projects, relying on industrial cases to consider more efficient approaches. It is proposed to reverse this process by making intensive simulations, based on trade knowledge, before design itself. In order to plan the great number of simulations, automatically designed plan of experiences are used. We discuss the application of this approach to intensive simulations. The stakes are crucial for SMEs, particularly manufacturing ones. Using numerical simulation (optimization intensively, before setting the CAD model, they can get unexpected gains (mass, better use of the means of manufacture.... The results show that the proposed approach is a very promising new way of computer aided design..

  8. Women With Addictions Report Reduced Anxiety After Group Music Therapy: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diestelkamp, Wiebke S.; Susan C. Gardstrom

    2013-01-01

    Roughly six million females in the USA abuse or are addicted to alcohol. Women are more likely than men to report depression and anxiety as triggers for substance use and relapse, which emphasizes the importance of therapies designed to help women mitigate anxiety.Research supporting music therapy (MT) with women with addictions is scarce. In this quasi-experimental investigation, we hoped to learn: (1) What percentage of women with addictive disorders in a 45-minute group MT session will rep...

  9. Teaching Experimental Design to Elementary School Pupils in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampelas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    This research is a study about the possibility to promote experimental design skills to elementary school pupils. Experimental design and the experiment process are foundational elements in current approaches to Science Teaching, as they provide learners with profound understanding about knowledge construction and science inquiry. The research was…

  10. The Implications of "Contamination" for Experimental Design in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental designs that randomly assign entire clusters of individuals (e.g., schools and classrooms) to treatments are frequently advocated as a way of guarding against contamination of the estimated average causal effect of treatment. However, in the absence of contamination, experimental designs that randomly assign intact clusters to…

  11. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gulnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non-expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the…

  12. A framework for efficient process development using optimal experimental designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, P. van de; Bijlsma, S.; Gout, E.; Voort Maarschalk, K. van der; Thissen, U.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to develop and demonstrate a framework assuring efficient process development using fewer experiments than standard experimental designs. Methods: A novel optimality criterion for experimental designs (Iw criterion) is defined that leads to more efficient proc

  13. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.

    2012-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have…

  14. Research designs for experimental single-case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Spieß

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This overview describes the most important designs for single case experimental studies, which are ABAB-design, multiple baseline design, alternating treatments design and changing criterion design. The logic of experimental control in single case studies is explained and it is described, how these different designs are able to provide internal validity and enable causal interpretations of intervention outcome. An important precondition of valid interpretation is objective and reliable data assessment. Data evaluation by visual inspection is explained and several methods of statistical data analysis are discussed. To establish generability across persons, situations, and settings, the importance of replication studies is highlighted.

  15. Autism genetics: Methodological issues and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Roberto; Lintas, Carla; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-10-01

    Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder of developmental origin, where multiple genetic and environmental factors likely interact resulting in a clinical continuum between "affected" and "unaffected" individuals in the general population. During the last two decades, relevant progress has been made in identifying chromosomal regions and genes in linkage or association with autism, but no single gene has emerged as a major cause of disease in a large number of patients. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific methodological issues and experimental strategies in autism genetic research, based on fourteen years of experience in patient recruitment and association studies of autism spectrum disorder in Italy.

  16. Irradiation Design for an Experimental Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Zebadúa, P.; Lárraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; García-Garduño, O. A.; Rubio-Osornio, M. C.; Custodio-Ramírez, V.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Suarez-Campos, J. E.; Paz, C.; Celis, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    In radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, small animal experimental models are frequently used, since there are still a lot of unsolved questions about the biological and biochemical effects of ionizing radiation. This work presents a method for small-animal brain radiotherapy compatible with a dedicated 6MV Linac. This rodent model is focused on the research of the inflammatory effects produced by ionizing radiation in the brain. In this work comparisons between Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo techniques, were used in order to evaluate accuracy of the calculated dose using a commercial planning system. Challenges in this murine model are discussed.

  17. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  18. Information measures in nonlinear experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niple, E.; Shaw, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Some different approaches to the problem of designing experiments which estimate the parameters of nonlinear models are discussed. The assumption in these approaches that the information in a set of data can be represented by a scalar is criticized, and the nonscalar discrimination information is proposed as the proper measure to use. The two-step decay example in Box and Lucas (1959) is used to illustrate the main points of the discussion.

  19. Human Factors Experimental Design and Analysis Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    1) • Box Correction for Repeated Measures (Box, 1954) – Adjusted F Table – F[(k-1)ε, (n-1)(k-1)ε] – Imhof (1962) Table for Small Sample Size (nɡ...1954) provided an adjusted F tabled value based on the value of ε as shown in the middle of this slide. Alternatively, the Imhof (1962) Table is...freedom from sample data in randomized block and split-plot designs. Journal of Educational Statistics, 1, 69-82. Imhof , J.P. (1962). Testing the

  20. Design and Experimental Implementation of Bipedal robot

    OpenAIRE

    Sreejith C; Sreeshma K

    2012-01-01

    Biped robots have better mobility than conventional wheeled robots, but they tend to tip over easily. To be able to walk stably in various environments, such as on rough terrain, up and down slopes, or in regions containing obstacles, it is necessary for the robot to adapt to the ground conditions with a foot motion, and maintain its stability with a torso motion. In this paper, we first formulate the design and walking pattern for a bipedal robot and then a kicking robot has been developed f...

  1. On experimentation across science, design and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Stefan Darlan

    2016-01-01

    . This is something, which is becoming increasingly relevant, as landscape architects and urban planners today have to address the challenges confronting urbanism due to the continued entanglement of urbanisation and anthropogenic processes. These are challenges where the act of destabilizing dichotomies (inside......The article describes how the principal idea behind the landscape laboratories has been to develop a 1:1 platform where researchers, practitioners and lay people can meet and cooperate on the development and testing of new design concepts for establishing and managing urban landscapes....../outside, natural/manmade, etc.) is one out of several reasons for not only continuing but also strengthening the landscape laboratories as testing grounds for future urban landscapes and green spaces in the Anthropocene....

  2. 10 simple rules for best experimental design in ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Sajadi, Farwa

    2016-01-01

    A quick set of rules on how best to execute an experimental design in ecology. From having a clear hypothesis to obtaining accurate statistics, this guide will help make sure authors are on the right track before publishing. The 10 simple rules are based on articles written to help readers and editors learn more about experimental design and how to avoid any unseeable pitfalls. These rules act as a checklist for authors to go through to make sure they have created the best experimental design...

  3. Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Group Therapy for Underserved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, Scott H.; Hetrick, Holly; Tasker, Tamara E.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the case of a mindfulness-based group therapy that was implemented in a residential treatment facility. The case presented comprised a group of adolescent males with disruptive behavior disorders. The group was designed to be appropriate for the unique demographics of the clients, with the intent to help the clients enhance…

  4. Computer Aided Flowsheet Design using Group Contribution Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bommareddy, Susilpa; Eden, Mario R.; Gani, Rafiqul

    In this paper, a systematic group contribution based framework is presented for synthesis of process flowsheets from a given set of input and output specifications. Analogous to the group contribution methods developed for molecular design, the framework employs process groups to represent...

  5. Computer Aided Flowsheet Design using Group Contribution Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bommareddy, Susilpa; Eden, Mario R.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic group contribution based framework is presented for synthesis of process flowsheets from a given set of input and output specifications. Analogous to the group contribution methods developed for molecular design, the framework employs process groups to represent...

  6. Numerical taxonomy of maize landraces: comparison between experimental designs

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    [EN] Seventy three maize (Zea mays L.) landraces from Northwestern Spain were grown according to two different experimental design.The first one (design A) was a randomized complete blocks design with two replications per trial at two locations for two years. The second design (desing B) is simpler than the first one: the populations were grown at one location without replications for three years. Numerical taxonomy of these landraces was made according to results of the field trials u...

  7. Simultaneous optimal experimental design for in vitro binding parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, C Steven; Karlsson, Mats O; Hooker, Andrew C

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous optimization of in vitro ligand binding studies using an optimal design software package that can incorporate multiple design variables through non-linear mixed effect models and provide a general optimized design regardless of the binding site capacity and relative binding rates for a two binding system. Experimental design optimization was employed with D- and ED-optimality using PopED 2.8 including commonly encountered factors during experimentation (residual error, between experiment variability and non-specific binding) for in vitro ligand binding experiments: association, dissociation, equilibrium and non-specific binding experiments. Moreover, a method for optimizing several design parameters (ligand concentrations, measurement times and total number of samples) was examined. With changes in relative binding site density and relative binding rates, different measurement times and ligand concentrations were needed to provide precise estimation of binding parameters. However, using optimized design variables, significant reductions in number of samples provided as good or better precision of the parameter estimates compared to the original extensive sampling design. Employing ED-optimality led to a general experimental design regardless of the relative binding site density and relative binding rates. Precision of the parameter estimates were as good as the extensive sampling design for most parameters and better for the poorly estimated parameters. Optimized designs for in vitro ligand binding studies provided robust parameter estimation while allowing more efficient and cost effective experimentation by reducing the measurement times and separate ligand concentrations required and in some cases, the total number of samples.

  8. Active Photonic Crystal Switches: Modeling, Design and Experimental Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Yu, Yi; Kristensen, Philip Trøst;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent progress in modeling, design, fabrication and experimental characterization of InP photonic crystal all-optical switches. Novel designs with increased flexibility and performance are presented, and their operation using high speed data signals is analyzed numerica......In this paper, we present recent progress in modeling, design, fabrication and experimental characterization of InP photonic crystal all-optical switches. Novel designs with increased flexibility and performance are presented, and their operation using high speed data signals is analyzed...

  9. The Use of an Experimental Design Approach to Investigate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Use of an Experimental Design Approach to Investigate the Interactions of Additives ... When a conventional starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) lead acid battery is ... Typical flooded nominal 8 Ah test cells were assembled in a reverse ratio ...

  10. Computer Aided Flowsheet Design using Group Contribution Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bommareddy, Susilpa; Eden, Mario R.; Gani, Rafiqul

    In this paper, a systematic group contribution based framework is presented for synthesis of process flowsheets from a given set of input and output specifications. Analogous to the group contribution methods developed for molecular design, the framework employs process groups to represent...... information of each flowsheet to minimize the computational load and information storage. The design variables for the selected flowsheet(s) are identified through a reverse simulation approach and are used as initial estimates for rigorous simulation to verify the feasibility and performance of the design....

  11. THE CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN METHOD: THE CASE OF GROUP NOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela ALMEIDA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, different groups of architects search for the possibilities of digital technology contribution to architecture. Among the various stances, this paper particularly highlights the Dutch architects group called NOX, which develops a design method that uses both digital and analogical techniques, as well as incorporates knowledge from other disciplines. The Dutch group’s work serves as a guideline, as it indicates the subjects to be examined. Also based on the studies of other authors, the present research analyses the modifications contemporary architecture is going through, such as matters related to form, design method and conceiving of space, time and reality. Keywords: Contemporary architecture; NOX group; design methodology; digital; analogical.

  12. The nonstandard algorithm for constructing efficient conjoint experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Marija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjoint analysis is a research technique for measuring consumer preferences, and it is a method for simulating consumers' possible reactions to changes in current products or newly introduced products into an existing competitive market. One of the most critical steps in Conjoint analysis application is experimental designs construction. The purpose of an experimental design is to give a rough overall idea as to the shape of the experimental response surface, while only requiring a relatively small number of runs. These designs are expected to be orthogonal and balanced in an ideal case. In practice, though, it is hard to construct optimal designs and thus constructing of near optimal and efficient designs is carried out. There are several ways to quantify the relative efficiency of experimental designs. The choice of measure will determine which types of experimental designs are favored as well as the algorithms for choosing efficient designs. In this paper it is proposed the algorithm which combines one standard and one non-standard optimality criteria. The computational experiments were made, and results of comparison with algorithm implemented in commercial package SPSS confirm the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. .

  13. Process Model Construction and Optimization Using Statistical Experimental Design,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Memo No. 88-442 ~LECTE March 1988 31988 %,.. MvAY 1 98 0) PROCESS MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION USING STATISTICAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Emmanuel...Sachs and George Prueger Abstract A methodology is presented for the construction of process models by the combination of physically based mechanistic...253-8138. .% I " Process Model Construction and Optimization Using Statistical Experimental Design" by Emanuel Sachs Assistant Professor and George

  14. Model-Based Optimal Experimental Design for Complex Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    an open-loop behavior , where no feedback is involved , and the observations from any experiment do not affect the design of other experiments...developing and refining models of physical systems. Yet experimental observations can be difficult, time- consuming , and expensive to acquire. In this...improve design and decision-making under uncertainty. Yet experimental observations can be difficult, time- consuming , and expensive to acquire. In this

  15. Experimental Design: Utilizing Microsoft Mathematics in Teaching and Learning Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviyanthi, Rina; Supriani, Yani

    2015-01-01

    The experimental design was conducted to investigate the use of Microsoft Mathematics, free software made by Microsoft Corporation, in teaching and learning Calculus. This paper reports results from experimental study details on implementation of Microsoft Mathematics in Calculus, students' achievement and the effects of the use of Microsoft…

  16. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  17. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  18. A Bayesian experimental design approach to structural health monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric [UCSD; Todd, Michael [UCSD

    2010-01-01

    Optimal system design for SHM involves two primarily challenges. The first is the derivation of a proper performance function for a given system design. The second is the development of an efficient optimization algorithm for choosing a design that maximizes, or nearly maximizes the performance function. In this paper we will outline how an SHM practitioner can construct the proper performance function by casting the entire design problem into a framework of Bayesian experimental design. The approach demonstrates how the design problem necessarily ties together all steps of the SHM process.

  19. Audience design through social interaction during group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Shane L; Fay, Nicolas; Maybery, Murray

    2013-01-01

    This paper contrasts two accounts of audience design during multiparty communication: audience design as a strategic individual-level message adjustment or as a non-strategic interaction-level message adjustment. Using a non-interactive communication task, Experiment 1 showed that people distinguish between messages designed for oneself and messages designed for another person; consistent with strategic message design, messages designed for another person/s were longer (number of words) than those designed for oneself. However, audience size did not affect message length (messages designed for different sized audiences were similar in length). Using an interactive communication task Experiment 2 showed that as group size increased so too did communicative effort (number of words exchanged between interlocutors). Consistent with a non-strategic account, as group members were added more social interaction was necessary to coordinate the group's collective situation model. Experiment 3 validates and extends the production measures used in Experiment 1 and 2 using a comprehension task. Taken together, our results indicate that audience design arises as a non-strategic outcome of social interaction during group discussion.

  20. Randomizing Roaches: Exploring the "Bugs" of Randomization in Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the roles of random selection and random assignment in experimental design is a central learning objective in most introductory statistics courses. This article describes an activity, appropriate for a high school or introductory statistics course, designed to teach the concepts, values and pitfalls of random selection and assignment…

  1. Fundamentals of experimental design: lessons from beyond the textbook world

    Science.gov (United States)

    We often think of experimental designs as analogous to recipes in a cookbook. We look for something that we like and frequently return to those that have become our long-standing favorites. We can easily become complacent, favoring the tried-and-true designs (or recipes) over those that contain unkn...

  2. Section Preequating under the Equivalent Groups Design without IRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongwen; Puhan, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a section preequating (SPE) method (linear and nonlinear) under the randomly equivalent groups design. In this equating design, sections of Test X (a future new form) and another existing Test Y (an old form already on scale) are administered. The sections of Test X are equated to Test Y, after adjusting for the…

  3. Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…

  4. Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…

  5. Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Peter De B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer

    2002-07-01

    The topics of experimental design and modeling are important for inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. Many general chemistry and quantitative analysis courses introduce students to spreadsheet programs, such as MS Excel. Students in the laboratory sections of these courses use titrimetry as a quantitative measurement method. Unfortunately, the only model that students may be exposed to in introductory chemistry courses is the working curve that uses the linear model. A novel experiment based on a multiplex model has been devised for titrating several vinegar samples at a time. The multiplex titration can be applied to many other routine determinations. An experimental design model is fit to titrimetric measurements using the MS Excel LINEST function to estimate concentration from each sample. This experiment provides valuable lessons in error analysis, Class A glassware tolerances, experimental simulation, statistics, modeling, and experimental design.

  6. Experimental Study and Design of Balloon expandable Endovascular Stent Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yue-xuan; YI Hong; NI Zhong-hua

    2005-01-01

    The application background and experimental research overview of medical endovascular stent are presented. Based on the analytical comparison of the current research achievements, the life cycle of medical endovascular stent is pointed out and the characteristics of stent expansion in the life cycle are emphasized on.The experimental scheme of in vitro stent expansion based on the machine vision technology in LabVIEW is presented. The selection and usage of the chosen component devices and design of measurement program for experiment are expatiated. A special drug-loading stent was expanded on the assembled platform of selected equipments and experimental results were analyzed. The experimental scheme presented in the paper provides powerful experimental support for the optimization of stent design and computer simulation of stent expansion by the finite element analysis.

  7. Group Dynamics in the Interior Design Studio: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study measuring the classroom climates in collegiate interior design studios and considers these findings within the group dynamics theory framework. Three groups of students completed the College Classroom Environment Scales (CCES) questionnaire. Five of the six CCES subscale F ratios were statistically…

  8. Group Dynamics in the Interior Design Studio: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study measuring the classroom climates in collegiate interior design studios and considers these findings within the group dynamics theory framework. Three groups of students completed the College Classroom Environment Scales (CCES) questionnaire. Five of the six CCES subscale F ratios were statistically…

  9. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  10. Analog Group Delay Equalizers Design Based on Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laipert

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a design method of the analog all-pass filter designated for equalization of the group delay frequency response of the analog filter. This method is based on usage of evolutionary algorithm, the Differential Evolution algorithm in particular. We are able to design such equalizers to be obtained equal-ripple group delay frequency response in the pass-band of the low-pass filter. The procedure works automatically without an input estimation. The method is presented on solving practical examples.

  11. Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Nicolai; Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk;

    2016-01-01

    -equalized gain. In this paper, we present an experimental characterization of the intermodal Raman intensity overlaps of a few-mode fiber using backward-pumped Raman amplification. By varying the input pump power and the degree of higher order mode-excitation for the pump and the signal in a 10km long two......-mode fiber, we are able to characterize all intermodal Raman intensity overlaps. Using these results, we perform a Raman amplification measurement and demonstrate a mode-differential gain of only 0.25dB per 10dB overall gain. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest mode differential gain achieved...

  12. Group cohesion, task performance, and the experimenter expectancy effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Studied the effects of cohesion on task fulfillment and explored the influence of task fulfillment on the initial level of cohesion. Within 4-person groups of undergraduates, cohesion was manipulated successfully by a triple procedure. The level of cohesion was ascertained directly after the inducti

  13. Experimental study on small group behavior and crowd dynamics in a tall office building evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaping; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    It is well known that a large percentage of occupants in a building are evacuated together with their friends, families, and officemates, especially in China. Small group behaviors are therefore critical for crowd movement. This paper aims to study the crowd dynamic considering different social relations and the impacts of small groups on crowd dynamics in emergency evacuation. Three experiments are conducted in an 11-storey office building. In the first two experiments, all participants are classmates and know each other well. They are evacuated as individuals or pairs. In the third experiment, social relations among the participants are complex. Participants consist of 8 families, 6 lovers and several individuals. Space-time features, speed characteristics and density-speed relations for each experiment are analyzed and compared. Results conclude that small group behaviors can make positive impacts on crowd dynamics when evacuees know each other and are cooperative. This conclusion is also testified by four verified experiments. In the third experiment, speeds of evacuees are lowest. Small groups form automatically with the presence of intimate social relations. Small groups in this experiment slow down the average speed of the crowd and make disturbance on the crowd flow. Small groups in this case make negative impacts on the movement of the crowd. It is because that evacuees do not know each other and they are competitive to each other. Characteristics of different types of small groups are also investigated. Experimental data can provide foundational parameters for evacuation model development and are helpful for building designers.

  14. Design and Experimental Study on Spinning Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Heng; Jiang, Chunlan; Wang, Zaicheng

    The study on spinning solid rocket motor (SRM) which used as power plant of twice throwing structure of aerial submunition was introduced. This kind of SRM which with the structure of tangential multi-nozzle consists of a combustion chamber, propellant charge, 4 tangential nozzles, ignition device, etc. Grain design, structure design and prediction of interior ballistic performance were described, and problem which need mainly considered in design were analyzed comprehensively. Finally, in order to research working performance of the SRM, measure pressure-time curve and its speed, static test and dynamic test were conducted respectively. And then calculated values and experimental data were compared and analyzed. The results indicate that the designed motor operates normally, and the stable performance of interior ballistic meet demands. And experimental results have the guidance meaning for the pre-research design of SRM.

  15. Characterizing the Experimental Procedure in Science Laboratories: A Preliminary Step towards Students Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Isabelle; d'Ham, Cedric; Ney, Muriel; Sanchez, Eric; Wajeman, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have stressed students' lack of understanding of experiments in laboratories. Some researchers suggest that if students design all or parts of entire experiment, as part of an inquiry-based approach, it would overcome certain difficulties. It requires that a procedure be written for experimental design. The aim of this paper is to…

  16. Measuring and Advancing Experimental Design Ability in an Introductory Course without Altering Existing Lab Curriculum†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Ryan A.; Robertson, Chuck L.; Haygood, Christian S.; Herdliksa, Anna M.; Herdliska, Heather R.; Lloyd, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    Introductory biology courses provide an important opportunity to prepare students for future courses, yet existing cookbook labs, although important in their own way, fail to provide many of the advantages of semester-long research experiences. Engaging, authentic research experiences aid biology students in meeting many learning goals. Therefore, overlaying a research experience onto the existing lab structure allows faculty to overcome barriers involving curricular change. Here we propose a working model for this overlay design in an introductory biology course and detail a means to conduct this lab with minimal increases in student and faculty workloads. Furthermore, we conducted exploratory factor analysis of the Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) and uncovered two latent factors which provide valid means to assess this overlay model’s ability to increase advanced experimental design abilities. In a pre-test/post-test design, we demonstrate significant increases in both basic and advanced experimental design abilities in an experimental and comparison group. We measured significantly higher gains in advanced experimental design understanding in students in the experimental group. We believe this overlay model and EDAT factor analysis contribute a novel means to conduct and assess the effectiveness of authentic research experiences in an introductory course without major changes to the course curriculum and with minimal increases in faculty and student workloads. PMID:28904647

  17. Measuring and Advancing Experimental Design Ability in an Introductory Course without Altering Existing Lab Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Shanks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introductory biology courses provide an important opportunity to prepare students for future courses, yet existing cookbook labs, although important in their own way, fail to provide many of the advantages of semester-long research experiences. Engaging, authentic research experiences aid biology students in meeting many learning goals. Therefore, overlaying a research experience onto the existing lab structure allows faculty to overcome barriers involving curricular change. Here we propose a working model for this overlay design in an introductory biology course and detail a means to conduct this lab with minimal increases in student and faculty workloads. Furthermore, we conducted exploratory factor analysis of the Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT and uncovered two latent factors which provide valid means to assess this overlay model’s ability to increase advanced experimental design abilities. In a pre-test/post-test design, we demonstrate significant increases in both basic and advanced experimental design abilities in an experimental and comparison group. We measured significantly higher gains in advanced experimental design understanding in students in the experimental group. We believe this overlay model and EDAT factor analysis contribute a novel means to conduct and assess the effectiveness of authentic research experiences in an introductory course without major changes to the course curriculum and with minimal increases in faculty and student workloads.

  18. Useful experimental designs and rank order statistics in educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zendler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental educational research is of great impact because it illuminates cause-and-effect relationships by accumulating empirical evidence. The present article does not propose new methods but brings three useful experimental designs as well as appropriate statistical procedures (rank order statistics to the attention of the reader to conduct educational experiments, even with small samples. By means of their systematic use combined with the process-product paradigm of experimental educational research, the influence of essential variables (teacher, context, and process variables in schools, universities, and other educational institutions can be investigated. The statistical procedures described in this article guarantee that small samples (e.g. a school class can be successfully used, and that product variables (e.g. knowledge, comprehension, transfer are only required to meet the criteria of an ordinal scale. The experimental designs and statistical procedures are exemplified by hypothetical data and detailed calculations.

  19. Computer-Generated Experimental Designs for Irregular-Shaped Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Nam K.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2005-09-01

    This paper focuses on the construction of computer-generated designs on irregularly-shaped, constrained regions. Overviews of the Fedorov exchange algorithm (FEA) and other exchange algorithms for the construction of D-optimal designs are given. A faster implementation of the FEA is presented, which is referred to as fast-FEA (denoted FFEA). The FFEA was applied to construct D-optimal designs for several published examples with constrained experimental regions. Designs resulting from the FFEA are more D-efficient than published designs, and provide benchmarks for future comparisons of design construction algorithms. The construction of G-optimal designs for constrained regions is also discussed and illustrated with a published example.

  20. Supporting awareness in creative group work by exposing design rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Farooq

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When creativity is taken as a long-term, complex, and collaborative activity, support for awareness is required for group members to monitor the development of ideas, track how these ideas became narrowed, and understand how alternatives are being implemented and integrated by colleagues. In this paper, we investigate the effects of exposing design rationale to convey awareness, specifically activity awareness, in group creativity. Through evaluating a prototype, we investigate status updates that convey design rationale, and to what consequences, in small groups in fully distributed collaboration. We found that status updates are used for a variety of purposes and that participants’ comments on their collaborators’ status updates provided feedback. Overall, results suggest that participants’ awareness about their collaborators’ future plans increased over time. Majority of participants found the status updates useful, particularly those with higher metacognitive knowledge. Based on our results, two design strategies for activity awareness are proposed.

  1. Experimental Design and Power Calculation for RNA-seq Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijin; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Power calculation is a critical component of RNA-seq experimental design. The flexibility of RNA-seq experiment and the wide dynamic range of transcription it measures make it an attractive technology for whole transcriptome analysis. These features, in addition to the high dimensionality of RNA-seq data, bring complexity in experimental design, making an analytical power calculation no longer realistic. In this chapter we review the major factors that influence the statistical power of detecting differential expression, and give examples of power assessment using the R package PROPER.

  2. Optimal Experimental Design of Furan Shock Tube Kinetic Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daesang

    2015-01-07

    A Bayesian optimal experimental design methodology has been developed and applied to refine the rate coefficients of elementary reactions in Furan combustion. Furans are considered as potential renewable fuels. We focus on the Arrhenius rates of Furan + OH ↔ Furyl-2 + H2O and Furan ↔ OH Furyl-3 + H2O, and rely on the OH consumption rate as experimental observable. A polynomial chaos surrogate is first constructed using an adaptive pseudo-spectral projection algorithm. The PC surrogate is then exploited in conjunction with a fast estimation of the expected information gain in order to determine the optimal design in the space of initial temperatures and OH concentrations.

  3. How to signcrypt a message to designated group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-bo; AO Jun; LI Jian-hua

    2007-01-01

    In an open network environment, the protection of group communication is a crucial problem. In this article, a novel broadcast group-oriented signcryption scheme is presented for group communication scenarios in distributed networks. Anyone in this scheme can signcrypt a message and distribute it to a designated group, and any member in the receiving group can unsigncrypt the ciphertext. The ciphertext and public key in the scheme are of constant size. In addition, this new scheme offers public verification of the ciphertext. This property is very important to the large-scale group communication since the gateway can filter the incorrect ciphertext and alleviate the receiver's workload. Finally, a proof in the random oracle model is given to show that the scheme is secure against chosen ciphertext attack and existential forgery.

  4. Principles of Experimental Design for Big Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovandi, Christopher C; Holmes, Christopher; McGree, James M; Mengersen, Kerrie; Richardson, Sylvia; Ryan, Elizabeth G

    2017-08-01

    Big Datasets are endemic, but are often notoriously difficult to analyse because of their size, heterogeneity and quality. The purpose of this paper is to open a discourse on the potential for modern decision theoretic optimal experimental design methods, which by their very nature have traditionally been applied prospectively, to improve the analysis of Big Data through retrospective designed sampling in order to answer particular questions of interest. By appealing to a range of examples, it is suggested that this perspective on Big Data modelling and analysis has the potential for wide generality and advantageous inferential and computational properties. We highlight current hurdles and open research questions surrounding efficient computational optimisation in using retrospective designs, and in part this paper is a call to the optimisation and experimental design communities to work together in the field of Big Data analysis.

  5. Optimal Bayesian experimental design for contaminant transport parameter estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsilifis, Panagiotis; Hajali, Paris

    2015-01-01

    Experimental design is crucial for inference where limitations in the data collection procedure are present due to cost or other restrictions. Optimal experimental designs determine parameters that in some appropriate sense make the data the most informative possible. In a Bayesian setting this is translated to updating to the best possible posterior. Information theoretic arguments have led to the formation of the expected information gain as a design criterion. This can be evaluated mainly by Monte Carlo sampling and maximized by using stochastic approximation methods, both known for being computationally expensive tasks. We propose an alternative framework where a lower bound of the expected information gain is used as the design criterion. In addition to alleviating the computational burden, this also addresses issues concerning estimation bias. The problem of permeability inference in a large contaminated area is used to demonstrate the validity of our approach where we employ the massively parallel vers...

  6. Inter-group conflict and intra-group punishment in an experimental contest game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, K.; Brandts, J.; Herrmann, B.; Orzen, H.

    2007-01-01

    We study how conflict in a contest game is influenced by rival parties being groups and by group members being able to punish each other. Our main motivation stems from the analysis of socio-political conflict. The relevant theoretical prediction in our setting is that conflict expenditures are inde

  7. Group sequential designs for stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayling, Michael J; Wason, James Ms; Mander, Adrian P

    2017-06-01

    The stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial design has received substantial attention in recent years. Although various extensions to the original design have been proposed, no guidance is available on the design of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. In an individually randomised trial setting, group sequential methods can provide notable efficiency gains and ethical benefits. We address this by discussing how established group sequential methodology can be adapted for stepped-wedge designs. Utilising the error spending approach to group sequential trial design, we detail the assumptions required for the determination of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. We consider early stopping for efficacy, futility, or efficacy and futility. We describe first how this can be done for any specified linear mixed model for data analysis. We then focus on one particular commonly utilised model and, using a recently completed stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, compare the performance of several designs with interim analyses to the classical stepped-wedge design. Finally, the performance of a quantile substitution procedure for dealing with the case of unknown variance is explored. We demonstrate that the incorporation of early stopping in stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial designs could reduce the expected sample size under the null and alternative hypotheses by up to 31% and 22%, respectively, with no cost to the trial's type-I and type-II error rates. The use of restricted error maximum likelihood estimation was found to be more important than quantile substitution for controlling the type-I error rate. The addition of interim analyses into stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials could help guard against time-consuming trials conducted on poor performing treatments and also help expedite the implementation of efficacious treatments. In future, trialists should consider incorporating early stopping of some kind into

  8. Applications of Chemiluminescence in the Teaching of Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Tomasz; Slupska, Roksana; Baj, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a single-session laboratory experiment devoted to teaching the principles of factorial experimental design. Students undertook the rational optimization of a luminol oxidation reaction, using a two-level experiment that aimed to create a long-lasting bright emission. During the session students used only simple glassware and…

  9. Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

  10. Experimental design of natural and accellerated bone and wood ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Facorellis, Y.; Pournou, A.; Richter, Jane;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental design for natural and accelerated ageing of bone and wood samples found in museum conditions that was conceived as part of the INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF) investigating the effects of the environmental factors on natural organic materials....

  11. Using Propensity Score Methods to Approximate Factorial Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is through Monte Carlo simulation to compare several propensity score methods in approximating factorial experimental design and identify best approaches in reducing bias and mean square error of parameter estimates of the main and interaction effects of two factors. Previous studies focused more on unbiased estimates of…

  12. Model selection in systems biology depends on experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Daniel; Kirk, Paul D W; Barnes, Chris P; Toni, Tina; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2014-06-01

    Experimental design attempts to maximise the information available for modelling tasks. An optimal experiment allows the inferred models or parameters to be chosen with the highest expected degree of confidence. If the true system is faithfully reproduced by one of the models, the merit of this approach is clear - we simply wish to identify it and the true parameters with the most certainty. However, in the more realistic situation where all models are incorrect or incomplete, the interpretation of model selection outcomes and the role of experimental design needs to be examined more carefully. Using a novel experimental design and model selection framework for stochastic state-space models, we perform high-throughput in-silico analyses on families of gene regulatory cascade models, to show that the selected model can depend on the experiment performed. We observe that experimental design thus makes confidence a criterion for model choice, but that this does not necessarily correlate with a model's predictive power or correctness. Finally, in the special case of linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, we explore how wrong a model has to be before it influences the conclusions of a model selection analysis.

  13. Applications of Chemiluminescence in the Teaching of Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Tomasz; Slupska, Roksana; Baj, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a single-session laboratory experiment devoted to teaching the principles of factorial experimental design. Students undertook the rational optimization of a luminol oxidation reaction, using a two-level experiment that aimed to create a long-lasting bright emission. During the session students used only simple glassware and…

  14. Statistiscal Experimental Design for Quantitative Atomic Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aert, S.

    2003-01-01

    Statistical experimental design is applied to set up quantitative atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy experiments. In such experiments, observations of the atomic structure of the object under study are always subject to spontaneous fluctuations. As a result of these fluctuations, the

  15. Using experimental designs to understand the development of peer relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orobio De Castro, Bram; Thomaes, Sander; Reijntjes, Albert

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, tremendous advances have been made in our understanding of peer relations. A description is emerging of how peer relations develop. Surprisingly, though, we know less about why peer relations develop as they do. Experimental designs provide opportunities to learn about causal pr

  16. Online Group Work Design: Processes, Complexities, and Intricacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert; Hong, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the challenges of designing and implementing online group work. We are responsible for a seven-and-a-half week's online literacy and bi-literacy graduate course in a Bilingual/English as a Second Language (BLE/ESL) Master of Arts program. One of the tasks includes online literacy circle exchanges where students are encouraged…

  17. Taguchi method of experimental design in materials education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Taguchi Method of experimental design as applied to Materials Science will be discussed. This is a fractional factorial method that employs the minimum number of experimental trials for the information obtained. The analysis is also very simple to use and teach, which is quite advantageous in the classroom. In addition, the Taguchi loss function can be easily incorporated to emphasize that improvements in reproducibility are often at least as important as optimization of the response. The disadvantages of the Taguchi Method include the fact that factor interactions are normally not accounted for, there are zero degrees of freedom if all of the possible factors are used, and randomization is normally not used to prevent environmental biasing. In spite of these disadvantages it is felt that the Taguchi Method is extremely useful for both teaching experimental design and as a research tool, as will be shown with a number of brief examples.

