WorldWideScience

Sample records for group exhibited deficits

  1. The Factory of the Future, Group Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Lionel T.

    2016-01-01

    3D Printing, The factory of the future, Lieu du Design (centre for Design), Paris This exhibition dedicated entirely to 3D printing technology was billed as “the first in France wholly devoted to exploring the interdisciplinary and multifaceted topic of 3D printing technology and its undeniable influence on everything from industry, to economics, to creative and social issues, demonstrated to the public through achievements in the fields of 3D design, 3D printed architecture, 3D printed fa...

  2. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children exhibit an impaired accommodative response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Beatriz; Vera, Jesús; Molina, Rubén; García, José Antonio; Ouadi, Miriam; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio; Jiménez, Raimundo

    2018-05-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common paediatric neurobehavioural disorders causing multiple functional impairments in children. Based on the relationship between the neural system that controls attention and ocular dynamics, the present study compares the magnitude and variability of accommodation between a group of non-medicated ADHD children and an age-matched control group. The magnitude and variability of the accommodative response were objectively measured in 36 children using the WAM-5500 autorefractometer for 90 consecutive seconds at three static viewing distances (500, 40, and 20 cm). Participants were divided into ADHD (n = 18) or control (n = 18) groups based on clinically validated criteria. Children with ADHD exhibited higher lags of accommodation (p = 0.024), increasing at closer viewing distances, in comparison to the control group. Marginal statistical differences were found for the variability of accommodation (p = 0.066), with the ADHD group showing a trend towards higher variability. Our analysis showed that the magnitude and variability of accommodation did not vary over time between groups (p > 0.05). Our data suggest that children with ADHD have a less accurate accommodative response. These results provide a new ocular index that could help to clarify the relationship between accommodative response and attentional deficits, which could have a direct impact on the academic, cognitive, and visual performance of ADHD children.

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  4. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  6. RNaseT2 knockout rats exhibit hippocampal neuropathology and deficits in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkevicius, Kerstin W; Morrison, Thomas R; Kulkarni, Praveen; Cagliostro, Martha K Caffrey; Iriah, Sade; Malmberg, Samantha; Sabrick, Julia; Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Askew, Kim L; Trivedi, Malav; Ferris, Craig F

    2018-05-10

    RNASET2 deficiency in humans is associated with infant cystic leukoencephalopathy, which causes psychomotor impairment, spasticity, and epilepsy. A zebrafish mutant model suggests that loss of RNASET2 function leads to neurodegeneration due to the accumulation of non-degraded RNA in the lysosomes. The goal of this study was to characterize the first rodent model of RNASET2 deficiency. The brains of 3- and 12-month-old RNaseT2 knockout rats were studied using multiple magnetic resonance imaging modalities and behavioral tests. While T1 and T2 weighted images of RNaseT2 knockout rats exhibited no evidence of cystic lesions, the prefrontal cortex and hippocampal complex were enlarged in knockout animals. Diffusion weighted imaging showed altered anisotropy and putative gray matter changes in the hippocampal complex of the RNaseT2 knockout rats. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) showed the presence of hippocampal neuroinflammation. Decreased levels of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) and elevated acid phosphatase and β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activities indicated that the RNASET2 knockout rats likely had altered lysosomal function and potential defects in autophagy. Object recognition tests confirmed the RNaseT2 knockout rats exhibited memory deficits. However, the Barnes maze, and balance beam and rotarod tests, indicated there were no differences in spatial memory or motor impairments, respectively. Overall, patients with RNASET2 deficiency exhibited a more severe neurodegeneration phenotype than was observed in the RNaseT2 knockout rats. However, the vulnerability of the knockout rat hippocampus as evidenced by neuroinflammation, altered lysosomal function, and cognitive defects indicates this is still a useful in vivo model to study RNASET2 function. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  8. "Gadd45b" Knockout Mice Exhibit Selective Deficits in Hippocampus-Dependent Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Prescott T.; Poplawski, Shane G.; Kenney, Justin W.; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A.; Abel, Ted; Gould, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible [beta] ("Gadd45b") has been shown to be involved in DNA demethylation and may be important for cognitive processes. "Gadd45b" is abnormally expressed in subjects with autism and psychosis, two disorders associated with cognitive deficits. Furthermore, several high-throughput screens have identified "Gadd45b"…

  9. Steroid sulfatase-deficient mice exhibit endophenotypes relevant to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Trent, Simon; Dennehy, Alison; Richardson, Heather; Ojarikre, Obah A.; Burgoyne, Paul S.; Humby, Trevor; Davies, William

    2012-01-01

    Summary Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition characterised by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity; it is frequently co-morbid with anxiety and conduct disorders, sleep perturbation and abnormal consummatory behaviours. Recent studies have implicated the neurosteroid-modulating enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS) as a modulator of ADHD-related endophenotypes. The effects of steroid sulfatase deficiency on homecage activity, feeding/drinking...

  10. Cardiovascular considerations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: a report of the European Network on Hyperactivity Disorders work group, European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug safety meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Robert M; Rosenthal, Eric; Hulpke-Wette, Martin; Graham, John G I; Sergeant, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug licensing and labelling, along with recent statements from professional associations, raise questions of practice regarding the evaluation and treatment of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To address these issues for the European community, the European Network for Hyperkinetic Disorders, through its European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group, organised a meeting between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialists, paediatric cardiovascular specialists, and representatives of the major market authorisation holders for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. This manuscript represents their consensus on cardiovascular aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. Although sudden death has been identified in multiple young individuals on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication causing regulatory concern, when analysed for exposure using currently available data, sudden death does not appear to exceed that of the general population. There is no current evidence to suggest an incremental benefit to electrocardiography assessment of the general attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. Congenital heart disease patients have an increased prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and can benefit from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapies, including medication. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialist is the appropriate individual to evaluate benefit and risk and recommend therapy in all patients, although discussion with a heart specialist is reasonable for congenital heart disease patients. For attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients with suspected heart disease or risk factor/s for sudden death, assessment by a heart specialist is recommended, as would also be the case for a non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. The

  11. Working Memory and Motor Activity: A Comparison Across Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Healthy Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Sarah E; Matt Alderson, R; Patros, Connor H G; Tarle, Stephanie J; Arrington, Elaine F; Grant, DeMond M

    2018-05-01

    Converging findings from recent research suggest a functional relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related hyperactivity and demands on working memory (WM) in both children and adults. Excessive motor activity such as restlessness and fidgeting are not pathognomonic symptoms of ADHD, however, and are often associated with other diagnoses such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Further, previous research indicates that anticipatory processing associated with anxiety can directly interfere with storage and rehearsal processes of WM. The topographical similarity of excessive motor activity seen in both ADHD and anxiety disorders, as well as similar WM deficits, may indicate a common relationship between WM deficits and increased motor activity. The relationship between objectively measured motor activity (actigraphy) and PH and visuospatial WM demands in adults with ADHD (n = 21), adults with GAD (n = 21), and healthy control adults (n = 20) was examined. Although all groups exhibited significant increases in activity from control to WM conditions, the ADHD group exhibited a disproportionate increase in activity, while activity exhibited by the GAD and healthy control groups was not different. Findings indicate that ADHD-related hyperactivity is uniquely related to WM demands, and appear to suggest that adults with GAD are no more active relative to healthy control adults during a cognitively demanding laboratory task. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) knockout mice exhibit improved spatial memory and deficits in contextual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarran-Zeckler, Rosie G; Brantley, Alicia Faruzzi; Smith, Roy G

    2012-06-15

    Although the hormone ghrelin is best known for its stimulatory effect on appetite and regulation of growth hormone release, it is also reported to have beneficial effects on learning and memory formation in mice. Nevertheless, controversy exists about whether endogenous ghrelin acts on its receptors in extra-hypothalamic areas of the brain. The ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) is co-expressed in neurons that express dopamine receptor type-1 (DRD1a) and type-2 (DRD2), and we have shown that a subset of GHS-R1a, which are not occupied by the agonist (apo-GHSR1a), heterodimerize with these two receptors to regulate dopamine signaling in vitro and in vivo. To determine the consequences of ghsr ablation on brain function, congenic ghsr -/- mice on the C57BL6/J background were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. We show that the ghsr -/- mice exhibit normal balance, movement, coordination, and pain sensation, outperform ghsr +/+ mice in the Morris water maze, but show deficits in contextual fear conditioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diacylglycerol kinase β knockout mice exhibit attention-deficit behavior and an abnormal response on methylphenidate-induced hyperactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsue Ishisaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. DGKβ is one of the subtypes of the DGK family and regulates many intracellular signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that DGKβ knockout (KO mice showed various dysfunctions of higher brain function, such as cognitive impairment (with lower spine density, hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and careless behavior. In the present study, we conducted further tests on DGKβ KO mice in order to investigate the function of DGKβ in the central nervous system, especially in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit behavior in the object-based attention test and it was ameliorated by methylphenidate (MPH, 30 mg/kg, i.p.. In the open field test, DGKβ KO mice displayed a decreased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MPH (30 mg/kg, i.p., but showed a similar response to an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p., when compared to WT mice. Examination of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, which is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, indicated that ERK1/2 activation induced by MPH treatment was defective in the striatum of DGKβ KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit and hyperactive phenotype, similar to ADHD. Furthermore, the hyporesponsiveness of DGKβ KO mice to MPH was due to dysregulation of ERK phosphorylation, and that DGKβ has a pivotal involvement in ERK regulation in the striatum.

  14. Individuals with chronic ankle instability exhibit dynamic postural stability deficits and altered unilateral landing biomechanics: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jeffrey D; Stewart, Ethan M; Macias, David M; Chander, Harish; Knight, Adam C

    2018-06-13

    To evaluate the literature regarding unilateral landing biomechanics and dynamic postural stability in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI). Four online databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and SportDiscus) were searched from the earliest records to 31 January 2018, as well as reference sections of related journal articles, to complete the systematic search. Studies investigating the influence of CAI on unilateral landing biomechanics and dynamic postural stability were systematically reviewed and evaluated. Twenty articles met the criteria and were included in the systematic review. Individuals with CAI were found to have deficits in dynamic postural stability on the affected limb with medium to large effect sizes and altered lower extremity kinematics, most notably in the ankle and knee, with medium to large effect sizes. Additionally, greater loading rates and peak ground reaction forces, in addition to reductions in ankle muscle activity were also found in individuals with CAI during unilateral jump-landing tasks. Individuals with CAI demonstrate dynamic postural stability deficits, lower extremity kinematic alterations, and reduced neuromuscular control during unilateral jump-landings. These are likely factors that contribute recurrent lateral ankle sprain injuries during dynamic activity in individuals with CAI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rats bred for helplessness exhibit positive reinforcement learning deficits which are not alleviated by an antidepressant dose of the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela; Henn, Fritz A; Petri, David; Huston, Joseph P

    2016-08-04

    Principles of negative reinforcement learning may play a critical role in the etiology and treatment of depression. We examined the integrity of positive reinforcement learning in congenitally helpless (cH) rats, an animal model of depression, using a random ratio schedule and a devaluation-extinction procedure. Furthermore, we tested whether an antidepressant dose of the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor deprenyl would reverse any deficits in positive reinforcement learning. We found that cH rats (n=9) were impaired in the acquisition of even simple operant contingencies, such as a fixed interval (FI) 20 schedule. cH rats exhibited no apparent deficits in appetite or reward sensitivity. They reacted to the devaluation of food in a manner consistent with a dose-response relationship. Reinforcer motivation as assessed by lever pressing across sessions with progressively decreasing reward probabilities was highest in congenitally non-helpless (cNH, n=10) rats as long as the reward probabilities remained relatively high. cNH compared to wild-type (n=10) rats were also more resistant to extinction across sessions. Compared to saline (n=5), deprenyl (n=5) reduced the duration of immobility of cH rats in the forced swimming test, indicative of antidepressant effects, but did not restore any deficits in the acquisition of a FI 20 schedule. We conclude that positive reinforcement learning was impaired in rats bred for helplessness, possibly due to motivational impairments but not deficits in reward sensitivity, and that deprenyl exerted antidepressant effects but did not reverse the deficits in positive reinforcement learning. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in a group of Egyptian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Magdy M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral syndrome of childhood characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. There were many etiological theories showed dysfunction of some brain areas that are implicated in inhibition of responses and functions of the brain. Minerals like zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper may play a role in the pathogenesis and therefore the treatment of this disorder. Objective This study aimed to measure levels of zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comparing them to normal. Methods This study included 58 children aged 5-15 years with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder attending Minia University Hospital from June 2008 to January 2010. They were classified into three sub-groups: sub-group I included 32 children with in-attentive type, sub-group II included 10 children with hyperactive type and sub-group III included 16 children with combined type according to the DSM-IV criteria of American Psychiatric Association, 2000. The control group included 25 apparently normal healthy children. Results Zinc, ferritin and magnesium levels were significantly lower in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder than controls (p value 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02 respectively, while copper levels were not significantly different (p value 0.9. Children with inattentive type had significant lower levels of zinc and ferritin than controls (p value 0.001 and 0.01 respectively with no significant difference between them as regards magnesium and copper levels (p value 0.4 and 0.6 respectively. Children with hyperactive type had significant lower levels of zinc, ferritin and magnesium than controls (p value 0.01, 0.02 and 0.02 respectively with no significant difference between them as regards copper levels (p value 0.9. Children with combined type had significant lower levels of zinc and magnesium than controls (p value 0

  17. Public relations work through exhibitions. Getting in touch with the target groups. A case study by 'Informationskreis Kernenergie'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, Sabine

    1993-01-01

    This presentation discusses the public relations work through exhibitions and fairs. Fairs and exhibitions provide an ideal opportunity to contact the target groups directly: political and economic opinion-makers; media representatives; insiders; young people and schoolchildren; interested public. During exhibitions the interested visitors are also supplied with extensive information material, mostly free of charge. An example the photo atlas 'Nuclear Energy in Germany' which we offered in an English edition as well and is attached to this presentation

  18. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Exhibit a Dynamic Phenotype in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bobby W. S.; Stadhouders, Ralph; de Bruijn, Marjolein J. W.; Lukkes, Melanie; Beerens, Dior M. J. M.; Brem, Maarten D.; KleinJan, Alex; Bergen, Ingrid; Vroman, Heleen; Kool, Mirjam; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Hendriks, Rudi W.

    2017-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are implicated in allergic asthma as an early innate source of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. However, their induction in house dust mite (HDM)-mediated airway inflammation additionally requires T cell activation. It is currently unknown whether phenotypic differences exist between ILC2s that are activated in a T cell-dependent or T cell-independent fashion. Here, we compared ILC2s in IL-33- and HDM-driven airway inflammation. Using flow cytometry, we found that surface expression levels of various markers frequently used to identify ILC2s were dependent on their mode of activation, highly variable over time, and differed between tissue compartments, including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, lung, draining lymph nodes, and spleen. Whereas in vivo IL-33-activated BAL fluid ILC2s exhibited an almost uniform CD25+CD127+T1/ST2+ICOS+KLRG1+ phenotype, at a comparable time point after HDM exposure BAL fluid ILC2s had a very heterogeneous surface marker phenotype. A major fraction of HDM-activated ILC2s were CD25lowCD127+T1/ST2low ICOSlowKLRG1low, but nevertheless had the capacity to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines. HDM-activated CD25low ILC2s in BAL fluid and lung rapidly reverted to CD25high ILC2s upon in vivo stimulation with IL-33. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of BAL ILC2s revealed ~1,600 differentially expressed genes: HDM-stimulated ILC2s specifically expressed genes involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity through B and T cell interactions, whereas IL-33-stimulated ILC2s expressed high levels of proliferation-related and cytokine genes. In both airway inflammation models ILC2s were present in the lung submucosa close to epithelial cells, as identified by confocal microscopy. In chronic HDM-driven airway inflammation ILC2s were also found inside organized cellular infiltrates near T cells. Collectively, our findings show that ILC2s are phenotypically more heterogeneous than previously thought

  19. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Exhibit a Dynamic Phenotype in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby W. S. Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 are implicated in allergic asthma as an early innate source of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. However, their induction in house dust mite (HDM-mediated airway inflammation additionally requires T cell activation. It is currently unknown whether phenotypic differences exist between ILC2s that are activated in a T cell-dependent or T cell-independent fashion. Here, we compared ILC2s in IL-33- and HDM-driven airway inflammation. Using flow cytometry, we found that surface expression levels of various markers frequently used to identify ILC2s were dependent on their mode of activation, highly variable over time, and differed between tissue compartments, including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, lung, draining lymph nodes, and spleen. Whereas in vivo IL-33-activated BAL fluid ILC2s exhibited an almost uniform CD25+CD127+T1/ST2+ICOS+KLRG1+ phenotype, at a comparable time point after HDM exposure BAL fluid ILC2s had a very heterogeneous surface marker phenotype. A major fraction of HDM-activated ILC2s were CD25lowCD127+T1/ST2low ICOSlowKLRG1low, but nevertheless had the capacity to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines. HDM-activated CD25low ILC2s in BAL fluid and lung rapidly reverted to CD25high ILC2s upon in vivo stimulation with IL-33. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of BAL ILC2s revealed ~1,600 differentially expressed genes: HDM-stimulated ILC2s specifically expressed genes involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity through B and T cell interactions, whereas IL-33-stimulated ILC2s expressed high levels of proliferation-related and cytokine genes. In both airway inflammation models ILC2s were present in the lung submucosa close to epithelial cells, as identified by confocal microscopy. In chronic HDM-driven airway inflammation ILC2s were also found inside organized cellular infiltrates near T cells. Collectively, our findings show that ILC2s are phenotypically more heterogeneous than

  20. Effect of Group Parent Management Traning on Behavioral Disorders of Children with Attention Deficit-Hyoeractivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Houshvar

    2009-10-01

    Conclusion: Group parent management training is significantly effective in decreasing behavioral disorders and anxiety status of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and this psychosocial intervention could be used as an effective complementary method beside medication and occupational therapy programs.

  1. Cognitive deficit and depressive symptoms in a community group of elderly people: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberman Claudia

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the number and proportion of old people increases worldwide, health professionals and systems should be made aware and prepared to deal with their problems. Cognitive deficit and symptoms of depression are commom among the elderly, and may occur in relation to various risk factors such as health conditions and psychosocial variables. In order to study cognitive deficit and the presence of signs and symptoms of depression, 62 elderly community subjects enrolled at a Community Health Unit in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were interviewed. They were evaluated by means of the Mini Mental State Exam, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression rating scale, and a questionnaire on health conditions, living arrangements and social variables. Higher levels of symptoms of depression were observed among subjects exposed to major risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases (diabetes and coronary disease, while impaired cognitive performance was seen among individuals who could not count on the presence of a confidant (social network variable. The results suggest that the early identification of major risk groups among old people can help to prevent institutionalization and keep individuals in the community.

  2. Parental interaction patterns in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder and control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Karahmadi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Parental communication patterns influence children's personality. This study investigated effects of parental interaction patterns on children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD.
    METHODS: There were 50 male children, 7-12 years old, selected in two groups. The first group included students with ADHD referred to psychiatry clinics in Isfahan-based on diagnostic scale of DSM-IV (25 subjects. The second group involved healthy boys selected by random cluster multistage sampling from primary schools in five districts of Isfahan (25 subjects from September 2005 to March 2005. Schaffer and Edgerton parental interaction questionnaire was filled for them.
    RESULTS: Mean scores of parental interaction patterns in healthy children were all higher than those in ADHD children except for “aggression control” and “lack of aggressive attachment”.
    CONCLUSIONS: The severity of ADHD signs has negative relationship with parental "admission" and parental "control" patterns. It also has positive relationship with “lack of aggressive/attachment” and “aggressive/control” patterns.
    KEY WORDS: Parental interaction patterns, ADHD.

  3. Effector/memory T cells of the weanling mouse exhibit Type 2 cytokine polarization in vitro and in vivo in the advanced stages of acute energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steevels, Tessa A M; Hillyer, Lyn M; Monk, Jennifer M; Fisher, Megan E; Woodward, Bill D

    2010-06-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the polarizing cytokine profile of the effector/memory T-cell compartment reflects the profound decline of cell-mediated inflammatory competence that characterizes acute prepubescent malnutrition. Weanling C57BL/6J mice were permitted free access to a complete purified diet, free access to an isocaloric low-protein diet or restricted intake of the complete diet for 14 days. First, interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-gamma concentrations generated in vitro by splenic and nodal effector/memory T cells were assessed following exposure to plate-bound anti-CD3. Second, net systemic production of IFN-gamma and IL-4 by the effector/memory T-cell compartment was assessed by the in vivo cytokine capture assay following anti-CD3 stimulation. In vitro stimulation generated less IFN-gamma (P=.002) but more IL-4 (P=.05) by T cells from the restricted-intake group relative to the age-matched control group. Similarly, in vivo stimulation generated low serum levels of antibody-captured IFN-gamma in the restricted-intake group vis-à-vis the age-matched control group (P=.01), while the IL-4 response was sustained (P=.39). By contrast, the 14-day low-protein model exhibited no change in T-cell cytokine signature either in vitro or in vivo. However, following extended consumption of the low-protein diet (26 days), carcass energy losses exceeded those of the 14-day protocol and serum levels of in vivo antibody-captured IFN-gamma were low after anti-CD3 challenge relative to the age-matched control group (P=.02), while levels of captured IL-4 remained unaffected (P=.07). Acute weanling malnutrition elicits a Type 2 polarizing cytokine character on the part of the effector/memory T-cell compartment, but only in the most advanced stages of energy decrement. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Characterization of Visual, Semantic and Auditory Memory in Children with Combination-Type Attention Deficit, Primarily Inattentive, and a Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Luz Angela; Arenas, Angela Maria; Henao, Gloria Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This investigation describes and compares characteristics of visual, semantic and auditory memory in a group of children diagnosed with combined-type attention deficit with hyperactivity, attention deficit predominating, and a control group. Method: 107 boys and girls were selected, from 7 to 11 years of age, all residents in the…

  5. Two Groups of Thellungiella salsuginea RAVs Exhibit Distinct Responses and Sensitivity to Salt and ABA in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Yang

    Full Text Available Containing both AP2 domain and B3 domain, RAV (Related to ABI3/VP1 transcription factors are involved in diverse functions in higher plants. A total of eight TsRAV genes were isolated from the genome of Thellungiella salsuginea and could be divided into two groups (A- and B-group based on their sequence similarity. The mRNA abundance of all Thellungiella salsuginea TsRAVs followed a gradual decline during seed germination. In Thellungiella salsuginea seedling, transcripts of TsRAVs in the group A (A-TsRAVs were gradually and moderately reduced by salt treatment but rapidly and severely repressed by ABA treatment. In comparison, with a barely detectable constitutive expression, the transcriptional level of TsRAVs in the group B (B-TsRAVs exhibited a moderate induction in cotyledons when confronted with ABA. We then produced the "gain-of-function" transgenic Arabidopsis plants for each TsRAV gene and found that only 35S:A-TsRAVs showed weak growth retardation including reduced root elongation, suggesting their roles in negatively controlling plant growth. Under normal conditions, the germination process of all TsRAVs overexpressing transgenic seeds was inhibited with a stronger effect observed in 35S:A-TsRAVs seeds than in 35S:B-TsRAVs seeds. With the presence of NaCl, seed germination and seedling root elongation of all plants including wild type and 35S:TsRAVs plants were retarded and a more severe inhibition occurred to the 35S:A-TsRAV transgenic plants. ABA treatment only negatively affected the germination rates of 35S:A-TsRAV transgenic seeds but not those of 35S:B-TsRAV transgenic seeds. All 35S:TsRAVs transgenic plants showed a similar degree of reduction in root growth compared with untreated seedlings in the presence of ABA. Furthermore, the cotyledon greening/expansion was more severely inhibited 35S:A-TsRAVs than in 35S:B-TsRAVs seedlings. Upon water deficiency, with a wider opening of stomata, 35S:A-TsRAVs plants experienced a faster

  6. Healthy Active Duty Military with Lifetime Experience of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Exhibits Subtle Deficits in Sensory Reactivity and Sensory Integration During Static Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W Geoffrey; Handy, Justin D; Avcu, Pelin; Ortiz, Alejandro; Haran, F Jay; Doria, Michael; Servatius, Richard J

    2018-03-01

    Postural control and stress reactivity were investigated in active duty coast guard personnel to determine whether they are sensitive to lifetime effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). A custom-designed and validated virtual reality-based computerized posturography device was used to assess postural stability, whereas emotional reactivity was assessed using the acoustic startle response (ASR), and neurocognitive performance was assessed using the defense-automated neurobehavioral assessment (DANA). It was hypothesized that residual and subtle postural control imbalance and deficits in cognitive and sensory reactivity would be evident in those reporting multiple lifetime mTBI. Active duty military personnel (N = 36; 7 females and 29 males) with no Deployment Limiting Medical Condition were recruited and tested on all assessments. Medical history information provided a history of head injury. Thirty-nine percent of participants reported having a previous mTBI (nine reporting one and five reporting more than one incident). No participant had experienced a head injury within the past year and all were symptom free. A significant effect of number of mTBI was found in the postural assessment (p = 0.002). Lifetime mTBI was associated with suppressed ASR magnitude (p = 0.03) but did not affect neurocognitive performance. The current findings provide new insight into ongoing controversies concerning sensitivity to functional deficits following mTBI and when the window for treatment or restoration ends.

  7. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells accumulate and exhibit disease-induced activation in the meninges in EAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Julianne K; Brown, Melissa A

    2015-10-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are immune cells that reside in tissues that interface with the external environment and contribute to the first line defense against pathogens. However, they also have roles in promoting chronic inflammation. Here we demonstrate that group 3 ILCs, (ILC3s - CD45+Lin-IL-7Rα+RORγt+), are normal residents of the meninges and exhibit disease-induced accumulation and activation in EAE. In addition to production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and GM-CSF, ILC3s constitutively express CD30L and OX40L, molecules required for memory T cell survival. We show that disease-induced trafficking of transferred wild type T cells to the meninges is impaired in ILC3-deficient Rorc-/- mice. Furthermore, lymphoid tissue inducer cells, a c-kit+ ILC3 subset that promotes ectopic lymphoid follicle development, a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases, are reduced in the meninges of EAE-resistant c-kit mutant Kit(W/Wv) mice. We propose that ILC3s sustain neuroinflammation by supporting T cell survival and reactivation in the meninges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. It's the Way You Tell It! What Conversations of Elementary School Groups Tell Us about the Effectiveness of Animatronic Animal Exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    1999-01-01

    Compares the content of conversations generated by elementary school groups at animatronic animal displays in a temporary zoo exhibit and in a permanent natural-history museum exhibit. Finds that moving animal models in themselves are insufficient to induce many visitors to talk about them in other than a superficial, cursory manner. Contains 17…

  9. Deficits in implicit attention to social signals in schizophrenia and high risk groups: behavioural evidence from a new illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha van 't Wout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing body of evidence suggests that the apparent social impairments observed in schizophrenia may arise from deficits in social cognitive processing capacities. The ability to process basic social cues, such as gaze direction and biological motion, effortlessly and implicitly is thought to be a prerequisite for establishing successful social interactions and for construing a sense of "social intuition." However, studies that address the ability to effortlessly process basic social cues in schizophrenia are lacking. Because social cognitive processing deficits may be part of the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia, we also investigated two groups that have been shown to be at increased risk of developing schizophrenia-spectrum pathology: first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and men with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY. RESULTS: We compared 28 patients with schizophrenia, 29 siblings of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 individuals with Klinefelter syndrome with 46 matched healthy control subjects on a new paradigm. This paradigm measures one's susceptibility for a bias in distance estimation between two agents that is induced by the implicit processing of gaze direction and biological motion conveyed by these agents. Compared to control subjects, patients with schizophrenia, as well as siblings of patients and Klinefelter men, showed a lack of influence of social cues on their distance judgments. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the insensitivity for social cues is a cognitive aspect of schizophrenia that may be seen as an endophenotype as it appears to be present both in relatives who are at increased genetic risk and in a genetic disorder at risk for schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. These social cue-processing deficits could contribute, in part, to the difficulties in higher order social cognitive tasks and, hence, to decreased social competence that has been observed in these groups.

  10. Deficits in implicit attention to social signals in schizophrenia and high risk groups: behavioural evidence from a new illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Wout, Mascha; van Rijn, Sophie; Jellema, Tjeerd; Kahn, René S; Aleman, André

    2009-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that the apparent social impairments observed in schizophrenia may arise from deficits in social cognitive processing capacities. The ability to process basic social cues, such as gaze direction and biological motion, effortlessly and implicitly is thought to be a prerequisite for establishing successful social interactions and for construing a sense of "social intuition." However, studies that address the ability to effortlessly process basic social cues in schizophrenia are lacking. Because social cognitive processing deficits may be part of the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia, we also investigated two groups that have been shown to be at increased risk of developing schizophrenia-spectrum pathology: first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and men with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY). We compared 28 patients with schizophrenia, 29 siblings of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 individuals with Klinefelter syndrome with 46 matched healthy control subjects on a new paradigm. This paradigm measures one's susceptibility for a bias in distance estimation between two agents that is induced by the implicit processing of gaze direction and biological motion conveyed by these agents. Compared to control subjects, patients with schizophrenia, as well as siblings of patients and Klinefelter men, showed a lack of influence of social cues on their distance judgments. We suggest that the insensitivity for social cues is a cognitive aspect of schizophrenia that may be seen as an endophenotype as it appears to be present both in relatives who are at increased genetic risk and in a genetic disorder at risk for schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. These social cue-processing deficits could contribute, in part, to the difficulties in higher order social cognitive tasks and, hence, to decreased social competence that has been observed in these groups.

  11. Knowledge deficit of patients with stage 1-4 CKD: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vargas, Pamela A; Tong, Allison; Phoon, Richard K S; Chadban, Steven J; Shen, Yvonne; Craig, Jonathan C

    2014-04-01

    Patients with early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) must make lifestyle modifications and adhere to treatment regimens to prevent their progression to end-stage kidney disease. The aim of this study was to elicit the perspectives of patients with stage 1-4 CKD about their disease, with a specific focus on their information needs in managing and living with CKD and its sequelae. Patients with CKD stages 1-4 were purposively sampled from three major hospitals in Sydney, Australia to participate in focus groups. Transcripts were thematically analysed. From nine focus groups including 38 participants, six major themes were identified: medical attentiveness (shared decision-making, rapport, indifference and insensitivity); learning self-management (diet and nutrition, barriers to physical activity, medication safety); contextualizing comorbidities (prominence of CKD, contradictory treatment); prognostic uncertainty (hopelessness, fear of disease progression, disbelief regarding diagnosis); motivation and coping mechanisms (engage in research, pro-active management, optimism, feeling normal); and knowledge gaps (practical advice, access to information, comprehension of pathology results and CKD diagnosis, education for general practitioners). Patients capacity to slow the progression of CKD may be limited by their lack of knowledge about the disease, its comorbidities, psychosocial influences and their ability to interact and communicate effectively with their health-care provider. Support from a multidisciplinary care team, combined with provision of comprehensive, accessible and practical educational resources may enhance patients' ability and motivation to access and adhere to therapeutic and lifestyle interventions to retard progression of CKD. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  12. Technology Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-09-15

    Linked to the 25th Anniversary celebrations, an exhibition of some of CERN's technological achievements was opened on 22 June. Set up in a new 600 m{sup 2} Exhibition Hall on the CERN site, the exhibition is divided into eight technology areas — magnets, vacuum, computers and data handling, survey and alignment, radiation protection, beam monitoring and handling, detectors, and workshop techniques.

  13. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...

  14. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    Science museums define the objectives of their exhibitions in terms of visitor learning outcomes. Yet, exhibit designers lack theoretical and empirical research findings on which to base the creation of such educational environments. Here, this shortcoming is addressed through the development...... of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based...... on the generation of theoretical ideas for exhibit design is offered in a fourth and parallel research undertaking, namely the application of the notion of cultural border-crossing to a hypothetical case of exhibit design....

  15. Effects of a program of cognitive-behavioural group therapy, vestibular rehabilitation, and psychoeducational explanations on patients with dizziness and no quantified balance deficit, compared to patients with dizziness and a quantified balance deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D A; Allum, J H J; Sleptsova, M; Gross, S; Gaab, J; Welge-Lüssen, A; Schaefert, R; Langewitz, W

    2018-02-01

    We examined whether a program combining cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), vestibular rehabilitation (VR) and psychoeducation is equally effective in improving psychometric measures in patients with dizziness independent of a balance deficit. Measures of patients with dizziness only (DO) were compared to those of patients also having a quantified balance deficit (QBD). 32 patients (23 female, 9 male) with persistent dizziness were analysed as 2 groups based on stance and gait balance control: those with QBD (pathological balance) or DO (normal balance). Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) questionnaires were used pre- and post-therapy to assess psychometric measures. Patients then received the same combination therapy in a group setting. The QBD group mean age was 60.6, SD 8.3, and DO group mean age 44.8, SD 12.1, years. Pre-therapy, questionnaire scores were pathological but not different between groups. Balance improved significantly for the QBD group (p=0.003) but not for the DO group. DHI and BSI scores improved significantly in the DO group (0.001balance control improving to near normal. Possibly, greater focus on phobic anxiety during the group therapy program would have improved psychological measures of QBD patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The South African Society of Psychiatrists/Psychiatry Management Group management guidelines for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Schoeman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Disclaimer: These guidelines do not aim to provide a comprehensive review of all the pertinent literature comprising the evidence base and, as such, should be utilised in conjunction with other guidelines as well as the responsibility of practitioners to maintain a high level of personal knowledge and expertise. Despite the known efficacy of treatment and the substantial costs of untreated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, access to healthcare and treatment is not a given for many patients in South Africa (SA. In SA, there is poor identification and treatment of common mental disorders at primary healthcare level and limited access to specialist resources with a service delivery and treatment gap of up to 75%. Medication options are also often limited in emerging markets and in SA psychiatrists, and patients do not have access to the medication armamentarium available in established markets. Furthermore, the majority of South Africans currently utilise the public healthcare sector and may not have access to treatment options referred to in these guidelines. These guidelines should therefore not be seen as a policy document. The process: The South African Society of Psychiatrists’ Special Interest Group (SIG for adult ADHD was launched on 25 September 2015, with doctors Rykie Liebenberg and Renata Schoeman as convenor and co-convenor, respectively. The overall objective of the ADHD SIG is to improve the basket of care available to patients with ADHD. This is only possible through a combined and concerted effort of individuals with a special interest in and passion for ADHD to improve knowledge about and funding for the care of individuals with the disorder. One of the specific aims of the ADHD SIG was to develop South African guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD specifically and update guidelines for the treatment of child, adolescent and adult ADHD. Dr Schoeman has recently completed her MBA at the University

  17. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  18. Automatic Deficits can lead to executive deficits in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Martino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well documented an executive dysfunction in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and with Reading Disorder (RD. The purpose of the present study was to test an alternative hypothesis that deficits in executive functioning within ADHD may be partially due to an impairment of the automatic processing. In addition, since the co-occurrence between ADHD and RD, we tested the hypothesis that the automatic processing may be  a possible common cognitive factor between ADHD and RD. We investigated the automatic processing of selective visual attention through two experiments. 12 children with ADHD, 17 with ADHD+RD and 29 typically developing children, matched for age and gender, performed two tasks: Visual Information Processing Task and Clock Test. As expected, ADHD and ADHD+RD groups differed from the control group in controlled process task, suggesting a deficit in executive functioning. All clinical subjects also exhibited a lower performance in automatic processes, compared to control group. The results of this study suggest that executive deficits within ADHD can be partially due to an impairment of automatic processing.

  19. The comparison of attentional control deficits in the three group of normal, with social anxiety disorder and with comorbidity (social anxiety disorder and depression) students of Lorestan University

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadampour E; Rezaei F; Hosseini Ramaghani NA; Moradi M

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: One of the mechanisms that thought to underlie social anxiety disorder is dysfunction in attentional control. The current study was designed to compare attentional control deficits in the three group: normal, with social anxiety disorder and with comorbidity (social anxiety disorder and depression) students. Methods: The design of present study was causal-comparative. Statistical population of this study contained all normal female students, with social anxiety disorde...

  20. How to Modernize the Academic Museum. Exhibition Activity of the Museum Group the ARAS as a Pilot Project of the Museum of History of Russian Academy of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korneva-Chaeva Irina A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article on the example of the Museum group of Archives of Russian Academy of Science is demonstrating new possibilities of representation of archival documents in the museum space. The authors focused on the potential exposure of the museum based on the principle of visualization. They explain the special role of representing scientific knowledge for education of youth. They offer a new form of interactive communication with the museum’s scientific heritage, based on the method of comprehending the reality as a “co-experience” and “re-discovery” that leads to the attainment the new generation to the new intellectual and spiritual experience. The experiment, the research paper, the science, the war, and even the modern art are the main themes of our exhibitions. The authors use the special new methods of exhibition to create the intriguing image of scientist. They use light boxes and interactive demonstrations. The main aim of the exposition is to show the documents of Archives of Russian Academy of Science, so we rely on the following materials: personal fond of academicians A.N. Nesmeyanov, V.L. Komarov, M.V. Keldysh, I.V. Kurchatov and others. Authors successfully solve the problems of the development of new theoretical principles exposing archival documents by modern methods.

  1. Distal mdx muscle groups exhibiting up-regulation of utrophin and rescue of dystrophin-associated glycoproteins exemplify a protected phenotype in muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Paul; Culligan, Kevin; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2002-02-01

    Unique unaffected skeletal muscle fibres, unlike necrotic torso and limb muscles, may pave the way for a more detailed understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of inherited neuromuscular disorders and help to develop new treatment strategies for muscular dystrophies. The sparing of extraocular muscle in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is mostly attributed to the special protective properties of extremely fast-twitching small-diameter fibres, but here we show that distal muscles also represent a particular phenotype that is more resistant to necrosis. Immunoblot analysis of membranes isolated from the well established dystrophic animal model mdx shows that, in contrast to dystrophic limb muscles, the toe musculature exhibits an up-regulation of the autosomal dystrophin homologue utrophin and a concomitant rescue of dystrophin-associated glycoproteins. Thus distal mdx muscle groups provide a cellular system that naturally avoids myofibre degeneration which might be useful in the search for naturally occurring compensatory mechanisms in inherited skeletal muscle diseases.

  2. Efficacy of Management Skills Group Training for Mothers on Self-Esteem and Anxiety of Their Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narguesse Saliminia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has a profound impact on lives of thousands of children and their families. Objectives Aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of training for mothers, on these children. Materials and Methods In this quasi-experimental research, 30 mothers were randomly divided into control and experimental groups and the experimental group received Barkley management skills training in 9 sessions. Results Findings showed that anxiety in children of trained mothers was decreased and self-esteem was increased. Conclusions The training program for mothers can be an effective method for treatment of psychological disorders in children with ADHD.

  3. Efficacy of the Positive Parenting Program (Triple-P for a Group of Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tehranidoost

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: To evaluate the efficacy of the Positive Parenting Program (Triple-P for parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. "nMethod:  Sixty families who had at least one child with clinically diagnosed ADHD aged between 6 to12 were recruited from the consecutive referrals to a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic. Families were randomly assigned to the intervention group (who participated in an 8- week- group Triple-P, N=30 and a control group (N=30. Parents completed the battery of self-report questionnaires of triple-P at the beginning and after the 8th session. "nResults: There were no significant differences in pre intervention measures between the two groups. Comparing the pre and post intervention data, the Triple- P group was associated with significantly lower levels of parent reported child behavior problems (P=0.001, lower levels of dysfunctional parenting (P=0.001 and greater parental competence (P=0.001 than the control group. The parents the in triple-P group had significant improvement on measures of depression, anxiety and stress, in comparison with the control group (P=0.001. This study did not follow the long term effect which marks its limitation. "nConclusion: The Triple-P program can be recommended for parents of children with ADHD to reduce the problem behavior of their children and to improve their abilities.

  4. Testing Measurement Invariance across Groups of Children with and without Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Applications for Word Recognition and Spelling Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio, Patrícia S; Salum, Giovanni; Swardfager, Walter; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Pan, Pedro M; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Gadelha, Ary; Rohde, Luis A; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) perform significantly lower than controls on word recognition and spelling tests, such studies rely on the assumption that those groups are comparable in these measures. This study investigates comparability of word recognition and spelling tests based on diagnostic status for ADHD through measurement invariance methods. The participants ( n = 1,935; 47% female; 11% ADHD) were children aged 6-15 with normal IQ (≥70). Measurement invariance was investigated through Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes models. Measurement invariance was attested in both methods, demonstrating the direct comparability of the groups. Children with ADHD were 0.51 SD lower in word recognition and 0.33 SD lower in spelling tests than controls. Results suggest that differences in performance on word recognition and spelling tests are related to true mean differences based on ADHD diagnostic status. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

  5. Attention Contributes to Arithmetic Deficits in New-Onset Childhood Absence Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dazhi; Yan, Xiuxian; Gao, Zhijie; Xu, Keming; Chen, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies indicate that new-onset childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is associated with deficits in attention and executive functioning. However, the contribution of these deficits to impaired academic performance remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether attention and executive functioning deficits account for the academic difficulties prevalent in patients with new-onset CAE. We analyzed cognitive performance in several domains, including language, mathematics, psychomotor speed, spatial ability, memory, general intelligence, attention, and executive functioning, in 35 children with new-onset CAE and 33 control participants. Patients with new-onset CAE exhibited deficits in mathematics, general intelligence, attention, and executive functioning. Furthermore, attention deficits, as measured by a visual tracing task, accounted for impaired arithmetic performance in the new-onset CAE group. Therefore, attention deficits, rather than impaired general intelligence or executive functioning, may be responsible for arithmetic performance deficits in patients with new-onset CAE.

  6. Distinct conflict resolution deficits related to different facets of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, John G

    2009-11-01

    An important issue in understanding the nature of conflict processing is whether it is a unitary or multidimensional construct. One way to examine this is to study whether people with impaired conflict processing exhibit a general pattern of deficits or whether they exhibit impairments in distinct aspects of conflict processing. One group who might exhibit conflict deficits are people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder, with one way to break down the heterogeneity of schizophrenia is to examine specific symptoms. Previous research has found that specific symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with specific deficits in conflict processing. In particular, disorganization is associated with increased response conflict, alogia is associated with increased retrieval conflict, and anhedonia is associated with increased emotional conflict. Moreover, there is evidence that different types of conflict processing are unassociated with each other. This evidence suggests that conflict processing is a multidimensional construct and that different aspects of schizophrenia are associated with impairments in processing different types of conflict.

  7. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  8. Sebastien Pelletier explains states of matter to an enthusiastic group of youngsters during the opening of a new exhibition in Microcosm last week

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The Fun with Physics workshop will be offered to all 13-14 year olds in school groups visiting CERN this year. The new Microcosm contents have been developed in collaboration with the local teaching community, and cover particles and the forces that act between them.

  9. A phase 2a randomized, parallel group, dose-ranging study of molindone in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and persistent, serious conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Jennifer Dugan; Taneja, Baldeo K; Baroldi, Paolo; Findling, Robert L

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate safety and tolerability of four doses of immediate-release molindone hydrochloride in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and serious conduct problems. This open-label, parallel-group, dose-ranging, multicenter trial randomized children, aged 6-12 years, with ADHD and persistent, serious conduct problems to receive oral molindone thrice daily for 9-12 weeks in four treatment groups: Group 1-10 mg (5 mg if weight conduct problems. Secondary outcome measures included change in Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form-Typical Intelligence Quotient (NCBRF-TIQ) Conduct Problem subscale scores, change in Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) and -Improvement (CGI-I) subscale scores from baseline to end point, and Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham rating scale-revised (SNAP-IV) ADHD-related subscale scores. The study randomized 78 children; 55 completed the study. Treatment with molindone was generally well tolerated, with no clinically meaningful changes in laboratory or physical examination findings. The most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) included somnolence (n=9), weight increase (n=8), akathisia (n=4), sedation (n=4), and abdominal pain (n=4). Mean weight increased by 0.54 kg, and mean body mass index by 0.24 kg/m(2). The incidence of AEs and treatment-related AEs increased with increasing dose. NCBRF-TIQ subscale scores improved in all four treatment groups, with 34%, 34%, 32%, and 55% decreases from baseline in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. CGI-S and SNAP-IV scores improved over time in all treatment groups, and CGI-I scores improved to the greatest degree in group 4. Molindone at doses of 5-20 mg/day (children weighing <30 kg) and 20-40 mg (≥ 30 kg) was well tolerated, and preliminary efficacy results suggest that molindone produces dose-related behavioral improvements over 9-12 weeks. Additional double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are needed to further investigate molindone in this pediatric population.

