Sample records for group evidenced significantly

  1. Examining the Effects of Text Genre and Structure on Fourth-and Fifth-Grade Students' High-Level Comprehension as Evidenced in Small-Group Discussions

    Li, Mengyi; Murphy, P. Karen; Firetto, Carla M.


    Although there is a rich literature on the role of text genre and structure on students' literal comprehension, more research is needed regarding the role of these text features on students' high-level comprehension as evidenced in their small-group discussions. As such, the present study examined the effects of text genre (i.e., narrative and…

  2. The Compositional Legacy : Significant, contemporary, compositional techniques as lateral drivers to new creativity, evidenced within a substantial portfolio of original compositions : Volume 1 of 2 volumes

    Scanlon, David G.


    The thesis cites the identification of significant, contemporary, compositional techniques and their use as lateral drivers in developing new creativity. The process involves the preliminary definition of a position of contributory perspective and thus, of a standpoint and outlook which guides the subsequent re-interpretations, transformations, fusions and manipulations of the selected techniques. The consequent explorations, shaped by new developments, current context, practic...

  3. [Significance of expert-guided groups for relatives in psychiatry].

    Plessen, U; Postzich, M; Wilkmann, M


    Psychiatric interest in relatives of patients was concentrated in the past on their pathogenetic and etiological influence on mental illness. The medical paradigma of mental illness did not account for relatives affliction in psychic disturbance of their family member. Against this a community care oriented approach involves relatives into psychiatric care, particularly under the aspects of coping strategies and rehabilitative sources. Practicability and effects of this approach were explored in expert-guided relative groups at the Psychiatric Hospital Gütersloh (FRG). Results indicated that relatives are concerned with a series of problems. Participating in relative groups facilitates coping with these problems. Expert-guided and relative centered groups were found helpful, discharging and encouraging for relatives.

  4. Significant association between ABO blood group and pancreatic cancer

    Julia; B; Greer; Mark; H; Yazer; Jay; S; Raval; M; Michael; Barmada; Randall; E; Brand; David; C; Whitcomb


    AIM:To evaluate whether the ABO blood group is related to pancreatic cancer risk in the general population of the United States.METHODS:Using the University of Pittsburgh's clinicalpancreatic cancer registry,the blood donor database from our local blood bank (Central Blood Bank),and the blood product recipient database from the regional transfusion service (Centralized Transfusion Service) in Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania,we identified 274 pancreatic cancer patients with previously determined serological ABO bloo...

  5. Prognostic significance of cholestatic alcoholic hepatitis. VA Cooperative Study Group #119.

    Nissenbaum, M; Chedid, A; Mendenhall, C; Gartside, P


    Tissue cholestasis is a histologic feature in some patients with alcoholic liver disease, but its significance is unknown. We studied prospectively the clinical, laboratory, and histologic findings of 306 chronic male alcoholics in whom liver tissue was available. Tissue cholestasis permitted identification of two groups: group I, absent or mild cholestasis (239 patients), and group II, moderate to severe cholestasis (67 patients). Statistical evaluation was performed by Student's t test and regression analyses. In patients with tissue cholestasis, 97% had elevated serum cholylglycine levels, while only 61% had significant jaundice (serum bilirubin greater than 5 mg/dl). In patients without tissue cholestasis, 66% had elevated serum cholylglycine and 13.5% jaundice. Highly significant statistical correlations (P less than 0.0001) were found between cholestasis and malnutrition, prothrombin time, AST, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, Maddrey's discriminant function, serum cholylglycine level, albumin, and histologic severity score. In group I, 54% survived 60 months versus 22% in group II (P less than 0.0001). Highly significant statistical correlations (P less than 0.0001) were noted between serum cholylglycine levels and the parameters enumerated earlier, but not with survival. We conclude that tissue cholestasis is a highly significant prognostic indicator of outcome in alcoholic hepatitis and is more consistently associated with bile salt retention than jaundice.

  6. Presence and potential significance of aromatic-ketone groups in aquatic humic substances

    Leenheer, J.A.; Wilson, M.A.; Malcolm, R.L.


    Aquatic humic- and fulvic-acid standards of the International Humic Substances Society were characterized, with emphasis on carbonyl-group nature and content, by carbon-13 nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy, proton nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. After comparing spectral results of underivatized humic and fulvic acids with spectral results of chemically modified derivatives, that allow improved observation of the carbonyl group, the data clearly indicated that aromatic ketone groups comprised the majority of the carbonyl-group content. About one ketone group per monocyclic aromatic ring was determined for both humic and fulvic acids. Aromatic-ketone groups were hypothesized to form by photolytic rearrangements and oxidation of phenolic ester and hydrocarbon precursors; these groups have potential significance regarding haloform formation in water, reactivity resulting from active hydrogen of the methyl and methylene adjacent to the ketone groups, and formation of hemiketal and lactol structures. Aromatic-ketone groups also may be the point of attachment between aliphatic and aromatic moieties of aquatic humic-substance structure. ?? 1987.

  7. Significance of Joint Features Derived from the Modified Group Delay Function in Speech Processing

    Murthy Hema A


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the significance of combining cepstral features derived from the modified group delay function and from the short-time spectral magnitude like the MFCC. The conventional group delay function fails to capture the resonant structure and the dynamic range of the speech spectrum primarily due to pitch periodicity effects. The group delay function is modified to suppress these spikes and to restore the dynamic range of the speech spectrum. Cepstral features are derived from the modified group delay function, which are called the modified group delay feature (MODGDF. The complementarity and robustness of the MODGDF when compared to the MFCC are also analyzed using spectral reconstruction techniques. Combination of several spectral magnitude-based features and the MODGDF using feature fusion and likelihood combination is described. These features are then used for three speech processing tasks, namely, syllable, speaker, and language recognition. Results indicate that combining MODGDF with MFCC at the feature level gives significant improvements for speech recognition tasks in noise. Combining the MODGDF and the spectral magnitude-based features gives a significant increase in recognition performance of 11% at best, while combining any two features derived from the spectral magnitude does not give any significant improvement.

  8. Significance of Joint Features Derived from the Modified Group Delay Function in Speech Processing

    Rajesh M. Hegde


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the significance of combining cepstral features derived from the modified group delay function and from the short-time spectral magnitude like the MFCC. The conventional group delay function fails to capture the resonant structure and the dynamic range of the speech spectrum primarily due to pitch periodicity effects. The group delay function is modified to suppress these spikes and to restore the dynamic range of the speech spectrum. Cepstral features are derived from the modified group delay function, which are called the modified group delay feature (MODGDF. The complementarity and robustness of the MODGDF when compared to the MFCC are also analyzed using spectral reconstruction techniques. Combination of several spectral magnitude-based features and the MODGDF using feature fusion and likelihood combination is described. These features are then used for three speech processing tasks, namely, syllable, speaker, and language recognition. Results indicate that combining MODGDF with MFCC at the feature level gives significant improvements for speech recognition tasks in noise. Combining the MODGDF and the spectral magnitude-based features gives a significant increase in recognition performance of 11% at best, while combining any two features derived from the spectral magnitude does not give any significant improvement.

  9. Group mindfulness-based therapy significantly improves sexual desire in women.

    Brotto, Lori A; Basson, Rosemary


    At least a third of women across reproductive ages experience low sexual desire and impaired arousal. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental present moment awareness, may improve women's sexual functioning. The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy, either immediately or after a 3-month waiting period, in women seeking treatment for low sexual desire and arousal. Women participated in four 90-min group sessions that included mindfulness meditation, cognitive therapy, and education. A total of 117 women were assigned to either the immediate treatment (n = 68, mean age 40.8 yrs) or delayed treatment (n = 49, mean age 42.2 yrs) group, in which women had two pre-treatment baseline assessments followed by treatment. A total of 95 women completed assessments through to the 6-month follow-up period. Compared to the delayed treatment control group, treatment significantly improved sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, sexual satisfaction, and overall sexual functioning. Sex-related distress significantly decreased in both conditions, regardless of treatment, as did orgasmic difficulties and depressive symptoms. Increases in mindfulness and a reduction in depressive symptoms predicted improvements in sexual desire. Mindfulness-based group therapy significantly improved sexual desire and other indices of sexual response, and should be considered in the treatment of women's sexual dysfunction.

  10. Comparison of evidenced and expected ADN competencies.

    Burch, S; Joyce-Nagata, B; Reeb, R


    These study findings indicate that nursing service administrators in the State of Mississippi expect strong technical level skills from the ADN. Congruency between nursing education and nursing service was validated. The predominance of role competencies outlined by nurse educators were validated as both expected and evidenced for the ADN in the State of Mississippi. Competencies need to be continually evaluated to reflect changes in the health delivery system as related to the ADN.

  11. On the Question of Methodological Support of Research on Relationships of Interpersonal Significance in Kindergarten Groups

    Iliyn V.A.


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the importance of in-depth research (in particular, employing an algorithm developed by M.Yu. Kondratyev for defining integral status of an individual on child-child interpersonal relationship in kindergarten groups. Although relationships with significant adults are by all means essential for preschool children, interpersonal relation- ships on the child-child level to a great extent shape the content of the social situation of development in general. Still, when it comes to revealing status and role position of the child in the structure of interpersonal relationships within the kindergarten group, there’s the challenge of defining informal intragroup structure of power in contact community (due to the age specifics. The paper suggests how this challenge may be addressed and provides a version of the technique suitable for preschoolers that helps overcome age restrictions implied by the original technique. Also, the paper reports on the outcomes of approbation of this version which proved its heuristic nature. For instance, the outcomes show a high degree of correlation between the results of kindergarten group members ranking in accordance with their influence upon peers carried out by teachers working in these groups.

  12. Corrective interpersonal experience in psychodrama group therapy: a comprehensive process analysis of significant therapeutic events.

    McVea, Charmaine S; Gow, Kathryn; Lowe, Roger


    This study investigated the process of resolving painful emotional experience during psychodrama group therapy, by examining significant therapeutic events within seven psychodrama enactments. A comprehensive process analysis of four resolved and three not-resolved cases identified five meta-processes which were linked to in-session resolution. One was a readiness to engage in the therapeutic process, which was influenced by client characteristics and the client's experience of the group; and four were therapeutic events: (1) re-experiencing with insight; (2) activating resourcefulness; (3) social atom repair with emotional release; and (4) integration. A corrective interpersonal experience (social atom repair) healed the sense of fragmentation and interpersonal disconnection associated with unresolved emotional pain, and emotional release was therapeutically helpful when located within the enactment of this new role relationship. Protagonists who experienced resolution reported important improvements in interpersonal functioning and sense of self which they attributed to this experience.

  13. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    Crow, C.J.


    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  14. Deriving statistical significance maps for SVM based image classification and group comparisons.

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Davatzikos, Christos


    Population based pattern analysis and classification for quantifying structural and functional differences between diverse groups has been shown to be a powerful tool for the study of a number of diseases, and is quite commonly used especially in neuroimaging. The alternative to these pattern analysis methods, namely mass univariate methods such as voxel based analysis and all related methods, cannot detect multivariate patterns associated with group differences, and are not particularly suitable for developing individual-based diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. A commonly used pattern analysis tool is the support vector machine (SVM). Unlike univariate statistical frameworks for morphometry, analytical tools for statistical inference are unavailable for the SVM. In this paper, we show that null distributions ordinarily obtained by permutation tests using SVMs can be analytically approximated from the data. The analytical computation takes a small fraction of the time it takes to do an actual permutation test, thereby rendering it possible to quickly create statistical significance maps derived from SVMs. Such maps are critical for understanding imaging patterns of group differences and interpreting which anatomical regions are important in determining the classifier's decision.

  15. Intrapartum caesarean rates differ significantly between ethnic groups--relationship to induction.

    Ismail, Khadijah I


    OBJECTIVE: Given international variation in obstetric practices and outcomes, comparison of labour outcomes in different ethnic groups could provide important information regarding the underlying reasons for rising caesarean delivery rates. Increasing numbers of women from Eastern European countries are now delivering in Irish maternity hospitals. We compared labour outcomes between Irish and Eastern European (EE) women in a large tertiary referral center. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective consecutive cohort study encompassing a single calendar year. The cohort comprised 5550 Irish and 867 EE women delivered in a single institution in 2009. Women who had multiple pregnancies, breech presentation, and elective or pre-labour caesarean sections (CS) were excluded. Data obtained from birth registers included maternal age, nationality, parity, gestation, onset of labour, mode of delivery and birth weight. RESULTS: The overall intrapartum CS rate was 11.4% and was significantly higher in Irish compared to EE women (11.8% vs. 8.8%; p=0.008). The proportion of primiparas was lower in Irish compared to EE women (44.8% vs. 63.6%; p<0.0001). The intrapartum CS rate was almost doubled in Irish compared to EE primiparas (20.7% vs. 11.0%; p<0.0001). Analysis of primiparas according to labour onset revealed a higher intrapartum CS rate in Irish primiparas in both spontaneous (13.5% vs. 7.2%; p<0.0001) and induced labour (29.5% vs. 19.3%; p=0.005). Irish women were older with 19.7% of primiparas aged more than 35, compared to 1.6% of EE women (p<0.0001). The primigravid CS rate in Irish women was significantly higher in women aged 35 years or older compared women aged less than 35 (30.6% vs. 18.3%; p<0.0001) consistent in both spontaneous and induced labour. The primiparous induction rate was 45.4% in Irish women compared to 32% in EE women, and more Irish women were induced before 41 weeks gestation. CONCLUSION: The results highlight that primigravid intrapartum CS rates were

  16. An emergency department intervention to protect an overlooked group of children at risk of significant harm.

    Kaye, P


    BACKGROUND: Parental psychiatric disorder, especially depression, personality disorder and deliberate self-harm, is known to put children at greater risk of mental illness, neglect or physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Without a reliable procedure to identify children of parents presenting with these mental health problems, children at high risk of significant harm can be easily overlooked. Although deliberate self-harm constitutes a significant proportion of emergency presentations, there are no guidelines which address the emergency physician\\'s role in identifying and assessing risk to children of these patients. METHODS: A robust system was jointly developed with the local social services child protection team to identify and risk-stratify children of parents with mental illness. This allows us to intervene when we identify children at immediate risk of harm and to ensure that social services are aware of potential risk to all children in this group. The referral process was audited repeatedly to refine the agreed protocol. RESULTS: The proportion of patients asked by the emergency department personnel about dependent children increased and the quality of information received by the social services child protection team improved. CONCLUSIONS: All emergency departments should acknowledge the inadequacy of information available to them regarding patients\\' children and consider a policy of referral to social services for all children of parents with mental health presentations. This process can only be developed through close liaison within the multidisciplinary child protection team.

  17. Clinical Significance of an Alloantibody against the Kell Blood Group Glycoprotein

    Mattaloni, Stella Maris; Arnoni, Carine; Céspedes, Rosario; Nonaka, Claudia; Trucco Boggione, Carolina; Luján Brajovich, Melina Eliana; Trejo, Andrea; Zani, Néstor; Biondi, Claudia Silvia; Castilho, Lilian; Cotorruelo, Carlos Miquel


    Background Kell null (K0) individuals can produce anti-Ku, an antibody against many epitopes in the Kell glycoprotein, after transfusion and/or pregnancy. Since sensitized K0 patients are rare, little is known about anti-Ku clinical relevance and in particular about its association to hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Case Report This work describes a case of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to immune-mediated erythrocyte destruction by an alloantibody directed against the Kell glycoprotein. Serologic and molecular approaches identified an anti-Ku alloantibody in maternal serum. A homozygous IVS3 + 1g>a point mutation (KEL*02N.06 allele) was found to be responsible for the lack of Kell antigen expression in the mother's red blood cell and subsequent alloimmunization after a previous pregnancy. Even though in most cases Kell antibodies are clinically severe and may cause suppression of erythropoiesis, in our case the newborn had a moderate anemia and hyperbilirubinemia that was successfully treated with phototherapy without requiring exchange transfusion. Serological and molecular studies performed in the proband's family members allowed us to provide them with proper counseling regarding alloimmunization after transfusion and/or pregnancy. Conclusions This case enlarges the understanding of the clinical significance of alloantibodies against Kell blood group antigens.

  18. Evaluation and significance of hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG) in liquid-based paps

    Chivukula, Mamatha; Austin, R Marshall; Shidham, Vinod B


    Objective Hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG), a term first introduced into the cytology literature by DeMay in 1995, are commonly observed in Pap tests and may rarely be associated with serious but difficult to interpret lesions. In this study, we specifically defined HCG as dark crowded cell groups with more than 15 cells which can be identified at 10× screening magnification. Methods We evaluated consecutive liquid-based (Surepath) Pap tests from 601 women (age 17–74 years, mean age 29.4 yrs) and observed HCG in 477 cases. In all 477 HCG cases, Pap tests were found to be satisfactory and to contain an endocervical sample. HCG were easily detectible at 10× screening magnification (size up to 400 um, mean 239.5 um) and ranged from 1 to 50 (mean 19.5) per Pap slide. Results HCG predominantly represented 3-Dimensional groups of endocervical cells with some nuclear overlap (379/477 – 79%), reactive endocervical cells with relatively prominent nucleoli and some nuclear crowding (29/477 – 6%), clusters of inflammatory cells (25/477 – 5.2%), parabasal cells (22/477 – 4.6%), endometrial cells (1/477 – 0.2%). Epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA) were present in only 21 of 477 cases (4.6%). 18 of 21 women with HCG-associated ECA were less than 40 years old; only 3 were =/> 40 years. HCG-associated final abnormal Pap test interpretations were as follows: ASCUS (6/21 – 28%), LSIL (12/21 – 57%), ASC-H (2/21 – 9.5%), and HSIL/CIN2-3 (3/21 – 14%). The association of HCG with ECA was statistically significant (p = 0.0174. chi-square test). In patients with ECA, biopsy results were available in 10 cases, and 4 cases of biopsy-proven CIN2/3 were detected. Among these four cases, HCG in the Pap tests, in retrospect represented the lesional high grade cells in three cases (one HSIL case and two ASC-H cases). Interestingly, none of the 124 cases without HCG were found to have an epithelial cell abnormality. Conclusion We conclude: a. HCG are observed in a high

  19. Frustration, anger, and the significance of alter-ego transferences in group psychotherapy.

    Stone, W N


    When working with narcissistically vulnerable and angry patients in group psychotherapy one must take into account the entire treatment context. Interaction takes place among the identified patient, the other members, the therapist, and the image of the group as a whole. In members' counter-reactions to the difficult person, group-destructive forces frequently are stimulated. The offending individual may flee, or the group may reach an impasse in which little growth occurs. In this communication, I have focused on alter-ego relationships and transferences as a way of understanding aspects of group formation and destruction. Angry patients may have intense wishes to be like others and to feel part of the human condition. They suffer from feeling alone. Disruption of an alter-ego relationship may result in rage. A self-psychological perspective in concert with knowledge of group dynamics enables the clinician to formulate ways of intervening in problematic group interactions. The therapist's capacity to attend to the vulnerabilities of the self of all persons involved in the group is often severely tested, particularly under circumstances of emotional contagion. Elucidation of twinship and alter-ego transferences may help stabilize difficult patients and enable them to restart their psychological growth.