  18. Optimal Experimental Design for Large-Scale Bayesian Inverse Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghattas, Omar

    2014-01-06

    We develop a Bayesian framework for the optimal experimental design of the shock tube experiments which are being carried out at the KAUST Clean Combustion Research Center. The unknown parameters are the pre-exponential parameters and the activation energies in the reaction rate expressions. The control parameters are the initial mixture composition and the temperature. The approach is based on first building a polynomial based surrogate model for the observables relevant to the shock tube experiments. Based on these surrogates, a novel MAP based approach is used to estimate the expected information gain in the proposed experiments, and to select the best experimental set-ups yielding the optimal expected information gains. The validity of the approach is tested using synthetic data generated by sampling the PC surrogate. We finally outline a methodology for validation using actual laboratory experiments, and extending experimental design methodology to the cases where the control parameters are noisy.

  19. Design and Experimental Research on a New Pipe Rupture Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-liang; XU Bing; YANG Hua-yong; ZHANG Yi-ding

    2006-01-01

    A new pipe rupture valve for hydraulic elevator is designed.Mathematical models established for the hydraulic elevator system are used in numefical simulations on the Simulink environment of Matlab kits.The effects of different viscous damping diameters.inlet pressures of pipe rupture valve.and elevator loads on the hydraulic elevator system's dynamic performance are analyzed.Expefimenml research is also carried out using a hydraulic elevator experiment rig.The numerical simulations accord with experimental results in general.Dynamic performance indexes are assessed by the EN812 standard.The results show that the newly designed pipe rupture valve meets the designing requirement for hydraulic elevators.

  20. Group sequential and confirmatory adaptive designs in clinical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Wassmer, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of the general principles of and techniques for confirmatory adaptive designs. Confirmatory adaptive designs are a generalization of group sequential designs. With these designs, interim analyses are performed in order to stop the trial prematurely under control of the Type I error rate. In adaptive designs, it is also permissible to perform a data-driven change of relevant aspects of the study design at interim stages. This includes, for example, a sample-size reassessment, a treatment-arm selection or a selection of a pre-specified sub-population. Essentially, this adaptive methodology was introduced in the 1990s. Since then, it has become popular and the object of intense discussion and still represents a rapidly growing field of statistical research. This book describes adaptive design methodology at an elementary level, while also considering designing and planning issues as well as methods for analyzing an adaptively planned trial. This includes estimation methods...

  1. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  2. Constructing experimental designs for discrete-choice experiments: report of the ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Experimental Design Good Research Practices Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Johnson, F; Lancsar, Emily; Marshall, Deborah; Kilambi, Vikram; Mühlbacher, Axel; Regier, Dean A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Kanninen, Barbara; Bridges, John F P

    2013-01-01

    Stated-preference methods are a class of evaluation techniques for studying the preferences of patients and other stakeholders. While these methods span a variety of techniques, conjoint-analysis methods-and particularly discrete-choice experiments (DCEs)-have become the most frequently applied approach in health care in recent years. Experimental design is an important stage in the development of such methods, but establishing a consensus on standards is hampered by lack of understanding of available techniques and software. This report builds on the previous ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Task Force Report: Conjoint Analysis Applications in Health-A Checklist: A Report of the ISPOR Good Research Practices for Conjoint Analysis Task Force. This report aims to assist researchers specifically in evaluating alternative approaches to experimental design, a difficult and important element of successful DCEs. While this report does not endorse any specific approach, it does provide a guide for choosing an approach that is appropriate for a particular study. In particular, it provides an overview of the role of experimental designs for the successful implementation of the DCE approach in health care studies, and it provides researchers with an introduction to constructing experimental designs on the basis of study objectives and the statistical model researchers have selected for the study. The report outlines the theoretical requirements for designs that identify choice-model preference parameters and summarizes and compares a number of available approaches for constructing experimental designs. The task-force leadership group met via bimonthly teleconferences and in person at ISPOR meetings in the United States and Europe. An international group of experimental-design experts was consulted during this process to discuss existing approaches for experimental design and to review the task force's draft reports. In addition, ISPOR members contributed to developing a consensus

  3. Design and implementation of a mechanically heterogeneous robot group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.; Montgomery, James F.; Mataric, Maja J.

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes the design and construction of a cooperative, heterogeneous robot group comprised of one semi-autonomous aerial robot and two autonomous ground robots. The robots are designed to perform automated surveillance and reconnaissance of an urban outdoor area using onboard sensing. The ground vehicles have GPS, sonar for obstacle detection and avoidance, and a simple color- based vision system. Navigation is performed using an optimal mixture of odometry and GPS. The helicopter is equipped with a GPS/INS system, a camera, and a framegrabber. Each robot has an embedded 486 PC/104 processor running the QNX real-time operating system. Individual robot controllers are behavior-based and decentralized. We describe a control strategy and architecture that coordinates the robots with minimal top- down planning. The overall system is controlled at high level by a single human operator using a specially designed control unit. The operator is able to task the group with a mission using a minimal amount of training. The group can re-task itself based on sensor inputs and can also be re- tasked by the operator. We describe a particular reconnaissance mission that the robots have been tested with, and lessons learned during the design and implementation. Our initial results with these experiments are encouraging given the challenging mechanics of the aerial robot. We conclude the paper with a discussion of ongoing and future work.

  4. Direct experimental and numerical determination of extremely high group indices in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2005-01-01

    We report on time-of-flight experimental measurements and numerical calculations of the group-index dispersion in a photonic crystal waveguide realized in silicon-on-insulator material. Experimentally group indices higher than 230 has been observed. Numerical 2D and 3D time-domain simulations show...

  5. Convergence in parameters and predictions using computational experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, David R; White, Jacob K; Tidor, Bruce

    2013-08-06

    Typically, biological models fitted to experimental data suffer from significant parameter uncertainty, which can lead to inaccurate or uncertain predictions. One school of thought holds that accurate estimation of the true parameters of a biological system is inherently problematic. Recent work, however, suggests that optimal experimental design techniques can select sets of experiments whose members probe complementary aspects of a biochemical network that together can account for its full behaviour. Here, we implemented an experimental design approach for selecting sets of experiments that constrain parameter uncertainty. We demonstrated with a model of the epidermal growth factor-nerve growth factor pathway that, after synthetically performing a handful of optimal experiments, the uncertainty in all 48 parameters converged below 10 per cent. Furthermore, the fitted parameters converged to their true values with a small error consistent with the residual uncertainty. When untested experimental conditions were simulated with the fitted models, the predicted species concentrations converged to their true values with errors that were consistent with the residual uncertainty. This paper suggests that accurate parameter estimation is achievable with complementary experiments specifically designed for the task, and that the resulting parametrized models are capable of accurate predictions.

  6. Women With Addictions Report Reduced Anxiety After Group Music Therapy: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke S. Diestelkamp

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Roughly six million females in the USA abuse or are addicted to alcohol. Women are more likely than men to report depression and anxiety as triggers for substance use and relapse, which emphasizes the importance of therapies designed to help women mitigate anxiety.Research supporting music therapy (MT with women with addictions is scarce. In this quasi-experimental investigation, we hoped to learn: (1 What percentage of women with addictive disorders in a 45-minute group MT session will report pre-session anxiety?; and (2 of these, what percentage will report a palpable reduction in their post-session anxiety? We used a single group design: Participants self-reported anxiety before and after each session.Study participants were 53 women in a gender-specific residential program. Voluntary group MT sessions were held twice weekly for 9 weeks. Four MT methods were used: Composition, Receptive (Listening, Improvisation, and Re-Creative (Performing. Of 53 first-session surveys, 39 (73.6% indicated pre-session anxiety. Of these, 33 (84.6% showed a reduction in post-session anxiety. A sign test confirmed an overall reduction in anxiety.Outcomes may have been related to interventions, group cohesion, or other factors. The absence of a comparison group prevents suppositions of causality. Nonetheless, the results present a compelling case for the use of MT with women with anxiety. Because of the link between trauma and addictive disorders, we encourage exploration of the role and benefits of MT within trauma-informed models of addiction treatment.

  7. Lab-Scale Fiber Spinning Experimental Design Cost Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Moreland

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many statistical experimental designs are too costlyor require too much raw material to be feasible forlab-scale fiber spinning experiments. In this study afour-factor response surface design is presented tostudy the fiber spinning process in detail at the labscale. The time, cost, and amount of raw materialrequired to execute the proposed design are comparedto the typical completely randomized 24 factorialdesign used in fiber spinning experiments and also toa standard four-factor response surface design.Sample fiber data as well as analysis from a typicalstatistical software package is provided to furtherdemonstrate the differences between each design. Bydesignating some treatment factors in the design ashard-to-change, split-plotting is used to reduce thetime, cost, and amount of raw material required tocomplete the experiment. The proposed split-plotdesign is faster and less expensive than a typicalfactorial design and has the advantage of fitting amore complex second-order model to the system.When compared to a standard response surfacedesign, the proposed split-plot design provides thesame second-order modeling capabilities but reducesthe cost of the experiment by 53%, the total time by36%, and the amount of polymer required by 24%.Thus, a split-plot response surface design based onhard-to-change factors is recommended in lab-scalespinning.

  8. Experimental design for parameter estimation of gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Steiert

    Full Text Available Systems biology aims for building quantitative models to address unresolved issues in molecular biology. In order to describe the behavior of biological cells adequately, gene regulatory networks (GRNs are intensively investigated. As the validity of models built for GRNs depends crucially on the kinetic rates, various methods have been developed to estimate these parameters from experimental data. For this purpose, it is favorable to choose the experimental conditions yielding maximal information. However, existing experimental design principles often rely on unfulfilled mathematical assumptions or become computationally demanding with growing model complexity. To solve this problem, we combined advanced methods for parameter and uncertainty estimation with experimental design considerations. As a showcase, we optimized three simulated GRNs in one of the challenges from the Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM. This article presents our approach, which was awarded the best performing procedure at the DREAM6 Estimation of Model Parameters challenge. For fast and reliable parameter estimation, local deterministic optimization of the likelihood was applied. We analyzed identifiability and precision of the estimates by calculating the profile likelihood. Furthermore, the profiles provided a way to uncover a selection of most informative experiments, from which the optimal one was chosen using additional criteria at every step of the design process. In conclusion, we provide a strategy for optimal experimental design and show its successful application on three highly nonlinear dynamic models. Although presented in the context of the GRNs to be inferred for the DREAM6 challenge, the approach is generic and applicable to most types of quantitative models in systems biology and other disciplines.

  9. Building upon the Experimental Design in Media Violence Research: The Importance of Including Receiver Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Tomasello, Tami K.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that the inclusion of viewer interpretation variables in experimental design and analysis procedures can greatly increase the methodology's ability to explain variance. Focuses attention on the between-group differences, while an analysis of how individual participants interpret the cues in the stimulus material focused attention on the…

  10. Optimizing an experimental design for an electromagnetic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Estelle; Garcia, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Most of geophysical studies focus on data acquisition and analysis, but another aspect which is gaining importance is the discussion on acquisition of suitable datasets. This can be done through the design of an optimal experiment. Optimizing an experimental design implies a compromise between maximizing the information we get about the target and reducing the cost of the experiment, considering a wide range of constraints (logistical, financial, experimental …). We are currently developing a method to design an optimal controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) experiment to detect a potential CO2 reservoir and monitor this reservoir during and after CO2 injection. Our statistical algorithm combines the use of linearized inverse theory (to evaluate the quality of one given design via the objective function) and stochastic optimization methods like genetic algorithm (to examine a wide range of possible surveys). The particularity of our method is that it uses a multi-objective genetic algorithm that searches for designs that fit several objective functions simultaneously. One main advantage of this kind of technique to design an experiment is that it does not require the acquisition of any data and can thus be easily conducted before any geophysical survey. Our new experimental design algorithm has been tested with a realistic one-dimensional resistivity model of the Earth in the region of study (northern Spain CO2 sequestration test site). We show that a small number of well distributed observations have the potential to resolve the target. This simple test also points out the importance of a well chosen objective function. Finally, in the context of CO2 sequestration that motivates this study, we might be interested in maximizing the information we get about the reservoir layer. In that case, we show how the combination of two different objective functions considerably improve its resolution.

  11. Single-Case Experimental Design: Current Standards and Applications in Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin D; Ledford, Jennifer R; Gast, David L

    Occupational therapy is a field with a long-standing history of recommending and implementing interventions designed to improve the quality of life of clients with disabilities. Often, the interventions are individualized to meet the needs of this diverse group of clients in dynamic settings. Identifying effective and efficient interventions for such a diverse group of clients and settings requires a flexible research approach. Single-case experimental designs (SCEDs) allow practitioners and researchers to answer experimental questions within the context of rigorous research designs. The purpose of this article is to highlight the similarities between the mission of occupational therapy and SCEDs. Recommendations for designing single-case studies with the framework provided by the Single-Case Reporting Guideline in Behavioral Interventions are provided. In addition, common problems and proposed solutions, along with implications for practitioners and researchers, are provided. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  12. Design and experimental results for the S809 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, D M [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A 21-percent-thick, laminar-flow airfoil, the S809, for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

  13. [How to design workshops to promote health in community groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Josefina; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan J; Marín Torrens, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    One of the strategies of health promotion is to develop life skills people considering themselves as the main health resource. A workshop has to get its participants become «asset» to make decisions and create health, focusing on the development and acquisition of skills in a motivating group and in order to achieve health objectives. The concepts behind the design of a workshop are: participatory planning, training, meaningful learning, group learning and participatory techniques. The steps to follow to design a workshop and facilitate their application are: Stage 0, founding; initial stage, host and initial evaluation; central or construction stage based learning in the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes and skills, and final stage or evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental design unified concepts, practical applications, and computer implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Bowerman, Bruce L

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and innovative book that gives a complete presentation of the design and analysis of experiments in approximately one half the space of competing books. With only the modest prerequisite of a basic (non-calculus) statistics course, this text is appropriate for the widest possible audience. Two procedures are generally used to analyze experimental design data-analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis. Because ANOVA is more intuitive, this book devotes most of its first three chapters to showing how to use ANOVA to analyze balanced (equal sample size) experiment

  15. Optimal active vibration absorber - Design and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

    1993-01-01

    An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

  16. Optimal active vibration absorber: Design and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

  17. TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.; Bulmer, R.H.; Doggett, J.N.; Johnson, B.M.; Lee, J.D.; Hoard, R.W.; Miller, J.R.; Slack, D.S.

    1985-11-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs. (WRF)

  18. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design and its applications

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2015-01-07

    We summarize our Laplace method and multilevel method of accelerating the computation of the expected information gain in a Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design (OED). Laplace method is a widely-used method to approximate an integration in statistics. We analyze this method in the context of optimal Bayesian experimental design and extend this method from the classical scenario, where a single dominant mode of the parameters can be completely-determined by the experiment, to the scenarios where a non-informative parametric manifold exists. We show that by carrying out this approximation the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence can be significantly accelerated. While Laplace method requires a concentration of measure, multi-level Monte Carlo method can be used to tackle the problem when there is a lack of measure concentration. We show some initial results on this approach. The developed methodologies have been applied to various sensor deployment problems, e.g., impedance tomography and seismic source inversion.

  19. Contract design and insurance fraud: An experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lammers, Frauke; Schiller, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of insurance contract design on the behavior of filing fraudulent claims in an experimental setup. We test how fraud behavior varies for insurance contracts with full coverage, a straight deductible or variable premiums (bonus-malus contract). In our experiment, filing fraudulent claims is a dominant strategy for selfish participants, with no psychological costs of committing fraud. While some people always commit fraud, a substantial share of people only oc...

  20. Experimental framework for autonomous fast ships's control design

    OpenAIRE

    Recas Piorno, Joaquín; Esteban San Román, Segundo; Girón Sierra, José María; Cruz García, Jesús Manuel de la

    2005-01-01

    The research on seakeeping control of fast ships requires difficult experiments for modeling and control design. To alleviate the ship motion certain active appendages are added, such moving flaps, T-foil and fins. The motion of appendages must be optimized to counteract each encountered wave. During our first research steps, a scaled down ship, with scaled appendages, has been used in a towing tank facility. The scaled ship is towed at fixed speeds of experimental interest, for instance at t...

  1. Gradient-based stochastic optimization methods in Bayesian experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Optimal experimental design (OED) seeks experiments expected to yield the most useful data for some purpose. In practical circumstances where experiments are time-consuming or resource-intensive, OED can yield enormous savings. We pursue OED for nonlinear systems from a Bayesian perspective, with the goal of choosing experiments that are optimal for parameter inference. Our objective in this context is the expected information gain in model parameters, which in general can only be estimated u...

  2. Parameter Estimation and Experimental Design in Groundwater Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ne-zheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest developments on parameter estimation and experimental design in the field of groundwater modeling. Special considerations are given when the structure of the identified parameter is complex and unknown. A new methodology for constructing useful groundwater models is described, which is based on the quantitative relationships among the complexity of model structure, the identifiability of parameter, the sufficiency of data, and the reliability of model application.

  3. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Issaid, Chaouki Ben

    2015-01-07

    Experimental design is very important since experiments are often resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. We carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information, which can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data for our purpose. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that the integral is nested and can be high dimensional. We propose using Multilevel Monte Carlo techniques to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, the Multilevel Monte Carlo can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the Multilevel Monte Carlo method imposes less assumptions, such as the concentration of measures, required by Laplace method. We test our Multilevel Monte Carlo technique using a numerical example on the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by one dimensional Laplace equation. We also compare the performance of the Multilevel Monte Carlo, Laplace approximation and direct double loop Monte Carlo.

  4. Theoretical and experimental performance analysis for cold trap design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemanath, M.G., E-mail: hemanath@igcar.gov.i [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Meikandamurthy, C.; Kumar, A. Ashok; Chandramouli, S.; Rajan, K.K.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Padmakumar, G.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Raj, Baldev [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-10-15

    Cold trap is a purification unit used in sodium system of FBR's for maintaining the oxygen/hydrogen level in sodium within acceptable limits. It works on the principle of crystallization and precipitation of oxides/hydrides of sodium in a wire mesh, when the temperature of sodium is reduced below the saturation temperature. The cold traps presently used have lower effectiveness and get plugged prematurely. The plugged cold traps are cleaned and then put back into service. Frequent cleaning of cold trap results in the long down time of the sodium system. New design of cold trap has been conceived to overcome the above problems. The mathematical modeling for the new design was carried out and validated with experimentally tested results for its effectiveness. This paper shares the experience gained on the new design of cold trap for FBR's.

  5. Design and experimental study of a novel giant magnetostrictive actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Guangming; Zhang, Peilin; He, Zhongbo; Li, Dongwei; Huang, Yingjie; Xie, Wenqiang

    2016-12-01

    Giant magnetostrictive actuator has been widely used in precise driving occasions for its excellent performance. However, in driving a switching valve, especially the ball-valve in an electronic controlled injector, the actuator can't exhibit its good performance for limits in output displacement and responding speed. A novel giant magnetostrictive actuator, which can reach its maximum displacement for being exerted with no bias magnetic field, is designed in this paper. Simultaneously, elongating of the giant magetostrictive material is converted to shortening of the actuator's axial dimension with the help of an output rod in "T" type. Furthermore, to save responding time, the driving voltage with high opening voltage while low holding voltage is designed. Responding time and output displacement are studied experimentally with the help of a measuring system. From measured results, designed driving voltage can improve the responding speed of actuator displacement quite effectively. And, giant magnetostrictive actuator can output various steady-state displacements to reach more driving effects.

  6. Entropy-Based Search Algorithm for Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, N. K.; Knuth, K. H.

    2011-03-01

    The scientific method relies on the iterated processes of inference and inquiry. The inference phase consists of selecting the most probable models based on the available data; whereas the inquiry phase consists of using what is known about the models to select the most relevant experiment. Optimizing inquiry involves searching the parameterized space of experiments to select the experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. In the case where it is important to learn about each of the model parameters, the relevance of an experiment is quantified by Shannon entropy of the distribution of experimental outcomes predicted by a probable set of models. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, we must search this high-dimensional entropy space. Brute force search methods will be slow and computationally expensive. We present an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment for efficient experimental design. This algorithm is inspired by Skilling's nested sampling algorithm used in inference and borrows the concept of a rising threshold while a set of experiment samples are maintained. We demonstrate that this algorithm not only selects highly relevant experiments, but also is more efficient than brute force search. Such entropic search techniques promise to greatly benefit autonomous experimental design.

  7. Technological issues and experimental design of gene association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, Johanna K; Taverna, Darin M

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS), in which thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the genome are genotyped in individuals who are phenotypically well characterized, -currently represent the most popular strategy for identifying gene regions associated with common -diseases and related quantitative traits. Improvements in technology and throughput capability, development of powerful statistical tools, and more widespread acceptance of pooling-based genotyping approaches have led to greater utilization of GWAS in human genetics research. However, important considerations for optimal experimental design, including selection of the most appropriate genotyping platform, can enhance the utility of the approach even further. This chapter reviews experimental and technological issues that may affect the success of GWAS findings and proposes strategies for developing the most comprehensive, logical, and cost-effective approaches for genotyping given the population of interest.

  8. Entropy-Based Search Algorithm for Experimental Design

    CERN Document Server

    Malakar, N K

    2010-01-01

    The scientific method relies on the iterated processes of inference and inquiry. The inference phase consists of selecting the most probable models based on the available data; whereas the inquiry phase consists of using what is known about the models to select the most relevant experiment. Optimizing inquiry involves searching the parameterized space of experiments to select the experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. In the case where it is important to learn about each of the model parameters, the relevance of an experiment is quantified by Shannon entropy of the distribution of experimental outcomes predicted by a probable set of models. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, we must search this high-dimensional entropy space. Brute force search methods will be slow and computationally expensive. We present an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment for efficient experimental design. ...

  9. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  10. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2012-10-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

  11. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  12. Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelina, Anna; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-12-01

    National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) labs], students design their own experiments. Our previous studies have shown that students in these labs acquire scientific abilities such as the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, the ability to collect and analyze data, the ability to evaluate assumptions and uncertainties, and the ability to communicate. These studies mostly concentrated on analyzing students’ writing, evaluated by specially designed scientific ability rubrics. Recently, we started to study whether the ISLE labs make students not only write like scientists but also engage in discussions and act like scientists while doing the labs. For example, do students plan an experiment, validate assumptions, evaluate results, and revise the experiment if necessary? A brief report of some of our findings that came from monitoring students’ activity during ISLE and nondesign labs was presented in the Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings. We found differences in student behavior and discussions that indicated that ISLE labs do in fact encourage a scientistlike approach to experimental design and promote high-quality discussions. This paper presents a full description of the study.

  13. Optimization of formulation variables of benzocaine liposomes using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Paola; Capasso, Gaetano; Maestrelli, Francesca; Furlanetto, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize, by means of an experimental design multivariate strategy, a liposomal formulation for topical delivery of the local anaesthetic agent benzocaine. The formulation variables for the vesicle lipid phase uses potassium glycyrrhizinate (KG) as an alternative to cholesterol and the addition of a cationic (stearylamine) or anionic (dicethylphosphate) surfactant (qualitative factors); the percents of ethanol and the total volume of the hydration phase (quantitative factors) were the variables for the hydrophilic phase. The combined influence of these factors on the considered responses (encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and percent drug permeated at 180 min (P%)) was evaluated by means of a D-optimal design strategy. Graphic analysis of the effects indicated that maximization of the selected responses requested opposite levels of the considered factors: For example, KG and stearylamine were better for increasing EE%, and cholesterol and dicethylphosphate for increasing P%. In the second step, the Doehlert design, applied for the response-surface study of the quantitative factors, pointed out a negative interaction between percent ethanol and volume of the hydration phase and allowed prediction of the best formulation for maximizing drug permeation rate. Experimental P% data of the optimized formulation were inside the confidence interval (P < 0.05) calculated around the predicted value of the response. This proved the suitability of the proposed approach for optimizing the composition of liposomal formulations and predicting the effects of formulation variables on the considered experimental response. Moreover, the optimized formulation enabled a significant improvement (P < 0.05) of the drug anaesthetic effect with respect to the starting reference liposomal formulation, thus demonstrating its actually better therapeutic effectiveness.

  14. Designing artificial enzymes from scratch: Experimental study and mesoscale simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Pavel V.; Zaborina, Olga E.; Klimova, Tamara P.; Lozinsky, Vladimir I.; Khalatur, Pavel G.; Khokhlov, Alexey R.

    2016-09-01

    We present a new concept for designing biomimetic analogs of enzymatic proteins; these analogs are based on the synthetic protein-like copolymers. α-Chymotrypsin is used as a prototype of the artificial catalyst. Our experimental study shows that in the course of free radical copolymerization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers the target globular nanostructures of a "core-shell" morphology appear in a selective solvent. Using a mesoscale computer simulation, we show that the protein-like globules can have a large number of catalytic centers located at the hydrophobic core/hydrophilic shell interface.

  15. On the proper study design applicable to experimental balneology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    The simple message of this paper is that it is the high time to reevaluate the strategies and optimize the efforts for investigation of thermal (spa) waters. Several articles trying to clear mode of action of medicinal waters have been published up to now. Almost all studies apply the unproven hypothesis, namely the inorganic ingredients are in close connection with healing effects of bathing. Change of paradigm would be highly necessary in this field taking into consideration the presence of several biologically active organic substances in these waters. A successful design for experimental mechanistic studies is approved.

  16. On the proper study design applicable to experimental balneology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    The simple message of this paper is that it is the high time to reevaluate the strategies and optimize the efforts for investigation of thermal (spa) waters. Several articles trying to clear mode of action of medicinal waters have been published up to now. Almost all studies apply the unproven hypothesis, namely the inorganic ingredients are in close connection with healing effects of bathing. Change of paradigm would be highly necessary in this field taking into consideration the presence of several biologically active organic substances in these waters. A successful design for experimental mechanistic studies is approved.

  17. Statistics for proteomics: experimental design and 2-DE differential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chich, Jean-François; David, Olivier; Villers, Fanny; Schaeffer, Brigitte; Lutomski, Didier; Huet, Sylvie

    2007-04-15

    Proteomics relies on the separation of complex protein mixtures using bidimensional electrophoresis. This approach is largely used to detect the expression variations of proteins prepared from two or more samples. Recently, attention was drawn on the reliability of the results published in literature. Among the critical points identified were experimental design, differential analysis and the problem of missing data, all problems where statistics can be of help. Using examples and terms understandable by biologists, we describe how a collaboration between biologists and statisticians can improve reliability of results and confidence in conclusions.

  18. Experimental design methodology: the scientific tool for performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1990-09-01

    With the rapid growth of the signal and image processing technology in the last several decades has arisen the need for means of evaluating and comparing the numerous algorithms and systems that are created or are being developed. Performance evaluation, in the past, has been mostly ad hoc and incohesive. In this paper we present a systematic step by step approach for the scientific evaluation of signal and image processing algorithms and systems. This approach is based on the methodology of Experimental Design. We illustrate this method by means of an example from the field of automatic object recognition.

  19. Optimal experimental design to position transducers in ultrasound breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korta Martiartu, Naiara; Boehm, Christian; Vinard, Nicolas; Jovanović Balic, Ivana; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We present methods to optimize the setup of a 3D ultrasound tomography scanner for breast cancer detection. This approach provides a systematic and quantitative tool to evaluate different designs and to optimize the con- figuration with respect to predefined design parameters. We consider both, time-of-flight inversion using straight rays and time-domain waveform inversion governed by the acoustic wave equation for imaging the sound speed. In order to compare different designs, we measure their quality by extracting properties from the Hessian operator of the time-of-flight or waveform differences defined in the inverse problem, i.e., the second derivatives with respect to the sound speed. Spatial uncertainties and resolution can be related to the eigenvalues of the Hessian, which provide a good indication of the information contained in the data that is acquired with a given design. However, the complete spectrum is often prohibitively expensive to compute, thus suitable approximations have to be developed and analyzed. We use the trace of the Hessian operator as design criterion, which is equivalent to the sum of all eigenvalues and requires less computational effort. In addition, we suggest to take advantage of the spatial symmetry to extrapolate the 3D experimental design from a set of 2D configurations. In order to maximize the quality criterion, we use a genetic algorithm to explore the space of possible design configurations. Numerical results show that the proposed strategies are capable of improving an initial configuration with uniformly distributed transducers, clustering them around regions with poor illumination and improving the ray coverage of the domain of interest.

  20. Comparing Simulated Emission from Molecular Clouds Using Experimental Design

    CERN Document Server

    Yeremi, Miayan; Offner, Stella; Loeppky, Jason; Rosolowsky, Erik

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new approach to comparing simulated observations that enables us to determine the significance of the underlying physical effects. We utilize the methodology of experimental design, a subfield of statistical analysis, to establish a framework for comparing simulated position-position-velocity data cubes to each other. We propose three similarity metrics based on methods described in the literature: principal component analysis, the spectral correlation function, and the Cramer multi-variate two sample similarity statistic. Using these metrics, we intercompare a suite of mock observational data of molecular clouds generated from magnetohydrodynamic simulations with varying physical conditions. Using this framework, we show that all three metrics are sensitive to changing Mach number and temperature in the simulation sets, but cannot detect changes in magnetic field strength and initial velocity spectrum. We highlight the shortcomings of one-factor-at-a-time designs commonly used in astrophysics an...

  1. Parameters optimization for enzymatic assays using experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. M. Burkert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for maximization enzymatic activity were determined using experimental design and inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 16045. The effects of substrate concentration (sucrose and inulin, pH and temperature on inulinase activity were verified using four factorial design and surface response analysis. Using sucrose as substrate. It has bean shown that the effects sucrose on enzymatic activity is not statistically significant and the best condition for the highest activity (110 U/mL was achieved with temperature between 60°C and 68°C and pH between 4.5 and 5.0. Using inulin as substrate it was verified that temperature is the only variable statistically significant and the maximum activity was 7.3 U/mL at temperature between 50°C and 51°C.

  2. Bayesian experimental design for models with intractable likelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovandi, Christopher C; Pettitt, Anthony N

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for designing experiments for efficiently estimating the parameters of models with computationally intractable likelihoods. The approach combines a commonly used methodology for robust experimental design, based on Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling, with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to ensure that no likelihood evaluations are required. The utility function considered for precise parameter estimation is based upon the precision of the ABC posterior distribution, which we form efficiently via the ABC rejection algorithm based on pre-computed model simulations. Our focus is on stochastic models and, in particular, we investigate the methodology for Markov process models of epidemics and macroparasite population evolution. The macroparasite example involves a multivariate process and we assess the loss of information from not observing all variables.

  3. Design of Experimental Suspended Footbridge with Deck Made of UHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blank Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the static and dynamic design of experimental footbridge for pedestrians and cyclists in the municipality Lužec nad Vltavou in Czech Republic, Europe. This work aims to familiarize the reader with calculations carried out and the results obtained, describing the static and dynamic properties of proposed footbridge. The construction of footbridge is designed as a suspended structure with prestressed bridge deck consisting of prefabricated UHPC panels and reversed “V” shaped steel pylon with height of approximately 40 meters. The deck is anchored using 24 steel hangers in one row in a steel pylon - 17 ropes in the main span and 7 cables on the other side. Range of the main span is 99.18 meters and the secondary span is 31.9 m. Deck width is 4.5 meters with 3.0 meters passing space. The bridge is designed for the possibility of passage of vehicles weighting up to 3.5 tons. Deck panels are made of UHPC with reinforcement. At the edge of the bridge on the side of the shorter span the bridge deck is firmly connected with abutment and on the other deck it is stored using a pair of sliding bearings. The utilization of the excellent properties of UHPC allows to design a very thin and lightweight construction of the deck, which could not be achieved with the use of normal concrete.

  4. Logical Experimental Design and Execution in the Biomedical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Daniel J; Marino, Michael J

    2017-03-17

    Lack of reproducibility has been highlighted as a significant problem in biomedical research. The present unit is devoted to describing ways to help ensure that research findings can be replicated by others, with a focus on the design and execution of laboratory experiments. Essential components for this include clearly defining the question being asked, using available information or information from pilot studies to aid in the design the experiment, and choosing manipulations under a logical framework based on Mill's "methods of knowing" to build confidence in putative causal links. Final experimental design requires systematic attention to detail, including the choice of controls, sample selection, blinding to avoid bias, and the use of power analysis to determine the sample size. Execution of the experiment is done with care to ensure that the independent variables are controlled and the measurements of the dependent variables are accurate. While there are always differences among laboratories with respect to technical expertise, equipment, and suppliers, execution of the steps itemized in this unit will ensure well-designed and well-executed experiments to answer any question in biomedical research. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Does chess instruction improve mathematical problem-solving ability? Two experimental studies with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Giovanni; Gobet, Fernand

    2017-06-23

    It has been proposed that playing chess enables children to improve their ability in mathematics. These claims have been recently evaluated in a meta-analysis (Sala & Gobet, 2016, Educational Research Review, 18, 46-57), which indicated a significant effect in favor of the groups playing chess. However, the meta-analysis also showed that most of the reviewed studies used a poor experimental design (in particular, they lacked an active control group). We ran two experiments that used a three-group design including both an active and a passive control group, with a focus on mathematical ability. In the first experiment (N = 233), a group of third and fourth graders was taught chess for 25 hours and tested on mathematical problem-solving tasks. Participants also filled in a questionnaire assessing their meta-cognitive ability for mathematics problems. The group playing chess was compared to an active control group (playing checkers) and a passive control group. The three groups showed no statistically significant difference in mathematical problem-solving or metacognitive abilities in the posttest. The second experiment (N = 52) broadly used the same design, but the Oriental game of Go replaced checkers in the active control group. While the chess-treated group and the passive control group slightly outperformed the active control group with mathematical problem solving, the differences were not statistically significant. No differences were found with respect to metacognitive ability. These results suggest that the effects (if any) of chess instruction, when rigorously tested, are modest and that such interventions should not replace the traditional curriculum in mathematics.

  6. Bridging the gender divide : an experimental analysis of group formation in African villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barr, A.; Dekker, M.; Fafchamps, M.

    2009-01-01

    Assortative matching occurs in many social contexts. We experimentally investigate gender assorting in sub-Saharan villages. In the experiment, co-villagers could form groups to share winnings in a gamble choice game. The extent to which grouping arrangements were or could be enforced and, hence,

  7. The distribution of blood group antigens in experimentally produced carcinomas of rat palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, J; Philipsen, H P; Fisker, A V

    1986-01-01

    . The blood group antigen staining pattern in experimentally produced verrucous carcinomas showed an almost normal blood group antigen expression. This may have diagnostic significance. Localized areas of hyperplastic palatal epithelium with slight dysplasia revealed loss of H antigen and the presence of B...

  8. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design for seismic source inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2015-07-01

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments in the context of statistical seismic source inversion. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by elastodynamic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the "true" parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Prediction uncertainty and optimal experimental design for learning dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letham, Benjamin; Letham, Portia A.; Rudin, Cynthia; Browne, Edward P.