  10. Executive dysfunction among children with reading comprehension deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locascio, Gianna; Mahone, E Mark; Eason, Sarah H; Cutting, Laurie E

    2010-01-01

    Emerging research supports the contribution of executive function (EF) to reading comprehension; however, a unique pattern has not been established for children who demonstrate comprehension difficulties despite average word recognition ability (specific reading comprehension deficit; S-RCD). To identify particular EF components on which children with S-RCD struggle, a range of EF skills was compared among 86 children, ages 10 to 14, grouped by word reading and comprehension abilities: 24 average readers, 44 with word recognition deficits (WRD), and 18 S-RCD. An exploratory principal components analysis of EF tests identified three latent factors, used in subsequent group comparisons: Planning/ Spatial Working Memory, Verbal Working Memory, and Response Inhibition. The WRD group exhibited deficits (relative to controls) on Verbal Working Memory and Inhibition factors; S-RCD children performed more poorly than controls on the Planning factor. Further analyses suggested the WRD group's poor performance on EF factors was a by-product of core deficits linked to WRD (after controlling for phonological processing, this group no longer showed EF deficits). In contrast, the S-RCD group's poor performance on the planning component remained significant after controlling for phonological processing. Findings suggest reading comprehension difficulties are linked to executive dysfunction; in particular, poor strategic planning/organizing may lead to reading comprehension problems.

  11. Unique case of oligoastrocytoma with recurrence and grade progression: Exhibiting differential expression of high mobility group-A1 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Puneet; Khare, Richa; Niraj, Kavita; Garg, Nitin; Sorte, Sandeep K; Gulwani, Hanni

    2016-01-01

    Mixed gliomas, primarily oligoastrocytomas, account for about 5%-10% of all gliomas. Distinguishing oligoastrocytoma based on histological features alone has limitations in predicting the exact biological behavior, necessitating ancillary markers for greater specificity. In this case report, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and high mobility group-A1 (HMGA1); markers of proliferation and stemness, have been quantitatively analyzed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of a 34 years old patient with oligoastrocytoma. Customized florescence-based immunohistochemistry protocol with enhanced sensitivity and specificity is used in the study. The patient presented with a history of generalized seizures and his magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed infiltrative ill-defined mass lesion with calcified foci within the left frontal white matter, suggestive of glioma. He was surgically treated at our center for four consecutive clinical events. Histopathologically, the tumor was identified as oligoastrocytoma-grade II followed by two recurrence events and final progression to grade III. Overall survival of the patient without adjuvant therapy was more than 9 years. Glial fibrillary acidic protein, p53, Ki-67, nuclear atypia index, pre-operative neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, are the other parameters assessed. Findings suggest that hTERT and HMGA1 are linked to tumor recurrence and progression. Established markers can assist in defining precise histopathological grade in conjuction with conventional markers in clinical setup. PMID:27672647

  12. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  13. Neurofeedback, sham neurofeedback, and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a triple-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönenberg, Michael; Wiedemann, Eva; Schneidt, Alexander; Scheeff, Jonathan; Logemann, Alexander; Keune, Philipp M; Hautzinger, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Many studies suggest that electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback might be beneficial in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, numbers of well controlled studies are low and neurofeedback techniques are regarded as highly controversial. The present trial examined the efficacy (compared with sham neurofeedback) and efficiency (compared with meta-cognitive therapy) of a standard EEG neurofeedback protocol in adults with ADHD. We did a concurrent, triple-blind, randomised, controlled trial using authorised deception in adults with ADHD from one centre (University of Tübingen) in Tübingen, Germany. Participants were eligible if they fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD, were aged between 18 years and 60 years, and had no or stable use of medication for at least 2 months with no intention to change. We excluded participants who had comorbid schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, epilepsy, or traumatic brain injury; substance abuse or dependence; or current or planned other psychological treatment. Those eligible were randomly assigned to three groups: a neurofeedback group which received 30 verum θ-to-β neurofeedback sessions over 15 weeks, a sham neurofeedback group which received 15 sham followed by 15 verum θ-to-β neurofeedback sessions over 15 weeks, or a meta-cognitive group therapy group which received 12 sessions over 12 weeks. Participants were assigned equally to one of the three interventions through a computerised minimisation randomisation procedure stratified by sex, age, and baseline symptom severity of ADHD. Participants were masked as to whether they were receiving neurofeedback or sham neurofeedback, but those receiving meta-cognitive therapy were aware of their treatment. Clinical assessors (ie, those assessing outcomes) and research staff who did the neurofeedback training were masked to participants' randomisation status only for neurofeedback

  14. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  15. Dirty Pop: Contemporary British Painting, Group Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Phil Allen, Peter Ashton Jones, Jake Clark, Richard Clegg, Dan Coombs, Nelson Diplexcito, Nadine Feinson, Mick Finch, Richard Hamilton, Dan Hays, Gavin Lockheart, Andrea Medjesi Jones, David Leeson, Duncan Newton, Sarah Pickstone, Colin Smith, John Stark, Michael Stubbs, James White, Mark Wright.\\ud \\ud Dirty Pop, curated for &Model by Mark Wright, presents twenty contemporary painters whose work connects with Pop Art of the 1960’s, and particularly the legacy of the important British artist ...

  16. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  17. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  18. Discrimination? - Exhibition of posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Participation in the exhibition with the students form the Art Academy. The exhibition consisted of 15 posters tackling the subjects of hate speech and discrimination. The exhibition happened thanks to the invitation of the Faculty of Law at UGD, and it was a part of a larger event of launching books on the aforementioned subjects.

  19. Probing the Nature of Deficits in the "Approximate Number System" in Children with Persistent Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a deficit in the so-called "Approximate Number System" (ANS). To do so, we examined a group of elementary school children who demonstrated persistent low math achievement over 4 years and compared them to typically developing (TD), aged-matched…

  20. Attention deficits and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  1. Exhibition; Image display agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normazlin Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This article touches on the role of Malaysian Nuclear Agency as nuclear research institutions to promote, develop and encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in its agricultural, medical, manufacturing, industrial, health and environment for the development of the country running successfully. Maturity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency in dealing with nuclear technology that are very competitive and globalization cannot be denied. On this basis Malaysian Nuclear Agency was given the responsibility to strengthen the nuclear technology in Malaysia. One way is through an exhibition featuring the research, discoveries and new technology products of the nuclear technology. Through this exhibition is to promote the nuclear technology and introduce the image of the agency in the public eye. This article also states a number of exhibits entered by the Malaysian Nuclear Agency and achievements during the last exhibition. Authors hope that the exhibition can be intensified further in the future.

  2. A New Exhibition in Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Sebastien Pelletier explains states of matter to an enthusiastic group of youngsters during the opening of a new exhibition in Microcosm last week. The Fun with Physics workshop will be offered to all 13-14 year olds in school groups visiting CERN this year. The new Microcosm contents have been developed in collaboration with the local teaching community, and cover particles and the forces that act between them.

  3. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  4. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  5. Unilateral implicit motor learning deficit in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Hong-Yan, Bi

    2011-02-01

    It has been suggested that developmental dyslexia involves various literacy, sensory, motor skill, and processing speed deficits. Some recent studies have shown that individuals with developmental dyslexia exhibit implicit motor learning deficits, which may be related to cerebellar functioning. However, previous studies on implicit motor learning in developmental dyslexics have produced conflicting results. Findings from cerebellar lesion patients have shown that patients' implicit motor learning performance varied when different hands were used to complete tasks. This suggests that dyslexia may have different effects on implicit motor learning between the two hands if cerebellar dysfunction is involved. To specify this question, we used a one-handed version of a serial reaction time task to compare the performance of 27 Chinese children with developmental dyslexics with another 27 age-matched children without reading difficulties. All the subjects were students from two primary schools, Grades 4 to 6. The results showed that children with developmental dyslexic responded more slowly than nondyslexic children, and exhibited no implicit motor learning in the condition of left-hand response. In contrast, there was no significant difference in reaction time between two groups of children when they used the right hand to respond. This finding indicates that children with developmental dyslexia exhibited normal motor skill and implicit motor learning ability provided the right hand was used. Taken together, these results suggested that Chinese children with developmental dyslexia exhibit unilateral deficits in motor skill and implicit motor learning in the left hand. Our findings lend partial support to the cerebellar deficit theory of developmental dyslexia.

  6. Visual search deficits in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Colpa, Linda; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2018-04-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined as a reduction in visual acuity that cannot be corrected by optical means. It has been associated with low-level deficits. However, research has demonstrated a link between amblyopia and visual attention deficits in counting, tracking, and identifying objects. Visual search is a useful tool for assessing visual attention but has not been well studied in amblyopia. Here, we assessed the extent of visual search deficits in amblyopia using feature and conjunction search tasks. We compared the performance of participants with amblyopia (n = 10) to those of controls (n = 12) on both feature and conjunction search tasks using Gabor patch stimuli, varying spatial bandwidth and orientation. To account for the low-level deficits inherent in amblyopia, we measured individual contrast and crowding thresholds and monitored eye movements. The display elements were then presented at suprathreshold levels to ensure that visibility was equalized across groups. There was no performance difference between groups on feature search, indicating that our experimental design controlled successfully for low-level amblyopia deficits. In contrast, during conjunction search, median reaction times and reaction time slopes were significantly larger in participants with amblyopia compared with controls. Amblyopia differentially affects performance on conjunction visual search, a more difficult task that requires feature binding and possibly the involvement of higher-level attention processes. Deficits in visual search may affect day-to-day functioning in people with amblyopia.

  7. Beyond Auditory Sensory Processing Deficits: Lexical Tone Perception Deficits in Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; King Yiu, Fung

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that children with developmental dyslexia exhibit a deficit not only at the segmental level of phonological processing but also, by extension, at the suprasegmental level. However, it remains unclear whether such a suprasegmental phonological processing deficit is due to a difficulty in processing acoustic cues of…

  8. Working memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an examination of central executive and storage/rehearsal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, R Matt; Hudec, Kristen L; Patros, Connor H G; Kasper, Lisa J

    2013-05-01

    The current study was the first to use a regression approach to examine the unique contributions of central executive (CE) and storage/rehearsal processes to working memory (WM) deficits in adults with ADHD. Thirty-seven adults (ADHD = 21, HC = 16) completed phonological (PH) and visuospatial (VS) working memory tasks. While both groups performed significantly better during the PH task relative to the VS task, adults with ADHD exhibited significant deficits across both working memory modalities. Further, the ADHD group recalled disproportionately fewer PH and VS stimuli as set-size demands increased. Overall, the CE and PH storage/rehearsal processes of adults with ADHD were both significantly impaired relative to those of the healthy control adults; however, the magnitude of the CE effect size was much smaller compared to previous studies of children with the disorder. Collectively, results provide support for a lifelong trajectory of WM deficits in ADHD. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  9. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  10. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Medić; Nataša Pavlović

    2014-01-01

    In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of t...

  11. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  12. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  13. An Investigation of Detect, Practice, and Repair to Remedy Math-Fact Deficits in a Group of Third-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncy, Brian C.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Axtell, Philip K.

    2010-01-01

    A multiple-probe-across-problem-sets (tasks) design was used to evaluate the effects of the Detect, Practice, and Repair (DPR) on multiplication-fact fluency development in seven third-grade students nominated by their teacher as needing remediation. DPR is a multicomponent intervention and begins with a group-administered, metronome-paced…

  14. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  15. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  16. The Double-Deficit Hypothesis in Spanish Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Juan E.; Hernandez-Valle, Isabel; Rodriguez, Cristina; Guzman, Remedios; Diaz, Alicia; Ortiz, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of developmental dyslexia was investigated in seven to twelve year old Spanish children. It was observed that the double deficit (DD) group had the greatest difficulty with reading.

  17. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  18. Losing the beat: deficits in temporal coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Caroline; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Tapping or clapping to an auditory beat, an easy task for most individuals, reveals precise temporal synchronization with auditory patterns such as music, even in the presence of temporal fluctuations. Most models of beat-tracking rely on the theoretical concept of pulse: a perceived regular beat generated by an internal oscillation that forms the foundation of entrainment abilities. Although tapping to the beat is a natural sensorimotor activity for most individuals, not everyone can track an auditory beat. Recently, the case of Mathieu was documented (Phillips-Silver et al. 2011 Neuropsychologia 49, 961–969. (doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.02.002)). Mathieu presented himself as having difficulty following a beat and exhibited synchronization failures. We examined beat-tracking in normal control participants, Mathieu, and a second beat-deaf individual, who tapped with an auditory metronome in which unpredictable perturbations were introduced to disrupt entrainment. Both beat-deaf cases exhibited failures in error correction in response to the perturbation task while exhibiting normal spontaneous motor tempi (in the absence of an auditory stimulus), supporting a deficit specific to perception–action coupling. A damped harmonic oscillator model was applied to the temporal adaptation responses; the model's parameters of relaxation time and endogenous frequency accounted for differences between the beat-deaf cases as well as the control group individuals. PMID:25385783

  19. Deficits in analogical reasoning in adolescents with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Daniel C; Hanten, Gerri; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Li, Xiaoqi; Schnelle, Kathleen P; Merkley, Tricia L; Vasquez, Ana C; Cook, Lori G; McClelland, Michelle; Chapman, Sandra B; Levin, Harvey S

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) exhibit deficits in executive control, which may impact their reasoning abilities. Analogical reasoning requires working memory and inhibitory abilities. In this study, we tested adolescents with moderate to severe TBI and typically developing (TD) controls on a set of picture analogy problems. Three factors were varied: complexity (number of relations in the problems), distraction (distractor item present or absent), and animacy (living or non-living items in the problems). We found that TD adolescents performed significantly better overall than TBI adolescents. There was also an age effect present in the TBI group where older participants performed better than younger ones. This age effect was not observed in the TD group. Performance was affected by complexity and distraction. Further, TBI participants exhibited lower performance with distractors present than TD participants. The reasoning deficits exhibited by the TBI participants were correlated with measures of executive function that required working memory updating, attention, and attentional screening. Using MRI-derived measures of cortical thickness, correlations were carried out between task accuracy and cortical thickness. The TD adolescents showed negative correlations between thickness and task accuracy in frontal and temporal regions consistent with cortical maturation in these regions. This study demonstrates that adolescent TBI results in impairments in analogical reasoning ability. Further, TBI youth have difficulty effectively screening out distraction, which may lead to failures in comprehension of the relations among items in visual scenes. Lastly, TBI youth fail to show robust cortical-behavior correlations as observed in TD individuals.

  20. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  1. Measuring specific, rather than generalized, cognitive deficits and maximizing between-group effect size in studies of cognition and cognitive change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M

    2008-07-01

    While cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is easy to demonstrate, it has been much more difficult to measure a specific cognitive process unconfounded by the influence of other cognitive processes and noncognitive factors (eg, sedation, low motivation) that affect test scores. With the recent interest in the identification of neurophysiology-linked cognitive probes for clinical trials, the issue of isolating specific cognitive processes has taken on increased importance. Recent advances in research design and psychometric theory regarding cognition research in schizophrenia demonstrate the importance of (1) maximizing between-group differences via reduction of measurement error during both test development and subsequent research and (2) the development and use of process-specific tasks in which theory-driven performance indices are derived across multiple conditions. Use of these 2 strategies can significantly advance both our understanding of schizophrenia and measurement sensitivity for clinical trials. Novel data-analytic strategies for analyzing change across multiple conditions and/or multiple time points also allow for increased reliability and greater measurement sensitivity than traditional strategies. Following discussion of these issues, trade-offs inherent to attempts to address psychometric issues in schizophrenia research are reviewed. Finally, additional considerations for maximizing sensitivity and real-world significance in clinical trials are discussed.

  2. Self-Reported quality of life in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and executive function impairment treated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lenard A; Dirks, Bryan; Deas, Patrick; Raychaudhuri, Aparna; Dauphin, Matthew; Saylor, Keith; Weisler, Richard

    2013-10-09

    This study examined the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on quality of life (QOL) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and clinically significant executive function deficits (EFD). This report highlights QOL findings from a 10-week randomized placebo-controlled trial of LDX (30-70 mg/d) in adults (18-55 years) with ADHD and EFD (Behavior Rating Inventory of EF-Adult, Global Executive Composite [BRIEF-A GEC] ≥65). The primary efficacy measure was the self-reported BRIEF-A; a key secondary measure was self-reported QOL on the Adult ADHD Impact Module (AIM-A). The clinician-completed ADHD Rating Scale version IV (ADHD-RS-IV) with adult prompts and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) were also employed. The Adult ADHD QoL (AAQoL) was added while the study was in progress. A post hoc analysis examined the subgroup having evaluable results from both AIM-A and AAQoL. Of 161 randomized (placebo, 81; LDX, 80), 159 were included in the safety population. LDX improved AIM-A multi-item domain scores versus placebo; LS mean difference for Performance and Daily Functioning was 21.6 (ES, 0.93, PPsychological Health was 12.1; Life Outlook was 12.5; and Relationships was 7.3. In a post hoc analysis of participants with both AIM-A and AAQoL scores, AIM-A multi-item subgroup analysis scores numerically improved with LDX, with smaller difference for Impact of Symptoms: Daily Interference. The safety profile of LDX was consistent with amphetamine use in previous studies. Overall, adults with ADHD/EFD exhibited self-reported improvement on QOL, using the AIM-A and AAQoL scales in line with medium/large ES; these improvements were paralleled by improvements in EF and ADHD symptoms. The safety profile of LDX was similar to previous studies. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01101022.

  3. Group I mGluR antagonist rescues the deficit of D1-induced LTP in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao-Hui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by the absence of the mRNA-binding protein Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, encoded by the Fmr1 gene. Overactive signaling by group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (Grp1 mGluR could contribute to slowed synaptic development and other symptoms of FXS. Our previous study has identified that facilitation of synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP by D1 receptor is impaired in Fmr1 knockout (KO mice. However, the contribution of Grp1 mGluR to the facilitation of synaptic plasticity by D1 receptor stimulation in the prefrontal cortex has been less extensively studied. Results Here we demonstrated that DL-AP3, a Grp1 mGluR antagonist, rescued LTP facilitation by D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 in Fmr1KO mice. Grp1 mGluR inhibition restored the GluR1-subtype AMPA receptors surface insertion by D1 activation in the cultured Fmr1KO neurons. Simultaneous treatment of Grp1 mGluR antagonist with D1 agonist recovered the D1 receptor signaling by reversing the subcellular redistribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 in the Fmr1KO neurons. Treatment of SKF81297 alone failed to increase the phosphorylation of NR2B-containing N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs at Tyr-1472 (p-NR2B-Tyr1472 in the cultures from KO mice. However, simultaneous treatment of DL-AP3 could rescue the level of p-NR2B-Tyr1472 by SKF81297 in the cultures from KO mice. Furthermore, behavioral tests indicated that simultaneous treatment of Grp1 mGluR antagonist with D1 agonist inhibited hyperactivity and improved the learning ability in the Fmr1KO mice. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that mGluR1 inhibition is a useful strategy to recover D1 receptor signaling in the Fmr1KO mice, and combination of Grp1 mGluR antagonist and D1 agonist is a potential drug therapy for the FXS.

  4. The Group Reminiscence Approach Can Increase Self-Awareness of Memory Deficits and Evoke a Life Review in People With Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Kurihara Project Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kei; Kasai, Mari; Nakai, Megumi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Meguro, Kenichi

    2016-06-01

    The group reminiscence approach (GRA) and reality orientation (RO) are common psychosocial interventions for patients with dementia. As a qualitative evaluation of the reminiscence approach in patients with dementia, the Patient Report Outcome (PRO) is useful. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GRA-RO for participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the PRO. A cluster randomized controlled trial. Community-based study. Ninety-four patients with MCI (39 GRA-RO, 23 physical activity, and 32 cognitive training) described their impressions. Based on the database of the Kurihara Project, we retrospectively analyzed the participants' descriptions of their impressions as a PRO in the nonpharmacological interventions: GRA-RO, physical activity, and cognitive training. We categorized the descriptions according to the following 2 types: impression with content and reminiscence with life review. We assessed what they wrote regarding memory loss. The content on their life reviews was also a particular focus for the GRA-RO group. PRO. Compared with the physical activity and the clinical training groups, the GRA-RO patients described their reminiscence with life review and their own memory problems. There was no confusion of the order of events of their autobiographical memories. There was a significant time effect between the 2 family involvement groups in quality-of-life (QOL) scores, and the postintervention QOL scores were significantly better than preintervention. This study suggests that the GRA-RO in participants with MCI not only stimulates life review but also increases self-awareness of memory deficits without confusion of the order of events. Thus, the GRA-RO may improve self-esteem and develop self-awareness. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Are the deficits in navigational abilities present in the Williams syndrome related to deficits in the backward inhibition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eFoti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is associated with a distinct profile of relatively proficient skills within the verbal domain compared to the severe impairment of visuo-spatial processing. Abnormalities in executive functions and deficits in planning ability and spatial working memory have been described. However, to date little is known about the influence of executive function deficits on navigational abilities in WS. This study aimed at analyzing in WS individuals a specific executive function, the backward inhibition (BI that allows individuals to flexibly adapt to continuously changing environments. A group of WS individuals and a mental age- and gender-matched group of typically developing (TD children were subjected to three task-switching experiments requiring visuospatial or verbal material to be processed. Results showed that WS individuals exhibited clear BI deficits during visuospatial task-switching paradigms and normal BI effect during verbal task-switching paradigm. Overall, the present results suggest that the BI involvement in updating environment representations during navigation may influence WS navigational abilities.

  6. Social isolation induces deficit of latent learning performance in mice: a putative animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Hirofumi; Ono, Kazuya; Murakami, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2013-02-01

    Social isolation of rodents (SI) elicits a variety of stress responses such as increased aggressiveness, hyper-locomotion, and reduced susceptibility to pentobarbital. To obtain a better understanding of the relevance of SI-induced behavioral abnormalities to psychiatric disorders, we examined the effect of SI on latent learning as an index of spatial attention, and discussed the availability of SI as an epigenetic model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Except in specially stated cases, 4-week-old male mice were housed in a group or socially isolated for 3-70 days before experiments. The animals socially isolated for 1 week or more exhibited spatial attention deficit in the water-finding test. Re-socialized rearing for 5 weeks after 1-week SI failed to attenuate the spatial attention deficit. The effect of SI on spatial attention showed no gender difference or correlation with increased aggressive behavior. Moreover, SI had no effect on cognitive performance elucidated in a modified Y-maze or an object recognition test, but it significantly impaired contextual and conditional fear memory elucidated in the fear-conditioning test. Drugs used for ADHD therapy, methylphenidate (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) and caffeine (0.5-1 mg/kg, i.p.), improved SI-induced latent learning deficit in a manner reversible with cholinergic but not dopaminergic antagonists. Considering the behavioral features of SI mice together with their susceptibility to ADHD drugs, the present findings suggest that SI provides an epigenetic animal model of ADHD and that central cholinergic systems play a role in the effect of methylphenidate on SI-induced spatial attention deficit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm#Industrial_exhibitions You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  8. Brain neurodevelopmental markers related to the deficit subtype of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nakamura, Mihoko; Komori, Yuko; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Sasabayashi, Daiki; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio

    2017-08-30

    Deficit schizophrenia is a homogeneous subtype characterized by a trait-like feature of primary and prominent negative symptoms, but the etiologic factors related to this specific subtype remain largely unknown. This magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to examine gross brain morphology that probably reflects early neurodevelopment in 38 patients with deficit schizophrenia, 37 patients with non-deficit schizophrenia, and 59 healthy controls. Potential brain neurodevelopmental markers investigated in this study were the adhesio interthalamica (AI), cavum septi pellucidi (CSP), and surface morphology (i.e., olfactory sulcus depth, sulcogyral pattern, and number of orbital sulci) of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The subtype classification of schizophrenia patients was based on the score of Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome. The deficit schizophrenia group had a significantly shorter AI compared with the non-deficit group and controls. The deficit group, but not the non-deficit group, was also characterized by an altered distribution of the OFC sulcogyral pattern, as well as fewer posterior orbital sulcus compared with controls. Other neurodevelopmental markers did not differentiate the deficit and non-deficit subgroups. These results suggest that the deficit subtype of schizophrenia and its clinical manifestation may be at least partly related to prominent neurodevelopmental pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Cases with Different Deficit Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träff, Ulf; Olsson, Linda; Östergren, Rickard; Skagerlund, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) has long been thought to be a monolithic learning disorder that can be attributed to a specific neurocognitive dysfunction. However, recent research has increasingly recognized the heterogeneity of DD, where DD can be differentiated into subtypes in which the underlying cognitive deficits and neural dysfunctions may differ. The aim was to further understand the heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia (DD) from a cognitive psychological perspective. Utilizing four children (8-9 year-old) we administered a comprehensive cognitive test battery that shed light on the cognitive-behavioral profile of each child. The children were compared against norm groups of aged-matched peers. Performance was then contrasted against predominant hypotheses of DD, which would also give insight into candidate neurocognitive correlates. Despite showing similar mathematical deficits, these children showed remarkable interindividual variability regarding cognitive profile and deficits. Two cases were consistent with the approximate number system deficit account and also the general magnitude-processing deficit account. These cases showed indications of having domain-general deficits as well. One case had an access deficit in combination with a general cognitive deficit. One case suffered from general cognitive deficits only. The results showed that DD cannot be attributed to a single explanatory factor. These findings support a multiple deficits account of DD and suggest that some cases have multiple deficits, whereas other cases have a single deficit. We discuss a previously proposed distinction between primary DD and secondary DD, and suggest hypotheses of dysfunctional neurocognitive correlates responsible for the displayed deficits.

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    En dehors des frontières Maxence Piquet Du 2 au 11 mai 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Exposition de peinture d'un artiste autodidacte Maxence Piquet (signature artiste M-P), avec différentes techniques (acrylique, huile, fusain, collage...) et sur différents supports. Un art souvent brut et parfois provoquant, avec des touches expressionnistes et cubistes principale origine de son art. Des œuvres souvent vivent et colorées... Cette exposition est la première en dehors d ses frontières Lorraine et a pour but de faire voyager son art au regard du plus grand nombre . Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  13. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    La danse mécanique Daria Grigoryeva Du 22 mai au 1er juin 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La danse mécanique est une métaphore large. La mécanique établit les règles et les limites, les frontières dans lesquelles la vie et la créativité peuvent se développer. La musique est « mathématique », une poupée mécanique se tourne toujours dans la même direction, selon les règles prescrites par la nature les fleurs fleurissent au printemps. Même s'ils ne le voulaient pas. La participation à la "danse mécanique" est prédéterminée et inévitable. Il ne reste plus qu'à comprendre comment le faire "magnifiquement". En tout, il y a une signification cachée et un...

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du ...

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les vibrantes Patrick Robbe-Grillet Du 30 octobre au 10 novembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Patrick Robbe-Grillet - Feux d'artifices Qui est Patrick Robbe-Grillet ? Artiste Franco-Suisse, né en 1968 à Genève. En recherche du sentiment de paix, autodidacte, après un séjour en Chine en 2000, puis au Japon en 2002, suivi d’un long questionnement, il trouve sa voie dans la peinture, élément libérateur de sa créativité et expression de sa sensibilité à fleur de peau. « La Chine m’a enseigné les courbes, les nuances. Le Japon, la ligne droite, la rigueur. » Vous avez su rendre visible l'invisible ! - commentaire de Monsieur Fawaz Gruosi Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  20. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  1. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  4. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Univers Du 9 au 20 avril 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Stéphanie Cousin Obsédée par les rêves, les mondes surréalistes et insolites, je m’empare de formes provenant des mes propres travaux photographiques ou d’images que je modifie et mixe. Je fais évoluer mes univers oniriques de femmes-animaux ainsi que mes espaces et natures imaginaires. Avec ma démarche artistique, je cherche à mettre en images nos rêves et nos cauchemars, l’irréel et le surréel, le mystique et les affres de notre inconscient. Je cherche à représenter tout ce qui sommeille au plus profond de nous-même à l’aide de symboles, parfois en utilisant des images de cultures ancestrales. Photographie-collage, je cherche à ajouter quelques notes à la définition de la photographie du 21iè...

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos KOLI Du 15 au 26 janvier 2018 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Nébuleuse d'Orion- KOLI) KOLI, Artiste confirmé, diplômé de l’Académie de Beaux Arts de Tirana, depuis 26 ans en Suisse, où il a participé à maintes expositions collectives et organisé 10 expositions privées avec  beaucoup de succès, s’exprime actuellement dans un bonheur de couleur et de matières qui côtoient des hautes sphères… le cosmos ! Gagnant d’un premier prix lors d’une exposition collective organisée par le consulat Italien, il s’est installé au bord du lac dans le canton de Vaud où il vit depuis maintenant déjà 13 ans. www.kolicreation.com Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacut...

  7. Morphine tolerance offers protection from radiogenic performance deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Burrows, J.M.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    When rats are exposed to a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation they exhibit lethargy, hypokinesia, and deficits in performance. These and other behavioral changes parallel those often observed in this species after a large dose of morphine. Since the release of endogenous opiates has been implicated in some stress reactions, we sought to determine if they might play a part in radiogenic behavioral deficits. Rats were trained to criterion on a signaled avoidance task. Some subjects were then implanted with a pellet containing 75 mg of morphine. Other animals received placebo implants. Over a number of days, morphine tolerance was evaluated by measurement of body temperature changes. Prior to 2500 rad 60 Co exposure or sham irradiation, morphine (or placebo) pellets were removed. Twenty-four hours later rats were retested to assess their performance on the avoidance task. Morphine-tolerant subjects performed significantly better than the irradiated placebo-implanted group and no differently than morphine-tolerant/sham-irradiated animals. Morphine tolerance seems to provide a degree of behavioral radiation resistance. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that endogenous opiate hyperexcretion may play some part in the behavioral deficits often observed after irradiation

  8. Exhibition at the AAA library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Sonnesgade 11 The exhibition at the AAA library presents selected work produced by students prior to the exhibition of installations in project and praxis constructing an archive at Sonnesgade 11. The exhibition at Sonnesgade 11 was the culmination of collaboration with SLETH architects and studio...

  9. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  10. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  11. Deficits in analogical reasoning in adolescents with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Krawczyk

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI exhibit deficits in executive control, which may impact their reasoning abilities. Analogical reasoning requires working memory and inhibitory abilities. In this study, we tested adolescents with moderate to severe TBI and typically-developing (TD controls on a set of picture analogy problems. Three factors were varied: complexity (number of relations in the problems, distraction (distractor item present or absent, and animacy (living or non-living items in the problems. We found that TD adolescents performed significantly better overall than TBI adolescents. There was also an age effect present in the TBI group where older participants performed better than younger ones. This age effect was not observed in the TD group. Performance was affected by complexity and distraction. Further, TBI participants exhibited lower performance with distractors present than TD participants. The reasoning deficits exhibited by the TBI participants were correlated with measures of executive function that required working memory updating, attention, and attentional screening. Using MRI-derived measures of cortical thickness, correlations were carried out between task accuracy and cortical thickness. The TD adolescents showed negative correlations between thickness and task accuracy in frontal and temporal regions consistent with cortical maturation in these regions. This study demonstrates that adolescent TBI results in impairments in analogical reasoning ability. Further, TBI youth have difficulty effectively screening out distraction, which may lead to failures in comprehension of the relations among items in visual scenes. Lastly, TBI youth fail to show robust cortical-behavior correlations as observed in TD individuals.

  12. Long-term prognosis in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannuzza, S; Klein, R G

    2000-07-01

    The authors have traced the developmental course of ADHD from childhood to adulthood, showing that it is a bumpy road for many. In early and middle adolescence, relative deficits are seen in academic and social functioning, ADHD symptoms remain problematic in two thirds to three quarters of these children, and antisocial behaviors, in some cases amounting to CD, are common. Many of these same difficulties persist into the late teenage years. Deficits continue to be observed in academic and social domains (compared with controls, probands exhibit lower grades, more courses failed, worse performance on standardized tests, have fewer friends, and are rated less adequate in psychosocial adjustment). About two fifths continue to experience ADHD symptoms to a clinically significant degree. One quarter to one third have a diagnosed antisocial disorder, and two thirds of these individuals are arrested. Also, drug abuse is observed in a significant minority of these youths. Importantly, the greatest risk factor for the development of antisocial behavior and substance abuse by the late teenage years is the maintenance of ADD symptoms. When evaluated in their mid-twenties, dysfunctions are apparent in these same areas. Compared with controls, probands complete less schooling, hold lower-ranking occupations, and continue to suffer from poor self-esteem and social skills deficits. In addition, significantly more probands than controls exhibit an antisocial personality and, perhaps, a substance use disorder in adulthood. Furthermore, many do not outgrow all facets of their childhood syndrome. These relative deficits, however, do not tell the whole story of the ADHD child's adult fate. Indeed, nearly all probands were gainfully employed. Furthermore, some had achieved a higher-level education (e.g., completed Master's degree, enrolled in medical school) and occupation (e.g., accountant, stock broker). In addition, a full two thirds of these children showed no evidence of any

  13. The association between social skills deficits and family history of mood disorder in bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francy B F; Rocca, Cristiana C; Gigante, Alexandre D; Dottori-Silva, Paola R; Gerchmann, Luciana; Rossini, Danielle; Sato, Rodrigo; Lafer, Beny; Nery, Fabiano G

    2018-03-26

    To compare social skills and related executive functions among bipolar disorder (BD) patients with a family history of mood disorders (FHMD), BD patients with no FHMD and healthy control (HCs). We evaluated 20 euthymic patients with FHMD, 17 euthymic patients without FHMD, and 31 HCs using the Social Skills Inventory (SSI) and a neuropsychological battery evaluating executive function, inhibitory control, verbal fluency and estimated intelligence. Both BD groups had lower SSI scores than controls. Scores for one subfactor of the social skills questionnaire, conversational skills and social performance, were significantly lower among patients with FHMD than among patients without FHMD (p = 0.019). Both groups of BD patients exhibited significant deficits in initiation/inhibition, but only BD patients with FHMD had deficits in verbal fluency, both compared to HC. There were no associations between social skills questionnaire scores and measures of cognitive function. Euthymic BD patients have lower social skills and executive function performance than HC. The presence of FHMD among BD patients is specifically associated with deficits in conversational and social performance skills, in addition to deficits in verbal fluency. Both characteristics might be associated with a common genetically determined pathophysiological substrate.

  14. Evaluating reading and metacognitive deficits in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Jesús Ma; Puente, Aníbal; Jiménez, Virginia; Arrebillaga, Lorena

    2011-05-01

    The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The focus of the present research is to analyze participants' reading competency and metacognitive strategies as they carry out reading comprehension tasks. The sample was comprised of 187 Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old. 94 constituted the control group and the clinical group consisted of 93 schoolchildren diagnosed with ADHD. The metacognitive assessment was made up of two metacognitive tests, the Reading Awareness Scale (ESCOLA; acronym in Spanish) and a Spanish adaptation of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), and one test of reading comprehension, the Evaluation of Reading Processes for Secondary Education Students (PROLEC-SE; acronym in Spanish). Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests o reading comprehension compared to the control group. Nevertheless, our results suggest their difficulties did not stem from readin comprehension problems, but rather from alterations in their Executive Functions, because when subjects' reading comprehensio was equalized, students with ADHD still exhibited a lower level of Metacognition, particularly when it came to planning.

  15. Working memory deficits in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): An examination of orthographic coding and episodic buffer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Patros, Connor H G; Hudec, Kristen L; Tarle, Stephanie J; Lea, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The episodic buffer component of working memory was examined in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing peers (TD). Thirty-two children (ADHD = 16, TD = 16) completed three versions of a phonological working memory task that varied with regard to stimulus presentation modality (auditory, visual, or dual auditory and visual), as well as a visuospatial task. Children with ADHD experienced the largest magnitude working memory deficits when phonological stimuli were presented via a unimodal, auditory format. Their performance improved during visual and dual modality conditions but remained significantly below the performance of children in the TD group. In contrast, the TD group did not exhibit performance differences between the auditory- and visual-phonological conditions but recalled significantly more stimuli during the dual-phonological condition. Furthermore, relative to TD children, children with ADHD recalled disproportionately fewer phonological stimuli as set sizes increased, regardless of presentation modality. Finally, an examination of working memory components indicated that the largest magnitude between-group difference was associated with the central executive. Collectively, these findings suggest that ADHD-related working memory deficits reflect a combination of impaired central executive and phonological storage/rehearsal processes, as well as an impaired ability to benefit from bound multimodal information processed by the episodic buffer.

  16. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  17. Neurocognitive impairment in the deficit subtype of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Foussias, George; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Remington, Gary

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by numerous diverse signs and symptoms. Individuals with prominent, persistent, and idiopathic negative symptoms are thought to encompass a distinct subtype of schizophrenia. Previous work, including studies involving neuropsychological evaluations, has supported this position. The present study sought to further examine whether deficit patients are cognitively distinct from non-deficit patients with schizophrenia. A comprehensive neurocognitive battery including tests of verbal memory, vigilance, processing speed, reasoning, and working memory was administered to 657 patients with schizophrenia. Of these, 144 (22 %) patients were classified as deficit patients using a proxy identification method based on severity, persistence over time, and possible secondary sources (e.g., depression) of negative symptoms. Deficit patients with schizophrenia performed worse on all tests of cognition relative to non-deficit patients. These patients were characterized by a generalized cognitive impairment on the order of about 0.4 standard deviations below that of non-deficit patients. However, when comparing deficit patients to non-deficit patients who also present with negative symptoms, albeit not enduring or primary, no group differences in cognitive performance were found. Furthermore, a discriminant function analysis classifying patients into deficit/non-deficit groups based on cognitive scores demonstrated only 62.3 % accuracy, meaning over one-third of individuals were misclassified. The deficit subtype of schizophrenia is not markedly distinct from non-deficit schizophrenia in terms of neurocognitive performance. While deficit patients tend to have poorer performance on cognitive tests, the magnitude of this effect is relatively modest, translating to over 70 % overlap in scores between groups.

  18. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  19. Predictability effect on N400 reflects the severity of reading comprehension deficits in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Ting; Lee, Chia-Ying; Chou, Chia-Ju; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wu, Hsin-Chi

    2016-01-29

    Predictability effect on N400, in which low predictability words elicited a larger N400 than high predictability words did over central to posterior electrodes, has been used to index difficulty of lexical retrieval and semantic integration of words in sentence comprehension. This study examined predictability effect on N400 in aphasic patients to determine if the properties of N400 are suited to indexing the severity of reading comprehension deficits. Patients with aphasia were divided into high and low ability groups based on scores on the reading comprehension subtest in the Chinese Concise Aphasia Test (CCAT). The two aphasia groups, a group of healthy elders who were age-matched to the aphasic participants, and a group of young adults, were requested to read sentences that either ended with highly predictable words or unexpected but plausible words, while undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). The young adult and healthy elderly groups exhibited the typical centro-parietal distributed effect of predictability on N400; however, healthy elders exhibited a reduced N400 effect in a delayed time window compared to the young adults. Compared with the elderly control, the high ability aphasia group exhibited a comparable N400 effect in a more restricted time window; by contrast, the low ability aphasia group exhibited a frontal distributed N400 in a much later time window (400-700 ms). These data suggest that the severity of reading comprehension deficits affects predictability effect on a set of N400 characteristics (i.e., amplitude, time window, and topographic distribution), which may be effective as ERP signatures in the evaluation of language recovery in aphasia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pragmatic Ability Deficit in Schizophrenia and Associated Theory of Mind and Executive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in pragmatic abilities have frequently been observed in patients with schizophrenia. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between pragmatic deficits, ToM deficits and executive dysfunctions in schizophrenia. A group of 42 schizophrenic patients and 42 healthy controls were assessed on irony task (one type of pragmatic language, two subcomponents of ToM (cognitive and affective, and three subcomponents of EF (inhibition, updating, and switching. The clinical symptoms in schizophrenia were assessed using the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The schizophrenia group exhibited significant impairments in all above tasks compared to the control group. Correlation results found that irony scores were correlated with the two subcomponents of ToM and two of the three subcomponents of EF (inhibition and updating. The regression analysis revealed that the cognitive ToM and inhibition predicted 9.2% and 29.9% of the variance of irony comprehension in the patient group, and inhibition was the best predictor for performance on irony task. Irony understanding was related to positive symptoms, but not to negative symptoms. The results suggest that the ability to interpret pragmatic language depends on schizophrenic patients’ ability to infer mental states and the ability of inhibition. It provides empirical evidence for a particular target of inhibition for rehabilitation and intervention programs developed for schizophrenic patients.

  1. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  2. The 50s cliff: a decline in perceptuo-motor learning, not a deficit in visual motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Huang, Shaochen; Zhang, Jiancheng; Zhu, Qin; Wilson, Andrew D; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we measured perceptuo-motor learning rates across the lifespan and found a sudden drop in learning rates between ages 50 and 60, called the "50s cliff." The task was a unimanual visual rhythmic coordination task in which participants used a joystick to oscillate one dot in a display in coordination with another dot oscillated by a computer. Participants learned to produce a coordination with a 90° relative phase relation between the dots. Learning rates for participants over 60 were half those of younger participants. Given existing evidence for visual motion perception deficits in people over 60 and the role of visual motion perception in the coordination task, it remained unclear whether the 50s cliff reflected onset of this deficit or a genuine decline in perceptuo-motor learning. The current work addressed this question. Two groups of 12 participants in each of four age ranges (20s, 50s, 60s, 70s) learned to perform a bimanual coordination of 90° relative phase. One group trained with only haptic information and the other group with both haptic and visual information about relative phase. Both groups were tested in both information conditions at baseline and post-test. If the 50s cliff was caused by an age dependent deficit in visual motion perception, then older participants in the visual group should have exhibited less learning than those in the haptic group, which should not exhibit the 50s cliff, and older participants in both groups should have performed less well when tested with visual information. Neither of these expectations was confirmed by the results, so we concluded that the 50s cliff reflects a genuine decline in perceptuo-motor learning with aging, not the onset of a deficit in visual motion perception.

  3. Learning from Exhibitions: Chuck Close.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the artwork of Chuck Close, who is well known for his over-sized portraits of fellow artists and anonymous sitters, and the exhibition of his work that premiered at New York's Museum of Modern Art before traveling to other cities in the United States. (CMK)

  4. Loss of perforated synapses in the dentate gyrus: morphological substrate of memory deficit in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geinisman, Y; de Toledo-Morrell, L; Morrell, F

    1986-01-01

    Most, but not all, aged rats exhibit a profound deficit in spatial memory when tested in a radial maze--a task known to depend on the integrity of the hippocampal formation. In this study, animals were divided into three groups based on their spatial memory capacity: young adult rats with good memory, aged rats with impaired memory, and aged rats with good memory. Memory-impaired aged animals showed a loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation in comparison with either young adults or aged rats with good memory. This finding suggests that the loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the hippocampal formation underlies the age-related deficit in spatial memory. Images PMID:3458260

  5. Executive functioning deficits in young adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Aisling; Linden, Mark A; Spence, Dale; Halliday, Henry L; Patterson, Christopher C; McGarvey, Lorcan

    2015-01-01

    To assess long-term impairments of executive functioning in adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Participants were assessed on measures of executive functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and social functioning. Survivors of BPD (n = 63; 34 males; mean age 24.2 years) were compared with groups comprising preterm (without BPD) (executive functioning relating to problem solving (OR: 5.1, CI: 1.4-19.3), awareness of behavior (OR: 12.7, CI: 1.5-106.4) and organization of their environment (OR: 13.0, CI: 1.6-107.1). Birth weight, HRQoL and social functioning were predictive of deficits in executive functioning. This study represents the largest sample of survivors into adulthood of BPD and is the first to show that deficits in executive functioning persist. Children with BPD should be assessed to identify cognitive impairments and allow early intervention aimed at ameliorating their effects. Implications for Rehabilitation Adults born preterm with very-low birth weight, and particularly those who develop BPD, are at increased risk of exhibiting defects in executive functioning. Clinicians and educators should be made aware of the impact that BPD can have on the long-term development of executive functions. Children and young adults identified as having BPD should be periodically monitored to identify the need for possible intervention.