  20. Evaluating a Survivors Group Pilot for Women with Significant Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused

    Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Howlett, Susan; Corbett, Alan


    Background: Sexual abuse has been associated with trauma, low self-esteem, anger, depression and challenging behaviours. This pilot study builds on a small published literature by evaluating a survivors group (SG) for women with an intellectual disability and an educational support group (ESG) for their carers. Method: The SG was delivered weekly…

  1. GOAL: A software tool for assessing biological significance of genes groups

    Famili Fazel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern high throughput experimental techniques such as DNA microarrays often result in large lists of genes. Computational biology tools such as clustering are then used to group together genes based on their similarity in expression profiles. Genes in each group are probably functionally related. The functional relevance among the genes in each group is usually characterized by utilizing available biological knowledge in public databases such as Gene Ontology (GO, KEGG pathways, association between a transcription factor (TF and its target genes, and/or gene networks. Results We developed GOAL: Gene Ontology AnaLyzer, a software tool specifically designed for the functional evaluation of gene groups. GOAL implements and supports efficient and statistically rigorous functional interpretations of gene groups through its integration with available GO, TF-gene association data, and association with KEGG pathways. In order to facilitate more specific functional characterization of a gene group, we implement three GO-tree search strategies rather than one as in most existing GO analysis tools. Furthermore, GOAL offers flexibility in deployment. It can be used as a standalone tool, a plug-in to other computational biology tools, or a web server application. Conclusion We developed a functional evaluation software tool, GOAL, to perform functional characterization of a gene group. GOAL offers three GO-tree search strategies and combines its strength in function integration, portability and visualization, and its flexibility in deployment. Furthermore, GOAL can be used to evaluate and compare gene groups as the output from computational biology tools such as clustering algorithms.

  2. Deriving statistical significance maps for SVM based image classification and group comparisons

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Davatzikos, Christos


    Population based pattern analysis and classification for quantifying structural and functional differences between diverse groups has been shown to be a powerful tool for the study of a number of diseases, and is quite commonly used especially in neuroimaging. The alternative to these pattern analysis methods, namely mass univariate methods such as voxel based analysis and all related methods, cannot detect multivariate patterns associated with group differences, and are not particularly suit...

  3. Magnetic resonance appearance of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The GRI Study Group.

    Bellaïche, L; Laredo, J D; Lioté, F; Koeger, A C; Hamze, B; Ziza, J M; Pertuiset, E; Bardin, T; Tubiana, J M


    A prospective multicenter study. To evaluate the use of magnetic resonance imaging, in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. Although multiple myeloma has been studied extensively with magnetic resonance imaging, to the authors' knowledge, no study has evaluated the clinical interest of magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The magnetic resonance examinations of the thoracolumbar spine in 24 patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were compared with those performed in 44 patients with newly diagnosed nontreated multiple myeloma. All findings on magnetic resonance examination performed in patients with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were normal, whereas findings on 38 (86%) of the 44 magnetic resonance examinations performed in patients with multiple myeloma were abnormal. Magnetic resonance imaging can be considered as an additional diagnostic tool in differentiating between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma, which may be helpful when routine criteria are not sufficient. An abnormal finding on magnetic resonance examination in a patient with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance should suggest the diagnosis of multiple myeloma after other causes of marrow signal abnormalities are excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging also may be proposed in the long-term follow-up of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance when a new biologic or clinical event suggests the diagnosis of malignant monoclonal gammopathy.

  4. Water Desalination through Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes: Significant Role of Functional Groups.

    Gupta, Krishna M; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen


    A molecular simulation study is reported for water desalination through five zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes, namely ZIF-25, -71, -93, -96, and -97. The five ZIFs possess identical rho-topology but differ in functional groups. The rejection of salt (NaCl) is found to be around 97% in ZIF-25, and 100% in the other four ZIFs. The permeance ranges from 27 to 710 kg/(m(2)·h·bar), about one∼two orders of magnitude higher compared with commercial reverse osmosis membranes. Due to a larger aperture size da, ZIF-25, -71, and -96 exhibit a much higher water flux than ZIF-93 and -97; however, the flux in ZIF-25, -71, and -96 is governed by the polarity of functional group rather than da. With the hydrophobic CH3 group, ZIF-25 has the highest flux despite the smallest da among ZIF-25, -71, and -96. The lifetime of hydrogen bonding in ZIF-25 is shorter than that in ZIF-71 and -96. Furthermore, water molecules undergo a fast flushing motion in ZIF-25, but frequent jumping in ZIF-96 and particularly in ZIF-97. An Arrhenius-type relationship is found between water flux in ZIF-25 and temperature, and the activation energy is predicted to be 6.5 kJ/mol. This simulation study provides a microscopic insight into water desalination in a series of ZIFs, reveals the key factors (aperture size and polarity of functional group) governing water flux, and suggests that ZIF-25 might be an interesting reverse osmosis membrane for high-performance water desalination.

  5. The significance of healthy aging for older persons who participated in health education groups

    Valer, Daiany Borghetti; Bierhals, Carla Cristiane Becker Kottwitz; Aires,Marinês; Paskulin, Lisiane Manganelli Girardi


    Introduction: Different terms have been used to describe the aging process while avoiding the negative consequences of advanced age. In this context healthy aging assumes a more extensive meaning than the absence of disease, and includes a process of adapting to the changes that occur throughout life, related to the maintenance of a healthy old age. Objective : To describe the meaning of healthy aging for older adults who participated in health education groups in the Basic Health Care Servi...

  6. Scope definition and resection significance of No. 12a group lymph nodes in gastric cancer.

    Huang, Yongjian; Zhu, Guangwei; Zheng, Wei; Hua, Jin; Yang, Shugang; Zhuang, Jinfu; Wang, Jinzhou; Ye, Jianxin


    A discrepancy exists between the 7th edition guidelines of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the 3rd edition Japanese treatment guidelines in terms of the classification of No. 12a lymph nodes as regional or distant lymph nodes in D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. The scope definition of No. 12a lymph nodes has yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to assess the appropriateness of reclassifying No. 12a lymph node metastasis as distant metastasis according to the survival rate outcome, and to provide a clear and practical definition of the No. 12a group lymph nodes of gastric cancer. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with gastric cancer who underwent standard or greater lymphadenectomy between January 2000 and December 2009 to find an association between No. 12a node metastasis and survival outcome. The present study first presented a clear and practical scope definition of the No. 12a group lymph nodes of gastric cancer, according to our clinical experiences and practices (Table I and Fig. 1). The survival outcome of patients with gastric cancer and No. 12a lymph node metastasis was poorer compared with that of patients with no No. 12a lymph node metastasis (P=0.0003). The results were similar in stage III patients with gastric cancer (Pcancer (P=0.1968). Cox regression analysis revealed that the AJCC stage was independently associated with an unfavorable cumulative survival rate. Logistic regression analysis revealed that tumor location, AJCC stage, intravascular cancer emboli and nerve invasion were associated with No. 12a lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, the data in the present study suggested that No. 12a lymph node metastasis is associated with distant metastasis, and therefore they concur with the 7th edition AJCC gastric cancer guidelines, which appear to be correct in terms of considering No. 12a lymph node metastasis as distant metastasis.

  7. Palaeobiology of Mesoproterozoic Salkhan Limestone, Semri Group, Rohtas, Bihar, India: Systematics and significance

    Mukund Sharma


    Mesoproterozoic (∼1600 Ma old) Salkhan Limestone (Semri Group)of the Vindhyan Supergroup, exposed in Rohtas district of Bihar,India,preserves an abundant and varied ancient microbial assemblage.These microfossils are recorded in three distinctly occurring cherts viz.,bedded chert, stromatolitic chert and cherty stromatolites.27 morphoforms belonging to 14 genera and 21 species have been recognized.Six unnamed forms are also described. The microbial assemblage,almost exclusively composed of the remnants of cyanobacteria,is dominated by entophysalidacean members and short trichomes and can be termed as ‘typical Meso-proterozoic microbiotas ’.The assemblage includes characteristic mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria. Eoentophysalis is the dominant organism in the assemblage. Ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeollipsoides) and spherical unicells also occur;both are distinct from mat forming assemblage,allochthonous and possibly planktic.Co-occurrence of the microbiotas and precipitates is related to the depositional environment of the Mesoproterozoic tidal flats with high carbonate saturation.

  8. Incidence rates of specific histological types of lung cancer in Singapore Chinese dialect groups, and their aetiological significance.

    Law, C H; Day, N E; Shanmugaratnam, K


    Significant differences in the incidence levels of lung cancer have been observed among major Chinese dialect groups or communities (Kokkien, Teochew and Cantonese) in Singapore. Among males, the incidence rate is highest in the Hokkiens (age-standardized incidence rate per 100,000 persons per year in Hokkien 67.8, Teochew 55.3, Cantonese 54.0) and among females, it is highest in the Cantonese (Hokkien 12.4, Teochew 12.8, Cantonese 27.2). The present investigation was undertaken to determine the incidence rates of each of the main histological types of lung cancer in the Chinese population and to determine whether there are any correlations between histological patterns and the dialect group differentials that may be of aetiological significance. During the period 1968-1972, a total of 1,747 cases of lung cancer (1,285 males and 462 females) were reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry. It proved possible to type the neoplasms histologically in 476 males (37.0%) and 154 females (33.3%). Age-standardized rates by histological type were computed on the assumption that those histologically typed were a representative sample of all lung cancers. This study shows that Hokkien males have a significantly higher incidence rate of epidermoid carcinoma than the other dialect groups (Hokkien 36.1, Teochew 21.1, Cantonese 17.3). The Cantonese females have significantly higher incidence rates of both epidermoid carcinoma (Hokkien 3.7, Teochew 2.3, Cantonese 5.9) and adenocarcinoma (Hokkien 4.6, Teochew 3.6, Cantonese 11.9). Various sources of bias in studied of this type were examined; it is concluded that the differences in the histologic-specific incidence rates of lung cancer among the various Chinese dialect groups in Singapore are real and not artefactual. The significance of these findings in relation to possible aetiological factors is discussed.

  9. Changes of High Mobility Group box 1 in Serum of Pig Acute Hepatic Failure Model and Significance

    Fan ZHANG; Yongwen HE; Zhongping DUAN


    The role of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) in acute hepatic failure and the ef- fect of artificial liver support system treatment on HMGB-1 level were investigated. Pig models of acute hepatic failure were induced by D-galactosamine and randomly divided into two groups with or without artificial liver support system treatment. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels were detected by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the expression of HMGB-1 by Western blot, and serum levels of HMGB-1, liver function and hepatic pathology were observed after artificial liver support system treatment. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were increased and reached the peak at 24th h in the acute hepatic failure group, then quickly decreased. The serum level of HMGB-1 was increased at 24th h in the acute hepatic failure group and reached the peak at 48th h, then kept a stable high level. Significant liver injury appeared at 24th h and was continuously getting worse in the pig models of acute hepatic failure. In contrast, the liver injury was significantly alleviated and serum level of HMGB-1 was significantly decreased in the group treated with artificial liver support system (P<0.05). It was suggested that HMGB-1 may participate in the inflammatory response and liver injury in the late stage of the acute liver failure. Artificial liver support system treatment can reduce serum HMGB-1 level and relieve liver pathological damage.

  10. Clinical significance of serum high mobility group box 1 protein in patients with severe traumatic brain injury



    Objective To detect the levels of high mobility group box 1 protein(HMGB1),tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),interleukin-6(IL-6),C-reactive protein(CRP)in order to explore the clinical significance of HMGB1 in patients with severely traumatic brain injury.Methods A total of 75 patients composed of 40 male and35 female with severely traumatic brain

  11. The efficacy of adult christian support groups in coping with the death of a significant loved one.

    Goodman, Herbert; Stone, Mark H


    Psychologists sometimes minimize important resources such as religion and spiritual beliefs for coping with bereavement. Alienation of therapeutic psychology from religious values contrasts to professional and public interest in religious experience and commitment. A supportive viewpoint has come about partially as a result of recognizing important values which clinicians have found absent in many of their clients. Until spiritual belief systems become integrated into the work of clinicians, clients may not be fully integrative in coping with loss. The key finding of this study was that individuals who participated in Christian and secular support groups showed no statistically significant difference in their mean endorsement of negative criteria on the BHS, and no statistically significant difference for their mean score endorsement of positive criteria on the RCOPE. However, a Christian-oriented approach was no less effective than a psychological-oriented one. In both groups, a spiritual connection to a specific or generalized higher power was frequently identified which clients ascribed to facilitating the management of their coping.

  12. Provenance and U-Pb geochronology of the Upper Cretaceous El Chanate Group, northwest Sonora, Mexico, and its tectonic significance

    Jacques-Ayala, C.; Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Jacobson, C.E.


    The Upper Cretaceous El Chanate Group, northwest Sonora, Mexico, is a 2.8km thick clastic sedimentary sequence deposited in a continental basin closely related to volcanic activity. It consists of three formations: the Pozo Duro (oldest), the Anita, and the Escalante (youngest). Petrographic study, conglomerate pebble counts, and U-Pb geochronology of detrital zircons were performed to determine the source and age of this sequence, and to interpret its tectonic setting. In the sandstones of all three formations, the most abundant grains are those of volcanic composition (Q38F22L 40, Q35F19L46, and Q 31F22L47, respectively). The Pozo Duro Formation includes well-rounded quartz-arenite clast conglomerates, whereas conglomerates of the two upper units have clasts predominantly of andesitic and rhyolitic composition. The most likely source for these sediments was the Jurassic volcanic arc exposed in northern Sonora and southern Arizona. Zircons from five sandstone samples define two main age groups, Proterozoic and Mesozoic. The first ranges mostly from 1000 to 1800Ma, which suggests the influence of a cratonic source. This zircon suite is interpreted to be recycled and derived from the same source area as the quartz-rich sandstone clasts in the basal part of the section. Mesozoic zircons range from Triassic to Late Cretaceous, which confirms the proposed Late Cretaceous age for the sequence, and also corroborates Jurassic felsic source rocks. Another possible source was the Alisitos volcanic arc, exposed along the western margin of the Baja California Peninsula. Of regional significance is the great similarity between the El Chanate Group and the McCoy Mountains Formation of southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Both are Cretaceous, were deposited in continental environments, and have similar zircon-age patterns. Also, both exhibit intense deformation and locally display penetrative foliation. These features strongly suggest that both units underwent

  13. 78 FR 8407 - Authorization To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems; Discontinued Indicia


    ... 501 Authorization To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems; Discontinued Indicia... concerning the manufacture and distribution of postage evidencing systems to clarify that effective January 1, 2016, all postage evidencing systems (postage meters and PC Postage products) will be required...

  14. 76 FR 74753 - Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems


    ... governing the inventory control processes of Postage Evidencing Systems (PES) provided to customers by....14 Postage Evidencing System inventory control processes. (a) Each authorized provider of Postage... Evidencing Systems and their components to enable accurate accounting and location thereof throughout...

  15. Trajectories of Change in University Students' General Views of Group Work Following One Single Group Assignment: Significance of Instructional Context and Multidimensional Aspects of Experience

    Wosnitza, Marold; Volet, Simone


    This paper examines how distinct trajectories of change in students' general views of group work over the duration of one single group assignment could be explained by multidimensional aspects of their experience and the overall instructional context. Science (336) and Education (377) students involved in a semester-long group assignment…

  16. Significance of grooming behavior in two polygynous groups of western black crested gibbons: Implications for understanding social relationships among immigrant and resident group members.

    Guan, Zhen-Hua; Huang, Bei; Ning, Wen-He; Ni, Qing-Yong; Sun, Guo-Zheng; Jiang, Xue-Long


    In primates, grooming is considered among the most common behaviors for maintaining social bonds; however, to date, few studies have examined grooming behavior in gibbon species in detail. We used both a 5-min interval scan method and social network analysis to study grooming in two groups of polygynous western black-crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) in Wuliang Mountain, Central Yunnan, China. Individuals in both groups spent little time in social grooming (1.45% and 1.97% of active time). We compared the two groups' grooming networks and found that the group that maintained a more stable social unit had a more complex grooming network while the group with new immigrants had a grooming network characterized by fewer grooming pairs. Females in both groups played important roles in the grooming network. A newly immigrant female spent the most time grooming others and chose the resident adult female as her main adult grooming partner. Other females from both groups chose the adult male as their primary grooming partner (except their offspring). A sub-adult male who had resided in his natal group for 2 years after maturing into an adult also groomed more and was at the center of the network. This male finally replaced the breeding male in his group 3 years after our data collection period ended. We hypothesize that the immigrant female and the resident young adult male engaged in more extensive grooming interactions as a behavioral strategy to gain tolerance from long-term residents. Our results suggest that female gibbons in polygynous groups actively cooperate in maintaining social relationships rather than co-exist through tolerance or avoidance. Our observations indicate that grooming networks in crested gibbons reflect individual dynamics and partly support the social cohesion hypothesis for primate grooming. In this regard, we suggest that changes in gibbon grooming networks can be used to predict social change.

  17. The emergence of the non-profit foundation as a significant organizational format for group practice in California.

    Johnson, J R


    The non-profit foundation is fast becoming a factor in the organizational structure of group practices. A growing number of group practices have adopted this format as a means of positioning themselves for survival and success in the turbulent, changing environment of the health care delivery system.

  18. Networks of Food Sharing Reveal the Functional Significance of Multilevel Sociality in Two Hunter-Gatherer Groups.

    Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg


    Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging.