    2016-06-01

    Dynamical systems are frequently used to model biological systems. When these models are fit to data, it is necessary to ascertain the uncertainty in the model fit. Here, we present prediction deviation, a metric of uncertainty that determines the extent to which observed data have constrained the model's predictions. This is accomplished by solving an optimization problem that searches for a pair of models that each provides a good fit for the observed data, yet has maximally different predictions. We develop a method for estimating a priori the impact that additional experiments would have on the prediction deviation, allowing the experimenter to design a set of experiments that would most reduce uncertainty. We use prediction deviation to assess uncertainty in a model of interferon-alpha inhibition of viral infection, and to select a sequence of experiments that reduces this uncertainty. Finally, we prove a theoretical result which shows that prediction deviation provides bounds on the trajectories of the underlying true model. These results show that prediction deviation is a meaningful metric of uncertainty that can be used for optimal experimental design.

  10. Fast Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design for Seismic Source Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-06

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments [1] in the context of statistical seismic source inversion [2]. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by the elastic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the true parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem.

  11. Experimental study of elementary collection efficiency of aerosols by spray: Design of the experimental device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducret, D.; Vendel, J.; Garrec. S.L.

    1995-02-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant containment building, in which pressure and temperature could increase because of a overheating reactor accident, can be achieved by spraying water drops. The spray reduces the pressure and the temperature levels by condensation of steam on cold water drops. The more stringent thermodynamic conditions are a pressure of 5.10{sup 5} Pa (due to steam emission) and a temperature of 413 K. Moreover its energy dissipation function, the spray leads to the washout of fission product particles emitted in the reactor building atmosphere. The present study includes a large program devoted to the evaluation of realistic washout rates. The aim of this work is to develop experiments in order to determine the collection efficiency of aerosols by a single drop. To do this, the experimental device has to be designed with fundamental criteria:-Thermodynamic conditions have to be representative of post-accident atmosphere. Thermodynamic equilibrium has to be attained between the water drops and the gaseous phase. Thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and mechanical effects have to be studied independently. Operating conditions have to be homogenous and constant during each experiment. This paper presents the design of the experimental device. In practice, the consequences on the design of each of the criteria given previously and the necessity of being representative of the real conditions will be described.

  12. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence

  13. Bayesian optimal experimental design for priors of compact support

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-08

    In this study, we optimize the experimental setup computationally by optimal experimental design (OED) in a Bayesian framework. We approximate the posterior probability density functions (pdf) using truncated Gaussian distributions in order to account for the bounded domain of the uniform prior pdf of the parameters. The underlying Gaussian distribution is obtained in the spirit of the Laplace method, more precisely, the mode is chosen as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, and the covariance is chosen as the negative inverse of the Hessian of the misfit function at the MAP estimate. The model related entities are obtained from a polynomial surrogate. The optimality, quantified by the information gain measures, can be estimated efficiently by a rejection sampling algorithm against the underlying Gaussian probability distribution, rather than against the true posterior. This approach offers a significant error reduction when the magnitude of the invariants of the posterior covariance are comparable to the size of the bounded domain of the prior. We demonstrate the accuracy and superior computational efficiency of our method for shock-tube experiments aiming to measure the model parameters of a key reaction which is part of the complex kinetic network describing the hydrocarbon oxidation. In the experiments, the initial temperature and fuel concentration are optimized with respect to the expected information gain in the estimation of the parameters of the target reaction rate. We show that the expected information gain surface can change its shape dramatically according to the level of noise introduced into the synthetic data. The information that can be extracted from the data saturates as a logarithmic function of the number of experiments, and few experiments are needed when they are conducted at the optimal experimental design conditions.

  14. Experimental design in phylogenetics: testing predictions from expected information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro, Diego; Gower, David J; Cotton, James A; Zardoya, Rafael; Wilkinson, Mark; Massingham, Tim

    2012-07-01

    Taxon and character sampling are central to phylogenetic experimental design; yet, we lack general rules. Goldman introduced a method to construct efficient sampling designs in phylogenetics, based on the calculation of expected Fisher information given a probabilistic model of sequence evolution. The considerable potential of this approach remains largely unexplored. In an earlier study, we applied Goldman's method to a problem in the phylogenetics of caecilian amphibians and made an a priori evaluation and testable predictions of which taxon additions would increase information about a particular weakly supported branch of the caecilian phylogeny by the greatest amount. We have now gathered mitogenomic and rag1 sequences (some newly determined for this study) from additional caecilian species and studied how information (both expected and observed) and bootstrap support vary as each new taxon is individually added to our previous data set. This provides the first empirical test of specific predictions made using Goldman's method for phylogenetic experimental design. Our results empirically validate the top 3 (more intuitive) taxon addition predictions made in our previous study, but only information results validate unambiguously the 4th (less intuitive) prediction. This highlights a complex relationship between information and support, reflecting that each measures different things: Information is related to the ability to estimate branch length accurately and support to the ability to estimate the tree topology accurately. Thus, an increase in information may be correlated with but does not necessitate an increase in support. Our results also provide the first empirical validation of the widely held intuition that additional taxa that join the tree proximal to poorly supported internal branches are more informative and enhance support more than additional taxa that join the tree more distally. Our work supports the view that adding more data for a single (well

  15. Experimental and Kinetic Investigation of the Influence of OH Groups on NOX Formation

    KAUST Repository

    Bohon, Myles

    2016-05-04

    This work investigates the influence of one or more OH groups present on the fuel molecule and the resultant formation of NOX emissions. Combustion of oxygenated fuels has been increasing globally and such fuels offer significant potential in the reduction of pollutant emissions. One such emission class is the oxides of nitrogen, which typically form through a combination of two regimes: the thermal and non-thermal mechanisms. While thermal NO formation can be reduced by lowering the combustion temperature, non-thermal NO formation is coupled to the fuel chemistry. An experimental and computational investigation of NOX formation in three different burner configurations and under a range of equivalence ratios and temperature regimes explored the differences in NO formation. Measurements of temperature profiles and in-flame species concentrations, utilizing both probed and non-intrusive laser based techniques, allowed for the investigation of NO formation through non-thermal pathways and the differences that exist between fuels with varying numbers of OH groups. The first burner configuration was composed of a high swirl liquid spray burner with insulted combustion chamber walls designed specifically for the combustion of low energy density fuels. In this system the combustion of alcohols and glycerol (the largest by-product of biodiesel production), along with other fuels with multiple hydroxyl groups, was studied. Measurements of the mean flame temperature and exhaust gas measurements of NOX showed significant reductions in non-thermal NO concentrations with increasing numbers of OH groups. An accompanying modeling study and detailed reaction path analysis showed that fuel decomposition pathways through formaldehyde were shown a preference due to the presence of the OH groups which resulted in reduced contributions to the hydrocarbon radical pools subsequent reductions to the Prompt NO mechanism. Two burner configurations with reduced dimensionality facilitated

  16. Designing for interaction: Six steps to designing computer-supported group-based learning

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    At present, the design of computer-supported group-based learning (CS)GBL) is often based on subjective decisions regarding tasks, pedagogy and technology, or concepts such as ‘cooperative learning’ and ‘collaborative learning’. Critical review reveals these concepts as insufficiently substantial to serve as a basis for (CS)GBL design. Furthermore, the relationship between outcome and group interaction is rarely specified a priori. Thus, there is a need for a more systematic approach to desig...

  17. Optimization of rheological parameter for micro-bubble drilling fluids by multiple regression experimental design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑力会; 王金凤; 李潇鹏; 张燕; 李都

    2008-01-01

    In order to optimize plastic viscosity of 18 mPa·s circulating micro-bubble drilling fluid formula,orthogonal and uniform experimental design methods were applied,and the plastic viscosities of 36 and 24 groups of agent were tested,respectively.It is found that these two experimental design methods show drawbacks,that is,the amount of agent is difficult to determine,and the results are not fully optimized.Therefore,multiple regression experimental method was used to design experimental formula.By randomly selecting arbitrary agent with the amount within the recommended range,17 groups of drilling fluid formula were designed,and the plastic viscosity of each experiment formula was measured.Set plastic viscosity as the objective function,through multiple regressions,then quadratic regression model is obtained,whose correlation coefficient meets the requirement.Set target values of plastic viscosity to be 18,20 and 22 mPa·s,respectively,with the trial method,5 drilling fluid formulas are obtained with accuracy of 0.000 3,0.000 1 and 0.000 3.Arbitrarily select target value of each of the two groups under the formula for experimental verification of drilling fluid,then the measurement errors between theoretical and tested plastic viscosity are less than 5%,confirming that regression model can be applied to optimizing the circulating of plastic-foam drilling fluid viscosity.In accordance with the precision of different formulations of drilling fluid for other constraints,the methods result in the optimization of the circulating micro-bubble drilling fluid parameters.

  18. Comment: Spurious Correlation and Other Observations on Experimental Design for Engineering Dimensional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the paper "Experimental Design for Engineering Dimensional Analysis" by Albrecht et al. (2013, Technometrics). That paper provides and overview of engineering dimensional analysis (DA) for use in developing DA models. The paper proposes methods for generating model-robust experimental designs to supporting fitting DA models. The specific approach is to develop a design that maximizes the efficiency of a specified empirical model (EM) in the original independent variables, subject to a minimum efficiency for a DA model expressed in terms of dimensionless groups (DGs). This discussion article raises several issues and makes recommendations regarding the proposed approach. Also, the concept of spurious correlation is raised and discussed. Spurious correlation results from the response DG being calculated using several independent variables that are also used to calculate predictor DGs in the DA model.

  19. Experimental design schemes for learning Boolean network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atias, Nir; Gershenzon, Michal; Labazin, Katia; Sharan, Roded

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: A holy grail of biological research is a working model of the cell. Current modeling frameworks, especially in the protein–protein interaction domain, are mostly topological in nature, calling for stronger and more expressive network models. One promising alternative is logic-based or Boolean network modeling, which was successfully applied to model signaling regulatory circuits in human. Learning such models requires observing the system under a sufficient number of different conditions. To date, the amount of measured data is the main bottleneck in learning informative Boolean models, underscoring the need for efficient experimental design strategies. Results: We developed novel design approaches that greedily select an experiment to be performed so as to maximize the difference or the entropy in the results it induces with respect to current best-fit models. Unique to our maximum difference approach is the ability to account for all (possibly exponential number of) Boolean models displaying high fit to the available data. We applied both approaches to simulated and real data from the EFGR and IL1 signaling systems in human. We demonstrate the utility of the developed strategies in substantially improving on a random selection approach. Our design schemes highlight the redundancy in these datasets, leading up to 11-fold savings in the number of experiments to be performed. Availability and implementation: Source code will be made available upon acceptance of the manuscript. Contact: roded@post.tau.ac.il PMID:25161232

  20. Comparing simulated emission from molecular clouds using experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeremi, Miayan; Flynn, Mallory; Loeppky, Jason; Rosolowsky, Erik [University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, Departments of Physics and Statistics, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Offner, Stella [Yale University Astronomy Department, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We propose a new approach to comparing simulated observations that enables us to determine the significance of the underlying physical effects. We utilize the methodology of experimental design, a subfield of statistical analysis, to establish a framework for comparing simulated position-position-velocity data cubes to each other. We propose three similarity metrics based on methods described in the literature: principal component analysis, the spectral correlation function, and the Cramer multi-variate two-sample similarity statistic. Using these metrics, we intercompare a suite of mock observational data of molecular clouds generated from magnetohydrodynamic simulations with varying physical conditions. Using this framework, we show that all three metrics are sensitive to changing Mach number and temperature in the simulation sets, but cannot detect changes in magnetic field strength and initial velocity spectrum. We highlight the shortcomings of one-factor-at-a-time designs commonly used in astrophysics and propose fractional factorial designs as a means to rigorously examine the effects of changing physical properties while minimizing the investment of computational resources.

  1. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.

    2013-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have precluded widespread implementation and acceptance of the SCED as a viable complementary methodology to the predominant group design. This article includes a description of the research design, measurement, and analysis domains distinctive to the SCED; a discussion of the results within the framework of contemporary standards and guidelines in the field; and a presentation of updated benchmarks for key characteristics (e.g., baseline sampling, method of analysis), and overall, it provides researchers and reviewers with a resource for conducting and evaluating SCED research. The results of the systematic review of 409 studies suggest that recently published SCED research is largely in accordance with contemporary criteria for experimental quality. Analytic method emerged as an area of discord. Comparison of the findings of this review with historical estimates of the use of statistical analysis indicates an upward trend, but visual analysis remains the most common analytic method and also garners the most support amongst those entities providing SCED standards. Although consensus exists along key dimensions of single-case research design and researchers appear to be practicing within these parameters, there remains a need for further evaluation of assessment and sampling techniques and data analytic methods. PMID:22845874

  2. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING LEATHER APPLICATIONS IN PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of experimental research in design activity. The designer, as a researcher and a project manager, proposes to establish a relationship between functional-aesthetic-constructive-technological-economic,based on the aesthetic possibilities of the materials used for the experiments. With the aim to identify areas for the application of leather waste resulted from the production process, the paper presents experiments conducted with this material in combination with wood, by using different techniques that lead to different aesthetic effects. Identifying the areas to use and creating products from leather and/or wood waste, is based on the properties of these materials. Leather, the subject of these experiments, has the advantage that it can be used on both sides. Tactile differences of the two sides of this material has both aesthetical and functional advantages, which makes it suitable for applications on products that meet the requirements of "design for all". With differentiated tactile characteristics, in combination with other materials, for these experiments wood, easily "read touch" products can be generated to help people with certain disabilities. Thus, experiments presented in this paper allows the establishment of aesthetic schemes applicable to products that are friendly both with the environment (based on the reuse of wood and leather waste and with the users (can be used as applications, accessories and concepts of products for people with certain disabilities. The designer’s choices or decisions can be based on the results of this experiment. The experiment enables the designer to develop creative, innovative and environmentally friendly products.

  3. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2015-05-12

    Experimental design can be vital when experiments are resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. In this work, we carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information that can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data about the model parameters. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that it naturally involves nested integration over a possibly high dimensional domain. We use the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, MLMC can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the MLMC method imposes fewer assumptions, such as the asymptotic concentration of posterior measures, required for instance by the Laplace approximation (LA). We test the MLMC method using two numerical examples. The first example is the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by a one-dimensional Poisson equation. We place the sensors in the locations where the pressure is measured, and we model the conductivity field as a piecewise constant random vector with two parameters. The second one is chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) core flooding experiment assuming homogeneous permeability. We measure the cumulative oil recovery, from a horizontal core flooded by water, surfactant and polymer, for different injection rates. The model parameters consist of the endpoint relative permeabilities, the residual saturations and the relative permeability exponents for the three phases: water, oil and

  4. Design and construction of the IEA Grimethorpe experimental facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, D.H.; Wright, S.J.; Kaden, M.

    1979-06-01

    In December 1975 the Governments of the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and the Federal Republic of Germany, under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, entered into an agreement to build a large pressurized fluidized bed combustion experimental facility. The function of the facility would be to extend the range of fluidization and combustion characteristics investigated from those of the relatively small rigs then in operation across the whole range of conditions potentially applicable to combined cycle power generation systems. The ranges of conditions to be investigated in the facility are pressures 6 to 12 bar, fluidizing velocity 0.6 to 3.0 m/s and bed temperatures 750 to 950/sup 0/C. The ultimate aim is to seek an optimum condition and establish a data base from which a demonstration plant could be designed and built.

  5. Statistics in experimental design, preprocessing, and analysis of proteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput experiments in proteomics, such as 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), yield usually high-dimensional data sets of expression values for hundreds or thousands of proteins which are, however, observed on only a relatively small number of biological samples. Statistical methods for the planning and analysis of experiments are important to avoid false conclusions and to receive tenable results. In this chapter, the most frequent experimental designs for proteomics experiments are illustrated. In particular, focus is put on studies for the detection of differentially regulated proteins. Furthermore, issues of sample size planning, statistical analysis of expression levels as well as methods for data preprocessing are covered.

  6. An experimental design method leading to chemical Turing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Judit; Szalai, István; De Kepper, Patrick

    2009-05-08

    Chemical reaction-diffusion patterns often serve as prototypes for pattern formation in living systems, but only two isothermal single-phase reaction systems have produced sustained stationary reaction-diffusion patterns so far. We designed an experimental method to search for additional systems on the basis of three steps: (i) generate spatial bistability by operating autoactivated reactions in open spatial reactors; (ii) use an independent negative-feedback species to produce spatiotemporal oscillations; and (iii) induce a space-scale separation of the activatory and inhibitory processes with a low-mobility complexing agent. We successfully applied this method to a hydrogen-ion autoactivated reaction, the thiourea-iodate-sulfite (TuIS) reaction, and noticeably produced stationary hexagonal arrays of spots and parallel stripes of pH patterns attributed to a Turing bifurcation. This method could be extended to biochemical reactions.

  7. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  8. Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2013-01-01

    The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical framework and an algorithmic approach for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models; in particular, we focus on finding sets of experiments that provide the most information about targeted sets of parameters.Our framework employs a Bayesian statistical setting, which provides a foundation for inference from noisy, indirect, and incomplete data, and a natural mechanism for incorporating heterogeneous sources of information. An objective function is constructed from information theoretic measures, reflecting expected information gain from proposed combinations of experiments. Polynomial chaos approximations and a two-stage Monte Carlo sampling method are used to evaluate the expected information gain. Stochastic approximation algorithms are then used to make optimization feasible in computationally intensive and high-dimensional settings. These algorithms are demonstrated on model problems and on nonlinear parameter inference problems arising in detailed combustion kinetics. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  9. A retrospective mathematical analysis of controlled release design and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Sam N; Kay, Jennifer E; Schopfer, Francisco J; Freeman, Bruce A; Little, Steven R

    2012-11-01

    The development and performance evaluation of new biodegradable polymer controlled release formulations relies on successful interpretation and evaluation of in vitro release data. However, depending upon the extent of empirical characterization, release data may be open to more than one qualitative interpretation. In this work, a predictive model for release from degradable polymer matrices was applied to a number of published release data in order to extend the characterization of release behavior. Where possible, the model was also used to interpolate and extrapolate upon collected released data to clarify the overall duration of release and also kinetics of release between widely spaced data points. In each case examined, mathematical predictions of release coincide well with experimental results, offering a more definitive description of each formulation's performance than was previously available. This information may prove particularly helpful in the design of future studies, such as when calculating proper dosing levels or determining experimental end points in order to more comprehensively evaluate a controlled release system's performance.

  10. Experimental Verification of Current Shear Design Equations for HSRC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attaullah Shah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research on the shear capacity of HSRC (High Strength Reinforced Concrete beams is relatively very limited as compared to the NSRC (Normal Strength Reinforced Concrete beams. Most of the Building Codes determine the shear strength of HSRC with the help of empirical equations based on experimental work of NSRC beams and hence these equations are generally regarded as un-conservative for HSRC beams particularly at low level of longitudinal reinforcement. In this paper, 42 beams have been tested in two sets, such that in 21 beams no transverse reinforcement has been used, whereas in the remaining 21 beams, minimum transverse reinforcement has been used as per ACI-318 (American Concrete Institute provisions. Two values of compressive strength 52 and 61 MPa, three values of longitudinal steel ratio and seven values of shear span to depth ratio have been have been used. The beams were tested under concentrated load at the mid span. The results are compared with the equations proposed by different international building codes like ACI, AASHTO LRFD, EC (Euro Code, Canadian Code and Japanese Code for shear strength of HSRC beams.From comparison, it has been observed that some codes are less conservative for shear design of HSRC beams and further research is required to rationalize these equations.

  11. The Propagation of Errors in Experimental Data Analysis: A Comparison of Pre-and Post-Test Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Experimental designs involving the randomization of cases to treatment and control groups are powerful and under-used in many areas of social science and social policy. This paper reminds readers of the pre-and post-test, and the post-test only, designs, before explaining briefly how measurement errors propagate according to error theory. The…

  12. Design, experimentation, and modeling of a novel continuous biodrying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaee-Ardeh, Shahram

    Massive production of sludge in the pulp and paper industry has made the effective sludge management increasingly a critical issue for the industry due to high landfill and transportation costs, and complex regulatory frameworks for options such as sludge landspreading and composting. Sludge dewatering challenges are exacerbated at many mills due to improved in-plant fiber recovery coupled with increased production of secondary sludge, leading to a mixed sludge with a high proportion of biological matter which is difficult to dewater. In this thesis, a novel continuous biodrying reactor was designed and developed for drying pulp and paper mixed sludge to economic dry solids level so that the dried sludge can be economically and safely combusted in a biomass boiler for energy recovery. In all experimental runs the economic dry solids level was achieved, proving the process successful. In the biodrying process, in addition to the forced aeration, the drying rates are enhanced by biological heat generated through the microbial activity of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms naturally present in the porous matrix of mixed sludge. This makes the biodrying process more attractive compared to the conventional drying techniques because the reactor is a self-heating process. The reactor is divided into four nominal compartments and the mixed sludge dries as it moves downward in the reactor. The residence times were 4-8 days, which are 2-3 times shorter than the residence times achieved in a batch biodrying reactor previously studied by our research group for mixed sludge drying. A process variable analysis was performed to determine the key variable(s) in the continuous biodrying reactor. Several variables were investigated, namely: type of biomass feed, pH of biomass, nutrition level (C/N ratio), residence times, recycle ratio of biodried sludge, and outlet relative humidity profile along the reactor height. The key variables that were identified in the continuous

  13. Quasi-experimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Schillinger, Dean; Shiboski, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials are often a gold standard for determining intervention effects, in the area of practice-based research (PBR), there are many situations in which individual randomization is not possible. Alternative approaches to evaluating interventions have received increased attention, particularly those that can retain elements of randomization such that they can be considered "controlled" trials. Methodological design elements and practical implementation considerations for two quasi-experimental design approaches that have considerable promise in PBR settings--the stepped-wedge design, and a variant of this design, a wait-list cross-over design, are presented along with a case study from a recent PBR intervention for patients with diabetes. PBR-relevant design features include: creation of a cohort over time that collects control data but allows all participants (clusters or patients) to receive the intervention; staggered introduction of clusters; multiple data collection points; and one-way cross-over into the intervention arm. Practical considerations include: randomization versus stratification, training run in phases; and extended time period for overall study completion. Several design features of practice based research studies can be adapted to local circumstances yet retain elements to improve methodological rigor. Studies that utilize these methods, such as the stepped-wedge design and the wait-list cross-over design, can increase the evidence base for controlled studies conducted within the complex environment of PBR.

  14. MicroarrayDesigner: an online search tool and repository for near-optimal microarray experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhatosmanoglu Nilgun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual-channel microarray experiments are commonly employed for inference of differential gene expressions across varying organisms and experimental conditions. The design of dual-channel microarray experiments that can help minimize the errors in the resulting inferences has recently received increasing attention. However, a general and scalable search tool and a corresponding database of optimal designs were still missing. Description An efficient and scalable search method for finding near-optimal dual-channel microarray designs, based on a greedy hill-climbing optimization strategy, has been developed. It is empirically shown that this method can successfully and efficiently find near-optimal designs. Additionally, an improved interwoven loop design construction algorithm has been developed to provide an easily computable general class of near-optimal designs. Finally, in order to make the best results readily available to biologists, a continuously evolving catalog of near-optimal designs is provided. Conclusion A new search algorithm and database for near-optimal microarray designs have been developed. The search tool and the database are accessible via the World Wide Web at http://db.cse.ohio-state.edu/MicroarrayDesigner. Source code and binary distributions are available for academic use upon request.

  15. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs…

  16. Experimental Charging Behavior of Orion UltraFlex Array Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2010-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex arrays in both the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) environments. Note the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station (ISS). The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar mission environments. The UltraFlex photovoltaic array technology is targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The purpose of the experimental tests is to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues to ascertain if a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Stage 1 LEO plasma testing revealed that all four arrays successfully passed arc threshold bias tests down to -240 V. Stage 2 GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only the front side area of indium tin oxide coated array designs successfully passed the arc frequency tests

  17. Large-scale experimental design for decentralized SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Alex; Dellaert, Frank

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of large scale decentralized SLAM under a variety of experimental conditions to illustrate design trade-offs relevant to multi-robot mapping in challenging environments. As a part of work through the MAST CTA, the focus of these robot teams is on the use of small-scale robots with limited sensing, communication and computational resources. To evaluate mapping algorithms with large numbers (50+) of robots, we developed a simulation incorporating sensing of unlabeled landmarks, line-of-sight blocking obstacles, and communication modeling. Scenarios are randomly generated with variable models for sensing, communication, and robot behavior. The underlying Decentralized Data Fusion (DDF) algorithm in these experiments enables robots to construct a map of their surroundings by fusing local sensor measurements with condensed map information from neighboring robots. Each robot maintains a cache of previously collected condensed maps from neighboring robots, and actively distributes these maps throughout the network to ensure resilience to communication and node failures. We bound the size of the robot neighborhoods to control the growth of the size of neighborhood maps. We present the results of experiments conducted in these simulated scenarios under varying measurement models and conditions while measuring mapping performance. We discuss the trade-offs between mapping performance and scenario design, including robot teams separating and joining, multi-robot data association, exploration bounding, and neighborhood sizes.

  18. Tabletop Games: Platforms, Experimental Games and Design Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Michael; Forlines, Clifton; Koeffel, Christina; Leitner, Jakob; Shen, Chia

    While the last decade has seen massive improvements in not only the rendering quality, but also the overall performance of console and desktop video games, these improvements have not necessarily led to a greater population of video game players. In addition to continuing these improvements, the video game industry is also constantly searching for new ways to convert non-players into dedicated gamers. Despite the growing popularity of computer-based video games, people still love to play traditional board games, such as Risk, Monopoly, and Trivial Pursuit. Both video and board games have their strengths and weaknesses, and an intriguing conclusion is to merge both worlds. We believe that a tabletop form-factor provides an ideal interface for digital board games. The design and implementation of tabletop games will be influenced by the hardware platforms, form factors, sensing technologies, as well as input techniques and devices that are available and chosen. This chapter is divided into three major sections. In the first section, we describe the most recent tabletop hardware technologies that have been used by tabletop researchers and practitioners. In the second section, we discuss a set of experimental tabletop games. The third section presents ten evaluation heuristics for tabletop game design.

  19. Numerical and experimental design of coaxial shallow geothermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Niranjan

    Geothermal Energy has emerged as one of the front runners in the energy race because of its performance efficiency, abundance and production competitiveness. Today, geothermal energy is used in many regions of the world as a sustainable solution for decreasing dependence on fossil fuels and reducing health hazards. However, projects related to geothermal energy have not received their deserved recognition due to lack of computational tools associated with them and economic misconceptions related to their installation and functioning. This research focuses on numerical and experimental system design analysis of vertical shallow geothermal energy systems. The driving force is the temperature difference between a finite depth beneath the earth and its surface stimulates continuous exchange of thermal energy from sub-surface to the surface (a geothermal gradient is set up). This heat gradient is captured by the circulating refrigerant and thus, tapping the geothermal energy from shallow depths. Traditionally, U-bend systems, which consist of two one-inch pipes with a U-bend connector at the bottom, have been widely used in geothermal applications. Alternative systems include coaxial pipes (pipe-in-pipe) that are the main focus of this research. It has been studied that coaxial pipes have significantly higher thermal performance characteristics than U-bend pipes, with comparative production and installation costs. This makes them a viable design upgrade to the traditional piping systems. Analytical and numerical heat transfer analysis of the coaxial system is carried out with the help of ABAQUS software. It is tested by varying independent parameters such as materials, soil conditions and effect of thermal contact conductance on heat transfer characteristics. With the above information, this research aims at formulating a preliminary theoretical design setup for an experimental study to quantify and compare the heat transfer characteristics of U-bend and coaxial

  20. Bridging the gender divide: An experimental analysis of group formation in African villages

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Barr; Marcel Fafchamps

    2009-01-01

    Assortative matching occurs in many social contexts. We experimentally investigate gender assorting in sub-Saharan villages. In the experiment, covillagers could form groups to share winnings in a gamble choice game. The extent to which grouping arrangements were or could be enforced and, hence, the distribution of interaction costs were exogeneously varied. Thus, we can distinguish between the effects of homophily and interaction costs on the extent of observed gender assorting. We find that...

  1. Optimizing laboratory animal stress paradigms: The H-H* experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Major advances in behavioral neuroscience have been facilitated by the development of consistent and highly reproducible experimental paradigms that have been widely adopted. In contrast, many different experimental approaches have been employed to expose laboratory mice and rats to acute versus chronic intermittent stress. An argument is advanced in this review that more consistent approaches to the design of chronic intermittent stress experiments would provide greater reproducibility of results across laboratories and greater reliability relating to various neural, endocrine, immune, genetic, and behavioral adaptations. As an example, the H-H* experimental design incorporates control, homotypic (H), and heterotypic (H*) groups and allows for comparisons across groups, where each animal is exposed to the same stressor, but that stressor has vastly different biological and behavioral effects depending upon each animal's prior stress history. Implementation of the H-H* experimental paradigm makes possible a delineation of transcriptional changes and neural, endocrine, and immune pathways that are activated in precisely defined stressor contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Designing Group Examinations to Decrease Social Loafing and Increase Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revere, Lee; Elden, Max; Bartsch, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examines a method to decrease social loafing in a group examination. Students who met in teams during the semester took an exam in groups. Rules for the exam, based on the Jeopardy game show, facilitated both group and individual accountability. Feedback from students indicated that compared to a class that did not have group exams,…

  3. Designing and Assessing Productive Group Work in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Javier; Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    A history teacher examines what is successful and not successful in group work in his high school classroom and gives concrete suggestions for improving group practice. Topics discussed include preparing students for group work, supporting collaboration, inviting critical analysis, and assessing both group and individual performance. (Contains 2…

  4. Group Contribution Based Process Flowsheet Synthesis, Design and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Anterroches, Loïc; Gani, Rafiqul

    2005-01-01

    In a group contribution method for pure component property prediction, a molecule is described as a set of groups linked together to form a molecular structure. In the same way, for flowsheet "property" prediction, a flowsheet can be described as a set of process-groups linked together to represent...... provides a contribution to the "property" of the flowsheet, which can be performance in terms of energy consumption, thereby allowing a flowsheet "property" to be calculated, once it is described by the groups. Another feature of this approach is that the process-group attachments provide automatically...... the flowsheet structure. Just as a functional group is a collection of atoms, a process-group is a collection of operations forming an "unit" operation or a set of "unit" operations. The link between the process-groups are the streams similar to the bonds that are attachments to atoms/groups. Each process-group...

  5. Statistical vs. stochastic experimental design: an experimental comparison on the example of protein refolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselment, Bernd; Schoemig, Veronika; Kesten, Christopher; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of experimental problems is a challenging task in both engineering and science. In principle, two different design of experiments (DOE) strategies exist: statistical and stochastic methods. Both aim to efficiently and precisely identify optimal solutions inside the problem-specific search space. Here, we evaluate and compare both strategies on the same experimental problem, the optimization of the refolding conditions of the lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus with 26 variables under study. Protein refolding is one of the main bottlenecks in the process development for recombinant proteins. Despite intensive effort, the prediction of refolding from sequence information alone is still not applicable today. Instead, suitable refolding conditions are typically derived empirically in large screening experiments. Thus, protein refolding should constitute a good performance test for DOE strategies. We compared an iterative stochastic optimization applying a genetic algorithm and a standard statistical design consisting of a D-optimal screening step followed by an optimization via response surface methodology. Our results revealed that only the stochastic optimization was able to identify optimal refolding conditions (~1.400 U g(-1) refolded activity), which were 3.4-fold higher than the standard. Additionally, the stochastic optimization proved quite robust, as three independent optimizations performed similar. In contrast, the statistical DOE resulted in a suboptimal solution and failed to identify comparable activities. Interactions between process variables proved to be pivotal for this optimization. Hence, the linear screening model was not able to identify the most important process variables correctly. Thereby, this study highlighted the limits of the classic two-step statistical DOE.

  6. Aspects of experimental design for plant metabolomics experiments and guidelines for growth of plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Yves; Rolin, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Experiments involve the deliberate variation of one or more factors in order to provoke responses, the identification of which then provides the first step towards functional knowledge. Because environmental, biological, and/or technical noise is unavoidable, biological experiments usually need to be designed. Thus, once the major sources of experimental noise have been identified, individual samples can be grouped, randomised, and/or pooled. Like other 'omics approaches, metabolomics is characterised by the numbers of analytes largely exceeding sample number. While this unprecedented singularity in biology dramatically increases false discovery, experimental error can nevertheless be decreased in plant metabolomics experiments. For this, each step from plant cultivation to data acquisition needs to be evaluated in order to identify the major sources of error and then an appropriate design can be produced, as with any other experimental approach. The choice of technology, the time at which tissues are harvested, and the way metabolism is quenched also need to be taken into consideration, as they decide which metabolites can be studied. A further recommendation is to document data and metadata in a machine readable way. The latter should also describe every aspect of the experiment. This should provide valuable hints for future experimental design and ultimately give metabolomic data a second life. To facilitate the identification of critical steps, a list of items to be considered before embarking on time-consuming and costly metabolomic experiments is proposed.

  7. Participation in sports groups for patients with cardiac problems : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaperclaus, G; deGreef, M; Rispens, P; deCalonne, D; Landsman, M; Lie, KI; Oudhof, J

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the influence of participation in Sports Groups for Patients with Cardiac Problems (SPCP) on physical and mental fitness and on risk factor level after myocardial infarction. SPCP members (n = 74; 67 men and 7 women) were compared with Nonsporting P

  8. Design review of the Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, A.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Albuquerque, B.; Castilho, B.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Cardoso, F. R.; Guerrero, G.; Rodríguez, J. M.; Santos, J.; Costa, J. E. R.; Palacios, J.; da Silva, L.; Alves, L. R.; Costa, L. L.; Sampaio, M.; Dias Silveira, M. V.; Domingues, M. O.; Rockenbach, M.; Aquino, M. C. O.; Soares, M. C. R.; Barbosa, M. J.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Jauer, P. R.; Branco, R.; Dallaqua, R.; Stekel, T. R. C.; Pinto, T. S. N.; Menconi, V. E.; Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Gonzalez, W.; Rigozo, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE), in collaboration with the Engineering School of Lorena/University of São Paulo (EEL/USP), the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), and the Brazilian's National Laboratory for Astrophysics (LNA), is developing a solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imager to study solar processes through observations of the solar surface magnetic field. The Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope is designed to obtain full disk magnetic field and line-of-sight velocity observations in the photosphere. Here we discuss the system requirements and the first design review of the instrument. The instrument is composed by a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with a 500 mm aperture and 4000 mm focal length. LCD polarization modulators will be employed for the polarization analysis and a tuning Fabry-Perot filter for the wavelength scanning near the Fe II 630.25 nm line. Two large field-of-view, high-resolution 5.5 megapixel sCMOS cameras will be employed as sensors. Additionally, we describe the project management and system engineering approaches employed in this project. As the magnetic field anchored at the solar surface produces most of the structures and energetic events in the upper solar atmosphere and significantly influences the heliosphere, the development of this instrument plays an important role in advancing scientific knowledge in this field. In particular, the Brazilian's Space Weather program will benefit most from the development of this technology. We expect that this project will be the starting point to establish a strong research program on Solar Physics in Brazil. Our main aim is to progressively acquire the know-how to build state-of-art solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imagers for space-based platforms.