  6. Increase or Decrease of fMRI Activity in Adult Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Does It Depend on Task Difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Stefanie C; Merz, Christian J; Dresler, Thomas; Heupel, Julia; Reichert, Susanne; Jacob, Christian P; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J

    2016-05-27

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder has been shown to affect working memory, and fMRI studies in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder report hypoactivation in task-related attentional networks. However, studies with adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients addressing this issue as well as the effects of clinically valid methylphenidate treatment are scarce. This study contributes to closing this gap. Thirty-five adult patients were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind placebo or methylphenidate treatment. Patients completed an fMRI n-back working memory task both before and after the assigned treatment, and matched healthy controls were tested and compared to the untreated patients. There were no whole-brain differences between any of the groups. However, when specified regions of interest were investigated, the patient group showed enhanced BOLD responses in dorsal and ventral areas before treatment. This increase was correlated with performance across all participants and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the patient group. Furthermore, we found an effect of treatment in the right superior frontal gyrus, with methylphenidate-treated patients exhibiting increased activation, which was absent in the placebo-treated patients. Our results indicate distinct activation differences between untreated adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and matched healthy controls during a working memory task. These differences might reflect compensatory efforts by the patients, who are performing at the same level as the healthy controls. We furthermore found a positive effect of methylphenidate on the activation of a frontal region of interest. These observations contribute to a more thorough understanding of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide impulses for the evaluation of therapy-related changes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by ...

  8. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  9. Contemporary Developments in Cinema Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    he work offered for this PhD by Published Works charts the history of cinema exhibition in Britain from the late 1950s to the present. At the start of this period, cinemagoing as a form of public entertainment entered a long period of decline that was only arrested with the development and growth of multiplex cinemas in the 1980s and 1990s. Despite these changes, the feature film itself remained a culturally and commercially valuable artefact, though increasingly this meant the Hollywood fil...

  10. Beyond the knowledge deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus Staffan; Holm, Lotte; Frewer, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among la...... in institutions and experts. It suggests that an interdisciplinary, contextualised and psychologically sound approach to the study of risk is needed.......The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among lay...... people. However, much research in psychology and sociology suggests that lay risk assessments are complex, situationally sensitive expressions of personal value systems. The paper is organised around four themes: risk perception, the communication of risk, lay handling of risk, and public trust...

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime O. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as among the most common yet serious brain disorders significant number of children are subjected to; the seriousness of which manifests in the ability of the disorder to continue to show up even after the childhood years, during the period of adolescence as well as adulthood. Considering the findings delivered by Brain Imaging Studies conducted on youth, it is revealed that people suffering from ADHD experiences del...

  12. Ballistic deficit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, G.; Moszynski, M.; Curien, D.

    1991-01-01

    The EUROGAM data-acquisition has to handle a large number of events/s. Typical in-beam experiments using heavy-ion fusion reactions assume the production of about 50 000 compound nuclei per second deexciting via particle and γ-ray emissions. The very powerful γ-ray detection of EUROGAM is expected to produce high-fold event rates as large as 10 4 events/s. Such high count rates introduce, in a common dead time mode, large dead times for the whole system associated with the processing of the pulse, its digitization and its readout (from the preamplifier pulse up to the readout of the information). In order to minimize the dead time the shaping time constant τ, usually about 3 μs for large volume Ge detectors has to be reduced. Smaller shaping times, however, will adversely affect the energy resolution due to ballistic deficit. One possible solution is to operate the linear amplifier, with a somewhat smaller shaping time constant (in the present case we choose τ = 1.5 μs), in combination with a ballistic deficit compensator. The ballistic deficit can be corrected in different ways using a Gated Integrator, a hardware correction or even a software correction. In this paper we present a comparative study of the software and hardware corrections as well as gated integration

  13. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  14. Musical, visual and cognitive deficits after middle cerebral artery infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rosemann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The perception of music can be impaired after a stroke. This dysfunction is called amusia and amusia patients often also show deficits in visual abilities, language, memory, learning, and attention. The current study investigated whether deficits in music perception are selective for musical input or generalize to other perceptual abilities. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that deficits in working memory or attention account for impairments in music perception. Twenty stroke patients with small infarctions in the supply area of the middle cerebral artery were investigated with tests for music and visual perception, categorization, neglect, working memory and attention. Two amusia patients with selective deficits in music perception and pronounced lesions were identified. Working memory and attention deficits were highly correlated across the patient group but no correlation with musical abilities was obtained. Lesion analysis revealed that lesions in small areas of the putamen and globus pallidus were connected to a rhythm perception deficit. We conclude that neither a general perceptual deficit nor a minor domain general deficit can account for impairments in the music perception task. But we find support for the modular organization of the music perception network with brain areas specialized for musical functions as musical deficits were not correlated to any other impairment.

  15. Musical, visual and cognitive deficits after middle cerebral artery infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemann, Stephanie; Brunner, Freimuth; Kastrup, Andreas; Fahle, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    The perception of music can be impaired after a stroke. This dysfunction is called amusia and amusia patients often also show deficits in visual abilities, language, memory, learning, and attention. The current study investigated whether deficits in music perception are selective for musical input or generalize to other perceptual abilities. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that deficits in working memory or attention account for impairments in music perception. Twenty stroke patients with small infarctions in the supply area of the middle cerebral artery were investigated with tests for music and visual perception, categorization, neglect, working memory and attention. Two amusia patients with selective deficits in music perception and pronounced lesions were identified. Working memory and attention deficits were highly correlated across the patient group but no correlation with musical abilities was obtained. Lesion analysis revealed that lesions in small areas of the putamen and globus pallidus were connected to a rhythm perception deficit. We conclude that neither a general perceptual deficit nor a minor domain general deficit can account for impairments in the music perception task. But we find support for the modular organization of the music perception network with brain areas specialized for musical functions as musical deficits were not correlated to any other impairment.

  16. Travelling CERN Exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The European Laboratory for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics together with the Institute of Physics of the Jagiellonian University and the University of Mining and Metallurgy, and under the auspices of the Polish National Atomic Energy Agency organized in the Museum of Nature in Cracow from October 16 till December 16, 2000 the exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''. The Office of the ''Festival Cracow 2000'' was the main sponsor of that event. The exhibition was a part of the F estival Cracow 2000'' called ''Festival of Youngsters Cracow 2000''. Invitations, posters and information leaflets were sent to more than 3000 schools in southern Poland. The exhibition was divided into four specially designed quadrants. In the first the visitor was informed what kind of scales are in use to describe the Universe and the atom. The second introduced elementary particles via the cosmic ray demonstrations. Particle acceleration was demonstrated with the help of a TV set. The third segment was devoted to the Large Hadron Collider and its experiments: CMS, ATLAS, ALICE and LHCb. The last segment was an attempt to explain what are quarks, leptons and intermediate bosons. In addition it was also explained what is antimatter and why symmetry is broken in Nature. In one of the rooms we arranged the cinema where five movies was continuously presented. Thanks to the Cracow TV it was possible to prepare Polish translations of the films: B ack to creation , P owers of ten , L HC - time machine , S tars underground , and G eneva event . Another attraction of the exhibition was the Internet room equipped with the help of Polish Telecommunication. The exhibition was open seven days per week from 10 to 17 h. During the working days every 20 minutes a new group of about 25-30 people was visiting the exhibition. Each group was guided by students and PhD students from our Institute, Jagiellonian University and University of Mining

  17. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  18. Differences in Executive Functioning in Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rosa Elosúa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and its relation to deficits in working memory (WM and more specifically the different executive functions (EFs has grown, to the point of confirming that these are quite frequent in this disorder. The aim of this study was precisely to explore differences in executive functioning of WM in fourth grade Primary school children with and without ADHD (26 and 29 children, respectively, introducing rigorous control measures in the tests used. Four EFs were analyzed: divided attention, updating, attentional shifting and inhibition, measured through four tasks, the dual-task paradigm (digits and box-crossing, the N-Back task, the Trail Making Test and the Stroop task, respectively. The results showed that participants with ADHD, compared to children with typical development (TD, exhibited a smaller verbal memory span as well as deficits in the attentional shifting and updating functions. However, a similar performance for the EF of inhibition was found for both groups of participants. Finally, an unexpected result was obtained with regard to the role of divided attention, as children with ADHD were less impaired when performing the double task than participants in the TD group.

  19. Differences in Executive Functioning in Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosúa, M Rosa; Del Olmo, Sandra; Contreras, María José

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its relation to deficits in working memory (WM) and more specifically the different executive functions (EFs) has grown, to the point of confirming that these are quite frequent in this disorder. The aim of this study was precisely to explore differences in executive functioning of WM in fourth grade Primary school children with and without ADHD (26 and 29 children, respectively), introducing rigorous control measures in the tests used. Four EFs were analyzed: divided attention, updating, attentional shifting and inhibition, measured through four tasks, the dual-task paradigm (digits and box-crossing), the N-Back task, the Trail Making Test and the Stroop task, respectively. The results showed that participants with ADHD, compared to children with typical development (TD), exhibited a smaller verbal memory span as well as deficits in the attentional shifting and updating functions. However, a similar performance for the EF of inhibition was found for both groups of participants. Finally, an unexpected result was obtained with regard to the role of divided attention, as children with ADHD were less impaired when performing the double task than participants in the TD group.

  20. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  1. Contrasting deficits on executive functions in Chinese delinquent adolescents with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder symptoms and/or reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kean; Ho, Connie S-H

    2014-11-01

    Many studies reported high prevalence of reading disability (RD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among delinquent adolescents. Very few have examined their cognitive profile. The present study compared the executive functions (EFs) and severity of delinquency in delinquent adolescents with RD and/or ADHD symptoms (AS). Delinquents with AS (n=29), RD (n=24), comorbidity AS+RD (n=35) were recruited from juvenile institutions along with typically developing controls (n=29) from local schools; all completed EF assessments and self-report questionnaires on delinquency. Results showed that pure AS group exhibited impaired inhibition while the pure RD group was weak in processing speed and visual memory. The comorbidity group showed unique impairments in interference control and significantly higher delinquency severity. The present findings suggest that comorbidity AS+RD may influence delinquency severity. It also provides a more comprehensive picture of the unique EF deficits associated with different groups, allowing for better matching for future identification and intervention programme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive deficits associated with combined HIV gp120 expression and chronic methamphetamine exposure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P.; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is common among individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Neurocognitive outcomes tend to be worse in methamphetamine users with HIV. However, it is unclear whether discrete cognitive domains are susceptible to impairment after combined HIV infection and methamphetamine abuse. The expression of HIV/gp120 protein induces neuropathology in mice similar to HIV-induced pathology in humans. We investigated the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine exposure and gp120 expression on cognitive function in transgenic (gp120-tg) and control mice. The mice underwent an escalating methamphetamine binge regimen and were tested in novel object/location recognition, object-in-place recognition, and Barnes maze tests. gp120 expression disrupted performance in the object-in-place test (i.e., similar time spent with all objects, regardless of location), indicating deficits in associative recognition memory. gp120 expression also altered reversal learning in the Barnes maze, suggesting impairments in executive function. Methamphetamine exposure impaired spatial strategy in the Barnes maze, indicating deficits in spatial learning. Methamphetamine-exposed gp120-tg mice had the lowest spatial strategy scores in the final acquisition trials in the Barnes maze, suggesting greater deficits in spatial learning than all of the other groups. Although HIV infection involves interactions between multiple proteins and processes, in addition to gp120, our findings in gp120-tg mice suggest that humans with the dual insult of HIV infection and methamphetamine abuse may exhibit a broader spectrum of cognitive deficits than those with either factor alone. Depending on the cognitive domain, the combination of both insults may exacerbate deficits in cognitive performance compared with each individual insult. PMID:25476577

  3. Varieties of semantic 'access' deficit in Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah E; Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke's aphasia, associated with poor auditory-verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic 'access' deficit, as opposed to the 'storage' deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of 'access' impairment-related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke's aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke's aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington's paradigmatic assessment of semantic 'access' deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic 'blocking' effects). Patients with Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability-one that mapped onto classical 'syndromes' and one that did not-predicted aspects of the semantic 'access' deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke's aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially 'beneficial' effects of stimulus repetition: cases with

  4. Varieties of semantic ‘access’ deficit in Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke’s aphasia, associated with poor auditory–verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic ‘access’ deficit, as opposed to the ‘storage’ deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of ‘access’ impairment—related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke’s aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington’s paradigmatic assessment of semantic ‘access’ deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic ‘blocking’ effects). Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability—one that mapped onto classical ‘syndromes’ and one that did not—predicted aspects of the semantic ‘access’ deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke’s aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially

  5. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Campos, Juan A; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro-Alves, Nelson; Sánchez, Manuel M

    2015-01-01

    To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1), whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1) and a probe letter (T2). The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2) at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls. Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  7. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Amador-Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task in which two letters (T1 and T2 were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB].Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1, whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1 and a probe letter (T2.Results:The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2 at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls.Conclusion:Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  8. Airway somatosensory deficits and dysphagia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Michael J; Murphy, Caitlin A; Abrams, Trisha M

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) often experience substantial impairment of swallow control, and are typically unaware of the presence or severity of their impairments suggesting that these individuals may also experience airway sensory deficits. However, the degree to which impaired swallow function in PD may relate to airway sensory deficits has yet to be formally tested. The purpose of this study was to examine whether airway sensory function is associated with swallow impairment in PD. Eighteen PD participants and 18 healthy controls participated in this study and underwent endoscopic assessment of airway somatosensory function, endoscopic assessment of swallow function, and clinical ratings of swallow and disease severity. PD participants exhibited abnormal airway somatosensory function and greater swallow impairment compared with healthy controls. Swallow and sensory deficits in PD were correlated with disease severity. Moreover, PD participants reported similar self-rated swallow function as healthy controls, and swallow deficits were correlated with sensory function suggesting an association between impaired sensory function and poor self-awareness of swallow deficits in PD. These results suggest that control of swallow is influenced by airway somatosensory function, that swallow-related deficits in PD are related to abnormal somatosensation, and that swallow and airway sensory function may degrade as a function of disease severity. Therefore, the basal ganglia and related neural networks may play an important role to integrate airway sensory input for swallow-related motor control. Furthermore, the airway deficits observed in PD suggest a disintegration of swallow-related sensory and motor control.

  9. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  10. Auditory deficits in amusia extend beyond poor pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Kelly L; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia is a music perception disorder believed to reflect a deficit in fine-grained pitch perception and/or short-term or working memory for pitch. Because most measures of pitch perception include memory and segmentation components, it has been difficult to determine the true extent of pitch processing deficits in amusia. It is also unclear whether pitch deficits persist at frequencies beyond the range of musical pitch. To address these questions, experiments were conducted with amusics and matched controls, manipulating both the stimuli and the task demands. First, we assessed pitch discrimination at low (500Hz and 2000Hz) and high (8000Hz) frequencies using a three-interval forced-choice task. Amusics exhibited deficits even at the highest frequency, which lies beyond the existence region of musical pitch. Next, we assessed the extent to which frequency coding deficits persist in one- and two-interval frequency-modulation (FM) and amplitude-modulation (AM) detection tasks at 500Hz at slow (f m =4Hz) and fast (f m =20Hz) modulation rates. Amusics still exhibited deficits in one-interval FM detection tasks that should not involve memory or segmentation. Surprisingly, amusics were also impaired on AM detection, which should not involve pitch processing. Finally, direct comparisons between the detection of continuous and discrete FM demonstrated that amusics suffer deficits in both coding and segmenting pitch information. Our results reveal auditory deficits in amusia extending beyond pitch perception that are subtle when controlling for memory and segmentation, and are likely exacerbated in more complex contexts such as musical listening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transgenic Mice Expressing an Inhibitory Truncated Form of p300 Exhibit Long-Term Memory Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Wood, Marcelo A.; McDonough, Conor B.; Abel, Ted

    2007-01-01

    The formation of many forms of long-term memory requires several molecular mechanisms including regulation of gene expression. The mechanisms directing transcription require not only activation of individual transcription factors but also recruitment of transcriptional coactivators. CBP and p300 are transcriptional coactivators that interact with…

  12. Memory deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are not exclusively caused by executive dysfunction: a comparative neuropsychological study of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machts, Judith; Bittner, Verena; Kasper, Elisabeth; Schuster, Christina; Prudlo, Johannes; Abdulla, Susanne; Kollewe, Katja; Petri, Susanne; Dengler, Reinhard; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Vielhaber, Stefan; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Bittner, Daniel M

    2014-06-30

    Recent work suggests that ALS and frontotemporal dementia can occur together and share at least in part the same underlying pathophysiology. However, it is unclear at present whether memory deficits in ALS stem from a temporal lobe dysfunction, or are rather driven by frontal executive dysfunction. In this study we sought to investigate the nature of memory deficits by analyzing the neuropsychological performance of 40 ALS patients in comparison to 39 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients and 40 healthy controls (HC). The neuropsychological battery tested for impairment in executive functions, as well as memory and visuo-spatial skills, the results of which were compared across study groups. In addition, we calculated composite scores for memory (learning, recall, recognition) and executive functions (verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, working memory). We hypothesized that the nature of memory impairment in ALS will be different from those exhibited by aMCI patients. Patient groups exhibited significant differences in their type of memory deficit, with the ALS group showing impairment only in recognition, whereas aMCI patients showed short and delayed recall performance deficits as well as reduced short-term capacity. Regression analysis revealed a significant impact of executive function on memory performance exclusively for the ALS group, accounting for one fifth of their memory performance. Interestingly, merging all sub scores into a single memory and an executive function score obscured these differences. The presented results indicate that the interpretation of neuropsychological scores needs to take the distinct cognitive profiles in ALS and aMCI into consideration. Importantly, the observed memory deficits in ALS were distinctly different from those observed in aMCI and can be explained only to some extent in the context of comorbid (coexisting) executive dysfunction. These findings highlight the qualitative differences in temporal lobe

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Hayden, Jill; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the empirical evidence for deficits in working memory (WM) processes in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exploratory meta-analytic procedures were used to investigate whether children with ADHD exhibit WM impairments. Twenty-six empirical research studies published from…

  14. [A core deficit in Parkinson disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Burraco, A; Herrera, E; Cuetos, F

    2016-05-01

    Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative condition involving motor, cognitive, and linguistic deficits. It is important to know why all these different deficits co-occur in the affected people. This paper aims to clarify whether these comorbid deficits result from the selective impairment of a computational primitive, namely, a context-sensitive computational ability according to Chomsky's Hierarchy (a well-established research tool in comparative neuroscience). A total of 15 medicated subjects with Parkinson disease and 15 controls were selected. They were matched in age and education. A battery of tasks was designed to test 3 different domains (motor capacities, cognition, and language) and 2 different computational abilities (context-free and context-sensitive operations). Significant differences between groups were observed only regarding the linguistic task involving context-sensitive computations (correferences). The observed deficits in our patients with Parkinson disease cannot be explained in terms of the selective impairment of one only unspecific, low-level computational process. At the same time, differences between patients and controls are expected to be greater if the former are not medicated. Moreover, we should pursue in the search of (this kind of) computational primitives than can be selectively impaired in people with Parkinson disease, because they may help to achieve an earlier diagnosis of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of different deficit irrigation on sugar accumulation of pineapple during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haiyan; Du, Liqing; Liu, Shenghui; Zhang, Xiumei

    2017-08-01

    The potted pineapple cultivar ‘Comte de paris’ was used to study the influence of deficit irrigation on fruit sugar accumulation in greenhouse during the fruit enlargement period. The study included a control (normal irrigation) and two treatment groups, moderate deficit (50% of the control irrigation) and severe deficit (25% of the control irrigation). The results indicated that the deficit irrigation significantly decreased the sucrose accumulation. The sucrose content in the fruits of moderate deficit irrigation was the lowest. During the mature period, the deficit irrigation decreased the sucrose phosophate synthase activity(SPS) an increased the sucrose synthase (SS) and neutral invertase (NI). The moderate deficit irrigation significantly improved the acid invertase activity(AI). However, it was inhibited by the severe deficit irrigation. In general, the moderate treatment reduced the SPS activity and enhanced the NI and AI activities, while the severe treatment decreased the SPS and AI activities.

  16. Creating National Narrative: The Red Guard Art Exhibitions and the National Exhibitions in the Chinese Cultural Revolution 1966 - 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Tsang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The artistic development in China experienced drastic changes during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976. Traditional Chinese art was denounced, whereas propaganda art became predominant in shaping the public’s loyalty towards the Communist Party and the country. Two major groups of art exhibitions emerged during the Revolution—the unofficial Red Guard art exhibitions organized by student activists in collaboration with local communes and art schools between 1966 and 1968, and the state-run national exhibitions from 1972 to 1975. These exhibitions were significant to this period because they were held frequently in the capital city Beijing and occasionally elsewhere, and through art they presented unique revolutionary beliefs to the Chinese people in a public setting. While the Red Guard art exhibitions and the national exhibitions certainly created different national narratives, I argue that the national exhibitions were in fact an attempt to revise the national narrative created by the Red Guard art exhibitions in order to re-establish a more utopian, consistent, and official national narrative. This paper unravels the intricate relationship between the two groups of exhibitions by comparing their exhibition venues, ideological focuses, work selection and quality editing. 

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  18. Enriched environment palliates nicotine-induced addiction and associated neurobehavioral deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Amber; Batool, Zehra; Ahmed, Saara; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Mehdi, Bushra Jabeen; Sajid, Irfan; Ahmad, Shoaib; Saleem, Sadia; Naqvi, Fizza; Naqvi, Faizan; Haider, Saida

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of enriched environment in preventing and/or reducing the neurobehavioral deficits produced after nicotine administration in albino Wistar rats. Equal numbers of rat in two groups were either placed in social environment (control group) or social along with physically enriched environment for four weeks before the administration of nicotine. Exposure to different environmental conditions was followed by the intraperitoneal injection of nicotine at the dose of 0.6 mg/kg for seven consecutive days during which addictive behavior was monitored using conditioned placed preference paradigm. Behavioral responses to locomotor activity, anxiety and retention of short term memory were investigated in control and nicotine injected groups exposed to different environments. Results of this study showed that the rats pre-exposed to physical along with social enrichment exhibited a decrease in drug seeking behavior, hyper locomotion, anxiogenic effects along with improvement of working memory as compared to control and nicotine injected groups that were kept in social environment alone. This behavioral study suggests that the exposure to physical enrichment along with socialization in young age can later reduce the chances of compulsive dependence on nicotine and related neurobehavioral deficits.

  19. Interpersonal Problem-Solving Deficits in Self-Poisoning Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeavey, Breda C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared self-poisoning patients with psychiatric patients and nonpatient controls on problem-solving skills and locus of control. The psychiatric and self-poisoning groups showed deficits on interpersonal problem solving compared with nonpatient controls. The self-poisoning group performed below or at the level of the psychiatric group. Locus of…

  20. The impact of level of education on age-related deficits in associative memory: Behavioral and neuropsychological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gargya, Sanchita; Kopeikin, Ksenia S; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2017-06-01

    Older adults have difficulty forming associations and binding distinct item components despite mostly preserved item memory potentially because they rely on more automatic, rather than strategic, processing when attempting to form, store, and retrieve associations from memory. An intriguing possibility is that older adults with greater access to strategic processes (e.g., those with a high level of education) may be less susceptible to age-related associative memory deficits. Two experiments assessed the degree to which a high level of education provides an effective dose of cognitive reserve (CR), potentially preserving associative memory. Standard younger and older adults' item and associative memory performance was compared to older adults who had attained a high level of education (mostly doctoral degrees). In both experiments (Experiment 1: person-action pairs; Experiment 2: unrelated word pairs), consistent evidence was found that older adults, regardless of the level of education, exhibited an age-related associative memory deficit relative to younger adults. Interestingly, neuropsychological assessment of both older adult groups revealed greater frontal lobe, but not enhanced medial temporal lobe, functioning in the highly educated. As such, although the highly educated older adults exhibited greater frontal lobe functioning than the standard older adults, this did not aid in the reduction of the age-related associative memory deficit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Set shifting and visuospatial organization deficits in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L; Weingarden, Hilary; Reuman, Lillian; Abrams, Dylan; Mothi, Suraj S; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2017-11-24

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) over-attend to perceived defect(s) in their physical appearance, often becoming "stuck" obsessing about perceived flaws and engaging in rituals to hide flaws. These symptoms suggest that individuals with BDD may experience deficits in underlying neurocognitive functions, such as set-shifting and visuospatial organization. These deficits have been implicated as risk and maintenance factors in disorders with similarities to BDD but have been minimally investigated in BDD. The present study examined differences in neurocognitive functions among BDD participants (n = 20) compared to healthy controls (HCs; n = 20). Participants completed neuropsychological assessments measuring set-shifting (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift [IED] task) and visuospatial organization and memory (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test [ROCF]). Results revealed a set-shifting deficit among BDD participants compared to HCs on the IED. On the ROCF, BDD participants exhibited deficits in visuospatial organization compared to HCs, but they did not differ in visuospatial memory compared to HCs. Results did not change when accounting for depression severity. Findings highlight neurocognitive deficits as potential endophenotype markers of clinical features (i.e., delusionality). Understanding neuropsychological deficits may clarify similarities and differences between BDD and related disorders and may guide targets for BDD treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pragmatic communication deficits in children with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are

  3. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity. PMID:26900567

  4. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Mattfeld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  5. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  6. Perfusion deficits and functional connectivity alterations in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Baojuan; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Linchuan; Li, Liang; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    To explore the alteration in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity between survivors with recent onset post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and without PTSD, survived from the same coal mine flood disaster. In this study, a processing pipeline using arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence was proposed. Considering low spatial resolution of ASL sequence, a linear regression method was firstly used to correct the partial volume (PV) effect for better CBF estimation. Then the alterations of CBF between two groups were analyzed using both uncorrected and PV-corrected CBF maps. Based on altered CBF regions detected from the CBF analysis as seed regions, the functional connectivity abnormities in PTSD patients was investigated. The CBF analysis using PV-corrected maps indicates CBF deficits in the bilateral frontal lobe, right superior frontal gyrus and right corpus callosum of PTSD patients, while only right corpus callosum was identified in uncorrected CBF analysis. Furthermore, the regional CBF of the right superior frontal gyrus exhibits significantly negative correlation with the symptom severity in PTSD patients. The resting-state functional connectivity indicates increased connectivity between left frontal lobe and right parietal lobe. These results indicate that PV-corrected CBF exhibits more subtle perfusion changes and may benefit further perfusion and connectivity analysis. The symptom-specific perfusion deficits and aberrant connectivity in above memory-related regions may be putative biomarkers for recent onset PTSD induced by a single prolonged trauma exposure and help predict the severity of PTSD.

  7. Theory of mind deficits partly mediate impaired social decision-making in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Li, Peifu; Mao, Haiying; Wang, Huiling; Shu, Chang; Bliksted, Vibeke; Zhou, Yuan

    2017-05-05

    Using paradigms from game theory, researchers have reported abnormal decision-making in social context in patients with schizophrenia. However, less is known about the underpinnings of the impairment. This study aimed to test whether theory of mind (ToM) deficits and/or neurocognitive dysfunctions mediate impaired social decision-making in patients with schizophrenia. We compared thirty-five patients with schizophrenia to thirty-eight matched healthy controls with regard to social decision-making using the mini Ultimatum Game (mini UG), a paradigm from game theory. Additionally, we assessed ToM using the Theory of Mind Picture Stories Task, a mental state attribution task, and assessed neurocognition using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Mediation analyses were performed on the data. In contrast to the behavioral pattern of healthy controls in the mini UG, the patients with schizophrenia significantly accepted more disadvantageous offers and rejected more advantageous offers, and showed reduced sensitivity to the fairness-related context changes in the mini UG. Impaired ToM and neurocognition were also found in the patients. Mediation analyses indicated that ToM but not neurocognition partially mediated the group differences on the disadvantageous and advantageous offers in the mini UG. Patients with schizophrenia exhibited impaired social decision-making. This impairment can be partly explained by their ToM deficits rather than neurocognitive deficits. However, the exact nature of the ToM deficits that mediate impaired social decision-making needs to be identified in future.

  8. Behavioral and Neural Sustained Attention Deficits in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Adleman, Nancy E; Curhan, Alexa; Zhang, Susan; Towbin, Kenneth E; Brotman, Melissa A; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), characterized by severe irritability, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid. This is the first study to characterize neural and behavioral similarities and differences in attentional functioning across these disorders. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers, 31 patients with DMDD, and 25 patients with ADHD (8 to 18 years old) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging attention task. Group differences in intra-subject variability in reaction time (RT) were examined. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging analytic approach precisely quantified trial-wise associations between RT and brain activity. Group differences manifested in the relation between RT and brain activity (all regions: p  2.54, partial eta-squared [η p 2 ] > 0.06). Patients with DMDD showed specific alterations in the right paracentral lobule, superior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, and cerebellar culmen. In contrast, patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited blunted compensatory increases in activity on long RT trials. In addition, youth with DMDD exhibited increased activity in the postcentral gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and cerebellar tonsil and declive (all regions: p  2.46, η p 2 > 0.06). Groups in the imaging sample did not differ significantly in intra-subject variability in RT (F 2,79  = 2.664, p = .076, η p 2  = 0.063), although intra-subject variability in RT was significantly increased in youth with DMDD and ADHD when including those not meeting strict motion and accuracy criteria for imaging analysis (F 2,96  = 4.283, p = .017, η p 2  = 0.083). Patients with DMDD exhibited specific alterations in the relation between pre-stimulus brain activity and RT. Patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited similar blunting of compensatory neural activity in frontal, parietal, and other regions. In addition, patients with DMDD showed increased RT variability compared with healthy

  9. CT findings predictive of neurological deficits in throracolumbar burst fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Jeong, Hee Seok; Jeong, Yeo Jin [Pusan National University and Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To determine the computed tomography (CT) findings predictive of neurological deficits in thoracolumbar spine injuries. One hundred two patients with thoracolumbar spinal burst fractures, after excluding the patients with brain and cervical cord injuries and unconsciousness, who underwent consecutive spine 128-multidetector CT scan formed the study group. The neurological findings were clinically classified as no deficit (n = 58), complete deficit with paraplegia (n = 22), and incomplete deficit with either motor or sensory impairment (n = 22). The following four CT imaging parameters were analyzed: the level of the main burst fracture as the cord (n = 44) and the cauda equina (n = 58) levels; the extent of canal encroachment as central canal ratios (CCRs) below 0.5 (n = 43) and above 0.5 (n = 59); the degree of laminar fracture as no fracture (n = 33), linear fracture (n = 7), separated fracture (n = 27), and displaced fracture (n = 35); fractured vertebra counted as single (n = 53) and multiple (n = 49). Complete neurological deficit was associated with injuries at the cord level (p = 0.000) and displaced laminar fractures (p = 0.000); incomplete neurological deficit was associated with CCRs below 0.5 (p = 0.000) and multiple vertebral injuries (p = 0.002). CT scan can provide additional findings predictive of neurological deficits in thoracolumbar spinal burst fractures.

  10. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  11. Photosynthetic and enzymatic metabolism of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi seedlings under water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Pieretti Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a tree species that can be used in the recovery of degraded areas, as it exhibits rapid growth and has a very expansive root system, facilitating water uptake from the deeper layers of the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate photosynthesis and enzymatic activity in S. terebinthifolius seedlings under conditions of water deficit and their potential to recover following re-irrigation. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse under a plastic covering where plants were distributed into two groups: Group 1 - control plants, where irrigation was maintained at 70% of the water retention capacity, and Group 2 - stressed plants, where irrigation was suspended until the photosynthetic rate neared zero, followed by rehydration for 12 days, then a further suspension of irrigation. At the beginning of the experiment and during the suspension of irrigation and rehydration, plants were evaluated for gas and antioxidant enzyme exchanges. Hydric stress significantly reduced photosynthesis, stomatal transpiration conductance, carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco, and the chlorophyll content of the S. terebinthifolius plants. Following rehydration, plants recovered the carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco, but not the photosynthetic rate. Antioxidant enzyme activity increased in both the aerial part and the root in response to water deficit.

  12. Marquesan Children's Group Organization Skills as Exhibited in Large-Group Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    This research summary reports on a 4-month long study of 30 children, ages 10-13, who live at the elementary boarding school on the island of 'Ua Pou, Marquesas Island, French Polynesia. Of the sample of 15 boys and 15 girls, 20 of the children are from a single small valley. Follow-up studies also were done of the families of these children. The…

  13. Widespread auditory deficits in tune deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Lucker, Jay; Drayna, Dennis

    2009-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate auditory function in individuals with deficits in musical pitch perception. We hypothesized that such individuals have deficits in nonspeech areas of auditory processing. We screened 865 randomly selected individuals to identify those who scored poorly on the Distorted Tunes test (DTT), a measure of musical pitch recognition ability. Those who scored poorly were given a comprehensive audiologic examination, and those with hearing loss or other confounding audiologic factors were excluded from further testing. Thirty-five individuals with tune deafness constituted the experimental group. Thirty-four individuals with normal hearing and normal DTT scores, matched for age, gender, handedness, and education, and without overt or reported psychiatric disorders made up the normal control group. Individual and group performance for pure-tone frequency discrimination at 1000 Hz was determined by measuring the difference limen for frequency (DLF). Auditory processing abilities were assessed using tests of pitch pattern recognition, duration pattern recognition, and auditory gap detection. In addition, we evaluated both attention and short- and long-term memory as variables that might influence performance on our experimental measures. Differences between groups were evaluated statistically using Wilcoxon nonparametric tests and t-tests as appropriate. The DLF at 1000 Hz in the group with tune deafness was significantly larger than that of the normal control group. However, approximately one-third of participants with tune deafness had DLFs within the range of performance observed in the control group. Many individuals with tune deafness also displayed a high degree of variability in their intertrial frequency discrimination performance that could not be explained by deficits in memory or attention. Pitch and duration pattern discrimination and auditory gap-detection ability were significantly poorer in the group with tune deafness

  14. Artefacts and the performance of an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the role of mediating artefacts in children's encounters with a museum of natural history. Using actor network theory it explores how a specific artefact shapes the way users relate to exhibited objects and how the artefact guides users' movements in the exhibition....... The mediated performance of an exhibition is explored through an empirical case....

  15. Memory systems in schizophrenia: Modularity is preserved but deficits are generalized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haut, Kristen M; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Bilder, Robert M; Congdon, Eliza; Freimer, Nelson B; London, Edythe D; Sabb, Fred W; Ventura, Joseph; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit impaired working and episodic memory, but this may represent generalized impairment across memory modalities or performance deficits restricted to particular memory systems in subgroups of patients. Furthermore, it is unclear whether deficits are unique from those associated with other disorders. Healthy controls (n=1101) and patients with schizophrenia (n=58), bipolar disorder (n=49) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (n=46) performed 18 tasks addressing primarily verbal and spatial episodic and working memory. Effect sizes for group contrasts were compared across tasks and the consistency of subjects' distributional positions across memory domains was measured. Schizophrenia patients performed poorly relative to the other groups on every test. While low to moderate correlation was found between memory domains (r=.320), supporting modularity of these systems, there was limited agreement between measures regarding each individual's task performance (ICC=.292) and in identifying those individuals falling into the lowest quintile (kappa=0.259). A general ability factor accounted for nearly all of the group differences in performance and agreement across measures in classifying low performers. Pathophysiological processes involved in schizophrenia appear to act primarily on general abilities required in all tasks rather than on specific abilities within different memory domains and modalities. These effects represent a general shift in the overall distribution of general ability (i.e., each case functioning at a lower level than they would have if not for the illness), rather than presence of a generally low-performing subgroup of patients. There is little evidence that memory impairments in schizophrenia are shared with bipolar disorder and ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Speech and language deficits in separation anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roha M. Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Separation anxiety disorder (SAD is one of the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Children with SAD are characterized by excessive anxiety of separation from the primary attachment figure. These children exhibit fear of separation from their parents and display behaviors such as clinging, excessive crying, and tantrums. Children with SAD are found to have significant brain changes. SAD can co-occur with other conditions such as autism spectrum disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Past studies have identified not only cognitive deficits in children diagnosed with SAD, but also speech and language deficits, which vary depending on comorbidities. A team-centered approach is essential in the assessment and treatment of children diagnosed with SAD.

  17. CERN’s travelling exhibition goes to Austria

    CERN Multimedia

    Mélissa Lanaro

    2011-01-01

    Since April 2009 CERN’s travelling exhibition has been touring through some of the Organization's Member States. After Italy and Denmark it has been on show since February at Austria’s Hartberg Ökopark, a very popular science museum situated some one hundred kilometres from Vienna. To coincide with the CERN exhibition, Austria’s scientific community has organised a series of events for the general public which have had marked success. The exhibition's next destination will be Portugal and preparations are already underway to ensure that it is another resounding success   The travelling exhibition was designed in collaboration with the University of Geneva, as part of the celebrations for its 450th anniversary, and has already notched up a good number of kilometres as it travels from country to country. “In 2010 the exhibition already had around 55,000 visitors,” explains Rolf Landua, who heads the Education Group. Since its inauguration ...

  18. Number Processing and Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Subtypes with Different Cognitive Profiles and Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated if developmental dyscalculia (DD) in children with different profiles of mathematical deficits has the same or different cognitive origins. The defective approximate number system hypothesis and the access deficit hypothesis were tested using two different groups of children with DD (11-13 years old): a group with…

  19. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  20. Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Benefit from Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany M.; Quintino, Olga; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Koslovsky, Gabrielle

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-eight adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were provided either massage therapy or relaxation therapy for 10 consecutive school days. The massage therapy group, but not the relaxation therapy group, self-rated as happier, and observers rated them as fidgeting less following the sessions. Teachers reported more time on…

  1. Effects of a working memory training program in preschoolers with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodieci, Agnese; Gola, Maria Laura; Cornoldi, Cesare; Re, Anna Maria

    2018-02-01

    Preschoolers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to exhibit impairments on neuropsychological measures of working memory (WM). As WM is an important predictor of future learning abilities, early intervention could help to prevent severe problems. The purpose of this research was to ascertain the efficacy of an intervention for training WM in 5-year-old children with symptoms of ADHD. Thirty-four children with symptoms of ADHD were randomly divided into two groups: One was assigned to the WM training condition, and the other continued normal class activities. The training was provided at school in small groups that also included typically developing children. The trained group showed a significant improvement in tasks measuring their WM and other controlled processes at conclusion of study, whereas no significant improvement was found in the control group. We concluded that early intervention on WM may be effective in children with symptoms of ADHD.

  2. Knowledge Generation in Technology-Enhanced Health Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Kharlamov, Nikita; Zachariasssen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from eye-tracking studies of audience interaction and knowledge generation in the technology-enhanced health promotion exhibition PULSE at a science centre in Copenhagen, Denmark. The main purpose of the study was to understand what types of knowledge audiences build...... in health promotion exhibitions designed to include direct physical interaction. The current study is part of the larger PULSE project, which aims to develop innovative health promotion activities that include a science museum exhibition as a key setting. The primary target group is families with children...

  3. Do motivational incentives reduce the inhibition deficit in ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Michelle A; Pennington, Bruce F; Willcutt, Erik W

    2008-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to test three competing theories of ADHD: the inhibition theory, the motivational theory, and a dual deficit theory. Previous studies have produced conflicting findings about the effects of incentives on executive processes in ADHD. In the present study of 25 children with ADHD and 30 typically developing controls, motivation was manipulated within the Stop Task. Stop signal reaction time was examined, as well as reaction time, its variability, and the number of errors in the primary choice reaction time task. Overall, the pattern of results supported the inhibition theory over the motivational or dual deficit hypotheses, as main effects of group were found for most key variables (ADHD group was worse), whereas the group by reward interaction predicted by the motivational and dual deficit accounts was not found. Hence, as predicted by the inhibition theory, children with ADHD performed worse than controls irrespective of incentives.

  4. A Proper Perspective on the Twin Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    deficit twins, the relation between them, and their consanguine parentage. The trade deficit or, to be more accurate, the current account deficit, is...In general, there is a small negative, but statistically significant, relationship between the size of the federal deficit in one year and the

  5. Deficits in reticuloendothelial humoral control mechanisms in patients after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovill, W A; Saba, T M; Kaplan, J E; Bernard, H; Powers, S

    1976-11-01

    Plasma opsonic activity as expressed by an alpha-2-globulin which stimulates hepatic Kupffer cell phagocytosis, and thus modulates RES clearance, was determined in patients at varying intervals following whole-body trauma. Plasma opsonic activity decreased markedly following trauma in both nonsurviving (NS) and surviving (S) trauma patients as compared to an age- and sex-matched group of healthy volunteers. The initial post-traumatic hypoopsonemia (0-72 hr) was more severe (p less than 0.01) in nonsurviving patients than surviving patients. Survivors following trauma manifested restoration of opsonin levels with a definite transient rebound hyperopsonemia during the recovery phase (11-30 days); nonsurviving patients exhibited persistent systemic alpha-2-globulin opsonic deficiency. On the basis of previous animal and human studies, the presently observed humoral deficits following trauma in patients could contribute to impairment of reticuloendothelial Kupffer cell clearance of blood-borne particulate matter such as fibrin, damaged platelets, and other altered autologous tissue. The importance of post-trauma RES dysfunction to survival following severe injury warrants further investigation and clinical consideration.

  6. It's about time: revisiting temporal processing deficits in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, Laurence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2018-03-01

    Temporal processing in French children with dyslexia was evaluated in three tasks: a word identification task requiring implicit temporal processing, and two explicit temporal bisection tasks, one in the auditory and one in the visual modality. Normally developing children matched on chronological age and reading level served as a control group. Children with dyslexia exhibited robust deficits in temporal tasks whether they were explicit or implicit and whether they involved the auditory or the visual modality. First, they presented larger perceptual variability when performing temporal tasks, whereas they showed no such difficulties when performing the same task on a non-temporal dimension (intensity). This dissociation suggests that their difficulties were specific to temporal processing and could not be attributed to lapses of attention, reduced alertness, faulty anchoring, or overall noisy processing. In the framework of cognitive models of time perception, these data point to a dysfunction of the 'internal clock' of dyslexic children. These results are broadly compatible with the recent temporal sampling theory of dyslexia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dysrhythmia: a specific congenital rhythm perception deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques eLaunay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Why do some people have problems ‘feeling the beat’? Here we investigate participants with congenital impairments in musical rhythm perception and production. A web-based version of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA was used to screen for difficulties with rhythmic processing in a large sample and we identified three ‘dysrhythmic’ individuals who scored below cut-off for the rhythm subtest, but not the pitch-based subtests. Follow-up testing in the laboratory was conducted to characterize the nature of both rhythm perception and production deficits in these dysrhythmic individuals. We found that they differed from control participants when required to synchronize their tapping to an external stimulus with a metrical pulse, but not when required to tap spontaneously (with no external stimulus or to tap in time to an isochronous stimulus. Dysrhythmics exhibited a general tendency to tap at half the expected tempo when asked to synchronize to the beat of strongly metrical rhythms. These results suggest that the individuals studied here did not have motor production problems, but suffer from a selective rhythm perception deficit that influences the ability to entrain to metrical rhythms.