  19. Real-Space Renormalization Group for Quantum Gravity I: Significance of terms linear and quadratic in curvature

    Sharatchandra, H S


    Real-Space renormalization group techniques are developed for tackling large curvature fluctuations in quantum gravity. Within cells of invariant volume $a^4$, only certain types of fluctuations are allowed. Normal coordinates are used to avoid redundancy of the degrees of freedom. The relevant integration measure is read off from the metric on metrics. All fluctuations in a group of cells are averaged over to get an effective action for the larger cell. In this paper the simplest type of fluctuations are kept. The measure is simply an integration over independent components of the curvature tensor at the center of each cell. Terms of higher order in $a$ are required for convergence in case of Einstein-Hilbert action. With only next order (in $a$) contribution to the action, there is no renormalization of Newton's or cosmological constants. The `massless Gaussian surface' in the renormalization group space is given by actions that have linear and quadratic terms in curvature and determines the evolution of co...

  20. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry.

    Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Logacheva, Maria D; Altınışık, N Ezgi; Flegontova, Olga; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gerasimov, Evgeny S; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Konovalova, Olga P; Neretina, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri V; Starostin, George; Stepanova, Vita V; Travinsky, Igor V; Tříska, Martin; Tříska, Petr; Tatarinova, Tatiana V


    The Kets, an ethnic group in the Yenisei River basin, Russia, are considered the last nomadic hunter-gatherers of Siberia, and Ket language has no transparent affiliation with any language family. We investigated connections between the Kets and Siberian and North American populations, with emphasis on the Mal'ta and Paleo-Eskimo ancient genomes, using original data from 46 unrelated samples of Kets and 42 samples of their neighboring ethnic groups (Uralic-speaking Nganasans, Enets, and Selkups). We genotyped over 130,000 autosomal SNPs, identified mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, and performed high-coverage genome sequencing of two Ket individuals. We established that Nganasans, Kets, Selkups, and Yukaghirs form a cluster of populations most closely related to Paleo-Eskimos in Siberia (not considering indigenous populations of Chukotka and Kamchatka). Kets are closely related to modern Selkups and to some Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Altai region, with all these groups sharing a high degree of Mal'ta ancestry. Implications of these findings for the linguistic hypothesis uniting Ket and Na-Dene languages into a language macrofamily are discussed.

  1. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry

    Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Logacheva, Maria D.; Altınışık, N. Ezgi; Flegontova, Olga; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Gerasimov, Evgeny S.; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E.; Konovalova, Olga P.; Neretina, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri V.; Starostin, George; Stepanova, Vita V.; Travinsky, Igor V.; Tříska, Martin; Tříska, Petr; Tatarinova, Tatiana V.


    The Kets, an ethnic group in the Yenisei River basin, Russia, are considered the last nomadic hunter-gatherers of Siberia, and Ket language has no transparent affiliation with any language family. We investigated connections between the Kets and Siberian and North American populations, with emphasis on the Mal’ta and Paleo-Eskimo ancient genomes, using original data from 46 unrelated samples of Kets and 42 samples of their neighboring ethnic groups (Uralic-speaking Nganasans, Enets, and Selkups). We genotyped over 130,000 autosomal SNPs, identified mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, and performed high-coverage genome sequencing of two Ket individuals. We established that Nganasans, Kets, Selkups, and Yukaghirs form a cluster of populations most closely related to Paleo-Eskimos in Siberia (not considering indigenous populations of Chukotka and Kamchatka). Kets are closely related to modern Selkups and to some Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Altai region, with all these groups sharing a high degree of Mal’ta ancestry. Implications of these findings for the linguistic hypothesis uniting Ket and Na-Dene languages into a language macrofamily are discussed. PMID:26865217

  2. SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of the detrital zircons from the Longshoushan Group and its tectonic significance

    KuoAn TUNG; HoungYi YANG; LIU DunYi; ZHANG JianXin; ChienYuan TSENG; WAN YuSheng


    Sixty-two geologically meaningful U-Pb dates were obtained by using SHRIMP technique for the detrital zircons in three mettasedimentary rocks from stratigraphically uppermost parts of the Longshoushan Group in the present study.Eighty percents of these dates range from 1.7 Ga to 2.2 Ga with a peak at 1.8-2.0 Ga and twenty percents from 2.3 Ga to 2.7 Ga.The youngest detrital zircon is dated at 1724±19Ma which is interpreted as the maximum depositional age of the metasedimentary rocks.Therefore,the age for the diagenesis and lithification of the original sedimentary rocks of the Longshoushan Group before the metamorphism must be younger than 1724±19 Ma.Comparison of the age histograms of these detrital zircons with the ages of the igneous rocks on the surrounding older massifs suggests that the sediments of the Longshoushan Group were most likely derived from the Alaxa Block and Tarim Craton.This implies that the affinity between Alaxa Block and Tarim Craton was strong and that they might have been a unified craton during middle-early Proterozoic time

  3. Permian bivalves of the Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin, and their biostratigraphic significance

    Marcello Guimarães Simões


    Full Text Available A small and poorly diversified bivalve fauna from Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin (State of Santa Catarina,Mafra Municipality, is described in this paper for the first time, based on new findings. The fauna is recorded in a 30 cmthick interval of fine sandstone locally at the top of Taciba Formation, in the Butiá quarry. The studied fossil-bearing sandstonebed is a marine intercalation recording a brief eustatic rise in sea-level, probably following glacier retreat and climateamelioration at the end of a broad glacial scenario. The fauna is mainly dominated by productid brachiopods, which are notdescribed here, and rare mollusk shells (bivalves and gastropods. Two bivalve species were identified: Myonia argentinensis(Harrington, 1955, and Aviculopecten multiscalptus (Thomas, 1928. The presence of Myonia argentinensis is noteworthysince this species is also present in the Baitaca assemblage found in marine siltstones (Baitaca assemblage of theRio do Sul Formation, cropping out at the Teixeira Soares region, Paraná State. This species is also recorded in the bivalvefauna from the Bonete Formation, Pillahinco Group, Sauce Grande Basin, Buenos Aires Province, in Argentina. Hence, themarine bivalves of the Taciba Formation are associated with the transgressive event that characterizes the Eurydesma fauna,indicating a Late Asselian-Sakmarian age for the bivalve fauna. Presence of the Myonia argentinensis megadesmid speciesreinforces the Gondwanic nature of the studied fauna.

  4. Occurrence of helically coiled microfossil Obruchevella in the Owk Shale of the Kurnool Group and its significance

    Mukund Sharma; Yogmaya Shukla


    The present study reports occurrence of helically coiled microfossil Obruchevella Reitlinger from the Owk Shale of the Kurnool Group from the peninsular India. The age of the Kurnool Group is poorly constrained due to the absence of direct radiometric dating and meager palaeobiological data. Occurrence of Obruchevella is considered as a typical Vendian marker genus recorded mostly from close to the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary successions. Hence, the present assemblage is important to ascertain the age of the basin. In the Owk Shale, four species of Obruchevella, viz., O. delicata, O. parva, O. minor and O. valdaica are recorded as organic walled microfossils. Among them O. valdaica is the largest in terms of size parameters. On the global scale, the recovered species occur in the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian sediments. Therefore, the occurrence of microfossil Obruchevella in the Owk Shale and known burrow structures in the Narji Limestone suggest Ediacaran age close to the Cambrian for the Kurnool Basin and challenges the recently assigned esoproterozoic age of the basin.

  5. The occurrence and prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation/-flutter following acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study group. TRAndolapril Cardiac Evalution

    Pedersen, O D; Bagger, H; Køber, L;


    AIMS: To investigate the occurrence and prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation/-flutter following acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence and prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation/-flutter were studied in 6676 consecutive patients with acute myocardial...... extensive, thrombolytic therapy was received less frequently, and anterior Q wave myocardial infarction was experienced more frequently than patients without atrial fibrillation/-flutter. History of acute myocardial infarction and/or angina pectoris was similar in patients with and without atrial......, relative risk=1.4 (95% Cl: 1.2-1.7). CONCLUSION: Atrial fibrillation/-flutter often occurs after acute myocardial infarction and our analysis demonstrated that it was an independent predictor of an increased short and long-term mortality....

  6. On the significance of the anchoring group in the design of antenna materials based on phthalocyanine stopcocks and zeolite L.

    López-Duarte, Ismael; Dieu, Le-Quyenh; Dolamic, Igor; Martínez-Díaz, M Victoria; Torres, Tomás; Calzaferri, Gion; Brühwiler, Dominik


    The synthesis of stopcocks based on zinc phthalocyanine for selective adsorption at the channel entrances of zeolite L is reported. The introduction of either an inert SiMe₃ moiety, an imidazolium cation or a reactive isothiocyanate (NCS) group allows attachment to the channel entrances of zeolite L through van der Waals interactions, electrostatic interactions, or covalent binding, respectively. Stopcocks that rely on van-der-Waals-driven adsorption require careful selection of the solvent used for the deposition onto the zeolite surface to avoid a nonspecific distribution of the molecules. Regarding the design of photonic antenna systems, a stopcock with a cationic tail was found to be the most convenient, based on the observation that efficient energy transfer from molecules located in the zeolite nanochannels is more readily obtained than in the other cases.

  7. [The difficult concept of "internal objects" (1934-1943). Its significance for the formation of the Klein group].

    Hinshelwood, R D


    Although the concept of "inner objects" developed by Melanie Klein is hardly a major object of discussion today, it caused a furore in the ranks of the British Psychoanalytical Society in the thirties and forties. Notably the analysts from Vienna were unable to agree to the existence of inner objects engendered via processes of internalisation. The author traces the course of these discussions of a clinical problem and the confusion they caused, placing them at the same time in a specific historical context. He sees the controversy as the expression of conflicts and fears unsettling the British Psychoanalytical Society during that period, caused on the one hand by the necessary integration of the exiled Freud family and on the other by tensions within its own ranks leading ultimately to a division of the Society and the constitution of the Klein Group.

  8. Trace fossils from Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower to Middle Miocene) of Mizoram India and their palaeoenvironmental significance

    Raghavendra P Tiwari; Chinmoy Rajkonwar; Lalchawimawii; Paul Lalnuntluanga Jehova Malsawma; Victor Z Ralte; Satish J Patel


    A detailed ichnological study performed on the Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower to Middle Miocene) of Mizoram, India reveals the occurrence of rich and diverse trace fossils. These have been collected from the two localities in Aizawl, i.e., Bawngkawn and Ropaiabawk, where sandstone-shale sequence is well exposed. Total 20 ichnospecies of 14 ichnogenera have been identified which include Arenicolites isp., Cochlichnus anguineus, Helminthopsis abeli, Laevicyclus mongraensis, Ophiomorpha borneensis, Palaeophycus tubularis, Palaeophycus heberti, Palaeophycus sulcatus, Palaeophycus alternatus, Pholeus abomasoformis, Pholeus bifurcatus, Planolites beverleyensis, Planolites annularis, Polykladichnus irregularis, Rhizocorallium isp., Skolithos linearis, Taenidium satanassi, Teichichnus rectus, Thalassinoides horizontalis and Thalassinoides paradoxicus. Ethologically these ichnogenera display dwelling and feeding activities of the infaunal organisms. Arenicolites, Ophiomorpha, Polykladichnus and Skolithos are the members of the Skolithos ichnofacies while Palaeophycus, Planolites, Rhizocorallium and Thalassinoides are the members of the Cruziana ichnofacies. The presence of Skolithos ichnofacies indicates sandy shifting substrate and high energy conditions in foreshore zone while the Cruziana ichnofacies indicate unconsolidated, poorly sorted soft substrate and low energy condition in the shoreface/offshore zone. These ichnogenera indicate foreshore to shoreface-offshore zone of shallow marine environment for the deposition of the rocks of the Bhuban Formation of Mizoram.

  9. Formation and geochemical significance of micrometallic aggregates including fissiogenic platinum group elements in the Oklo natural reactor, Gabon

    Kikuchi, Makiko; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Gauthier-Lafaye, François


    Metallic aggregates with a size of a few tens μm and consisting mainly of Ru, Rh, Pd, Te, Pb, As, Sb, S and Bi were found in the acid residue of SD37-S2/CD uraninite taken from Oklo natural reactor zone (RZ) 13. Quantitative analyses of major elements using an electron probe microanalyzer and in situ isotopic analyses of Zr, Mo, Ru, Pb and U using a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe were performed on the metallic aggregates to determine the geochemical behaviors of fission products and actinides and to ascertain the processes of formation of the aggregates in the RZs. The chemical compositions of the aggregates investigated in this study are significantly different from those reported previously, showing lower Pb content and no correlation between the contents of Pb and S in the individual grains. The 235U/ 238U ratios in metallic aggregates vary significantly from 0.00478 to 0.01466, indicating chemical fractionation between U and Pu during the formation of the aggregates. The Pb isotopic data indicate that most of the Pb in the aggregates decayed from 2.05 Ga-old uraninite that existed in the RZ originally and that there was chemical fractionation between U and Pb in some aggregates. The Zr and Mo isotopic ratios, 90Zr/ 91Zr and 95Mo/ 97Mo, for most of the aggregates had small variations, which can be simply explained by constant separate mixing of fissiogenic and nonfissiogenic components. On the other hand, a large variation in the 99Ru/ 101Ru ratio (0.324-1.73) cannot be explained only by a two component mixing theory; thus, chemical fractionation between Tc and Ru during the reactor criticality is suggested. The large variations in the 235U/ 238U and 99Ru/ 101Ru isotopic ratios suggest that the aggregates formed under various redox conditions owing to the radiolysis of water.

  10. 77 FR 56554 - Revisions to the Requirements for Authority to Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems


    ... for Authority to Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM... 501--AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS 0 1. The authority... Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) to reflect recommended changes in Sarbanes-Oxley...

  11. 77 FR 23618 - Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems


    ... 501 Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems AGENCY: Postal Service TM...--AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS 1. The authority citation for 39 CFR part... Postage Evidencing Systems that it manufactures or distributes, except those purchased by the...

  12. 75 FR 56471 - Revisions to the Requirements for Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems


    ... regulations to require that companies that manufacture and distribute postage evidencing systems (``Company or..., produce, and distribute Postage Evidencing Systems. The Postal Service published a proposed rule in the... manufacture and distribute postage evidencing systems. This revision clarifies the internal controls...

  13. Caries Experience Evidenced in Children having Dental Fluorosis.

    A, Tuli; U, Rehani; A, Aggrawal


    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children aged 8-13 years having dental fluorosis and to determine the correlation between the grades of dental fluorosis and caries. 451 school children in the age group of 8-13 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean's criteria Index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by DMFT index. The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of grade 2 fluorosis was the highest and grade 5 fluorosis was the lowest in all the age groups. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in the age group between 12-13 years followed by the age group between 13-14 years. The overall DMFT increased as the age of the children increased in the different age groups. The DMFT increased as the severity of fluorosis increased upto grade 2 and then decreased from grade 3 to grade 5.

  14. Clinical significance of pretransplant serum ferritin on the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT: a prospective cohort study by the Kanto Study Group for Cell Therapy.

    Tanaka, M; Kanamori, H; Matsumoto, K; Tachibana, T; Numata, A; Ohashi, K; Kobayashi, T; Nakaseko, C; Kanda, Y; Yamazaki, E; Fujisawa, S; Ooi, J; Sakura, T; Aotsuka, N; Onoda, M; Machida, S; Kato, J; Usuki, K; Watanabe, R; Taguchi, J; Yano, S; Saito, T; Takahashi, S; Sakamaki, H; Okamoto, S


    This prospective study aimed to investigate the influence of pretransplant serum ferritin levels on the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). In total, 190 patients with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome were consecutively enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups: low-ferritin group (ferritin group (⩾1000 ng/mL). The primary end point was the cumulative incidence of infection within 100 days after HSCT, which was similar between the two groups: bloodstream infection, 35 vs 38%, P=0.65; bacterial infection, 44 vs 41%, P=0.68; and fungal infection, 6 vs 8%, P=0.71. The 1-year adjusted probability of OS of the high-ferritin group was significantly lower than that of the low-ferritin group (76 vs 63%, P=0.017). Using receiver operating characteristic curve, the threshold of pretransplant serum ferritin levels for bloodstream infection was 1400 ng/mL; the threshold for OS, EFS and non-relapse mortality was 1349 ng/mL. In conclusion, pretransplant serum ferritin levels of ⩾1000 ng/mL did not influence the incidence of infection but adversely affected OS after HSCT. A higher threshold of pretransplant serum ferritin levels may predict HSCT outcomes.

  15. Caries Experience Evidenced in Children having Dental Fluorosis

    A, Tuli; U, Rehani; A, Aggrawal


    Background and objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children aged 8-13 years having dental fluorosis and to determine the correlation between the grades of dental fluorosis and caries. Material and methods: 451 school children in the age group of 8-13 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean’s criteria Index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to WHO...

  16. Professionally significant psychophysiological qualities of information logical group of specialties at implementation of the experimental program of professionally applied physical training of students

    Ostapenko Y.O.


    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve vocational and applied physical training of students of economics. Material: the pedagogical study involved 72 male students (aged 19-20 years. Results: job study was conducted. Defined professionally significant neurobehavioral performance of students of information logical group. Matched professionally applied exercises for their development. The results showed that in the process of purposeful muscle activity improved mechanisms of regulation of neural processes, adaptive changes occur that affect the temporal parameters of sensorimotor motor responses. A comparative analysis of the psychophysiological indicators of students of the control and experimental groups was done. Conclusions: it was found that matched professionally applied exercises positively affect the development of psycho-physiological qualities of students information and logical group of specialties.

  17. 46 CFR 67.265 - Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release.


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for instruments evidencing satisfaction or... for instruments evidencing satisfaction or release. An instrument satisfying or releasing a mortgage... claim of lien is recorded. If the recording information cannot be provided because the satisfaction...

  18. Significant immediate and long-term improvement in quality of life and disease coping in patients with vitiligo after group climatotherapy at the Dead Sea.

    Krüger, Christian; Smythe, Jim W; Spencer, Jennifer D; Hasse, Sybille; Panske, Angela; Chiuchiarelli, Giorgia; Schallreuter, Karin U


    Quality of life in patients with vitiligo is impaired. This study explored the immediate effect of 20 days of climatotherapy at the Dead Sea on quality of life, coping with the disease, general well-being and individual stress levels in a group of 71 patients with vitiligo and 42 matched controls. The long-term effect was assessed after 12 months in 33/71 patients and 12/42 controls. Study instruments were Dermatology Life Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory and the Adjustment to Chronic Skin Disorders Questionnaire. Stress measurements were based on cortisol and β-endorphin concentrations in saliva samples. Quality of life was significantly improved at day 20 at the Dead Sea compared with day 1, and this was still significant after 12 months. Moreover, social anxiety/avoidance, anxious-depressive mood and helplessness as measured by the Adjustment to Chronic Skin Disorders Questionnaire were significantly reduced. There was no difference in levels of cortisol and β-endorphin between patients and controls, indicating that stress per se is not a significant contributor in vitiligo. In conclusion, therapy in patient groups offers an effective tool for long-lasting improvement in quality of life and patients' well-being.