  9. Designation of organism group - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gclust Server Designation of organism group Data detail Data name Designation of organism group Description ...of data contents The definition for grouping 95 species of organism is specified. The first line specifies t... This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Designation of organism group - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive ...

  10. Group Contribution Based Process Flowsheet Synthesis, Design and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; d'Anterroches, Loïc

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a process-group-contribution Method to model. simulate and synthesize a flowsheet. The process-group based representation of a flowsheet together with a process "property" model are presented. The process-group based synthesis method is developed on the basis of the computer...

  11. Optimal experimental design with the sigma point method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkendorf, R; Kremling, A; Mangold, M

    2009-01-01

    Using mathematical models for a quantitative description of dynamical systems requires the identification of uncertain parameters by minimising the difference between simulation and measurement. Owing to the measurement noise also, the estimated parameters possess an uncertainty expressed by their variances. To obtain highly predictive models, very precise parameters are needed. The optimal experimental design (OED) as a numerical optimisation method is used to reduce the parameter uncertainty by minimising the parameter variances iteratively. A frequently applied method to define a cost function for OED is based on the inverse of the Fisher information matrix. The application of this traditional method has at least two shortcomings for models that are nonlinear in their parameters: (i) it gives only a lower bound of the parameter variances and (ii) the bias of the estimator is neglected. Here, the authors show that by applying the sigma point (SP) method a better approximation of characteristic values of the parameter statistics can be obtained, which has a direct benefit on OED. An additional advantage of the SP method is that it can also be used to investigate the influence of the parameter uncertainties on the simulation results. The SP method is demonstrated for the example of a widely used biological model.

  12. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a tokamak Experimental Power Reactor to operate at net electrical power conditions with a plant capacity factor of 50 percent for 10 years. The EPR operates in a pulsed mode at a frequency of approximately 1/min., with an approximate 75 percent duty cycle, is capable of producing approximately 72 MWe and requires 42 MWe. The annual tritium consumption is 16 kg. The EPR vacuum chamber is 6.25 m in major radius and 2.4 m in minor radius, is constructed of 2-cm thick stainless steel, and has 2-cm thick detachable, beryllium-coated coolant panels mounted on the interior. An 0.28 m stainless steel blanket and a shield ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 m surround the vacuum vessel. The coolant is H/sub 2/O. Sixteen niobium-titanium superconducting toroidal-field coils provide a field of 10 T at the coil and 4.47 T at the plasma. Superconducting ohmic-heating and equilibrium-field coils provide 135 V-s to drive the plasma current. Plasma heating is accomplished by 12 neutral beam-injectors, which provide 60 MW. The energy transfer and storage system consists of a central superconducting storage ring, a homopolar energy storage unit, and a variety of inductor-converters.

  13. Sparsely Sampling the Sky: A Bayesian Experimental Design Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Paykari, P

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of galaxy surveys will observe millions of galaxies over large volumes of the universe. These surveys are expensive both in time and cost, raising questions regarding the optimal investment of this time and money. In this work we investigate criteria for selecting amongst observing strategies for constraining the galaxy power spectrum and a set of cosmological parameters. Depending on the parameters of interest, it may be more efficient to observe a larger, but sparsely sampled, area of sky instead of a smaller contiguous area. In this work, by making use of the principles of Bayesian Experimental Design, we will investigate the advantages and disadvantages of the sparse sampling of the sky and discuss the circumstances in which a sparse survey is indeed the most efficient strategy. For the Dark Energy Survey (DES), we find that by sparsely observing the same area in a smaller amount of time, we only increase the errors on the parameters by a maximum of 0.45%. Conversely, investing the sam...

  14. Process Flow Sheet Generation & Design through a Group Contribution Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Anterroches, Loïc

    2006-01-01

    Denne afhandling beskriver udviklingen af et framework til opstilling og design af proces flowsheet ved hjælp af en systematisk strategi for Computer Aided Flowsheet Design (CAFD). Det udviklede framework omfatter formulering, løsning og analyse af CAFD problemer baseret på et koncept med procesg...

  15. [Experimental design and data handling in food microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, E A

    1993-02-01

    A discussion on the problems associated with designing experiments in Food Microbiology research is presented. After defining what is meant by Design of an Experiment, a series of questions are raised that, once answered, will help in properly designing the experiment. It is emphasized the chain research-design-model-analysis-design and the danger in blindly using well-known designs and canned programs.

  16. An efficient approach to bioconversion kinetic model generation based on automated microscale experimentation integrated with model driven experimental design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B. H.; Micheletti, M.; Baganz, F.;

    2009-01-01

    design. It incorporates a model driven approach to the experimental design that minimises the number of experiments to be performed, while still generating accurate values of kinetic parameters. The approach has been illustrated with the transketolase mediated asymmetric synthesis of L...... experimental design.]it comparison with conventional methodology, the modelling approach enabled a nearly 4-fold decrease in the number of experiments while the microwell experimentation enabled a 45-fold decrease in material requirements and a significant increase in experimental throughput. The approach......Reliable models of enzyme kinetics are required for the effective design of bioconversion processes. Kinetic expressions of the enzyme-catalysed reaction rate however, are frequently complex and establishing accurate values of kinetic parameters normally requires a large number of experiments...

  17. A common control group - optimising the experiment design to maximise sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bate

    Full Text Available Methods for choosing an appropriate sample size in animal experiments have received much attention in the statistical and biological literature. Due to ethical constraints the number of animals used is always reduced where possible. However, as the number of animals decreases so the risk of obtaining inconclusive results increases. By using a more efficient experimental design we can, for a given number of animals, reduce this risk. In this paper two popular cases are considered, where planned comparisons are made to compare treatments back to control and when researchers plan to make all pairwise comparisons. By using theoretical and empirical techniques we show that for studies where all pairwise comparisons are made the traditional balanced design, as suggested in the literature, maximises sensitivity. For studies that involve planned comparisons of the treatment groups back to the control group, which are inherently more sensitive due to the reduced multiple testing burden, the sensitivity is maximised by increasing the number of animals in the control group while decreasing the number in the treated groups.

  18. Experimental Design on Laminated Veneer Lumber Fiber Composite: Surface Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekum, U.; Mingmongkol, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Thick laminate veneer lumber(LVL) fibre reinforced composites were constructed from the alternated perpendicularly arrayed of peeled rubber woods. Glass woven was laid in between the layers. Native golden teak veneers were used as faces. In house formulae epoxy was employed as wood adhesive. The hand lay-up laminate was cured at 150° C for 45 mins. The cut specimen was post cured at 80° C for at least 5 hours. The 2k factorial design of experimental(DOE) was used to verify the parameters. Three parameters by mean of silane content in epoxy formulation(A), smoke treatment of rubber wood surface(B) and anti-termite application(C) on the wood surface were analysed. Both low and high levels were further subcategorised into 2 sub-levels. Flexural properties were the main respond obtained. ANOVA analysis of the Pareto chart was engaged. The main effect plot was also testified. The results showed that the interaction between silane quantity and termite treatment is negative effect at high level(AC+). Vice versa, the interaction between silane and smoke treatment was positive significant effect at high level(AB+). According to this research work, the optimal setting to improve the surface adhesion and hence flexural properties enhancement were high level of silane quantity, 15% by weight, high level of smoked wood layers, 8 out of 14 layers, and low anti termite applied wood. The further testes also revealed that the LVL composite had superior properties that the solid woods but slightly inferior in flexibility. The screw withdrawn strength of LVL showed the higher figure than solid wood. It is also better resistance to moisture and termite attack than the rubber wood.

  19. Optimization of model parameters and experimental designs with the Optimal Experimental Design Toolbox (v1.0) exemplified by sedimentation in salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, J.; Schuerch, M.; Slawig, T.

    2015-03-01

    The geosciences are a highly suitable field of application for optimizing model parameters and experimental designs especially because many data are collected. In this paper, the weighted least squares estimator for optimizing model parameters is presented together with its asymptotic properties. A popular approach to optimize experimental designs called local optimal experimental designs is described together with a lesser known approach which takes into account the potential nonlinearity of the model parameters. These two approaches have been combined with two methods to solve their underlying discrete optimization problem. All presented methods were implemented in an open-source MATLAB toolbox called the Optimal Experimental Design Toolbox whose structure and application is described. In numerical experiments, the model parameters and experimental design were optimized using this toolbox. Two existing models for sediment concentration in seawater and sediment accretion on salt marshes of different complexity served as an application example. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches were compared based on these models. Thanks to optimized experimental designs, the parameters of these models could be determined very accurately with significantly fewer measurements compared to unoptimized experimental designs. The chosen optimization approach played a minor role for the accuracy; therefore, the approach with the least computational effort is recommended.

  20. Direct numerical and experimental determination of group index dispersion in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    a one-row line defect. Both the numerical and experimental methods are based on the time of flight approach for an optical pulse. An increase of the group index by approximately 45 times (from 4 to 155) has been observed when approaching the cutoff of the fundamental photonic bandgap mode. Numerical 2D...... and 3D simulations of pulse dynamics in the waveguide made by the time-domain method shows excellent agreement with measured data in most of the band. These group index values in a photonic crystal waveguide are to the best of our knowledge the largest numbers reported so far by direct tracking of pulse...

  1. City Connects: Building an Argument for Effects on Student Achievement with a Quasi-Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mary; Raczek, Anastasia; Sibley, Erin; Lee-St. John, Terrence; An, Chen; Akbayin, Bercem; Dearing, Eric; Foley, Claire

    2015-01-01

    While randomized experimental designs are the gold standard in education research concerned with causal inference, non-experimental designs are ubiquitous. For researchers who work with non-experimental data and are no less concerned for causal inference, the major problem is potential omitted variable bias. In this presentation, the authors…

  2. 14 CFR 437.85 - Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Conditions of an Experimental Permit § 437.85 Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit. 437.85 Section 437.85 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE...

  3. Experimental study on load bearing behavior of large-scaled caps with pile groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Chao; Lu Bo; Gong Weiming; Qiu Hongxing

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the behavior of deep pile caps and the ultimate load-carrying capacity. Four 1/10 scaled models of nine-pile caps were cast and tested on vertical loads to failure. The destruction shapes of pile caps, the correlation between load and displacement, and the internal stresses were analyzed systematical-ly. The results demonstrated that the failures of all the four models are resulted from punching shear; the internal flow of the forces in nine-pile caps can be approximated by "strut-and-fie" model. Furthermore, the failure loads of these spec-imens were predicted by some of the present design methods and the calculated results were compared with the experi-mental loads. The comparative results also indicated that the "strut-and-tie" model is a more reasonable design method for deep pile caps design.

  4. Role of gender norms and group identification on hypothetical and experimental pain tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Gregory J; Schwegler, Andria F; Theodore, Brian R; Fuchs, Perry N

    2007-05-01

    Previous research indicates that men typically tolerate more pain in experimental settings than women. One likely explanation for these group differences in pain tolerance is conformity to traditional, gender group social norms (i.e., the ideal man is masculine and tolerates more pain; the ideal woman is feminine and tolerates less pain). According to self-categorization theory, norms guide behavior to the degree that group members adopt the group identity. Therefore, high-identifying men are expected to conform to gender norms and tolerate more pain than high-identifying women who conform to different gender norms as a guide for their behavior. We conducted two studies to investigate whether gender group identification moderates individuals' conformity to pain tolerance and reporting norms. In the first study, participants indicated their gender identification and expected tolerance of a hypothetical painful stimulus. As anticipated, high-identifying men reported significantly greater pain tolerance than high-identifying women. No differences existed between low-identifying men and women. To determine if self-reported pain tolerance in a role-playing scenario corresponds to actual pain tolerance in an experimental setting, the second study examined pain tolerance to a noxious stimulus induced by electrical stimulation of the index finger. The experimental outcome revealed that high-identifying men tolerated more painful stimulation than high-identifying women. Further, high-identifying men tolerated more pain than low-identifying men. These results highlight the influence of social norms on behavior and suggest the need to further explore the role of norms in pain reporting behaviors.

  5. Resilience of experimentally seeded dietary traditions in wild vervets: Evidence from group fissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Waal, Erica; van Schaik, Carel P; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Controlled laboratory experiments have delivered extensive and compelling evidence for the diffusion and maintenance of socially learned behavior in primates and other animals. Such evidence is rarer in the wild, but we show that a behavior seeded in a majority of individuals within vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythus) groups may be sustained across several years. Here, we report results of two natural fission events in such groups that offer novel evidence of the resilience of socially transmitted group norms of behavior. Before fission, high ranked females exhibited an almost exclusive adherence to a group preference among two food options, originally introduced through a distasteful additive in one option, but no longer present in repeated later tests. Because of rank-dependent competition, low-ranked females ate more of the formerly distasteful food and so discovered it was now as palatable as the alternative. Despite this experience, low ranked females who formed the splinter groups then expressed a 100% bias for the preferred option of their original parent group, revealing these preferences to be resilient. We interpret this effect as conformity to either the preferences of high rankers or of a majority in the parent group, or both. However, given fissioned individuals' familiarity with their habitat and experimental options, we question the adequacy of the informational function usually ascribed to conformity and discuss alternatives under a concept of "social conformity". © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Design of Self-Managing Work Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    0 .0 :j~ H H 6 work activities that ha’ e been carried oul, Under such circumsta~zces, a person feels an internal motivacional "kick" when he or she...other groups (Alderfer, 1977); and sometimes they exploit and stress group members rather than aid in their growth and personal well-being (Hackman...the theory fails to deal with other human needs that may be salient for individuals in organizations, some of which (e.g., needs for personal growth

  7. Group divisible designs of four groups and block size five with configuration (1; 1; 1; 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Mwesigwa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present constructions and results about GDDs with four groups and block size five in which each block has Configuration $(1, 1, 1, 2$, that is, each block has exactly one point from three of the four groups and two points from the fourth group. We provide the necessary conditions of the existence of a GDD$(n, 4, 5; \\lambda_1, \\lambda_2$ with Configuration $(1, 1, 1, 2$, and show that the necessary conditions are sufficient for a GDD$(n, 4, 5; \\lambda_1,$ $\\lambda_2$ with Configuration $(1, 1, 1, 2$ if $n \

  8. Artificial Warming of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future warming is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate warming is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. Warming and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a warming climate. In the MeadoWarm project we conduct an ecosystem warming experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under environmental stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under warming conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field warming facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC warming on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular

  9. STRONG LENS TIME DELAY CHALLENGE. I. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Gregory [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Treu, Tommaso; Liao, Kai [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Marshall, Phil [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Hojjati, Alireza [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Linder, Eric, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ∼10{sup 3} strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a ''Time Delay Challenge'' (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of ''ladders'', each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.

  10. Designing Freshman Interest Groups That Address Millennial Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    2011-01-01

    Residential Freshman Interest Groups (FIGS) have recently become a popular instructional and social model for academic and student affairs colleagues who are concerned that millennial students learn to reflect on life experiences and daily events as part of the learning process. An introductory FIG program recognizes that millennial students are…

  11. Development plan for the External Hazards Experimental Group. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Burns, Douglas Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kammerer, Annie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the development plan for a new multi-partner External Hazards Experimental Group (EHEG) coordinated by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) technical pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Currently, there is limited data available for development and validation of the tools and methods being developed in the RISMC Toolkit. The EHEG is being developed to obtain high-quality, small- and large-scale experimental data validation of RISMC tools and methods in a timely and cost-effective way. The group of universities and national laboratories that will eventually form the EHEG (which is ultimately expected to include both the initial participants and other universities and national laboratories that have been identified) have the expertise and experimental capabilities needed to both obtain and compile existing data archives and perform additional seismic and flooding experiments. The data developed by EHEG will be stored in databases for use within RISMC. These databases will be used to validate the advanced external hazard tools and methods.

  12. Design of a Combined Ballistic Simulator and Primer Force Experimental Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    ARL-MR-0896 ●AUG 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Design of a Combined Ballistic Simulator and Primer Force Experimental Fixture...SUBTITLE Design of a Combined Ballistic Simulator and Primer Force Experimental Fixture 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Contents List of Figures iv Acknowledgments v 1. Introduction 1 2. Background 1 3. Technical Approach 4 3.1 Hardware Design 4 3.2 Experimental Setup

  13. Efficient Experimental Design Strategies in Toxicology and Bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy E. O'Brien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelling in bioassay often uses linear or nonlinear logistic regression models, and relative potency is often the focus when two or more compounds are to be compared.  Estimation in these settings is typically based on likelihood methods.  Here, we focus on the 3-parameter model representation given in Finney (1978 in which the relative potency is a model parameter.  Using key matrix results and the general equivalence theorem of Kiefer & Wolfowitz (1960, this paper establishes key design properties of the optimal design for relative potency using this model.  We also highlight aspects of subset designs for the relative potency parameter and extend geometric designs to efficient design settings of bioassay.  These latter designs are thus useful for both parameter estimation and checking for goodness-of-fit.  A typical yet insightful example is provided from the field of toxicology to illustrate our findings.

  14. Outcomes of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-Based Skills Training Group for Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Quasi-Experimental Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahnke, Johan; Lundgren, Tobias; Hursti, Timo; Hirvikoski, Tatja

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social impairments and behavioural inflexibility. In this pilot study, the feasibility and outcomes of a 6-week acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group were evaluated in a special school setting using a quasi-experimental design (acceptance and commitment therapy/school classes as…

  15. Outcomes of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-Based Skills Training Group for Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Quasi-Experimental Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahnke, Johan; Lundgren, Tobias; Hursti, Timo; Hirvikoski, Tatja

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social impairments and behavioural inflexibility. In this pilot study, the feasibility and outcomes of a 6-week acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group were evaluated in a special school setting using a quasi-experimental design (acceptance and commitment therapy/school classes as…

  16. The Life Design Group: A Case Study Vignette in Group Career Construction Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Susan R.; Stoltz, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Providing cost efficient, yet effective, student services, including career services, is a critical component in higher education. Career services must include the perspectives of the 21st-century work place. We advocate for the delivery of career development services in a group format using a narrative approach to career counseling with college…

  17. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    added (7 mL), heating temperature (84.12°C) and heating time (15 min). When these optimal ... conditions constitute one of the major obstacles for ... a two levels factorial design;. • a design of ... balance (Sartorius Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany),.

  18. SEM for Experimental Designs: An Information Systems Example

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saurabh Gupta

    2014-01-01

    .... By combining and extending three advances in Structural Equation Modeling techniques, namely Mean and Covariance Structure analysis, Stacked Group modeling and Latent Growth modeling, the paper...

  19. MICE -- Absorber and focus coil safety working group design document: Preliminary design and assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Giles; Baynham, Elwyn; Black, Edgar; Bradshaw, Tom; Cummings, Mary Anne; Green, Michael A.; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Lau, Wing; Zisman, Michael

    2003-12-04

    A Neutrino Factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly the discovery of leptonic CP violation. it is also the first step toward a muon collider. To develop a stored-muon-beam facility to serve as a Neutrino Factory, it is necessary to ''cool'' a muon beam (decrease its phase-space volume). The short lifetime of the muon, 2.2 {micro}s at rest, eliminates all currently demonstrated cooling techniques and requires that a new, heretofore untried, technique--ionization cooling--be employed. Although ionization cooling of muons has never been demonstrated in practice, it has been shown by end-to-end simulation and design studies to be an important factor both for the performance and for the cost of a Neutrino Factory. This motivates an international program of R and D, including an experimental demonstration at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The aims of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment are: (1) to show that it is possible to design, engineer and build a section of cooling channel capable of giving the desired performance for a Neutrino Factory; and (2) to place it in a muon beam and measure its performance in various modes of operation and beam conditions, thereby investigating the limits and practicality of cooling. The MICE collaboration has designed an experiment in which a section of an ionization cooling channel is exposed to a muon beam. This cooling channel assembles liquid-hydrogen absorbers providing energy loss and high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to re-accelerate the particles, all tightly contained in a magnetic channel. It reduces the beam transverse emittance by > 10% for muon momenta between 140 and 240 MeV/c. The layout of the experiment is shown. They utilize one complete magnetic cell of the cooling channel, comprising three absorber-focus-coil (AFC) modules and two RF-coupling-coil (RFCC) modules. Spectrometers placed before

  20. Leveraging the Experimental Method to Inform Solar Cell Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary Annette; Ribblett, Jason W.; Hershberger, Heather Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the underlying logic of experimentation is exemplified within the context of a photoelectrical experiment for students taking a high school engineering, technology, or chemistry class. Students assume the role of photochemists as they plan, fabricate, and experiment with a solar cell made of copper and an aqueous solution of…

  1. Experimental validation of micro endmill design for hard milling application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, P.; Hoogstrate, A.M.; Oosterling, J.A.J.; Langen, H.H.; Munnig Schmidt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: In experimental investigations of micro milling of hardened tool steel SAE H11, with a hardness of 56 HRC, with commercially available micro square endmills of Ø 0.5mm, it was observed that the endmills suffered from severe tool wear/failure. Because of these problems, the quality of the m

  2. Leveraging the Experimental Method to Inform Solar Cell Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary Annette; Ribblett, Jason W.; Hershberger, Heather Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the underlying logic of experimentation is exemplified within the context of a photoelectrical experiment for students taking a high school engineering, technology, or chemistry class. Students assume the role of photochemists as they plan, fabricate, and experiment with a solar cell made of copper and an aqueous solution of…

  3. Gunnar Aagaard Andersen: Commercial Design and Experimental Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Vibeke Petersen

    2016-01-01

    in Copenhagen and the magazine Mobilia. These enterprises were pioneers within both the commercial–industrial creative field and experimental art from the 1950s. The industrial process, from idea and experiment to production,as well as the expanded field of visual art, was demonstrated in concrete painting...

  4. Experimental design for research on shock-turbulence interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, S. W.

    1969-01-01

    Report investigates the production of acoustic waves in the interaction of a supersonic shock and a turbulence environment. The five stages of the investigation are apparatus design, development of instrumentation, preliminary experiment, turbulence generator selection, and main experiments.

  5. Experimental techniques for design of impact-resistant material (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, J.; Weerheijm, J.; Sluys, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Some polymers are not only transparent and lightweight, but also impact and ballistic resistant. Designing and preparing such polymeric materials with a high impact‐resistant performance is of importance to e.g. aviation, military and windscreen applications.

  6. Experimental techniques for design of impact-resistant material (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, J.; Weerheijm, J.; Sluys, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Some polymers are not only transparent and lightweight, but also impact and ballistic resistant. Designing and preparing such polymeric materials with a high impact‐resistant performance is of importance to e.g. aviation, military and windscreen applications.

  7. 78 FR 47017 - Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance, SF 2823

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance, SF..., Designation of Beneficiary: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance, SF 2823. As required by the Paperwork... or retiree covered by the Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance (FEGLI) Program, or an assignee...

  8. Sources of Experimental Variation in 2-D Maps: The Importance of Experimental Design in Gel-Based Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcu, Cristina-Maria; Valcu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    The success of proteomic studies employing 2-D maps largely depends on the way surveys and experiments have been organized and performed. Planning gel-based proteomic experiments involves the selection of equipment, methodology, treatments, types and number of samples, experimental layout, and methods for data analysis. A good experimental design will maximize the output of the experiment while taking into account the biological and technical resources available. In this chapter we provide guidelines to assist proteomics researchers in all these choices and help them to design quantitative 2-DE experiments.

  9. Physics Design of Water Moderator Criticality Assembly in Experimental Research About ADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV; Niu

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet the experimental demand of ADS research,we need to design a suitable criticality assembly.The key problem of the design work is the core design,we design a criticality assembly with the water moderator according to available nuclear material(Fig.1).The theoretical calculation have been

  10. Designing a Repetitive Group Sampling Plan for Weibull Distributed Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance sampling plans are useful tools to determine whether the submitted lots should be accepted or rejected. An efficient and economic sampling plan is very desirable for the high quality levels required by the production processes. The process capability index CL is an important quality parameter to measure the product quality. Utilizing the relationship between the CL index and the nonconforming rate, a repetitive group sampling (RGS plan based on CL index is developed in this paper when the quality characteristic follows the Weibull distribution. The optimal plan parameters of the proposed RGS plan are determined by satisfying the commonly used producer’s risk and consumer’s risk at the same time by minimizing the average sample number (ASN and then tabulated for different combinations of acceptance quality level (AQL and limiting quality level (LQL. The results show that the proposed plan has better performance than the single sampling plan in terms of ASN. Finally, the proposed RGS plan is illustrated with an industrial example.

  11. Optimization of single-walled carbon nanotube solubility by noncovalent PEGylation using experimental design methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadidi N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Naghmeh Hadidi1, Farzad Kobarfard2, Nastaran Nafissi-Varcheh3, Reza Aboofazeli11Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: In this study, noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with phospholipid-polyethylene glycols (Pl-PEGs was performed to improve the solubility of SWCNTs in aqueous solution. Two kinds of PEG derivatives, ie, Pl-PEG 2000 and Pl-PEG 5000, were used for the PEGylation process. An experimental design technique (D-optimal design and second-order polynomial equations was applied to investigate the effect of variables on PEGylation and the solubility of SWCNTs. The type of PEG derivative was selected as a qualitative parameter, and the PEG/SWCNT weight ratio and sonication time were applied as quantitative variables for the experimental design. Optimization was performed for two responses, aqueous solubility and loading efficiency. The grafting of PEG to the carbon nanostructure was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Aqueous solubility and loading efficiency were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and measurement of free amine groups, respectively. Results showed that Pl-PEGs were grafted onto SWCNTs. Aqueous solubility of 0.84 mg/mL and loading efficiency of nearly 98% were achieved for the prepared Pl-PEG 5000-SWCNT conjugates. Evaluation of functionalized SWCNTs showed that our noncovalent functionalization protocol could considerably increase aqueous solubility, which is an essential criterion in the design of a carbon nanotube-based drug delivery system and its biodistribution.Keywords: phospholipid-PEG, D-optimal design, loading efficiency, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, theromogravimetric analysis, carbon nanotubes

  12. Nanowire piezo-phototronic photodetector: theory and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zongyin; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-03-15

    The piezo-phototronic effect is about the use of the inner crystal piezoelectric potential to tune/control charge carrier generation, separation, transport and/or recombination in optoelectronic devices. In this paper, a theoretical model for describing the characteristics of a metal-nanowire-metal structured piezo-phototronic photodetector is constructed. Numerical simulations fit well to the experimental results of a CdS and ZnO nanowire based visible and UV detector, respectively.

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Three Designs of Electrodynamic Flexural Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Tobias J. R.; Laws, Michael; Kang, Lei; Fan, Yichao; Ramadas, Sivaram N.; Dixon, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Three designs for electrodynamic flexural transducers (EDFT) for air-coupled ultrasonics are presented and compared. An all-metal housing was used for robustness, which makes the designs more suitable for industrial applications. The housing is designed such that there is a thin metal plate at the front, with a fundamental flexural vibration mode at ∼50 kHz. By using a flexural resonance mode, good coupling to the load medium was achieved without the use of matching layers. The front radiating plate is actuated electrodynamically by a spiral coil inside the transducer, which produces an induced magnetic field when an AC current is applied to it. The transducers operate without the use of piezoelectric materials, which can simplify manufacturing and prolong the lifetime of the transducers, as well as open up possibilities for high-temperature applications. The results show that different designs perform best for the generation and reception of ultrasound. All three designs produced large acoustic pressure outputs, with a recorded sound pressure level (SPL) above 120 dB at a 40 cm distance from the highest output transducer. The sensitivity of the transducers was low, however, with single shot signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)≃15 dB in transmit–receive mode, with transmitter and receiver 40 cm apart. PMID:27571075

  14. Experimental Characterisation of Moreno Cross Slot Couplers for Blass Matrix Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jery Varghese

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental characterisation of Moreno cross-slot coupler which is the basic building block of multiple beam forming network (Blass matrix. The lack of exact theory of such coupler requires extensive experimental evaluation. A novel test jig has been designed, fabricated and tested for this purpose. The experimental results for different scattering parameters are presented.

  15. "Using Power Tables to Compute Statistical Power in Multilevel Experimental Designs"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2009-01-01

    Power computations for one-level experimental designs that assume simple random samples are greatly facilitated by power tables such as those presented in Cohen's book about statistical power analysis. However, in education and the social sciences experimental designs have naturally nested structures and multilevel models are needed to compute the…

  16. Optimization of preservatives in a topical formulation using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahali, Y; Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M; Mielcarek, C; Bensouda, Y

    2009-12-01

    Optimizing the preservative regime for a preparation requires the antimicrobial effectiveness of several preservative combinations to be determined. In this study, three preservatives were tested: benzoic acid, sorbic acid and benzylic alcohol. Their preservative effects were evaluated using the antimicrobial preservative efficacy test (challenge-test) of the European Pharmacopeia (EP). A D-optimal mixture design was used to provide a maximum of information from a limited number of experiments. The results of this study were analysed with the help of the Design Expert software and enabled us to formulate emulsions satisfying both requirements A and B of the EP.

  17. Evaluation of a Group Counseling Program Designed to Enhance Social Adjustment of Mentally Retarded Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Yul

    1977-01-01

    Moderately retarded institutionalized residents received 10 weeks of structured group counseling focused on five areas of social and personal adjustment. Results showed that in each of the above variables, the experimental group showed a greater mean score than that of the control group. (Author)

  18. A Short Guide to Experimental Design and Analysis for Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    study of women’s ratings of men based on masculinity , Frederick and Haselton had participants performing octuple duty – providing ratings of...et al. (2012) CK-12 Middle School Math Grade 6. Vol. 1, CK-12 Foundation Mitchell, M. L. and Jolley, J. M. (2010) Research Design Explained. 7th ed

  19. Design and experimental evaluation of cooperative adaptive cruise control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Nunen, E. van; Wouw, N. van de; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    Road throughput can be increased by driving at small inter-vehicle time gaps. The amplification of velocity disturbances in upstream direction, however, poses limitations to the minimum feasible time gap. String-stable behavior is thus considered an essential requirement for the design of automatic

  20. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations. (MOW)

  1. Creativity in Advertising Design Education: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever thought about why qualities whose definitions are elusive, such as those of a sunset or a half-opened rose, affect us so powerfully? According to de Saussure (Course in general linguistics, 1983), the making of meanings is closely related to the production and interpretation of signs. All types of design, including advertising…

  2. The Inquiry Flame: Scaffolding for Scientific Inquiry through Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Richard; Parker, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In the lesson presented in this article, students learn to organize their thinking and design their own inquiry experiments through careful observation of an object, situation, or event. They then conduct these experiments and report their findings in a lab report, poster, trifold board, slide, or video that follows the typical format of the…

  3. HEAO C-1 gamma-ray spectrometer. [experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Willett, J. B.; Jacobson, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectroscopy experiment to be launched on the third High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO C) will perform a complete sky search for narrow gamma-ray line emission to the level of about 00001 photons/sq cm -sec for steady point sources. The design of this experiment and its performance based on testing and calibration to date are discussed.

  4. Design and experimental evaluation of cooperative adaptive cruise control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Nunen, E. van; Wouw, N. van de; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    Road throughput can be increased by driving at small inter-vehicle time gaps. The amplification of velocity disturbances in upstream direction, however, poses limitations to the minimum feasible time gap. String-stable behavior is thus considered an essential requirement for the design of automatic

  5. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS BY INCORPORATING NIF FACILITY IMPACTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, D C; Whitman, P K; Koniges, A E; Anderson, R W; Wang, P; Gunney, B T; Parham, T G; Koerner, J G; Dixit, S N; . Suratwala, T I; Blue, B E; Hansen, J F; Tobin, M T; Robey, H F; Spaeth, M L; MacGowan, B J

    2005-08-31

    For experimental campaigns on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to be successful, they must obtain useful data without causing unacceptable impact on the facility. Of particular concern is excessive damage to optics and diagnostic components. There are 192 fused silica main debris shields (MDS) exposed to the potentially hostile target chamber environment on each shot. Damage in these optics results either from the interaction of laser light with contamination and pre-existing imperfections on the optic surface or from the impact of shrapnel fragments. Mitigation of this second damage source is possible by identifying shrapnel sources and shielding optics from them. It was recently demonstrated that the addition of 1.1-mm thick borosilicate disposable debris shields (DDS) block the majority of debris and shrapnel fragments from reaching the relatively expensive MDS's. However, DDS's cannot stop large, faster moving fragments. We have experimentally demonstrated one shrapnel mitigation technique showing that it is possible to direct fast moving fragments by changing the source orientation, in this case a Ta pinhole array. Another mitigation method is to change the source material to one that produces smaller fragments. Simulations and validating experiments are necessary to determine which fragments can penetrate or break 1-3 mm thick DDS's. Three-dimensional modeling of complex target-diagnostic configurations is necessary to predict the size, velocity, and spatial distribution of shrapnel fragments. The tools we are developing will be used to set the allowed level of debris and shrapnel generation for all NIF experimental campaigns.

  7. Control Group Design, Contamination and Drop-Out in Exercise Oncology Trials : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Charlotte N. Steins; Courneya, Kerry S.; Velthuis, Miranda J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Jones, Lee W.; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H. M.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of

  8. On the construction of experimental designs for a given task by jointly optimizing several quality criteria: Pareto-optimal experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M S; Sarabia, L A; Ortiz, M C

    2012-11-19

    Experimental designs for a given task should be selected on the base of the problem being solved and of some criteria that measure their quality. There are several such criteria because there are several aspects to be taken into account when making a choice. The most used criteria are probably the so-called alphabetical optimality criteria (for example, the A-, E-, and D-criteria related to the joint estimation of the coefficients, or the I- and G-criteria related to the prediction variance). Selecting a proper design to solve a problem implies finding a balance among these several criteria that measure the performance of the design in different aspects. Technically this is a problem of multi-criteria optimization, which can be tackled from different views. The approach presented here addresses the problem in its real vector nature, so that ad hoc experimental designs are generated with an algorithm based on evolutionary algorithms to find the Pareto-optimal front. There is not theoretical limit to the number of criteria that can be studied and, contrary to other approaches, no just one experimental design is computed but a set of experimental designs all of them with the property of being Pareto-optimal in the criteria needed by the user. Besides, the use of an evolutionary algorithm makes it possible to search in both continuous and discrete domains and avoid the need of having a set of candidate points, usual in exchange algorithms.