  8. Motor ability and adaptive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yi Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neuropsychiatric disorder. Previous studies have reported that children with ADHD exhibit deficits of adaptive function and insufficient motor ability. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adaptive function and motor ability in children with ADHD compared with a group of normal children. The study group included 25 children with ADHD (19 boys and 6 girls, aged from 4.6 years to 8.6 years (mean±standard deviation, 6.5±1.2. A group of 24 children without ADHD (normal children were selected to match the children with ADHD on age and gender. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children, which includes three subtests, was used to assess the motor ability of the children of both groups. The Chinese version of Adaptive Behavior Scales, which consists of 12 life domains, was used to assess adaptive function of the children with ADHD. Compared with the normal children, children with ADHD exhibited poorer motor ability on all the three subtests of motor assessment. In the ADHD group, nine (36% children had significant motor impairments and seven (28% were borderline cases. A total of 10 (40% children with ADHD had definite adaptive problems in one or more adaptive domains. With statistically controlling of IQ for the ADHD group, those children with impaired motor ability had significantly poorer behaviors in the adaptive domain of home living (p=0.035. Moreover, children with ADHD who had severely impaired manual dexterity performed worse than the control group in the adaptive domains of home living (r=−0.47, p=0.018, socialization (r=−0.49, p=0.013, and self-direction (r=−0.41, p=0.040. In addition, children with poorer ball skills had worse home living behavior (r=−0.56, p=0.003. Children who had more impaired balance exhibited poorer performance in social behavior (r=−0.41, p=0.040. This study found significant correlation between motor ability and

  9. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition......? With those questions in mind, the intention and challenge for the Nordes 2013 Design Research Exhibition was to expand on current notions of staging research enquires in design research conference contexts. Artefacts, installations, performances, and other materialities that relate to the theme...... of the conference - Experiments in Design Research – were displayed as tools to express and communicate different design research enquires. Through this paper we will describe the Nordes exhibition as a specific case that renders questions visible in relation to how to utilize a design research exhibition...

  10. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor-depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current-induced resistive state

  11. Allocentric spatial learning and memory deficits in Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A Banta Lavenex

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that persons with Down Syndrome (DS exhibit relatively poor language capacities, and impaired verbal and visuoperceptual memory, whereas their visuospatial memory capacities appear comparatively spared. Individuals with DS recall better where an object was previously seen than what object was previously seen. However, most of the evidence concerning preserved visuospatial memory comes from tabletop or computerized experiments which are biased towards testing egocentric (viewpoint-dependent spatial representations. Accordingly, allocentric (viewpoint-independent spatial learning and memory capacities may not be necessary to perform these tasks. Thus, in order to more fully characterize the spatial capacities of individuals with DS, allocentric processes underlying real-world navigation must also be investigated. We tested 20 participants with DS and 16 mental age-matched, typically developing (TD children in a real-world, allocentric spatial memory task. During local cue (LC trials, participants had to locate three rewards marked by local color cues, among 12 locations distributed in a 4 m X 4 m arena. During allocentric spatial (AS trials, participants had to locate the same three rewards, in absence of local cues, based on their relations to distal environmental cues. All TD participants chose rewarded locations in LC and AS trials at above chance level. In contrast, although all but one of the participants with DS exhibited a preference for the rewarded locations in LC trials, only 50% of participants with DS chose the rewarded locations at above chance level in AS trials. As a group, participants with DS performed worse than TD children on all measures of task performance. These findings demonstrate that individuals with DS are impaired at using an allocentric spatial representation to learn and remember discrete locations in a controlled environment, suggesting persistent and pervasive deficits in hippocampus

  12. PRAGMATIC DEFICITS OF ASPERGER SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmy Arizatul Humaira’

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human being is social creature who needs other people to interact with. One of the ways to interact with others is communication with language. However, communication could be a complicated problem for those who were born with developmental disorder called Asperger Syndrome (AS. The communication challenge of Asperger’s is the difficulty using language appropriately for social purposes or known as pragmatic deficits. Many excellent books about autism are published whereas knowledge on pragmatic deficits are still very limited. Thus, it is expected to be a beneficial reference to understand the pragmatic deficits and to create strategies for them to communicate effectively. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the kinds of pragmatic deficits of an individual with AS. The verbal language profiles of autism purposed by MacDonald (2004 is used to analyzed the data in depth. The descriptive qualitative method is applied to develop a comprehensive understanding about the AS case in Temple Grandin movie.The finding shows that all of the five types of communication deficits are appearing and the dominant of which is unresponsive.

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen L; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lam, Siu M

    2016-04-01

    We examined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents with epilepsy and the association with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. Strengths and Weakness of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behaviors rating scale was administered to 122 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Twenty-nine (23.7%) adolescents with epilepsy compared with five (10%) with asthma had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P = 0.037). Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly higher score in the inattention subscale when compared with those with asthma (-0.25 ± 1.2 vs -0.64 ± 1.07, P = 0.049). Combined subtype was most frequent in the epilepsy group. Oppositional defiant disorders were more prevalent in those having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric assistance had only been provided to one third of our patients with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the time of study. There was a negative correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores and age of seizure onset. A positive correlation was observed between the number of antiepileptic drugs and the inattentive subscale score. The impact of various correlates on individual subtypes was not identical. Independent risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were medical comorbidities (odds ratio = 12.82, 95% confidence interval 4.44, 37.03, P Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is overrepresented in adolescents with epilepsy; screening for its symptoms should be an integral part of management in adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder exhibit altered emotional processing and attentional control during an emotional Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, M M; Badura-Brack, A S; McDermott, T J; Embury, C M; Wiesman, A I; Shepherd, A; Ryan, T J; Heinrichs-Graham, E; Wilson, T W

    2017-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often associated with attention allocation and emotional regulation difficulties, but the brain dynamics underlying these deficits are unknown. The emotional Stroop task (EST) is an ideal means to monitor these difficulties, because participants are asked to attend to non-emotional aspects of the stimuli. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and the EST to monitor attention allocation and emotional regulation during the processing of emotionally charged stimuli in combat veterans with and without PTSD. A total of 31 veterans with PTSD and 20 without PTSD performed the EST during MEG. Three categories of stimuli were used, including combat-related, generally threatening and neutral words. MEG data were imaged in the time-frequency domain and the network dynamics were probed for differences in processing threatening and non-threatening words. Behaviorally, veterans with PTSD were significantly slower in responding to combat-related relative to neutral and generally threatening words. Veterans without PTSD exhibited no significant differences in responding to the three different word types. Neurophysiologically, we found a significant three-way interaction between group, word type and time period across multiple brain regions. Follow-up testing indicated stronger theta-frequency (4-8 Hz) responses in the right ventral prefrontal (0.4-0.8 s) and superior temporal cortices (0.6-0.8 s) of veterans without PTSD compared with those with PTSD during the processing of combat-related words. Our data indicated that veterans with PTSD exhibited deficits in attention allocation and emotional regulation when processing trauma cues, while those without PTSD were able to regulate emotion by directing attention away from threat.

  15. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    in the scientific field of designing transmedia experience in an exhibition context that links the pre- and post-activities to the actual visit (during-activities). The result of this study is a preliminary heuristic for establishing a relation between the platform and content complexity in transmedia exhibitions....

  16. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2005-01-01

    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  17. Let's play game exhibitions : A curator's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Jesse; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447; van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision is home to The Experience, a museum exhibiting the history of media in the Netherlands. For ten months in 2016 and 2017, The Experience hosted a temporary exhibition entitled Let’s YouTube . During the Let’s YouTube game month, we programmed a ten-day

  18. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  19. The Culture of Exhibitions and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doumas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on temporary exhibitions from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. Regarded as a particularly effective mass-communication medium, exhibitions have a dual nature: they are scholarly undertakings, bringing off a curator’s vision and, simultaneously, they are projects with economic implications that need to be well managed and administered. The role of conservation in the making of temporary exhibitions, either in-house or touring, is here discussed in relation to how work is planned and prioritized as well as how time is managed and staff is allocated. Reference to weaknesses that lessen the crucial input of conservation in the decision-making process is also made. Much of the debate, which focuses on art exhibitions, concerns practicalities encountered in a private museum that extend from the very early stages of selecting objects for display to the mounting of an exhibition.

  20. A Deficit in Face-Voice Integration in Developing Vervet Monkeys Exposed to Ethanol during Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    . However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face...... to a complex tone or a black-and-white checkerboard to a pure tone, presumably based on duration and/or onset-offset synchrony. Together, these results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure negatively affects a specific domain of audiovisual integration. This deficit is confined to the integration...... of information that is presented by the face and the voice and does not affect more elementary aspects of sensory integration....

  1. Combined lesions of hippocampus and subiculum Do not produce deficits in a nonspatial social olfactory memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, S; Murphy, D; Qureshi, U; Sutton, P; O'Keefe, J

    2000-07-15

    Rats transmit information to each other about which foods are safe to eat. If a rat smells a food odor on the breath of another rat, it is subsequently more likely to eat that food than an alternative. Work by Galef et al. (1988) has shown that the observer rat forms an association between two olfactory stimuli on the breath of the demonstrator rat that has eaten the food, the food odor and carbon disulphide, which is normally present in the rat breath. Bunsey and Eichenbaum (1995) claimed that the hippocampus/subicular region is required for the long-term retention of this nonspatial form of associative memory on the basis that combined lesions of the hippocampus and subiculum produced a deficit, but lesions of either structure alone did not. We report here a failure to repeat this finding. Rats with either combined lesions of the hippocampus and subiculum or with amygdala lesions were tested on their ability to remember this association either immediately (testing short-term memory) or after a 24 hr delay (testing long-term memory). Neither lesion group exhibited significant memory deficits on this nonspatial associative task at either test interval. In contrast, a deficit was observed on a spatial memory task (forced-choice alternation t-maze) for animals with combined lesions of the hippocampus and subiculum. These results contradict the findings of Bunsey and Eichenbaum (1995) and support the idea that the hippocampus/subicular region is not required for this nonspatial associative memory.

  2. CREB Overexpression Ameliorates Age-related Behavioral and Biophysical Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wen

    Age-related cognitive deficits are observed in both humans and animals. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 sub-region of hippocampus is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments, but the molecular mechanism(s) that modulate both these factors has yet to be identified. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents has been shown to facilitate cognition, and increase intrinsic excitability of their neurons. However, how CREB changes with age, and how that impacts cognition in aged animals, is not clear. Therefore, we first systematically characterized age- and training-related changes in CREB levels in dorsal hippocampus. At a remote time point after undergoing behavioral training, levels of total CREB and activated CREB (phosphorylated at S133, pCREB) were measured in both young and aged rats. We found that pCREB, but not total CREB was significantly reduced in dorsal CA1 of aged rats. Importantly, levels of pCREB were found to be positively correlated with short-term spatial memory in both young and aged rats i.e. higher pCREB in dorsal CA1 was associated with better spatial memory. These findings indicate that an age-related deficit in CREB activity may contribute to the development of age-related cognitive deficits. However, it was still unclear if increasing CREB activity would be sufficient to ameliorate age-related cognitive, and biophysical deficits. To address this question, we virally overexpressed CREB in CA1, where we found the age-related deficit. Young and aged rats received control or CREB virus, and underwent water maze training. While control aged animals exhibited deficits in long-term spatial memory, aged animals with CREB overexpression performed at levels comparable to young animals. Concurrently, aged neurons

  3. No objectively measured sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Catharina E; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to gain more insight into sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, using objective measures of sleep quality and quantity. The evidence for sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder thus far is inconsistent, which might be explained by confounding influences of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems and low socio-economic status. We therefore investigated the mediating and moderating role of these factors in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep problems. To control for the effects of stimulant medication use, all participants were tested free of medication. Sixty-three children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 61 typically developing children, aged 6-13 years, participated. Sleep was monitored for one to three school nights using actigraphy. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behaviour, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Results showed no differences between the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing group in any sleep parameter. Within the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was not related to sleep quality or quantity. Moderation analyses in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group showed an interaction effect between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and internalizing and externalizing behaviour on total sleep time, time in bed and average sleep bout duration. The results of our study suggest that having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not a risk factor for sleep problems. Internalizing and externalizing behaviour moderate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep, indicating a complex interplay between psychiatric symptoms and sleep.

  4. Local functional connectivity suggests functional immaturity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Vidal, Luis; Martínez-García, Magdalena; Pretus, Clara; Garcia-Garcia, David; Martínez, Kenia; Janssen, Joost; Vilarroya, Oscar; Castellanos, Francisco X; Desco, Manuel; Sepulcre, Jorge; Carmona, Susanna

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies have associated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with a maturational lag of brain functional networks. Functional connectivity of the human brain changes from primarily local to more distant connectivity patterns during typical development. Under the maturational lag hypothesis, we expect children with ADHD to exhibit increased local connectivity and decreased distant connectivity compared with neurotypically developing (ND) children. We applied a graph-theory method to compute local and distant connectivity levels and cross-sectionally compared them in a sample of 120 children with ADHD and 120 age-matched ND children (age range = 7-17 years). In addition, we measured if potential group differences in local and distant connectivity were stable across the age range considered. Finally, we assessed the clinical relevance of observed group differences by correlating the connectivity levels and ADHD symptoms severity separately for each group. Children with ADHD exhibited more local connectivity than age-matched ND children in multiple brain regions, mainly overlapping with default mode, fronto-parietal and ventral attentional functional networks (p attentional networks, the severity of clinical symptoms is related to atypical functional connectivity within somatomotor areas. Additionally, our findings are in line with the view of ADHD as a disorder of deviated maturational trajectories, mainly affecting somatomotor areas, rather than delays that normalize with age. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prefrontal glucose deficits in murderers lacking psychosocial deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Phil, D; Stoddard, J; Bihrle, S; Buchsbaum, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that links between autonomic nervous system functioning and violence are strongest in those who come from benign home backgrounds, but there appears to be no similar research using brain-imaging measures of central nervous system functioning. It was hypothesized that murderers who had no early psychosocial deprivation (e.g., no childhood abuse, family neglect) would demonstrate lower prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with early psychosocial deprivation and a group of normal controls. Murderers from a previous study, which showed prefrontal deficits in murderers, were assessed for psychosocial deprivation and divided into those with and without deprivation. Murderers without any clear psychosocial deficits were significantly lower on prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with psychosocial deficits and controls. These results suggest that murderers lacking psychosocial deficits are characterized by prefrontal deficits. It is argued that among violent offenders without deprived home backgrounds, the "social push" to violence is minimized, and consequently, brain abnormalities provide a relatively stronger predisposition to violence in this group.

  6. The level of audiovisual print-speech integration deficits in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronschnabel, Jens; Brem, Silvia; Maurer, Urs; Brandeis, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    The classical phonological deficit account of dyslexia is increasingly linked to impairments in grapho-phonological conversion, and to dysfunctions in superior temporal regions associated with audiovisual integration. The present study investigates mechanisms of audiovisual integration in typical and impaired readers at the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Congruent and incongruent audiovisual as well as unimodal (visual only and auditory only) material was presented. Audiovisual presentations were single letters and three-letter (consonant-vowel-consonant) stimuli accompanied by matching or mismatching speech sounds. Three-letter stimuli exhibited fast phonetic transitions as in real-life language processing and reading. Congruency effects, i.e. different brain responses to congruent and incongruent stimuli were taken as an indicator of audiovisual integration at a phonetic level (grapho-phonological conversion). Comparisons of unimodal and audiovisual stimuli revealed basic, more sensory aspects of audiovisual integration. By means of these two criteria of audiovisual integration, the generalizability of audiovisual deficits in dyslexia was tested. Moreover, it was expected that the more naturalistic three-letter stimuli are superior to single letters in revealing group differences. Electrophysiological and hemodynamic (EEG and fMRI) data were acquired simultaneously in a simple target detection task. Applying the same statistical models to event-related EEG potentials and fMRI responses allowed comparing the effects detected by the two techniques at a descriptive level. Group differences in congruency effects (congruent against incongruent) were observed in regions involved in grapho-phonological processing, including the left inferior frontal and angular gyri and the inferotemporal cortex. Importantly, such differences also emerged in superior temporal key regions. Three-letter stimuli revealed stronger group differences than single letters. No

  7. Deficit in community species richness as explained by area and isolation of sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The potential community species richness was predicted for 85 patches of seminatural grassland in an agricultural landscape in Denmark. The basis of the prediction was a very large dataset on the vegetation, soil pH and topography in Danish grasslands and related communities. Species were inserte......, community richness deficit, varied considerably among patches. Community richness deficit exhibited a negative relationship with patch area, and for small patches a positive relationship with patch isolation....

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  9. Rhythm Deficits in "Tone Deafness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxton, Jessica M.; Nandy, Rachel K.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2006-01-01

    It is commonly observed that "tone deaf" individuals are unable to hear the beat of a tune, yet deficits on simple timing tests have not been found. In this study, we investigated rhythm processing in nine individuals with congenital amusia ("tone deafness") and nine controls. Participants were presented with pairs of 5-note sequences, and were…

  10. Contrasting deficits on executive functions between ADHD and reading disabled children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzocchi, G.M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Zuddas, A.; Cavolina, P.; Geurts, H.; Redigilo, D.; Vio, C.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The object of this study was to analyze the executive functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or reading disability (RD) independent of their non-executive deficits. Methods: Three carefully diagnosed groups of children, aged between 7 and 12 years

  11. Locus and Nature of Perceptual Phonological Deficit in Spanish Children with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rosario; Jimenez, Juan E.; Miranda, Eduardo Garcia; Rosquete, Remedios Guzman; Hernandez-Valle, Isabel; Rodrigo, Mercedes; Estevez, Adelina; Diaz, Alicia; Exposito, Sergio Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to determine whether Spanish children with reading disabilities (RD) show a speech perception deficit and (b) to explore the locus and nature of this perceptive deficit. A group of 29 children with RD, 41 chronological age-matched controls, and 27 reading ability-matched younger controls were tested on tasks of…

  12. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  13. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  14. Proposta de uma abordagem psicoeducacional em grupos para pacientes adultos com Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade Propuesta de un abordaje psico-educacional en grupos para pacientes adultos con trastorno de déficit de Atención/ Hiperactividad A psychoeducacional approach in group therapy for adult patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Horácio Grevet

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores do presente artigo propõem, a partir do modelo pedagógico proposto por Antoni Zabala, uma abordagem psicoeducativa grupal para pacientes adultos portadores de Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade. Para tanto, adaptam esta estrutura pedagógica para fundamentar a abordagem de grupos psicoeducacionais. O presente trabalho adiciona uma nova técnica para o tratamento do TDAH no adulto a partir da interface entre a pedagogia e a psicoterapia.Los autores del presente artículo proponen, a partir del modelo pedagógico propuesto por Antoni Zabala, un abordaje psico-educativo grupal para pacientes adultos portadores del Tratamiento del Déficit de Atención/Hiperactividad. Para tanto, adaptan esta estructura pedagógica para fundamentar el abordaje de grupos psico-educacionales. El presente trabajo adiciona una nueva técnica para el tratamiento del TDAH en el adulto a partir de la interfase entre la pedagogía y la psicoterapia.TIn this paper the authors suggest a psycho-educative group approach to adult patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD based on a pedagogic model proposed by Antoni Zabala. This paper intends to present this new technique for the treatment of adults with ADHD. The conceptualization is based on the interface between pedagogy and psychotherapy.

  15. Medan Convention & Exhibition Center (Arsitektur Ekspresionisme)

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar, Nurul Auni

    2015-01-01

    Medan is one of the third largest city in Indonesia, which is currently being developed, and a city with lots of activities. In the city of Medan has a high investment opportunities for a convention, because of its strategic position in Southeast Asia and also supported by the facility and the potential for tourism in North Sumatra, Medan city has the potential for industrial MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference, Exhibition). The construction of Medan Convention & Exhibition Cente...

  16. The presentation of energy topics at exhibitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moergeli, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author examines the problems confronting an electricity supply company when trying to communicate its energy policy to the general public at exhibitions and fairs. The company has to convey a message of reliable power supplies, increasing demand, the advantages of nuclear energy, the safe storage of radioactive waste and the need for new generating plants. The author describes some of the displays being used to attract the public to the Bern Power Stations stand at the Bern Exhibition 1984. (R.S.)

  17. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  18. Long term verbal memory recall deficits in fragile X premutation females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Annie L; Cornish, Kim; Fielding, Joanne

    2017-10-01

    Carriers of a FMR1 premutation allele (between 55 and 199 CGG repeats) are at risk of developing a wide range of medical, psychiatric and cognitive disorders, including executive dysfunction. These cognitive deficits are often less severe for female premutation carriers compared to male premutation carriers, albeit similar in nature. However, it remains unclear whether female premutation carriers who exhibit executive dysfunction also report verbal learning and memory deficits like those of their male counterparts. Here we employed the CVLT to assess verbal learning and memory function in 19 female premutation carriers, contrasting performance with 19 age- and IQ-matched controls. Group comparisons revealed similar performance during the learning and short delay recall phases of the CVLT. However, after a long delay period, female premutation carriers remembered fewer words for both free and cued recall trials, but not during recognition trials. These findings are consistent with reports for male premutation carriers, and suggest that aspects of long term memory may be adversely affect in a subgroup of premutation carriers with signs of executive dysfunction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A test of the magnocellular deficit theory of dyslexia in an adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Geoffrey W; McAnally, Ken I; McKay, Adam; Johnston, Michael; Castles, Anne

    2006-12-01

    An influential theory of dyslexia is based on the premise that individuals with the disorder have impaired sensitivity to rapidly changing stimuli in the visual and auditory modalities, due to a dysfunction in the magnocellular channel of the visual system and its analogue in the auditory pathway. The deficit in the auditory system is thought to cause difficulties in the segmentation of speech and the formation of accurate phonological representations, leading to problems in making the grapheme-phoneme correspondences necessary for reading. In a sample of 13 adults with a history of severe reading difficulty and 18 controls, visual contrast thresholds were measured in response to an 8-Hz flickering Gaussian blob as well as a slowly modulated 8 cycles/deg Gaussian windowed grating. Auditory thresholds were measured in response to a 4-s burst of white noise, the 2nd or 3rd second of which was amplitude modulated at 100 Hz or 1 Hz. The adult reading difficulty group exhibited normal thresholds to rapidly changing stimuli in both modalities and to the slowly modulated visual stimulus, but some showed reduced sensitivity to the 1-Hz amplitude-modulated auditory stimulus. Sensitivity to amplitude modulation at slower rates has been shown to be important for segmentation of the speech stream and so may be implicated in the reading difficulty of the affected individuals. A magnocellular deficit cannot explain this impaired sensitivity, which may be the result of a reduced echoic memory span.

  20. Probing the nature of deficits in the 'Approximate Number System' in children with persistent Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we examined whether children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a deficit in the so-called 'Approximate Number System' (ANS). To do so, we examined a group of elementary school children who demonstrated persistent low math achievement over 4 years and compared them to typically developing (TD), aged-matched controls. The integrity of the ANS was measured using the Panamath (www.panamath.org) non-symbolic numerical discrimination test. Children with DD demonstrated imprecise ANS acuity indexed by larger Weber fraction (w) compared to TD controls. Given recent findings showing that non-symbolic numerical discrimination is affected by visual parameters, we went further and investigated whether children performed differently on trials on which number of dots and their overall area were either congruent or incongruent with each other. This analysis revealed that differences in w were only found between DD and TD children on the incongruent trials. In addition, visuo-spatial working memory strongly predicts individual differences in ANS acuity (w) during the incongruent trials. Thus the purported ANS deficit in DD can be explained by a difficulty in extracting number from an array of dots when area is anti-correlated with number. These data highlight the role of visuo-spatial working memory during the extraction process, and demonstrate that close attention needs to be paid to perceptual processes invoked by tasks thought to represent measures of the ANS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Theory of Mind Deficits in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, K.; Burack, J. A.; Rahman, A.; Munir, F.; Russo, N.; Grant, C.

    2005-01-01

    Given the consistent findings of theory of mind deficits in children with autism, it would be extremely beneficial to examine the profile of theory of mind abilities in other clinical groups such as fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Down syndrome (DS). The aim of the present study was to assess whether boys with FXS are impaired in simple social…

  2. Emotion Regulation and Heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Erica D.; Galloway-Long, Hilary S.; Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this. Method: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be…

  3. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  4. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  5. Evaluating Education and Science in the KSC Visitor Complex Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lance K.

    2000-01-01

    The continuing development of exhibits at the Kennedy Space Center's Visitor Complex is an excellent opportunity for NASA personnel to promote science and provide insight into NASA programs and projects for the approximately 3 million visitors that come to KSC annually. Stated goals for the Visitor Complex, in fact, emphasize science awareness and recommend broadening the appeal of the displays and exhibits for all age groups. To this end, this summer project seeks to evaluate the science content of planned exhibits/displays in relation to these developing opportunities and identify specific areas for enhancement of existing or planned exhibits and displays. To help expand the educational and science content within the developing exhibits at the Visitor Complex, this project was structured to implement the goals of the Visitor Center Director. To accomplish this, the exhibits and displays planned for completion within the year underwent review and evaluation for science content and educational direction. Planning emphasis for the individual displays was directed at combining the elements of effective education with fundamental scientific integrity, within an appealing format.

  6. A deficit in face-voice integration in developing vervet monkeys exposed to ethanol during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders display behavioural and intellectual impairments that strongly implicate dysfunction within the frontal cortex. Deficits in social behaviour and cognition are amongst the most pervasive outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure. Our naturalistic vervet monkey model of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure in a controlled experimental setting. Recent work has revealed a significant reduction of the neuronal population in the frontal lobes of these monkeys. We used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey concurrently presenting two different calls along with a single audio track matching the content of one of the calls, they were not able to match the correct video to the single audio track. This was manifest by their average looking time being equally spent towards both the matching and non-matching videos. However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face to a complex tone or a black-and-white checkerboard to a pure tone, presumably based on duration and/or onset-offset synchrony. Together, these results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure negatively affects a specific domain of audiovisual integration. This deficit is confined to the integration of information that is presented by the face and the voice and does not affect more elementary aspects of sensory integration.

  7. A deficit in face-voice integration in developing vervet monkeys exposed to ethanol during gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Zangenehpour

    Full Text Available Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders display behavioural and intellectual impairments that strongly implicate dysfunction within the frontal cortex. Deficits in social behaviour and cognition are amongst the most pervasive outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure. Our naturalistic vervet monkey model of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure in a controlled experimental setting. Recent work has revealed a significant reduction of the neuronal population in the frontal lobes of these monkeys. We used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey concurrently presenting two different calls along with a single audio track matching the content of one of the calls, they were not able to match the correct video to the single audio track. This was manifest by their average looking time being equally spent towards both the matching and non-matching videos. However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face to a complex tone or a black-and-white checkerboard to a pure tone, presumably based on duration and/or onset-offset synchrony. Together, these results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure negatively affects a specific domain of audiovisual integration. This deficit is confined to the integration of information that is presented by the face and the voice and does not affect more elementary aspects of sensory integration.

  8. Neurocognitive impairment in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, E; Binnur Akdede, B; Alptekin, K

    2017-10-01

    Most studies suggested that patients with deficit schizophrenia have more severe impairment compared with patients with non-deficit schizophrenia. However, it is not clear whether deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia are associated with differential neurocognitive profiles. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to compare cognitive performances of deficit and non-deficit patients with each other and with healthy controls. In the current meta-analysis, differences in cognitive abilities between 897 deficit and 1636 non-deficit patients with schizophrenia were examined. Cognitive performances of 899 healthy controls were also compared with 350 patients with deficit and 592 non-deficit schizophrenia. Both deficit (d = 1.04-1.53) and non-deficit (d = 0.68-1.19) schizophrenia were associated with significant deficits in all cognitive domains. Deficit patients underperformed non-deficit patients in all cognitive domains (d = 0.24-0.84) and individual tasks (d = 0.39-0.93). The relationship between deficit syndrome and impairment in olfaction, social cognition, verbal fluency, and speed-based cognitive tasks were relatively stronger. Our findings suggest that there is consistent evidence for a significant relationship between deficit syndrome and more severe cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  9. Perception in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Hüpen, Philippa; De Vries, Stefanie M.; Müller, Morgana; Kok, Francien M.; Koerts, Janneke; Heutink, Joost; Tucha, Lara; Gerlach, Manfred; Tucha, Oliver

    A large body of research demonstrated that individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from various neuropsychological deficits. In contrast, less is known and only divergent evidence exists on perceptual functions of individuals with ADHD. This is problematic as

  10. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us your comments ... might be signs of a developmental disorder called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. ADHD is a common ...

  11. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tube DysfunctionStrep ThroatAnemiaHyperthyroidismOpioid AddictionDiabetesCroup Home Diseases and Conditions Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Condition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ...

  12. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, ...

  13. Brain and behavioural correlates of action semantic deficits in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Louise Moseley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Action-perception circuits comprising neurons in the motor system have been proposed as main building blocks of higher cognition; accordingly, motor dysfunction should entail cognitive deficits. Autism spectrum conditions (ASC are marked by motor impairments but the implications of such motor dysfunction for higher cognition remain unclear. We here used word reading and semantic judgement tasks to interrogate action-related motor cognition and its corresponding fMRI brain activation in high-functioning adults with ASC. These participants exhibited hypoactivity of motor cortex in language processing relative to typically developing (TD controls. Crucially, we also found a deficit in semantic processing of action-related words, which, intriguingly, significantly correlated with their underactivation of motor cortex to these items. Furthermore, the word-induced hypoactivity in the motor system also predicted the severity of ASC as expressed by the number of autistic symptoms measured by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al, 2001. These significant correlations between word-induced activation of the motor system and a newly discovered semantic deficit in a condition known to be characterised by motor impairments, along with the correlation of such activation with general autistic traits confirm critical predictions of causal theories explaining cognitive and semantic deficits in ASC, in part, to dysfunctional action-perception circuits and resultant reduction of motor system activation.

  14. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)” is used rather than “attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)” in some data sources. More data Tables ...

  15. Pragmatic Communication Deficits in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are related to general intellectual functioning. Both…

  16. Turning energy around: an interactive exhibition experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kellberg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A transition from the fossil-fuel driven to a sustainable energy system is an enormous global challenge: climate change and finite resources require countries all over the world to change their way of producing, transporting and using energy. The Energiewende (energy transition will require major changes in the current energy supply system in Germany – but also worldwide. These changes will not only affect the technical sector but will also include ecological questions, social issues and political matters. Whether any transition is going to favour large scale solutions or decentralised technologies depends on local situations and global interconnections, and above all on a democratic process. Hence energy transition succeeds or fails with the acceptance and participation of society. To deal with this overwhelmingly complex topic and its multi-layered dependencies, the Deutsches Museum has designed an exhibition providing visitors with background knowledge about the necessities and challenges of energy transition, unpicking the links between the different technical, economic and social challenges. The exhibition accomplishes the task with an engaging and facilitating approach while taking into account the highly emotive aspects of energy transition as a societal issue. This paper presents the concept of the travelling exhibition energie.wenden, relating it to the Deutsches Museum´s tradition of exhibitions as well as to the challenge of how to deal with socio-scientific topics in scientific exhibitions.

  17. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  18. Education or business? - exhibition of human corpses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Wróbel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exhibition "BODY WORLDS" which are presented exhibits of human remains are presented all over the world and are a major problem for the modern man, as presented on the preparations of the human not only serve scientific research, are not transferred to the medical schools to educate future doctors, but they were made available to the general public in the form of commercial and ambiguous. The aim of this study was to assess the ethical commercialization of human corpses "BODY WORLDS" exhibitions. Individual approach to the problems presented the dignity and value of human remains after death, of course, strongly related to the professed worldview. In the exhibits can be seen in both the scientific interest anatomical structures, as well as desecrated human remains or beautiful by its functional perfection of the body, understood also in terms of art. The question of ethics determines the right to decide for themselves, on the other hand, allows you to protect bodily integrity even after death. "BODY WORLDS" exhibition goes for the moral and ethical boundaries. In terms of people Gunther von Hagens for plastination of human remains which became a very profitable business, and its current activities defined as "plastination business" should be firmly said about the lack of moral principles.

  19. Profiles of Cognitive Deficits in Paranoid Schizophrenia and Schizotypal Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the search for more accurate psycho-diagnostic methods and assessment tools for determining the degree of cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenic disorders. The concepts of "cognitive deficits" and "cognitive profile", understood as the ratio of intact and damaged components of cognitive processes and their schematic representation are discussed. The authors substantiate the need for a clear gradation of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, development of universal translation algorithms of traditional qualitative results (meaningful analysis of violations of cognitive activity in quantitative indicators. The article is based on the results of experimental psychological study. The investigation involved 128 patients: 76 people with Paranoid schizophrenia (F20 according to ICD-10 and 52 persons with Schizotypal disorder (F21 according to ICD-10. To assess the cognitive deficit, both traditional domestic methods and foreign tests, rarely used in the practice of a medical psychologist were conducted. The study analyzed the difference in cognitive tests performance between groups of patients with several types of schizophrenia and with different disease duration (up to 5 years and more. On the basis of quantitative data, a "cognitive profile" was lined for each disease. As a result, different variants of cognitive deficits, depending on the shape and course of the disease have been identified. The structure and dynamics of the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia and various forms depending on the different duration of the disease is described in detail. Also cognitive profiles compiled on this basis.

  20. Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Ibraim da Freiria Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the auditory selective attention in children with stroke. METHODS: Dichotic tests of binaural separation (non-verbal and consonant-vowel and binaural integration - digits and Staggered Spondaic Words Test (SSW - were applied in 13 children (7 boys, from 7 to 16 years, with unilateral stroke confirmed by neurological examination and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The attention performance showed significant differences in comparison to the control group in both kinds of tests. In the non-verbal test, identifications the ear opposite the lesion in the free recall stage was diminished and, in the following stages, a difficulty in directing attention was detected. In the consonant- vowel test, a modification in perceptual asymmetry and difficulty in focusing in the attended stages was found. In the digits and SSW tests, ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral deficits were detected, depending on the characteristics of the lesions and demand of the task. CONCLUSION: Stroke caused auditory attention deficits when dealing with simultaneous sources of auditory information.

  1. The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Sorensen, Carl

    2016-03-01

    This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training. Communication deficit at baseline, post-intervention (week 14), and at 1 month follow up were evaluated. Exercise group showed significant reduction in communication deficit compared to control group. Moreover, reduction in communication deficit in the exercise group at one month follow up remained unchanged compared to post-intervention time. We concluded that teaching Karate techniques to children with ASD leads to significant reduction in their communication deficit.

  2. The visual attention span deficit in Chinese children with reading fluency difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen

    2018-02-01

    With reading development, some children fail to learn to read fluently. However, reading fluency difficulty (RFD) has not been fully investigated. The present study explored the underlying mechanism of RFD from the aspect of visual attention span. Fourteen Chinese children with RFD and fourteen age-matched normal readers participated. The visual 1-back task was adopted to examine visual attention span. Reaction time and accuracy were recorded, and relevant d-prime (d') scores were computed. Results showed that children with RFD exhibited lower accuracy and lower d' values than the controls did in the visual 1-back task, revealing a visual attention span deficit. Further analyses on d' values revealed that the attention distribution seemed to exhibit an inverted U-shaped pattern without lateralization for normal readers, but a W-shaped pattern with a rightward bias for children with RFD, which was discussed based on between-group variation in reading strategies. Results of the correlation analyses showed that visual attention span was associated with reading fluency at the sentence level for normal readers, but was related to reading fluency at the single-character level for children with RFD. The different patterns in correlations between groups revealed that visual attention span might be affected by the variation in reading strategies. The current findings extend previous data from alphabetic languages to Chinese, a logographic language with a particularly deep orthography, and have implications for reading-dysfluency remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Attentional impairment in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Zeineb; Bouden, Asma; Amado, Isabelle; Chantal Bourdel, Marie; Tabbane, Karim; Béchir Halayem, Mohamed

    2009-10-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder currently defined by clinical history and behavioral report of impairment. The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test. The sample included 40 children (M=9 years) who performed the "Attention network test". Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N=20) were compared to a control group (N=20). The group of children with ADHD showed slower reaction times in all conditions (mean RT=866 ms; SD=234,063). Children with ADHD showed a significant impairment in their executive control system compared to healthy subjects, with slower reaction times in incongruent conditions and lower accuracy scores (RT=1064 ms; F(1.38) p=0.02). Our results showed that spatial orienting and alerting in ADHD was no different than controls (p=0,68). ADHD group showed a greater variable response (p=0,0001). The present study showed that impairment in executive control system and variability measures are the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD.

  4. Are working memory deficits in bipolar disorder markers for psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N; Randall, Carol; Bello, Danielle; Armstrong, Christina; Frantom, Linda; Cross, Chad; Kinney, Jefferson

    2010-03-01

    Working memory deficits have been identified in bipolar disorder, but there is evidence suggesting that these deficits may be markers for psychosis rather than affective disorder. The current study examined this issue by comparing two groups of individuals with bipolar disorder, one with psychotic features and one without psychotic features, with a group of normal controls. Working memory was conceptualized as a multicomponent system that includes auditory and visuospatial short-term stores, executive control processes, and an episodic buffer that allows for communication between short- and long-term memory stores (Baddeley & Logie, 1999). Results indicated that only executive control processes significantly differentiated the psychotic and nonpsychotic bipolar groups, although visuospatial working memory differentiated both bipolar groups from controls. The results support the idea that some aspects of working memory performance are markers for psychosis, while others may be more general markers for bipolar disorders. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Dynamic balance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and its relationship with cognitive functions and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Michal Goetz,1 Jaroslava Paulasova Schwabova,2 Zdenek Hlavka,3 Radek Ptacek,4 Craig BH Surman5 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Second Faculty of Medicine, Motol University Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Statistics, 4Department of Psychiatry, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is linked to the presence of motor deficiencies, including balance deficits. The cerebellum serves as an integrative structure for balance control and is also involved in cognition, including timing and anticipatory regulation. Cerebellar development may be delayed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and inconsistent reaction time is commonly seen in ADHD. We hypothesized that dynamic balance deficits would be present in children with ADHD and they would correlate with attention and cerebellar functions. Methods: Sixty-two children with ADHD and no other neurological conditions and 62 typically developing (TD children were examined with five trials of the Phyaction Balance Board, an electronic balancing platform. Cerebellar clinical symptoms were evaluated using an international ataxia rating scale. Conners’ Continuous Performance Test was used to evaluate patterns of reaction. Results: Children with ADHD had poorer performance on balancing tasks, compared to TD children (P<0.001. They exhibited significantly greater sway amplitudes than TD children (P<0.001 in all of the five balancing trials. The effect size of the difference between the groups increased continuously from the first to the last trial. Balance score in both groups was related to the variation in the reaction time, including reaction time standard error (r =0.25; P=0.0409, respectively, r =0.31; P=0.0131 and Variability of Standard Error (r =0.28; P=0.0252, respectively, r =0.41; P<0.001. The burden of cerebellar symptoms was strongly related to

  6. Beyond Auditory Sensory Processing Deficits: Lexical Tone Perception Deficits in Chinese Children With Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; King Yiu, Fung

    Increasing evidence suggests that children with developmental dyslexia exhibit a deficit not only at the segmental level of phonological processing but also, by extension, at the suprasegmental level. However, it remains unclear whether such a suprasegmental phonological processing deficit is due to a difficulty in processing acoustic cues of speech rhythm, such as rise time and intensity. This study set out to investigate to what extent suprasegmental phonological processing (i.e., Cantonese lexical tone perception) and rise time sensitivity could distinguish Chinese children with dyslexia from typically developing children. Sixteen children with dyslexia and 44 age-matched controls were administered a Cantonese lexical tone perception task, psychoacoustic tasks, a nonverbal reasoning ability task, and word reading and dictation tasks. Children with dyslexia performed worse than controls on Cantonese lexical tone perception, rise time, and intensity. Furthermore, Cantonese lexical tone perception appeared to be a stable indicator that distinguishes children with dyslexia from controls, even after controlling for basic auditory processing skills. These findings suggest that suprasegmental phonological processing (i.e., lexical tone perception) is a potential factor that accounts for reading difficulty in Chinese.

  7. The exploration of the exhibition informatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    The construction and management of exhibition informatization is the main task and choke point during the process of Chinese exhibition industry’s transformation and promotion. There are three key points expected to realize a breakthrough during the construction of Chinese exhibition informatization, and the three aspects respectively are adopting service outsourcing to construct and maintain the database, adopting advanced chest card technology to collect various kinds of information, developing statistics analysis to maintain good cutomer relations. The success of Chinese exhibition informatization mainly calls for mature suppliers who can provide construction and maintenance of database, the proven technology, a sense of data security, advanced chest card technology, the ability of data mining and analysis and the ability to improve the exhibition service basing on the commercial information got from the data analysis. Several data security measures are expected to apply during the process of system developing, including the measures of the terminal data security, the internet data security, the media data security, the storage data security and the application data security. The informatization of this process is based on the chest card designing. At present, there are several types of chest card technology: bar code chest card; two-dimension code card; magnetic stripe chest card; smart-chip chest card. The information got from the exhibition data will help the organizers to make relevant service strategies, quantify the accumulated indexes of the customers, and improve the level of the customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, what’s more, the information can also provide more additional services like the commercial trips, VIP ceremonial reception.

  8. Neurocognitive deficits are relevant for the jumping-to-conclusions bias, but not for delusions: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Andreou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with delusions exhibit an increased tendency to arrive at decisions based on very limited evidence (jumping-to-conclusions; JTC, making this reasoning bias relevant for the treatment of delusions. Neurocognitive deficits contribute to JTC, but it is not known whether this has any bearing on the clinical syndrome of delusions. We addressed this question by reanalyzing data from an efficacy study of non-pharmacological interventions as adjunctive treatments in schizophrenia. We investigated the longitudinal associations of cognitive functioning, JTC and delusions in patients with psychotic disorders receiving either a metacognitive intervention addressing reasoning biases (n = 59, or cognitive remediation (n = 58. Both interventions improved JTC; in the cognitive remediation group, tentative evidence suggested that better neurocognitive performance contributed to this improvement. However, JTC gains were associated with delusion improvement only in the metacognitive intervention group, suggesting a content-specific mechanism of action.

  9. Exhibits in libraries a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    "Ccomprehensive...detailed"--Booklist; "thoroughly reseached...highly recommended"--Journal of Access Services. Library exhibits are more than entertainment for patrons. They can inspire and educate, stimulate an interest that can be explored in a book, or attract visitors who otherwise wouldn't stop by. Displays are also an opportunity for a library to put its creative foot forward or help patrons navigate the facility itself. This comprehensive "how-to" includes everything a librarian or staff member needs to know to put on an exhibit, from hatching ideas to evaluating the end result. Illustrations and photographs show practical methods of planning, labeling and displaying.

  10. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, D C

    1990-09-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common chronic disorder of childhood. No precise definition or approach to treatment is universally accepted; however, an extensive literature exists on which to base a rational approach to management. Symptomatic treatment with stimulant medication in selected patients is effective and safe, but not curative. Successful outcome depends on multimodality therapy, involving parents, teachers, and other professionals. Associated conditions, including learning disorders and emotional disturbance, must be identified and dealt with.

  11. Choice-impulsivity in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patros, Connor H G; Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Tarle, Stephanie J; Lea, Sarah E; Hudec, Kristen L

    2016-02-01

    Impulsive behavior is a core DSM-5 diagnostic feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that is associated with several pejorative outcomes. Impulsivity is multidimensional, consisting of two sub-constructs: rapid-response impulsivity and reward-delay impulsivity (i.e., choice-impulsivity). While previous research has extensively examined the presence and implications of rapid-response impulsivity in children with ADHD, reviews of choice-impulsive behavior have been both sparse and relatively circumscribed. This review used meta-analytic methods to comprehensively examine between-group differences in choice-impulsivity among children and adolescents with and without ADHD. Twenty-eight tasks (from 26 studies), consisting of 4320 total children (ADHD=2360, TD=1,960), provided sufficient information to compute an overall between-group effect size for choice-impulsivity performance. Results revealed a medium-magnitude between-group effect size (g=.47), suggesting that children and adolescents with ADHD exhibited moderately increased impulsive decision-making compared to TD children and adolescents. Further, relative to the TD group, children and adolescents with ADHD exhibited similar patterns of impulsive decision-making across delay discounting and delay of gratification tasks. However, the use of single-informant diagnostic procedures relative to multiple informants yielded larger between-group effects, and a similar pattern was observed across samples that excluded females relative to samples that included females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does collateral retrospective information about childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms assist in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults? Findings from a large clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Vitor; Rovaris, Diego Luiz; Vitola, Eduardo Schneider; Mota, Nina Roth; Blaya-Rocha, Paula; Salgado, Carlos Alberto Iglesias; Victor, Marcelo Moraes; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Karam, Rafael Gomes; Silva, Katiane Lilian; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Bau, Claiton Henrique Dotto; Grevet, Eugenio Horacio

    2016-06-01

    In accordance with consolidated clinical practice, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition suggests a key role of collateral information in the evaluation of retrospective childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adults despite poor evidence supporting its use. This study aims to assess the incremental value of collateral information on the presence of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms when evaluating adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 449) and non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects (n = 143) underwent an extensive clinical assessment based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria. For patients, retrospective collateral information regarding childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was obtained and used to sort them into two groups: agreement (n = 277) and disagreement (n = 172) between self- and collateral reports. We compared demographic, clinical and response to treatment profiles among groups to test the relevance of collateral information on the specific issue of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder groups had higher rates of several comorbidities (oppositional defiant, conduct, substance use and bipolar disorders; all p attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms occurred in 38% of patients. Overall, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder disagreement and agreement groups had similar profiles in response to treatment and comorbidity, and the few differences detected in impairment measures were of small magnitude (Eta(2) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, it has no incremental value in the evaluation of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adults with a self-reported history of attention-deficit

  13. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts. In...