  19. Significant genotype difference in the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism of indigenous groups in Sabah, Malaysia with Asian and non-Asian populations.

    Goh, Lucky Poh Wah; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin


    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (ppopulations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.

  20. Suicide Ideation among College Students Evidencing Subclinical Depression

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Schlegel, Erin F.; Smith, Phillip N.; Jacobs, Matthew P.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Paukert, Ambert L.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Joiner, Thomas E.


    Identifying elevated suicide ideation in college students is a critical step in preventing suicide attempts and deaths by suicide on college campuses. Although suicide ideation may be most prominent in students with severe depression, this should not suggest that only students with severe depression experience significant risk factors for suicide.…

  1. Suicide Ideation among College Students Evidencing Subclinical Depression

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Schlegel, Erin F.; Smith, Phillip N.; Jacobs, Matthew P.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Paukert, Ambert L.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Joiner, Thomas E.


    Identifying elevated suicide ideation in college students is a critical step in preventing suicide attempts and deaths by suicide on college campuses. Although suicide ideation may be most prominent in students with severe depression, this should not suggest that only students with severe depression experience significant risk factors for suicide.…

  2. Suicide Ideation Among College Students Evidencing Subclinical Depression


    Identifying elevated suicide ideation in college students is a critical step in preventing suicide attempts and deaths by suicide on college campuses. Although suicide ideation may be most prominent in students with severe depression, this should not suggest that only students with severe depression experience significant risk factors for suicide.

  3. Immunocompromentation of persons from groups with high risk of parenteral contamination with hepatitis B and C viruses: mechanisms of development and clinical pathogenetical significance

    M. K. Mamedov


    Full Text Available The paper contains data demonstrated that majority of persons belonged to groups with high risk of parenteral contamination with hepatitis B and C viruses yet before contamination with these viruses have complex of immunological disorders. In the article is presented the data reflecting main causes of these disorders development at different categories of such persons and main aspects of their pathogenetical and clinical significance are discussed.

  4. Eating lizards: a millenary habit evidenced by Paleoparasitology

    Sianto Luciana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analyses of coprolites have contributed to the knowledge of diet as well as infectious diseases in ancient populations. Results of paleoparasitological studies showed that prehistoric groups were exposed to spurious and zoonotic parasites, especially food-related. Here we report the findings of a paleoparasitological study carried out in remote regions of Brazil’s Northeast. Findings Eggs of Pharyngodonidae (Nematoda, Oxyuroidea, a family of parasites of lizards and amphibians, were found in four human coprolites collected from three archaeological sites. In one of these, lizard scales were also found. Conclusions Through the finding of eggs of Pharyngodonidae in human coprolites and reptile scales in one of these, we have provided evidence that humans have consumed reptiles at least 10,000 years ago. This food habit persists to modern times in remote regions of Brazil’s Northeast. Although Pharyngodonidae species are not known to infect humans, the consumption of raw or undercooked meat from lizards and other reptiles may have led to transmission of a wide range of zoonotic agents to humans in the past.

  5. Fossil micro-organisms evidenced by electronic microscopy

    Prashnowsky, A.A.; Oberlies, F.; Burger, K.


    Fossil microorganisms in colonies and in the form of isolated cells (iron bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes etc.) were detected by electron microscopy of rocks containing remains of plant roots, carbonaceous substance, and strata of clay iron stone with ooids. These findings suggest an environment favourable to bacterial activity during sedimentation in the Upper Carboniferous and during the later processes of peat and coal formation. They also suggest that bacterial processes are an important factor in coal formation. Accurate data on coal formation can only be obtained by systematic biochemical studies. Analyses of the defined organic substances provide a better understanding of the conversion processes of the original substances. For example, the results of sterine analysis provide information on the mycoplancton, phytoplancton and zooplancton of the Upper Carboniferous. For some types of rock, the ratio of saponifiable to non-saponifiable constituents of the organic compounds yield information on stability under various geochemical conditions. The interactions between the various groups of microorganisms also play a major role in the solution of ecological problems.

  6. Analysis of registered CDM projects: potential removal of evidenced bottlenecks

    Agosto, D.; Bombard, P.; Gostinelli, F.


    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has developed during its first period of implementation, a distinctive set of patterns. The authors thought of concentrating on the CDM analysis in order to highlight potential remedies or reasons for given bottlenecks. In order to establish a sort of extensive SWOT analysis for CDMs, all the 356 projects actually (November 2006) registered at UNFCCC were examined, together with all the about 1000 PDDs presented to the UNFCCC but not registered yet. The CDM projects have been studied trying to cluster projects according to relevant characteristics, both from a technical and an economic point of view. Chosen indicators are meant to identify: more convenient/more diffused energy system for a CDM; reasons for a geographical distribution of different types of projects; potentials for a future exploitation of lower used technologies in CDM. Conclusions are drawn and appropriate tables and graphs presented. (1) the Baseline Emission Factor, combined to economic patterns, is the pivotal factor that characterizes both choices of host country and technology; (2) some technologies can exploit appropriately CDM scheme, whilst other technologies, are constrained by it. (3) there are still some important weak points: grouping of non Annex I countries; crediting period; criteria for the evaluation of sustainable development. (auth)

  7. Effect of thermal treatment on potato starch evidenced by EPR, XRD and molecular weight distribution.

    Bidzińska, Ewa; Michalec, Marek; Pawcenis, Dominika


    Effect of heating of the potato starch on damages of its structure was investigated by quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and determination of the molecular weight distribution. The measurements were performed in the temperature range commonly used for starch modifications optimizing properties important for industrial applications. Upon thermal treatment, because of breaking of the polymer chains, diminishing of the average molecular weights occurred, which significantly influences generation of radicals, evidenced by EPR. For the relatively mild conditions, with heating parameters not exceeding temperature 230 °C and time of heating equal to 30 min a moderate changes of both the number of thermally generated radicals and the mean molecular weight of the starch were observed. After more drastic thermal treatment (e.g. 2 h at 230 °C), a rapid increase in the radical amount occurred, which was accompanied by significant reduction of the starch molecular size and crystallinity. Experimentally established threshold values of heating parameters should not be exceeded in order to avoid excessive damages of the starch structure accompanied by the formation of the redundant amount of radicals. This requirement is important for industrial applications, because significant destruction of the starch matrix might annihilate the positive influence of the previously performed intentional starch modification.

  8. Cellular injury evidenced by impedance technology and infrared microspectroscopy

    le Roux, K.; Prinsloo, L. C.; Meyer, D.


    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is finding increasing biological application, for example in the analysis of diseased tissues and cells, cell cycle studies and investigating the mechanisms of action of anticancer drugs. Cancer treatment studies routinely define the types of cell-drug responses as either total cell destruction by the drug (all cells die), moderate damage (cell deterioration where some cells survive) or reversible cell cycle arrest (cytostasis). In this study the loss of viability and related chemical stress experienced by cells treated with the medicinal plant, Plectranthus ciliatus, was investigated using real time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) technology and FTIR microspectroscopy. The use of plants as medicines is well established and ethnobotany has proven that crude extracts can serve as treatments against various ailments. The aim of this study was to determine whether FTIR microspectroscopy would successfully distinguish between different types of cellular injury induced by a potentially anticancerous plant extract. Cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells were treated with a crude extract of Pciliatus and cells monitored using RT-CES to characterize the type of cellular responses induced. Cell populations were then investigated using FTIR microspectroscopy and statistically analysed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The plant extract and a cancer drug control (actinomycin D) induced concentration dependent cellular responses ranging from nontoxic, cytostatic or cytotoxic. Thirteen spectral peaks (915 cm-1, 933 cm-1, 989 cm-1, 1192 cm-1, 1369 cm-1, 1437 cm-1, 1450 cm-1, 1546 cm-1, 1634 cm-1, 1679 cm-1 1772 cm-1, 2874 cm-1 and 2962 cm-1) associated with cytotoxicity were significantly (p value test, Bonferroni) altered, while two of the bands were also indicative of early stress related responses. In PCA, poor separation between nontoxic and cytostatic responses was evident while

  9. The screening and clinical significance of Rh blood group system%Rh血型系统阴性血型筛查及其临床意义

    毕红琳; 刘更夫; 龚永启; 左芳; 郑璐琳


    Objective To investigate and analyze the RhD( — ) ,RhE( — ) and RhC( — ) of Rh blood group system and to provide the experiment basis for preventing hemolytic transfusion reaction(HTR) and newborn hemolytic disease(NHD). Methods 11 035 cases of blood samples were examined for ABO,RhD,RhE and RhC blood groups by using micro-column gel method. Results A mong all of the detected samples,0. 21% (23/11 035) were with RhD( — ),47. 8%(5 275/11 035)with RhE( — ) and 7. 6% (839/11 035) with RhE( — ). Conclusion To take Rh blood group system,including RhD,RhE and RhC,as routine blood group tests might have important clinical significance in the prevention of HTR and NHD,as well as in the improvement of the safety of a blood transfusion treatment.%目的 筛查Rh血型系统Rh(D)、Rh(E)、Rh(C)阴性血型,为临床预防溶血性输血反应及新生儿溶血性疾病的发生提供实验依据.方法 用微柱凝胶法对11 035例作ABO血型鉴定标本同时进行Rh血型系统Rh(D)、Rh(E)、Rh(C)阴性血型筛查.结果 Rh(D)抗原阴性23例,检出率为0.21%;Rh(E)抗原阴性5 275例,检出率为47.8%;Rh(C)抗原阴性839例,检出率为7.6%.结论 将Rh血型系统Rh(D)、Rh(E)、Rh(C)纳入到血型的常规检验项目,对预防溶血性输血反应的发生、提高输血治疗的安全性,以及预防新生儿溶血性疾病的发生具有十分重要的临床意义.

  10. Self-reinnervated cat medial gastrocnemius muscles. II. analysis of the mechanisms and significance of fiber type grouping in reinnervated muscles.

    Rafuse, V F; Gordon, T


    1. The technique of glycogen depletion was used to determine whether regenerating motor axons reestablish the normal regionalization of motor units (MUs) in the cat medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle, 2) whether the extent of clumping between MU fibers and/or type grouping of muscle fibers progressively increases with a decrease in reinnervated MU numbers, and 3) whether the pattern of innervation can explain why MUs fail to increase significantly in size when the cut nerve is sutured directly to the muscle, even when few axons make functional connections. 2. Distributions of MU fibers were analyzed in 5 normal and 14 reinnervated cat MG muscles 4.5-16 mo after sectioning of its nerve and suturing of the proximal end to the distal nerve sheaths (N-N suture) or directly to the muscle fascia (N-M suture). Muscle unit distributions were quantified according to location, territory size, density, and extent of clumping between fibers from the same MU. 3. Normal MU fibers were regionalized within five regions along the muscle's longitudinal and transverse axes. Reinnervated MUs were located within similar regions, indicating that regenerating axons follow the major proximal nerve branches to restore normal compartmentalization. 4. Muscle unit fibers were diffusely scattered within discrete MU territories in normal muscles. Territory size tended to increase with MU size, whereas density of muscle unit fibers within the territory decreased. 5. Territories increased with MU size after N-N suture but were smaller and showed little size variation after N-M suture. The extent of muscle unit fiber clumping was inversely related to the number of reinnervated MUs. On average, the extent of clumping was substantially higher in muscles reinnervated after N-M suture. These results indicate that distal nerve sheaths facilitate proximal axon branching, which establishes MU territory size. Once the territory is established, motor axons branch distally to increase MU size, which in turn

  11. Chinese SLE Treatment and Research group (CSTAR) registry VII: prevalence and clinical significance of serositis in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Zhao, J; Bai, W; Zhu, P; Zhang, X; Liu, S; Wu, L; Ma, L; Bi, L; Zuo, X; Sun, L; Huang, C; Tian, X; Li, M; Zhao, Y; Zeng, X


    To investigate both the prevalence and clinical characteristics of serositis in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a large cohort in the Chinese SLE Treatment and Research group (CSTAR) database. A prospective cross-sectional study of patients with SLE was conducted based on the data from the CSTAR registry. Serositis was defined according to the 1999 revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for SLE - that is, pleuritis/pleural effusion and/or pericarditis/pericardial effusion detected by echocardiography, chest X-ray or chest computerized tomography (CT) scan. Peritonitis/peritoneal effusion were confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography. We analysed the prevalence and clinical associations of serositis with demographic data, organ involvements, laboratory findings and SLE disease activity. Of 2104 patients with SLE, 345 were diagnosed with serositis. The prevalence of lupus nephritis (LN), interstitial lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension, as well as the presence of leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypocomplementemia and anti-dsDNA antibodies was significantly higher in patients with serositis (P Lupus-related peritonitis had similar clinical manifestations and laboratory profiles as serositis caused by SLE. There is a significant association of nephropathy, interstitial lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, hypocomplementemia, leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated anti-dsDNA antibodies with serositis. The results suggest that higher SLE disease activity contributes to serositis development, and should be treated aggressively. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Digital dermatoglyphic heritability differences as evidenced by a female twin study.

    Machado, João Felipe; Fernandes, Paula Roquetti; Roquetti, Ricardo Wagner; Filho, José Fernandes


    The genetic and environmental contributions to determine digital dermatoglyphic traits were investigated by using female dizygotic and monozygotic twin pairs to estimate heritability indexes (h(2)). The evaluated sample was composed by 20 monozygotic twin pairs and 13 dizygotic twin pairs. A significant heritability (h(2) = 0.65 to 0.96) was observed for 12 dermatoglyphic characteristics (delta indexes and ridge counts for right hand, left hand and both hands, and ridge counts for most individual fingers). A negative correlation between the ridge counts and heritability indexes from individual fingers was found for the left hand, which appears to be associated to a higher arch pattern frequency in most left-hand fingers, since this frequency was negatively correlated with ridge counts and positively correlated with heritability indexes. Heritability indexes of right-hand fingers were positively correlated with loop pattern frequency and negatively correlated with whorl pattern frequency. The low heritability of ridge counts from left thumb, ring and little fingers (h(2) = 0.11 to 0.32) indicates a higher chance that the chorion type had an influence in the intra-pair variance of monozygotic twins. Results confirmed the predominant genetic influence on the total ridge count. The heritability indexes varied in up to 8 times between different fingers and its association to ridge counts and pattern frequency was very variable between hands, evidencing that the use of dermatoglyphic traits from individual fingers as indicators of genetic influences to other human traits should consider this variability.

  13. [Micro-area characteristics of laminated chert in the volcanic rocks of Xionger Group of Ruyang area and its geological significances].

    Luo, An; Li, Hong-zhong; Zhao, Ming-zhen; Yang, Zhi-jun; Liang, Jin; He, Jun-guo


    sedimentation contributed to the bands (or lamellars) with minerals of much smaller grain size, which therefore resulted in diversities from the other bands (or lamellars). According to this, the repeated bands (or lamellars) denoted the volcanic activities were cyclic during the formation of the chert. What's more, the carbonate vein came from the precipitation of subsequent hydrothermal fluids in the fracture of the chert, which contributed to the changes (e. g. rising in crystallinity degree of silica and formation of micro-structure of new silicate) near the interface between chert and the carbonate vein. Although there were many impurity minerals with complex genesis, the relatively lower content of silica in the chert of Xionger Group was due to the volcanic mineral mainly. Since there were impurity minerals of volcanic genesis in relatively large amount, the content of silica in the chert of Xionger Group was hence relatively low. In this study, the Raman analysis was witnessed to be an effective way in the researches on the chert, and could open out the type of mineral, micro-structure and degrees of crystallinity (or order). These characteristics were well kept in the micro-area, and played significant roles to reflect and understand the formation mechanism and subsequent evolution of the chert.

  14. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug; Anna Quialheiro Abreu da Silva; Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider; Luiz Roberto Ramos; Eleonora d’Orsi; André Junqueira Xavier


    ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. Methods A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160) attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each). The control group (n = 133)...

  15. Significance of PIK3CA Mutations in Patients with Early Breast Cancer Treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG Study.

    George Papaxoinis

    Full Text Available The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in breast cancer. PIK3CA mutations are most frequently found in the helical (exon 9 and kinase (exon 20 domains of this protein. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of different types of PIK3CA mutations in combination with molecular biomarkers related to PI3K-AKT signaling in patients with early breast cancer.Tumor tissue samples from 1008 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in two similar randomized trials of HeCOG were examined. Tumors were subtyped with immunohistochemistry (IHC and FISH for ER, PgR, Ki67, HER2 and androgen receptor (AR. PIK3CA mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing (exon 20 and qPCR (exon 9 (Sanger/qPCR mutations. In 610 cases, next generation sequencing (NGS PIK3CA mutation data were also available. PIK3CA mutations and PTEN protein expression (IHC were analyzed in luminal tumors (ER and/or PgR positive, molecular apocrine carcinomas (MAC; ER/PgR negative / AR positive and hormone receptor (ER/PgR/AR negative tumors.PIK3CA mutations were detected in 235/1008 tumors (23% with Sanger/qPCR and in 149/610 tumors (24% with NGS. Concordance between the two methods was good with a Kappa coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.82. Lobular histology, low tumor grade and luminal A tumors were associated with helical domain mutations (PIK3CAhel, while luminal B with kinase domain mutations (PIK3CAkin. The overall incidence of PIK3CA mutations was higher in luminal as compared to MAC and hormone receptor negative tumors (p = 0.004. Disease-free and overall survival did not significantly differ with respect to PIK3CA mutation presence and type. However, a statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and PTEN low protein expression with regard to prognosis was identified.The present study did not show any prognostic significance of specific PIK3CA mutations in a large group of predominantly lymph-node positive breast cancer

  16. Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease diagnostic criteria: updated International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) consensus criteria--history, rationale, description, and significance.