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Unicast and Multicast CoAP Group Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Isam; Hoebeke, Jeroen; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet

    2016-07-21

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding rapidly to new domains in which embedded devices play a key role and gradually outnumber traditionally-connected devices. These devices are often constrained in their resources and are thus unable to run standard Internet protocols. The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a new alternative standard protocol that implements the same principals as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), but is tailored towards constrained devices. In many IoT application domains, devices need to be addressed in groups in addition to being addressable individually. Two main approaches are currently being proposed in the IoT community for CoAP-based group communication. The main difference between the two approaches lies in the underlying communication type: multicast versus unicast. In this article, we experimentally evaluate those two approaches using two wireless sensor testbeds and under different test conditions. We highlight the pros and cons of each of them and propose combining these approaches in a hybrid solution to better suit certain use case requirements. Additionally, we provide a solution for multicast-based group membership management using CoAP.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Unicast and Multicast CoAP Group Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Isam; Hoebeke, Jeroen; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding rapidly to new domains in which embedded devices play a key role and gradually outnumber traditionally-connected devices. These devices are often constrained in their resources and are thus unable to run standard Internet protocols. The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a new alternative standard protocol that implements the same principals as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), but is tailored towards constrained devices. In many IoT application domains, devices need to be addressed in groups in addition to being addressable individually. Two main approaches are currently being proposed in the IoT community for CoAP-based group communication. The main difference between the two approaches lies in the underlying communication type: multicast versus unicast. In this article, we experimentally evaluate those two approaches using two wireless sensor testbeds and under different test conditions. We highlight the pros and cons of each of them and propose combining these approaches in a hybrid solution to better suit certain use case requirements. Additionally, we provide a solution for multicast-based group membership management using CoAP. PMID:27455262

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Unicast and Multicast CoAP Group Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Ishaq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is expanding rapidly to new domains in which embedded devices play a key role and gradually outnumber traditionally-connected devices. These devices are often constrained in their resources and are thus unable to run standard Internet protocols. The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP is a new alternative standard protocol that implements the same principals as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP, but is tailored towards constrained devices. In many IoT application domains, devices need to be addressed in groups in addition to being addressable individually. Two main approaches are currently being proposed in the IoT community for CoAP-based group communication. The main difference between the two approaches lies in the underlying communication type: multicast versus unicast. In this article, we experimentally evaluate those two approaches using two wireless sensor testbeds and under different test conditions. We highlight the pros and cons of each of them and propose combining these approaches in a hybrid solution to better suit certain use case requirements. Additionally, we provide a solution for multicast-based group membership management using CoAP.

  12. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  13. Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research: comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Design and experimental validation of a compact collimated Knudsen source

    CERN Document Server

    Wouters, Steinar H W; Mutsaers, Peter H A; Vredenbregt, Edgar J D

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design and performance of a collimated Knudsen source which has the benefit of a simple design over recirculating sources. Measurements of the flux, transverse velocity distribution and brightness at different temperatures were conducted to evaluate the performance. The scaling of the flux and brightness with the source temperature follow the theoretical predictions. The transverse velocity distribution in the transparent operation regime also agrees with the simulated data. The source was found able to produce a flux of $10^{14}$ s$^{-1}$ at a temperature of 433 K. Furthermore the transverse reduced brightness of an ion beam with equal properties as the atomic beam reads $1.7 \\times 10^2$ A/(m${}^2$ sr eV) which is sufficient for our goal: the creation of an ultra-cold ion beam by ionization of a laser-cooled and compressed atomic rubidium beam.

  15. Design and experimental demonstration of optomechanical paddle nanocavities

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Chris; Wu, Marcelo; Khanaliloo, Behzad; Mitchell, Matthew; Hryciw, Aaron C; Barclay, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and initial characterization of a paddle nanocavity consisting of a suspended sub-picogram nanomechanical resonator optomechanically coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity. The optical and mechanical properties of the paddle nanocavity can be systematically designed and optimized, and key characteristics including mechanical frequency easily tailored. Measurements under ambient conditions of a silicon paddle nanocavity demonstrate an optical mode with quality factor $Q_o$ ~ 6000 near 1550 nm, and optomechanical coupling to several mechanical resonances with frequencies $\\omega_m/2\\pi$ ~ 12-64 MHz, effective masses $m_\\text{eff}$ ~ 350-650 fg, and mechanical quality factors $Q_m$ ~ 44-327. Paddle nanocavities are promising for optomechanical sensing and nonlinear optomechanics experiments.

  16. Design and experimental demonstration of optomechanical paddle nanocavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Chris; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Wu, Marcelo; Khanaliloo, Behzad; Mitchell, Matthew; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Barclay, Paul E.

    2015-12-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and initial characterization of a paddle nanocavity consisting of a suspended sub-picogram nanomechanical resonator optomechanically coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity. The optical and mechanical properties of the paddle nanocavity can be systematically designed and optimized, and the key characteristics including mechanical frequency can be easily tailored. Measurements under ambient conditions of a silicon paddle nanocavity demonstrate an optical mode with a quality factor Q o ˜ 6000 near 1550 nm and optomechanical coupling to several mechanical resonances with frequencies ω m / 2 π ˜ 12 - 64 MHz, effective masses m eff ˜ 350 - 650 fg, and mechanical quality factors Q m ˜ 44 - 327 . Paddle nanocavities are promising for optomechanical sensing and nonlinear optomechanics experiments.

  17. Experimental design, modeling and optimization of polyplex formation between DNA oligonucleotides and branched polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clima, Lilia; Ursu, Elena L; Cojocaru, Corneliu; Rotaru, Alexandru; Barboiu, Mihail; Pinteala, Mariana

    2015-09-28

    The complexes formed by DNA and polycations have received great attention owing to their potential application in gene therapy. In this study, the binding efficiency between double-stranded oligonucleotides (dsDNA) and branched polyethylenimine (B-PEI) has been quantified by processing of the images captured from the gel electrophoresis assays. The central composite experimental design has been employed to investigate the effects of controllable factors on the binding efficiency. On the basis of experimental data and the response surface methodology, a multivariate regression model has been constructed and statistically validated. The model has enabled us to predict the binding efficiency depending on experimental factors, such as concentrations of dsDNA and B-PEI as well as the initial pH of solution. The optimization of the binding process has been performed using simplex and gradient methods. The optimal conditions determined for polyplex formation have yielded a maximal binding efficiency close to 100%. In order to reveal the mechanism of complex formation at the atomic-scale, a molecular dynamic simulation has been carried out. According to the computation results, B-PEI amine hydrogen atoms have interacted with oxygen atoms from dsDNA phosphate groups. These interactions have led to the formation of hydrogen bonds between macromolecules, stabilizing the polyplex structure.

  18. Early Childhood Student Teachers’ Observation and Experimentation of Creative Practices as a Design Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Minelli de Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the guidance of student teachers in initial training in schools as an invaluable opportunity to raise creative learning awareness. The objective of this present research is to develop guidance strategies for guiding the identification of creative practices and for analyzing that moment as a “way of knowing”. We analyze how to mentor future teachers so they feel willing to promote student engagement and creative thinking through their own practices. We adopted a case study approach guided by multimodal principles. We found that triangulation of individual interviews, focus group discussions and a diary of class observation was a useful strategy in the guidance of student teachers in initial training in schools. Results show these strategies allowed them to become more accepting of unpredicted or undesired results, as they approached their sessions’ designs as forms of experimentation. We argue it is essential to guide future educators in the critical analysis of the “standard classroom”, helping them design creative alternatives through collaborative experimentation.

  19. High-power CMUTs: design and experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaner, F Yalçin; Olçum, Selim; Oğuz, H Kağan; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Köymen, Hayrettin; Atalar, Abdullah

    2012-06-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have great potential to compete with piezoelectric transducers in high-power applications. As the output pressures increase, nonlinearity of CMUT must be reconsidered and optimization is required to reduce harmonic distortions. In this paper, we describe a design approach in which uncollapsed CMUT array elements are sized so as to operate at the maximum radiation impedance and have gap heights such that the generated electrostatic force can sustain a plate displacement with full swing at the given drive amplitude. The proposed design enables high output pressures and low harmonic distortions at the output. An equivalent circuit model of the array is used that accurately simulates the uncollapsed mode of operation. The model facilities the design of CMUT parameters for high-pressure output, without the intensive need for computationally involved FEM tools. The optimized design requires a relatively thick plate compared with a conventional CMUT plate. Thus, we used a silicon wafer as the CMUT plate. The fabrication process involves an anodic bonding process for bonding the silicon plate with the glass substrate. To eliminate the bias voltage, which may cause charging problems, the CMUT array is driven with large continuous wave signals at half of the resonant frequency. The fabricated arrays are tested in an oil tank by applying a 125-V peak 5-cycle burst sinusoidal signal at 1.44 MHz. The applied voltage is increased until the plate is about to touch the bottom electrode to get the maximum peak displacement. The observed pressure is about 1.8 MPa with -28 dBc second harmonic at the surface of the array.

  20. Experimental design and construction of an enhanced solar battery charger

    OpenAIRE

    Faithpraise, Fina; Bassey, Donatus; Charles, Mfon; Osahon, Okoro; Udoh, Monday; Chatwin, Chris

    2016-01-01

    A Solar Battery Charger circuit is designed, built and tested. It acts as a control circuit to monitor and regulate the process of charging several batteries ranging from 4 volts to 12 volts, using a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel as the input source for the battery charging process. The circuit is economical and can be easily constructed from discrete electronic components. The circuit operation is based on matching the solar panel terminal load voltage to the input terminal of the charging c...

  1. Optimal experimental designs for dose–response studies with continuous endpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Holland-Letz, Tim; Kopp-Schneider, Annette

    2014-01-01

    In most areas of clinical and preclinical research, the required sample size determines the costs and effort for any project, and thus, optimizing sample size is of primary importance. An experimental design of dose–response studies is determined by the number and choice of dose levels as well as the allocation of sample size to each level. The experimental design of toxicological studies tends to be motivated by convention. Statistical optimal design theory, however, allows the setting of ex...

  2. Statistical Approaches in Analysis of Variance: from Random Arrangements to Latin Square Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background: The choices of experimental design as well as of statisticalanalysis are of huge importance in field experiments. These are necessary tobe correctly in order to obtain the best possible precision of the results. Therandom arrangements, randomized blocks and Latin square designs werereviewed and analyzed from the statistical perspective of error analysis.Material and Method: Random arrangements, randomized block and Latinsquares experimental designs were used as field experiments. ...

  3. Group support system and explanatory feedback: An experimental study of mitigating halo effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intiyas Utami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment potentially leads to halo effect that will affect accuracy of auditors decision-making process. Biased initial audit decision will potentially influence final audit decision. It is there-fore necessary to mitigate halo effect that is the consequence of auditors good impression on clients initial condition. This re-search aims to empirically show that halo effect can be mitigated by explanatory feedback and Group Support System (GSS. The researchers experimentally mani-pulate explanatory feedback and GSS using online web-site. The subjects are stu-dents who have already taken auditing courses. The results show that: 1 explanato-ry feedback can mitigate halo effect so that audit decision will be more accurate 2 GSS can also mitigate halo effect 3 explanatory feedback and GSS are the best me-thods to mitigate halo effect.

  4. Experimental burn plot trial in the Kruger National Park: history, experimental design and suggestions for data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biggs

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental burn plot (EBP trial initiated in 1954 is one of few ongoing long-termfire ecology research projects in Africa. The trial aims to assess the impacts of differentfire regimes in the Kruger National Park. Recent studies on the EBPs have raised questions as to the experimental design of the trial, and the appropriate model specificationwhen analysing data. Archival documentation reveals that the original design was modified on several occasions, related to changes in the park's fire policy. These modifications include the addition of extra plots, subdivision of plots and changes in treatmentsover time, and have resulted in a design which is only partially randomised. The representativity of the trial plots has been questioned on account of their relatively small size,the concentration of herbivores on especially the frequently burnt plots, and soil variation between plots. It is suggested that these factors be included as covariates inexplanatory models or that certain plots be excluded from data analysis based on resultsof independent studies of these factors. Suggestions are provided for the specificationof the experimental design when analysing data using Analysis of Variance. It is concluded that there is no practical alternative to treating the trial as a fully randomisedcomplete block design.

  5. Gladstone-Dale constant for CF4. [experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W., Jr.; Goad, W. K.

    1980-01-01

    The Gladstone-Dale constant, which relates the refractive index to density, was measured for CF4 by counting fringes of a two-beam interferometer, one beam of which passes through a cell containing the test gas. The experimental approach and sources of systematic and imprecision errors are discussed. The constant for CF4 was measured at several wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum. A value of 0.122 cu cm/g with an uncertainty of plus or minus 0.001 cu cm/g was determined for use in the visible region. A procedure for noting the departure of the gas density from the ideal-gas law is discussed.

  6. IL-4 Deficiency Decreases Mortality but Increases Severity of Arthritis in Experimental Group B Streptococcus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tissi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-4 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that inhibits the onset and severity in different experimental arthritis models. Group B streptococci (GBS have been recognized as an ever-growing cause of serious invasive infections in nonpregnant adults. Septic arthritis is a clinical manifestation of GBS infection. To investigate the role of IL-4 in experimental GBS infection, IL-4 deficient or competent mice were inoculated with 1×107 GBS/mouse. Mortality, appearance of arthritis, GBS growth in the organs, and local and systemic cytokine and chemokine production were examined. IL-4–/– mice showed lower mortality rates but increased severity of arthritis and exhibited a lower microbial load in blood, kidneys, and joints than wt mice. Increased local levels of IL-1 β, IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, and MIP-2 accompanied the more severe arthritis in IL-4–/– mice. Our results suggest a detrimental role of IL-4 in GBS sepsis, whereas it plays a beneficial effect on GBS-induced arthritis.

  7. Experimental design and quality assurance: in situ fluorescence instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N.; Del Castillo, Carlos E.; Downing, Bryan D.; Chen, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Both instrument design and capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy have greatly advanced over the last several decades. Advancements include solid-state excitation sources, integration of fiber optic technology, highly sensitive multichannel detectors, rapid-scan monochromators, sensitive spectral correction techniques, and improve data manipulation software (Christian et al., 1981, Lochmuller and Saavedra, 1986; Cabniss and Shuman, 1987; Lakowicz, 2006; Hudson et al., 2007). The cumulative effect of these improvements have pushed the limits and expanded the application of fluorescence techniques to numerous scientific research fields. One of the more powerful advancements is the ability to obtain in situ fluorescence measurements of natural waters (Moore, 1994). The development of submersible fluorescence instruments has been made possible by component miniaturization and power reduction including advances in light sources technologies (light-emitting diodes, xenon lamps, ultraviolet [UV] lasers) and the compatible integration of new optical instruments with various sampling platforms (Twardowski et at., 2005 and references therein). The development of robust field sensors skirt the need for cumbersome and or time-consuming filtration techniques, the potential artifacts associated with sample storage, and coarse sampling designs by increasing spatiotemporal resolution (Chen, 1999; Robinson and Glenn, 1999). The ability to obtain rapid, high-quality, highly sensitive measurements over steep gradients has revolutionized investigations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) optical properties, thereby enabling researchers to address novel biogeochemical questions regarding colored or chromophoric DOM (CDOM). This chapter is dedicated to the origin, design, calibration, and use of in situ field fluorometers. It will serve as a review of considerations to be accounted for during the operation of fluorescence field sensors and call attention to areas of concern when making

  8. The Influence of Older Age Groups to Sustainable Product Design Research of Urban Public Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-juan, Zhang; Hou-peng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Through summarize the status quo of public facilities design to older age groups in China and a variety of factors what influence on them, the essay, from different perspective, is designed to put forward basic principle to sustainable design of public facilities for the aged in the city, and thus further promote and popularize the necessity of sustainable design applications in the future design of public facilities for elderly people.

  9. A quantitative review of ethnic group differences in experimental pain response: do biology, psychology, and culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Riley, Joseph L; Williams, Ameenah K K; Fillingim, Roger B

    2012-04-01

    Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response and factors contributing to group differences. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944 to 2011, and used the PubMed bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes; identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli, and measures; and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; AA demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences has translational merit for culturally competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The ISR Asymmetrical Capacitor Thruster: Experimental Results and Improved Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Francis X.; Cole, John; Campbell, Jonathan; Winet, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    A variety of Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters has been built and tested at the Institute for Scientific Research (ISR). The thrust produced for various voltages has been measured, along with the current flowing, both between the plates and to ground through the air (or other gas). VHF radiation due to Trichel pulses has been measured and correlated over short time scales to the current flowing through the capacitor. A series of designs were tested, which were increasingly efficient. Sharp features on the leading capacitor surface (e.g., a disk) were found to increase the thrust. Surprisingly, combining that with sharp wires on the trailing edge of the device produced the largest thrust. Tests were performed for both polarizations of the applied voltage, and for grounding one or the other capacitor plate. In general (but not always) it was found that the direction of the thrust depended on the asymmetry of the capacitor rather than on the polarization of the voltage. While no force was measured in a vacuum, some suggested design changes are given for operation in reduced pressures.

  11. Physics Design of Criticality Assembly in Experimental Research About Criticality Safety in Spent Fuel Dissolver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Qi

    2012-01-01

    <正>In order to meet the experimental demand of criticality safety research in the spent fuel dissolver, we need to design a suitable criticality assembly. The key problem of the design work is the core design because there are many limits for it such as the number of fuel rods loaded, fissile materials existed in the solution, reactivity control, core size and etc.

  12. Manufacturing cereal bars with high nutritional value through experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Covino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations responsible for public health throughout the world have been increasingly worrying about how to feed populations encouraging a nutritious and balanced diet in order to decrease the occurrence of chronic diseases, which are constantly related to an inadequate diet. Still, due to matters of modern lifestyle consumers are increasingly seeking convenient products. This being so, cereal bars have been an option when the matter is low calorie fast food which is also source of fiber. This study aimed at developing a cereal bar with high dietary fiber, iron, vitamins A and vitamin E, in order to easily enable adult population achieve the daily recommendation for such nutrients. Eight formulations plus the focal point were conducted through experimental planning; sensory analysis with 110 tasters for each block and texture. Afterwards, we conducted centesimal analysis for all three formulations presenting the best sensory results. After statistical analysis and comparison to the means for products available in the market, it was possible to conclude that the product developed presented great acceptance and fiber level more than twice as much as the means for commercial products.

  13. A projection method for under determined optimal experimental designs

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2014-01-09

    A new implementation, based on the Laplace approximation, was developed in (Long, Scavino, Tempone, & Wang 2013) to accelerate the estimation of the post–experimental expected information gains in the model parameters and predictive quantities of interest. A closed–form approximation of the inner integral and the order of the corresponding dominant error term were obtained in the cases where the parameters are determined by the experiment. In this work, we extend that method to the general cases where the model parameters could not be determined completely by the data from the proposed experiments. We carry out the Laplace approximations in the directions orthogonal to the null space of the corresponding Jacobian matrix, so that the information gain (Kullback–Leibler divergence) can be reduced to an integration against the marginal density of the transformed parameters which are not determined by the experiments. Furthermore, the expected information gain can be approximated by an integration over the prior, where the integrand is a function of the projected posterior covariance matrix. To deal with the issue of dimensionality in a complex problem, we use Monte Carlo sampling or sparse quadratures for the integration over the prior probability density function, depending on the regularity of the integrand function. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed method via several nonlinear under determined numerical examples.

  14. Experimental strategies in carrying out VCU for tobacco crop I: plot design and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, F H R B; Ramalho, M A P; Pulcinelli, C E; Bruzi, A T

    2013-09-19

    We aimed to establish standards for tobacco Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU) in Brazil. We obtained information regarding the size and design of plots of two varietal groups of tobacco (Virginia and Burley). Ten inbred lines of each varietal group were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plot contained 42 plants with six rows of seven columns each. For each experiment plant, considering the position of the respective plant in the plot (row and column) as a reference, cured leaf weight (g/plant), total sugar content (%), and total alkaloid content (%) were determined. The maximum curvature of the variations in coefficients was estimated. Trials with the number of plants per plot ranging from 2 to 41 were simulated. The use of a border was not justified because the interactions between inbred lines x position in the plots were never significant, showing that the behavior of the inbred lines coincided with the different positions. The plant performance varied according to the column position in the plot. To lessen the effect of this factor, the use of plots with more than one row is recommended. Experimental precision, evaluated by the CV%, increased with an increase in plot size; nevertheless, the maximum curvature of the variation coefficient method showed no expressive increase in precision if the number of plants was greater than seven. The result in identification of the best inbred line, in terms of the size of each plot, coincided with the maximum curvature method.

  15. The Group of Automorphisms of Transitive 2-(v, 23, 1) Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shang-zhao

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the study of the automorphism groups of 2−(v, k, 1) designs. Let D be a 2−(v, 23, 1) design and G a block-transitive and point-primitive group of automorphism of D. Then the socle of G is not Sz(q) and 2G2(q).

  16. A modified experimental hut design for studying responses of disease-transmitting mosquitoes to indoor interventions: the Ifakara experimental huts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredros O Okumu

    Full Text Available Differences between individual human houses can confound results of studies aimed at evaluating indoor vector control interventions such as insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS. Specially designed and standardised experimental huts have historically provided a solution to this challenge, with an added advantage that they can be fitted with special interception traps to sample entering or exiting mosquitoes. However, many of these experimental hut designs have a number of limitations, for example: 1 inability to sample mosquitoes on all sides of huts, 2 increased likelihood of live mosquitoes flying out of the huts, leaving mainly dead ones, 3 difficulties of cleaning the huts when a new insecticide is to be tested, and 4 the generally small size of the experimental huts, which can misrepresent actual local house sizes or airflow dynamics in the local houses. Here, we describe a modified experimental hut design - The Ifakara Experimental Huts- and explain how these huts can be used to more realistically monitor behavioural and physiological responses of wild, free-flying disease-transmitting mosquitoes, including the African malaria vectors of the species complexes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus, to indoor vector control-technologies including ITNs and IRS. Important characteristics of the Ifakara experimental huts include: 1 interception traps fitted onto eave spaces and windows, 2 use of eave baffles (panels that direct mosquito movement to control exit of live mosquitoes through the eave spaces, 3 use of replaceable wall panels and ceilings, which allow safe insecticide disposal and reuse of the huts to test different insecticides in successive periods, 4 the kit format of the huts allowing portability and 5 an improved suite of entomological procedures to maximise data quality.

  17. A passive exoskeleton with artificial tendons: design and experimental evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Wietse; van der Kooij, Herman; Hekman, Edsko

    2011-01-01

    We developed a passive exoskeleton that was designed to minimize joint work during walking. The exoskeleton makes use of passive structures, called artificial tendons, acting in parallel with the leg. Artificial tendons are elastic elements that are able to store and redistribute energy over the human leg joints. The elastic characteristics of the tendons have been optimized to minimize the mechanical work of the human leg joints. In simulation the maximal reduction was 40 percent. The performance of the exoskeleton was evaluated in an experiment in which nine subjects participated. Energy expenditure and muscle activation were measured during three conditions: Normal walking, walking with the exoskeleton without artificial tendons, and walking with the exoskeleton with the artificial tendons. Normal walking was the most energy efficient. While walking with the exoskeleton, the artificial tendons only resulted in a negligibly small decrease in energy expenditure.

  18. Expanded microchannel heat exchanger: design, fabrication and preliminary experimental test

    CERN Document Server

    Denkenberger, David C; Pearce, Joshua M; Zhai, John; 10.1177/0957650912442781

    2012-01-01

    This paper first reviews non-traditional heat exchanger geometry, laser welding, practical issues with microchannel heat exchangers, and high effectiveness heat exchangers. Existing microchannel heat exchangers have low material costs, but high manufacturing costs. This paper presents a new expanded microchannel heat exchanger design and accompanying continuous manufacturing technique for potential low-cost production. Polymer heat exchangers have the potential for high effectiveness. The paper discusses one possible joining method - a new type of laser welding named "forward conduction welding," used to fabricate the prototype. The expanded heat exchanger has the potential to have counter-flow, cross-flow, or parallel-flow configurations, be used for all types of fluids, and be made of polymers, metals, or polymer-ceramic precursors. The cost and ineffectiveness reduction may be an order of magnitude or more, saving a large fraction of primary energy. The measured effectiveness of the prototype with 28 micro...

  19. Design,fabrication and experimental research for an electrohydrodynamic micropump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presented a novel electrohydrodynamic (EHD) micropump based on MEMS technology. The working mechanisms and classification of EHD micropump were introduced. The fabrication process of EHD micropump was presented with the material selection,optimal design of microelectrode and assembly process. Static pressure experiments and flow experiments were carried out using different fluid and the channel depth. The results indicated that the micropump could achieve a maximum static pressure head of 268 Pa at an applied voltage of 90 V. The maximum flow rate of the micropump-driven fluid could reach 106 μL/min. This paper analyzed the future of combining micropump with heat pipe to deal with heat dissipation of high power electronic chips. The maximum heat dissipation capacity of 87 W/cm2 can be realized by vaporizing the micropump-driven liquid on vaporizing section of the heat pipe.

  20. From Planning to Implementation: An Examination of Changes in the Research Design, Sample Size, and Precision of Group Randomized Trials Launched by the Institute of Education Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spybrook, Jessaca; Puente, Anne Cullen; Lininger, Monica

    2013-01-01

    This article examines changes in the research design, sample size, and precision between the planning phase and implementation phase of group randomized trials (GRTs) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences. Thirty-eight GRTs funded between 2002 and 2006 were examined. Three studies revealed changes in the experimental design. Ten studies…

  1. Role of group 3 innate lymphoid cells during experimental otitis media in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chang Gun; Gong, Sung Ho; Kim, Hee-Bok; Song, Jae-Jun; Park, Joo Hyun; Lim, Yun-Sung; Park, Seok-Won

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) in the middle ear (ME) mucosal response to bacterial infection in a rat model. To confirm the role of ILC3 in bacterially induced otitis media (OM), the serum concentrations of IL-17 and IL-22 were determined by ELISA, and the tissue expression of IL-17 and IL-22 in infected ME mucosa was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Immunohistochemical staining of specific cell surface markers was also assessed to confirm the origin of the cells expressing IL-17 and IL-22. Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the surgically-induced animal model of OM. OM was induced by inoculation of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae into the ME cavity of the rats. The rats were divided into four experimental groups: three infected groups and one control group. Infected groups were subdivided into sets of 5 rats, one for each of the three time points (1, 4 and 7 days post-inoculation). For determination of rat IL-17 and IL-22 levels in infected rats and control rats, infected or control ME mucosa sections were analyzed by immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies directed against IL-17 and IL-22. Immunohistochemical staining for CD3, RORγt, and NKp46 were also conducted on the samples to confirm the origin of cells expressing IL-17 and IL-22. IL-17 and IL-22 serum concentrations were significantly increased in the infected rats compared to control rats. Immunohistochemical staining revealed increased IL-17 and IL-22 expressions in all infected ME mucosae from the first day after inoculation. In addition, the results of tissue staining for the specific surface markers were negative for CD3 and NKp46, but were highly positive for RORγt. IL-17 and IL-22 revealed their association with the bacterially induced proliferative and hyperplastic responses of ME mucosa, which are characteristic features in pathogenesis of OM. Surface marker examination showed that the source cells for IL-17

  2. MetLab: An In Silico Experimental Design, Simulation and Analysis Tool for Viral Metagenomics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norling, Martin; Karlsson-Lindsjö, Oskar E; Gourlé, Hadrien; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Hayer, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    Metagenomics, the sequence characterization of all genomes within a sample, is widely used as a virus discovery tool as well as a tool to study viral diversity of animals. Metagenomics can be considered to have three main steps; sample collection and preparation, sequencing and finally bioinformatics. Bioinformatic analysis of metagenomic datasets is in itself a complex process, involving few standardized methodologies, thereby hampering comparison of metagenomics studies between research groups. In this publication the new bioinformatics framework MetLab is presented, aimed at providing scientists with an integrated tool for experimental design and analysis of viral metagenomes. MetLab provides support in designing the metagenomics experiment by estimating the sequencing depth needed for the complete coverage of a species. This is achieved by applying a methodology to calculate the probability of coverage using an adaptation of Stevens' theorem. It also provides scientists with several pipelines aimed at simplifying the analysis of viral metagenomes, including; quality control, assembly and taxonomic binning. We also implement a tool for simulating metagenomics datasets from several sequencing platforms. The overall aim is to provide virologists with an easy to use tool for designing, simulating and analyzing viral metagenomes. The results presented here include a benchmark towards other existing software, with emphasis on detection of viruses as well as speed of applications. This is packaged, as comprehensive software, readily available for Linux and OSX users at https://github.com/norling/metlab.

  3. Using experimental designs for modelling of intermittent air filtration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Identification of the optimal operating conditions and evaluation of their robustness are critical issues for industrial processes.A standard procedure,for modelling a laboratory-scale wire-to-cylinder electrostatic precipitator and for guiding the research of the set point,is presented.The procedure consists of formulating a set of recommendations regarding the choice of parameter values for electrostatic precipitation.The experiments were carried out on a laboratory cylindrical precipitator,built by one of the authors,with samples of wood particles.The parameters considered are the applied high voltage U,the air flow F,and the quantity of dust in air m.Several"one-factor-at-a-time"followed by factorial composite design experiments were performed,based on the following three-step strategy:1)Identify the domain of variation of the variables;2)Determine the mathematical model of the process outcome:3)Validation of the mathematical model and optimisation of the process.

  4. New experimental model design for VAPEX process experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, J.A.; Maini, B.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The vast resources of heavy oil and bitumen deposits in Venezuela and Canada have become targets for finding less costly and more effective hydrocarbon recovery methods. Solvent extraction of heavy deposits is an attractive option that is gaining much attention as an in-situ recovery method. Vapour extraction (VAPEX) is analogous to the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process for the recovery of heavy oil and tar sand reservoirs. However, in VAPEX, vaporized solvents are used instead of high temperature steam and the viscosity of the oil is reduced in situ. VAPEX is particularly suited for formations that are thin and where heat losses are unavoidable. It is also well suited in the presence of overlying gas caps; bottom water aquifers; low thermal conductivity; high water saturation; clay swelling; and, formation damage. Most modelling studies use rectangular shaped models, but these have limitations at high reservoir pressures. This study presents a new design of physical models that overcomes these limitations. The annular space between two cylindrical pipes is used for developing slice-type and sand-filled models. This newly developed model is more compatible with higher pressures. This paper compares results of VAPEX experiments using the cylindrical models and the rectangular models. The stabilized drainage rates from the newly developed cylindrical models are in very good agreement with those from the rectangular models. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  5. Social proof in social media shopping: An experimental design research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Talib Yurita Yakimin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The practices of social proof techniques to attract consumers to shop on social media have proliferated over time and been used extensively. The reviewed literature uncovers that social community recommendation, customers’ ratings and reviews, celebrity’s endorser and numbers of likes, affect consumers’ purchasing decisions. However, the effect of different types of social proof techniques on purchasing intention is unknown. This study empirically compares the effect of number of followers, celebrity endorser and social community recommendation on consumers’ purchasing intention. An experiment has been conducted and the results reveal that the consumers’ purchasing intention differs between groups. Further analysis discovers that the impact on consumers’ purchasing intention is different between high number of followers and low number of followers, and between having social community recommendation and not having social community recommendation. Though, the impact of these two techniques is equal wherein no technique is superior to other. In order to gain purchasing engagement and boost online sales, online businesses on social media are encouraged to use the power of social proof technique, either by increasing the number of followers or providing more social community recommendations.

  6. Strong Lens Time Delay Challenge: I. Experimental Design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobler, Gregory; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Phillip J; Liao, Kai; Hojjati, Alireza; Linder, Eric; Rumbaugh, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters as well as probe the dark matter (sub-)structure within the lens galaxy. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly as a result of some dedicated efforts; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ~1000 lens systems consisting of a foreground elliptical galaxy producing multiple images of a background quasar. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community to accurately measure the time delays in strong gravitational lens systems, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we invite the community to take part in a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of "ladders", each containing a group of simulated datasets to be analyzed blindly by participating independent analysis teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed le...

  7. [Correction of cronic liver failure by transplantation of liver cells suspension and cell-engineering designs (experimental investigation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Got'e, S V; Shagidulin, M Iu; Onishchenko, N A; Krasheninnikov, M E; Il'inskiĭ, I M; Mozheĭko, N P; Liundup, A V; Volkova, E A; Petrakov, K I; Avramov, P V; Perova, N V; Sevast'ianov, V I

    2013-01-01

    On an experimental model of chronic fibrotic liver damage (male rats Wistar (n-60), damage of CCl4, the duration of the experiment 90 days) it was studied the effectiveness of cell therapy for the correction of chronic liver failure. These rats were divided into 3 experimental groups: in the Ist-group (control, n=10) isotonic saline (650 mkl.) was injected; in the IInd-group (n=20) suspension of liver cells was applicated in a dose 8 - l0 x 10(6) cells; in the IIIrd-group (n=30) suspension of liver cells and bone marrow cells (mesenchymal stromal cells) in ratio 5:1 were used as cell associates on microparticles intjectable heterogeneous biopolymer hydrogel "SpheroGEL" (cell-engineering design) in common dose 8 - l0 x 10(6) It was ascertained that in the 2nd and in the 3rd groups the accelerated normalization of disturbed liver functional indices (ALT, AST, ALP) took place - to 30 days, but in the control group only to 90 days. The reliable differences in rats ofnormalization offunctional indices were absent between the IInd and the IIIrd groups. But in 90 days by using special histological dyeing it was found out that defibrotic processes in liver tissue were more expressed in the IIIrd group in comparison with the IIIrd group. Received results were consequence of prolonged vital activity of cells (liver cells and mesenchymal stromal bone marrow cells) into cell-engineering designs, which were transplanted in the IIIrd group. The obtained effect can be explained by that the developed cell-engineering designs provide adequate conditions for prolonged vital activity of the transplanted cells.

  8. Design and experimental tests of free electron laser wire scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, G. L.; Heimgartner, P.; Ischebeck, R.; Loch, C. Ozkan; Trovati, S.; Valitutti, P.; Schlott, V.; Ferianis, M.; Penco, G.