  14. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  15. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carried; and identification of the ten most important industries served. (6) As Exhibit 6, statement as to... application for the financing has been made, evidencing that they have declined the financing unless guaranteed by the Secretary or specifying the terms upon which they will undertake the financing without such...

  16. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.

  17. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……

  18. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  19. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... systems, including the special protective systems' automatic switching or load shedding system; and (ii... transfer capability (NITC); system protection; and system stability. (3) A stability analysis including... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications: exhibits...

  20. Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucyi, Aaron; Hove, Michael J.; Biederman, Joseph; Van Dijk, Koene R.A.; Valera, Eve M.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly understood as a disorder of spontaneous brain-network interactions. The default mode network (DMN), implicated in ADHD-linked behaviors including mind-wandering and attentional fluctuations, has been shown to exhibit abnormal spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) within-network and with other networks (salience, dorsal attention and frontoparietal) in ADHD. Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas of the DMN (CerDMN) exhibit altered FC with cortical networks in ADHD. Here, 23 adults with ADHD and 23 age-, IQ-, and sex-matched controls underwent resting state fMRI. The mean time series of CerDMN areas was extracted, and FC with the whole brain was calculated. Whole-brain between-group differences in FC were assessed. Additionally, relationships between inattention and individual differences in FC were assessed for between-group interactions. In ADHD, CerDMN areas showed positive FC (in contrast to average FC in the negative direction in controls) with widespread regions of salience, dorsal attention and sensorimotor networks. ADHD individuals also exhibited higher FC (more positive correlation) of CerDMN areas with frontoparietal and visual network regions. Within the control group, but not in ADHD, participants with higher inattention had higher FC between CerDMN and regions in the visual and dorsal attention networks. This work provides novel evidence of impaired CerDMN coupling with cortical networks in ADHD and highlights a role of the cerebro-cerebellar interactions in cognitive function. These data provide support for the potential targeting of CerDMN areas for therapeutic interventions in ADHD. PMID:26109476

  1. Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucyi, Aaron; Hove, Michael J; Biederman, Joseph; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Valera, Eve M

    2015-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly understood as a disorder of spontaneous brain-network interactions. The default mode network (DMN), implicated in ADHD-linked behaviors including mind-wandering and attentional fluctuations, has been shown to exhibit abnormal spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) within-network and with other networks (salience, dorsal attention and frontoparietal) in ADHD. Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas of the DMN (CerDMN) exhibit altered FC with cortical networks in ADHD. Here, 23 adults with ADHD and 23 age-, IQ-, and sex-matched controls underwent resting state fMRI. The mean time series of CerDMN areas was extracted, and FC with the whole brain was calculated. Whole-brain between-group differences in FC were assessed. Additionally, relationships between inattention and individual differences in FC were assessed for between-group interactions. In ADHD, CerDMN areas showed positive FC (in contrast to average FC in the negative direction in controls) with widespread regions of salience, dorsal attention and sensorimotor networks. ADHD individuals also exhibited higher FC (more positive correlation) of CerDMN areas with frontoparietal and visual network regions. Within the control group, but not in ADHD, participants with higher inattention had higher FC between CerDMN and regions in the visual and dorsal attention networks. This work provides novel evidence of impaired CerDMN coupling with cortical networks in ADHD and highlights a role of cerebro-cerebellar interactions in cognitive function. These data provide support for the potential targeting of CerDMN areas for therapeutic interventions in ADHD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual giftedness: a study of symptom frequency and minor physical anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the presence of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in intellectually gifted adults and children. Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were performed in children and adults whose intelligence quotient (IQ had been previously evaluated using Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM test. Seventy-seven adults displaying IQ scores above the 98th percentile were assessed using the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS-18 for signs of ADHD and a modified Waldrop scale for minor physical anomalies (MPAs. Thirty-nine children (grades 1-5 exhibiting IQ scores above the 99th percentile, as well as an equally matched control group, were assessed for ADHD by teachers using the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham IV Rating Scale (SNAP-IV as used in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA-SNAP-IV. Results: In gifted adults, the frequency of ADHD-positive cases was 37.8%, and the total MPA score was significantly associated with ADHD (p < 0.001. In children, the ADHD-positive case frequency was 15.38% in the gifted group and 7.69% in the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 2.18, p = 0.288. Conclusions: The high frequency of ADHD symptoms observed, both in gifted adults and in gifted (and non-gifted children, further supports the validity of this diagnosis in this population. Furthermore, the significant association between MPAs and ADHD suggests that a neurodevelopmental condition underlies these symptoms.

  3. Association between the attention deficits and delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Opora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the society we can find a lot of prejudices concerning AD/HD. The article contains facts and evidence based on research presenting that the delinquency is very often a distant complication of attention deficits but it doesn’t mean that a child with attention deficits has to be delinquent. The article describes the association between the attention deficits and delinquency. There are presented some risk factors coming from the attention deficits and protective factors which let the child follow the social norms. The research was based on 108 delinquent juveniles staying under the probation supervision. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the frequency of the attention deficits among delinquent juveniles staying under supervision. The research findings concern also the association between the attention deficit and external behavioural disorders. In the summary several conditions are described which are important to protect children with attention deficit from delinquency.

  4. Verbal Short-Term Memory Deficits in Chinese Children with Dyslexia may not be a Problem with the Activation of Phonological Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Yang, Yang; Song, Yao-Wu; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2015-11-01

    This study explored the underlying mechanism of the verbal short-term memory deficit in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia. Twenty-four children with dyslexia and 28 age-matched normal readers participated in the study. They were required to memorize a visually presented series of six Chinese characters and identify them from a list also including code-specific distracters and non-code-specific distracters. Error rates were recorded and were higher for code-specific distracters in all three conditions, revealing phonological, visual, and semantic similarity effects respectively. Group comparisons showed a stronger phonological similarity effect in dyslexic group, suggesting intact activation of phonological representations of target characters. Children with dyslexia also exhibited a greater semantic similarity effect, revealing stronger activation of semantic representations, while visual similarity effects were equivalent to controls. These results suggest that the verbal short-term memory deficit in Chinese dyslexics might not stem from insufficient activation of phonological information. Based the semantic activation of target characters in dyslexics is greater than in controls, it is possible that the memory deficit of dyslexia is related with deficient inhibition of target semantic representations in short-term memory. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  6. [Textual pragmatics in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: argument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Paúls, B; Gimeno-Martínez, M; Moreno-Campos, V

    2010-03-03

    Clinical linguistics involves a study of linguistic deficits which focuses on a series of aspects that range from strictly formal, grammatical points to the effective and contextualised use of language. Thus, it is also inevitably concerned with the cognitive, i.e. mental, correlate of such language use, whose basic textual dimensions are narration and argument. To describe the argumentative skills in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine their relationship with academic achievement and sociability. We analysed 79 argumentative texts written by adolescents with ADHD, using a methodology from cognitive linguistics and from theories of argumentation with a dialogical foundation. Adolescents with ADHD provided a greater number of arguments than those in the control group, but with a higher predominance of emotional and negative sanction strategies compared with a greater use of fallacious or circular arguments in those in the control group; the difference between the use of rational arguments in the two groups is not significant.

  7. Effect of herbal medicine on Poststroke cognitive deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-kyu Kim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of Herbal medicine on post stroke cognitive deficit. Methods : All groups were treated with acupunture treatment, moxa treatment, herbal medicines, physical and occupational therapy for 4 weeks, additionally cardiotonic pills(CP were taken in the cardiotonic pills group. The effect of treatment was assessed using Verval fluency, MMSE-KC, Word List Immediate Recall test. Statistical significance was achived if the probability was less than 5%(p,0.05. Results : Verval fluency, MMSE-KC, Word List Immediate Recall test scores increased in both group. MMSEKC, Word List Immediate Recall test scores were significantly increased in the CP group. Verval fluency, MMSE-KC, Word List Immediate Recall test scores were significantly increased in the control group. In the Verval fluency, MMSE-KC, Word List Immediate Recall test of the CP group more increased compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between two groups. In the CP group, the scores of the infarction group more increased compared to the hemorrhage group. Conclusions : According to the these results, herbal medicines are effective to improve post stroke cognitive-deficit. Futher studies are needed to know cardiotonic pills in the ischemic stroke.

  8. Identification of neuromotor deficits common to autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and imitation deficits specific to autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaldi, Monica; Rauh, Reinhold; Müller, Cora; Irion, Lisa; Saville, Christopher W N; Schulz, Eberhard; Klein, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in motor and imitation abilities are a core finding in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but impaired motor functions are also found in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given recent theorising about potential aetiological overlap between the two disorders, the present study aimed to assess difficulties in motor performance and imitation of facial movements and meaningless gestures in a sample of 24 ADHD patients, 22 patients with ASD, and 20 typically developing children, matched for age (6-13 years) and similar in IQ (>80). Furthermore, we explored the impact of comorbid ADHD symptoms on motor and imitation performance in the ASD sample and the interrelationships between the two groups of variables in the clinical groups separately. The results show motor dysfunction was common to both disorders, but imitation deficits were specific to ASD. Together with the pattern of interrelated motor and imitation abilities, which we found exclusively in the ASD group, our findings suggest complex phenotypic, and possibly aetiological, relationships between the two neurodevelopmental conditions.

  9. Psychiatric comorbidities of adults with early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the psychiatric comorbidities in adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a function of recalled symptom onset before and after the age of 7 years and whether the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were associated with psychiatric comorbidities. In all, 214 adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 174 non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls (aged 17-40 years) received psychiatric interviews to confirm their previous and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder status and other psychiatric diagnoses. Demographics and risks of lifetime psychiatric disorders were compared among three groups: (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset between 7 and 12 years (late-onset) and (3) non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls. We also tested the effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on the risk of later psychiatric comorbidities by Cox regression analyses. Regardless of the age of onset, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. There were similar comorbid patterns between early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, increased severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was associated with higher risks of oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, dysthymia and sleep disorder but not major depression, which was associated with the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Our findings suggest that elevating the threshold of age of onset to 12 years in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition would not

  10. LHC INAUGURATION, LHC Fest highlights: exhibition time!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    David Gross, one of the twenty-one Nobel Laureates who have participated in the project.Tuesday 21 October 2008 Accelerating Nobels Colliding Charm, Atomic Cuisine, The Good Anomaly, A Quark Somewhere on the White Paper, Wire Proliferation, A Tale of Two Liquids … these are just some of the titles given to artworks by Physics Nobel Laureates who agreed to make drawings of their prize-winning discoveries (more or less reluctantly) during a special photo session. Science photographer Volker Steger made portraits of Physics Nobel Laureates and before the photo sessions he asked them to make a drawing of their most important discovery. The result is "Accelerating Nobels", an exhibition that combines unusual portraits of and original drawings by twenty-one Nobel laureates in physics whose work is closely related to CERN and the LHC. This exhibition will be one of the highlights of the LHC celebrations on 21 October in the SM18 hall b...

  11. Exhibition: Women and Sciences by Fiami

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info

    2011-01-01

    The 19-panel exhibition is on display at CERN's Microcosm from Monday to Saturday from 10.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.   Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry one hundred years ago. She is the only woman ever to win two Nobel Prizes, which is a testament to her remarkable work. But throughout history, women have played a role in science either in their own right or alongside other scientists. In this special exhibition, the comic-strip artist Fiami takes a look back at the relationship between women and science through his portraits of Mileva Einstein, Marie-Anne Lavoisier and, of course, Marie Curie. Fiami has recently published an entire album devoted to Marie Curie. Texts in French All ages - Entrance free Femmes et Sciences is on display at Microcosm: From Wednesday 21 September 2011 to Tuesday 20 December 2011.

  12. Effects of alcohol intoxication on parenting behavior in interactions with child confederates exhibiting normal or deviant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A R; Pelham, W E; Atkeson, B M; Murphy, D A

    1999-06-01

    Experimental analogue methods were used to study how acute alcohol intoxication in parents influences their perceptions of and reactions to child behaviors, as well as their strategies for management of those behaviors. All participating parents had a grade school-aged son, but in half the cases this target child had a diagnosed externalizing disorder, whereas for the remaining half neither the target son nor any other offspring of the parents evidenced any psychopathology. Equal numbers of married fathers, married mothers, and single mothers from each of these groups received either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages prior to videotaped interactions with male child confederates who, depending on condition, enacted behaviors characteristic of either normal boys or boys with attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct/oppositional defiant disorders (ADHD/CD/ODD). Results indicated that intoxicated parents rated their ADHD/CD/ODD child partners as less deviant than did sober parents. Alcohol intoxication caused all participant groups to exhibit less attention and productive work and more commands, indulgences, and off-task talk in the interactions. Implications for better understanding of the role of psychosocial factors in the correlation between adult drinking problems and childhood behavior disorders are discussed.

  13. Kuala Namu Convention And Exhibition Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Gustriana, Trisna

    2017-01-01

    Aerotropolis area development that is expected to accommodate the development of business and commercial appeal and this is the chance for the designer to be able to take advantage of the situation and condition of land as well as possible. So that the revolutionary changes but is able to embrace all stakeholders is the solution needed to development Aerotropolis. Kuala Namu's Convention and Exhibition Center is expected to be a solution for regional development of Kuala Namu a...

  14. 22nd Annual Logistics Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-20

    Bill” Kenwell, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Maersk 5:30pm-7:30pm Reception in Exhibit Hall Wednesday, April 19, 2006 7:00am-5:30pm...some commercial sales of our products, services and platforms. We provide surface, air, and undersea applications on more than 460 programs for US...diagnostic system & process • Seamless B2B integration with maintenance systems Enabled By… EOATM Overview Sensor Data Maintenance Logs Repair Data Expert

  15. Brazilian air traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Alves, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Alves, Marcos José Pinheiro Cândido; Carneiro, Severino Marcos de Oliveira; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2011-01-01

    Excessive sleepiness (ES) is an increased tendency to initiate involuntary sleep for naps at inappropriate times. The objective of this study was to assess ES in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCoair traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

  16. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  17. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  20. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  1. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  2. Exhibition: Dialogue between Science and religion

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Can the theory of the Big Bang reached by physicists and the concept of creation beloved of religion ever be reconciled? The two approaches have at least one point in common: they do not provide a final answer to the mysteries of the birth of the Universe. And this means that dialogue is alays possible between the two. It is to show the potential of such an exchange that Geneva's Société Evangélique organization is opening an exhibition under the title 'Big Bang and Creation', at the Planète Charmilles shopping centre, to run from 19 to 30 March. View of the 'Big Bang and Creation' exhibition. The exhibition is divided into three sections, showing the views of the scientist and those of the believer without setting them up in opposition to one another. In the first section, under a representation of the vault of heaven, the visitor will discover the different ideas explaining the birth of the Universe: Genesis and the Big Bang, and the different dominant theories ...

  3. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  4. Effects of methylphenidate on attentional set-shifting in a genetic model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ai-hua; Yu, Lin; Wang, Yu-wei; Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Le-jin; Lei, Ge-Fei

    2012-02-28

    Although deficits of attentional set-shifting have been reported in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it is rarely examined in animal models. This study compared spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; a genetic animal model of ADHD) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (normoactive control strains), on attentional set-shifting task (ASST) performance. Furthermore, the dose-effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on attentional set-shifting of SHR were investigated. In experiment 1, ASST procedures were conducted in SHR, WKY and SD rats of 8 each at the age of 5 weeks. Mean latencies at the initial phase, error types and numbers, and trials to criteria at each stage were recorded. In experiment 2, 24 SHR rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 8 each-- MPH-L (lower dose), MPH-H (higher dose), and SHR-vehicle groups. From 3 weeks, they were administered 2.5 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg MPH or saline respectively for 14 consecutive days. All rats were tested in the ASST at the age of 5 weeks. The SHRs generally exhibited poorer performance on ASST than the control WKY and SD rats. Significant strain effects on mean latency [F (2, 21) = 639.636, p attentional set-shifting. Our study provides evidence that MPH may improve the SHR's performance on attentional set-shifting and lower dose is more effective than higher dose.

  5. Inflectional spelling deficits in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Joanne; Tainturier, Marie-Josèphe

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine past-tense spelling deficits in developmental dyslexia and their relationship to phonological abilities, spoken morphological awareness and word specific orthographic memory. Three groups of children (28 9-year-old dyslexic, 28 chronological age-matched and 28 reading/spelling age-matched children) completed a battery of tests including spelling regularly inflected words (e.g., kissed) and matched one-morpheme words (e.g., wrist). They were also assessed on a range of tests of reading and spelling abilities and associated linguistic measures. Dyslexic children were impaired in relation to chronological age-matched controls on all measures. Furthermore, they were significantly poorer than younger reading and spelling age-matched controls at spelling inflected verbs, supporting the existence of a specific deficit in past-tense spelling in dyslexia. In addition to under-using the -ed spelling on inflected verbs, the dyslexic children were less likely to erroneously apply this spelling to one-morpheme words than younger controls. Dyslexics were also poorer than younger controls at using a consistent spelling for stems presented in isolation versus as part of an inflected word, indicating that they make less use of the morphological relations between words to support their spelling. In line with this interpretation, regression analyses revealed another qualitative difference between the spelling and reading age-matched group and the dyslexic group: while both spoken morphological awareness and orthographic word specific memory were significant predictors of the accuracy of past-tense spelling in the former group, only orthographic memory (irregular word reading and spelling) was a significant factor in the dyslexic group. Finally, we identified a subgroup of seven dyslexic children who were severely deficient in past-tense spelling. This subgroup was also significantly worse than other dyslexics and than younger controls on scores

  6. [Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Yohei; Murata, Miho

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DaT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and [18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) facilitate the investigation of dopaminergic hypofunction in neurodegenerative diseases. DaT SPECT and [18F]DOPA PET have been adopted as survey tools in clinical trials. In a large study on Parkinson's disease, 4-15% of subjects clinically diagnosed with early-stage Parkinson's disease had normal dopaminergic functional imaging scans. These are called Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs), and are considered to represent a state different from Parkinson's disease. Neurological diseases that exhibit parkinsonism and have normal dopaminergic cells in the nigrostriatal system (e.g., essential tremor, psychogenic parkinsonism, DOPA-responsive dystonia, vascular parkinsonism, drug-induced parkinsonism, manganism, brain tumor, myoclonus-dystonia (DYT11), and fragile X syndrome) might be diagnosed with SWEDDs. True bradykinesia with fatigue or decrement may be useful for distinguishing between Parkinson's disease and SWEDDs. However, because SWEDDs encompass many diseases, their properties may not be uniform. In this review, we discuss DaT SPECT, the concept of SWEDDs, and differential diagnosis.

  7. Comparison of the outcome of burn patients using acute-phase plasma base deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, S H; As'adi, K; Mousavi, J

    2011-12-31

    Background. In recent years, plasma base deficit has been used as a marker to determine the status of tissue perfusion in trauma patients and also to predict the outcome of these patients. This study was performed to investigate the effect of plasma base deficit in predicting burn patient outcome. Methods. This prospective cohort study was performed from October 2009 to October 2010 in the acute phase of burn patients who were admitted within 6 h post-injury to Motahari Burn Hospital in Iran. The patients were divided into two groups based on the plasma base deficit in the first 24 h post-injury: group A, in which the mean plasma base deficit was less than or equal to -6 (more negative), and group B, in which the mean plasma base deficit greater than -6. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.16 software. Results. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in each group. The mean plasma base deficit in group A (-7.76 ± 2.18 mmol) was significantly less than that in group B (-1.19 ± 2.82) mmol (p 0.05) and despite removal of interfering factors, there were significant differences between the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome score and the percentage of sepsis between the two groups (p 0.05). Conclusion. The plasma base deficit can be used as a valuable marker in the resuscitation of burn patients, along with clinical criteria. Physiological indicators (burn percentage, age, and mucosal burns) are not sufficient to predict mortality and morbidity in burn patients, and it is necessary to investigate the role of biochemical markers such as base deficit in determining the final outcome of burn patients.

  8. A critical appraisal of the role of neuropsychological deficits in preschool ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöwall, Douglas; Thorell, Lisa B

    2018-03-14

    The present study aimed at improving our understanding of the role of neuropsychological deficits in preschool Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study included 52 children in the ADHD group and 72 controls (age 4-6 years). Both laboratory measures and teacher reports of executive deficits (i.e., working memory, inhibition, and shifting), delay-related behaviors (i.e., the preference for minimizing delay), and emotional functions (i.e., emotion recognition and regulation) were included. Variable-oriented analyses were complemented with person-oriented analyses (i.e., identifying the proportion of patients considered impaired). Results showed that the ADHD group differed from controls with regard to all measures of executive functioning and most measures of delay-related behaviors, but few differences were found for emotional functioning. A substantial subgroup (23%) of children with ADHD did not have a neuropsychological deficit in any domain. There were subgroups with executive or delay-related deficits only, but no pure emotional subgroup. The overlap between different neuropsychological deficits was much larger when teacher reports were used as opposed to laboratory measures. Regarding functional impairments, large mean differences were found between the ADHD group and controls. However, neuropsychological deficits were not able to explain individual variations in daily life functioning among children with ADHD. In conclusion, the present study identified some important methodological and theoretical issues regarding the role of neuropsychological functioning in preschool ADHD.

  9. Highlights of the inauguration ceremony for the new permanent exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The new “Universe of Particles" permanent exhibition in the Globe was unveiled this week to its first visitors. On Monday, 28 June, in the presence of representatives of the local authorities, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer cut the ribbon; on Tuesday, 29 and Wednesday 30 June the Globe's doors remained open for visits by the CERN personnel.   Cutting the ribbon at the inauguration of the Globe's new permanent exhibition At the conclusion of the inauguration ceremony, the Head of the Education Group, Rolf Landua, expressed his satisfaction: “It's wonderful. We are very happy that it has all turned out so well. Now we look forward to lots of visitors.” The exhibition represents a major addition to the tourist destinations in the region and an important tool for the public awareness of science, which could also be useful for schools. “The purpose of the exhibition is to inspire visitors, to arouse their curiosity about science and to motivate them t...

  10. Group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  11. One exhibition, many goals. Combining scientific research and risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    How effective is visual communication to increase awareness of natural hazards and risks? To answer this research question, we developed a research design that was at the same time an experimental setting and an actual communication effort. Throughout the full length of the 2-years project held in the Ubaye valley (southeastern France), we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). During a consultation phase, the communication context was determined, the audience of the project was defined and finally the testing activity-communication effort was determined. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. In a consultation phase that corresponded to the design of the exhibition, the stakeholders contributed to its content as well as helping with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, during the experimentation phase, the stakeholders participated in advertising the activity, gathering of participants and designing the scientific survey. In order to assess the effects of the exhibition on risk awareness, several groups of children, teenagers and adults were submitted to a research design, consisting of 1) a pre-test, 2) the visit of the exhibition and 3) a post-test similar to the pre-test. In addition, the children answered a second post-test 3 months after the visit. Close ended questions addressed the awareness indicators mentioned in the literature, i.e. worry level, previous experiences with natural hazards events, exposure to awareness raising, ability to mitigate/respond/prepare, attitude to risk, and demographics. In addition, the post-test included several satisfaction questions concerning the visual tools displayed in the exhibition. A statistical analysis of the changes between the pre- and post- tests (paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and bootstrapping) allowed to verify whether the exhibition had an impact on risk awareness or not. In order to deduce which variable

  12. Library exhibits and programs boost science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, Paul B.; Curtis, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    Science museums let visitors explore and discover, but for many families there are barriers—such as cost or distance—that prevent them from visiting museums and experiencing hands-on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Now educators are reaching underserved audiences by developing STEM exhibits and programs for public libraries. With more than 16,000 outlets in the United States, public libraries serve almost every community in the country. Nationwide, they receive about 1.5 billion visits per year, and they offer their services for free.

  13. Budget Deficits Effects on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.Risti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The budget deficit can not be analyzed autarchically, as it affects all the macroeconomic processes and, is itself influenced by all other macroeconomic indicators. Most analyses and studies on public finance and budget balance measure the impact that budgetary deficits accumulation has on economy. Therefore, the present paper aims at following and analyzing the mutual impact between budget deficit and another economic macro indicator, namely the economic growth.

  14. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne Skovgaard; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean

    2017-01-01

    completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed...... suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination....

  15. Visual temporal processing in dyslexia and the magnocellular deficit theory: the need for speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Gregor M T; Stuart, Geoffrey W; Coltheart, Veronika; Castles, Anne

    2011-12-01

    A controversial question in reading research is whether dyslexia is associated with impairments in the magnocellular system and, if so, how these low-level visual impairments might affect reading acquisition. This study used a novel chromatic flicker perception task to specifically explore temporal aspects of magnocellular functioning in 40 children with dyslexia and 42 age-matched controls (aged 7-11). The relationship between magnocellular temporal resolution and higher-level aspects of visual temporal processing including inspection time, single and dual-target (attentional blink) RSVP performance, go/no-go reaction time, and rapid naming was also assessed. The Dyslexia group exhibited significant deficits in magnocellular temporal resolution compared with controls, but the two groups did not differ in parvocellular temporal resolution. Despite the significant group differences, associations between magnocellular temporal resolution and reading ability were relatively weak, and links between low-level temporal resolution and reading ability did not appear specific to the magnocellular system. Factor analyses revealed that a collective Perceptual Speed factor, involving both low-level and higher-level visual temporal processing measures, accounted for unique variance in reading ability independently of phonological processing, rapid naming, and general ability.

  16. Efficiency of the Prefrontal Cortex during Working Memory in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; Hinshaw, Stephen; D'Esposito, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has demonstrated that during task conditions requiring an increase in inhibitory function or working memory, children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit greater and more varied prefrontal cortical(PFC) activation compared to age-matched control participants. This pattern may reflect…

  17. Cultural Variations in Mothers' Attributions: Influence of Child Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Janet W. T.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The attributions made by Chinese immigrant (n = 28) and Euro-Canadian (n = 27) mothers of 5- to 9-year-old boys regarding the causes of child prosocial and problem behaviors exhibited by children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Mothers' attributions were elicited using audio-taped scenarios of…

  18. Handwriting Capacity in Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may exhibit handwriting difficulties. However, the exact nature of these difficulties and the extent to which they may relate to motor or behavioural difficulties remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe handwriting capacity in children…

  19. Radiation-related information at science exhibitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannai, Tadaaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the present report was to promote an efficient utilization of science museums providing with educational information concerning radiations. Investigations were made on radiation-related materials exhibited at 38 museums including PR event sites between April 1996 and July 1998 mainly located on Kanto and Tohoku area in Japan. The investigation concerned as to whether the displays on radiation-related material (cosmic rays, X-rays, etc) existed or not, and as to the background of the display as well. As the result, 14 locations had no relevant displays, 10 of them not having things about atomic energy at all. The locations belonging to electricity company mostly had displays related to radiations and atomic energy power generation. A spark chamber was exhibited at 9 locations and a cloud chamber at 3 locations, but only one location among them displayed both. Displays on the actual use of X-radiation were found at 4 locations. Needs to prepare further improved displays exist at the sites visited. (S. Ohno)

  20. CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

  1. Children's drawings exhibited in the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Elizabeth Roe

    2010-01-01

    "Draw Me A Physicist" has been a success. Members of the public visiting the exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation have praised the scientific and creative balance the children of neighbouring France and the Canton of Geneva have obtained through their visit to CERN.   The Draw Me a Physicist exhibition in the Globe For a six-month period 9 to 11-year olds from the Pays de Gex, Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier have been able to enjoy a balance between science and art, through drawing and defining their interpretations of a physicist. In May, eight pairs of drawings from each participating class were selected by the schools to be displayed on the second floor of the Globe. Since the images have been put up, the viewers have enjoyed the contrast between the "before" pictures of vibrant Albert Einsteins to the "after" pictures of casual people sitting in an office. The large room in the Globe has been transformed from a hollow shell int...

  2. The Particular Aspects of Science Museum Exhibits That Encourage Students' Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaby, Neta; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Tal, Tali

    2017-06-01

    This research explores learning in science museums through the most common activity in a science museum—interaction with exhibits. The goal of this study was to characterize the learning behaviors exhibited by students as they engage with interactive exhibits in order to draw insight regarding the design of the exhibits. In order to do so, we used a qualitative method of observation as well as the Visitor Engagement Framework (VEF) model, a visitor-based framework for assessing visitors' learning experiences with exhibits in a science center setting. The combined method produced a framework of nine learning behaviors exhibited during the visitors' interaction with the exhibits, grouped into three categories that reflect increasing levels of engagement and depth of the learning experience. Our research participants consisted of a total 1800 students aged 10-12 (4th, 5th, and 6th graders) who came to the museum with their class for a day visit. We observed nine exhibits, each visited by 200 students. Our observations revealed several design elements that contribute to engagement with exhibits in science museums. For example, exhibits that have familiar activation encourage visitors' interaction, exhibits that facilitate social interaction are more likely to increase engagement, and the highest levels of engagement can be found in exhibits that support large groups.

  3. Exhibiting the Human/Exhibiting the Cyborg: “Who Am I?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Vackimes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the museum in shaping our relationship to science and technology, particularly cyborgization, is illuminated by a close examination of the Who Am I permanent exhibition in the Wellcome Wing of the Science Museum of London. This innovative exhibition raises real questions both about the human-technology-science relationship but also about museography. In the context of the history and current practices of museums engaging contemporary technological developments the evidence suggest that even as the Who am I? exhibit did break somewhat from previous approaches, especially the didactic presentation of the socially useful, it has not changed the feld as a whole.

  4. Everyday and prospective memory deficits in ecstasy/polydrug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiefthyvoulou, Florentia; Fisk, John E; Montgomery, Catharine; Bridges, Nikola

    2011-04-01

    The impact of ecstasy/polydrug use on real-world memory (i.e. everyday memory, cognitive failures and prospective memory [PM]) was investigated in a sample of 42 ecstasy/polydrug users and 31 non-ecstasy users. Laboratory-based PM tasks were administered along with self-reported measures of PM to test whether any ecstasy/polydrug-related impairment on the different aspects of PM was present. Self-reported measures of everyday memory and cognitive failures were also administered. Ecstasy/polydrug associated deficits were observed on both laboratory and self-reported measures of PM and everyday memory. The present study extends previous research by demonstrating that deficits in PM are real and cannot be simply attributed to self-misperceptions. The deficits observed reflect some general capacity underpinning both time- and event-based PM contexts and are not task specific. Among this group of ecstasy/polydrug users recreational use of cocaine was also prominently associated with PM deficits. Further research might explore the differential effects of individual illicit drugs on real-world memory.

  5. Resting EEG deficits in accused murderers with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Robert A; Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian; Han, Chenbo; Liu, Jianghong; Li, Liejia

    2011-10-31

    Empirical evidence continues to suggest a biologically distinct violent subtype of schizophrenia. The present study examined whether murderers with schizophrenia would demonstrate resting EEG deficits distinguishing them from both non-violent schizophrenia patients and murderers without schizophrenia. Resting EEG data were collected from five diagnostic groups (normal controls, non-murderers with schizophrenia, murderers with schizophrenia, murderers without schizophrenia, and murderers with psychiatric conditions other than schizophrenia) at a brain hospital in Nanjing, China. Murderers with schizophrenia were characterized by increased left-hemispheric fast-wave EEG activity relative to non-violent schizophrenia patients, while non-violent schizophrenia patients instead demonstrated increased diffuse slow-wave activity compared to all other groups. Results are discussed within the framework of a proposed left-hemispheric over-processing hypothesis specific to violent individuals with schizophrenia, involving left hemispheric hyperarousal deficits, which may lead to a homicidally violent schizophrenia outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of medicinal plants on Alzheimer's disease and memory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory deficits. Various studies have been carried out to find therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease. However, the proper treatment option is still not available. There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but symptomatic treatment may improve the memory and other dementia related problems. Traditional medicine is practiced worldwide as memory enhancer since ancient times. Natural therapy including herbs and medicinal plants has been used in the treatment of memory deficits such as dementia, amnesia, as well as Alzheimer's disease since a long time. Medicinal plants have been used in different systems of medicine, particularly Unani system of medicines and exhibited their powerful roles in the management and cure of memory disorders. Most of herbs and plants have been chemically evaluated and their efficacy has also been proven in clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms of actions are still on the way. In this paper, we have reviewed the role of different medicinal plants that play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and memory deficits using conventional herbal therapy.

  7. The deficit of current account balances and budgetary deficit in countries in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Krtalic; Ines Kersan

    1998-01-01

    In restructuring process of their own economies, countries in transition deal with many common problems. One of the problems that transition brought to those countries is deficit in current account, as well as budget deficit. Deficits represent limit to a healthy and fast economic development and progress. Balance in balance of payments, as well as balanced budget are components of macroeconomic system. The authors will give an review of activities on deficits in countries in transition, and ...

  8. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amador-Campos,Juan A.; Aznar-Casanova,J. Antonio; Bezerra,Izabela; Torro-Alves,Nelson; Sánchez,Manuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Method: Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, p...

  9. Mice Lacking the Alpha9 Subunit of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Exhibit Deficits in Frequency Difference Limens and Sound Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clause

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sound processing in the cochlea is modulated by cholinergic efferent axons arising from medial olivocochlear neurons in the brainstem. These axons contact outer hair cells in the mature cochlea and inner hair cells during development and activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors composed of α9 and α10 subunits. The α9 subunit is necessary for mediating the effects of acetylcholine on hair cells as genetic deletion of the α9 subunit results in functional cholinergic de-efferentation of the cochlea. Cholinergic modulation of spontaneous cochlear activity before hearing onset is important for the maturation of central auditory circuits. In α9KO mice, the developmental refinement of inhibitory afferents to the lateral superior olive is disturbed, resulting in decreased tonotopic organization of this sound localization nucleus. In this study, we used behavioral tests to investigate whether the circuit anomalies in α9KO mice correlate with sound localization or sound frequency processing. Using a conditioned lick suppression task to measure sound localization, we found that three out of four α9KO mice showed impaired minimum audible angles. Using a prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response paradigm, we found that the ability of α9KO mice to detect sound frequency changes was impaired, whereas their ability to detect sound intensity changes was not. These results demonstrate that cholinergic, nicotinic α9 subunit mediated transmission in the developing cochlear plays an important role in the maturation of hearing.

  10. Idiom Comprehension Deficits in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Korean Autism Social Language Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul Bee; Song, Seung Ha; Ham, Ju Hyun; Song, Dong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose High-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves pragmatic impairment of language skills. Among numerous tasks for assessing pragmatic linguistic skills, idioms are important to evaluating high-functioning ASD. Nevertheless, no assessment tool has been developed with specific consideration of Korean culture. Therefore, we designed the Korean Autism Social Language Task (KASLAT) to test idiom comprehension in ASD. The aim of the current study was to introduce this novel psychological tool and evaluate idiom comprehension deficits in high-functioning ASD. Materials and Methods The participants included 42 children, ages 6-11 years, who visited our child psychiatric clinic between April 2014 and May 2015. The ASD group comprised 16 children; the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) group consisted of 16 children. An additional 10 normal control children who had not been diagnosed with either disorder participated in this study. Idiom comprehension ability was assessed in these three groups using the KASLAT. Results Both ASD and ADHD groups had significantly lower scores on the matched and mismatched tasks, compared to the normal control children (matched tasks mean score: ASD 11.56, ADHD 11.56, normal control 14.30; mismatched tasks mean score: ASD 6.50, ADHD 4.31, normal control 11.30). However, no significant differences were found in scores of KASLAT between the ADHD and ASD groups. Conclusion These findings suggest that children with ASD exhibit greater impairment in idiom comprehension, compared to normal control children. The KASLAT may be useful in evaluating idiom comprehension ability. PMID:26446644

  11. [Is emotional dysregulation a component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemonteix, T; Purper-Ouakil, D; Romo, L

    2015-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents. It is characterized by age-inappropriate inattention/impulsiveness and/or hyperactivity symptoms. ADHD shows a high comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), a disorder that features symptoms of emotional lability. Due to this comorbidity, emotional lability was long considered a secondary consequence of ADHD, which could arise under the influence of environmental factors such as inefficient parenting practices, as part of an ODD diagnosis. In this model of heterotypic continuity, emotional lability was considered not to play any causal role regarding ADHD symptomatology. As opposed to this view, it is now well established that a large number of children with ADHD and without any comorbid disorder exhibit symptoms of emotional lability. Furthermore, recent studies have found that negative emotionality accounts for significant unique variance in ADHD symptom severity, along with motor-perceptual and executive function deficits. Barkley proposed that ADHD is characterized by deficits of executive functions, and that a deficiency in the executive control of emotions is a necessary component of ADHD. According to this theory, the extent to which an individual with ADHD displays a deficiency in behavioral inhibition is the extent to which he or she will automatically display an equivalent degree of deficiency in emotional inhibition. However, not all children with ADHD exhibit symptoms of emotional lability, and studies have found that the association between emotional lability and ADHD was not mediated by executive function or motivational deficits. Task-based and resting state neuroimaging studies have disclosed an altered effective connectivity between regions dedicated to emotional regulation in children with ADHD when compared to typically developing children, notably between the amygdala, the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus and

  12. Shape-Memory PVDF Exhibiting Switchable Piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Novak, Nikola; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a material is designed which combines the properties of shape-memory and electroactive polymers. This is achieved by covalent cross-linking of polyvinylidene fluoride. The resulting polymer network exhibits excellent shape-memory properties with a storable strain of 200%, and fixity as well as recovery values of 100%. Programming upon rolling induces the transformation from the nonelectroactive α-phase to the piezoelectric β-phase. The highest β-phase content is found to be 83% for a programming strain of 200% affording a d33 value of -30 pm V(-1). This is in good accordance with literature known values for piezoelectric properties. Thermal triggering this material does not only result in a shape change but also renders the material nonelectroactive. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Applied Gamification in Self-guided Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Selvadurai, Vashanth; Krishnasamy, Rameshnath Kala

    2018-01-01

    This paper contributes to the current understanding of applied digital gamification by providing insights from two design cases from the Danish aqua zoo, the North Sea Oceanarium, concerned with self-facilitated exhibitions. Grounded in a short review of the current state of art, we provide two...... empirical case examples, concerning a mobile augmented reality design and an Instagram service. Analyzing the design process behind these cases, we identify some of the challenges arising from applying gamification in practice, and whether these insights verify, extents or contradicts current examples...... of applied gamification research. Specifically, the cases provide insights to the challenge of on-boarding visitors into participating and using the designed products during their visit. In both cases, providing certain incentives for using the app or participating in the Instagram challenge, seemed...

  14. Exhibiting health and medicine as culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise; Tybjerg, Karin; Pedersen, Bente Vinge

    2017-01-01

    -being of their visitors, we instead focus on how museums should communicate about health and medicine. Methods: The paper describes three examples of exhibitions at Medical Museion that attempt to display medicine as culture, and draws out three of the key strategies they employ. Results: The three key strategies are: (1......Introduction: This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based on the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking whether cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the well......: There is increasing emphasis on the need for health communication to recognize people’s multiple, lived cultures. We argue that we should also recognize that medical research and practice is itself a form of culture, and as such is multiple and historically shifting. This paper demonstrates that museums are an ideal...

  15. The coordination office at SIREME 2008 exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, Claudia; Cassin, Fabrice; Evrard, Aurelien; Froeding, Veronique; Galaup, Serge; Kaelble, Laure; Persem, Melanie; Regnier, Yannick; )

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised several presentations at the occasion of the SIREME International exhibition of renewable energies and energy management. This document brings together these presentations (slides) dealing with: 1 - The new German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) and its impact on wind energy (Claudia Grotz); 2 - Consequences of the July 10, 2006 wind energy tariff bylaw cancelling (Fabrice Cassin); 3 - Wind energy trajectory in France and Germany: a political perspective (Aurelien Evrard); 4 - The wind energy development areas (Veronique Froeding); 5 - A commitment at the heart of our business: renewable energy sources (Serge Galaup); 6 - The wind energy coordination office (Laure Kaelble); 7 - New challenges of the German wind energy market (Melanie Persem); 8 - An industry - a qualification standard (Yannick Regnier)

  16. The Road Transport world exhibition in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Following the agreement between French and German professionals of automobile and industrial vehicle, the Road Transport world exhibition will take place alternatively in Paris and Hanover. The 1995 meeting has taken place in Paris (September 15-21) and about 20 countries were represented. Road transport is the principal way of goods transportation in France and represent 88% of the traffic explained in tons gross and 70% in tons km. The petroleum dependence of the transportation sector is becoming a worrying problem as the gasoline and diesel fuels taxes will be discussed in the 1996 financial laws project. According to the last ''Worldwide energetic perspectives'' report published by the IEA, in 2010 the transportation sector could absorb more than 60% of the worldwide petroleum consumption. This increase represents a challenge to the petroleum industry to increase the energetic efficiency of the vehicle fuels and the production of diesel fuels, and conversely to reduce the pollution effluents. (J.S.). 4 tabs

  17. Daytime soybean transcriptome fluctuations during water deficit stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabiana Aparecida; Fuganti-Pagliarini, Renata; Marcolino-Gomes, Juliana; Nakayama, Thiago Jonas; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa; Lobo, Francisco Pereira; Harmon, Frank G; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima

    2015-07-07

    Since drought can seriously affect plant growth and development and little is known about how the oscillations of gene expression during the drought stress-acclimation response in soybean is affected, we applied Illumina technology to sequence 36 cDNA libraries synthesized from control and drought-stressed soybean plants to verify the dynamic changes in gene expression during a 24-h time course. Cycling variables were measured from the expression data to determine the putative circadian rhythm regulation of gene expression. We identified 4866 genes differentially expressed in soybean plants in response to water deficit. Of these genes, 3715 were differentially expressed during the light period, from which approximately 9.55% were observed in both light and darkness. We found 887 genes that were either up- or down-regulated in different periods of the day. Of 54,175 predicted soybean genes, 35.52% exhibited expression oscillations in a 24 h period. This number increased to 39.23% when plants were submitted to water deficit. Major differences in gene expression were observed in the control plants from late day (ZT16) until predawn (ZT20) periods, indicating that gene expression oscillates during the course of 24 h in normal development. Under water deficit, dissimilarity increased in all time-periods, indicating that the applied stress influenced gene expression. Such differences in plants under stress were primarily observed in ZT0 (early morning) to ZT8 (late day) and also from ZT4 to ZT12. Stress-related pathways were triggered in response to water deficit primarily during midday, when more genes were up-regulated compared to early morning. Additionally, genes known to be involved in secondary metabolism and hormone signaling were also expressed in the dark period. Gene expression networks can be dynamically shaped to acclimate plant metabolism under environmental stressful conditions. We have identified putative cycling genes that are expressed in soybean leaves

  18. Effect of Treating Anxiety Disorders on Cognitive Deficits and Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Isabelle; Guay, Marie-Claude; Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; BenAmor, Leila

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-five percent of children with ADHD also have an anxiety disorder (AD). As per Quay and in light of Barkley's model, anxiety may have a protective effect on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of treating AD on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in children with both disorders. Twenty-four children with ADHD and AD were divided into two groups: treatment for AD, and wait list. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up with the ADIS-C, the CBCL, and neuropsychological measures. The results revealed a significant improvement in automatic response inhibition and flexibility, and a decrease in inattention/hyperactivity behaviors following the treatment for AD. No significant differences were observed in motor response inhibition, working memory, or attention deficits. The results do not seem to support Quay's hypothesis: treating AD did not exacerbate cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in our sample.