    Allen, Richard P; Picchietti, Daniel L; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Ondo, William G; Walters, Arthur S; Winkelman, John W; Zucconi, Marco; Ferri, Raffaele; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Lee, Hochang B


    In 2003, following a workshop at the National Institutes of Health, the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) developed updated diagnostic criteria for restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED). These criteria were integral to major advances in research, notably in epidemiology, biology, and treatment of RLS/WED. However, extensive review of accumulating literature based on the 2003 NIH/IRLSSG criteria led to efforts to improve the diagnostic criteria further. The clinical standards workshop, sponsored by the WED Foundation and IRLSSG in 2008, started a four-year process for updating the diagnostic criteria. That process included a rigorous review of research advances and input from clinical experts across multiple disciplines. After broad consensus was attained, the criteria were formally approved by the IRLSSG executive committee and membership. Major changes are: (i) addition of a fifth essential criterion, differential diagnosis, to improve specificity by requiring that RLS/WED symptoms not be confused with similar symptoms from other conditions; (ii) addition of a specifier to delineate clinically significant RLS/WED; (iii) addition of course specifiers to classify RLS/WED as chronic-persistent or intermittent; and (iv) merging of the pediatric with the adult diagnostic criteria. Also discussed are supportive features and clinical aspects that are important in the diagnostic evaluation. The IRLSSG consensus criteria for RLS/WED represent an international, interdisciplinary, and collaborative effort intended to improve clinical practice and promote further research. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. Methods A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160 attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each. The control group (n = 133 received routine medical care. Outcome was the percent variation in the MMSE. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, schooling, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypothyroidism, depression, vascular diseases, polymedication, use of benzodiazepines, exposure to tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and functional capacity. The final model was obtained by multivariate linear regression. Results The intervention group obtained an independent positive variation of 24.39% (CI 95% = 14.86/33.91 in the MMSE compared to the control group. Conclusion The results suggested that cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, are associated with cognitive status improvement of older adults in memory clinics.

  18. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study.

    Krug, Rodrigo de Rosso; Silva, Anna Quialheiro Abreu da; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Xavier, André Junqueira


    To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160) attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each). The control group (n = 133) received routine medical care. Outcome was the percent variation in the MMSE. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, schooling, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypothyroidism, depression, vascular diseases, polymedication, use of benzodiazepines, exposure to tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and functional capacity. The final model was obtained by multivariate linear regression. The intervention group obtained an independent positive variation of 24.39% (CI 95% = 14.86/33.91) in the MMSE compared to the control group. The results suggested that cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, are associated with cognitive status improvement of older adults in memory clinics.

  19. 77 FR 41336 - Authorization to Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems; Discontinued Indicia


    ... AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service proposes to amend the rules concerning the manufacture and distribution of postage evidencing systems to clarify that... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part...

  20. 77 FR 23396 - Revisions to the Requirements for Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems


    ... Systems AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes the responsibility of the providers of Postage Evidencing Systems (PES) to notify the U.S. Postal Service of any cyber... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part...

  1. 76 FR 77149 - Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 501 Authority To Manufacture and Distribute Postage Evidencing Systems AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule clarifies the responsibility of the providers of Postage...

  2. 39 CFR 501.14 - Postage Evidencing System inventory control processes.


    ... sufficient facilities for and records of the distribution, control, storage, maintenance, repair, replacement... complete record shall entail a list by serial number of all Postage Evidencing Systems manufactured or... submitted for prior approval, in writing, to PTM: (1) Check in to service procedures for all...

  3. 39 CFR 501.11 - Reporting Postage Evidencing System security weaknesses.


    ... timely and efficient procedures for internal reporting of potential security weaknesses and shall provide... weaknesses. 501.11 Section 501.11 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION... security weaknesses. (a) For purposes of this section, provider refers to the Postage Evidencing System...

  4. Single agent lenalidomide activity in multiple myeloma relapse evidenced uniquely by CT/PET

    Alessandro Gozzetti


    Full Text Available A71 year old female with multiple myeloma presented with back pain seven year after autologous stem cell transplant. Skeletal bone survey and magnetic resonance imaging did not show a relapse that was evidenced by CT/PET. Lenalidomide as single agent induced a complete disappearance of the lesions 6 months later at CT/PET

  5. Can "The New Social Studies" Survive in the Public Schools?: A Case Study of the Perceptions of Significant School Related Groups Regarding Nationalistic Instruction.

    Naylor, David T.

    A review and discussion of the new social studies introduces the problem of whether nationalism and patriotism are "closed areas" or if an open examination of these areas is possible in the public schools. Two sets of hypotheses, one dealing with public school educators and the other with school-related groups, were tested by administration of a…

  6. Incorporation of Co(II) in dealuminated BEA zeolite at lattice tetrahedral sites evidenced by XRD, FTIR, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis, EPR, and TPR.

    Dzwigaj, S; Che, M


    A CoSiBEA zeolite is prepared by a two-step postsynthesis method that consists of first creating vacant T-sites with associated silanol groups by dealumination of TEABEA zeolite with nitric acid and then impregnating the resulting SiBEA zeolite with an aqueous solution of Co(NO3)2. The incorporation of Co into lattice sites of SiBEA is evidenced by XRD. The consumption of OH groups is monitored by FTIR. The presence of Co in its II oxidation state and in tetrahedral coordination is evidenced by diffuse reflectance UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy. The very high reduction temperature (1120 K) of cobalt in CoSiBEA zeolite determined by TPR confirms that Co interacts strongly with the zeolite support, consistent with lattice tetrahedral (T(d)) coordination.

  7. Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): an open clinical feasibility trial

    Hirvikoski, T.; Waaler, E.; Lindström, T; Bölte, S.; Jokinen, J


    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a new psychoeducative intervention program (PEGASUS) for adults with ADHD and their significant others in a psychiatric outpatient context. At three outpatient psychiatric clinics, adults with ADHD and their significant others took part in PEGASUS, a psychoeducational program based on theories from cognitive behavioral therapy, neuropsychology, and cross-disciplinary evidence regarding ADHD. In total, 108 adul...

  8. Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): an open clinical feasibility trial.

    Hirvikoski, T; Waaler, E; Lindström, T; Bölte, S; Jokinen, J


    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a new psychoeducative intervention program (PEGASUS) for adults with ADHD and their significant others in a psychiatric outpatient context. At three outpatient psychiatric clinics, adults with ADHD and their significant others took part in PEGASUS, a psychoeducational program based on theories from cognitive behavioral therapy, neuropsychology, and cross-disciplinary evidence regarding ADHD. In total, 108 adults were allocated to treatment (51 with ADHD and their 57 significant others). Feasibility was evaluated regarding suitability of the intervention at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and treatment completion. Preliminary efficacy was evaluated per protocol from baseline to post-intervention (n = 41 adults with ADHD and 40 significant others). In a feasibility analysis, the intervention was judged to be a suitable treatment option for 94.5 % of all individuals with a primary diagnosis of ADHD at an outpatient psychiatric clinic. In total, 43 out of 51 allocated individuals with ADHD (84.3 %) completed the intervention. The corresponding figures for their significant others were 42 out of 57 (73.7 %). Knowledge about ADHD increased, and both the quality of relationships and psychological well-being improved from baseline to post-intervention in all participants. The significant others reported a reduction in the subjective burden of care, such as worry and guilt. The objective burden of care (such as financial problems) did not change. The findings support the potential value of psychoeducation for adults with ADHD and their significant others. An ongoing randomized controlled trial will generate further evidence concerning the PEGASUS program.

  9. [Movement and its significance: natural healing physiotherapy and modern pharmacological therapy of osteoporosis in the semantic differential. A quantitative study of a self-help group and two comparison groups].

    Konitzer, M; Fischer, G C; Doering, T J


    Physiotherapy is a frequently applied concomitant therapy for patients with osteoporosis. Compared to modern pharmacological therapy physiotherapy appears to receive sustained high regard, which should be further examined in view of the attribution pattern of the patients. Elements of physiotherapy and Kneipp therapy were quantitatively examined in terms of their semantic content in a three-dimensional space of meaning. This was done in comparison with elements of modern pharmacological therapy. The questions regarding possible patterns of the attributions and a possible hierarchy of the therapy forms were analyzed by a survey of a self-help group for osteoporosis patients and two control groups. According to the methods of semantic differentials, a self-help group for osteoporosis patients and two control groups (high-school female pupils, breast carcinoma patients) were queried about the individual elements of physiotherapy and modern pharmacological therapy in a polar profile of a questionnaire. The results were arranged onto a numerical matrix and by means of factor analysis, a location in a three-dimensional space of meaning was calculated for each element questioned. For purpose of illustration, the results were transferred to a succession of diagrams so that the assessments for the three axes of meaning became more distinct. The results are discussed on the background of a current neurolinguistic theory of meaning: Sensomotoric experience generates meaning in form of 'primary metaphors'; if reactivated e.g. by physiotherapy, these metaphors can give fundaments for an emergent and salutogenic system of meaning, which helps to reconstruct the patient's 'subjective anatomy' and helps to create new values of living one's life. If sensomotoric experience has a central function in generating meaning, the axis of 'motion' and therapies stressing on sensomotoric experience (e.g. exercise group) will show a corresponding profile of evaluation throughout the three

  10. Using chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) modelling to identify groups of methadone treatment clients experiencing significantly poorer treatment outcomes.

    Murphy, Emma L; Comiskey, Catherine M


    In times of scarce resources it is important for services to make evidence based decisions when identifying clients with poor outcomes. chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) modelling was used to identify characteristics of clients experiencing statistically significant poor outcomes. A national, longitudinal study recruited and interviewed, using the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), 215 clients starting methadone treatment and 78% were interviewed one year later. Four CHAID analyses were conducted to model the interactions between the primary outcome variable, used heroin in the last 90 days prior to one year interview and variables on drug use, treatment history, social functioning and demographics. Results revealed that regardless of these other variables, males over 22 years of age consistently demonstrated significantly poorer outcomes than all other clients. CHAID models can be easily applied by service providers to provide ongoing evidence on clients exhibiting poor outcomes and requiring priority within services.

  11. Petrology and palaeoenvironmental significance of authigenic iron-rich clays, carbonates and apatite in the Claiborne Group, Middle Eocene, NE Texas

    Huggett, J. M.; Gale, A. S.; McCarty, D.


    The Claiborne Group (Eocene) in North East Texas consists of clayey sandstones and mudrocks, both with variable proportions of dark green to brown clay pellets deposited in a marginal to open marine setting on the Gulf Coast margin. The composition of concretionary carbonate and clay pellets, from 5 localities, has been investigated using a wide variety of analytical techniques. Our palaeontological, sedimentological, C/S and stable isotope data support an interpretation of marginal marine facies with limited freshwater input, for the Claiborne Group. Dark green (mature) pellets are predominantly associated with transgressive, bioturbated, marine sediments. From the Weches Formation through to the youngest Crockett Formation there is a trend from pellets composed mostly of dark green serpentine-rich mixed layer clay to those of mostly brown (immature) nontronite-rich mixed layer clay. The serpentine is intermediate between odinite and berthierine and may have been originally odinite that has undergone partial transformation to berthierine. Pellet maturity apparently corresponds with the degree of winnowing and sedimentation rate. It does not appear to correspond with global temperature fluctuations, though the serpentine-rich rather than glauconite-rich composition may do. Siderite cement, mostly in the form of concretions, post-dates the iron-rich clay pellets and pre-dates calcite cement. Carbonate and apatite concretions show a wide range of mineral cement textures, reflecting variation in sedimentary environment and early diagenetic processes. Based on water temperatures derived from verneriacardia bivalves a precipitation temperature of 20 °C is assumed for the concretionary siderite. Using this temperature we surmise that the siderite precipitated from marine pore waters with intermittent meteoric water mixing.

  12. Clinical significance of hTERC and C-Myc genes amplification in a group of Egyptian patients with cancer cervix.

    Eid, M M; Nossair, H M; Ismael, M T; Amira, G; Hosney, M M; Abdul Rahman, R


    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide after breast cancer. Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. The implementation of cervical cancer screening programs has greatly decreased the morbidity and mortality, as precancerous lesions and early invasive cervical cancer could be detected and treated effectively. The detection of hTERC gene amplification was suggested as a possible diagnostic marker for use in routine cytological screening. The present study was designed to detect genomic gains of the hTERC and C-MYC genes using FISH technique and to investigate the relationship between genes amplification and the clinical data of the patients. The current study was carried out on twelve cases with cervical cancer at different grades (three cases were grade I, six cases were grade II and three cases were grade III). Interphase FISH analysis using LSI probe, Cervical Cancer probe hTERC (3q26) & C-MYC (8q24), was successfully performed on 12 patients with cancer cervix. Interphase FISH analysis revealed positive hTERC gene amplification in all cases of cancer cervix (100%). However C-MYC gene amplification was detected in four cases only (33.3%). Statistical analysis of the data revealed significant correlation between hTERC amplification and grading. Also, there was significant correlation between C-MYC amplification and grading and highly significant correlation between C-MYC amplification and hTERC amplification. On the other hand hTERC and C-MYC genes amplification showed an inverse correlation with the ages of the patients. The present study highlights the importance of using hTERC and C-MYC genes FISH probes for cases with cancer cervix or pre-malignant lesions as a sensitive technique. This method provides an easy and effective applicable approach which helps in the diagnosis and prognosis, as an increased copy number is associated with a more advanced grade that could be detected in the early stages of the disease.

  13. On the significance of natural gas with regard to tomorrow's customer target group; Zur Bedeutung von Erdgas in der Kundenzielgruppe von morgen

    Halstrup, Dominik [Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Professur fuer BWL und Strategisches Management; Groeblinghoff, Sebastian [EVU, Essen (Germany); Walsh, Gianfranco [Koblenz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Management


    Competition between the energy carriers in Germany's heating market has become harsher over the past years and is expected to grow still further. Successful customer acquisition and long-term customer retention will become increasingly important for natural gas supply companies. For this reason decision makers at public utilities that have a significant share of natural gas in their sales portfolio should have the foresight to ask themselves what sentiment tomorrow's home and house owners will have towards natural gas as an energy product as well as towards their company.

  14. The southern Araçuaí belt and the Dom Silvério Group: geologic architecture and tectonic significance

    Guilherme G. Peres


    Full Text Available The Araçuaí belt corresponds to the external portion of the western half of the Araçuaí-West Congo Neopro-terozoic orogen. TheAraçuaí belt fringes the São Francisco craton to east and is separated from the crystalline core of the orogen by the Abre Campo geophysical discontinuity. The southern Araçuaí belt involves four major lithologic units: the Archean and Paleoproterozoic gneisses of the Mantiqueira Complex, the Pedra Dourada Charnockite, the Paleoproterozoic Borrachudos Granitoid, and the metavolcanosedimentary rocks of the Dom Silvério Group. The Dom Silvério Group occurs in a NNE-SSW striking belt and consists of a thick package of metapelitic rocks with intercalations of quartzites, amphibolites, meta-ultramafics, banded iron formations, gondites and marbles. All units of the southern Araçuaí belt underwent four syn-metamorphic phases of deformation in the course of the Brasiliano event. The first phase, synchronous to a regional amphibolite facies metamorphism, was associated to a general tectonic transport towards north along the left-lateral Dom Silvério shear zone and its low angle segment. The second and third phases represent progressive stages of a west directed shortening, which led to the development of local thrusts and pervasive folds in several scales. The fourth phase is extensional and reflects the collapse of the orogen.A Faixa Araçuaí corresponde à porção ocidental externa do orógeno neoproterozóico Araçuaí-Congo Ocidental. Margeia a borda leste do Cráton do São Francisco e é separada do núcleo cristalino do orógeno pela descontinuidade geofísica de Abre Campo. A porção meridional da Faixa Araçuaí envolve quatro unidades litológicas principais: os ortognaisses arqueanos e paleoproterozóicos do Complexo Mantiqueira, os charnoquitos Pedra Dourada, os granitóides paleoproterozóicos da Suíte Borrachudos e as rochas metavulcanossedimentares do Grupo Dom Silvério. O Grupo Dom Silv

  15. European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Centers with FACT-JACIE Accreditation Have Significantly Better Compliance with Related Donor Care Standards.

    Anthias, Chloe; O'Donnell, Paul V; Kiefer, Deidre M; Yared, Jean; Norkin, Maxim; Anderlini, Paolo; Savani, Bipin N; Diaz, Miguel A; Bitan, Menachem; Halter, Joerg P; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; Shaw, Bronwen E


    Previous studies have identified healthcare practices that may place undue pressure on related donors (RDs) of hematopoietic cell products and an increase in serious adverse events associated with morbidities in this population. As a result, specific requirements to safeguard RD health have been introduced to Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy/The Joint Accreditation Committee ISCT and EBMT (FACT-JACIE) Standards, but the impact of accreditation on RD care has not previously been evaluated. A survey of transplant program directors of European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation member centers was conducted by the Donor Health and Safety Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to test the hypothesis that RD care in FACT-JACIE accredited centers is more closely aligned with international consensus donor care recommendations than RD care delivered in centers without accreditation. Responses were received from 39% of 304 centers. Our results show that practice in accredited centers was much closer to recommended standards as compared with nonaccredited centers. Specifically, a higher percentage of accredited centers use eligibility criteria to assess RDs (93% versus 78%; P = .02), and a lower percentage have a single physician simultaneously responsible for an RD and their recipient (14% versus 35%; P = .008). In contrast, where regulatory standards do not exist, both accredited and nonaccredited centers fell short of accepted best practice. These results raise concerns that despite improvements in care, current practice can place undue pressure on donors and may increase the risk of donation-associated adverse events. We recommend measures to address these issues through enhancement of regulatory standards as well as national initiatives to standardize RD care. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 9 CFR 201.49 - Requirements regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed.


    ... evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Animals and Animal Products... regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. (a) Livestock. When... the weigher. (b) Poultry. When live poultry is weighed for the purpose of purchase, sale,...

  17. Differentiation between African populations is evidenced by the diversity of alleles and haplotypes of HLA class I loci.