    2016-09-01

    SwissFEL is a x-rays free electron laser (FEL) driven by a 5.8 GeV linac under construction at Paul Scherrer Institut. In SwissFEL, wire scanners (WSCs) will be complementary to view-screens for emittance measurements and routinely used to monitor the transverse profile of the electron beam during FEL operations. The SwissFEL WSC is composed of an in-vacuum beam-probe—motorized by a stepper motor—and an out-vacuum pick-up of the wire signal. The mechanical stability of the WSC in-vacuum hardware has been characterized on a test bench. In particular, the motor induced vibrations of the wire have been measured and mapped for different motor speeds. Electron-beam tests of the entire WSC setup together with different wire materials have been carried out at the 250 MeV SwissFEL Injector Test Facility (SITF, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH) and at FERMI (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy). In particular, a comparative study of the relative measurement accuracy and the radiation-dose release of Al (99 )∶Si (1 ) and tungsten (W) wires has been carried out. On the basis of the outcome of the bench and electron-beam tests, the SwissFEL WSC can be qualified as a high resolution and machine-saving diagnostic tool in consideration of the mechanical stability of the scanning wire at the micrometer level and the choice of the wire material ensuring a drastic reduction of the radiation-dose release with respect to conventional metallic wires. The main aspects of the design, laboratory characterization and electron beam tests of the SwissFEL WSCs are presented.

  9. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  10. Can a Virtual Design Environment Enhance Group Creativity and the Use of Stimuli?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Ed; Chamakiotis, Petros; Howard, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    It is a common perception that creativity for design is best performed in a collaborative, group environment. Group idea generation and brainstorm sessions are of widespread practice across industries. This technique remains popular despite numerous studies highlighting the inefficiencies...... of generating idea in such a fashion. This paper puts together three ways of improving the group brainstorming session; working in nominal groups, using stimuli and working in a virtual team. The final sections sets out recommendations for a future virtual design environment capable of supporting group...... brainstorming....

  11. Thiol groups controls on arsenite binding by organic matter: new experimental and modeling evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrouillet, Charlotte; Davranche, Mélanie; Dia, Aline; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine; Pédrot, Mathieu; Marsac, Rémi; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-12-15

    Although it has been suggested that several mechanisms can describe the direct binding of As(III) to organic matter (OM), more recently, the thiol functional group of humic acid (HA) was shown to be an important potential binding site for As(III). Isotherm experiments on As(III) sorption to HAs, that have either been grafted with thiol or not, were thus conducted to investigate the preferential As(III) binding sites. There was a low level of binding of As(III) to HA, which was strongly dependent on the abundance of the thiols. Experimental datasets were used to develop a new model (the modified PHREEQC-Model VI), which defines HA as a group of discrete carboxylic, phenolic and thiol sites. Protonation/deprotonation constants were determined for each group of sites (pKA=4.28±0.03; ΔpKA=2.13±0.10; pKB=7.11±0.26; ΔpKB=3.52±0.49; pKS=5.82±0.052; ΔpKS=6.12±0.12 for the carboxylic, phenolic and thiols sites, respectively) from HAs that were either grafted with thiol or not. The pKS value corresponds to that of single thiol-containing organic ligands. Two binding models were tested: the Mono model, which considered that As(III) is bound to the HA thiol site as monodentate complexes, and the Tri model, which considered that As(III) is bound as tridentate complexes. A simulation of the available literature datasets was used to validate the Mono model, with logKMS=2.91±0.04, i.e. the monodentate hypothesis. This study highlighted the importance of thiol groups in OM reactivity and, notably, determined the As(III) concentration bound to OM (considering that Fe is lacking or at least negligible) and was used to develop a model that is able to determine the As(III) concentrations bound to OM.

  12. Delineamento experimental e tamanho de amostra para alface cultivada em hidroponia Experimental design and sample size for hydroponic lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Schimitz Marodim

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa a estabelecer o delineamento experimental e o tamanho de amostra para a cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa em hidroponia, pelo sistema NFT (Nutrient film technique. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Cultivos Sem Solo/Hidroponia, no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e baseou-se em dados de massa de plantas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, usando estrutura de cultivo de alface em hidroponia sobre bancadas de fibrocimento com seis canais, o delineamento experimental adequado é blocos ao acaso se a unidade experimental for constituída de faixas transversais aos canais das bancadas, e deve ser inteiramente casualizado se a bancada for a unidade experimental; para a variável massa de plantas, o tamanho da amostra é de 40 plantas para uma semi-amplitude do intervalo de confiança em percentagem da média (d igual a 5% e de 7 plantas para um d igual a 20%.This study was carried out to establish the experimental design and sample size for hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa crop under nutrient film technique. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Hydroponic Crops of the Horticulture Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria. The evaluated traits were plant weight. Under hydroponic conditions on concrete bench with six ducts, the most indicated experimental design for lettuce is randomised blocks for duct transversal plots or completely randomised for bench plot. The sample size for plant weight should be 40 and 7 plants, respectively, for a confidence interval of mean percentage (d equal to 5% and 20%.

  13. Design, construction and testing of a radon experimental chamber; Diseno, construccion y pruebas de una camara experimental de radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A.; Balcazar G, M

    1991-10-15

    To carry out studies on the radon behavior under controlled and stable conditions it was designed and constructed a system that consists of two parts: a container of mineral rich in Uranium and an experimentation chamber with radon united one to the other one by a step valve. The container of uranium mineral approximately contains 800 gr of uranium with a law of 0.28%; the radon gas emanated by the mineral is contained tightly by the container. When the valve opens up the radon gas it spreads to the radon experimental chamber; this contains 3 accesses that allow to install different types of detectors. The versatility of the system is exemplified with two experiments: 1. With the radon experimental chamber and an associated spectroscopic system, the radon and two of its decay products are identified. 2. The design of the system allows to couple the mineral container to other experimental geometries to demonstrate this fact it was coupled and proved a new automatic exchanger system of passive detectors of radon. The results of the new automatic exchanger system when it leave to flow the radon freely among the container and the automatic exchanger through a plastic membrane of 15 m. are shown. (Author)

  14. An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Orientation on Consensus and the Quality of Group Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Robert Mark

    The qualities of small group communication and interaction were tested in this study, which specifically measured group consensus and the quality of group decision making. Fifty groups of five members each were used. One member of each group was trained to exhibit either high or low "orientation," knowledge of the procedures the group performed.…

  15. Scaffolded Instruction Improves Student Understanding of the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…

  16. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  17. Blockade of high mobility group box-1 protein attenuates experimental severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidehiro Sawa; Takashi Ueda; Yoshifumi Takeyama; Takeo Yasuda; Makoto Shinzeki; Takahiro Nakajima; Yoshikazu Kuroda

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effects of anti-high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) neutralizing antibody in experimental severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).METHODS: SAP was induced by creating closed duodenal loop in C3H/HeN mice. SAP was induced immediately after intraperitoneal injection of anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody (200 μg). Severity of pancreatitis, organ injury (liver, kidney and lung), and bacterial translocation to pancreas was examined 12 h after induction of SAP.RESULTS: Anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody significantly improved the elevation of the serum amylase level and the histological alterations of pancreas and lung in SAP.Anti-HMGB1 antibody also significantly ameliorated the elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase and creatinine in SAP. However, anti-HMGB1 antibody worsened the bacterial translocation to pancreas.CONCLUSION: Blockade of HMGB1 attenuated the development of SAP and associated organ dysfunction,suggesting that HMGB1 may act as a key mediator for inflammatory response and organ injury in SAP.

  18. Optimal adaptive group sequential design with flexible timing of sample size determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lu; Zhang, Lanju; Yang, Bo

    2017-04-26

    Flexible sample size designs, including group sequential and sample size re-estimation designs, have been used as alternatives to fixed sample size designs to achieve more robust statistical power and better trial efficiency. In this work, a new representation of sample size re-estimation design suggested by Cui et al. [5,6] is introduced as an adaptive group sequential design with flexible timing of sample size determination. This generalized adaptive group sequential design allows one time sample size determination either before the start of or in the mid-course of a clinical study. The new approach leads to possible design optimization on an expanded space of design parameters. Its equivalence to sample size re-estimation design proposed by Cui et al. provides further insight on re-estimation design and helps to address common confusions and misunderstanding. Issues in designing flexible sample size trial, including design objective, performance evaluation and implementation are touched upon with an example to illustrate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Sample size determinations for group-based randomized clinical trials with different levels of data hierarchy between experimental and control arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Litwin, Alain H; Blackstock, Oni; Kim, Namhee; Arnsten, Julia H

    2017-02-01

    We derived sample size formulae for detecting main effects in group-based randomized clinical trials with different levels of data hierarchy between experimental and control arms. Such designs are necessary when experimental interventions need to be administered to groups of subjects whereas control conditions need to be administered to individual subjects. This type of trial, often referred to as a partially nested or partially clustered design, has been implemented for management of chronic diseases such as diabetes and is beginning to emerge more commonly in wider clinical settings. Depending on the research setting, the level of hierarchy of data structure for the experimental arm can be three or two, whereas that for the control arm is two or one. Such different levels of data hierarchy assume correlation structures of outcomes that are different between arms, regardless of whether research settings require two or three level data structure for the experimental arm. Therefore, the different correlations should be taken into account for statistical modeling and for sample size determinations. To this end, we considered mixed-effects linear models with different correlation structures between experimental and control arms to theoretically derive and empirically validate the sample size formulae with simulation studies.

  20. Analytical and experimental study of freeform object design and simultaneous manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xiaofang; Yan, Jingbin

    2003-04-01

    Applications of Virtual Reality (VR) technology in many fields have gained great success. In the product development field, VR is a good tool to provide interactive and friendly human-machine interface. Freeform Object Design and Simultaneous Manufacturing (FODSM) uses VR to establish an interactive design environment and enable simultaneous manufacturing. It aims at improving design efficiency, creativity, ease of use, and also aims at integrating design and manufacturing in order to obtain the designed object by the designer independently and simultaneously. For the current stage, key technologies to implement FODSM include the algorithm of swept volume calculation and the following Boolean operation, mechanism to provide natural and intuitive feedback. This paper uses an analytical and experimental method to implement the novel design and manufacturing technology. Key issues are analyzed and tested. Experimental details are demonstrated.

  1. A group sequential type design for three-arm non-inferiority trials with binary endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Gao, Shan

    2010-08-01

    The three-arm design with a test treatment, an active control and a placebo group is the gold standard design for non-inferiority trials if it is ethically justifiable to expose patients to placebo. In this paper, we first use the closed testing principle to establish the hierarchical testing procedure for the multiple comparisons involved in the three-arm design. For the effect preservation test we derive the explicit formula for the optimal allocation ratios. We propose a group sequential type design, which naturally accommodates the hierarchical testing procedure. Under this proposed design, Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the sequential effect preservation test when the variance of the test statistic is estimated based on the restricted maximum likelihood estimators of the response rates under the null hypothesis. When there are uncertainties for the placebo response rate, the proposed design demonstrates better operating characteristics than the fixed sample design.

  2. Leadership Styles: An Experimental Study to Determine the Comparative Effectiveness of Democratic and Autocratic Leadership in Adult, "Real World" Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadely, L. Dean; Fadely, Patricia R.

    To study the effect of democratic and autocratic leadership styles upon the commitment and productivity of voluntary adult groups, eight tenant councils, composed of approximately six persons each, were selected to serve as experimental groups. Trained researchers acting as discussion leaders for each council functioned as either democratic or…

  3. Optimum Experimental Design applied to MEMS accelerometer calibration for 9-parameter auto-calibration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin; Su, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Optimum Experimental Design (OED) is an information gathering technique used to estimate parameters, which aims to minimize the variance of parameter estimation and prediction. In this paper, we further investigate an OED for MEMS accelerometer calibration of the 9-parameter auto-calibration model. Based on a linearized 9-parameter accelerometer model, we show the proposed OED is both G-optimal and rotatable, which are the desired properties for the calibration of wearable sensors for which only simple calibration devices are available. The experimental design is carried out with a newly developed wearable health monitoring device and desired experimental results have been achieved.

  4. Green design assessment of electromechanical products based on group weighted-AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinwei; Zhou, MengChu; Li, Zhiwu; Xie, Huiguang

    2015-11-01

    Manufacturing industry is the backbone of a country's economy while environmental pollution is a serious problem that human beings must face today. The green design of electromechanical products based on enterprise information systems is an important method to solve the environmental problem. The question on how to design green products must be answered by excellent designers via both advanced design methods and effective assessment methods of electromechanical products. Making an objective and precise assessment of green design is one of the problems that must be solved when green design is conducted. An assessment method of green design on electromechanical products based on Group Weighted-AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) is proposed in this paper, together with the characteristics of green products. The assessment steps of green design are also established. The results are illustrated via the assessment of a refrigerator design.

  5. Experimental validation of systematically designed acoustic hyperbolic meta material slab exhibiting negative refraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    This Letter reports on the experimental validation of a two-dimensional acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial slab optimized to exhibit negative refractive behavior. The slab was designed using a topology optimization based systematic design method allowing for tailoring the refractive behavior. The e...

  6. A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary…

  7. Mobilities Design – towards an experimental field of research and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2016-01-01

    and physical form. The exchange value with design is twofold; first this means getting closer to the ‘material’ which is needed if mobilities research can claim to have understood contemporary mobilities, second it means that the creative, explorative and experimental approaches of the design world becomes...

  8. Overview of design development of FCC-hh Experimental Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Van Riesen-Haupt, Leon; Benedikt, Michael; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Buffat, Xavier; Burkhardt, Helmut; Cerutti, Francesco; Langner, Andy Sven; Martin, Roman; Riegler, Werner; Schulte, Daniel; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Appleby, Robert Barrie; Rafique, Haroon; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Pieloni, Tatiana; Boscolo, Manuela; Collamati, Francesco; Nevay, Laurence James; Hofer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The experimental interaction region (EIR) is one of the key areas that define the performance of the Future Circular Collider. In this overview we will describe the status and the evolution of the design of EIR of FCC-hh, focusing on design of the optics, energy deposition in EIR elements, beam-beam effects and machine detector interface issues.

  9. A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary…

  10. Experimental and Theoretical Progress of Linear Collider Final Focus Design and ATF2 Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei; Zimmermann, Frank; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    In this brief overview we will reflect on the process of the design of the linear collider (LC) final focus (FF) optics, and will also describe the theoretical and experimental efforts on design and practical realisation of a prototype of the LC FF optics implemented in the ATF2 facility at KEK, Japan, presently being commissioned and operated.

  11. Assessing the Effectiveness of a Computer Simulation for Teaching Ecological Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Richard; Goodenough, Anne E.; Davies, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Designing manipulative ecological experiments is a complex and time-consuming process that is problematic to teach in traditional undergraduate classes. This study investigates the effectiveness of using a computer simulation--the Virtual Rocky Shore (VRS)--to facilitate rapid, student-centred learning of experimental design. We gave a series of…

  12. Scaffolding a Complex Task of Experimental Design in Chemistry with a Computer Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Isabelle; d'Ham, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    When solving a scientific problem through experimentation, students may have the responsibility to design the experiment. When students work in a conventional condition, with paper and pencil, the designed procedures stay at a very general level. There is a need for additional scaffolds to help the students perform this complex task. We propose a…

  13. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological…

  14. Using a Discussion about Scientific Controversy to Teach Central Concepts in Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kimberley Ann

    2015-01-01

    Students may need explicit training in informal statistical reasoning in order to design experiments or use formal statistical tests effectively. By using scientific scandals and media misinterpretation, we can explore the need for good experimental design in an informal way. This article describes the use of a paper that reviews the measles mumps…

  15. The application of analysis of variance (ANOVA) to different experimental designs in optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R A; Eperjesi, F; Gilmartin, B

    2002-05-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is the most efficient method available for the analysis of experimental data. Analysis of variance is a method of considerable complexity and subtlety, with many different variations, each of which applies in a particular experimental context. Hence, it is possible to apply the wrong type of ANOVA to data and, therefore, to draw an erroneous conclusion from an experiment. This article reviews the types of ANOVA most likely to arise in clinical experiments in optometry including the one-way ANOVA ('fixed' and 'random effect' models), two-way ANOVA in randomised blocks, three-way ANOVA, and factorial experimental designs (including the varieties known as 'split-plot' and 'repeated measures'). For each ANOVA, the appropriate experimental design is described, a statistical model is formulated, and the advantages and limitations of each type of design discussed. In addition, the problems of non-conformity to the statistical model and determination of the number of replications are considered.

  16. Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. receives architectural and engineering design contract from Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. announced that a subsidiary company won a contract from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), to provide architectural and engineering design services for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) conventional facilities" (1/2 page)

  17. A quasi-experimental design based on regional variations: discussion of a method for evaluating outcomes of medical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, A; Andersen, T F; Madsen, Mette

    1989-01-01

    experiment involving alternative treatments could be regarded as 'pseudo randomised', but empirical investigations are needed to verify this prerequisite. This paper discusses the role of quasi-experimental designs in assessment of medical care with evaluation of outcomes after hysterectomy in Denmark...... as an example. The design is developed and the comparability of selected groups of patients is elucidated from administrative data, while the outcome results are not presented in this context. One indication for hysterectomy is carcinoma in situ of the cervix uteri which may be treated with either hysterectomy......, or conisation. A study group of patients was selected from departments where hysterectomy was the treatment of choice for this indication while the reference group was drawn from departments in which conisation was generally preferred. The comparability of the populations, effects and information for the two...

  18. Designs for the combination of group- and individual-level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneuse, Sebastien; Bartell, Scott

    2011-05-01

    Studies of ecologic or aggregate data suffer from a broad range of biases when scientific interest lies with individual-level associations. To overcome these biases, epidemiologists can choose from a range of designs that combine these group-level data with individual-level data. The individual-level data provide information to identify, evaluate, and control bias, whereas the group-level data are often readily accessible and provide gains in efficiency and power. Within this context, the literature on developing models, particularly multilevel models, is well-established, but little work has been published to help researchers choose among competing designs and plan additional data collection. We review recently proposed "combined" group- and individual-level designs and methods that collect and analyze data at 2 levels of aggregation. These include aggregate data designs, hierarchical related regression, two-phase designs, and hybrid designs for ecologic inference. The various methods differ in (i) the data elements available at the group and individual levels and (ii) the statistical techniques used to combine the 2 data sources. Implementing these techniques requires care, and it may often be simpler to ignore the group-level data once the individual-level data are collected. A simulation study, based on birth-weight data from North Carolina, is used to illustrate the benefit of incorporating group-level information. Our focus is on settings where there are individual-level data to supplement readily accessible group-level data. In this context, no single design is ideal. Choosing which design to adopt depends primarily on the model of interest and the nature of the available group-level data.

  19. Visualizing Experimental Designs for Balanced ANOVA Models using Lisp-Stat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W. Iversen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, or Hasse, diagram described by Taylor and Hilton (1981, American Statistician provides a visual display of the relationships between factors for balanced complete experimental designs. Using the Hasse diagram, rules exist for determining the appropriate linear model, ANOVA table, expected means squares, and F-tests in the case of balanced designs. This procedure has been implemented in Lisp-Stat using a software representation of the experimental design. The user can interact with the Hasse diagram to add, change, or delete factors and see the effect on the proposed analysis. The system has potential uses in teaching and consulting.

  20. Two-Stage Experimental Design for Dose–Response Modeling in Toxicology Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kai; Yang, Feng; Porter, Dale W; Wu, Nianqiang

    2013-01-01

    The efficient design of experiments (i.e., selection of experimental doses and allocation of animals) is important to establishing dose–response relationships in toxicology studies. The proposed procedure for design of experiments is distinct from those in the literature because it is able to adequately accommodate the special features of the dose–response data, which include non-normality, variance heterogeneity, possibly nonlinearity of the dose–response curve, and data scarcity. The design...

  1. An Empirical Study of Parameter Estimation for Stated Preference Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stated preference experimental design can affect the reliability of the parameters estimation in discrete choice model. Some scholars have proposed some new experimental designs, such as D-efficient, Bayesian D-efficient. But insufficient empirical research has been conducted on the effectiveness of these new designs and there has been little comparative analysis of the new designs against the traditional designs. In this paper, a new metro connecting Chengdu and its satellite cities is taken as the research subject to demonstrate the validity of the D-efficient and Bayesian D-efficient design. Comparisons between these new designs and orthogonal design were made by the fit of model and standard deviation of parameters estimation; then the best model result is obtained to analyze the travel choice behavior. The results indicate that Bayesian D-efficient design works better than D-efficient design. Some of the variables can affect significantly the choice behavior of people, including the waiting time and arrival time. The D-efficient and Bayesian D-efficient design for MNL can acquire reliability result in ML model, but the ML model cannot develop the theory advantages of these two designs. Finally, the metro can handle over 40% passengers flow if the metro will be operated in the future.

  2. Evaluation of cabin design based on the method of multiple attribute group decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowen; Lv, Linlin; Li, Ping

    2013-07-01

    New century, cabin design has become an important factor affecting the compact capability of modern naval vessels. Traditional cabin design, based on naval rules and designer's subjective feeling and experience, holds that weapons and equipments are more important than habitability. So crew's satisfaction is not high to ships designed by traditional methods. In order to solve this problem, the method of multiple attribute group decision-making was proposed to evaluate the cabin design projects. This method considered many factors affecting cabin design, established a target system, quantified fuzzy factors in cabin design, analyzed the need of crews and gave a reasonable evaluation on cabin design projects. Finally, an illustrative example analysis validates the effectiveness and reliability of this method.

  3. Wind refrigeration : design and results of an experimental facility; Refrigeracion eolica: Diseno y resultados de una instalacion experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, R. G.; Talero, A.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes the experimental setup used to obtain design parameters for a wind driven refrigeration equipment. The system compressor is directly coupled to the wind mill and will provide refrigeration to a community located in La Guajira in northern Colombia. The testing on the experimental installation assessed the refrigeration capacity that could be provided by an open type commercial compressor coupled to the wind mill axis. Power and torque requirements have been evaluated for different wind mill rotational speeds. An assessment of the local conditions relating to wind speed, frequency and preferred direction for the installation site has been made based on measurements by the Meteorological National Institute and independent data from other sources. (Author)

  4. A Unified Approach to Linear Equating for the Nonequivalent Groups Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Alina A.; Kong, Nan

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a new, unified framework for linear equating in a non-equivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design. The authors focus on three methods for linear equating in the NEAT design--Tucker, Levine observed-score, and chain--and develop a common parameterization that shows that each particular equating method is a special case of the…

  5. Teaching Reform of Course Group Regarding Theory and Design of Mechanisms Based on MATLAB Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Yuan, Mingxin; Wang, Mingqiang

    2013-01-01

    Considering that the course group regarding theory and design of mechanisms is characterized by strong engineering application background and the students generally feel very boring and tedious during the learning process, some teaching reforms for the theory and design of mechanisms are carried out to improve the teaching effectiveness in this…

  6. Intentional Teaching, Intentional Scholarship: Applying Backward Design Principles in a Faculty Writing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.; Cooper, Frank Rudy; McKenzie, Elizabeth M.; Raesch, Monika; Reeve, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Backward design is a course creation method that encourages teachers to identify their goals for student understanding and measurable objectives for learning from the outset. In this article we explore the application of backward design to the production of scholarly articles. Specifically, we report on a writing group program that encourages…

  7. Report for Working Group 1: Design Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The first 2013 DCEE working group meeting focused on issues associated with design research in civil and environmental engineering. It addressed some of the motivation for establishing design as a research discipline in CEE and some of the challenges and outstanding questions about how to do so....

  8. Control Group Design, Contamination and Drop-Out in Exercise Oncology Trials : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Charlotte N. Steins; Courneya, Kerry S.; Velthuis, Miranda J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Jones, Lee W.; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H. M.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of exercise-

  9. Instructor Training and Instructional Design in Online Courses Using Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory multi-case study was to examine the role of instructional design and instructor training on student learning outcomes and student satisfaction within the online class using group work, a form of collaborative learning. Group work has been strongly recommended for online classes. Data allowing insight into…

  10. Architecture, Design, and Development of an HTML/JavaScript Web-Based Group Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nicholas C., Jr.; Nunamaker, Jay F., Jr.; Briggs, Robert O.; Vogel, Douglas R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the need for virtual workspaces and describes the architecture, design, and development of GroupSystems for the World Wide Web (GSWeb), an HTML/JavaScript Web-based Group Support System (GSS). GSWeb, an application interface similar to a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is currently used by teams around the world and relies on user…

  11. Intensification of the Learning Process: Educational Grouping Questionnaire. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    This report consists of a classification of elementary school age children and information concerning an Educational Grouping Questionnaire, which is designed to help the classroom teacher group her students. (See TM 001 368 for example of questionnaire; see TM 001 363 for summary of report; for other related documents, see TM 001 160, 364-366,…

  12. DETERMINATION OF BRAKING OPTIMAL MODE OF CONTROLLED CUT OF DESIGN GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dorosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The application of automation systems of breaking up process on the gravity hump is the efficiency improvement of their operation, absolute provision of trains breaking up safety demands, as well as improvement of hump staff working conditions. One of the main tasks of the indicated systems is the assurance of cuts reliable separation at all elements of their rolling route to the classification track. This task is a sophisticated optimization problem and has not received a final decision. Therefore, the task of determining the cuts braking mode is quite relevant. The purpose of this research is to find the optimal braking mode of control cut of design group. Methodology. In order to achieve the purpose is offered to use the direct search methods in the work, namely the Box complex method. This method does not require smoothness of the objective function, takes into account its limitations and does not require calculation of the function derivatives, and uses only its value. Findings. Using the Box method was developed iterative procedure for determining the control cut optimal braking mode of design group. The procedure maximizes the smallest controlled time interval in the group. To evaluate the effectiveness of designed procedure the series of simulation experiments of determining the control cut braking mode of design group was performed. The results confirmed the efficiency of the developed optimization procedure. Originality. The author formalized the task of optimizing control cut braking mode of design group, taking into account the cuts separation of design group at all elements (switches, retarders during cuts rolling to the classification track. The problem of determining the optimal control cut braking mode of design group was solved. The developed braking mode ensures cuts reliable separation of the group not only at the switches but at the retarders of brake position. Practical value. The developed procedure can be

  13. Report on the NGS3 Working Group on Safeguards by Design For Aqueous Reprocessing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael; Schanfein, Mark

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the Working Group on SBD for Aqueous Reprocessing Facilities was to provide recommendations, for facility operators and designers, which would aid in the coordination and integration of nuclear material accountancy and the safeguards requirements of all concerned parties - operators, state/regional authorities, and the IAEA. The recommendations, which are to be provided to the IAEA, are intended to assist in optimizing facility design and operating parameters to ensure the safeguardability of the facility while minimizing impact on the operations. The one day Working Group session addressed a wide range of design and operating topics.

  14. Determination of hydroxy acids in cosmetics by chemometric experimental design and cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hui; Feng, Chia Hsien; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2012-10-01

    A CD-modified CE method was established for quantitative determination of seven hydroxy acids in cosmetic products. This method involved chemometric experimental design aspects, including fractional factorial design and central composite design. Chemometric experimental design was used to enhance the method's separation capability and to explore the interactions between parameters. Compared to the traditional investigation that uses multiple parameters, the method that used chemometric experimental design was less time-consuming and lower in cost. In this study, the influences of three experimental variables (phosphate concentration, surfactant concentration, and methanol percentage) on the experimental response were investigated by applying a chromatographic resolution statistic function. The optimized conditions were as follows: a running buffer of 150 mM phosphate solution (pH 7) containing 0.5 mM CTAB, 3 mM γ-CD, and 25% methanol; 20 s sample injection at 0.5 psi; a separation voltage of -15 kV; temperature was set at 25°C; and UV detection at 200 nm. The seven hydroxy acids were well separated in less than 10 min. The LOD (S/N = 3) was 625 nM for both salicylic acid and mandelic acid. The correlation coefficient of the regression curve was greater than 0.998. The RSD and relative error values were all less than 9.21%. After optimization and validation, this simple and rapid analysis method was considered to be established and was successfully applied to several commercial cosmetic products.

  15. Adaptive combinatorial design to explore large experimental spaces: approach and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejay, L V; Shasha, D E; Palenchar, P M; Kouranov, A Y; Cruikshank, A A; Chou, M F; Coruzzi, G M

    2004-12-01

    Systems biology requires mathematical tools not only to analyse large genomic datasets, but also to explore large experimental spaces in a systematic yet economical way. We demonstrate that two-factor combinatorial design (CD), shown to be useful in software testing, can be used to design a small set of experiments that would allow biologists to explore larger experimental spaces. Further, the results of an initial set of experiments can be used to seed further 'Adaptive' CD experimental designs. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate the usefulness of this Adaptive CD approach by analysing data from the effects of six binary inputs on the regulation of genes in the N-assimilation pathway of Arabidopsis. This CD approach identified the more important regulatory signals previously discovered by traditional experiments using far fewer experiments, and also identified examples of input interactions previously unknown. Tests using simulated data show that Adaptive CD suffers from fewer false positives than traditional experimental designs in determining decisive inputs, and succeeds far more often than traditional or random experimental designs in determining when genes are regulated by input interactions. We conclude that Adaptive CD offers an economical framework for discovering dominant inputs and interactions that affect different aspects of genomic outputs and organismal responses.

  16. OptGS: An R Package for Finding Near-Optimal Group-Sequential Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wason

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A group-sequential clinical trial design is one in which interim analyses of the data are conducted after groups of patients are recruited. After each interim analysis, the trial may stop early if the evidence so far shows the new treatment is particularly effective or ineffective. Such designs are ethical and cost-effective, and so are of great interest in practice. An optimal group-sequential design is one which controls the type-I error rate and power at a specified level, but minimizes the expected sample size of the trial when the true treatment effect is equal to some specified value. Searching for an optimal group- sequential design is a significant computational challenge because of the high number of parameters. In this paper the R package OptGS is described. Package OptGS searches for near-optimal and balanced (i.e., one which balances more than one optimality criterion group-sequential designs for randomized controlled trials with normally distributed outcomes. Package OptGS uses a two-parameter family of functions to determine the stopping boundaries, which improves the speed of the search process whilst still allow- ing flexibility in the possible shape of stopping boundaries. The resulting package allows optimal designs to be found in a matter of seconds much faster than a previous approach.

  17. Used frying oil biodiesel production: experimental factorial design and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel é derivado de fontes renováveis ereduz significativamente as emissões atmosféricas. Pode serobtido de diversos processos, como a alcoolise. Nestetrabalho, o biodiesel foi produzido através da alcoolise doóleo de fritura usado de indústrias de alimentação. Umplanejamento experimental foi utilizado e os produtos dereação foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa (CGespectroscopia na região do infravermelho com acessório dereflexão total atenuada horizontal (IV-HATR e análiseexploratória por análise de componentes principais (PCA eanálise hierárquica de grupos (HCA. De acordo com ascondições analisadas obteve-se alta conversão em ésteresmetílicos. Por IV-HATR, a conversão máxima foi observadaem condições experimentais de temperatura ( 50 e 60°C,concentração de catalisador (0,6 e 1,2% e a 1:8 de relaçãomolar entre óleo e metanol. Também foi possíveldiscriminar por análise quimiométrica, 4 grupos noplanejamento experimental e determinar as melhorescondições para a produção de biodiesel de óleo de friturausado.Abstract Biodiesel is derived from renewable sources and it significantly reduces atmospheric emissions. It can be obtained byseveral processes, such as alcoholysis. In this work, biodiesel was produced through alcoholysis of used frying oil from a cateringbusiness. An experimental factorial design was used and the reaction products were analyzed through gas chromatography (GC,horizontal attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (HATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and exploratory analysis withprincipal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. Under the conditions analyzed, a high degree ofconversion to methyl ester was found. As shown by HATR/FT-IR, the maximum conversion was obtained when the experimentalconditions had the temperature ( 50 e 60°C, largest catalyst concentration (0,6 e 1,2% and a 1:8 molar proportion of oil tomethanol. It was possible to discriminate

  18. Information-based sample size re-estimation in group sequential design for longitudinal trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Adewale, Adeniyi; Shentu, Yue; Liu, Jiajun; Anderson, Keaven

    2014-09-28

    Group sequential design has become more popular in clinical trials because it allows for trials to stop early for futility or efficacy to save time and resources. However, this approach is less well-known for longitudinal analysis. We have observed repeated cases of studies with longitudinal data where there is an interest in early stopping for a lack of treatment effect or in adapting sample size to correct for inappropriate variance assumptions. We propose an information-based group sequential design as a method to deal with both of these issues. Updating the sample size at each interim analysis makes it possible to maintain the target power while controlling the type I error rate. We will illustrate our strategy with examples and simulations and compare the results with those obtained using fixed design and group sequential design without sample size re-estimation.

  19. Regression Artifacts in Nonequivalent Control Group Designs: An Empirical Investigation of Bias in ANCOVA and Matching Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, James E.

    The presence of artifactual bias in analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and in matching nonequivalent control group (NECG) designs was empirically investigated. The data set was obtained from a study of the effects of a television program on children from three day care centers in Mexico in which the subjects had been randomly selected within centers.…

  20. Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Group Intervention for Dementia Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, William E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of group interventions for caregivers of elderly dementia patients. Indicated that, although caregivers rated the groups as quite helpful, group participation did not lead to improvements on objective measures of depression, life satisfaction, social support, or coping variables. (Author/ABB)

  1. Can DSS Technology Improve Group Decision Performance for End Users?: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, David E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the benefits of Decision Support Systems (DSS) for end-user group decision making. An experiment was conducted which required groups to reach a consensus on human resource-related decisions. The results of the experiment provide implications for the use of group DDS in organizations and for future study. (Author/AEF)

  2. Intergroup conflict and intra-group punishment in an experimental contest game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, K.; Brandts, J.; Herrmann, B.; Orzen, H.

    2010-01-01

    We study how conflict in contest games is influenced by rival parties being groups and by group members being able to punish each other. Our motivation stems from the analysis of sociopolitical conflict. The theoretical prediction is that conflict expenditures are independent of group size and of wh

  3. Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Group Intervention for Dementia Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, William E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of group interventions for caregivers of elderly dementia patients. Indicated that, although caregivers rated the groups as quite helpful, group participation did not lead to improvements on objective measures of depression, life satisfaction, social support, or coping variables. (Author/ABB)

  4. Experimental Modelling of the Breakdown Voltage of Air Using Design of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REZOUGA, M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental and numerical studies were devoted to the electric discharge of air, and some mathematical models were proposed for the critical breakdown voltage. As this latter depends on several parameters, it is difficult to find a formula, theoretical or experimental, which considers many factors. The aim of this paper is to model the critical breakdown voltage in a "Sphere-Sphere� electrodes system by using the methodology of experimental designs. Several factors were considered, such as geometrical factors (inter-electrodes interval, diameter of the electrodes and climatic factors (temperature, humidity. Two factorial centred faces experimental designs (CCF were carried out, a first one for the geometrical factors and a second one for the climatic factors. The obtained results made it possible to propose mathematical models and to study the interactions between the various factors.