  19. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  20. Orthographic learning in children with isolated and combined reading and spelling deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhase, Heike; Bakos, Sarolta; Landerl, Karin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina

    2018-05-07

    Dissociations between reading and spelling problems are likely to be associated with different underlying cognitive deficits, and with different deficits in orthographic learning. In order to understand these differences, the current study examined orthographic learning using a printed-word learning paradigm. Children (4th grade) with isolated reading, isolated spelling and combined reading and spelling problems were compared to children with age appropriate reading and spelling skills on their performance during learning novel words and symbols (non-verbal control condition), and during immediate and delayed reading and spelling recall tasks. No group differences occurred in the non-verbal control condition. In the verbal condition, initial learning was intact in all groups, but differences occurred during recall tasks. Children with reading fluency deficits showed slower reading times, while children with spelling deficits were less accurate, both in reading and spelling recall. Children with isolated spelling problems showed no difficulties in immediate spelling recall, but had problems in remembering the spellings 2 hours later. The results suggest that different orthographic learning deficits underlie reading fluency and spelling problems: Children with isolated reading fluency deficits have no difficulties in building-up orthographic representations, but access to these representations is slowed down while children with isolated spelling deficits have problems in storing precise orthographic representations in long-term memory.

  1. Multiple Intelligences Profiles of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Comparison with Nonattention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi, Mostafa; Akouchekian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Alireza; Mahaki, Behzad; Rezaei, Mariam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological problem during childhood. This study aimed to evaluate multiple intelligences profiles of children with ADHD in comparison with non-ADHD. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was done on 50 children of 6–13 years old in two groups of with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD were referred to Clinics of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Isfahan University of Medical Scie...

  2. Characterizing adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and comorbid borderline personality disorder: ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, G K; McHugh, L; Mac Giollabhui, N; Bramham, J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize adults with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) with regard to ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors. A between-group design compared a group of individuals diagnosed with ADHD (n=40) with a group diagnosed with BPD and who also met the criteria for ADHD (ADHD+BPD) (n=20). Significant differences were observed for both childhood and current impulsivity symptoms, whereby ADHD+BPD exhibited increased impulsivity; no differences on self-report and cognitive measures of impulsivity were reported. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly higher on measures of depression, anxiety and numerous other axis I and II conditions. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly lower on most measures of intellectual functioning and attention, however largely not on those relating to response inhibition. Furthermore, group differences were observed for psychosocial factors, including education, substance use and criminal record. Comorbid ADHD and BPD is characterized by more symptoms of impulsivity, additional psychopathology, comparatively lower intellectual and attentional functioning and increased psychosocial difficulties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Measuring Working Memory Deficits in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jamie F.; Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many adults with aphasia demonstrate concomitant deficits in working memory (WM), but such deficits are difficult to quantify because of a lack of validated measures as well as the complex interdependence between language and WM. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and internal consistency of an "n"-back task for…

  4. Traumatic brain injury and olfactory deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Mathilde Beaulieu; Ptito, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    . Between 40-44% of the patients showing olfactory impairments were not aware of their deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Since a significant proportion of the patients showing olfactory impairments were not aware of their deficit, it is recommended than clinicians systematically evaluate olfactory functions using...

  5. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  6. NIC (Nuclear Industry in China) exhibition. Press file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Framatome participated to the NIC exhibition which took place in Beijing (China) on March 1998. This press dossier was distributed to visitors. It presents in a first part the activities of the Framatome group in people's republic of China (new constructions (Daya Bay, Ling Ao project), technological cooperation and contracts in the nuclear domain, technology transfers in the domain of nuclear fuels, activities and daughter companies in the domain of industrial equipments, Framatome Connectors International (FCI) daughter company in the domain of connectors engineering). Then, the general activities of Framatome in the nuclear, industrial equipment, and connectors engineering domains are summarized in the next 3 parts. (J.S.)

  7. Neurologic deficit after resection of the sacrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, R; Ruggieri, P; Mercuri, M; Capanna, R; Briccoli, A; Perin, S; Orsini, U; Demitri, S; Arlecchini, S

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe neurologic deficit (sensory, motor, and sphincteral) resulting from sacrifice of the sacral nerve roots removed during resection of the sacrum. The anatomical and functional bases of sphincteral continence and the amount of neurologic deficit are discussed based on level of sacral resection. A large review of the literature on the subject is reported and discussed. The authors emphasize how the neurophysiological bases of sphincteral continence (rectum and bladder) and of sexual ability are still not well known, and how the literature reveals disagreement on the subject. A score system is proposed to evaluate neurologic deficit. The clinical model of neurologic deficit caused by resection of the sacrum may be extended to an evaluation of post-traumatic deficit.

  8. Psychopathic individuals exhibit but do not avoid regret during counterfactual decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Stuppy-Sullivan, Allison M.; Buckholtz, Joshua W.

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is associated with persistent antisocial behavior and a striking lack of regret for the consequences of that behavior. Although explanatory models for psychopathy have largely focused on deficits in affective responsiveness, recent work indicates that aberrant value-based decision making may also play a role. On that basis, some have suggested that psychopathic individuals may be unable to effectively use prospective simulations to update action value estimates during cost–benefit decision making. However, the specific mechanisms linking valuation, affective deficits, and maladaptive decision making in psychopathy remain unclear. Using a counterfactual decision-making paradigm, we found that individuals who scored high on a measure of psychopathy were as or more likely than individuals low on psychopathy to report negative affect in response to regret-inducing counterfactual outcomes. However, despite exhibiting intact affective regret sensitivity, they did not use prospective regret signals to guide choice behavior. In turn, diminished behavioral regret sensitivity predicted a higher number of prior incarcerations, and moderated the relationship between psychopathy and incarceration history. These findings raise the possibility that maladaptive decision making in psychopathic individuals is not a consequence of their inability to generate or experience negative emotions. Rather, antisocial behavior in psychopathy may be driven by a deficit in the generation of forward models that integrate information about rules, costs, and goals with stimulus value representations to promote adaptive behavior. PMID:27911790

  9. Psychopathic individuals exhibit but do not avoid regret during counterfactual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Stuppy-Sullivan, Allison M; Buckholtz, Joshua W

    2016-12-13

    Psychopathy is associated with persistent antisocial behavior and a striking lack of regret for the consequences of that behavior. Although explanatory models for psychopathy have largely focused on deficits in affective responsiveness, recent work indicates that aberrant value-based decision making may also play a role. On that basis, some have suggested that psychopathic individuals may be unable to effectively use prospective simulations to update action value estimates during cost-benefit decision making. However, the specific mechanisms linking valuation, affective deficits, and maladaptive decision making in psychopathy remain unclear. Using a counterfactual decision-making paradigm, we found that individuals who scored high on a measure of psychopathy were as or more likely than individuals low on psychopathy to report negative affect in response to regret-inducing counterfactual outcomes. However, despite exhibiting intact affective regret sensitivity, they did not use prospective regret signals to guide choice behavior. In turn, diminished behavioral regret sensitivity predicted a higher number of prior incarcerations, and moderated the relationship between psychopathy and incarceration history. These findings raise the possibility that maladaptive decision making in psychopathic individuals is not a consequence of their inability to generate or experience negative emotions. Rather, antisocial behavior in psychopathy may be driven by a deficit in the generation of forward models that integrate information about rules, costs, and goals with stimulus value representations to promote adaptive behavior.

  10. Pinoresinol diglucoside exhibits protective effect on dexamethasone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 ... Zhan-Feng Zhang, Ji-Kang Min, Dan Wang, Jian-Ming Zhong* .... mineral density meter (Beijing Zhongxi Yuanda ..... Svedbom A, Ivergård M, Hernlund E, Rizzoli R, Kanis JA. ... Pan Y, Niu Y, Li C, Zhai Y, Zhang R, Guo X, Mei Q. Du-.

  11. Pinoresinol diglucoside exhibits protective effect on dexamethasone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) on dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis in rats. Methods: Sixty Wistar rats were randomly and equally divided into normal, control, alendronate and PDG (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg) groups. Bone tissue parameters, including length, transverse diameter, weight, ...

  12. Social Skills Deficits and Vocal Characteristics of Children with Social Phobia or Asperger's Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Lindsay A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Sims, Valerie K.; Finnell, Laura Rendon

    2011-01-01

    Social skills deficits are commonly reported among children with social phobia (SP) and children with Asperger's Disorder (AD); however, a lack of direct comparison makes it unclear whether these groups, both of which endorse the presence of social anxiety, have similar or unique skills deficits. In this investigation, the social behaviors of…

  13. VIRTUAL EXHIBITION AND FRUITION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Manferdini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project’s aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  14. Deficits in facial emotion recognition indicate behavioral changes and impaired self-awareness after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spikman, Jacoba M; Milders, Maarten V; Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C; Westerhof-Evers, Herma J; Herben-Dekker, Meike; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability, specifically among younger adults. Behavioral changes are common after moderate to severe TBI and have adverse consequences for social and vocational functioning. It is hypothesized that deficits in social cognition, including facial affect recognition, might underlie these behavioral changes. Measurement of behavioral deficits is complicated, because the rating scales used rely on subjective judgement, often lack specificity and many patients provide unrealistically positive reports of their functioning due to impaired self-awareness. Accordingly, it is important to find performance based tests that allow objective and early identification of these problems. In the present study 51 moderate to severe TBI patients in the sub-acute and chronic stage were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (FEEST) and a questionnaire for behavioral problems (DEX) with a self and proxy rated version. Patients performed worse on the total score and on the negative emotion subscores of the FEEST than a matched group of 31 healthy controls. Patients also exhibited significantly more behavioral problems on both the DEX self and proxy rated version, but proxy ratings revealed more severe problems. No significant correlation was found between FEEST scores and DEX self ratings. However, impaired emotion recognition in the patients, and in particular of Sadness and Anger, was significantly correlated with behavioral problems as rated by proxies and with impaired self-awareness. This is the first study to find these associations, strengthening the proposed recognition of social signals as a condition for adequate social functioning. Hence, deficits in emotion recognition can be conceived as markers for behavioral problems and lack of insight in TBI patients. This finding is also of clinical importance since, unlike behavioral problems, emotion recognition can be objectively measured early after injury, allowing for early

  15. Deficits in facial emotion recognition indicate behavioral changes and impaired self-awareness after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacoba M Spikman

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of disability, specifically among younger adults. Behavioral changes are common after moderate to severe TBI and have adverse consequences for social and vocational functioning. It is hypothesized that deficits in social cognition, including facial affect recognition, might underlie these behavioral changes. Measurement of behavioral deficits is complicated, because the rating scales used rely on subjective judgement, often lack specificity and many patients provide unrealistically positive reports of their functioning due to impaired self-awareness. Accordingly, it is important to find performance based tests that allow objective and early identification of these problems. In the present study 51 moderate to severe TBI patients in the sub-acute and chronic stage were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (FEEST and a questionnaire for behavioral problems (DEX with a self and proxy rated version. Patients performed worse on the total score and on the negative emotion subscores of the FEEST than a matched group of 31 healthy controls. Patients also exhibited significantly more behavioral problems on both the DEX self and proxy rated version, but proxy ratings revealed more severe problems. No significant correlation was found between FEEST scores and DEX self ratings. However, impaired emotion recognition in the patients, and in particular of Sadness and Anger, was significantly correlated with behavioral problems as rated by proxies and with impaired self-awareness. This is the first study to find these associations, strengthening the proposed recognition of social signals as a condition for adequate social functioning. Hence, deficits in emotion recognition can be conceived as markers for behavioral problems and lack of insight in TBI patients. This finding is also of clinical importance since, unlike behavioral problems, emotion recognition can be objectively measured early after injury

  16. Deficits in latent inhibition induced by estradiol replacement are ameliorated by haloperidol treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eAlmey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are sex differences in the symptomatology of schizophrenia, and in the response to antipsychotic treatments. One hallmark symptom of schizophrenia is a deficit in selective attention. Selective attention can be measured using a latent inhibition (LI paradigm in humans; LI can be measured in rodents, and is used as an animal model of the selective attention deficits observed in schizophrenia. In the current experiments LI was used to clarify whether selective attention differs between male rats and ovariectomized (OVX female rats receiving different estradiol (E2 replacement regimens. An additional aim was to determine whether haloperidol's facilitation of LI is enhanced by E2. Males and OVX female rats were trained in a conditioned emotional response LI paradigm. Females received no E2 replacement, a chronic low dose of E2 via silastic capsule, or a high phasic dose of E2 via silastic capsule accompanied by E2 (10 ug/kg SC injections every fourth day. Actual plasma levels of E2 were determined using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Rats were also administered a vehicle treatment, a 0.05mg/kg, or a 0.1mg/kg IP injection of haloperidol. Males and OVX females that did not receive E2 replacement both exhibited LI, but LI was not observed in the low and high E2 replacement groups. Haloperidol restored LI at a lower dose in the females receiving high E2 replacement compared to females receiving low E2 replacement, indicating that E2 replacement facilitates haloperidol in restoring LI.

  17. Control Deficit Subjects are Superior for Man-Made Objects on a Verbal Semantic Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roncero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When semantic deficits occur following brain damage, the subjects generally show anomia as well as deficits on semantic matching tasks such as the Camels and Cactus test. Such individuals can be further characterized as demonstrating either a semantic control deficit or a storage deficit (Jeffries & Lambon Ralph, 2006. Semantic control subjects show improved performance when responses are constrained, but storage subjects do not. In the present study, we categorized 17 subjects with neurodegenerative diseases – Alzheimer’s disease and Primary Progressive Aphasia - as Semantic Storage or Semantic Control patterns of deficit, based on their performance on three semantic tasks—Naming, Cued Naming, and Word-to-Picture Matching. This was done independent of both the subject’s localization of brain damage and clinical diagnosis. Subjects who demonstrated impaired performance on the Naming task, but showed normal performance on Cued Naming and Word-to-Picture Matching, were classified as showing a control deficit (N = 8, while subjects who were impaired on all three semantic tasks were classified as anomic subjects with a storage deficit (N = 9. Despite only using these three semantic tasks, the identified sub-groups demonstrated different patterns of semantic knowledge consistent with either a control deficit or a storage deficit. The identified sub-groups, for example, were comparable for letter fluency, but subjects with a storage deficit were significantly worse for animal fluency. Accessing subjects’ semantic knowledge with the word and picture versions of the Camels and Cactus test, we also found that storage deficit subjects’ performance was equally poor on both versions compared to normal elderly participants, whereas control deficit subjects were relatively impaired only in the word version. Finally, comparing FDG PET scans for these subjects, we noted storage deficit subjects typically had bilateral temporal damage—all but one

  18. The Effects of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Speech Perception on Spoken Sentence Comprehension in Children: Simulating Deficits in an Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Meaghan C; Penney, Sarah B; Robertson, Erin K

    2017-10-01

    The roles of phonological short-term memory (pSTM) and speech perception in spoken sentence comprehension were examined in an experimental design. Deficits in pSTM and speech perception were simulated through task demands while typically-developing children (N [Formula: see text] 71) completed a sentence-picture matching task. Children performed the control, simulated pSTM deficit, simulated speech perception deficit, or simulated double deficit condition. On long sentences, the double deficit group had lower scores than the control and speech perception deficit groups, and the pSTM deficit group had lower scores than the control group and marginally lower scores than the speech perception deficit group. The pSTM and speech perception groups performed similarly to groups with real deficits in these areas, who completed the control condition. Overall, scores were lowest on noncanonical long sentences. Results show pSTM has a greater effect than speech perception on sentence comprehension, at least in the tasks employed here.

  19. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Functional significance of ipsilesional motor deficits after unilateral stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Caitilin; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether ipsilesional motor skills, which have been related to independent functioning, are present chronically after unilateral stroke and are more common in people with apraxia than in those without apraxia. Observational cohort comparing the performance of an able-bodied control group, stroke patients with left- or right-hemisphere damage matched for lesion volume, and left-hemisphere stroke patients with and without ideomotor limb apraxia. Primary care Veterans Affairs and private medical center. Volunteer right-handed sample; stroke patients with left- or right-hemisphere damage about 4 years poststroke; a control group of demographically matched, able-bodied adults. Not applicable. Total time to perform the (1) Williams doors test and the (2) timed manual performance test (TMPT), which includes parts of the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test. Ipsilesional motor deficits were present after left- or right-hemisphere stroke when using both measures, but deficits were consistently more common in patients with limb apraxia only for the TMPT. These findings add to a growing literature that suggests that ipsilesional motor deficits may have a functional impact in unilateral stroke patients, especially in patients with ideomotor limb apraxia.

  1. Working memory deficits in children with specific learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Maehler, Claudia; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    This article examines working memory functioning in children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills as defined by ICD-10. Ninety-seven second to fourth graders with a minimum IQ of 80 are compared using a 2 x 2 factorial (dyscalculia vs. no dyscalculia; dyslexia vs. no dyslexia) design. An extensive test battery assesses the three subcomponents of working memory described by Baddeley (1986): phonological loop, visual-spatial sketchpad, and central executive. Children with dyscalculia show deficits in visual-spatial memory; children with dyslexia show deficits in phonological and central executive functioning. When controlling for the influence of the phonological loop on the performance of the central executive, however, the effect is no longer significant. Although children with both reading and arithmetic disorders are consistently outperformed by all other groups, there is no significant interaction between the factors dyscalculia and dyslexia.

  2. 77 FR 31420 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Museum of Modern Art, New...: Game Plan'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural...

  3. A Comparative Study on the Visual Perceptions of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman; Butun Ayhan, Aynur

    This study was conducted in order to (a) compare the visual perceptions of seven-year-old children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with those of normally developing children of the same age and development level and (b) determine whether the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vary with respect to gender, having received preschool education and parents` educational level. A total of 60 children, 30 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 30 with normal development, were assigned to the study. Data about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their families was collected by using a General Information Form and the visual perception of children was examined through the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to determine whether there was a difference of between the visual perceptions of children with normal development and those diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and to discover whether the variables of gender, preschool education and parents` educational status affected the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that there was a statistically meaningful difference between the visual perceptions of the two groups and that the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were affected meaningfully by gender, preschool education and parents` educational status.

  4. Balance deficits and ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve school-aged boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konicarova J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Konicarova,1 Petr Bob,1,2 Jiri Raboch11Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech RepublicBackground and objectives: Functional disturbances developed early in life include balance deficits which are linked to dysfunctions of higher levels of cognitive and motor integration. According to our knowledge, there are only a few studies suggesting that balance deficits are related to behavioral disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: We tested the extent to which balance deficits were related to ADHD symptoms in 35 medication-naïve boys of school age (8–11 years and compared the results with a control group of 30 boys of the same age.Results: ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve boys had specific relationships to disturbances of postural and gait balance.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence in the medical literature for a direct relationship between ADHD symptoms and balance deficits, that cannot be attributed to medication and the presence of any neurological disease.Keywords: ADHD, balance deficits, conduct problems, developmental disorders, inhibitory deficits, impulsivity

  5. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  6. Gray matter morphological anomalies in the cerebellar vermis in first-episode schizophrenia patients with cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjuan; Zhou, Li; Cui, Chunlei; Liu, Zhening; Lu, Jie

    2017-11-22

    Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early schizophrenia. However, the pathological foundations underlying cognitive deficits are still unknown. The present study examined the association between gray matter density and cognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia. Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed in 34 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to working memory task performance. The three groups were well matched for age, gender, and education, and the two patient groups were also further matched for diagnosis, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was performed to estimate changes in gray matter density in first-episode schizophrenia patients with cognitive deficits. The relationships between gray matter density and clinical outcomes were explored. Patients with cognitive deficits were found to have reduced gray matter density in the vermis and tonsil of cerebellum compared with patients without cognitive deficits and healthy controls, decreased gray matter density in left supplementary motor area, bilateral precentral gyrus compared with patients without cognitive deficits. Classifier results showed GMD in cerebellar vermis tonsil cluster could differentiate SZ-CD from controls, left supplementary motor area cluster could differentiate SZ-CD from SZ-NCD. Gray matter density values of the cerebellar vermis cluster in patients groups were positively correlated with cognitive severity. Decreased gray matter density in the vermis and tonsil of cerebellum may underlie early psychosis and serve as a candidate biomarker for schizophrenia with cognitive deficits.

  7. Organizational Learning Strategies and Verbal Memory Deficits in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzburg, George C; Cuesta-Diaz, Armando; Ospina, Luz H; Russo, Manuela; Shanahan, Megan; Perez-Rodriguez, Mercedes; Larsen, Emmett; Mulaimovic, Sandra; Burdick, Katherine E

    2017-04-01

    Verbal memory (VM) impairment is prominent in bipolar disorder (BD) and is linked to functional outcomes. However, the intricacies of VM impairment have not yet been studied in a large sample of BD patients. Moreover, some have proposed VM deficits that may be mediated by organizational strategies, such as semantic or serial clustering. Thus, the exact nature of VM break-down in BD patients is not well understood, limiting remediation efforts. We investigated the intricacies of VM deficits in BD patients versus healthy controls (HCs) and examined whether verbal learning differences were mediated by use of clustering strategies. The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was administered to 113 affectively stable BD patients and 106 HCs. We compared diagnostic groups on all CVLT indices and investigated whether group differences in verbal learning were mediated by clustering strategies. Although BD patients showed significantly poorer attention, learning, and memory, these indices were only mildly impaired. However, BD patients evidenced poorer use of effective learning strategies and lower recall consistency, with these indices falling in the moderately impaired range. Moreover, relative reliance on semantic clustering fully mediated the relationship between diagnostic category and verbal learning, while reliance on serial clustering partially mediated this relationship. VM deficits in affectively stable bipolar patients were widespread but were generally mildly impaired. However, patients displayed inadequate use of organizational strategies with clear separation from HCs on semantic and serial clustering. Remediation efforts may benefit from education about mnemonic devices or "chunking" techniques to attenuate VM deficits in BD. (JINS, 2017, 23, 358-366).

  8. Pinpointing the deficit in executive functions in adolescents with dyslexia performing the Wisconsin card sorting test: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with dyslexia exhibit well-established impairments in executive abilities. The Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) is an executive test that yields surprisingly inconsistent results with this population. The current study aimed to shed light on the contradictory findings in the literature regarding the performance levels by individuals with dyslexia in WCST. We used a computerized-WCST (named the 'Madrid-Card Sorting Test') assessing executive functions using the Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) methodology. Adolescents with dyslexia exhibited a higher error rate and slower reaction times. This was most evident in the later trials of the series. However, differences in ERPs between the two groups were found only in the "target-locked" conditions, where individuals with dyslexia displayed decreased ERP components (N100, P300) compared to skilled readers. The changes between the groups in the "shift" compared to the "stay" conditions suggest the central role of working memory both in basic (e.g., shifting) and higher order (e.g., reading) processes in individuals with dyslexia. These findings suggest the central role of working memory both in basic (e.g., shifting) and higher order (e.g., reading) processes in individuals with dyslexia. The intact shifting mechanism and the working memory deficit may guide the building of more efficient intervention programs for individuals with dyslexia in the future.

  9. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  10. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  11. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  12. Effectiveness of Manual Therapy and Stretching for Baseball Players With Shoulder Range of Motion Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lane B; Thigpen, Charles A; Hawkins, Richard J; Beattie, Paul F; Shanley, Ellen

    Baseball players displaying deficits in shoulder range of motion (ROM) are at increased risk of arm injury. Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding the best available treatment options to restore shoulder ROM. Instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching will result in clinically significant deficit reductions when compared with self-stretching alone. Controlled laboratory study. Shoulder ROM and humeral torsion were assessed in 60 active baseball players (mean age, 19 ± 2 years) with ROM deficits (nondominant - dominant, ≥15°). Athletes were randomly assigned to receive a single treatment of instrumented manual therapy plus self-stretching (n = 30) or self-stretching only (n = 30). Deficits in internal rotation, horizontal adduction, and total arc of motion were compared between groups immediately before and after a single treatment session. Treatment effectiveness was determined by mean comparison data, and a number-needed-to-treat (NNT) analysis was used for assessing the presence of ROM risk factors. Prior to intervention, players displayed significant ( P < 0.001) dominant-sided deficits in internal rotation (-26°), total arc of motion (-18°), and horizontal adduction (-17°). After the intervention, both groups displayed significant improvements in ROM, with the instrumented manual therapy plus self-stretching group displaying greater increases in internal rotation (+5°, P = 0.010), total arc of motion (+6°, P = 0.010), and horizontal adduction (+7°, P = 0.004) compared with self-stretching alone. For horizontal adduction deficits, the added use of instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching decreased the NNT to 2.2 (95% CI, 2.1-2.4; P = 0.010). Instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching significantly reduces ROM risk factors in baseball players with motion deficits when compared with stretching alone. The added benefits of manual therapy may help to reduce ROM deficits in clinical scenarios where stretching alone is

  13. Glucocorticoid receptors and extinction retention deficits in the single prolonged stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, D; Nault, T; Henderson, C; Liberzon, I

    2012-10-25

    Single prolonged stress (SPS) is a rodent model of post traumatic stress disorder that is comprised of serial application of restraint (r), forced swim (fs), and ether (eth) followed by a 7-day quiescent period. SPS induces extinction retention deficits and it is believed that these deficits are caused by the combined stressful effect of serial exposure to r, fs, and eth. However, this hypothesis remains untested. Neurobiological mechanisms by which SPS induces extinction retention deficits are unknown, but SPS enhances glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in the hippocampus, which is critical for contextual modulation of extinction retrieval. Upregulation of GRs in extinction circuits may be a mechanism by which SPS induces extinction retention deficits, but this hypothesis has not been examined. In this study, we systematically altered the stressors that constitute SPS (i.e. r, fs, eth), generating a number of partial SPS (p-SPS) groups, and observed the effects SPS and p-SPSs had on extinction retention and GR levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). PFC GRs were assayed, because regions of the PFC are critical for maintaining extinction. We predicted that only exposure to full SPS would result in extinction retention deficits and enhance hippocampal and PFC GR levels. Only exposure to full SPS induced extinction retention deficits. Hippocampal and PFC GR expression was enhanced by SPS and most p-SPSs, however hippocampal GR expression was significantly larger following the full SPS exposure than all other conditions. Our findings suggest that the combined stressful effect of serial exposure to r, fs, and eth results in extinction retention deficits. The results also suggest that simple enhancements in GR expression in the hippocampus and PFC are insufficient to result in extinction retention deficits, but raise the possibility that a threshold-enhancement in hippocampal GR expression contributes to SPS-induced extinction retention deficits

  14. Detection of neurological deficits by computed tomography in sacral fracture patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Daisuke; Numazaki, Shin; Katsumura, Tetsu; Tamaru, Tomohiko; Sugiyama, Mitsugi; Nakamura, Jun-ichiro; Saitoh, Tomoyuki

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between sacral fractures and neurological deficits as complications. From November 2002 to February 2005, 12 patients (15 fractures) were found to have sacral fractures without other spinal injuries or brain injuries and were evaluated by plain CT scans immediately after trauma. This group included 6 males and 6 females, whose age ranged from 17 to 67 years with mean of 39.9±17.4. All patients were classified according to AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Osteosynthesefragen) classification (pelvic ring fracture) and Denis's classification. Displacements of sacral fractures were evaluated by plain CT scans for all patients. We defined displacements using the key slice in CT scans that included the first foramen in the sacrum. Five cases, including 2 with bi-lateral sacral fractures, were complicated with neurological deficits. There was one case with a neurological deficit of 7 Type B fractures (14%) and 4 cases with neurological deficits of 5 Type C fractures (80%) in the AO classification. There were 6 fractures with neurological deficits of 12 Zone II fractures (50%) and one fracture with neurological deficits of one Zone III fractures (100%) in Denis's classification. There was a significant correlation between the extent in the displacement of the sacral fractures and neurological deficits. For more than 3 mm displacements in the medial or lateral or anterior directions, neurological deficits increased significantly. In emergency medicine, it is difficult to evaluate the neurological findings of patients with impaired consciousness. Our evaluation using CT scan is valuable as a predictor of neurological deficits and for an optimal reduction in sacral fractures in patients with in impaired consciousness. (author)

  15. Bilateral deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force are not associated with electrodiagnostic findings in women with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres, Marta; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Valenza, Marie Carmen; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-06-01

    : The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force between patients with minimal, moderate/mild, or severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy age- and hand dominance-matched controls. : A case-control study was conducted. The subtests of the Purdue Pegboard Test (one-hand and bilateral pin placements and assemblies) and pinch grip force between the thumb and the remaining four fingers of the hand were bilaterally evaluated in 66 women with minimal (n = 16), moderate (n = 16), or severe (n = 34) CTS and in 20 age- and hand-matched healthy women. The differences among the groups were analyzed using different mixed models of analysis of variance. : A two-way mixed analysis of variance revealed significant differences between groups, not depending on the presence of unilateral or bilateral symptoms (side), for the one-hand pin placement subtest: patients showed bilateral lower scores compared with controls (P < 0.001), without differences among those with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS (P = 0.946). The patients also exhibited lower scores in bilateral pin placement (P < 0.001) and assembly (P < 0.001) subtests, without differences among them. The three-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences among groups (P < 0.001) and fingers (P < 0.001), not depending on the presence of unilateral/bilateral symptoms (P = 0.684), for pinch grip force: patients showed bilateral lower pinch grip force in all fingers compared with healthy controls, without differences among those with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS. : The current study revealed similar bilateral deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS, supporting that fine motor control deficits are a common feature of CTS not associated with electrodiagnostic findings.

  16. [Hereditary factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.A.; Franke, B.

    2005-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by concentration problems, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Disturbances in dopamine and/or noradrenalin neurotransmission are probably the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of ADHD. Around 80% of

  17. Out of touch: Interoceptive deficits are elevated in suicide attempters with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, April; Forrest, Lauren; Velkoff, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    People with eating disorders have elevated interoceptive deficits and risk for self-injurious behaviors (SIBs). Across two eating disorder samples, the relationship between interoceptive deficits (IDs) and SIBs was tested. Study 1 (n = 100) found that suicide attempters and those engaging in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) had greater IDs than those with no self-injury history. Lack of access to emotion regulation strategies accounted for the link between IDs and SIBs. In Study 2 (n = 92) multiple suicide attempters had greater IDs than single attempters and those engaging in NSSI; however, the latter two groups did not differ from one another. Interoceptive deficits may differentiate those who engage in severe SIBs from those who do not, and thus be a useful determinant of suicide risk severity among patients with eating disorders. Lack of access to emotion regulation strategies appears to be one pathway linking interoceptive deficits and self-injury.

  18. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Back, Odeya; Keren, Amit; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2011-03-01

    This prospective study explores the prevalence and characteristics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy, compared with its prevalence in their siblings. Among 40 patients with benign epilepsy, 28 (70%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: 19 with the inattentive type, one with the hyperactive type, and eight with the combined type. In the control group of 12 siblings, only two (16.7%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Pattentional difficulties was evident in children whose seizures were more resistant and required more than one antiepileptic drug for seizure control. Children with more epileptiform features in their electroencephalograms were also more subject to signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Larger scale studies are required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison of plasma homovanillic acid in the deficit and nondeficit subtypes of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeyre, J M; Lesieur, P; Varoquaux, O; Dollfus, S; Pays, M; Petit, M

    1994-08-15

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) was measured over a 13 hr-period in 16 DMS-III-R schizophrenic patients, all treated with neuroleptic drugs and in a stable clinical and therapeutic status for the preceeding 12 months. Patients were categorized into deficit (n = 9) and nondeficit (n = 7) forms of schizophrenia according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) criteria. As compared to the nondeficit group, deficit patients display significantly lower mean pHVA concentrations from 9 AM to 12 AM and a lack of diurnal variations. None of the demographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables can explain these biological differences. These data suggest a specific biochemical basis for the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia as defined by the SDS criteria, that is, primary, enduring, negative symptoms.

  20. Co-morbidity in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, P; Srinath, S; Girimaji, S; Seshadri, S; Sagar, J V

    2016-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at a tertiary care child and adolescent psychiatry centre. A total of 63 children and adolescents who were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were comprehensively assessed for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities. The tools used included the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS), Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. All except 1 subject had neurodevelopmental and / or psychiatric disorder co-morbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; 66.7% had both neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Specific learning disability was the most common co-existing neurodevelopmental disorder and oppositional defiant disorder was the most common psychiatric co-morbidity. The mean baseline ADHD-RS scores were significantly higher in the group with psychiatric co-morbidities, especially in the group with oppositional defiant disorder. Co-morbidity is present at a very high frequency in clinic-referred children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric co-morbidity, specifically oppositional defiant disorder, has an impact on the severity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Co-morbidity needs to be explicitly looked for during evaluation and managed appropriately.

  1. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Nag S; Rao S

    1999-01-01

    Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post conc...

  2. Saudi Arabia: persistent but tenable deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs

  3. 77 FR 31909 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... exhibition ``50th Anniversary Remembrance of the Tragedy at Orly,'' imported from abroad by the High Museum of Art for temporary exhibition within the United States, is of cultural significance. The object is... exhibition or display of the exhibit object at the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, Georgia from on or about...

  4. Temporary and Travelling Exhibitions. Museums and Monuments, X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daifuku, Hiroshi; And Others

    The permanent exhibition, the most typical form of museum exhibition, has failed to attract repeated visitation, since visitors quickly become familiar with the objects shown. The temporary exhibition evolved as a result for the need of repeated visitation. The temporary exhibition, set up for a period of one to six months, introduces fresh…

  5. Designing immersion exhibits as border-crossing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    2010-01-01

    be applied to achieve an understanding of the immersion exhibit form. The argument proceeds by demonstrating how the characteristics of immersion exhibits, and visitors to them, classify them as microcultures, and examining the implications of this for exhibit design using a hypothetical immersion exhibit...

  6. The Deficit Model and the Forgotten Moral Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ahteensuu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper was presented at the first meeting of the NSU study group “Conceptions of ethical and social values in post-secular society: Towards a new ethical imagination in a cosmopolitan world society”, held on January 28-30, 2011 at Copenhagen Business School. The deficit model explains the general public’s negative attitudes towards science and/or certain scientific applications with the public’s scientific ignorance. The deficit model is commonly criticized for oversimplifying the connection between scientific knowledge and attitudes. Other relevant factors – such as ideology, social identity, trust, culture, and worldviews – should be taken into consideration to a greater extent. We argue that explanations based on the proposed factors sometimes implicitly reintroduce the deficit model type of thinking. The strength of the factors is that they broaden the explanations to concern moral issues. We analyse two central argument types of GMO discussion, and show the central role of moral values in them. Thus, as long as arguments are seen to affect the attitudes of the general public, the role of moral values should be made explicit in the explanations concerning their attitudes.

  7. Altered salience processing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Bunzeck, Nico; Duzel, Emrah; Bonath, Björn; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2015-06-01

    Attentional problems in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been linked with deficits in cognitive control. Whether these deficits are associated with increased sensitivity to external salient stimuli remains unclear. To address this issue, we acquired functional brain images (fMRI) in 38 boys with and without ADHD (age: 11-16 years). To differentiate the effects of item novelty, contextual rareness and task relevance, participants performed a visual oddball task including four stimulus categories: a frequent standard picture (62.5%), unique novel pictures (12.5%), one repeated rare picture (12.5%), and a target picture (12.5%) that required a specific motor response. As a main finding, we can show considerable overlap in novelty-related BOLD responses between both groups, but only healthy participants showed neural deactivation in temporal as well as frontal regions in response to novel pictures. Furthermore, only ADHD patients, but not healthy controls, engaged wide parts of the novelty network when processing the rare but familiar picture. Our results provide first evidence that ADHD patients show enhanced neural activity in response to novel but behaviorally irrelevant stimuli as well as reduced habituation to familiar items. These findings suggest an inefficient use of neuronal resources in children with ADHD that could be closely linked to increased distractibility. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Do subitizing deficits in developmental dyscalculia involve pattern recognition weakness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Mark-Zigdon, Nitza; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    The abilities of children diagnosed with developmental dyscalculia (DD) were examined in two types of object enumeration: subitizing, and small estimation (5-9 dots). Subitizing is usually defined as a fast and accurate assessment of a number of small dots (range 1 to 4 dots), and estimation is an imprecise process to assess a large number of items (range 5 dots or more). Based on reaction time (RT) and accuracy analysis, our results indicated a deficit in the subitizing and small estimation range among DD participants in relation to controls. There are indications that subitizing is based on pattern recognition, thus presenting dots in a canonical shape in the estimation range should result in a subitizing-like pattern. In line with this theory, our control group presented a subitizing-like pattern in the small estimation range for canonically arranged dots, whereas the DD participants presented a deficit in the estimation of canonically arranged dots. The present finding indicates that pattern recognition difficulties may play a significant role in both subitizing and subitizing deficits among those with DD. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Reading comprehension and reading related abilities in adolescents with reading disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelani, Karen; Sidhu, Robindra; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-11-01

    Reading comprehension is a very complex task that requires different cognitive processes and reading abilities over the life span. There are fewer studies of reading comprehension relative to investigations of word reading abilities. Reading comprehension difficulties, however, have been identified in two common and frequently overlapping childhood disorders: reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The nature of reading comprehension difficulties in these groups remains unclear. The performance of four groups of adolescents (RD, ADHD, comorbid ADHD and RD, and normal controls) was compared on reading comprehension tasks as well as on reading rate and accuracy tasks. Adolescents with RD showed difficulties across most reading tasks, although their comprehension scores were average. Adolescents with ADHD exhibited adequate single word reading abilities. Subtle difficulties were observed, however, on measures of text reading rate and accuracy as well as on silent reading comprehension, but scores remained in the average range. The comorbid group demonstrated similar difficulties to the RD group on word reading accuracy and on reading rate but experienced problems on only silent reading comprehension. Implications for reading interventions are outlined, as well as the clinical relevance for diagnosis.

  10. Personality Characteristics of Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder With and Without Substance Use Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, Bram; van den Brink, Wim; van Eenige, Marielle Gorissen; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    We examined temperament and character profiles of 128 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants completed the abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory. The ASD and ADHD groups showed distinct temperament profiles (ADHD:

  11. Personality Characteristics of Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder With and Without Substance Use Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, Bram; van den Brink, Wim; van Eenige, Marielle Gorissen; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2009-01-01

    We examined temperament and character profiles of 128 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants completed the abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory. The ASD and ADHD groups showed distinct temperament profiles (ADHD:

  12. Training, executive, attention and motor skills (TEAMS) training versus standard treatment for preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibholm, Helle Annette; Pedersen, Jesper; Faltinsen, Erlend

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study compared the effectiveness of manualised training, executive, attention, and motor skills (TEAMS) training versus standard treatment in preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomised parallel group, single...

  13. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-03-17

    Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective stress in their every-day life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  14. Appetite and Energy Intake Responses to Acute Energy Deficits in Females versus Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALAJMI, NAWAL; DEIGHTON, KEVIN; KING, JAMES A.; REISCHAK-OLIVEIRA, ALVARO; WASSE, LUCY K.; JONES, JENNY; BATTERHAM, RACHEL L.; STENSEL, DAVID J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To explore whether compensatory responses to acute energy deficits induced by exercise or diet differ by sex. Methods In experiment one, 12 healthy women completed three 9-h trials (control, exercise-induced (Ex-Def) and food restriction–induced energy deficit (Food-Def)) with identical energy deficits being imposed in the Ex-Def (90-min run, ∼70% of V˙O2max) and Food-Def trials. In experiment two, 10 men and 10 women completed two 7-h trials (control and exercise). Sixty minutes of running (∼70% of V˙O2max) was performed at the beginning of the exercise trial. The participants rested throughout the remainder of the exercise trial and during the control trial. Appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of gut hormones, and ad libitum energy intake were assessed during main trials. Results In experiment one, an energy deficit of approximately 3500 kJ induced via food restriction increased appetite and food intake. These changes corresponded with heightened concentrations of plasma acylated ghrelin and lower peptide YY3–36. None of these compensatory responses were apparent when an equivalent energy deficit was induced by exercise. In experiment two, appetite ratings and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower in exercise than in control, but energy intake did not differ between trials. The appetite, acylated ghrelin, and energy intake response to exercise did not differ between men and women. Conclusions Women exhibit compensatory appetite, gut hormone, and food intake responses to acute energy restriction but not in response to an acute bout of exercise. Additionally, men and women seem to exhibit similar acylated ghrelin and PYY3–36 responses to exercise-induced energy deficits. These findings advance understanding regarding the interaction between exercise and energy homeostasis in women. PMID:26465216

  15. Abnormal cerebral functional connectivity in esophageal cancer patients with theory of mind deficits in resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yin; Xiang, JianBo; Qian, Nong; Sun, SuPing; Hu, LiJun; Yuan, YongGui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the function of the default mode network (DMN) in the psychopathological mechanisms of theory of mind deficits in patients with an esophageal cancer concomitant with depression in resting the state. Twenty-five cases of esophageal cancer with theory of mind deficits (test group) that meet the diagnostic criteria of esophageal cancer and neuropsychological tests, including Beck depression inventory, reading the mind in the eyes, and Faux pas, were included, Another 25 cases of esophageal cancer patients but without theory of mind deficits (control group) were enrolled. Each patient completed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity intensities within the cerebral regions in the DMN of all the enrolled patients were analyzed. The results of each group were compared. The functional connectivity of the bilateral prefrontal central region with the precuneus, bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral ventral anterior cingulate gyrus in the patients of the test group were all reduced significantly (P theory of mind deficits. The theory of mind deficits might have an important function in the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer.

  16. Creating Virtual Exhibitions for Educational and Cultural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DUMITRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different tools and mechanisms to implement a virtual exhibition in different cultural areas, such as museums and libraries. Quality characteristics of virtual exhibitions are identified and described. The possibility to create native mobile applications for virtual exhibitions presentation is analyzed. The functional flow of creating a virtual exhibition is presented and discussed. The Seals - History Treasure exhibition is presented and significant historical documents are revealed.

  17. Developmental Trajectory of Motor Deficits in Preschool Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kristie L; Ryan, Matthew; Schneider, Heather; Ferenc, Lisa; Denckla, Martha Bridge; Mark Mahone, E

    2018-05-14

    Motor deficits persisting into childhood (>7 years) are associated with increased executive and cognitive dysfunction, likely due to parallel neural circuitry. This study assessed the longitudinal trajectory of motor deficits in preschool children with ADHD, compared to typically developing (TD) children, in order to identify individuals at risk for anomalous neurological development. Participants included 47 children (21 ADHD, 26 TD) ages 4-7 years who participated in three visits (V1, V2, V3), each one year apart (V1=48-71 months, V2=60-83 months, V3=72-95 months). Motor variables assessed included speed (finger tapping and sequencing), total overflow, and axial movements from the Revised Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle Signs (PANESS). Effects for group, visit, and group-by-visit interaction were examined. There were significant effects for group (favoring TD) for finger tapping speed and total axial movements, visit (performance improving with age for all 4 variables), and a significant group-by-visit interaction for finger tapping speed. Motor speed (repetitive finger tapping) and quality of axial movements are sensitive markers of anomalous motor development associated with ADHD in children as young as 4 years. Conversely, motor overflow and finger sequencing speed may be less sensitive in preschool, due to ongoing wide variations in attainment of these milestones.