    Cao, K; Moormann, A M; Lyke, K E; Masaberg, C; Sumba, O P; Doumbo, O K; Koech, D; Lancaster, A; Nelson, M; Meyer, D; Single, R; Hartzman, R J; Plowe, C V; Kazura, J; Mann, D L; Sztein, M B; Thomson, G; Fernández-Viña, M A


    The allelic and haplotypic diversity of the HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C loci was investigated in 852 subjects from five sub-Saharan populations from Kenya (Nandi and Luo), Mali (Dogon), Uganda, and Zambia. Distributions of genotypes at all loci and in all populations fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. There was not a single allele predominant at any of the loci in these populations, with the exception of A*3002 [allele frequency (AF) = 0.233] in Zambians and Cw*1601 (AF = 0.283) in Malians. This distribution was consistent with balancing selection for all class I loci in all populations, which was evidenced by the homozygosity F statistic that was less than that expected under neutrality. Only in the A locus in Zambians and the C locus in Malians, the AF distribution was very close to neutrality expectations. There were six instances in which there were significant deviations of allele distributions from neutrality in the direction of balancing selection. All allelic lineages from each of the class I loci were found in all the African populations. Several alleles of these loci have intermediate frequencies (AF = 0.020-0.150) and seem to appear only in the African populations. Most of these alleles are widely distributed in the African continent and their origin may predate the separation of linguistic groups. In contrast to native American and other populations, the African populations do not seem to show extensive allelic diversification within lineages, with the exception of the groups of alleles A*02, A*30, B*57, and B*58. The alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with alleles of the C locus, and the sets of B/C haplotypes are found in several populations. The associations between A alleles with C-blocks are weaker, and only a few A/B/C haplotypes (A*0201-B*4501-Cw*1601; A*2301-B*1503-Cw*0202; A*7401-B* 1503-Cw*0202; A*2902-B*4201-Cw*1701; A*3001-B*4201-Cw*1701; and A*3601-B*5301-Cw*0401) are found in multiple

  18. Second campaign of microclimate monitoring in the carcer tullianum: temporal and spatial correlation and gradients evidenced by multivariate analysis

    Visco Giovanni


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper discusses results obtained in the second monitoring campaign of the Carcer Tullianum, a particular hypogeum environment located in the historical centre of Rome (Italy. In the first paper we stressed the need to apply chemometric tools to this kind of studies in order to obtain full and significant information; really information on sampling design, sensors (type, number, position and instrument validation seems to be not easy to find in literature for researches dealing with monitoring of indoor environments. Also in this case three main parameters (temperature, humidity, illuminance were monitored in the complex construction by an inexpensive self-assembled system along some horizontal and vertical vectors together with some measurements of oxygen, carbon dioxide and barometric pressure. With respect to the first campaign, we used a higher number of sensors to cover a new excavated zone; for the same reason, as well as to take into account the presence of visitors, a different experimental design was adopted. Results Different data treatments were applied to data coming from all the used sensors. A good view of the microclimate was obtained that also resulted coherent with the different position of the three rooms constituting the monitored site (Carcer, Tullianum, Convent. Classical time plots resulted useful to evidence the correlation of the main monitored parameters (T, RH% and illuminance with macroclimate, as well as their delay in following macroclimate. Box-Whisker and Gain-Loss graphs evidenced at the best the microclimate differences between the three rooms; an almost hypogean microclimate was evidenced for the lower room (Tullianum where humidity values range between 90 and 100% while lower values, but anyway higher than the external, and spread more widely were measured passing to Convent and Carcer with minimum values around 50% for the last. A scarce or very scarce correlation with macroclimate was

  19. Wearing lead aprons in surgical operating rooms: ergonomic injuries evidenced by infrared thermography.

    Alexandre, Dominique; Prieto, Marc; Beaumont, Fabien; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume


    The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of the weight of radiation protection lead aprons on the discomfort and the fatigue of the medical staff within an operating room of interventional gastroenterology. To quantify this fatigue, we analyzed variations of the physiological parameters, including heart rate, blood pressure, and cutaneous temperature; we compared two situations: the first within the classic endoscopy department (without apron) and the second within the operating room with apron. A follow-up study with lighter lead aprons was also conducted. We used infrared thermography as the principal method of analysis in our study. This technique permits us to obtain data, without body contact, of the spatial and temporal orientation of temperatures on subject skin. This method proves to be beneficial in the evaluation of the posture of users. The symmetry of the temperature evolution among the different body zones can contribute to the body balance analysis. Our results of the cutaneous temperatures obtained by infrared camera show significant differences in the muscular activity. All the muscular groups studied were revealed significant temperature increases. The temperature curve T2-T1 reveals the actual influence of carrying heavy apron loads. Regardless of the muscular group, this temperature increase varies on the range between 0.55°C and 0.95°C. The muscular groups most recruited are the trapezoids and pectorals. The muscles least recruited are those of the lower limbs. The study shows the impact of load bearing on the body mechanics of medical staff during work. It will be beneficial to develop this study to predict changes in skin temperature because of the various types of aprons and to determine the possible correlation between the thermal distribution and users' sense of comfort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Frequencies of two functionally significant SNPs and their haplotypes of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 SLCO1B1 gene in six ethnic groups of Pakistani population

    Tausif Ahmed Rajput


    Full Text Available Objective(s:Organic anion transporter polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1 encoded by solute carrier organic transporter 1B1 (SLCO1B1 gene; a transporter involved in the uptake of drugs and endogenous compounds is present in hepatocyte sinusoidal membrane. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequencies of functionally significant SNPs (388A>G and 521T>C and their haplotypes in 6 ethnic groups of Pakistani population through the development of rapid and efficient Tetra amplification refractory mutation system (T. ARMS genotyping assay. Materials and Methods: Frequencies of alleles, genotype, and haplotypes of two functionally significant Single nucleotide polymorphism in 180 healthy Pakistani subjects and distributions in six ethnic groups by using a single step T. ARMS genotyping assay. Results: The allelic frequency for 388A>G SNP was 50% in total Pakistani population with distributions of 9.7%, 15.1%, 19.4%, 16.1%, 18.3%, and 21.5% in Punjabi, Sindhi, Balouchi, Pathan, Kashmiri and Hazara/Baltistan groups respectively; and for 521T>C SNP it was 23.9% in total Pakistani population with distributions of 11.1%, 8.9%, 15.6%, 11.1%, 31.1% and 22.2% in Punjabi, Sindhi, Balouchi, Pathan, Kashmiri, and Hazara/Baltistan groups. Both functionally significant SNPs occurred in four major haplotypes with a frequency of 35.5% for 388A/521T (*1A, 40.5% for 388G/521T (*1B, 14.4% for 388A/521C (*5, and 9.4% for 388G/521C (*15 with varying distributions among six ethnic groups. Conclusion: The 388A>G and 521T>C genotypes and corresponding haplotypes are present at varying frequencies in various ethnic groups of Pakistani population. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic

  1. Reactive electrophilic OI--species evidenced in high-performance Ir-oxohydroxide water oxidation electrocatalysts.

    Massué, Cyriac; Pfeifer, Verena; Van Gastel, Maurice; Noack, Johannes; Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Cap, Sebastien; Schlögl, Robert


    Although quasi-amorphous Ir-oxohydroxides have repeatedly been identified as superior oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts, an exact description of the performance relevant species has so far remained a challenge. In this context, we report on the characterization of hydrothermally prepared IrIII/IV oxohydroxides exhibiting exceptional OER-performance. It was found that holes in the O2p states of IrIII/IV-oxohydroxides result in reactive OI--species identified by characteristic NEXAFS-features. A prototypical titration reaction based on CO as a probe molecule shows that these OI--species are highly susceptible to nucleophilic attack at room temperature. Similarly to pre-activated oxygen involved in the biological OER in Photosystem II, the electrophilic OI--species evidenced in IrIII/IV-oxohydroxides are suggested to be precursors to species involved in the O-O bond formation during electrocatalytic OER. CO-titration also highlights a link between OER-performance and the surface/sub-surface mobility of OI--species. The superior electrocatalytic properties of IrIII/IV-oxohydroxides are thus explained by their ability to accommodate pre-activated electrophilic OI--species able to migrate within the lattice. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.

    Makungu, Modesta; Groenewald, Hermanus B; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N


    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  3. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.

    Makungu, Modesta; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N


    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  4. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens evidenced by osteology and radiography

    Modesta Makungu


    Full Text Available The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  5. Relationships among the A Genomes of Triticum L. Species as Evidenced by SSR Markers, in Iran

    Simon G. Krattinger


    Full Text Available The relationships among 55 wheat accessions (47 accessions collected from Iran and eight accessions provided by the Institute of Plant Biology of the University of Zurich, Switzerland belonging to eight species carrying A genome (Triticum monococcum L., T. boeoticum Boiss., T. urartu Tumanian ex Gandilyan, T. durum Desf., T. turgidum L., T. dicoccum Schrank ex Schübler, T. dicoccoides (Körn. ex Asch. & Graebner Schweinf. and T. aestivum L. were evaluated using 31 A genome specific microsatellite markers. A high level of polymorphism was observed among the accessions studied (PIC = 0.77. The highest gene diversity was revealed among T. durum genotypes, while the lowest genetic variation was found in T. dicoccoides accessions. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed a significant genetic variance (75.56% among these accessions, representing a high intra-specific genetic diversity within Triticum taxa in Iran. However, such a variance was not observed among their ploidy levels. Based on the genetic similarity analysis, the accessions collected from Iran were divided into two main groups: diploids and polyploids. The genetic similarity among the diploid and polyploid species was 0.85 and 0.89 respectively. There were no significant differences in A genome diversity from different geographic regions. Based on the genetic diversity analyses, we consider there is value in a greater sampling of each species in Iran to discover useful genes for breeding purposes.

  6. 团体心理辅导在高职教育中的作用和意义%The role and the significance of group psychological guidance in higher vocational education



    Group psychological guidance is derived from the method of psychological counseling, mental health education in higher vocational plays an important role and significance, is an indispensable part of in the mental health education, should cause the whole society, especially the attention of the college of higher vocational education teaching workers.%团体心理辅导是源自美国的心理辅导方法,在高职心理健康教育中有着重要的作用和意义,是心理健康教育中不可缺少的一部分,应引起全社会,尤其是高职学院教育教学工作者的重视。


    黄芹; 唐岩; 温云辉; 李惠仙


    [Objective] To investigate the effect of group psychotherapy for caregivers of schizophrenia patients in the treatment of anxiety and depression. [Methods] In relatives of schizophrenic patients, used self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS) rating scale for assessment, 72 cases of SDS > 50 points and SAS> SO points were given with collective psychotherapy. 3 months, 6 months, 12 months before treatment respectively, carried out evaluation. [ Re-Sults] The SAS and SDS after treatment were significantly decreased comparing with before treatment, the differences were significant [Conclusion] The group psychotherapy for caregivers of schizophrenia patients can effectively reduce anxiety and depression.%[目的]探讨集体心理治疗对精神分裂症病人照料者焦虑与抑郁的治疗与效果.[方法]对社区中精神分裂症患者的照料亲属采用焦虑自评量表(SAS),抑郁白评量表(SDS)进行评定量表测评,对SDS>50分及SAS>50分的72例照料者亲属进行集体心理治疗.分别于治疗前、3个月、6个月、12个月进行评测.[结果]治疗结束SAS及SDS分显著下降,与治疗前相比差异有统计学意义.[结论]集体心理治疗对精神分裂症病人照料者减轻焦虑与抑郁有效.

  8. An Object-Group Threat Assessment Method Based on Attribute Significance of Multi-Field Expert Systems%基于专家知识属性重要度的集群目标威胁评估方法

    黄大荣; 郭安学; 李云生; 徐红兵; 霍勇谋


    结合计算机网络和专家知识库集成技术,研究了集群目标威胁评估的一类新方法.首先,在给出多领域专家知识集成评估系统定义和集群目标威胁度赋值规则的基础上,结合统计方法和历史数据库建立专家知识属性重要度模型;然后,提出了该集成评估系统的运行规则,并结合多领域专家知识集成技术,构造了集群目标威胁评估的网络化评估系统;最后,仿真实验验证了系统的有效性和合理性.该系统成功应用于型号武器系统的实际工程实例表明,这种评估方法具有良好的更新能力和应用前景.%A new method of threat assessment to object-group was researched by combining computer network with integrated technology of experts' database. The attribute significance model of experts' database was presented by combining integrated system of multi-field experts and assignment rule of threat degree of object-group with statistical method and historical database; the network evaluation system used for evaluating object-group threat was constructed by the proposed operation rule of the system combined with multi-field experts knowledge intergrated technology; the simulation used for e-valuating object-group threat was performed by a certain type gun-missile intergrated air defense system. The simulated results show that the evaluation method has better updating capability and applied prospect.

  9. Adsorption-desorption induced structural changes of Cu-MOF evidenced by solid state NMR and EPR spectroscopy.

    Jiang, Yijiao; Huang, Jun; Kasumaj, Besnik; Jeschke, Gunnar; Hunger, Michael; Mallat, Tamas; Baiker, Alfons


    Adsorption-desorption induced structural changes of Cu(bpy)(H(2)O)(2)(BF(4)),(bpy) (bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine) [Cu-MOF] have been evidenced by combined NMR and EPR spectroscopy. Upon adsorption of probe molecules even at a few mbar, EPR spectra show that they are activated to form complexes at Cu(II) sites, which results in a change of the Cu-MOF's structure as indicated by a high-field shift of the (11)B MAS NMR. After desorption, both EPR and (11)B MAS NMR spectra evidenced that the structure of the Cu-MOF reversibly shifted to the original state. This observation indicates that MOFs can undergo structural changes during processes where adsorption-desorption steps are involved such as gas storage, separation, and catalysis.

  10. An evidenced based protocol on promoting positive parenting program (triple P) for pre-school children in Hong Kong

    Chan, Yin-fung; 陳燕鳳


    Ineffective and tough parenting has been associated with physical child abuse. Parenting support would be the key component to act as a preventive measure of the problem. The evidenced based parenting intervention has proved to reduce prevalence of child abuse and children behavioural and emotional problems as well. As a result, there is a marked increased international recognition of the value of Positive Parenting Program (Triple P). Triple P is developed at University of Queensland in A...

  11. Sealing efficacy of system B versus Thermafil and Guttacore obturation techniques evidenced by scintigraphic analysis

    Abrantes, Margarida; Ferreira, Hugo-Diogo; Caramelo, Francisco; Botelho, Maria-Filomena; Carrilho, Eunice-Virgínia


    Background This study compared root canal sealing ability, filled by Continuous Wave compaction and two carrier-based obturation systems, using the nuclear medicine approach. Material and Methods Fifty-five single-rooted extracted teeth were selected. The crowns were sectioned and each tooth was instrumented using rotary Protaper® Universal system. The roots were divided into 3 experimental groups and two control groups. Forty-five root canals were filled, using Continuous Wave, GuttaCore or Thermafil system and TopSeal sealer. Ten teeth were used as control. On the 7th days the apices were submersed in a solution of sodium pertechnetate 99mTc for 3 hours and the radioactivity was counted. Results Although apical leakage in the Continuous Wave group was lower compared with GuttaCore and Thermafil groups, there was no statistical difference (p>0.05). Conclusions System B, GuttaCore and Thermafil techniques showed a similar sealing effect. Key words:Continuous wave compaction, Gutta percha core-carrier, leakage, nuclear medicine. PMID:28149464

  12. Prognostic significance of ESR1 gene amplification, mRNA/protein expression and functional profiles in high-risk early breast cancer: a translational study of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG.

    George Pentheroudakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Discrepant data have been published on the incidence and prognostic significance of ESR1 gene amplification in early breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor blocks were collected from women with early breast cancer participating in two HeCOG adjuvant trials. Messenger RNA was studied by quantitative PCR, ER protein expression was centrally assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC and ESR1 gene copy number by dual fluorescent in situ hybridization probes. RESULTS: In a total of 1010 women with resected node-positive early breast adenocarcinoma, the tumoral ESR1/CEP6 gene ratio was suggestive of deletion in 159 (15.7%, gene gain in 551 (54.6% and amplification in 42 cases (4.2%, with only 30 tumors (3% harboring five or more ESR1 copies. Gene copy number ratio showed a significant, though weak correlation to mRNA and protein expression (Spearman's Rho <0.23, p = 0.01. ESR1 clusters were observed in 9.5% (57 gain, 38 amplification of cases. In contrast to mRNA and protein expression, which were favorable prognosticators, gene copy number changes did not obtain prognostic significance. When ESR1/CEP6 gene ratio was combined with function (as defined by ER protein and mRNA expression in a molecular classifier, the Gene Functional profile, it was functional status that impacted on prognosis. In univariate analysis, patients with functional tumors (positive ER protein expression and gene ratio normal or gain/amplification fared better than those with non-functional tumors with ESR1 gain (HR for relapse or death 0.49-0.64, p = 0.003. Significant interactions were observed between gene gain/amplification and paclitaxel therapy (trend for DFS benefit from paclitaxel only in patients with ESR1 gain/amplification, p = 0.066 and Gene Functional profile with HER2 amplification (Gene Functional profile prognostic only in HER2-normal cases, p = 0.029. CONCLUSIONS: ESR1 gene deletion and

  13. Prognostic significance of the S-phase fraction of light-chain-restricted cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) positive plasma cells in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma enrolled on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group treatment trial E9486.

    Trendle, M C; Leong, T; Kyle, R A; Katzmann, J A; Oken, M M; Kay, N E; Van Ness, B G; Greipp, P R


    The bone marrow plasma cell labeling index (PCLI) as measured by bromodeoxyuridine uptake is a well-established independent prognostic factor for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, but the test is not easily done in most laboratories. The purpose of this study was to determine if the proliferative activity (% S-phase) as determined by two-color flow cytometry for cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) light chain and DNA content also had prognostic significance. As part of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group clinical trial E9486, 500 patients had successful performance of the bone marrow PCLI. Of 349 patients who had flow cIg and DNA content cytometry, 210 had adequate data to reliably calculate S-phase %. Patients with low % S-phase fraction (/=2%), median survivals 4.1 vs. 2.9 years (P = 0.032). Measurement of the S-phase % by flow cytometry gives significant prognostic information in patients with newly diagnosed myeloma. However, in multivariate analysis, S-phase % did not add prognostic information when PCLI was in the model. S-phase % added prognostic information only when all cases with flow measurement of S-phase % were included, and when PCLI was excluded from the model. Discriminating a population of only cIg positive cells proved difficult in patients with a low percentage of bone marrow plasma cells. Methodology to measure S-phase % in patients with a low percent plasma cells is needed before this technique can be used for diagnosis and prognosis in myeloma. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Prognostic significance of the initial cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) involvement of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treated without cranial irradiation: results of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Children Leukemia Group study 58881.