  5. Experimental design for stable genetic manipulation in mammalian cell lines: lentivirus and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert F; Saunders, Darren N

    2015-01-01

    The use of third-generation lentiviral vectors is now commonplace in most areas of basic biology. These systems provide a fast, efficient means for modulating gene expression, but experimental design needs to be carefully considered to minimize potential artefacts arising from off-target effects and other confounding factors. This review offers a starting point for those new to lentiviral-based vector systems, addressing the main issues involved with the use of lentiviral systems in vitro and outlines considerations which should be taken into account during experimental design. Factors such as selecting an appropriate system and controls, and practical titration of viral transduction are important considerations for experimental design. We also briefly describe some of the more recent advances in genome editing technology. TALENs and CRISPRs offer an alternative to lentivirus, providing endogenous gene editing with reduced off-target effects often at the expense of efficiency.

  6. Experimental design and reporting standards for improving the internal validity of pre-clinical studies in the field of pain: Consensus of the IMI-Europain consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, K.L.; Stenfors, C.; Baastrup, Cathrine Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    , and significantly impacts the interpretation of failed attempts to replicate published findings. Evidence suggests that systematic biases in experimental design and conduct and insufficiencies in reporting play significant roles in poor reproducibility across pre-clinical studies. It then follows...... is focused on two aspects: experimental design and conduct, and study reporting. Results Minimum requirements for experimental design and conduct were agreed upon across the dimensions of animal characteristics, sample size calculations, inclusion and exclusion criteria, random allocation to groups......, allocation concealment, and blinded assessment of outcome. Building upon the Animals in Research: Reporting in vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines, reporting standards were developed for pre-clinical studies of pain. These include specific recommendations for reporting on ethical issues, experimental design...

  7. The Integration of Family and Group Therapy as an Alternative to Juvenile Incarceration: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation Using Parenting with Love and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Eli A; Sterrett, Emma M; Kiaer, Lynn

    2017-06-01

    The current study employed a quasi-experimental design using both intent-to-treat and protocol adherence analysis of 155 moderate- to high-risk juvenile offenders to evaluate the effectiveness of Parenting with Love and Limits® (PLL), an integrative group and family therapy approach. Youth completing PLL had significantly lower rates of recidivism than the comparison group. Parents also reported statistically significant improvements in youth behavior. Lengths of service were also significantly shorter for the treatment sample than the matched comparison group by an average of 4 months. This study contributes to the literature by suggesting that intensive community-based combined family and group treatment is effective in curbing recidivism among high-risk juveniles. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  8. Experimentally based, longitudinally designed, teacher-focused intervention to help physical education teachers be more autonomy supportive toward their students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sung Hyeon; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Moon, Ik Soo

    2012-06-01

    Using the field's state-of-the-art knowledge, we designed, implemented, and assessed the effectiveness of an intervention to help physical education (PE) teachers be more autonomy supportive during instruction. Nineteen secondary-school PE teachers in Seoul were randomly assigned into either an experimental or a delayed-treatment control group, and their 1,158 students self-reported their course-related psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, amotivation, classroom engagement, skill development, future intentions, and academic achievement at the beginning, middle, and end of the semester. Observers' ratings and students' self-reports confirmed that the intervention was successful. Repeated-measures ANCOVAs showed that the students of teachers in the experimental group showed midsemester and end-of-semester improvements in all dependent measures. A multilevel structural equation model mediation analysis showed why the teacher-training program produced improvements in all six student outcomes - namely, teachers in the experimental group vitalized their students' psychological need satisfaction during PE class in ways that teachers in the control group were unable to do, and it was this enhanced need satisfaction that explained the observed improvements in all six outcomes.

  9. Conceptual design of superconducting magnet systems for the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.T.; Turner, L.R.; Mills, F.E.; DeMichele, D.W.; Smelser, P.; Kim, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    As an integral effort in the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor Conceptual Design, the conceptual design of a 10-tesla, pure-tension superconducting toroidal-field (TF) coil system has been developed in sufficient detail to define a realistic design for the TF coil system that could be built based upon the current state of technology with minimum technological extrapolations. A conceptual design study on the superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coils and the superconducting equilibrium-field (EF) coils were also completed. These conceptual designs are developed in sufficient detail with clear information on high current ac conductor design, cooling, venting provision, coil structural support and zero loss poloidal coil cryostat design. Also investigated is the EF penetration into the blanket and shield.

  10. A new experimental design method to optimize formulations focusing on a lubricant for hydrophilic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Du Hyung; Shin, Sangmun; Khoa Viet Truong, Nguyen; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2012-09-01

    A robust experimental design method was developed with the well-established response surface methodology and time series modeling to facilitate the formulation development process with magnesium stearate incorporated into hydrophilic matrix tablets. Two directional analyses and a time-oriented model were utilized to optimize the experimental responses. Evaluations of tablet gelation and drug release were conducted with two factors x₁ and x₂: one was a formulation factor (the amount of magnesium stearate) and the other was a processing factor (mixing time), respectively. Moreover, different batch sizes (100 and 500 tablet batches) were also evaluated to investigate an effect of batch size. The selected input control factors were arranged in a mixture simplex lattice design with 13 experimental runs. The obtained optimal settings of magnesium stearate for gelation were 0.46 g, 2.76 min (mixing time) for a 100 tablet batch and 1.54 g, 6.51 min for a 500 tablet batch. The optimal settings for drug release were 0.33 g, 7.99 min for a 100 tablet batch and 1.54 g, 6.51 min for a 500 tablet batch. The exact ratio and mixing time of magnesium stearate could be formulated according to the resulting hydrophilic matrix tablet properties. The newly designed experimental method provided very useful information for characterizing significant factors and hence to obtain optimum formulations allowing for a systematic and reliable experimental design method.

  11. Control group design, contamination and drop-out in exercise oncology trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; Courneya, Kerry S; Velthuis, Miranda J; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Jones, Lee W; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H M; May, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of exercise-oncology trials and explores the association with contamination and drop-out rates. Randomized controlled exercise-oncology trials from two Cochrane reviews were included. Additionally, a computer-aided search using Medline (Pubmed), Embase and CINAHL was conducted after completion date of the Cochrane reviews. Eligible studies were classified according to three control group design characteristics: the exercise instruction given to controls before start of the study (exercise allowed or not); and the intervention the control group was offered during (any (e.g., education sessions or telephone contacts) or none) or after (any (e.g., cross-over or exercise instruction) or none) the intervention period. Contamination (yes or no) and excess drop-out rates (i.e., drop-out rate of the control group minus the drop-out rate exercise group) were described according to the three design characteristics of the control group and according to the combinations of these three characteristics; so we additionally made subgroups based on combinations of type and timing of instructions received. 40 exercise-oncology trials were included based on pre-specified eligibility criteria. The lowest contamination (7.1% of studies) and low drop-out rates (excess drop-out rate -4.7±9.2) were found in control groups offered an intervention after the intervention period. When control groups were offered an intervention both during and after the intervention period, contamination (0%) and excess drop-out rates (-10.0±12.8%) were even lower. Control groups receiving an intervention during and after the study intervention period have lower contamination and drop-out rates. The present findings can be

  12. Perspectives on Prediction Variance and Bias in Developing, Assessing, and Comparing Experimental Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2010-12-01

    The vast majority of response surface methods used in practice to develop, assess, and compare experimental designs focus on variance properties of designs. Because response surface models only approximate the true unknown relationships, models are subject to bias errors as well as variance errors. Beginning with the seminal paper of Box and Draper (1959) and over the subsequent 50 years, methods that consider bias and mean-squared-error (variance and bias) properties of designs have been presented in the literature. However, these methods are not widely implemented in software and are not routinely used to develop, assess, and compare experimental designs in practice. Methods for developing, assessing, and comparing response surface designs that account for variance properties are reviewed. Brief synopses of publications that consider bias or mean-squared-error properties are provided. The difficulties and approaches for addressing bias properties of designs are summarized. Perspectives on experimental design methods that account for bias and/or variance properties and on future needs are presented.

  13. Optimal Design and Experimental characterisation of short optical pulse compression using CDPF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yujun, Qian; Quist, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present optimal design and experimental characterisation ofoptical pulse compression using a comblike dispersion-profiled fibre(CDPF). A pulse train at 10GHz with puslewidth of 1ps and side-lobesuppression of 30dB can be obtained.......We present optimal design and experimental characterisation ofoptical pulse compression using a comblike dispersion-profiled fibre(CDPF). A pulse train at 10GHz with puslewidth of 1ps and side-lobesuppression of 30dB can be obtained....

  14. Experimental Investigations of Decentralised Control Design for The Stabilisation of Rotor-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    directions. Hardening and softening P-lead controllers are designed based on the models experimentally identified, and salient features of both controllers are discussed. Both controllers are implemented and validated on the physical test rig. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed......-Box identification for the design of stabilising controllers, capable of enabling the active lubrication of the journal. The root locus analysis shows that two different control solutions are feasible for the dampening of the first two eigenfrequencies of the rotor-gas bearing in the horizontal and vertical...

  15. Process synthesis, design and analysis using a process-group contribution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Eden, Mario R.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a process-group contribution method to model, simulate and synthesize chemical processes. Process flowsheets are generated in the same way as atoms or groups of atoms are combined to form molecules in computer aided molecular design (CAMD......) techniques. The fundamental pillars of this framework are the definition and use of functional process-groups (building blocks) representing a wide range of process operations, flowsheet connectivity rules to join the process-groups to generate all the feasible flowsheet alternatives and flowsheet property...

  16. A robust PCR primer design platform applied to the detection of Acidobacteria Group 1 in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Jason D.; Dunbar, John; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Wolinsky, Murray; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental biosurveillance and microbial ecology studies use PCR-based assays to detect and quantify microbial taxa and gene sequences within a complex background of microorganisms. However, the fragmentary nature and growing quantity of DNA-sequence data make group-specific assay design challenging. We solved this problem by developing a software platform that enables PCR-assay design at an unprecedented scale. As a demonstration, we developed quantitative PCR assays for a globally widespread, ecologically important bacterial group in soil, Acidobacteria Group 1. A total of 33 684 Acidobacteria 16S rRNA gene sequences were used for assay design. Following 1 week of computation on a 376-core cluster, 83 assays were obtained. We validated the specificity of the top three assays, collectively predicted to detect 42% of the Acidobacteria Group 1 sequences, by PCR amplification and sequencing of DNA from soil. Based on previous analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Acidobacteria Group 1 species were expected to decrease in response to elevated atmospheric CO2. Quantitative PCR results, using the Acidobacteria Group 1-specific PCR assays, confirmed the expected decrease and provided higher statistical confidence than the 16S rRNA gene-sequencing data. These results demonstrate a powerful capacity to address previously intractable assay design challenges. PMID:22434885

  17. The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) contribution to CMIP6: rationale and experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David M.; Hurtt, George C.; Arneth, Almut; Brovkin, Victor; Calvin, Kate V.; Jones, Andrew D.; Jones, Chris D.; Lawrence, Peter J.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Pongratz, Julia; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Shevliakova, Elena

    2016-09-01

    complementary to simulations requested in the CMIP6 DECK and historical simulations and other CMIP6 MIPs including ScenarioMIP, C4MIP, LS3MIP, and DAMIP. LUMIP includes a two-phase experimental design. Phase one features idealized coupled and land-only model simulations designed to advance process-level understanding of LULCC impacts on climate, as well as to quantify model sensitivity to potential land-cover and land-use change. Phase two experiments focus on quantification of the historic impact of land use and the potential for future land management decisions to aid in mitigation of climate change. This paper documents these simulations in detail, explains their rationale, outlines plans for analysis, and describes a new subgrid land-use tile data request for selected variables (reporting model output data separately for primary and secondary land, crops, pasture, and urban land-use types). It is essential that modeling groups participating in LUMIP adhere to the experimental design as closely as possible and clearly report how the model experiments were executed.

  18. Improving the power of long term rodent carcinogenicity bioassays by adjusting the experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew T

    2015-07-01

    Since long term rodent carcinogenicity studies are used to test a very large number of potential tumor endpoints, finding a balance between the control of Type 1 and Type 2 error is challenging. As a result, these studies can suffer from very low power to detect effects of regulatory significance. In the present paper, a new design is proposed in order address this problem. This design is a simple modification of the existing standard designs and uses the same number of animals. Where it differs from the currently used designs is that it uses just three treatment groups rather than four, with the animals concentrated in the control and high dose groups, rather than being equally distributed among the groups. This new design is tested, in a pair of simulation studies over a range of scenarios, against two currently used designs, and against a maximally powerful two group design. It consistently performs at levels close to the optimal design, and except in the case of relatively modest effects and very rare tumors, is found to increase power by 10%-20% over the current designs while maintaining or reducing the Type 1 error rate.

  19. Design and experimentation of an empirical multistructure framework for accurate, sharp and reliable hydrological ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiller, G.; Anctil, F.; Roy, R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper outlines the design and experimentation of an Empirical Multistructure Framework (EMF) for lumped conceptual hydrological modeling. This concept is inspired from modular frameworks, empirical model development, and multimodel applications, and encompasses the overproduce and select paradigm. The EMF concept aims to reduce subjectivity in conceptual hydrological modeling practice and includes model selection in the optimisation steps, reducing initial assumptions on the prior perception of the dominant rainfall-runoff transformation processes. EMF generates thousands of new modeling options from, for now, twelve parent models that share their functional components and parameters. Optimisation resorts to ensemble calibration, ranking and selection of individual child time series based on optimal bias and reliability trade-offs, as well as accuracy and sharpness improvement of the ensemble. Results on 37 snow-dominated Canadian catchments and 20 climatically-diversified American catchments reveal the excellent potential of the EMF in generating new individual model alternatives, with high respective performance values, that may be pooled efficiently into ensembles of seven to sixty constitutive members, with low bias and high accuracy, sharpness, and reliability. A group of 1446 new models is highlighted to offer good potential on other catchments or applications, based on their individual and collective interests. An analysis of the preferred functional components reveals the importance of the production and total flow elements. Overall, results from this research confirm the added value of ensemble and flexible approaches for hydrological applications, especially in uncertain contexts, and open up new modeling possibilities.

  20. Recent developments in optimal experimental designs for functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Hung; Kao; M’hamed; Temkit; Weng; Kee; Wong

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI)is one of the leading brain mapping technologies for studying brain activity in response to mental stimuli.For neuroimaging studies utilizing this pioneering technology,there is a great demand of high-quality experimental designs that help to collect informative data to make precise and valid inference about brain functions.This paper provides a survey on recent developments in experimental designs for fMRI studies.We briefly introduce some analytical and computational tools for obtaining good designs based on a specified design selection criterion.Research results about some commonly considered designs such as blocked designs,and m-sequences are also discussed.Moreover,we present a recently proposed new type of fMRI designs that can be constructed using a certain type of Hadamard matrices.Under certain assumptions,these designs can be shown to be statistically optimal.Some future research directions in design of fMRI experiments are also discussed.

  1. Visual Servoing Tracking Control of a Ball and Plate System: Design, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzu Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of real‐time visual servoing tracking control for a ball and plate system. The position of the ball is measured with a machine vision system. The image processing algorithms of the machine vision system are pipelined and implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device to meet real‐ time constraints. A detailed dynamic model of the system is derived for the simulation study.By neglecting the high‐order coupling terms, the ball and plate system model is simplified into two decoupled ball and beam systems, and an approximate input‐ output feedback linearization approach is then used to design the controller for trajectory tracking. The designed control law is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP. The validity of the performance of the developed control system is investigated through simulation and experimental studies. Experimental results show that the designed system functions well with reasonable agreement with simulations.

  2. Visual Servoing Tracking Control of a Ball and Plate System: Design, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzu Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of real-time visual servoing tracking control for a ball and plate system. The position of the ball is measured with a machine vision system. The image processing algorithms of the machine vision system are pipelined and implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device to meet real-time constraints. A detailed dynamic model of the system is derived for the simulation study. By neglecting the high-order coupling terms, the ball and plate system model is simplified into two decoupled ball and beam systems, and an approximate input-output feedback linearization approach is then used to design the controller for trajectory tracking. The designed control law is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP. The validity of the performance of the developed control system is investigated through simulation and experimental studies. Experimental results show that the designed system functions well with reasonable agreement with simulations.

  3. Characterization of Regular Wave, Irregular Wave, and Large-Amplitude Wave Group Kinematics in an Experimental Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    and experimental measurements were also made by Graw (1994), Stansberg, et al. (1996), Grue and Jensen (2006), Hennig, et al. (2006), and Clauss...Goda, Y. (1976), "On Wave Groups," Proc. 1st Intl. Conf. on the Behavior of Offshore Structures, Trondheim, Norway, pp. 1 15-128. Graw , K..-U. (1994

  4. Design and Experimental Validation of a Simple Controller for a Multi-Segment Magnetic Crawler Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    X., "Development of a wall climbing robot for ship rust removal," Int. Conf. on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA), 4610-4615 (2009). [6] Leon...Design and experimental validation of a simple controller for a multi-segment magnetic crawler robot Leah Kelley*a, Saam Ostovari**b, Aaron B...magnetic crawler robot has been designed for ship hull inspection. In its simplest version, passive linkages that provide two degrees of relative

  5. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN APPLIED TO MODELING OF THE AIR-TIGHTNESS OF A BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents experimental designs that can be used in modeling of the air-tightness of buildings as second-order functions using response surface method and corresponding experiment designs. The factors supposed to be significant for a model of building air-tightness—and thus those used in experiment designs—are the heat transfer coefficient for external walls, the heat transfer coefficient of the windows, and the position of the housing units with respect to the building envelope. We c...

  6. Experimental Design of a UCAV-Based High-Energy Laser Weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    DESIGN OF A UCAV-BASED HIGH- ENERGY LASER WEAPON by Antonios Lionis December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Keith R. Cohn Co-Advisor: Eugene Paulo...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OF A UCAV-BASED HIGH- ENERGY LASER WEAPON 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/ A 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

  7. Using R in experimental design with BIBD: An application in health sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Teresa A.; Francisco, Carla; Oliveira, Amílcar; Ferreira, Agostinho

    2016-06-01

    Considering the implementation of an Experimental Design, in any field, the experimenter must pay particular attention and look for the best strategies in the following steps: planning the design selection, conduct the experiments, collect observed data, proceed to analysis and interpretation of results. The focus is on providing both - a deep understanding of the problem under research and a powerful experimental process at a reduced cost. Mainly thanks to the possibility of allowing to separate variation sources, the importance of Experimental Design in Health Sciences is strongly recommended since long time. Particular attention has been devoted to Block Designs and more precisely to Balanced Incomplete Block Designs - in this case the relevance states from the fact that these designs allow testing simultaneously a number of treatments bigger than the block size. Our example refers to a possible study of inter reliability of the Parkinson disease, taking into account the UPDRS (Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale) in order to test if there are significant differences between the specialists who evaluate the patients performances. Statistical studies on this disease were described for example in Richards et al (1994), where the authors investigate the inter-rater Reliability of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Motor Examination. We consider a simulation of a practical situation in which the patients were observed by different specialists and the UPDRS on assessing the impact of Parkinson's disease in patients was observed. Assigning treatments to the subjects following a particular BIBD(9,24,8,3,2) structure, we illustrate that BIB Designs can be used as a powerful tool to solve emerging problems in this area. Once a structure with repeated blocks allows to have some block contrasts with minimum variance, see Oliveira et al. (2006), the design with cardinality 12 was selected for the example. R software was used for computations.

  8. Quantification of pore size distribution using diffusion NMR: experimental design and physical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yaniv; Nevo, Uri

    2014-04-28

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR experiments are sensitive to restricted diffusion within porous media and can thus reveal essential microstructural information about the confining geometry. Optimal design methods of inverse problems are designed to select preferred experimental settings to improve parameter estimation quality. However, in pore size distribution (PSD) estimation using NMR methods as in other ill-posed problems, optimal design strategies and criteria are scarce. We formulate here a new optimization framework for ill-posed problems. This framework is suitable for optimizing PFG experiments for probing geometries that are solvable by the Multiple Correlation Function approach. The framework is based on a heuristic methodology designed to select experimental sets which balance between lowering the inherent ill-posedness and increasing the NMR signal intensity. This method also selects favorable discrete pore sizes used for PSD estimation. Numerical simulations performed demonstrate that using this framework greatly improves the sensitivity of PFG experimental sets to the pores' sizes. The optimization also sheds light on significant features of the preferred experimental sets. Increasing the gradient strength and varying multiple experimental parameters is found to be preferable for reducing the ill-posedness. We further evaluate the amount of pore size information that can be obtained by wisely selecting the duration of the diffusion and mixing times. Finally, we discuss the ramification of using single PFG or double PFG sequences for PSD estimation. In conclusion, the above optimization method can serve as a useful tool for experimenters interested in quantifying PSDs of different specimens. Moreover, the applicability of the suggested optimization framework extends far beyond the field of PSD estimation in diffusion NMR, and reaches design of sampling schemes of other ill-posed problems.

  9. Design characteristics and requirements of irradiation holes for research reactor experimental facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol; Lee, B. C.; Chae, H. T.; Lee, C. S.; Seo, C. G

    2003-07-01

    In order to be helpful for the design of a new research reactor with high performance, are summarized the applications of research reactors in various fields and the design characteristics of experimental facility such as vertical irradiation holes and beam tubes. Basic requirements of such experimental facilities are also described. Research reactor has been widely utilized in various fields such as industry, engineering, medicine, life science, environment etc., and now the application fields are gradually being expanded together with the development of technology. Looking into the research reactors which are recently constructed or in plan, it seems that to develop a multi-purpose research reactor with intensive neutron beam research capability has become tendency. In the layout of the experimental facilities, the number and configuration of irradiation and beam holes should be optimized to meet required test conditions such as neutron flux at the early design stage. But, basically high neutron flux is required to perform experiments efficiently. In this aspect, neutron flux is regarded as one of important parameters to judge the degree of research reactor performance. One of main information for a new research reactor design is utilization demands and requirements of experimental holes. So basic requirements which should be considered in a new research reactor design were summarized from the survey of experimental facilities characteristics of various research reactors with around 20 MW thermal power and the experiences of HANARO utilization. Also is suggested an example of the requirements of experimental holes such as size, number and neutron flux, which are thought as minimum, in a new research reactor for exporting to developing countries such as Vietnam.

  10. Linking functional group richness and ecosystem functions of dung beetles: an experimental quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotić, Tanja; Quidé, Stijn; Van Loo, Thomas; Hoffmann, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Dung beetles form an insect group that fulfils important functions in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the world. These include nutrient cycling through dung removal, soil bioturbation, plant growth, secondary seed dispersal and parasite control. We conducted field experiments at two sites in the northern hemisphere temperate region in which dung removal and secondary seed dispersal were assessed. Dung beetles were classified in three functional groups, depending on their size and dung manipulation method: dwellers, large and small tunnelers. Other soil inhabiting fauna were included as a fourth functional group. Dung removal and seed dispersal by each individual functional group and combinations thereof were estimated in exclusion experiments using different dung types. Dwellers were the most diverse and abundant group, but tunnelers were dominant in terms of biomass. All dung beetle functional groups had a clear preference for fresh dung. The ecosystem services in dung removal and secondary seed dispersal provided by dung beetles were significant and differed between functional groups. Although in absolute numbers more dwellers were found, large tunnelers were disproportionally important for dung burial and seed removal. In the absence of dung beetles, other soil inhabiting fauna, such as earthworms, partly took over the dung decomposing role of dung beetles while most dung was processed when all native functional groups were present. Our results, therefore, emphasize the need to conserve functionally complete dung ecosystems to maintain full ecosystem functioning.

  11. Philosophical and Conceptual Perspectives on the Design of Group Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Sherif

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Design of information systems (IS has been one of the most elusive tasks of the system analyst, requiring technical expertise, creative inspiration and deep understanding of the problem under examination. Perhaps even more than is the ease with other IS. Group support systems (GSS design is challenging because it involves groups who vary in behavior, process and culture. The system designer's worldview will shape its features. In an attempt to shed new light on GSS design, this paper examines the problem from four philosophical perspectives or paradigms: Functionalism, Social Relativism. Radical Structuralism and Neohumanism. The generic requirements identified from the analysis include support for multitasking, multiple languages, customization, multiple communication modes, interoperability, rational discourse and knowledge validation. While these appear to be valid requirements to support computer-mediated decision making, it may be difficult if not impossible to satisfy them in one software system.

  12. Belt restraint reduction in nursing homes: design of a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rossum Erik

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of physical restraints still is common practice in the nursing home care. Since physical restraints have been shown to be an ineffective and sometimes even hazardous measure, interventions are needed to reduce their usage. Several attempts have been made to reduce the use of physical restraints. Most studies used educational approaches and introduced a nurse specialist as a consultant. However, the success rate of these interventions has been inconsistent. We developed a new multi-component intervention (EXBELT comprising an educational intervention for nursing home staff in combination with a policy change (belt use is prohibited by the nursing home management, availability of a nurse specialist and nursing home manager as consultants, and availability of alternative interventions. The first aim of this study is to further develop and test the effectiveness of EXBELT on belt restraint reduction in Dutch psychogeriatric nursing homes. However, the reduction of belts should not result in an increase of other restrictive restraints (such as a chair with locked tray table or psychoactive drug use. The overall aim is an effective and feasible intervention that can be employed on a large scale in Dutch nursing homes. Methods and design Effects of EXBELT will be studied in a quasi-experimental longitudinal study design. Alongside the effect evaluation, a process evaluation will be carried out in order to further develop EXBELT. Data regarding age, gender, use of physical restraints, the number of falls and fall related injuries, psychoactive drug use, and the use of alternative interventions will be collected at baseline and after four and eight months of follow-up. Data regarding the process evaluation will be gathered in a period of eight months between baseline and the last measurement. Furthermore, changing attitudes will become an important addition to the educational part of EXBELT. Discussion A quasi-experimental

  13. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooley, Scott K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO3, has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer

  14. A robust PCR primer design platform applied to the detection of Acidobacteria Group 1 in soil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Environmental biosurveillance and microbial ecology studies use PCR-based assays to detect and quantify microbial taxa and gene sequences within a complex background of microorganisms. However, the fragmentary nature and growing quantity of DNA-sequence data make group-specific assay design challenging. We solved this problem by developing a software platform that enables PCR-assay design at an unprecedented scale. As a demonstration, we developed quantitative PCR assays for a globally widesp...

  15. Computer-aided polymer design using group contribution plus property models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satyanarayana, Kavitha Chelakara; Abildskov, Jens; Gani, Rafiqul

    2009-01-01

    . Polymer repeat unit property prediction models are required to calculate the properties of the generated repeat units. A systematic framework incorporating recently developed group contribution plus (GC(+)) models and an extended CAMD technique to include design of polymer repeat units is highlighted...... in this paper. The advantage of a GC(+) model in CAMD applications is that a very large number of polymer structures can be considered even though some of the group parameters may not be available. A number of case studies involving different polymer design problems have been solved through the developed...

  16. Smokers With Behavioral Health Comorbidity Should Be Designated a Tobacco Use Disparity Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Marc L.; Griffiths, Kim Gesell; Cooperman, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Smokers with co-occurring mental illness or substance use disorders are not designated a disparity group or priority population by most national public health and tobacco control groups. These smokers fulfill the criteria commonly used to identify groups that merit special attention: targeted marketing by the tobacco industry, high smoking prevalence rates, heavy economic and health burdens from tobacco, limited access to treatment, and longer durations of smoking with less cessation. A national effort to increase surveillance, research, and treatment is needed. Designating smokers with behavioral health comorbidity a priority group will bring much-needed attention and resources. The disparity in smoking rates among persons with behavioral health issues relative to the general population will worsen over time if their needs remain unaddressed. PMID:23865661

  17. Study protocol: developing a decision system for inclusive housing: applying a systematic, mixed-method quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Heidi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer A; Wright, Courtney J; Townsend, Clare; Smith, Dianne; Lakhani, Ali; Kennerley, Samantha

    2016-03-15

    Identifying the housing preferences of people with complex disabilities is a much needed, but under-developed area of practice and scholarship. Despite the recognition that housing is a social determinant of health and quality of life, there is an absence of empirical methodologies that can practically and systematically involve consumers in this complex service delivery and housing design market. A rigorous process for making effective and consistent development decisions is needed to ensure resources are used effectively and the needs of consumers with complex disability are properly met. This 3-year project aims to identify how the public and private housing market in Australia can better respond to the needs of people with complex disabilities whilst simultaneously achieving key corporate objectives. First, using the Customer Relationship Management framework, qualitative (Nominal Group Technique) and quantitative (Discrete Choice Experiment) methods will be used to quantify the housing preferences of consumers and their carers. A systematic mixed-method, quasi-experimental design will then be used to quantify the development priorities of other key stakeholders (e.g., architects, developers, Government housing services etc.) in relation to inclusive housing for people with complex disabilities. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 1 (experimental group) will participate in a series of focus groups employing Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) methodology. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 2 (control group) will participate in focus groups employing existing decision making processes to inclusive housing development (e.g., Risk, Opportunity, Cost, Benefit considerations). Using comparative stakeholder analysis, this research design will enable the AHP methodology (a proposed tool to guide inclusive housing development decisions) to be tested. It is anticipated that the findings of this study will enable stakeholders to incorporate consumer housing

  18. Formation of Large-Amplitude Wave Groups in an Experimental Model Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Tm= 3.0s with large grouped waves embedded C -46 Figure 95. Spectral Analysis of Phase II, Run 26- Hurricane Camille, ?i=30, Hs= 40.64 cm (16.0 in...Tm= 2.45s with wave group embedded C -47 Figure 96. Spectral Analysis of Phase II, Run 40- Hurricane Camille, ^=46.6, Hs= 26.16 cm (10.3 in.), Tm...1.96s with wave group embedded C -48 Figure 97. Three-dimensional wave surface plots for Phase II, Run 7 D-2 Figure 98. GLRP Single Point Time History

  19. Newly Designed Polypropylene Polyol with Terminated Primary Hydroxy Group and Application for Polyurethane Foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Maeda; M.Kaku; Y.Sakural; K.Nishiyama; H.Nakaminami

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Polypropylene polyol is very important chemical materials for polyurethane. We developed newly designed polypropylene polyol with terminated primary hydroxyl group. We focus on our new polypropylene polyol, and show its useful application for polyurethane foam. Polymerization of propyleneoxide is conventionally carried out in anionic polymerization process. In anionic process α-cleavage of propyleneoxide occurs rather than β-cleavage. Then the terminal hydroxyl group of the resulting polypropy...

  20. Honey prevents oral mocositis in children undergoing chemotherapy: A quasi-experimental study with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobya Bulut, Hacer; Güdücü Tüfekci, Fatma

    2016-12-01

    There are numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options available in the treatment of oral mucositis. However, in spite of so many methods and products, medical professionals have not come to a consensus as to which of these offer the best results. This study was conducted to assess the effect of oral care with honey on children undergoing chemotherapy for the prevention and healing of oral mucositis. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on children undergoing chemotherapy. The study group consisted of 83 children who attended clinics and polyclinics for chemotherapy. All the children were included in the study period. The study was completed with a total of 76 children except for seven patients who were excluded from the study. The data were collected using a form and the World Health Organization Mucositis Assessment Index. The data were analyzed using percentage distributions, means, a chi-square test, a t-test, a variance analysis, and a Friedman test. Ethics approval of the study was obtained from the Institution Ethics Committee. It was found that the severity of oral mucositis in the children in the experimental group was significantly less than the control group. The mucositis recovery period in the experimental group was significantly shorter than the control group. Regular oral care with honey for children undergoing chemotherapy for hematological cancers prevents mucositis and also accelerates recovery of it when started after mucositis onset. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we c

  2. Whither Instructional Design and Teacher Training? The Need for Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    This article takes a contrarian position: an "instructional design" or "teacher training" model, because of the sheer number of its interconnected parameters, is too complex to assess or to compare with other models. Models may not be the way to go just yet. This article recommends instead prior experimental research on limited…

  3. Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

  4. Optimal experimental design for non-linear models theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsos, Christos P

    2013-01-01

    This book tackles the Optimal Non-Linear Experimental Design problem from an applications perspective. At the same time it offers extensive mathematical background material that avoids technicalities, making it accessible to non-mathematicians: Biologists, Medical Statisticians, Sociologists, Engineers, Chemists and Physicists will find new approaches to conducting their experiments. The book is recommended for Graduate Students and Researchers.

  5. Characterizing Variability in Smestad and Gratzel's Nanocrystalline Solar Cells: A Collaborative Learning Experience in Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, John; Aggarwal, Pankaj; Leininger, Thomas; Fairchild, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative learning experience in experimental design that closely approximates what practicing statisticians and researchers in applied science experience during consulting. Statistics majors worked with a teaching assistant from the chemistry department to conduct a series of experiments characterizing the variation…

  6. An Experimental Two-Way Video Teletraining System: Design, Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Henry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the design, development, and evaluation of an experimental two-way video teletraining (VTT) system by the Navy that consisted of two classrooms linked by a land line to enable two-way audio/video communication. Trends in communication and computer technology for training are described, and a cost analysis is included. (12 references)…

  7. Characterizing Variability in Smestad and Gratzel's Nanocrystalline Solar Cells: A Collaborative Learning Experience in Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, John; Aggarwal, Pankaj; Leininger, Thomas; Fairchild, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative learning experience in experimental design that closely approximates what practicing statisticians and researchers in applied science experience during consulting. Statistics majors worked with a teaching assistant from the chemistry department to conduct a series of experiments characterizing the variation…

  8. Experimental Aeroelastic Models Design and Wind Tunnel Testing for Correlation with New Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of experimental model designs, wind tunnel tests and correlation with new theory are presented in this paper. The goal is not only to evaluate a new theory, new computational method or new aeroelastic phonomenon, but also to provide new insights into nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena, flutter, limit cycle oscillation (LCO and gust response.

  9. Whither Instructional Design and Teacher Training? The Need for Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    This article takes a contrarian position: an "instructional design" or "teacher training" model, because of the sheer number of its interconnected parameters, is too complex to assess or to compare with other models. Models may not be the way to go just yet. This article recommends instead prior experimental research on limited…

  10. Guided Inquiry in a Biochemistry Laboratory Course Improves Experimental Design Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodey, Nina M.; Talgar, Cigdem P.

    2016-01-01

    Many biochemistry laboratory courses expose students to laboratory techniques through pre-determined experiments in which students follow stepwise protocols provided by the instructor. This approach fails to provide students with sufficient opportunities to practice experimental design and critical thinking. Ten inquiry modules were created for a…

  11. Using Superstitions & Sayings To Teach Experimental Design in Beginning and Advanced Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefnagels, Marielle H.; Rippel, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a collaborative learning exercise intended to teach the unfamiliar terminology of experimental design both in biology classes and biochemistry laboratories. The exercise promotes discussion and debate, develops communication skills, and emphasizes peer review. The effectiveness of the exercise is supported by student surveys. (SOE)

  12. OPTIMIZING THE PRECISION OF TOXICITY THRESHOLD ESTIMATION USING A TWO-STAGE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important consideration for risk assessment is the existence of a threshold, i.e., the highest toxicant dose where the response is not distinguishable from background. We have developed methodology for finding an experimental design that optimizes the precision of threshold mo...