  18. [Language and executive functioning skills of students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and in reading comprehension difficulties (RCD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda Casas, Ana; Fernández Andrés, María Inmaculada; García Castellar, Rosa; Roselló Miranda, Belén; Colomer Diago, Carla

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the specificity of deficits in linguistic and executive functioning of students with ADHD and with RCD and to determine the profile of deficits in the comorbid group (ADHD+RCD). Participants in the study were 84 students, ages 12-16 years divided into four groups with an equal number of subjects (N= 21): ADHD, RCD, ADHD+RCD and comparison group (without ADHD and without RCD). We measured vocabulary, oral comprehension, lexical access, verbal and visual working memory, inhibition and attention. The results show that the ADHD+RCD group presents the most important linguistic deficits, followed by the RCD group. On the other hand, the three clinical groups (ADHD, RCD and ADHD+RCD) display greater performance problems in working memory than the comparison group, whereas the two groups with ADHD had more problems in attention and inhibition. These results suggest the dissociation of linguistic and executive deficits that affect the RCD group and ADHD group to a greater extent, respectively. Lastly, the comorbid group showed deficits both in language and in executive skills. We discuss the implications of these findings for designing interventions.

  19. Neurally dissociable cognitive components of reading deficits in subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukrina, Olga; Barrett, A M; Alexander, Edward J; Yao, Bing; Graves, William W

    2015-01-01

    According to cognitive models of reading, words are processed by interacting orthographic (spelling), phonological (sound), and semantic (meaning) information. Despite extensive study of the neural basis of reading in healthy participants, little group data exist on patients with reading deficits from focal brain damage pointing to critical neural systems for reading. Here, we report on one such study. We have performed neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging on 11 patients with left-hemisphere stroke (picture or word choices to a target based on meaning), phonology (matching word choices to a target based on rhyming), and orthography (a two-alternative forced choice of the most plausible non-word). They also read aloud pseudowords and words with high or low levels of usage frequency, imageability, and spelling-sound consistency. As predicted by the cognitive model, when averaged across patients, the influence of semantics was most salient for low-frequency, low-consistency words, when phonological decoding is especially difficult. Qualitative subtraction analyses revealed lesion sites specific to phonological processing. These areas were consistent with those shown previously to activate for phonology in healthy participants, including supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, middle temporal, inferior frontal gyri, and underlying white matter. Notable divergence between this analysis and previous functional imaging is the association of lesions in the mid-fusiform gyrus and anterior temporal lobe with phonological reading deficits. This study represents progress toward identifying brain lesion-deficit relationships in the cognitive components of reading. Such correspondences are expected to help not only better understand the neural mechanisms of reading, but may also help tailor reading therapy to individual neurocognitive deficit profiles.

  20. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

    2014-12-01

    Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  1. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Astuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  2. Hyperactivity, drugs and attention deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, M; Hartley, L

    1984-09-01

    Thirty-two hyperactive children who were under imipramine or methylphenidate medication took part in the experiment. The children were asked to learn a set of paired associate pictures containing a salient, central, figure and a secondary figure below. Free recall of all pictures was scored both immediately and seven days later. The children were subdivided into four groups according to the classical state-dependent learning paradigm. Group 1 was withdrawn from medication on both trials, groups 2 and 3 were withdrawn from medication on the first or second trial and group 4 received medication on both trials. No drug effects were found in immediate total recall. Delayed free recall was improved when original learning was under the drug state. This result was related to the proposal that arousing words are better remembered in delayed recall. Delayed recall of the secondary stimuli was particularly improved by the drugs during learning. Drug state dependency of the children's memory was also shown.

  3. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Ersland, Lars; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex in adults...... groups. Results: The ADHD group showed a significant reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region compared to the controls. Conclusion: The reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region in the ADHD group may reflect a glutamatergic deficit in prefrontal neuronal circuitry in adults with ADHD...... with ADHD and healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-nine adults with ADHD and 38 healthy controls were included. We used Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging with single voxel point-resolved spectroscopy to measure the ratio of glutamate to creatine (Glu/Cre) in the left and the right midfrontal region in the two...

  4. Neural signatures of phonological deficits in Chinese developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fan; Yan, Xin; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Yanni; Wang, Jin; Spray, Gregory J; Deng, Yuan

    2017-02-01

    There has been debate on whether phonological deficits explain reading difficulty in Chinese, since Chinese is a logographic language which does not employ grapheme-phoneme-correspondence rules and remote memorization seems to be the main method to acquire reading. In the current study, we present neuroimaging evidence that the phonological deficit is also a signature of Chinese dyslexia. Specifically, we found that Chinese children with dyslexia (DD) showed reduced brain activation in the left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) when compared to both age-matched controls (AC) and reading-matched controls (RC) during an auditory rhyming judgment task. This suggests that the phonological processing deficit in this region may be a signature of dyslexia in Chinese, rather than a difference due to task performance or reading ability, which was matched on DD and RC. At exactly the same region of the left dIFG, we found a positive correlation between brain activation and reading skill in DD, suggesting that the phonological deficit is associated with the severity of dyslexia. We also found increased brain activation in the right precentral gyrus in DD than both AC and RC, suggesting a compensation of reliance on articulation. Functional connectivity analyses revealed that DD had a weaker connection between the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and fusiform gyrus (FG) than the two control groups, suggesting that the reduced connection between phonology and orthography is another neural signature of dyslexia. In contrast, DD showed greater connectivity between the left dIFG and the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) than both control groups, suggesting a reduced segregation between the language network and default mode network in dyslexic children. We also found that connectivity between the left STG and the left dIFG was sensitive to task performance and/or reading skill rather than being dyslexic or not, because AC was greater than both RC and DD, while the

  5. Abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatum and motor deficits in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T.; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonic symptoms and caused by mutations in paternally expressed SGCE, which codes for ɛ-sarcoglycan. Paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice exhibit motor deficits and spontaneous myoclonus. Abnormal nuclear envelopes have been reported in cellular and mouse models of early-onset DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia; however, the relationship between the abnormal nuclear envelopes and motor symptoms are not clear. Furthermore, it is not known whether abnormal nuclear envelope exists in non-DYT1 dystonia. In the present study, abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were found in Sgce KO mice. To analyze whether the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in the striatum alone causes abnormal nuclear envelopes, motor deficits or myoclonus, we produced paternally inherited striatum-specific Sgce conditional KO (Sgce sKO) mice and analyzed their phenotypes. Sgce sKO mice exhibited motor deficits in both beam-walking and accelerated rotarod tests, while they did not exhibit abnormal nuclear envelopes, alteration in locomotion, or myoclonus. The results suggest that the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in the striatum contributes to motor deficits, while it alone does not produce abnormal nuclear envelopes or myoclonus. Development of therapies targeting the striatum to compensate for the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan function may rescue the motor deficits in DYT11 M-D patients. PMID:22080833

  6. Abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatum and motor deficits in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2012-02-15

    DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonic symptoms and caused by mutations in paternally expressed SGCE, which codes for ε-sarcoglycan. Paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice exhibit motor deficits and spontaneous myoclonus. Abnormal nuclear envelopes have been reported in cellular and mouse models of early-onset DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia; however, the relationship between the abnormal nuclear envelopes and motor symptoms are not clear. Furthermore, it is not known whether abnormal nuclear envelope exists in non-DYT1 dystonia. In the present study, abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were found in Sgce KO mice. To analyze whether the loss of ε-sarcoglycan in the striatum alone causes abnormal nuclear envelopes, motor deficits or myoclonus, we produced paternally inherited striatum-specific Sgce conditional KO (Sgce sKO) mice and analyzed their phenotypes. Sgce sKO mice exhibited motor deficits in both beam-walking and accelerated rotarod tests, while they did not exhibit abnormal nuclear envelopes, alteration in locomotion, or myoclonus. The results suggest that the loss of ε-sarcoglycan in the striatum contributes to motor deficits, while it alone does not produce abnormal nuclear envelopes or myoclonus. Development of therapies targeting the striatum to compensate for the loss of ε-sarcoglycan function may rescue the motor deficits in DYT11 M-D patients.

  7. Motor deficits in schizophrenia quantified by nonlinear analysis of postural sway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerillyn S Kent

    Full Text Available Motor dysfunction is a consistently reported but understudied aspect of schizophrenia. Postural sway area was examined in individuals with schizophrenia under four conditions with different amounts of visual and proprioceptive feedback: eyes open or closed and feet together or shoulder width apart. The nonlinear complexity of postural sway was assessed by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. The schizophrenia group (n = 27 exhibited greater sway area compared to controls (n = 37. Participants with schizophrenia showed increased sway area following the removal of visual input, while this pattern was absent in controls. Examination of DFA revealed decreased complexity of postural sway and abnormal changes in complexity upon removal of visual input in individuals with schizophrenia. Additionally, less complex postural sway was associated with increased symptom severity in participants with schizophrenia. Given the critical involvement of the cerebellum and related circuits in postural stability and sensorimotor integration, these results are consistent with growing evidence of motor, cerebellar, and sensory integration dysfunction in the disorder, and with theoretical models that implicate cerebellar deficits and more general disconnection of function in schizophrenia.

  8. Mitigation of postnatal ethanol-induced neuroinflammation ameliorates trace fear memory deficits in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Shin, Youn Ju; Lindquist, Derick H

    2018-02-15

    Impairments in behavior and cognition are common in individuals diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In this study, FASD model rats were intragastrically intubated with ethanol (5g/kg/day; 5E), sham-intubated (SI), or maintained as naïve controls (NC) over postnatal days (PD) 4-9. Ethanol exposure during this human third trimester-equivalent period induces persistent impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. The ability of ibuprofen (IBU), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to diminish ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and rescue deficits in hippocampus-dependent trace fear conditioning (TFC) was investigated in 5E rats. Phosphate buffered saline vehicle (VEH) or IBU was injected 2h following ethanol exposure over PD4-9, followed by quantification of inflammation-related genes in the dorsal hippocampus of PD10 rats. The 5E-VEH rats exhibited significant increases in Il1b and Tnf, but not Itgam or Gfap, relative to NC, SI-VEH, and 5E-IBU rats. In separate groups of PD31-33 rats, conditioned fear (freezing) was significantly reduced in 5E-VEH rats during TFC testing, but not acquisition, compared to SI-VEH and, critically, 5E-IBU rats. Results suggest neuroimmune activation in response to ethanol within the neonate hippocampus contributes to later-life cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional Connectivity of Child and Adolescent Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Patients: Correlation with IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-Yong; Hong, Jisu; Lee, Seung-Hak; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control (NC), and 28 adolescent NC). We used group independent component analysis (ICA) and weighted degree values to identify interaction effects of age (child and adolescent) and symptom (ADHD and NC) in brain networks. The frontoparietal network showed significant interaction effects ( p = 0.0068). The frontoparietal network is known to be related to hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an important factor in ADHD, and we predicted IQ scores using the results of our connectivity analysis. IQ was predicted using degree centrality values of networks with significant interaction effects of age and symptom. Actual and predicted IQ scores demonstrated significant correlation values, with an error of about 10%. Our study might provide imaging biomarkers for future ADHD and intelligence studies.

  10. Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Lancaster, Katie; Longenecker, Julia M; Abbs, Brandon; Holsen, Laura M; Cherkerzian, Sara; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nicolas; Tsuang, Ming T; Buka, Stephen L; Seidman, Larry J; Klibanski, Anne

    2015-06-30

    Response to stress is dysregulated in psychosis (PSY). fMRI studies showed hyperactivity in hypothalamus (HYPO), hippocampus (HIPP), amygdala (AMYG), anterior cingulate (ACC), orbital and medial prefrontal (OFC; mPFC) cortices, with some studies reporting sex differences. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in PSY would be associated with sex differences in hyperactivity in HYPO, AMYG, and HIPP, and hypoactivity in PFC and ACC, with more severe deficits in men. We studied 32 PSY cases (50.0% women) and 39 controls (43.6% women) using a novel visual stress challenge while collecting blood. PSY males showed BOLD hyperactivity across all hypothesized regions, including HYPO and ACC by FWE-correction. Females showed hyperactivity in HIPP and AMYG and hypoactivity in OFC and mPFC, the latter FWE-corrected. Interaction of group by sex was significant in mPFC (F = 7.00, p = 0.01), with PSY females exhibiting the lowest activity. Male hyperactivity in HYPO and ACC was significantly associated with hypercortisolemia post-stress challenge, and mPFC with low androgens. Steroid hormones and neural activity were dissociated in PSY women. Findings suggest disruptions in neural circuitry-hormone associations in response to stress are sex-dependent in psychosis, particularly in prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intonation processing deficits of emotional words among Mandarin Chinese speakers with congenital amusia: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Liu, Fang; Wu, Daxing; Thompson, William F

    2015-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a disorder that is known to affect the processing of musical pitch. Although individuals with amusia rarely show language deficits in daily life, a number of findings point to possible impairments in speech prosody that amusic individuals may compensate for by drawing on linguistic information. Using EEG, we investigated (1) whether the processing of speech prosody is impaired in amusia and (2) whether emotional linguistic information can compensate for this impairment. Twenty Chinese amusics and 22 matched controls were presented pairs of emotional words spoken with either statement or question intonation while their EEG was recorded. Their task was to judge whether the intonations were the same. Amusics exhibited impaired performance on the intonation-matching task for emotional linguistic information, as their performance was significantly worse than that of controls. EEG results showed a reduced N2 response to incongruent intonation pairs in amusics compared with controls, which likely reflects impaired conflict processing in amusia. However, our EEG results also indicated that amusics were intact in early sensory auditory processing, as revealed by a comparable N1 modulation in both groups. We propose that the impairment in discriminating speech intonation observed among amusic individuals may arise from an inability to access information extracted at early processing stages. This, in turn, could reflect a disconnection between low-level and high-level processing.

  12. Trunk Muscle Function Deficit in Youth Baseball Pitchers With Excessive Contralateral Trunk Tilt During Pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Sakiko; Waldhelm, Andrew G; Sosa, Araceli R; Patel, Ravina R; Kalinowski, Derick L

    2017-09-01

    Pitching technique is one of many factors that affect injury risk. Exhibiting excessive contralateral trunk tilt (CLT) during pitching has been linked to higher ball speed but also to increased joint loading. Deficit in trunk muscle strength has been suggested as an underlying cause of this movement pattern. The purpose of the study was to compare trunk muscle strength between youth baseball pitchers with varying degree of CLT during pitching. Cross-sectional study. Baseball practice fields. Twenty-eight youth baseball pitchers. Pitching technique was captured using a video camera. Based on the 2-dimensional trunk contralateral flexion angle, pitchers were categorized into low (30 degrees) CLT groups. Maximum isometric strength tests for trunk flexion, extension, and bilateral rotation, measured using a dynamometer. The pitchers with high CLT (n = 10) had longer pitching experience (P = 0.014), produced higher ball speed (P = 0.003) compared with the pitchers with moderate (n = 10) and low (n = 8) CLT, but demonstrated greater asymmetry in trunk rotation strength (relative weakness in rotation strength toward dominant side) compared with the pitchers with low CLT (P = 0.015). Excessive CLT may be a strategy that young pitchers learn to achieve higher ball velocity but also may be associated with imbalance between the oblique muscles on dominant and nondominant side, which may be acquired from repetitive pitching. Strengthening and emphasizing the use of dominant side oblique muscles may keep pitchers from leaning excessively during pitching and thus decrease joint loading.

  13. Functional connectivity of child and adolescent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients: correlation with IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yong Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control, and 28 adolescent normal control. We used group independent component analysis (ICA and weighted degree values to identify interaction effects of age (child and adolescent and symptom (ADHD and NC in brain networks. The frontoparietal network showed significant interaction effects (p = 0.0068. The frontoparietal network is known to be related to hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Intelligence quotient (IQ is an important factor in ADHD, and we predicted IQ scores using the results of our connectivity analysis. IQ was predicted using degree centrality values of networks with significant interaction effects of age and symptom. Actual and predicted IQ scores demonstrated significant correlation values, with an error of about 10%. Our study might provide imaging biomarkers for future ADHD and intelligence studies.

  14. Uncovering the social deficits in the autistic brain.A Source-Based Morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grecucci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that mainly affects social interaction and communication. Evidence from behavioral and functional MRI studies supports the hypothesis that dysfunctional mechanisms involving social brain structures play a major role in autistic symptomatology. However, the investigation of anatomical abnormalities in the brain of people with autism has led to inconsistent results. We investigated whether specific brain regions, known to display functional abnormalities in autism, may exhibit mutual and peculiar patterns of covariance in their grey-matter concentrations. We analyzed structural MRI images of 32 young men affected by autistic disorder (AD and 50 healthy controls. Controls were matched for sex, age, handedness. IQ scores were also monitored to avoid confounding. A multivariate Source-Based Morphometry (SBM was applied for the first time on AD and controls to detect maximally independent networks of gray matter. Group comparison revealed a gray-matter source that showed differences in AD compared to controls. This network includes broad temporal regions involved in social cognition and high-level visual processing, but also motor and executive areas of the frontal lobe. Notably, we found that gray matter differences, as reflected by SBM, significantly correlated with social and behavioral deficits displayed by AD individuals and encoded via the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. These findings provide support for current hypotheses about the neural basis of atypical social and mental states information processing in autism.

  15. More Pronounced Deficits in Facial Emotion Recognition for Schizophrenia than Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Sponheim, Scott R

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are typically separated in diagnostic systems. Behavioural, cognitive, and brain abnormalities associated with each disorder nonetheless overlap. We evaluated the diagnostic specificity of facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to determine whether select aspects of emotion recognition differed for the two disorders. The investigation used an experimental task that included the same facial images in an emotion recognition condition and an age recognition condition (to control for processes associated with general face recognition) in 27 schizophrenia patients, 16 bipolar I patients, and 30 controls. Schizophrenia and bipolar patients exhibited both shared and distinct aspects of facial emotion recognition deficits. Schizophrenia patients had deficits in recognizing angry facial expressions compared to healthy controls and bipolar patients. Compared to control participants, both schizophrenia and bipolar patients were more likely to mislabel facial expressions of anger as fear. Given that schizophrenia patients exhibited a deficit in emotion recognition for angry faces, which did not appear due to generalized perceptual and cognitive dysfunction, improving recognition of threat-related expression may be an important intervention target to improve social functioning in schizophrenia. PMID:23218816

  16. ``From Earth to the Solar System'' Traveling Exhibit Visits Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, C. A.; Lebrón, M. E.; Isidro, G. M.

    2013-04-01

    Puerto Rico was selected as one of the venues for the exhibit “From Earth to the Solar System” (FETTSS) during the month of October 2011. A set of outreach activities were organized to take place during the month of October aligned with the FETTSS themes. These activities included the following: 1) Main Exhibit, 2) Guided tours for school groups, 3) Planet Festival, 4) Film Festival and 5) Astronomy Conferences. We describe this experience and in particular the work with a group of undergraduate students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) that assisted in the outreach events. Among this group were three blind students. The FETTSS exhibit included a set of tactile and Braille images for the blind and visually impaired. A special exhibit was prepared with additional adapted materials for the visually impaired. This allowed blind visitors to participate and the general public to become more aware of the needs of this population.

  17. Deficits in Response Inhibition in Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Impaired Self-Protection System Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Vianna Coutinho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems in inhibitory control are regarded in Psychology as a key problem associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. They, however, might not be primary deficits, but instead a consequence of inattention. At least two components have been identified and dissociated in studies in regards to inhibitory control: interference suppression, responsible for controlling interference by resisting irrelevant or misleading information, and response inhibition, referring to withholding a response or overriding an ongoing behavior. Poor error awareness and self-monitoring undermine an individual’s ability to inhibit inadequate responses and change course of action. In non-social contexts, an individual depends on his own cognition to regulate his mistakes. In social contexts, however, there are many social cues that should help that individual to perceive his mistakes and inhibit inadequate responses. The processes involved in perceiving and interpreting those social cues are arguably part of a self-protection system (SPS. Individuals with ADHD not only present impulsive behaviors in social contexts, but also have difficulty perceiving their inadequate responses and overriding ongoing actions toward more appropriate ones. In this paper, we discuss that those difficulties are arguably a consequence of an impaired SPS, due to visual attention deficits and subsequent failure in perceiving and recognizing accurately negative emotions in facial expressions, especially anger. We discuss evidence that children with ADHD exhibit problems in a series of components involved in the activation of that system and advocate that the inability to identify the anger expressed by others, and thus, not experiencing the fear response that should follow, is, ultimately, what prevents them from inhibiting the ongoing inappropriate behavior, since a potential threat is not registered. Getting involved in high-risk situations, such as reckless driving, could

  18. Analysis of Budget deficit in Romania during 2000-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Moraru Camelia; Popovici Norina

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, over time, the years of economic crisis were defined by significant increases in the levels of budget deficits. Discussions on sizing budget deficits, financing, especially the volume of public debt became more intense, both politically and academically. The impact of budget deficit on economic growth is a common theme found in the economic policies adopted. The present paper aims to analyze the evolution of budget deficit and the structural budget deficit in Romania during 2000-20...

  19. Contribution of EEG in transient neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Tcheumeni, Nadine Carole; Turki, Sahar; Amiel, Hélène; Meppiel, Elodie; Masmoudi, Sana; Roos, Caroline; Crassard, Isabelle; Plaisance, Patrick; Benbetka, Houria; Guichard, Jean-Pierre; Houdart, Emmanuel; Baudoin, Hélène; Kubis, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Identification of stroke mimics and 'chameleons' among transient neurological deficits (TND) is critical. Diagnostic workup consists of a brain imaging study, for a vascular disease or a brain tumour and EEG, for epileptiform discharges. The precise role of EEG in this diagnostic workup has, however, never been clearly delineated. However, this could be crucial in cases of atypical or incomplete presentation with consequences on disease management and treatment. We analysed the EEG patterns on 95 consecutive patients referred for an EEG within 7 days of a TND with diagnostic uncertainty. Patients were classified at the discharge or the 3-month follow-up visit as: 'ischemic origin', 'migraine aura', 'focal seizure', and 'other'. All patients had a brain imaging study. EEG characteristics were correlated to the TND symptoms, imaging study, and final diagnosis. Sixty four (67%) were of acute onset. Median symptom duration was 45 min. Thirty two % were 'ischemic', 14% 'migraine aura', 19% 'focal seizure', and 36% 'other' cause. EEGs were recorded with a median delay of 1.6 day after symptoms onset. Forty EEGs (42%) were abnormal. Focal slow waves were the most common finding (43%), also in the ischemic group (43%), whether patients had a typical presentation or not. Epileptiform discharges were found in three patients, one with focal seizure and two with migraine aura. Non-specific EEG focal slowing is commonly found in TND, and may last several days. We found no difference in EEG presentation between stroke mimics and stroke chameleons, and between other diagnoses.

  20. Review. Deficit irrigation in fruit trees and vines in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Sanchez, M. C.; Domingo, R.; Castel, J. R.

    2010-07-01

    Water has become the most precious of natural resources in many areas of Spain and, since agriculture is the major consumer of water, improvements in water use efficiency are increasingly sought. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is an irrigation strategy based on applying only a fraction of the plant water requirements during certain periods of plant development. The paper reviews the available information on RDI strategies, in woody tree crops and vines based on studies by Spanish research groups. Both the promising results obtained and the drawbacks are covered. (Author) 130 refs.

  1. Deficits in Processing Case Markers in Individuals with Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Eun Sung

    2015-04-01

    Individuals with aphasia demonstrated greater difficulties in the case marker assignment compared to their normal control group. Furthermore, noncanonical word-order and passive sentences elicited more errors on the task than canonical and active sentences. Passive sentences were the significant predictors for overall aphasia severity. The results suggested that PWA using a verb-final language with well-developed case-marking systems presented deficits in case marker processing. The syntactic structure and canonicity of word order need to be considered as critical linguistic features in testing their performance on dealing with case markers.

  2. A content-oriented model for science exhibit engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, science museums have begun to review their educational purposes and redesign their pedagogies. At the most basic level, this entails accounting for the performance of individual exhibits, and indeed, in some cases, research indicates shortcomings in exhibit design: While often successful......: as a means to operationalize the link between exhibit features and visitor activities; and as a template to transform scientists’ practices in the research context into visitors’ activities in the exhibit context. The resulting model of science exhibit engineering is presented and exemplified, and its...... implications for science exhibit design are discussed at three levels: the design product, the design process, and the design methodology....

  3. Color perception deficits in co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and chronic tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessner, V.; Banaschewski, T.; Fillmer-Otte, A.; Becker, A.; Albrecht, B.; Uebel, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Tannock, R.; Rothenberger, A.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that color perception, particularly of blue-yellow stimuli, is impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in chronic tic disorders (CTD). However, these findings have been not replicated and it is unclear what these deficits mean for the

  4. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  5. Spatiotemporal postural control deficits are present in those with chronic ankle instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKeon Patrick O

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postural control deficits have been purported to be a potential contributing factor in chronic ankle instability (CAI. Summary forceplate measures such as center of pressure velocity and area have not consistently detected postural control deficits associated with CAI. A novel measurement technique derived from the dynamical systems theory of motor control known as Time-to-boundary (TTB has shown promise in detecting deficits in postural control related to chronic ankle instability (CAI. In a previous study, TTB deficits were detected in a sample of females with CAI. The purpose of this study was to examine postural control in sample of males and females with and without CAI using TTB measures. Methods This case-control study was performed in a research laboratory. Thirty-two subjects (18 males, 14 females with self-reported CAI were recruited and matched to healthy controls. All subjects performed three, ten-second trials of single-limb stance on a forceplate with eyes open and eyes closed. Main outcome measures included the TTB absolute minimum (s, mean of TTB minima (s, and standard deviation of TTB minima (s in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. A series of group by gender analyses of variance were conducted to evaluate the differences in postural control for all TTB variables separately with eyes open and eyes closed. Results There were no significant group by gender interactions or gender main effects for any of the measures. There, however, significant group main effects for 4 of the 6 measures with eyes closed as the CAI group demonstrated significant deficits in comparison to the control group. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the TTB measures with eyes open. Conclusion TTB deficits were present in the CAI group compared to the control group. These deficits were detected with concurrent removal of visual input. CAI may place significantly greater constraints on the

  6. Study of Attention Deficit in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity

  7. Motor dysfunction in NF1: Mediated by attention deficit or inherent to the disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas-Lude, Karin; Heimgärtner, Magdalena; Winter, Sarah; Mautner, Victor-Felix; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Attention deficit and compromised motor skills are both prevalent in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), but the relationship is unclear. We investigated motor function in children with NF1 and in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and explored if, in patients with NF1, attention deficit influences motor performance. Motor performance was measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in 71 children (26 with NF1 plus ADHD, 14 with NF1 without ADHD, and 31 with ADHD without NF1) aged 6-12 years. There was a significant effect of group on motor performance. Both NF1 groups scored below children with ADHD without NF1. Attention performance mediated motor performance in children with ADHD without NF1, but not in children with NF1. Motor function is not mediated by attention performance in children with NF1. While in ADHD, attention deficit influences motor performance, motor problems in NF1 seem to be independent from attention deficit. This argues for different pathomechanisms in these two groups of developmental disorders. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating consummatory and anticipatory pleasure across motivation deficits in schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Susana; Saperia, Sarah; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Daskalakis, Z Jeff; Ravindran, Arun; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Remington, Gary; Foussias, George

    2017-08-01

    Anhedonia has traditionally been considered a characteristic feature of schizophrenia, but the true nature of this deficit remains elusive. This study sought to investigate consummatory and anticipatory pleasure as it relates to motivation deficits. Eighty-four outpatients with schizophrenia and 81 healthy controls were administered the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), as well as a battery of clinical and cognitive assessments. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to examine the experience of pleasure as a function of diagnosis, and across levels of motivation deficits (i.e. low vs. moderate. vs. high) in schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses were also conducted to evaluate the predictive value of amotivation in relation to the TEPS. There were no significant differences between schizophrenia and healthy control groups for either consummatory or anticipatory pleasure. Within the schizophrenia patients, only those with high levels of amotivation were significantly impaired in consummatory and anticipatory pleasure compared to low and moderate groups, and compared to healthy controls. Further, our results revealed that amotivation significantly predicts both consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, with no independent contribution of group. Utilizing study samples with a wide range of motivation deficits and incorporating objective paradigms may provide a more comprehensive understanding of hedonic deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Non-Linear Relationship Between Fiscal Deficits And Inflation: Evidence From Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nurudeen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although, there is abundant research on the fiscal deficit-inflation relationship, little has been done to investigate the non-linear association between them, particularly in Africa. This study employs fixed-effects and GMM estimators to examine the non-linear relationship between deficits and inflation from 1999 to 2011 in 51 African economies, which are further grouped into high-inflation/low-income countries and moderate-inflation/middle-income countries. The results indicate that the deficit-inflation relationship is non-linear for the whole sample and sub-groups. For the whole sample, a percentage point increase in deficit results in a 0.25 percentage point increase in inflation rate, while the relationship becomes quantitatively greater once deficits reach 23% of GDP. The subsamples report different relationships. Although our results cannot be used as the base for generalization, we identify importance of grouping African countries according to their levels of inflation and/or income, rather than treating them as a homogeneous entity.

  10. Effects of methylphenidate on attentional set-shifting in a genetic model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Ai-hua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although deficits of attentional set-shifting have been reported in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, it is rarely examined in animal models. Methods This study compared spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; a genetic animal model of ADHD and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY and Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (normoactive control strains, on attentional set-shifting task (ASST performance. Furthermore, the dose-effects of methylphenidate (MPH on attentional set-shifting of SHR were investigated. In experiment 1, ASST procedures were conducted in SHR, WKY and SD rats of 8 each at the age of 5 weeks. Mean latencies at the initial phase, error types and numbers, and trials to criteria at each stage were recorded. In experiment 2, 24 SHR rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 8 each-- MPH-L (lower dose, MPH-H (higher dose, and SHR-vehicle groups. From 3 weeks, they were administered 2.5 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg MPH or saline respectively for 14 consecutive days. All rats were tested in the ASST at the age of 5 weeks. Results The SHRs generally exhibited poorer performance on ASST than the control WKY and SD rats. Significant strain effects on mean latency [F (2, 21 = 639.636, p p p p p Conclusions The SHR may be impaired in discrimination learning, reversal learning and attentional set-shifting. Our study provides evidence that MPH may improve the SHR's performance on attentional set-shifting and lower dose is more effective than higher dose.

  11. The effect of occlusion therapy on motion perception deficits in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaschi, Deborah; Chapman, Christine; Meier, Kimberly; Narasimhan, Sathyasri; Regan, David

    2015-09-01

    There is growing evidence for deficits in motion perception in amblyopia, but these are rarely assessed clinically. In this prospective study we examined the effect of occlusion therapy on motion-defined form perception and multiple-object tracking. Participants included children (3-10years old) with unilateral anisometropic and/or strabismic amblyopia who were currently undergoing occlusion therapy and age-matched control children with normal vision. At the start of the study, deficits in motion-defined form perception were present in at least one eye in 69% of the children with amblyopia. These deficits were still present at the end of the study in 55% of the amblyopia group. For multiple-object tracking, deficits were present initially in 64% and finally in 55% of the children with amblyopia, even after completion of occlusion therapy. Many of these deficits persisted in spite of an improvement in amblyopic eye visual acuity in response to occlusion therapy. The prevalence of motion perception deficits in amblyopia as well as their resistance to occlusion therapy, support the need for new approaches to amblyopia treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol and homovanillic acid measurements in deficit and nondeficit forms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, F; Ribeyre, J M; Dourmap, N; Ménard, J F; Dollfus, S; Petit, M

    1998-01-01

    Discrepancies in the biochemical research on negative symptoms in schizophrenia may be ascribed to the lack of differentiation into primary and secondary negative symptoms. We have used Carpenter's criteria to define the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia as the presence of enduring and primary negative symptoms and measured catecholaminergic parameters in deficit as compared with nondeficit schizophrenics. We have investigated plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) concentrations in 34 DSM-III-R neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients who were classified into deficit (n = 14) and nondeficit (n = 20) forms of schizophrenia. All these patients were in a stable clinical and therapeutic status for the preceding 12 months. The 14 deficit schizophrenic patients had lower plasma levels of pHVA and higher plasma concentrations of pMHPG from 9 AM to 12 AM as compared with the 20 nondeficit schizophrenic patients. The two groups did not differ on any demographic, therapeutic, or clinical variable considered. Our data are consistent with the postulated distinct pathophysiological basis for the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia and suggest that opposite alterations in the pHVA or pMHPG levels may reflect specific changes in noradrenergic and dopaminergic functions in these deficit patients.

  13. Voluntary physical exercise alters attentional orienting and social behavior in a rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael E; Sharma, Mita; Evans, Gretchen C; Bucci, David J

    2009-06-01

    The effects of voluntary physical exercise on attentional function and social behavior were examined in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Rats in the exercise groups had free access to a running wheel for 2 weeks and then all rats received nonreinforced presentations of a visual stimulus (light) during the 1st training session, followed by daily sessions in which the light was paired with food. Nonexercising male and female SHR rats exhibited more unconditioned orienting behavior than Wistar-Kyoto rats. SHRs also exhibited impaired conditioning when the light was paired with food. Exercise reduced orienting in female SHRs but not in male SHRs. In the social interaction task, nonexercising male and female SHRs interacted more with an unfamiliar rat than Wistar-Kyoto rats. Exercise reduced the number of social interactions in female SHRs but not male SHRs. There were no differences in general locomotor activity observed between the nonexercising and exercising SHRs. These data indicate that exercise may preferentially benefit female SHRs, and has implications for using exercise as an intervention for ADHD and for understanding sex differences in the effects of exercise on behavior. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Electrophysiological correlates of reading in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, P A; Hernandez-Exposito, S; Perez, J; Ramirez, G; Dominguez, A

    2018-03-16

    To investigate whether or not the deficits in executive functions in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect reading comprehension and identify a potential biological marker of this neuropsychological endophenotype through event-related potentials (ERP). The phenotypic association between reading comprehension and the specific functions of inhibition and working memory is studied. The sample consisted of 52 children with ADHD (8-13 years) divided in two groups according to the presence (TDAH-; n = 27; percentile TDAH+; n = 25; percentile > 50) of reading comprehension deficits and a control group (n = 27). The executive functions were evaluated. The ERPs were assessed during a task in which anaphoric sentences of different lengths were presented, recording the ERP in the last adjective of the sentence that required a gender agreement. Working memory and inhibition were associated to reading comprehension performance. The ADHD+ group and the control group seem to detect the disagreement at 100 ms, while the ADHD- group does not activate its working memory until 250 ms. The delay in the implementation of the working memory mechanisms helps us to understand the deficits in reading comprehension of the ADHD- group.

  15. Male aromatase-knockout mice exhibit normal levels of activity, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, C; Antoniou, K; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Balthazart, J; Bakker, J

    2005-09-08

    It is well known that estradiol derived from neural aromatization of testosterone plays a crucial role in the development of the male brain and the display of sexual behaviors in adulthood. It was recently found that male aromatase knockout mice (ArKO) deficient in estradiol due to a mutation in the aromatase gene have general deficits in coital behavior and are sexually less motivated. We wondered whether these behavioral deficits of ArKO males could be related to changes in activity, exploration, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology. ArKO and wild type (WT) males were subjected to open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), and forced swim tests (FST), after being exposed or not to chronic mild stress (CMS). CMS was used to evaluate the impact of chronic stressful procedures and to unveil possible differences between genotypes. There was no effect of genotype on OF, EPM and FST behavioral parameters. WT and ArKO mice exposed to CMS or not exhibited the same behavioral profile during these three types of tests. However, all CMS-exposed mice (ArKO and WT) spent less time in the center of the EPM. Additionally, floating duration measured in the FST increased between two tests in both WT and ArKO mice, though that increase was less prominent in mice previously subjected to CMS than in controls. Therefore, both ArKO and WT males displayed the same behavior and had the same response to CMS however CMS exposure slightly modified the behavior displayed by mice of both genotypes in the FST and EPM paradigms. These results show that ArKO males display normal levels of activity, exploration, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology and thus their deficits in sexual behavior are specific in nature and do not result indirectly from other behavioral changes.

  16. Teacher Attitudes towards Students Who Exhibit ADHD-Type Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Sarah M.; Cumming, Therese M.; Jung, Jae Yup

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, its diagnosis and its treatment have been controversial since the 1970s (Kean, 2012), with opinions differing with respect to the diagnostic process, whether it in fact exists, or if it is an excuse for poor parenting and teaching (Maras, Redmayne, Hall, Braithwaite, & Prior, 1997). There are currently…

  17. Is Positive Bias in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder a Function of Low Competence or Disorder Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Yuko; Owens, Julie S.; Serrano, Verenea; Evans, Steven W.

    2018-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit a positive bias (PB), defined as an over-estimation of one's own ability as compared with actual ability. However, it is possible that the larger discrepancy (i.e., PB) in children with ADHD is accounted for by lower competence levels rather…

  18. Mothers' Reflections on the Role of the Educational Psychologist in Supporting Their Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohangi, K.; Archer, K.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristically disruptive conduct exhibited both at school and home by children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appears to be particularly emotionally difficult for the children's mothers, who often turn to educational professionals for guidance. With a view to improving best practice in assistance to mothers…

  19. Deficits in Docosahexaenoic Acid Accrual during Adolescence Reduce Rat Forebrain White Matter Microstructural Integrity: An in vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Schurdak, Jennifer D; Asch, Ruth H; Peters, Bart D; Lindquist, Diana M

    2018-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders that frequently initially emerge during adolescence are associated with deficits in the omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), elevated proinflammatory signaling, and regional reductions in white matter integrity (WMI). This study determined the effects of altering brain DHA accrual during adolescence on WMI in the rat brain by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and investigated the potential mediating role of proinflammatory signaling. During periadolescent development, male rats were fed a diet deficient in n-3 fatty acids (DEF, n = 20), a fish oil-fortified diet containing preformed DHA (FO, n = 20), or a control diet (CON, n = 20). In adulthood, DTI scans were performed and brain WMI was determined using voxelwise tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Postmortem fatty acid composition, peripheral (plasma IL-1β, IL-6, and C-reactive protein [CRP]) and central (IL-1β and CD11b mRNA) proinflammatory markers, and myelin basic protein (MBP) mRNA expression were determined. Compared with CON rats, forebrain DHA levels were lower in DEF rats and higher in FO rats. Compared with CON rats, DEF rats exhibited greater radial diffusivity (RD) and mean diffusivity in the right external capsule, and greater axial diffusivity in the corpus callosum genu and left external capsule. DEF rats also exhibited greater RD than FO rats in the right external capsule. Forebrain MBP expression did not differ between groups. Compared with CON rats, central (IL-1β and CD11b) and peripheral (IL-1β and IL-6) proinflammatory markers were not different in DEF rats, and DEF rats exhibited lower CRP levels. These findings demonstrate that deficits in adolescent DHA accrual negatively impact forebrain WMI, independently of elevated proinflammatory signaling. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits. PMID:19426499

  1. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    . Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits.

  2. Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, H.C.; Henriksen, L.; Bruhn, P.; Borner, H.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that periventricular structures are hypoperfused in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study has expanded the number of patients, who were divided into two groups: six patients with pure ADHD, and 13 patients with ADHD in combination with other neurologic symptoms. By using xenon 133 inhalation and emission tomography, the regional cerebral blood flow distribution was determined and compared with a control group. Striatal regions were found to be hypoperfused and, by inference, hypofunctional in both groups. This hypoperfusion was statistically significant in the right striatum in ADHD, and in both striatal regions in ADHD with other neuropsychologic and neurologic symptoms. The primary sensory and sensorimotor cortical regions were highly perfused. Methylphenidate increased flow to striatal and posterior periventricular regions, and tended to decrease flow to primary sensory regions. Low striatal activity, partially reversible with methylphenidate, appears to be a cardinal feature in ADHD

  3. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Menezes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8 and control (CG, N = 10 groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  4. Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, H.C.; Henriksen, L.; Bruhn, P.; Borner, H.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that periventricular structures are hypoperfused in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study has expanded the number of patients, who were divided into two groups: six patients with pure ADHD, and 13 patients with ADHD in combination with other neurologic symptoms. By using xenon 133 inhalation and emission tomography, the regional cerebral blood flow distribution was determined and compared with a control group. Striatal regions were found to be hypoperfused and, by inference, hypofunctional in both groups. This hypoperfusion was statistically significant in the right striatum in ADHD, and in both striatal regions in ADHD with other neuropsychologic and neurologic symptoms. The primary sensory and sensorimotor cortical regions were highly perfused. Methylphenidate increased flow to striatal and posterior periventricular regions, and tended to decrease flow to primary sensory regions. Low striatal activity, partially reversible with methylphenidate, appears to be a cardinal feature in ADHD.

  5. Auditory and Visual Working Memory Functioning in College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and/or Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Spencer W; Nelson, Jason M

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the auditory and visual working memory functioning in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and clinical controls. We examined the role attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtype status played in working memory functioning. The unique influence that both domains of working memory have on reading and math abilities was investigated. A sample of 268 individuals seeking postsecondary education comprise four groups of the present study: 110 had an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis only, 72 had a learning disability diagnosis only, 35 had comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disability diagnoses, and 60 individuals without either of these disorders comprise a clinical control group. Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, and licensed psychologists employed a multi-informant, multi-method approach in obtaining diagnoses. In the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder only group, there was no difference between auditory and visual working memory functioning, t(100) = -1.57, p = .12. In the learning disability group, however, auditory working memory functioning was significantly weaker compared with visual working memory, t(71) = -6.19, p attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder only group, there were no auditory or visual working memory functioning differences between participants with either a predominantly inattentive type or a combined type diagnosis. Visual working memory did not incrementally contribute to the prediction of academic achievement skills. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder did not demonstrate significant working memory differences compared with clinical controls. Individuals with a learning disability demonstrated weaker auditory working memory than individuals in either the attention-deficit/hyperactivity or clinical control groups. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University

  6. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pruša

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis, a disease that affects many organic systems. Decline in cognitive abilities and emotional changes can appear in acute and chronic stage of the disease beside somatic difficulties. Early antibiotic therapy is of great importance in recovery. Attention and concentration deficits, memory deficits, impaired executive functioning, depression and other symptoms reduce work efficiency and life quality of people with Lyme borreliosis. Neuropsychological deficits can be explained with central nervous system impairment and partly also with reactive psychological factors. On account of symptomatic complexity, broad differential diagnostic and unreliable diagnostic technology neuropsychological evaluation can help to correctly diagnose and accurately treat this disease, and thus to enable appropriate cognitive rehabilitation and psychotherapeutic assistance.

  7. Earlier onset of motor deficits in mice with double mutations in Dyt1 and Sgce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Yang, Guang; Li, Jindong; DeAndrade, Mark P; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2010-10-01

    DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 coding for torsinA with ∼30% penetrance. Most of the DYT1 dystonia patients exhibit symptoms during childhood and adolescence. On the other hand, DYT1 mutation carriers without symptoms during these periods mostly do not exhibit symptoms later in their life. Little is known about what controls the timing of the onset, a critical issue for DYT1 mutation carriers. DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia is caused by mutations in SGCE coding for ε-sarcoglycan. Two dystonia patients from a single family with double mutations in DYT1 and SGCE exhibited more severe symptoms. A recent study suggested that torsinA contributes to the quality control of ε-sarcoglycan. Here, we derived mice carrying mutations in both Dyt1 and Sgce and found that these double mutant mice showed earlier onset of motor deficits in beam-walking test. A novel monoclonal antibody against mouse ε-sarcoglycan was developed by using Sgce knock-out mice to avoid the immune tolerance. Western blot analysis suggested that functional deficits of torsinA and ε-sarcoglycan may independently cause motor deficits. Examining additional mutations in other dystonia genes may be beneficial to predict the onset in DYT1 mutation carriers.

  8. 76 FR 68808 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the Onassis Cultural Center... Century AD,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural... Cultural Affairs, Department of State. [FR Doc. 2011-28805 Filed 11-4-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4710-05-P ...

  9. 78 FR 7849 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Century,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Yale Center for British Art..., Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of State. [FR Doc. 2013-02401 Filed 2-1-13; 8:45...

  10. A Salamander Tale: Effective Exhibits and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Jeffrey; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2017-01-01

    Little information exists regarding intention behind the design and development of Extension outreach and educational exhibits. An evaluation of response to the exhibit "A Salamander Tale" indicates that the methods used to develop the exhibit resulted in an effective way to present information to an adult audience. Survey questions were…

  11. Oral motor deficits in speech-impaired children with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Matthew K.; Saxena-Chandhok, Tanushree; Cherian, Ruth; Muneer, Reema; George, Lisa; Karanth, Prathibha

    2013-01-01

    Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive vs. expressive speech/language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills) and 90 (for oral motor skills) typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual. PMID:23847480

  12. Oral Motor Deficits in Speech-Impaired Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K Belmonte

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive versus expressive speech / language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills and 90 (for oral motor skills typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual.