    Sirvent, Nicolas; Suciu, Stefan; Rialland, Xavier; Millot, Frédéric; Benoit, Yves; Plantaz, Dominique; Ferster, Alice; Robert, Alain; Lutz, Patrick; Nelken, Brigitte; Plouvier, Emmanuel; Norton, Lucilia; Bertrand, Yves; Otten, Jacques


    To evaluate the prognostic significance of the initial cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) involvement of children with ALL enrolled from 1989 to 1996 in the EORTC 58881 trial. Patients (2025) were categorised according to initial central nervous system (CNS) status: CNS-1 (CNS negative, n=1866), CNS-2 (<5 leucocytes/mm(3), CSF with blasts, n=50), CNS-3 (CNS positive, n=49), TLP+ (TLP with blasts, n=60). CNS-directed therapy consisted in intravenous (i.v.) methotrexate (5 g/sqm) in 4-10 courses, and intrathecal methotrexate injections (10-20), according to CNS status. Cranial irradiation was omitted in all patients. In the CNS1, TLP+, CNS2 and CNS3 group the 8-year EFS rate (SE%) was 69.7% (1.1%), 68.8% (6.2%), 71.3% (6.5%) and 68.3% (6.2%), respectively. The 8-year incidence of isolated CNS relapse (SE%) was 3.4% (0.4%), 1.7% (1.7%), 6.1% (3.5%) and 9.4% (4.5%), respectively, whereas the 8-year isolated or combined CNS relapse incidence was 7.6% (0.6%), 3.5% (2.4%), 10.2% (4.4%) and 11.7% (5.0%), respectively. Patients with CSF blasts had a higher rate of initial bad risk features. Multivariate analysis indicated that presence of blasts in the CSF had no prognostic value: (i) for EFS and OS; (ii) for isolated and isolated or combined CNS relapse; WBC count<25 × 10(9)/L and Medac E-coli asparaginase treatment were each related to a lower CNS relapse risk. The presence of initial CNS involvement has no prognostic significance in EORTC 58881. Intensification of CNS-directed chemotherapy, without CNS radiation, is an effective treatment of initial meningeal leukaemic involvement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prognostic Significance of the Number of Positive Lymph Nodes in Women With T1-2N1 Breast Cancer Treated With Mastectomy: Should Patients With 1, 2, and 3 Positive Lymph Nodes Be Grouped Together?

    Dai Kubicky, Charlotte, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Medicine and Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange [Biostatistics Shared Resource, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States)


    Purpose: To determine whether patients with 1, 2, or 3 positive lymph nodes (LNs) have similar survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2003. We identified 10,415 women with T1-2N1M0 breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy with no adjuvant radiation, with at least 10 LNs examined and 6 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method and log–rank test were used for survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Median follow-up was 92 months. Ten-year overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were progressively worse with increasing number of positive LNs. Survival rates were 70%, 64%, and 60% (OS), and 82%, 76%, and 72% (CSS) for 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs, respectively. Pairwise log–rank test P values were <.001 (1 vs 2 positive LNs), <.001 (1 vs 3 positive LNs), and .002 (2 vs 3 positive LNs). Multivariate analysis showed that number of positive LNs was a significant predictor of OS and CSS. Hazard ratios increased with the number of positive LNs. In addition, age, primary tumor size, grade, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status, race, and year of diagnosis were significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: Our study suggests that patients with 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs have distinct survival outcomes, with increasing number of positive LNs associated with worse OS and CSS. The conventional grouping of 1-3 positive LNs needs to be reconsidered.

  16. Clinical Significance of Screening of Rh-negative Blood Group and Detection of Irregular Antibody%Rh阴性血型筛查及不规则抗体检测的临床意义

    李岚; 伍昌林; 党鑫堂; 董洪强; 朱奕


    目的 通过Rh阴性血型筛查及不规则抗体的检测,对抗体阳性的Rh阴性患者选择相合的血液输注,并分析其临床意义.方法 采用微柱凝集法对363例RhD阴性输血患者进行抗体筛查及Rh血型鉴定,选择Rh因子相合的血液输注,对有抗-c和抗-e抗体Rh阴性患者在血源紧缺的情况下,选择O型ccdEE和CCdee表型红细胞输注,观察临床输血效果.结果 在363例RhD阴性患者中,不规则抗体阳性21例,其中抗-D抗体5例,抗-E抗体8例,抗-c抗体3例,抗-c、E抗体2例,抗-C抗体2例,抗-e抗体1例,对存在不规则抗体的患者选择Rh因子相合的血液输注,临床效果良好.结论 根据抗体筛查及Rh血型鉴定结果,选择Ph因子相合的血液输注,可避免不规则抗体的产生,提高临床输血的有效性,减少输血不良反应的发生.%Objective To choose the matching blood to Rh-negative patients who were positive for irregular antibody by the screening of Rh-negative blood group and the detection of irregular antibody, and analyze its clinical significance.Methods A total of 363 RhD-negative patients were subjected to antibody screening and Rh blood grouping by micro-column agglutination method,based on which the Rh factor-matched blood was selected for transfusion.For lack of matched blood source, the RhD-negative patients with anti-c and anti-e antibodies were transfused with erythrocytes group O of ccdEE and CCdee phenotypes.Results Of the 363 RhD-negative patients, 21 were positive for irregular antibody, including 5 for anti-D, 8 for anti-E, 3 for anti-c, 2 for anti-c and E,2 for anti-C and 1 for anti-e.The patients with irregular antibodies were transfused with selected Rh factor-matched blood, and sarisfactory clinical efficacy was observed.Conclusion By transfusion with Rh factor-matched blood selected based on antibody screening and Rh blood grouping, the production of irregular antibodies was avoided, the efficacy of clinical blood transfusion was

  17. Excessive infant crying : definitions determine risk groups

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Hirasing, RA


    We assessed risk groups for excessive infant crying using 10 published definitions, in 3179 children aged 1-6 months (response: 96.5%). Risk groups regarding parental employment, living area, lifestyle, and obstetric history varied by definition. This may explain the existence of conflicting evidenc

  18. Assessing the Prognostic Significance of Histologic Response in Osteosarcoma: A Comparison of Outcomes on CCG-782 and INT0133—A Report From the Children’s Oncology Group Bone Tumor Committee

    Bishop, Michael W.; Chang, Yu-Chen; Krailo, Mark D.; Meyers, Paul A.; Provisor, Arthur J.; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Marina, Neyssa M.; Teot, Lisa A.; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Gorlick, Richard; Janeway, Katherine A.; Chou, Alexander J.


    Background The prognostic value of histologic response for osteosarcoma may have changed with induction chemotherapy schedules over time. We hypothesized that the increased intensity of induction therapy provided on INT0133 compared to the Children’s Cancer Group study CCG-782 would diminish the impact of histologic response on the risk of events after definitive surgery. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed for patients aged osteosarcoma enrolled on CCG-782 and INT0133. Clinical factors were evaluated for association with response and outcome. Good response was defined as <5% viable tumor at resection. Associations of response, study, and post-definitive surgery event-free survival (EFS-DS)were determined using Cox proportional hazard models. EFS-DS was estimated by Kaplan–Meier methodology. Results Data were available for 814 patients (206 CCG-782, 608 INT0133). For good responders, 10-year EFS-DS (±SE) was 75.4% ± 7.7% for CCG-782 and 70.8% ± 3.1% for INT0133. For poor responders, 10-year EFS-DS was 39.9% ± 4.9% for CCG-782 and 58.4% ± 3.1% for INT0133. Histologic response predicted outcome across studies (P < 0.0001). Significant interaction between study and histologic response was observed for EFS-DS (P = 0.011). Using proportional hazards regression, INT0133 poor responders had less risk of events compared to CCG-782 poor responders (relative hazard ratio (RHR) = 0.6:1), but good responders on INT0133 had a greater risk of events compared to CCG-782 good responders (RHR = 1.53:1). Conclusion We observed an inverse relationship between the predictive value of tumor necrosis and intensity of induction therapy, raising questions about the true prognostic value of histologic response. This highlights the need for novel markers to develop strategies for treatment in future trials. PMID:27128693

  19. Assessing the Prognostic Significance of Histologic Response in Osteosarcoma: A Comparison of Outcomes on CCG-782 and INT0133-A Report From the Children's Oncology Group Bone Tumor Committee.

    Bishop, Michael W; Chang, Yu-Chen; Krailo, Mark D; Meyers, Paul A; Provisor, Arthur J; Schwartz, Cindy L; Marina, Neyssa M; Teot, Lisa A; Gebhardt, Mark C; Gorlick, Richard; Janeway, Katherine A; Chou, Alexander J


    The prognostic value of histologic response for osteosarcoma may have changed with induction chemotherapy schedules over time. We hypothesized that the increased intensity of induction therapy provided on INT0133 compared to the Children's Cancer Group study CCG-782 would diminish the impact of histologic response on the risk of events after definitive surgery. Retrospective analysis was performed for patients aged osteosarcoma enrolled on CCG-782 and INT0133. Clinical factors were evaluated for association with response and outcome. Good response was defined as <5% viable tumor at resection. Associations of response, study, and postdefinitive surgery event-free survival (EFS-DS) were determined using Cox proportional hazard models. EFS-DS was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methodology. Data were available for 814 patients (206 CCG-782, 608 INT0133). For good responders, 10-year EFS-DS (±SE) was 75.4% ± 7.7% for CCG-782 and 70.8% ± 3.1% for INT0133. For poor responders, 10-year EFS-DS was 39.9% ± 4.9% for CCG-782 and 58.4% ± 3.1% for INT0133. Histologic response predicted outcome across studies (P < 0.0001). Significant interaction between study and histologic response was observed for EFS-DS (P = 0.011). Using proportional hazards regression, INT0133 poor responders had less risk of events compared to CCG-782 poor responders (relative hazard ratio (RHR) = 0.6:1), but good responders on INT0133 had a greater risk of events compared to CCG-782 good responders (RHR = 1.53:1). We observed an inverse relationship between the predictive value of tumor necrosis and intensity of induction therapy, raising questions about the true prognostic value of histologic response. This highlights the need for novel markers to develop strategies for treatment in future trials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Developmental Coordination Disorder: Disruption of the Cerebello-Cerebral Network evidenced by SPECT


    Little is known about the neurobiological substrate of developmental coordination disorder (DCD), a neuro-developmental syndrome with significant, negative impact on the motor, cognitive and affective level throughout lifespan. This paper reports the clinical, neurocognitive and neuroradiological findings of a 19-year-old patient with typical DCD. As demonstrated by mild ataxia and a close semiological correspondence with the recently acknowledged ‘cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome’, cl...

  1. Addressing group dynamics in a brief motivational intervention for college student drinkers.

    Faris, Alexander S; Brown, Janice M


    Previous research indicates that brief motivational interventions for college student drinkers may be less effective in group settings than individual settings. Social psychological theories about counterproductive group dynamics may partially explain this finding. The present study examined potential problems with group motivational interventions by comparing outcomes from a standard group motivational intervention (SGMI; n = 25), an enhanced group motivational intervention (EGMI; n = 27) designed to suppress counterproductive processes, and a no intervention control (n = 23). SGMI and EGMI participants reported disruptive group dynamics as evidenced by low elaboration likelihood, production blocking, and social loafing, though the level of disturbance was significantly lower for EGMI individuals (p = .001). Despite counteracting group dynamics in the EGMI condition, participants in the two interventions were statistically similar in post-intervention problem recognition and future drinking intentions. The results raise concerns over implementing individually-based interventions in group settings without making necessary adjustments.

  2. Intense field-aligned currents in the polar cap as evidenced from the Swarm satellite constellation

    Luhr, H.; Kervalishvili, G.; Huang, T.


    Traditionally the polar cap has been considered as a region of low activity and reduced energy input. More recent observations, however, evidence more and more exceptions from that. For example, CHAMP and GRACE recorded significant mass density anomalies over the polar cap practically during every magnetic storm. The question is, which process provides enough Joule heating and/or particle precipitation along the open field lines. A promising mechanism is field-aligned currents (FACs). In the past it has been difficult to make reliable estimates of FACs in the polar cap from single satellite magnetic field measurements. An important assumption that the currents are organized in sheets is often not fulfilled in the polar cap. As a consequence current densities are largely underestimated. Only recently ESA's Swarm constellation mission offers reliable FAC estimates from dual-satellite measurements. Significant differences between single and dual-satellite estimates are found in the polar cap. We will show the relation between polar cap FAC patches and IMF orientation and solar wind conditions. Based on these results suggestions for possible current drivers are made.

  3. The validity and reliability of iridology in the diagnosis of previous acute appendicitis as evi-denced by appendectomy

    L. Frank


    Full Text Available Iridology is defined as a photographic science that identifies pathological and functional changes within organs via biomicroscopic iris assessment for aberrant lines, spots, and discolourations. According to iridology, the iris does not reflect changes  during  anaesthesia,  due  to  the  drugs inhibitory  effects  on  nerves  impulses,  and  in cases of organ removal, it reflects the pre-surgical condition.The profession of Homoeopathy is frequently associated with iridology and in a recent survey (2009  investigating  the  perceptions  of  Masters of  Technology  graduates  in  Homoeopathy  of University of Johannesburg, iridology was highly regarded as a potential additional skill requirement for assessing the health status of the patient.This  study  investigated  the  reliability  of iridology  in  the  diagnosis  of  previous  acute appendicitis, as evidenced by appendectomy. A total of 60 participants took part in the study. Thirty of the 60 participants had an appendectomy due to acute appendicitis, and 30 had had no prior history  of  appendicitis.  Each  participant’s  right iris  was  documented  by  photography  with  the use  of  a  non-mydriatic  retinal  camera  that  was reset for photographing the iris. The photographs were then randomized by an external person and no identifying data made available to the three raters.  The  raters  included  the  researcher,  who had little experience in iridology and two highly experienced  practising  iridologists.  Data  was obtained  from  the  analyses  of  the  photographs wherein  the  presence  or  absence  of  lesions (implying acute appendicitis was indicated by the raters. None of the three raters was able to show a significant  success  rate  in  identifying  correctly the  people  with  a  previous  history  of  acute appendicitis and resultant appendectomies

  4. Evidencing the association between swimming capacities and performance indicators in water polo: a multiple regression study.

    Kontic, Dean; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir; Lesnik, Blaz


    Swimming capacities are hypothesized to be important determinants of water polo performance but there is an evident lack of studies examining different swimming capacities in relation to specific offensive and defensive performance variables in this sport. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between five swimming capacities and six performance determinants in water polo. The sample comprised 79 high-level youth water polo players (all males, 17-18 years of age). The variables included six performance-related variables (agility in offence and defense, efficacy in offence and defense, polyvalence in offence and defense), and five swimming-capacity tests (water polo sprint test [15 m], swimming sprint test [25 m], short-distance [100 m], aerobic endurance [400 m] and an anaerobic lactate endurance test [4× 50 m]). First, multiple regressions were calculated for one-half of the sample of subjects which were then validated with the remaining half of the sample. The 25-m swim was not included in the regression analyses due to the multicollinearity with other predictors. The originally calculated regression models were validated for defensive agility (R=0.67 and R=0.55 for the original regression calculation and validation subsample, respectively) offensive agility (R=0.59 and R=0.61), and offensive efficacy (R=0.64 and R=0.58). Anaerobic lactate endurance is a significant predictor of offensive and defensive agility, while 15 m sprint significantly contributes to offensive efficacy. Swimming capacities are not found to be related to the polyvalence of the players. The most superior offensive performance can be expected from those players with a high level of anaerobic lactate endurance and advanced sprinting capacity, while anaerobic lactate endurance is recognized as most important quality in defensive duties. Future studies should observe players' polyvalence in relation to (theoretical) knowledge of technical and tactical tasks. Results reinforce

  5. Visual recovery after perinatal stroke evidenced by functional and diffusion MRI: case report

    Saudan-Frei Sonja


    Full Text Available Abstract Background After perinatal brain injury, clinico-anatomic correlations of functional deficits and brain plasticity remain difficult to evaluate clinically in the young infant. Thus, new non-invasive methods capable of early functional diagnosis are needed in young infants. Case Presentation The visual system recovery in an infant with perinatal stroke is assessed by combining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and event-related functional MRI (ER-fMRI. All experiments were done at 1.5T. A first DTI experiment was performed at 12 months of age. At 20 months of age, a second DTI experiment was performed and combined with an ER-fMRI experiment with visual stimuli (2 Hz visual flash. At 20 months of age, ER-fMRI showed significant negative activation in the visual cortex of the injured left hemisphere that was not previously observed in the same infant. DTI maps suggest recovery of the optic radiation in the vicinity of the lesion. Optic radiations in the injured hemisphere are more prominent in DTI at 20 months of age than in DTI at 12 months of age. Conclusion Our data indicate that functional cortical recovery is supported by structural modifications that concern major pathways of the visual system. These neuroimaging findings might contribute to elaborate a pertinent strategy in terms of diagnosis and rehabilitation.

  6. Amyloid deposition after cerebral hypoperfusion: evidenced on [(18)F]AV-45 positron emission tomography.

    Huang, Kuo-Lun; Lin, Kun-Ju; Ho, Meng-Yang; Chang, Yeu-Jhy; Chang, Chien-Hung; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Lee, Tsong-Hai


    Animal studies have shown that cerebral hypoperfusion may be associated with amyloid plaque accumulation. Amyloid plaque is known to be associated with dementia and [(18)F]AV-45 is a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that binds to extracelluar plaques. We hypothesized that demented patients with cerebral hypoperfusion may have increased [(18)F]AV-45 uptake. Five demented patients with cerebral hypoperfusion due to unilateral carotid artery stenosis (CAS) were examined with [(18)F]AV-45 PET, and the results were compared with six elderly controls. The standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) of each region of interest (ROI) was created using whole cerebellum as the reference region. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for obtaining structural information. Patients with dementia and unilateral CAS had a higher global [(18)F]AV-45 SUVR (1.34 ± 0.06) as compared with controls (1.10 ± 0.04, p=0.0043), especially over the frontal, temporal, precuneus, anterior cingulate and occipital regions. The statistical distribution maps revealed a significantly increased [(18)F]AV-45 SUVR in the medial frontal, caudate, thalamus, posterior cingulate, occipital and middle and superior temporal regions ipsilateral to the side of CAS (pAV-45 binding is increased in demented patients with CAS, and its distribution is lateralized to the CAS side, suggesting that amyloid-related dementia may occur under cerebral hypoperfusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of evidenced-based radioprotective efficacy of Gymnema sylvestre leaves in mice brain.

    Sharma, K; Singh, Umang; Vats, Sharad; Priyadarsini, K; Bhatia, A; Kamal, Raka


    A Gymnema sylvestre leaves extract (GSE) rich in gymnemic acids was examined for its antioxidant activities through various in vitro assays, along with its radioprotective efficacy in mice brain. The IC(50) values of GSE for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl scavenging assays, superoxide radical scavenging assays, inhibition of in vitro lipid peroxidation assays, and protein carbonyl formation assay were 238, 140, 99.46, and 28.03 microg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the total phenolic content in GSE was equivalent to 18.06 microg/mL of Gallic acid. The rate of *OH radical scavenging activity of GSE is 0.46 times slower than SCN- derived from nanosecond pulse radiolysis studies. Results of in vivo studies showed that radiation (8 Gy)-induced augmentation in the levels of lipid peroxidation and depletion in glutathione and protein levels in mice brain were significantly ameliorated by GSE pretreatment. Results suggest that the radioprotective efficacy of GSE may be due to its antioxidant properties.