  13. Trade-offs in experimental designs for estimating post-release mortality in containment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark W.; Barbour, Andrew B; Wilson, Kyle L

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of post-release mortality (PRM) facilitate accounting for unintended deaths from fishery activities and contribute to development of fishery regulations and harvest quotas. The most popular method for estimating PRM employs containers for comparing control and treatment fish, yet guidance for experimental design of PRM studies with containers is lacking. We used simulations to evaluate trade-offs in the number of containers (replicates) employed versus the number of fish-per container when estimating tagging mortality. We also investigated effects of control fish survival and how among container variation in survival affects the ability to detect additive mortality. Simulations revealed that high experimental effort was required when: (1) additive treatment mortality was small, (2) control fish mortality was non-negligible, and (3) among container variability in control fish mortality exceeded 10% of the mean. We provided programming code to allow investigators to compare alternative designs for their individual scenarios and expose trade-offs among experimental design options. Results from our simulations and simulation code will help investigators develop efficient PRM experimental designs for precise mortality assessment.

  14. Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes to Teach Experimental Design. Methods and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research in teaching applied statistics. Concludes that students should analyze data from studies they have designed and conducted. Describes an activity in which students study germination and growth of radish seeds. Includes a table providing student instructions for both the experimental procedure and data analysis. (CFR)

  15. A Course on Experimental Design for Different University Specialties: Experiences and Changes over a Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Luaces, Victor; Velazquez, Blanca; Dee, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the origin and development of an Experimental Design course which has been taught in several faculties of the Universidad de la Republica and other institutions in Uruguay, over a 10-year period. At the end of the course, students were assessed by carrying out individual work projects on real-life problems, which was innovative for…

  16. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we c

  17. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  18. An experimental design for total container impact response modeling at extreme temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, V. P.; Wyskida, R. M.; Johannes, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental design (a drop test) was developed to test the effects of confinement upon cushions. The drop test produced consistent corner void cushion data from which mathematical models were developed. A mathematical relationship between temperature and drop height was found.

  19. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students' Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students' competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not…

  20. Combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks in the solid dispersion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medarević, Djordje P; Kleinebudde, Peter; Djuriš, Jelena; Djurić, Zorica; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    This study for the first time demonstrates combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the solid dispersions (SDs) development. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs were prepared by solvent casting method to improve carbamazepine dissolution rate. The influence of the composition of prepared SDs on carbamazepine dissolution rate was evaluated using d-optimal mixture experimental design and multilayer perceptron ANNs. Physicochemical characterization proved the presence of the most stable carbamazepine polymorph III within the SD matrix. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs significantly improved carbamazepine dissolution rate compared to pure drug. Models developed by ANNs and mixture experimental design well described the relationship between proportions of SD components and percentage of carbamazepine released after 10 (Q10) and 20 (Q20) min, wherein ANN model exhibit better predictability on test data set. Proportions of carbamazepine and poloxamer 188 exhibited the highest influence on carbamazepine release rate. The highest carbamazepine release rate was observed for SDs with the lowest proportions of carbamazepine and the highest proportions of poloxamer 188. ANNs and mixture experimental design can be used as powerful data modeling tools in the systematic development of SDs. Taking into account advantages and disadvantages of both techniques, their combined application should be encouraged.

  1. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we

  2. An Experimental Two-Way Video Teletraining System: Design, Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Henry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the design, development, and evaluation of an experimental two-way video teletraining (VTT) system by the Navy that consisted of two classrooms linked by a land line to enable two-way audio/video communication. Trends in communication and computer technology for training are described, and a cost analysis is included. (12 references)…

  3. An interactive visualization tool and data model for experimental design in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shray; Quo, Chang Feng; Merrill, Alfred H; Wang, May D

    2008-01-01

    Experimental design is important, but is often under-supported, in systems biology research. To improve experimental design, we extend the visualization of complex sphingolipid pathways to study biosynthetic origin in SphinGOMAP. We use the ganglio-series sphingolipid dataset as a test bed and the Java Universal Network / Graph Framework (JUNG) visualization toolkit. The result is an interactive visualization tool and data model for experimental design in lipid systems biology research. We improve the current SphinGOMAP in terms of interactive visualization by allowing (i) choice of four different network layouts, (ii) dynamic addition / deletion of on-screen molecules and (iii) mouse-over to reveal detailed molecule data. Future work will focus on integrating various lipid-relevant data systematically i.e. SphinGOMAP biosynthetic data, Lipid Bank molecular data (Japan) and Lipid MAPS metabolic pathway data (USA). We aim to build a comprehensive and interactive communication platform to improve experimental design for scientists globally in high-throughput lipid systems biology research.

  4. A Course on Experimental Design for Different University Specialties: Experiences and Changes over a Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Luaces, Victor; Velazquez, Blanca; Dee, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the origin and development of an Experimental Design course which has been taught in several faculties of the Universidad de la Republica and other institutions in Uruguay, over a 10-year period. At the end of the course, students were assessed by carrying out individual work projects on real-life problems, which was innovative for…

  5. Voxel-wise comparisons of the morphology of diffusion tensors across groups of experimental subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansal, Ravi; Staib, Lawrence H; Plessen, Kerstin J;

    2007-01-01

    and eigenvectors that create the 3D morphologies of DTs. We present a mathematical framework that permits the direct comparison across groups of mean eigenvalues and eigenvectors of individual DTs. We show that group-mean eigenvalues and eigenvectors are multivariate Gaussian distributed, and we use the Delta...... method to compute their approximate covariance matrices. Our results show that the theoretically computed mean tensor (MT) eigenvectors and eigenvalues match well with their respective true values. Furthermore, a comparison of synthetically generated groups of DTs highlights the limitations of using FA...... neuropsychiatric illnesses. Comparisons of tensor morphology across groups have typically been performed on scalar measures of diffusivity, such as Fractional Anisotropy (FA) rather than directly on the complex 3D morphologies of DTs. Scalar measures, however, are related in nonlinear ways to the eigenvalues...

  6. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  7. Experimental system design for the integration of trapped-ion and superconducting qubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Motte, D.; Grounds, A. R.; Rehák, M.; Rodriguez Blanco, A.; Lekitsch, B.; Giri, G. S.; Neilinger, P.; Oelsner, G.; Il'ichev, E.; Grajcar, M.; Hensinger, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    We present a design for the experimental integration of ion trapping and superconducting qubit systems as a step towards the realization of a quantum hybrid system. The scheme addresses two key difficulties in realizing such a system: a combined microfabricated ion trap and superconducting qubit architecture, and the experimental infrastructure to facilitate both technologies. Developing upon work by Kielpinski et al. (Phys Rev Lett 108(13):130504, 2012. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.130504), we describe the design, simulation and fabrication process for a microfabricated ion trap capable of coupling an ion to a superconducting microwave LC circuit with a coupling strength in the tens of kHz. We also describe existing difficulties in combining the experimental infrastructure of an ion trapping set-up into a dilution refrigerator with superconducting qubits and present solutions that can be immediately implemented using current technology.

  8. Group-based discrimination in judgments of moral purity-related behaviors: experimental and archival evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masicampo, E J; Barth, Maria; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of individuals' group membership can alter moral judgments of their behavior. We found that such moral judgments were amplified when judgers learned that a person belonged to a group shown to elicit disgust in others. When a person was labeled as obese, a hippie, or "trailer trash," people judged that person's behavior differently than when such descriptors were omitted: Virtuous behaviors were more highly praised, and moral violations were more severely criticized. Such group-based discrimination in moral judgment was specific to the domain of moral purity. Members of disgust-eliciting groups but not members of other minorities were the target of harsh judgments for purity violations (e.g., lewd behavior) but not for other violations (e.g., refusing to help others). The same pattern held true for virtuous behaviors, so that members of disgust-eliciting groups were more highly praised than others but only in the purity domain. Furthermore, group-based discrimination was mediated by feelings of disgust toward the target group but not by other emotions. Last, analysis of New York Police Department officers' encounters with suspected criminals revealed a similar pattern to that found in laboratory experiments. Police officers were increasingly likely to make an arrest or issue a summons as body mass index increased (i.e., as obesity rose) among people suspected of purity crimes (e.g., prostitution) but not of other crimes (e.g., burglary). Thus, moral judgments in the lab and in the real world exhibit patterns of discrimination that are both group and behavior specific.

  9. Experimental test of renormalization group theory on the uniaxial, dipolar coupled ferromagnet LiTbf4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1976-01-01

    The transverse correlation range ξ and the susceptibility in the critical region has been measured by neutron scattering. A special technique required to resolve the superdiverging longitudinal correlation range has been utilized. The results for ξ together with existing specific-heat data are in...... are in remarkable agreement with the renormalization group theory of systems with marginal dimensionality. The ratio between the susceptibility amplitudes above and below Tc was found to be 2 in accordance with renormalization-group and meanfield theory....

  10. Multilevel selection with kin and non-kin groups, experimental results with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, William M; Bijma, P; Schinckel, A

    2013-06-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting in response an order of magnitude greater with Kin than Random. Thus, multilevel selection was effective in reducing detrimental social interactions, which contributed to improved weight gain. The observed rates of response did not differ significantly from expected, demonstrating that current theory is adequate to explain multilevel selection response. Based on estimated genetic parameters, group selection would always be superior to any other combination of multilevel selection. Further, near optimal results could be attained using multilevel selection if 20% of the weight was on the group component regardless of group composition. Thus, in nature the conditions for multilevel selection to be effective in bringing about social change maybe common. In terms of a sustainability of breeding programs, multilevel selection is easy to implement and is expected to give near optimal responses with reduced rates of inbreeding as compared to group selection, the only requirement is that animals be housed in kin groups.

  11. Experimental Design and Data Analysis Issues Contribute to Inconsistent Results of C-Bouton Changes in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihi, Aouatef

    2017-01-01

    The possible presence of pathological changes in cholinergic synaptic inputs [cholinergic boutons (C-boutons)] is a contentious topic within the ALS field. Conflicting data reported on this issue makes it difficult to assess the roles of these synaptic inputs in ALS. Our objective was to determine whether the reported changes are truly statistically and biologically significant and why replication is problematic. This is an urgent question, as C-boutons are an important regulator of spinal motoneuron excitability, and pathological changes in motoneuron excitability are present throughout disease progression. Using male mice of the SOD1-G93A high-expresser transgenic (G93A) mouse model of ALS, we examined C-boutons on spinal motoneurons. We performed histological analysis at high statistical power, which showed no difference in C-bouton size in G93A versus wild-type motoneurons throughout disease progression. In an attempt to examine the underlying reasons for our failure to replicate reported changes, we performed further histological analyses using several variations on experimental design and data analysis that were reported in the ALS literature. This analysis showed that factors related to experimental design, such as grouping unit, sampling strategy, and blinding status, potentially contribute to the discrepancy in published data on C-bouton size changes. Next, we systematically analyzed the impact of study design variability and potential bias on reported results from experimental and preclinical studies of ALS. Strikingly, we found that practices such as blinding and power analysis are not systematically reported in the ALS field. Protocols to standardize experimental design and minimize bias are thus critical to advancing the ALS field. PMID:28101533

  12. Phase 2 trial design in neuro-oncology revisited: a report from the RANO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, Evanthia; Wu, Wenting; Cloughesy, Timothy; Lamborn, Kathleen; Mann, Bhupinder; Wen, Patrick Y; Reardon, David A; Wick, Wolfgang; Macdonald, David; Armstrong, Terri S; Weller, Michael; Vogelbaum, Michael; Colman, Howard; Sargent, Daniel J; van den Bent, Martin J; Gilbert, Mark; Chang, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Advances in the management of gliomas, including the approval of agents such as temozolomide and bevacizumab, have created an evolving therapeutic landscape in glioma treatment, thus affecting our ability to reliably use historical controls to comparatively assess the activity of new therapies. Furthermore, the increasing availability of novel, targeted agents--which are competing for a small patient population, in view of the low incidence of primary brain tumours--draws attention to the need to improve the efficiency of phase 2 clinical testing in neuro-oncology to expeditiously transition the most promising of these drugs or combinations to potentially practice-changing phase 3 trials. In this report from the Response Assessment in Neurooncology (RANO) group, we review phase 2 trial designs that can address these challenges and capitalise on scientific and clinical advances in brain tumour treatment in neuro-oncology to accelerate and optimise the selection of drugs deserving further testing in phase 3 trials. Although there is still a small role for single-arm and non-comparative phase 2 designs, emphasis is placed on the potential role that comparative randomised phase 2 designs--such as screening designs, selection designs, discontinuation designs, and adaptive designs, including seamless phase 2/3 designs--can have. The rational incorporation of these designs, as determined by the specific clinical setting and the trial's endpoints or goals, has the potential to substantially advance new drug development in neuro-oncology.

  13. Marginal biotin deficiency can be induced experimentally in humans using a cost-effective outpatient design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Shawna L; Henrich, Cindy L; Matthews, Nell I; Bogusiewicz, Anna; Dawson, Amanda M; Horvath, Thomas D; Owen, Suzanne N; Boysen, Gunnar; Moran, Jeffery H; Mock, Donald M

    2012-01-01

    To date, marginal, asymptomatic biotin deficiency has been successfully induced experimentally by the use of labor-intensive inpatient designs requiring rigorous dietary control. We sought to determine if marginal biotin deficiency could be induced in humans in a less expensive outpatient design incorporating a self-selected, mixed general diet. We sought to examine the efficacy of three outpatient study designs: two based on oral avidin dosing and one based on a diet high in undenatured egg white for a period of 28 d. In study design 1, participants (n = 4; 3 women) received avidin in capsules with a biotin binding capacity of 7 times the estimated dietary biotin intake of a typical self-selected diet. In study design 2, participants (n = 2; 2 women) received double the amount of avidin capsules (14 times the estimated dietary biotin intake). In study design 3, participants (n = 5; 3 women) consumed egg-white beverages containing avidin with a biotin binding capacity of 7 times the estimated dietary biotin intake. Established indices of biotin status [lymphocyte propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity; urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine (3HIA-carnitine), and biotin; and plasma concentration of 3HIA-carnitine] indicated that study designs 1 and 2 were not effective in inducing marginal biotin deficiency, but study design 3 was as effective as previous inpatient study designs that induced deficiency by egg-white beverage. Marginal biotin deficiency can be induced experimentally by using a cost-effective outpatient design by avidin delivery in egg-white beverages. This design should be useful to the broader nutritional research community.

  14. Experimental modeling of high-voltage corona discharge using design of experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rezzouga M; Tilmatine A; Gouri R; Medics K; Dascalescu L

    2007-01-01

    Many studies,both experimental and numerical,were devoted to the electric current of corona discharge and some mathematical models were proposed to express it.As it depends on several parameters,it is difficult to find a theoretical or an experimental formula,which considers all the factors.So we opted for the methodology of experimental designs,also called Tagushi's methodology,which represents a powerful tool generally employed when the process has many factors to consider.The objective of this paper is to model current using this experimental methodology.The factors considered were geometrical factors (interelectrode interval,surface of the grounded plane electrode,curvature radius of the point electrode),climatic factors (temperature and relative humidity),and applied high voltage.Results of experiments made it possible to obtain mathematical models and to analyse the interactions between all factors.

  15. Voxel-wise comparisons of the morphology of diffusion tensors across groups of experimental subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Staib, Lawrence H; Plessen, Kerstin J; Xu, Dongrong; Royal, Jason; Peterson, Bradley S

    2007-12-15

    Water molecules in the brain diffuse preferentially along the fiber tracts within white matter that form the anatomical connections across spatially distant brain regions. A diffusion tensor (DT) is a probabilistic ellipsoid composed of three orthogonal vectors, each having a direction and an associated scalar magnitude, that represent the probability of water molecules diffusing in each of those directions. The 3D morphologies of DTs can be compared across groups of subjects to reveal disruptions in structural organization and neuroanatomical connectivity of the brains of persons with various neuropsychiatric illnesses. Comparisons of tensor morphology across groups have typically been performed on scalar measures of diffusivity, such as Fractional Anisotropy (FA) rather than directly on the complex 3D morphologies of DTs. Scalar measures, however, are related in nonlinear ways to the eigenvalues and eigenvectors that create the 3D morphologies of DTs. We present a mathematical framework that permits the direct comparison across groups of mean eigenvalues and eigenvectors of individual DTs. We show that group-mean eigenvalues and eigenvectors are multivariate Gaussian distributed, and we use the Delta method to compute their approximate covariance matrices. Our results show that the theoretically computed mean tensor (MT) eigenvectors and eigenvalues match well with their respective true values. Furthermore, a comparison of synthetically generated groups of DTs highlights the limitations of using FA to detect group differences. Finally, analyses of in vivo DT data using our method reveal significant between-group differences in diffusivity along fiber tracts within white matter, whereas analyses based on FA values failed to detect some of these differences.

  16. Efficient experimental design and analysis strategies for the detection of differential expression using RNA-Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles José A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq has emerged as a powerful approach for the detection of differential gene expression with both high-throughput and high resolution capabilities possible depending upon the experimental design chosen. Multiplex experimental designs are now readily available, these can be utilised to increase the numbers of samples or replicates profiled at the cost of decreased sequencing depth generated per sample. These strategies impact on the power of the approach to accurately identify differential expression. This study presents a detailed analysis of the power to detect differential expression in a range of scenarios including simulated null and differential expression distributions with varying numbers of biological or technical replicates, sequencing depths and analysis methods. Results Differential and non-differential expression datasets were simulated using a combination of negative binomial and exponential distributions derived from real RNA-Seq data. These datasets were used to evaluate the performance of three commonly used differential expression analysis algorithms and to quantify the changes in power with respect to true and false positive rates when simulating variations in sequencing depth, biological replication and multiplex experimental design choices. Conclusions This work quantitatively explores comparisons between contemporary analysis tools and experimental design choices for the detection of differential expression using RNA-Seq. We found that the DESeq algorithm performs more conservatively than edgeR and NBPSeq. With regard to testing of various experimental designs, this work strongly suggests that greater power is gained through the use of biological replicates relative to library (technical replicates and sequencing depth. Strikingly, sequencing depth could be reduced as low as 15% without substantial impacts on false positive or true positive rates.

  17. Designing specific protein-protein interactions using computation, experimental library screening, or integrated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Scott; Keating, Amy E

    2012-07-01

    Given the importance of protein-protein interactions for nearly all biological processes, the design of protein affinity reagents for use in research, diagnosis or therapy is an important endeavor. Engineered proteins would ideally have high specificities for their intended targets, but achieving interaction specificity by design can be challenging. There are two major approaches to protein design or redesign. Most commonly, proteins and peptides are engineered using experimental library screening and/or in vitro evolution. An alternative approach involves using protein structure and computational modeling to rationally choose sequences predicted to have desirable properties. Computational design has successfully produced novel proteins with enhanced stability, desired interactions and enzymatic function. Here we review the strengths and limitations of experimental library screening and computational structure-based design, giving examples where these methods have been applied to designing protein interaction specificity. We highlight recent studies that demonstrate strategies for combining computational modeling with library screening. The computational methods provide focused libraries predicted to be enriched in sequences with the properties of interest. Such integrated approaches represent a promising way to increase the efficiency of protein design and to engineer complex functionality such as interaction specificity.

  18. Bayesian experimental design for the active nitridation of graphite by atomic nitrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Terejanu, Gabriel; Miki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The problem of optimal data collection to efficiently learn the model parameters of a graphite nitridation experiment is studied in the context of Bayesian analysis using both synthetic and real experimental data. The paper emphasizes that the optimal design can be obtained as a result of an information theoretic sensitivity analysis. Thus, the preferred design is where the statistical dependence between the model parameters and observables is the highest possible. In this paper, the statistical dependence between random variables is quantified by mutual information and estimated using a k-nearest neighbor based approximation. It is shown, that by monitoring the inference process via measures such as entropy or Kullback-Leibler divergence, one can determine when to stop the data collection process. The methodology is applied to select the most informative designs on both a simulated data set and on an experimental data set, previously published in the literature. It is also shown that the sequential Bayesian ...

  19. Thermoelastic Femoral Stress Imaging for Experimental Evaluation of Hip Prosthesis Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Koji; Inomoto, Masayoshi; Ma, Wenxiao; Miyakawa, Syunpei; Tateishi, Tetsuya

    An experimental system using the thermoelastic stress analysis method and a synthetic femur was utilized to perform reliable and convenient mechanical biocompatibility evaluation of hip prosthesis design. Unlike the conventional technique, the unique advantage of the thermoelastic stress analysis method is its ability to image whole-surface stress (Δ(σ1+σ2)) distribution in specimens. The mechanical properties of synthetic femurs agreed well with those of cadaveric femurs with little variability between specimens. We applied this experimental system for stress distribution visualization of the intact femur, and the femurs implanted with an artificial joint. The surface stress distribution of the femurs sensitively reflected the prosthesis design and the contact condition between the stem and the bone. By analyzing the relationship between the stress distribution and the clinical results of the artificial joint, this technique can be used in mechanical biocompatibility evaluation and pre-clinical performance prediction of new artificial joint design.

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Results of Substrate Effects on Microstrip Power Divider Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhair Mansoor Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of substrate materials on the design of microstrip power divider are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Three dielectric substrate materials, Duroid 3003, G10/FR4 epoxy Glass, and Duroid 3010, are chosen to be studied. A three-way two-stage power divider is designed at S-band frequency of 2.25 GHz and etched on each studied substrate separately. The substrate effects on the characteristics and performance of the microsrip circuits are studied taking into consideration the large difference in dielectric constant and the dissipation factor. The circuit designs presented here are analyzed using the Genesys CAD program and implemented and tested experimentally. The simulated and measured results are compared and discussed, and they indicate that significant changes in the characteristics of the microstrip power divider are observed.

  1. Experimental validation of systematically designed acoustic hyperbolic meta material slab exhibiting negative refraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    This Letter reports on the experimental validation of a two-dimensional acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial slab optimized to exhibit negative refractive behavior. The slab was designed using a topology optimization based systematic design method allowing for tailoring the refractive behavior....... The experimental results confirm the predicted refractive capability as well as the predicted transmission at an interface. The study simultaneously provides an estimate of the attenuation inside the slab stemming from the boundary layer effects—insight which can be utilized in the further design...... of the metamaterial slabs. The capability of tailoring the refractive behavior opens possibilities for different applications. For instance, a slab exhibiting zero refraction across a wide angular range is capable of funneling acoustic energy through it, while a material exhibiting the negative refractive behavior...

  2. Design, Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Solar System Based on PV Panels and PVT Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Buonomano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical and experimental analyses aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collectors. An experimental setup was purposely designed and constructed in order to compare the electrical performance of a PVT solar field with the one achieved by an identical solar field consisting of conventional photovoltaic (PV panels. The experimental analysis also aims at evaluating the potential advantages of PVT vs. PV in terms of enhancement of electrical efficiency and thermal energy production. The installed experimental set-up includes four flat polycrystalline silicon PV panels and four flat unglazed polycrystalline silicon PVT collectors. The total electrical power and area of the solar field are 2 kWe and 13 m2, respectively. The experimental set-up is currently installed at the company AV Project Ltd., located in Avellino (Italy. This study also analyzes the system from a numerical point of view, including a thermo-economic dynamic simulation model for the design and the assessment of energy performance and economic profitability of the solar systems consisting of glazed PVT and PV collectors. The experimental setup was modelled and partly simulated in TRNSYS environment. The simulation model was useful to analyze efficiencies and temperatures reached by such solar technologies, by taking into account the reference technology of PVTs (consisting of glazed collectors as well as to compare the numerical data obtained by dynamic simulations with the gathered experimental results for the PV technology. The numerical analysis shows that the PVT global efficiency is about 26%. Conversely, from the experimental point of view, the average thermal efficiency of PVT collectors is around 13% and the electrical efficiencies of both technologies are almost coincident and equal to 15%.

  3. Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, Lowell

    1994-01-01

    This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

  4. Highly Efficient Design-of-Experiments Methods for Combining CFD Analysis and Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Haller, Harold S.

    2009-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to examine the impact of "highly efficient" Design-of-Experiments (DOE) methods for combining sets of CFD generated analysis data with smaller sets of Experimental test data in order to accurately predict performance results where experimental test data were not obtained. The study examines the impact of micro-ramp flow control on the shock wave boundary layer (SWBL) interaction where a complete paired set of data exist from both CFD analysis and Experimental measurements By combining the complete set of CFD analysis data composed of fifteen (15) cases with a smaller subset of experimental test data containing four/five (4/5) cases, compound data sets (CFD/EXP) were generated which allows the prediction of the complete set of Experimental results No statistical difference were found to exist between the combined (CFD/EXP) generated data sets and the complete Experimental data set composed of fifteen (15) cases. The same optimal micro-ramp configuration was obtained using the (CFD/EXP) generated data as obtained with the complete set of Experimental data, and the DOE response surfaces generated by the two data sets were also not statistically different.

  5. An Annotated Bibliography of Materials Designed and Organized for Adult Use in Discussion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, John W.

    This first annotated bibliography of materials designed and organized for adult use in disucssion groups includes both book and nonbook material. Areas dealt with are: art, censorship, change, child guidance, communication, crime, democracy, economics, education, evolution, food, foreign affairs, forgetting, generation gap, gold, good and evil,…

  6. Students Negotiating and Designing Their Collaborative Learning Norms: A Group Developmental Perspective in Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Yotam; Ben-Zvi, Dani

    2015-01-01

    This research shows how participants in classroom learning communities (LCs) come to take responsibility over designing their collaborative learning norms. Taking a micro-developmental perspective within a graduate-level course, we examined fine-grained changes in group discourse during a period of rapid change where this responsibility taking…

  7. Design of butter tube group filling method%黄油桶装方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞虎; 袁越锦

    2012-01-01

    A butter tube group filling method and a group filling system are designed to ensure the quality of butter filling and improve the filling efficiency. The system makes butter tube simultaneous group running, simultaneous primary group filling, simultaneous respective group measurement (respective compensation come true. The whole work process is controlled by PLC.%设计了成组灌装方法和灌装系统,实现黄油桶成组同步运行,成组同步初灌装,成组同步分别计量、分别补偿,保证黄油灌装质量,提高灌装效率.整个工作过程用PLC(Programmable Logic Controller,可编程控制器)控制.

  8. An experimental school prototype: Integrating 3rs (reduce, reuse & recycle concept into architectural design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Seng Yeap

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors conducted a design project to examine the use of school as an ecological learning hub for children. Specifically, this study explores the ecological innovations that transform physical environment into three-dimensional textbooks for environmental education. A series of design workshops were carried out to gain interdisciplinary input for ecological school design. The findings suggest to integrate the concept of 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse & Recycle into the physical environment. As a result, an experimental school prototype is developed. It represents a series of recommendations that are rendered by novel ideas through the amalgamation of architecture, ecology and education. These findings promote the development of sustainable and interactive learning spaces through cross-disciplinary investigations in school architecture. Designers and practitioners interested in educational facilities design would find this article useful.

  9. Using the group of non-linear cells design metamaterial bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongwei; Song, Xin; Hu, Xiaolei; Gu, Jinliang

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the wave propagation in one-dimensional metamaterial bar with attached group of non-linear local oscillators by using analytical and numerical models. The focus is on the influence of group of non-linear cells on the filtering properties of the bar in the 1000Hz to 2000Hz range. Group of Periodic cells with alternating properties exhibit interesting dynamic characteristics that enable them to act as filters. Waves can propagate along bars within specific bands of frequencies called pass bands, and attenuate within bands of frequencies called gaps. Gaps in structures with group of periodic cells are located according on the frequency of cells. From the cell, we can yield the effect negative stiffness and effect negative mass. We can also design the gaps from attached oscillators or cells. In the uniform case the gap is located around the resonant frequency of the oscillators, and thus a stop band can be created in the lower frequency range. In the case with group of non-linear cells the results show that the position of the gap can be designed, and the design depends on the amplitude and the degree of non-linear cells.

  10. An Enhanced Collaborative Optimization Approach with Design Structure Matrix Algorithms to Group and Decouple Multidisciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifan Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the solution efficiency and reliability of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO, an enhanced MDO approach, called sequenced collaborative optimization (SCO, is proposed. The proposed approach introduces the design structure matrix (DSM to describe the coupling effects among disciplines and aggregates those mutually coupling disciplines into the strong tie groups among similar ones and the weak tie among heterogeneous ones through clustering algorithms. Further, those in the same group are sequenced by the DSM division algorithm. Moreover, by adding constraints, the groups are made independent, resulting in a tree structure without loops, thus decoupling the original multidisciplinary problem into several independent collaborative optimization modules. In the end, an example is employed to verify the efficiency and reliability of the approach.

  11. Multilevel selection with kin and non-kin groups, experimental results with japanese quail (coturnix japonica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muir, W.M.; Bijma, P.; schinckel, A.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting

  12. Voxel-wise comparisons of the morphology of diffusion tensors across groups of experimental subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansal, Ravi; Staib, Lawrence H; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2007-01-01

    and an associated scalar magnitude, that represent the probability of water molecules diffusing in each of those directions. The 3D morphologies of DTs can be compared across groups of subjects to reveal disruptions in structural organization and neuroanatomical connectivity of the brains of persons with various...

  13. Energy Research and Development Administration Ad Hoc Computer Networking Group: experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, I.

    1975-03-19

    The Ad Hoc Computer Networking Group was established to investigate the potential advantages and costs of newer forms of remote resource sharing and computer networking. The areas of research and investigation that are within the scope of the ERDA CNG are described. (GHT)

  14. Incorporating experimental design and error into coalescent/mutation models of population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Bjarne; Miyamoto, Michael M

    2007-08-01

    Coalescent theory provides a powerful framework for estimating the evolutionary, demographic, and genetic parameters of a population from a small sample of individuals. Current coalescent models have largely focused on population genetic factors (e.g., mutation, population growth, and migration) rather than on the effects of experimental design and error. This study develops a new coalescent/mutation model that accounts for unobserved polymorphisms due to missing data, sequence errors, and multiple reads for diploid individuals. The importance of accommodating these effects of experimental design and error is illustrated with evolutionary simulations and a real data set from a population of the California sea hare. In particular, a failure to account for sequence errors can lead to overestimated mutation rates, inflated coalescent times, and inappropriate conclusions about the population. This current model can now serve as a starting point for the development of newer models with additional experimental and population genetic factors. It is currently implemented as a maximum-likelihood method, but this model may also serve as the basis for the development of Bayesian approaches that incorporate experimental design and error.

  15. Design and application on experimental platform for high-speed bearing with grease lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental platform for high-speed grease is an important tool for research and development of high-speed motorized spindle with grease lubrication. In this article, the experimental platform for high-speed grease is designed and manufactured which consists of the drive system, the test portion, the loading system, the lubrication system, the control system, and so on. In the meantime, the high-speed angular contact ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 as the research object are tested and contrasted in the grease lubrication and oil mist lubrication. The experimental platform performance is validated by contrast experiment, and the high-speed lubricated bearing performance is also studied especially in the relationship among the rotating speed,load and temperature rise. The results show that the experimental platform works steadily, accurate, and reliable in the experimental testing. And the grease lubrication ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 can be used in high-speed motorized spindle in the circular water cooling conditions when the rotating speed is lower than 40,000 r/min or the DN value (the value of the bearing diameter times the rotating speed is lower than the 1.44 × 106 mm r/min. Grease lubrication instead of oil mist lubrication under high-speed rotating will simplify the structure design of the high-speed motorized spindle and reduce the pollution to the environment.

  16. Effect of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) on Student Achievement, Attitude, and Self-Concept in College General Chemistry in Randomized and Quasi Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated exam achievement and affective characteristics of students in general chemistry in a fully-randomized experimental design, contrasting Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) participation with a control group balanced for time-on-task and study activity. This study population included two independent first-semester courses with…

  17. Optimal experimental designs for estimating Henry's law constants via the method of phase ratio variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelner, Adam; Krieger, Abba; Blanford, William J

    2016-10-14

    When measuring Henry's law constants (kH) using the phase ratio variation (PRV) method via headspace gas chromatography (GC), the value of kH of the compound under investigation is calculated from the ratio of the slope to the intercept of a linear regression of the inverse GC response versus the ratio of gas to liquid volumes of a series of vials drawn from the same parent solution. Thus, an experimenter collects measurements consisting of the independent variable (the gas/liquid volume ratio) and dependent variable (the GC(-1) peak area). A review of the literature found that the common design is a simple uniform spacing of liquid volumes. We present an optimal experimental design which estimates kH with minimum error and provides multiple means for building confidence intervals for such estimates. We illustrate performance improvements of our design with an example measuring the kH for Naphthalene in aqueous solution as well as simulations on previous studies. Our designs are most applicable after a trial run defines the linear GC response and the linear phase ratio to the GC(-1) region (where the PRV method is suitable) after which a practitioner can collect measurements in bulk. The designs can be easily computed using our open source software optDesignSlopeInt, an R package on CRAN.

  18. Optimization of Protease Production from Aspergillus Oryzae Sp. Using Box-Behnken Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srinu Babu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease production by Aspergillus oryzae was optimized in shake-flask cultures using Box-Behnken experimental design. An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to describe the relationship between tested variable (peptone, glucose, soyabeanmeal and pH. Maximum enzyme activity was attained with Peptone at 4 g∕L; temperature at 30 °C glucose at 6 g∕L; 30 °C and pH at 10. Experimental verification of the model showed a validation of 95%, which is more than 3-fold increase compare to the basal medium.

  19. Experimental Investigations of Decentralised Control Design for The Stabilisation of Rotor-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Rotor-gas bearings are attracting increasing interest because of their high speed capabilities, low friction and clean operation. However, hydrostatic rotor-gas bearings show reduced damping characteristics, which makes it challenging to operate the rotating machine at and about the resonance...... directions. Hardening and softening P-lead controllers are designed based on the models experimentally identified, and salient features of both controllers are discussed. Both controllers are implemented and validated on the physical test rig. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed...

  20. Increased performance in a bottom-up designed robot by experimentally guided redesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian

    2013-01-01

    the bottom-up, mode-free approach, the authors used the robotic construction kit, LocoKit. This construction kit allows researchers to construct legged robots, without having a mathematical model beforehand. The authors used no specific mathematical model to design the robot, but instead used intuition...... and took inspiration from biology. The results were afterwards compared with results gained from biology, to see if the robot has some of the key elements the authors were looking for. Findings – With the use of LocoKit as the experimental platform, combined with known experimental measurement methods from...