  13. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other

  14. Assessment of Attention Deficits in Adolescent Offspring Exposed to Maternal Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine; Vlachova, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the potential association between intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and attention deficits in the offspring. Research design and methods: Adolescent offspring of a prospectively followed cohort of women with type 1 diabetes (n = 269......, vigilance, hyperactivity/impulsivity, sustained attention and response style. Results: A higher frequency of the exposed offspring had a parent/self-reported use of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication compared to the control group (2.2% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.01). Clinical significant...... deficits in the adolescent offspring. However, a higher self-reported use of ADHD medication in the exposed group could suggest a difference in attention not revealed by the applied test....

  15. Cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; VanDerNagel, Joanne El; Korzilius, Hubert Plm; Engels, Rutger Cme

    2018-03-01

    We examined cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID). Problematic drinkers were expected to show a significantly lower estimated performance IQ (PIQ), but not a lower estimated verbal IQ (VIQ), compared to light drinkers. Participants ( N = 474) were divided into four groups based on IQ and severity of alcohol use-related problems. IQ was estimated using (a short form of) the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale third edition. Severity of alcohol use-related problems was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Overall, there were no significant differences between light and problematic drinkers on estimated VIQ. Within the group without MBID, estimated PIQ was significantly lower. Estimated PIQ was not lower in problematic drinkers with MBID compared to light drinkers with MBID. The results are indicative of cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers without MBID. Screening for cognitive deficits with additional instruments is advised.

  16. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  17. The deficit syndrome of schizophrenia: towards heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, F; Petit, M

    1997-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, psychiatrists have been concerned with both the unity and diversity of schizophrenia. From these early descriptions until now, many authors have attempted to delineate clinically meaningful subtypes within this disorder. In this connection, negative/positive subtyping has generated great interest. Carpenter and his team have emphasized the origin of the negative symptoms observed. They have proposed that primary enduring negative symptoms should be distinguished from transient negative symptoms resulting from treatment, depression or social deprivation and should be termed deficit symptoms. The validity of this subtyping is supported by clinical, biochemical or electrophysiological studies showing differences between deficit and nondeficit patients.

  18. Engagement In Climate Change Awareness Through Art Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, D.

    2016-12-01

    Artists such as myself can influence the public discourse on climate change through compelling imagery transcending data and language. I will speak specifically to how I communicate scientific research to diverse populations by making those issues personal, visceral, and actionable.I began integrating scientific visual data into my aesthetic practice ten years ago by first utilizing archival evidence in the form of repeats, geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and Landsat maps. I continue to develop visual strategies delivering information on an emotional/non-verbal level. In the past 4 years, I have added the most dramatic layer to my creative process: bearing witness. I've been to the three largest ice fields in the world: Greenland, Antarctica and Argentina's Patagonia, observing the unprecedented pace of glacial melt. The emotional significance of actually being there as an artist is immense. Those expeditions impact my practice, leading to exhibitions that open a dialog with an audience not initially interested in science. In the past 5 years my work has appeared in 6 solo and 19 group exhibits all devoted to the environment. I make myself present in universities, museums and galleries to explain what the images are about. I require universities to include a public component: an all-college lecture or panel where the geography/environmental/sociology/geology departments participate with broad student involvement. I believe that such endeavors are worthwhile and can be models for further efforts to educate an unsuspecting audience. Artists can bridge the gap communicating to a public of art appreciators, nonscientists - how easy it is to understand geology and global warming. This social engagement can even inspire and result in attitudinal changes. A viewer's initial emotional response to my large paintings and photographs evolves into comprehension as a dialog about their content is revealed. By sharing my personal story about my

  19. Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kasper, Lisa J; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants (no-tone, ignore-tone), and control tasks while their motor activity was measured objectively by actigraphs placed on their nondominant wrist and ankles. All children exhibited significantly higher activity rates under all three experimental tasks relative to control conditions, and children with ADHD moved significantly more than typically developing children across conditions. No differences in activity level were observed between the inhibition and noninhibition experimental tasks for either group, indicating that activity level was primarily associated with basic attentional rather than behavioral inhibition processes.

  20. Stress-induced deficits in working memory and visuo-constructive abilities in Special Operations soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Doran, Anthony; Steffian, George; Hazlett, Gary; Southwick, Steven M

    2006-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group. Baseline dissociation and history of traumatic stress predicted cognitive impairment during stress. Stress exposure impaired visuo-spatial capacity and working memory. In rats, monkeys, and humans, high dopamine and NE turnover in the PFC induce deficits in cognition and spatial working memory. Improved understanding of stress-induced cognitive deficits may assist in identification of soldiers at risk and lead to the development of better countermeasures.

  1. Frailty Across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Zepeda, M U; Ávila-Funes, J A; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L M; García-Peña, C

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of an aging biomarker into clinical practice is under debate. The Frailty Index is a model of deficit accumulation and has shown to accurately capture frailty in older adults, thus bridging biological with clinical practice. To describe the association of socio-demographic characteristics and the Frailty Index in different age groups (from 20 to over one hundred years) in a representative sample of Mexican subjects. Cross-sectional analysis. Nationwide and population-representative survey. Adults 20-years and older interviewed during the last Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (2012). A 30-item Frailty Index following standard construction was developed. Multi-level regression models were performed to test the associations of the Frailty Index with multiple socio-demographic characteristics across age groups. A total of 29,504 subjects was analyzed. The 30-item Frailty Index showed the highest scores in the older age groups, especially in women. No sociodemographic variable was associated with the Frailty Index in all the studied age groups. However, employment, economic income, and smoking status were more consistently found across age groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the Frailty Index in a representative large sample of a Latin American country. Increasing age and gender were closely associated with a higher score.

  2. Digital Natives: Creating Emergent Exhibitions through Digital Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2011-01-01

    . In this way, digital technology can contribute to the creation of emergent exhibitions in which the exhibition is created in dialogue between audiences and the museum. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which digital technology was designed......Digital Technology can support the creation of dialogical spaces in the museum, both playful and reflective, that allow audiences to engage in the ongoing construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between self and others and between past, present and future...... as an integral part of the exhibition to encourage dialogue between audiences and the exhibition materials and thereby investigate how the exhibition emerge as a result of this dialogic co-construction inside the exhibition space. In short, the opportunities offered by digital technologies prompts us to consider...

  3. Hippocampal atrophy in people with memory deficits: results from the population-based IPREA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Luca; van Lew, Baldur; Reiber, Johan H C; Gandin, Claudia; Galluzzo, Lucia; Scafato, Emanuele; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Milles, Julien; Pievani, Michela

    2014-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown that hippocampal atrophy is present before dementia in people with memory deficits and can predict dementia development. The question remains whether this association holds in the general population. This is of interest for the possible use of hippocampal atrophy to screen population for preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to assess hippocampal volume and shape abnormalities in elderly adults with memory deficits in a cross-sectional population-based study. We included individuals participating in the Italian Project on the Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease (IPREA) study: 75 cognitively normal individuals (HC), 31 individuals with memory deficits (MEM), and 31 individuals with memory deficits not otherwise specified (MEMnos). Hippocampal volumes and shape were extracted through manual tracing and the growing and adaptive meshes (GAMEs) shape-modeling algorithm. We investigated between-group differences in hippocampal volume and shape, and correlations with memory deficits. In MEM participants, hippocampal volumes were significantly smaller than in HC and were mildly associated with worse memory scores. Memory-associated shape changes mapped to the anterior hippocampus. Shape-based analysis detected no significant difference between MEM and HC, while MEMnos showed shape changes in the posterior hippocampus compared with HC and MEM groups. These findings support the discriminant validity of hippocampal volumetry as a biomarker of memory impairment in the general population. The detection of shape changes in MEMnos but not in MEM participants suggests that shape-based biomarkers might lack sensitivity to detect Alzheimer's-like pathology in the general population.

  4. Transverse maxillary deficit and its influence on the cervical vertebrae maturation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossellu, G; Farronato, G; Nicotera, O; Biagi, R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a transverse maxillary deficit can cause an alteration of vertebral development and therefore of the skeletal maturation comparing the cervical maturation stages index with the hand-wrist index. For the study were selected 200 patients aged 7-14 years, equally distributed by gender and divided into 100 study subjects with maxillary deficit and 100 controls without maxillary deficit. The skeletal maturation index (SM according to Fishman) was evaluated and compared with the hand-wrist x-rays and the cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM according to Hassel and Farmann). Forty-one per cent of the subjects in the test group show a discrepancy between CVM and SM. Among these 73% (30 subjects) present an advanced stage of CVM compared with the corresponding SM. Only 16% of the subjects in the control group show a discrepancy between CVM and SM. Among these 69% (11 subjects) appear in an advanced CVM stage. The analysis of the CVM stage in subjects with transverse maxillary deficit appears to be altered compared with the SM identified through a hand-wrist x-ray. In the case of individuals with transverse maxillary deficit it is advisable to use also a hand-wrist x-ray, thus not relying only on CVM for the evaluation of the skeletal growth stages.

  5. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosa Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with that of typically developing children.Methods:Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls, aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial and temporal organization.Results:Between-group testing revealed statistically significant differences between the ADHD and control groups for all domains. The results also revealed a deficit of nearly two years in the motor development of children with ADHD compared with the normative sample.Conclusion:The current study shows that ADHD is associated with a delay in motor development when compared to typically developing children. The results also suggested difficulties in certain motor areas for those with ADHD. These results may point to plausible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and motor difficulties.

  6. Life, the universe, and everything: an education outreach proposal to build a traveling astrobiology exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Laura M; Pulschen, André A; Emygdio, Ana Paula Mendes; Congreve, Curtis; Kishimoto, Darío E; Bendia, Amanda G; de Morais M Teles, Antonio; DeMarines, Julia; Stoupin, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Astrobiology is a transdisciplinary field with extraordinary potential for the scientific community. As such, it is important to educate the community at large about the growing importance of this field to increase awareness and scientific content learning and expose potential future scientists. To this end, we propose the creation of a traveling museum exhibit that focuses exclusively on astrobiology and utilizes modern museum exhibit technology and design. This exhibit (the "Astrobiology Road Show"), organized and evaluated by an international group of astrobiology students and postdocs, is planned to tour throughout the Americas.

  7. Unawareness of deficits in Alzheimer's disease: role of the cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanzio, Martina; Torta, Diana M E; Sacco, Katiuscia; Cauda, Franco; D'Agata, Federico; Duca, Sergio; Leotta, Daniela; Palermo, Sara; Geminiani, Giuliano C

    2011-04-01

    Unawareness of deficits is a symptom of Alzheimer's disease that can be observed even in the early stages of the disease. The frontal hypoperfusion associated with reduced awareness of deficits has led to suggestions of the existence of a hypofunctioning prefrontal pathway involving the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobe, anterior cingulate gyri and limbic structures. Since this network plays an important role in response inhibition competence and patients with Alzheimer's disease who are unaware of their deficits exhibit impaired performance in response inhibition tasks, we predicted a relationship between unawareness of deficits and cingulate hypofunctionality. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 29 patients with Alzheimer's disease (15 aware and 14 unaware of their disturbances), rating unawareness according to the Awareness of Deficit Questionnaire-Dementia scale. The cognitive domain was investigated by means of a wide battery including tests on executive functioning, memory and language. Neuropsychiatric aspects were investigated using batteries on behavioural mood changes, such as apathy and disinhibition. Cingulate functionality was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging, while patients performed a go/no-go task. In accordance with our hypotheses, unaware patients showed reduced task-sensitive activity in the right anterior cingulate area (Brodmann area 24) and in the rostral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10). Unaware patients also showed reduced activity in the right post-central gyrus (Brodmann area 2), in the associative cortical areas such as the right parietotemporal-occipital junction (Brodmann area 39) and the left temporal gyrus (Brodmann areas 21 and 38), in the striatum and in the cerebellum. These findings suggest that the unawareness of deficits in early Alzheimer's disease is associated with reduced functional recruitment of the cingulofrontal and parietotemporal regions. Furthermore, in line with

  8. Noradrenergic deficits in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahimi, A.; Sommerauer, M.; Ostergaard, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In vitro studies suggest that noradrenergic projections from locus coeruleus to subcortical and cortical brain structures, e.g., thalamus, undergo severe neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Loss of noradrenergic projections may alter oscillatory activity that in turn may...... be associated with cognitive decline. To test this hypothesis of the origin of cognitive decline in this disease, we used positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify the density of noradrenergic projections in groups of PD patients and healthy controls (HC), in combination with neuropsychological assessment...... with cognitive performance, independent of premorbid cognitive function or disease. PD patients had significant slowing of qEEG, e.g., the background alpha rhythm, but only EEG reactivity upon eye opening correlated with thalamic 11C-MeNER BPND in PD patients. Conclusion: This is the first direct quantification...

  9. Intervertebral Disc Characteristic on Progressive Neurological Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Yudoyono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the intervertebral disc characteristic on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in lumbar herniated disc (LHD patients with progressive neurological deficit. Methods: Patients were collected retrospectively from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Database from 2011–2013 with LHD, had neurological deficit such as radiculopathy and cauda equine syndrome for less than four weeks with a positive sign confirmed by neurological examination and confirmatory with MRI examination. Results: A total of 14 patients with lumbar herniated disc disease (10 males, 4 females suffered from progressive neurological deficit with an average age of (52.07±10.9 years old. Early disc height was 9.38±0.5 mm and progressive neurological deficit state disc height was 4.03±0.53 mm, which were significantly different statisticaly (p<0.01. Symptoms of radiculopathy were seen in 11 patients and cauda equine syndrome in three patients. Modic changes grade 1 was found in five patients, grade 2 in eight patients,grade 3 in one patient, Pfirmman grade 2 in eleven patients and grade 3 in three patients. Thecal sac compression 1/3 compression was seen in four patients and 2/3 compression in ten patients. Conclusions: Neurosurgeon should raise concerns on the characteristic changes of intervertebral disc in magnetic resonance imaging examination to avoid further neural injury in lumbar herniated disc patients.

  10. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of

  11. Nature, Nurture, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Comments on Joseph's review of the genetics of attention deficit disorder, demonstrating errors of scientific logic and oversight of relevant research in Joseph's argument. Argues for the validity of twin studies in supporting a genetic link for ADHD and for the complementary role of nature and nurture in the etiology of the disorder. (JPB)

  12. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  13. Reducing the Deficit: Spending and Revenue Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    357 B SPENDING OPTIONS BY BUDGET FUNCION ...... 363 TABLES 1. Baseline Deficit Projections, Fiscal Years 1993-2004...direct control of the Congress. abled beneficiaries and beneficiaries with end-stage renal disease. Nonhealth changes enacted in The total that is

  14. ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    People who suffer from ADHD are far more likely than normal to drop out of school (32 ... secondary to learning disabilities, partial sensory deficits or even low cognitive ... bad days (Fig. 3), which can lead to frustration for teachers, parents and the child, as there is always the feeling that ... boys who often present very young.

  15. Invest to Improve: The Cybersecurity Talent Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business-Higher Education Forum, 2017

    2017-01-01

    "Invest to Improve: The Cybersecurity Talent Deficit" provides recommendations for cybersecurity stakeholders--employers, government agencies, and higher education institutions--to enable regional partnerships to meet today's cybersecurity skills needs. This report combines data from a 2017 Gallup survey of business executives and higher…

  16. Linguistic coding deficits in foreign language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R; Ganschow, L; Pohlman, J

    1989-01-01

    As increasing numbers of colleges and universities require a foreign language for graduation in at least one of their degree programs, reports of students with difficulties in learning a second language are multiplying. Until recently, little research has been conducted to identify the nature of this problem. Recent attempts by the authors have focused upon subtle but ongoing language difficulties in these individuals as the source of their struggle to learn a foreign language. The present paper attempts to expand upon this concept by outlining a theoretical framework based upon a linguistic coding model that hypothesizes deficits in the processing of phonological, syntactic, and/or semantic information. Traditional psychoeducational assessment batteries of standardized intelligence and achievement tests generally are not sensitive to these linguistic coding deficits unless closely analyzed or, more often, used in conjunction with a more comprehensive language assessment battery. Students who have been waived from a foreign language requirement and their proposed type(s) of linguistic coding deficits are profiled. Tentative conclusions about the nature of these foreign language learning deficits are presented along with specific suggestions for tests to be used in psychoeducational evaluations.

  17. Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. merchandise trade deficit is a part of the overall U.S. balance of payments, a summary statement of all economic transactions between the residents of the United States and the rest of the world, during a given period of time...

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Parent's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anna M.

    1996-01-01

    A parent and educator who has spent the past 10 years struggling to help her own ADHD (attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder) child offers suggestions for managing the challenges facing such children and enhancing the quality of their lives. Since drug regimens have limitations, parents need to read appropriate literature and receive…

  19. Primary School Teacher's knowledge towards Attention Deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work of the teacher becomes much more demanding when some learners have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as their problems with attention span, impulse control and activity level frequently interfere with activities in the classroom and socially. This study revealed the teachers good knowledge about ...

  20. Magnesium supplementation in children with attention deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with associated mineral deficiency. Aim: To assess magnesium level in ADHD children and compare it to the normal levels in children. Then, to detect the effect of magnesium supplementation as an add on therapy, ...

  1. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Characteristics of Primary Care Trusts in financial deficit and surplus - a comparative study in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinath, Padmanabhan; Currell, Rosemary Anne; Bradley, Peter M

    2006-06-01

    Recently the financial status of primary care trusts has come under considerable scrutiny by the government, and financial deficits have been blamed on poor local management of resources. This paper examines the factors that differ between those Primary Care Trusts (PCT) in financial deficit and those in surplus, using readily available data at PCT level. PCTs are the National Health Service organisations in England responsible for improving the health of their population, developing primary and community health services, and commissioning secondary care services. A descriptive comparative study using data from 58 PCTs; 29 in greatest financial surplus and 29 in greatest deficit in the English National Health Service. Nearly half the study deficit PCTs (14 out of 29) are in the East of England and of the 29 surplus PCTs, five each are in Birmingham and Black Country Strategic Health Authority (SHA), and Greater Manchester SHA. The median population density of the deficit PCTs is almost seven times lower than that of surplus PCTs (p = 0.004). Surplus PCTs predominantly serve deprived communities. Nearly half the surplus PCTs are 'spearhead' PCTs compared to only one of the deficit PCTs. Percentage population increase by local authority of the PCT showed that on average deficit PCTs had 2.7 times higher change during 1982-2002 (13.37% for deficit and 4.94% for surplus PCTs). Work pressure felt by staff is significantly higher in deficit PCTs, and they also reported working higher amount of extra hours due to work pressures. The proportion of dispensing general practitioners is significantly higher in deficit PCTs 40.5% vs. 12.9% (p = 0.002). Deficit PCTs on average received pound123 less per head of registered population compared to surplus PCTs. The two groups of PCTs serve two distinct populations with marked differences between the two. Deficit PCTs tend to be in relatively affluent and rural areas. Poor management alone is unlikely to be the cause of deficits

  3. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  4. Comparing Attentional Networks in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and the inattentive and combined subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Fan, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) was used to examine alerting, orienting, and executive control in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) versus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 113 children aged 7 to 10 years (31 ADHD-Combined, 16 ADHD-Primarily Inattentive, 28 FASD, 38 controls). Incongruent flanker trials triggered slower responses in both the ADHD-Combined and the FASD groups. Abnormal conflict scores in these same two groups provided additional evidence for the presence of executive function deficits. The ADHD-Primarily Inattentive group was indistinguishable from the controls on all three ANT indices, which highlights the possibility that this group constitutes a pathologically distinct entity.

  5. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms moderate cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerys, Benjamin E; Wallace, Gregory L; Sokoloff, Jennifer L; Shook, Devon A; James, Joette D; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2009-12-01

    Recent estimates suggest that 31% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and another 24% of children with ASD exhibit subthreshold clinical ADHD symptoms. Presence of ADHD symptoms in the context of ASD could have a variety of effects on cognition, autistic traits, and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors including: exacerbating core ASD impairments; adding unique impairments specific to ADHD; producing new problems unreported in ASD or ADHD; having no clear impact; or producing some combination of these scenarios. Children with ASD and co-morbid ADHD symptoms (ASD+ADHD; n = 21), children with ASD without ADHD (ASD; n = 28), and a typically developing control group (n = 21) were included in the study; all groups were matched on age, gender-ratio, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Data were collected on verbal and spatial working memory, response inhibition, global executive control (EC), autistic traits, adaptive functioning, and maladaptive behavior problems. In this sample, the presence of ADHD symptoms in ASD exacerbated impairments in EC and adaptive behavior and resulted in higher autistic trait, and externalizing behavior ratings. ADHD symptoms were also associated with greater impairments on a lab measure of verbal working memory. These findings suggest that children with ASD+ADHD symptoms present with exacerbated impairments in some but not all domains of functioning relative to children with ASD, most notably in adaptive behavior and working memory. Therefore, ADHD may moderate the expression of components of the ASD cognitive and behavioral phenotype, but ASD+ADHD may not represent an etiologically distinct phenotype from ASD alone.

  6. Development of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Program to Treat Anxiety and Social Deficits in Teens with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Albano, Anne Marie; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Kasari, Connie; Ollendick, Thomas; Klin, Ami; Oswald, Donald; Scahill, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is a common co-occurring problem among young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication problems, and stereotyped behavior and restricted interests, this group of disorders is more prevalent than previously realized. When present, anxiety may compound the social deficits of…

  7. Brassinosteroids improve photosystem II efficiency, gas exchange, antioxidant enzymes and growth of cowpea plants exposed to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J V; Lobato, A K S

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is considered the main abiotic stress that limits agricultural production worldwide. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are natural substances that play roles in plant tolerance against abiotic stresses, including water deficit. This research aims to determine whether BRs can mitigate the negative effects caused by water deficiency, revealing how BRs act and their possible contribution to increased tolerance of cowpea plants to water deficit. The experiment was a factorial design with the factors completely randomised, with two water conditions (control and water deficit) and three levels of brassinosteroids (0, 50 and 100 nM 24-epibrassinolide; EBR is an active BRs). Plants sprayed with 100 nM EBR under the water deficit presented significant increases in Φ PSII , q P and ETR compared with plants subjected to the water deficit without EBR. With respect to gas exchange, P N , E and g s exhibited significant reductions after water deficit, but application of 100 nM EBR caused increases in these variables of 96, 24 and 33%, respectively, compared to the water deficit + 0 nM EBR treatment. To antioxidant enzymes, EBR resulted in increases in SOD, CAT, APX and POX, indicating that EBR acts on the antioxidant system, reducing cell damage. The water deficit caused significant reductions in Chl a , Chl b and total Chl, while plants sprayed with 100 nM EBR showed significant increases of 26, 58 and 33% in Chl a , Chl b and total Chl, respectively. This study revealed that EBR improves photosystem II efficiency, inducing increases in Φ PSII , q P and ETR. This substance also mitigated the negative effects on gas exchange and growth induced by the water deficit. Increases in SOD, CAT, APX and POX of plants treated with EBR indicate that this steroid clearly increased the tolerance to the water deficit, reducing reactive oxygen species, cell damage, and maintaining the photosynthetic pigments. Additionally, 100 nM EBR resulted in a better dose-response of cowpea

  8. Robotic identification of kinesthetic deficits after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2013-12-01

    Kinesthesia, the sense of body motion, is essential to proper control and execution of movement. Despite its importance for activities of daily living, no current clinical measures can objectively measure kinesthetic deficits. The goal of this study was to use robotic technology to quantify prevalence and severity of kinesthetic deficits of the upper limb poststroke. Seventy-four neurologically intact subjects and 113 subjects with stroke (62 left-affected, 51 right-affected) performed a robot-based kinesthetic matching task with vision occluded. The robot moved the most affected arm at a preset speed, direction, and magnitude. Subjects were instructed to mirror-match the movement with their opposite arm (active arm). A large number of subjects with stroke were significantly impaired on measures of kinesthesia. We observed impairments in ability to match movement direction (69% and 49% impaired for left- and right-affected subjects, respectively) and movement magnitude (42% and 31%). We observed impairments to match movement speed (32% and 27%) and increased response latencies (48% and 20%). Movement direction errors and response latencies were related to clinical measures of function, motor recovery, and dexterity. Using a robotic approach, we found that 61% of acute stroke survivors (n=69) had kinesthetic deficits. Additionally, these deficits were highly related to existing clinical measures, suggesting the importance of kinesthesia in day-to-day function. Our methods allow for more sensitive, accurate, and objective identification of kinesthetic deficits after stroke. With this information, we can better inform clinical treatment strategies to improve poststroke rehabilitative care and outcomes.

  9. Assessing the associative deficit of older adults in long-term and short-term/working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tina; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2012-09-01

    Older adults exhibit a deficit in associative long-term memory relative to younger adults. However, the literature is inconclusive regarding whether this deficit is attenuated in short-term/working memory. To elucidate the issue, three experiments assessed younger and older adults' item and interitem associative memory and the effects of several variables that might potentially contribute to the inconsistent pattern of results in previous studies. In Experiment 1, participants were tested on item and associative recognition memory with both long-term and short-term retention intervals in a single, continuous recognition paradigm. There was an associative deficit for older adults in the short-term and long-term intervals. Using only short-term intervals, Experiment 2 utilized mixed and blocked test designs to examine the effect of test event salience. Blocking the test did not attenuate the age-related associative deficit seen in the mixed test blocks. Finally, an age-related associative deficit was found in Experiment 3, under both sequential and simultaneous presentation conditions. Even while accounting for some methodological issues, the associative deficit of older adults is evident in short-term/working memory.

  10. Group Flow and Group Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  11. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Motohisa; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study with 30 children showing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found a normal diurnal saliva cortisol rhythm in only 43.3 percent of the subjects and a dexamethasone suppression in 46.7 percent, with both these abnormalities more frequent in the severely than the mildly hyperactive group. Results suggest abnormalities in…

  12. Standardized Observational Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes. II. Classroom Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Antshel, Kevin; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Dumenci, Levent

    2009-01-01

    Trained classroom observers used the Direct Observation Form (DOF; McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) to rate observations of 163 6- to 11-year-old children in their school classrooms. Participants were assigned to four groups based on a parent diagnostic interview and parent and teacher rating scales: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder…

  13. Study of Anxiety in Parents and Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jose Juan Castro; Bermúdez, M. Olga Escandell; Sevilla, M. del Sol Fortea; Hernán-Pérez, Alejandra Sanjuán

    2015-01-01

    The identification of factors that influence attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will help to develop intervention strategies for the personal and social adjustment of these individuals. The goal of the study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and adolescents with ADHD and the anxiety that their parents…

  14. SPARED RECOGNITION CAPACITY IN ELDERLY AND CLOSED-HEAD-INJURY SUBJECTS WITH CLINICAL MEMORY DEFICITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, J.M.; Berg, I.J.; Deelman, B.G.

    This study describes the performance of three groups of subjects on a pictorial forced-recognition task, the Hundred Pictures Test. The aim was to determine whether subjects with memory deficits (elderly and closed-head-injured subjects) would perform as well as healthy young subjects, both on

  15. Neurocognitive deficits in obsessive compulsive disorder: A state or trait phenomenon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, there is impairment of neurocognitive functioning during the symptomatic phase. However, studies that explore the "state or trait" dependent nature of these neurocognitive deficits are largely lacking. By comparing the neuropsychological functions of the clinical and subclinical group of OCD patients and healthy controls; we tried to establish whether neuropsychological deficits in OCD were "state" dependent or independent. Materials and Methods: Twenty "mild to moderate" OCD patients, 15 subclinical (remitted OCD patients, and 20 matched healthy controls were compared and assessed on computerized battery of neuropsychological tests including Wisconsin card sorting test, continuous performance test, and spatial working memory test. The observations were statistically analyzed. Results: Executive functions in both the subclinical and clinical groups performed poorly when compared to healthy controls. The patient groups made significantly more wrong responses, more missed responses and took more time to respond. On the test of spatial working memory, the mild to moderate OCD patients showed significant impairment, but not the subclinical patients group. Conclusion: Thus, we conclude that cognitive dysfunctions are core and enduring deficits of OCD, they seem to continue into the subclinical- well state. Certain cognitive deficits, depending on their presence or absence in subclinical cases, may be identified as "state" or "trait" markers of OCD.

  16. Regional Gray Matter Volume Deficits in Adolescents with First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Joost; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Fraguas, David; Zabala, Arantzazu; Vazquez, Veronica Garcia; Desco, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    The regional gray matter volumes of adolescents with first-episode psychosis are compared with those of a control group. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on 70 patients with early onset FEP and on 51 individuals without FEP. Findings revealed that volume deficits in the left medial frontal gray matter were common in individuals with…

  17. Sustained attention and executive functioning performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Polderman, T.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further refine the cognitive phenotype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with respect to the ability to sustain attention and executive functioning. Participants were 34 boys with ADHD (combined type) and 28 normal controls. The groups were closely

  18. Sustained attention and executive functioning performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Swaab, H.J.T.; Verhulst, F.C.; Polderman, T.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further refine the cognitive phenotype of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with respect to the ability to sustain attention and executive functioning. Participants were 34 boys with ADHD (combined type) and 28 normal controls. The groups were closely

  19. Sustained attention and executive functioning performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.J.T.; Verhulst, F.C.; Polderman, J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further refine the cognitive phenotype of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with respect to the ability to sustain attention and executive functioning. Participants were 34 boys with ADHD (combined type) and 28 normal controls. The groups were closely

  20. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  1. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  2. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...... of the hippocampus and amygdala in children with ADHD. DESIGN: A cross-sectional case-control study of the hippocampus and amygdala using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. SETTINGS: University research institute. PATIENTS: One hundred fourteen individuals aged 6 to 18 years, 51 with combined-type ADHD and 63...... healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Volumes and measures of surface morphology for the hippocampus and amygdala. RESULTS: The hippocampus was larger bilaterally in the ADHD group than in the control group (t = 3.35; P

  3. Personality assessment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufi, D; Parish-Plass, J

    1995-01-01

    The present research was designed to assess several potentially important factors in the personality structure of a sample of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) as compared to normal control children. Three questionnaires were administered to a group of 28 ADHD boys and to a control group of 83 boys: (1) The Locus of Control Scale for Children; (2) The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale; and (3) The Persistence Scale for Children. Results showed that the ADHD children had significantly higher external locus of control, were significantly less persistent, and reported an elevated level of "concentration/social worry" (an anxiety subscale). Such findings can help to clarify both the personality structure and the coping styles of the ADHD child.

  4. Effects of distractors on upright balance performance in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinli, Fatma Esen; Çak, Tuna; Kirazli, Meltem Çiğdem; Çinar, Betül Çiçek; Pektaş, Alev; Çengel, Ebru Kültür; Aksoy, Songül

    2016-11-17

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common impairing neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in early childhood. Almost half of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also experience a variety of motor-related dysfunctions ranging from fine/gross motor control problems to difficulties in maintaining balance. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of distractors two different auditory distractors namely, relaxing music and white noise on upright balance performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We compared upright balance performance and the involvement of different sensory systems in the presence of auditory distractors between school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n=26) and typically developing controls (n=20). Neurocom SMART Balance Master Dynamic Posturography device was used for the sensory organization test. Sensory organization test was repeated three times for each participant in three different test environments. The balance scores in the silence environment were lower in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group but the differences were not statistically significant. In addition to lower balance scores the visual and vestibular ratios were also lower. Auditory distractors affected the general balance performance positively for both groups. More challenging conditions, using an unstable platform with distorted somatosensory signals were more affected. Relaxing music was more effective in the control group, and white noise was more effective in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group and the positive effects of white noise became more apparent in challenging conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating balance performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder under the effects of auditory distractors. Although more studies are needed, our results indicate that auditory distractors

  5. CERN exhibition attracts over 100,000 visitors in Belgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    “This must be an 'all-time record',” says Ray Lewis, CERN travelling exhibition manager. “In all my time with the various permanent and travelling exhibitions that have taken place locally and within our Member States I have never experienced such figures.”   Zarko Obradovic (left), Serbian Minister of Education, Science and Technology, and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN Director-General, at the CERN travelling exhibition in Belgrade. Indeed, in approximately 20 days of exhibition time about 120,000 people, mainly school visiters and the general public, visited the 100 m2 CERN mini-exhibition. It was set up in the centre of Belgrade in October, in association with the meeting of the Restricted European Committee for Future Accelerators (RECFA). After attending the RECFA meeting, CERN's Director-General Rofl Heuer opened the CERN exhibition on the evening of 19 October. Lectures about CERN were held every afternoon, and two public de...

  6. Maintaining students’ Speaking Fluency through Exhibition Examination in Sociolinguistic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusnul Qhotimah Yuliatuty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Using exhibition for the final project in Sociolinguistic study is really interesting for Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional students, especially for 2011 English Department students. Exhibition becomes interesting because this is the new thing to conduct the final project for English Department students’ cohort 2011 at Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional. The lecturer divides the students into pairs and each pairs should master one content or topic in Sociolinguistic study.  The students will do the exhibition about the topic that they get in a pairs. The lecturer also gives the students rubric sheet to fill by the visitors. The exhibition will make the students prepare themselves well because they will face many questions about the content which will be delivered by them. Beside, this exhibition also maintains students’ fluency in speaking English because they will explain and answer the questions from visitors with English. This paper tries to focus on how exhibition examination can maintain students’ fluency in speaking English.

  7. The Eugenides Foundation Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiannis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology is installed in an area of 1200 m2 at the Eugenides Foundation. 65 interactive exhibits, designed by the "Cites des Science et de l' Industrie" are organised in themes, stimulate the visitors' mind and provoke scientific thinking. Parallel activities take place inside the exhibition, such as live science demonstrations, performed by young scientists. Extra material such as news bulletins (short news, science comics and portraits), educational paths and treasure-hunting based games, all available online as well, are prepared on a monthly basis and provided along with the visit to the exhibition. Through these exhibits and activities, scientific facts are made simple and easy to comprehend using modern presentation tools. We present details on how this exhibition acts complementary to the science education provided by schools, making it a highly sophisticated educational tool.

  8. Students-exhibits interaction at a science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Agostinho; Morais, Ana M.

    2006-12-01

    In this study we investigate students' learning during their interaction with two exhibits at a science center. Specifically, we analyze both students' procedures when interacting with exhibits and their understanding of the scientific concepts presented therein. Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse (1990, 2000) provided the sociological foundation to assess the exhibit-student interaction and allowed analysis of the influence of the characteristics of students, exhibits, and interactions on students' learning. Eight students (ages 12ndash;13 years of age) with distinct sociological characteristics participated in the study. Several findings emerged from the results. First, the characteristics of the students, exhibits, and interactions appeared to influence student learning. Second, to most students, what they did interactively (procedures) seems not to have had any direct consequence on what they learned (concept understanding). Third, the data analysis suggest an important role for designers and teachers in overcoming the limitations of exhibit-student interaction.

  9. Ellagic acid ameliorates learning and memory deficits in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease: an exploration of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiasalari, Zahra; Heydarifard, Rana; Khalili, Mohsen; Afshin-Majd, Siamak; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Zahedi, Elham; Sanaierad, Ashkan; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. Current therapies for AD are still insufficient. In this study, the effect of ellagic acid on learning and memory deficits was evaluated in intrahippocampal amyloid beta (Aβ 25-35 )-microinjected rats and its modes of action were also explored. AD rat model was induced by bilateral intrahippocampal microinjection of Aβ 25-35 and ellagic acid was daily administered (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg), and learning, recognition memory, and spatial memory were evaluated in addition to histochemical assessment, oxidative stress, cholinesterases activity, and level of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). The amyloid beta-microinjected rats showed a lower discrimination ratio in novel object and alternation score in Y maze tasks and exhibited an impairment of retention and recall capability in passive avoidance paradigm and higher working and reference memory errors in radial arm maze (RAM). In addition, amyloid beta group showed a lower number of Nissl-stained neurons in CA1 area in addition to enhanced oxidative stress, higher activity of cholinesterases, greater level of NF-κB and TLR4, and lower level of nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio for Nrf2 and ellagic acid at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly prevented most of these abnormal alterations. Ellagic acid pretreatment of intrahippocampal amyloid beta-microinjected rats could dose-dependently improve learning and memory deficits via neuronal protection and at molecular level through mitigation of oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and modulation of NF-κB/Nrf2/TLR4 signaling pathway.

  10. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... claims to understand diagnosis and treatment patterns for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). On this page you can ...

  11. Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renew CHADD Annual Conference Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD), is a national nonprofit organization ... ADHD community. © 2017 by Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD). All Rights Reserved. Press Privacy ...

  12. Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood: A study conducted on parents of children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. ... 10, No 1 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and TSC What is ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder. It is ...

  14. Error related negativity and multi-source interference task in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Huerta-Albarrán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare performance of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders-combined (ADHD-C type with control children in multi-source interference task (MSIT evaluated by means of error related negativity (ERN. Method We studied 12 children with ADHD-C type with a median age of 7 years, control children were age- and gender-matched. Children performed MSIT and simultaneous recording of ERN. Results We found no differences in MSIT parameters among groups. We found no differences in ERN variables between groups. We found a significant association of ERN amplitude with MSIT in children with ADHD-C type. Some correlation went in positive direction (frequency of hits and MSIT amplitude, and others in negative direction (frequency of errors and RT in MSIT. Conclusion Children with ADHD-C type exhibited a significant association between ERN amplitude with MSIT. These results underline participation of a cingulo-fronto-parietal network and could help in the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanisms of ADHD.

  15. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yong Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantified using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identified as regions with significant group-wise differences. The identified regions were correlated with clinical scores reflecting depression and anxiety and significant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain circuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  16. Awareness of deficits in traumatic brain injury: a multidimensional approach to assessing metacognitive knowledge and online-awareness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Keeffe, Fiadhnait

    2007-01-01

    Recent models of impaired awareness in brain injury draw a distinction between metacognitive knowledge of difficulties and online awareness of errors (emergent and anticipatory). We examined performance of 31 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) participants and 31 healthy controls using a three-strand approach to assessing awareness. Metacognitive knowledge was assessed with an awareness interview and discrepancy scores on three questionnaires--Patient Competency Rating Scale, Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Online Emergent Awareness was assessed using an online error-monitoring task while participants performed tasks of sustained attention. Online anticipatory awareness was examined using prediction performance on two cognitive tasks. Results indicated that the TBI Low Self-Awareness (SA) group and High SA group did not differ in terms of severity, chronicity or standard neuropsychological tasks but those with Low SA were more likely to exhibit disinhibition, interpersonal problems and more difficulties in total competency. Sustained attention abilities were associated with both types of online awareness (emergent and anticipatory). There was a strong relationship between online emergent and online anticipatory awareness. Metacognitive knowledge did not correlate with the other two measures. This study highlights the necessity in adopting a multidimensional approach to assessing the multifaceted phenomenon of awareness of deficits.

  17. Preliminary evidence of altered neural response during intertemporal choice of losses in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Saori C; Yahata, Noriaki; Todokoro, Ayako; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kano, Yukiko; Nishimura, Yukika; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Ohtake, Fumio; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2018-04-30

    Impulsive behaviours are common symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although previous studies have suggested functional models of impulsive behaviour, a full explanation of impulsivity in ADHD remains elusive. To investigate the detailed mechanisms behind impulsive behaviour in ADHD, we applied an economic intertemporal choice task involving gains and losses to adults with ADHD and healthy controls and measured brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the intertemporal choice of future gains, we observed no behavioural or neural difference between the two groups. In the intertemporal choice of future losses, adults with ADHD exhibited higher discount rates than the control participants. Furthermore, a comparison of brain activity representing the sensitivity of future loss in the two groups revealed significantly lower activity in the striatum and higher activity in the amygdala in adults with ADHD than in controls. Our preliminary findings suggest that an altered size sensitivity to future loss is involved in apparent impulsive choice behaviour in adults with ADHD and shed light on the multifaceted impulsivity underlying ADHD.

  18. Deficits in long-term recognition memory reveal dissociated subtypes in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Stollhoff

    Full Text Available The study investigates long-term recognition memory in congenital prosopagnosia (CP, a lifelong impairment in face identification that is present from birth. Previous investigations of processing deficits in CP have mostly relied on short-term recognition tests to estimate the scope and severity of individual deficits. We firstly report on a controlled test of long-term (one year recognition memory for faces and objects conducted with a large group of participants with CP. Long-term recognition memory is significantly impaired in eight CP participants (CPs. In all but one case, this deficit was selective to faces and didn't extend to intra-class recognition of object stimuli. In a test of famous face recognition, long-term recognition deficits were less pronounced, even after accounting for differences in media consumption between controls and CPs. Secondly, we combined test results on long-term and short-term recognition of faces and objects, and found a large heterogeneity in severity and scope of individual deficits. Analysis of the observed heterogeneity revealed a dissociation of CP into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. Thirdly, we found that among CPs self-assessment of real-life difficulties, based on a standardized questionnaire, and experimentally assessed face recognition deficits are strongly correlated. Our results demonstrate that controlled tests of long-term recognition memory are needed to fully assess face recognition deficits in CP. Based on controlled and comprehensive experimental testing, CP can be dissociated into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. The CP subtypes identified align with those found in prosopagnosia caused by cortical lesions; they can be interpreted with respect to a hierarchical neural system for face perception.

  19. Deficits in long-term recognition memory reveal dissociated subtypes in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollhoff, Rainer; Jost, Jürgen; Elze, Tobias; Kennerknecht, Ingo

    2011-01-25

    The study investigates long-term recognition memory in congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a lifelong impairment in face identification that is present from birth. Previous investigations of processing deficits in CP have mostly relied on short-term recognition tests to estimate the scope and severity of individual deficits. We firstly report on a controlled test of long-term (one year) recognition memory for faces and objects conducted with a large group of participants with CP. Long-term recognition memory is significantly impaired in eight CP participants (CPs). In all but one case, this deficit was selective to faces and didn't extend to intra-class recognition of object stimuli. In a test of famous face recognition, long-term recognition deficits were less pronounced, even after accounting for differences in media consumption between controls and CPs. Secondly, we combined test results on long-term and short-term recognition of faces and objects, and found a large heterogeneity in severity and scope of individual deficits. Analysis of the observed heterogeneity revealed a dissociation of CP into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. Thirdly, we found that among CPs self-assessment of real-life difficulties, based on a standardized questionnaire, and experimentally assessed face recognition deficits are strongly correlated. Our results demonstrate that controlled tests of long-term recognition memory are needed to fully assess face recognition deficits in CP. Based on controlled and comprehensive experimental testing, CP can be dissociated into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. The CP subtypes identified align with those found in prosopagnosia caused by cortical lesions; they can be interpreted with respect to a hierarchical neural system for face perception.

  20. Motivation deficits and use of alcohol and illicit drugs among individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahorik, Amber L; Greeno, Catherine G; Cochran, Gerald; Cornelius, Jack R; Eack, Shaun M

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the impact of substance use on intrinsic motivation and evaluated the association between intrinsic motivation and substance use recovery among individuals with schizophrenia. Alcohol and illicit drug use and intrinsic motivation were evaluated at baseline and 6-months for 1434 individuals with schizophrenia from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) using self-rated substance use assessments and a derived motivation measure from the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale. Results revealed patients had moderate motivation deficits overall and a considerable number were using alcohol or illicit drugs at baseline (n=576; 40.2%). Regression models at baseline showed patients with low levels of motivation had higher odds of substance use and those who were using substances had greater motivation deficits. At 6-months, substance using patients continued to demonstrate greater motivation deficits; however, those with high levels of motivation exhibited a greater reduction in their use of substances. Findings remained significant after adjusting for clinical confounds and were consistent across any substance, alcohol, and cannabis use. Our results emphasize concerns about substance use compounding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and suggest that disentangling the motivation-substance use relationship in schizophrenia may facilitate efforts aimed at ameliorating these challenges and improving outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.