  8. Exposure of resident sparrows to West Nile virus evidenced in South Tunisia.

    Hammouda, A; Lecollinet, S; Hamza, F; Nasri, I; Neb, A; Selmi, S


    During the last few years, several cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in humans have been reported in Tunisia. However, detailed information on WNV infection in wild birds, the primary amplifying host of WNV, are lacking. In this work, we investigated the exposure of wild sparrows (hybrid Passer domesticus × hispaniolensis) living in two oases in southern Tunisia (Gabès and Kébili oases) to WNV, through the detection of WNV-specific antibodies by using ELISA and microneutralization tests. In total, 208 birds were sampled (54 from Kébili, 154 from Gabès). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in two birds, corresponding to an overall seroprevalence of 1%. There was no significant difference between the two sampled populations [1·85% (1/54) in Kébili, 0·65% (1/154) in Gabès]. These data provide indirect evidence of the exposure of resident sparrows in southern Tunisia to WNV.

  9. Kink instability evidenced by analyzing the leg rotation of a filament

    Yan, X L; Liu, J H; Ma, L; Kong, D F; Qu, Z Q; Li, Z


    Kink instability is a possible mechanism for solar filament eruption. However, the twist of a solar filament is very difficult to directly measure from observation. In this paper, we carried out the measurement of the twist of a solar filament by analyzing its leg rotation. An inverse S-shaped filament in active region NOAA 11485 was observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on 2012 May 22. During its eruption, the leg of the filament exhibited a significant rotation motion. The 304 \\AA\\ images were used to uncurl along the circles, whose centers are the axis of the filament's leg. The result shows that the leg of the filament rotated up to about 510 degrees (about 2.83$\\pi$) around the axis of the filament within twenty-three minutes. The maximal rotation speed reached 100 degrees per minute (about 379.9 km/s at radius 18$^\\prime$$^\\prime$), which is the fastest rotation speed that has been reported. We also calculated the decay index along the polarity inversion ...

  10. Clarifying Delirium Management: Practical, Evidenced-Based, Expert Recommendations for Clinical Practice

    Pirrello, Rosene D.; Hirst, Jeremy M.; Buckholz, Gary T.; Ferris, Frank D.


    Abstract Delirium is highly prevalent in those with serious or advanced medical illnesses. It is associated with many adverse consequences, including significant patient, family, and health care provider distress. This article suggests a novel approach to delirium assessment and management and provides useful, practical guidance for clinicians based on a complete review of the existing literature and the expert clinical opinion of the authors and their colleagues, derived from over a decade of collective bedside experience. Comprehensive assessment includes careful description of observed symptoms, signs, and behaviors; and an understanding of the patient's situation, including primary diagnosis, associated comorbidities, functional status, and prognosis. The importance of incorporating goals of care for the patient and family is discussed. The concepts of potential reversibility versus irreversible delirium and delirium subtype are proffered, with a description of how diagnostic and management strategies follow from these concepts. Pharmacological interventions that provide rapid, effective, and safe relief are presented. Employing both pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, including patient and family education, improves symptoms and relieves patient and family distress, whether the delirium is reversible or irreversible, hyperactive or hypoactive. All interventions can be provided in any setting of care, including patients' homes. PMID:23480299

  11. Developmental coordination disorder: disruption of the cerebello-cerebral network evidenced by SPECT.

    Mariën, Peter; Wackenier, Peggy; De Surgeloose, Didier; De Deyn, Peter P; Verhoeven, Jo


    Little is known about the neurobiological substrate of developmental coordination disorder (DCD), a neuro-developmental syndrome with significant, negative impact on the motor, cognitive and affective level throughout lifespan. This paper reports the clinical, neurocognitive and neuroradiological findings of a 19-year-old patient with typical DCD. As demonstrated by mild ataxia and a close semiological correspondence with the recently acknowledged 'cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome', clinical and neurocognitive investigations unambiguously indicated functional disruption of the cerebellum. Structural MRI of the brain confirmed cerebellar involvement revealing a slight anterior/superior asymmetry of vermal fissures consistent with rostral vermisdysplasia. Although this abnormality of vermal fissuration is generally considered an incidental neuroradiological finding without any clinical relevance, a potentially subtle impact on the developmental level has never been formally excluded. In addition to a generally decreased perfusion of the cerebellum, a quantified Tc-99m-ECD SPECT disclosed functional suppression of the anatomoclinically suspected supratentorial regions involved in the execution of planned actions, visuo-spatial processing and affective regulation. Based on these findings, it is hypothesised that the cerebellum is crucially implicated in the pathophysiologcial mechanisms of DCD, reflecting disruption of the cerebello-cerebral network involved in the execution of planned actions, visuo-spatial cognition and affective regulation.

  12. Spectrum of Fusarium infections in tropical dermatology evidenced by multilocus sequencing typing diagnostics.

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Feng, Peiying; Ahmed, Sarah; Sudhadham, Montarop; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; de Hoog, G Sybren


    Fusarium species are emerging causative agents of superficial, cutaneous and systemic human infections. In a study of the prevalence and genetic diversity of 464 fungal isolates from a dermatological ward in Thailand, 44 strains (9.5%) proved to belong to the genus Fusarium. Species identification was based on sequencing a portion of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α), rDNA internal transcribed spacer and RNA-dependent polymerase subunit II (rpb2). Our results revealed that 37 isolates (84%) belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), one strain matched with Fusarium oxysporum (FOSC) complex 33, while six others belonged to the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex. Within the FSSC two predominant clusters represented Fusarium falciforme and recently described F. keratoplasticum. No gender differences in susceptibility to Fusarium were noted, but infections on the right side of the body prevailed. Eighty-nine per cent of the Fusarium isolates were involved in onychomycosis, while the remaining ones caused paronychia or severe tinea pedis. Comparing literature data, superficial infections by FSSC appear to be prevalent in Asia and Latin America, whereas FOSC is more common in Europe. The available data suggest that Fusarium is a common opportunistic human pathogens in tropical areas and has significant genetic variation worldwide. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Commonality and specificity of acupuncture action at three acupoints as evidenced by FMRI.

    Claunch, Joshua D; Chan, Suk-Tak; Nixon, Erika E; Qiu, Wei Qiao; Sporko, Tara; Dunn, Joseph P; Kwong, Kenneth K; Hui, Kathleen K S


    Previous work from our team and others has shown that manual acupuncture at LI4 (hegu), ST36 (zusanli), and LV3 (taichong) deactivates a limbic-paralimbic-neocortical brain network, and at the same time activates somatosensory regions of the brain. The objective of the present study was to explore the specificity and commonality of the brain response to manual acupuncture at LI4, ST36, and LV3, acupoints that are located on different meridians and are used to treat pain disorders. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to monitor the brain responses to acupuncture at three different acupoints; we examined 46 healthy subjects who, according to their psychophysical responses, experienced deqi sensation during acupuncture. Brain responses to stimulation at each of the acupoints were displayed in conjunction with one another to show the spatial distribution. We found clusters of deactivation in the medial prefrontal, medial parietal and medial temporal lobes showing significant convergence of two or all three of the acupoints. The largest regions showing common responses to all three acupoints were the right subgenual BA25, right subgenual cingulate, right isthmus of the cingulum bundle, and right BA31. We also noted differences in major sections of the medial prefrontal and medial temporal lobes, with LI4 predominating in the pregenual cingulate and hippocampal formation, ST36 predominating in the subgenual cingulate, and LV3 predominating in the posterior hippocampus and posterior cingulate. The results suggest that although these acupoints are commonly used for anti-pain and modulatory effects, they may mobilize the same intrinsic global networks, with substantial overlap of common brain regions to mediate their actions. Our findings showing preferential response of certain limbic-paralimbic structures suggests acupoints may also exhibit relative specificity.

  14. The Impact of Teachers' Modifications of an Evidenced-Based HIV Prevention Intervention on Program Outcomes.

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Poitier, Maxwell; Adderley, Richard; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette


    The degree to which evidence-based program outcomes are affected by modifications is a significant concern in the implementation of interventions. The ongoing national implementation of an evidence-based HIV prevention program targeting grade 6 students in The Bahamas [Focus on Youth in The Caribbean (FOYC)] offers an opportunity to explore factors associated with teachers' modification of FOYC lessons and to examine the impact of types and degrees of modifications on student outcomes. Data were collected in 2012 from 155 teachers and 3646 students in 77 government elementary schools. Results indicate that teachers taught 16 of 30 core activities, 24.5 of 46 total activities and 4.7 of 8 sessions. Over one-half of the teachers made modifications to FOYC core activities; one-fourth of the teachers modified 25 % or more core activities that they taught (heavily modified FOYC). Omitting core activities was the most common content modification, followed by lengthening FOYC lessons with reading, writing assignments or role-play games, and shortening core activities or adding educational videos. Mixed-effects modeling revealed that omitting core activities had negative impacts on all four student outcomes. Shortening core activities and adding videos into lessons had negative impacts on HIV/AIDS knowledge and/or intention to use condom protection. Heavy modifications (>1/4 core activities) were associated with diminished program effectiveness. Heavy modifications and omitting or shortening core activities were negatively related to teachers' level of implementation. We conclude that poorer student outcomes were associated with heavy modifications.

  15. Telmisartan-mediated metabolic profile conferred brain protection in diabetic hypertensive rats as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging, behavioral studies and histology.

    Younis, Firas M; Blumenthal-Katzir, Tamar; Hollander, Kenneth; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Touloumi, Olga; Lagoudakic, Roza; Rosenthal, Talma


    Type 2 diabetes and hypertension are associated with cognitive dysfunction that includes pathological changes in brain tissue. It was speculated that the beneficial hypotensive effect of telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor 1 blocker, and its unique hypoglycemic effect due to its PPARγ-activation, could ameliorate the ​ pathological changes in the brain​ that accompany​ these diseases. We examined the effect of telmisartan on brain changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted scans, and behavioral and histological findings in the Cohen-Rosenthal Diabetic Hypertensive (CRDH) rat. Baseline and post-treatment values with telmisartan/vehicle (3 months) of blood pressure, blood glucose levels, behavioral tests, brain MRI scanning and immunohistological staining were obtained. Telmisartan significantly lowered blood pressure and blood glucose levels; induced consistent T2 reduction in specific gray and white regions including hippocampus, corpus callosum, amygdala and cortical regions; and significantly improved performance on behavioral tasks. Immunohistological analysis of the brain revealed significant amelioration of diabetes/hypertension-induced changes in white matter regions and microglia, evidenced by preserved myelin (LBF marker), and improved microglial neuronal markers GFAP, GAP43 and Iba1 expression. In conclusion, the behavioral performance, longitudinal MRI study and histology staining revealed the protective effects of telmisartan on brain microstructure and cognitive function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Affordable nutrient solutions for improved food security as evidenced by crop trials

    van der Velde, Marijn; See, Linda; You, Liangzhi; Balkovic, Juraj; Fritz, Steffen; Khabarov, Nikolay; Obersteiner, Michael; Wood, Stanley


    Robust assessments of attainable crop yields in Africa and South America are pivotal for projections of food security and cropland expansion. In contract to South America, Africa has not achieved significant increases in crop yields. Here we utilize a database of historical FAO crop fertilizer trials at 1358 locations for Sub-Saharan Africa and South America to calculate corn yield gaps at the continental scale. To further the African crop productivity discourse we consider the importance of soil nutrient stoichiometry and the viability of micro-dosing. Importantly, besides N, our crop yield potential estimates account for P which has a notoriously low availability in weathered tropical soils. We investigated yield gaps for corn under two scenarios: a micro-dosing scenario with marginal increases in N and P of 10 kg/ha and a larger yet still conservative scenario with proposed N and P applications of 80 and 20 kg/ha respectively. Two critical findings emerged from the analysis. The first is the degree to which P limits increases in corn yields. For example, under a micro-dosing scenario, in Africa, the addition of small amounts of N alone resulted in yield increases of 8% while the addition of only P increased yields by 26%, with implications for designing better balanced fertilizer distribution schemes. Application of both N and P at 10 kg ha-1 lead to 15% and 32% yield increase. To put the benefits of these higher yields in context, this could save more than 4 and 25 million ha of cropland, or alternatively potentially feed 64 and 150 million people in South America and Africa respectively. The second finding was the relatively large amount of yield increase possible for a small, yet affordable amount of fertilizer application. Using African and South American fertilizer prices we show that the level of investment needed to achieve these results is considerably less than 1% of Agricultural GDP for both a micro-dosing scenario and for a scenario involving higher

  17. Biomechanics Significance of Femoral Head and Neck of Grafting-bone Group After Femoral Neck Fracture-healing%股骨颈骨折愈合后钉道植骨的生物力学意义

    唐洪涛; 仝允辉; 杨茹萍; 朱太永; 张美超; 赵卫东


    Objective To study biomechanical performance of fracture-healing femoral head and neck after the hollow compressionb screws are taken out in ungrafting-bone group, grafting-bone group, normal group, and provide theoretical basis for the treatment of necrosis of the femoral head by bone grafting in the channel of screws. Methods Nine femurs fixed and preserved by formalin were used in this test. They were randomly divided into three groups: normal group, ungrafting-bone group, grafting-bone group. According to inversed-triangle, at the range of physiological load, it tested the defixed bias-value of three group femoral head at different load. The data were collected and analyzed. The three-dimension finite element model of the femoral head and neck was calculated. Nodal solution of stress value and max-offset was calculated at area of femoral head and neck, then the data were compared and analyzed.Results Compared with the mean of load-offset about the femoral head and neck, biomechanical capability of ungrafting-bone group was lowest with regard to other two groups , the influence was very hard, P <0.05. But there was no singnificant difference between normal group and graflng-bone group, P >0.05. Analysis of the three-dimension finite element model showed that the massive stress was concentrated at weight loading region of ungrafting-bone group's femoral head, it was an dangerous chance to lead to femoral head collapse. Conclusion For the treatment of femur neck fractures with cannulated compression screws, bone grafting in the channel of screw should be used to improve biomechanical integrity after fracture healed and cannulated compression screws are taken out. This is of benefit to loading in early stage and to preventing the collapse of femoral head, etc.%目的 探讨股骨颈骨折愈合后取出空心加压螺钉遗留钉道不植骨、植骨及正常的股骨头颈部的生物力学特性,为临床提供实验依据.方法 收集9付股骨标本测量

  18. Negative effect of Ni on PtHY in n-pentane isomerization evidenced by IR and ESR studies

    Muhammad Afif Ab Aziz; Nur Hidayatul Nazirah Kamarudin; Herma Dina Setiabudi; Halimaton Hamdan; Aishah Abdul Jalil; Sugeng Triwahyono


    Ni/PtHY with different Ni loadings was prepared by impregnating HY with hexachloroplatinic acid solution and Ni2+/N,N-dimethylformamide solution.An increase in the Ni loading decreased the crystallinity,specific surface area and meso-micropores of the catalysts.Ni interacted with hydroxyl groups to produce IR absorption bands at 3740-3500 cm-1.Increasing Ni loadings resulted in a decrease in the intensities of the broad bands at 3730-3500 cm-1 and the sharp band at 3740 cm-1 with simultaneous development of new absorbance band at 3700 cm-1 that was attributed to (-OH)Ni.The acidity of the samples did not significantly change with Ni loadings up to 1.0 wt%,which indicated that Ni mostly interacts with non-acidic silanol groups (terminal-and structural-defect OH groups).The presence of Ni decreased the activity of PtHY toward the isomerization of n-pentane because of a decrease in the number of active protonic-acid sites that formed from molecular hydrogen.IR and ESR studies confirmed that Pt facilitated the formation of protonic-acid sites from molecular hydrogen,whereas Ni,even when combined with Pt,didn't exhibit such ability.The absence of protonic-acid sites from molecular hydrogen significantly decreased the yield of iso-pentane and markedly increased the cracking products.

  19. Lactobacillus plantarum TN627 significantly reduces complications of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

    Bejar, Wacim; Hamden, Khaled; Ben Salah, Riadh; Chouayekh, Hichem


    This study aimed to assess the potential of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN627 for preventing alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The oral administration of this probiotic was noted to significantly improve the immunological parameters, protect the pancreatic tissues, and reduce the pancreatic and plasmatic α-amylase activities and level of plasma glucose in the treated as compared to the control group of rats. Furthermore, this probiotic treatment was observed to markedly reduce pancreatic and plasmatic lipase activities and serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol rates and to increase the level of HDL-Cholesterol. It also exerted efficient protective effects on the liver and kidney functions evidenced by significant decreases in serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities, as well as creatinine and urea contents. Taken together, the findings indicate that L. plantarum TN627 exhibits attractive in vivo antidiabetic effects that may be helpful in preventing diabetic complications in adult rats.

  20. The IGNITE (investigation to guide new insight into translational effectiveness trial: Protocol for a translational study of an evidenced-based wellness program in fire departments

    MacKinnon David P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worksites are important locations for interventions to promote health. However, occupational programs with documented efficacy often are not used, and those being implemented have not been studied. The research in this report was funded through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act Challenge Topic 'Pathways for Translational Research,' to define and prioritize determinants that enable and hinder translation of evidenced-based health interventions in well-defined settings. Methods The IGNITE (investigation to guide new insights for translational effectiveness trial is a prospective cohort study of a worksite wellness and injury reduction program from adoption to final outcomes among 12 fire departments. It will employ a mixed methods strategy to define a translational model. We will assess decision to adopt, installation, use, and outcomes (reach, individual outcomes, and economic effects using onsite measurements, surveys, focus groups, and key informant interviews. Quantitative data will be used to define the model and conduct mediation analysis of each translational phase. Qualitative data will expand on, challenge, and confirm survey findings and allow a more thorough understanding and convergent validity by overcoming biases in qualitative and quantitative methods used alone. Discussion Findings will inform worksite wellness in fire departments. The resultant prioritized influences and model of effective translation can be validated and manipulated in these and other settings to more efficiently move science to service.

  1. Early systemic inflammatory response in mice after a single oral gavage with live Escherichia coli is evidenced by increased TNF-alpha and nitric oxide production.

    Nemec, Ana; Jerin, Aleš; Zdovc, Irena; Budefeld, Tomaž; Verstraete, Frank J M; Eržen, Damijan; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Petelin, Milan; Hitti, Tina; Pavlica, Zlatko


    Twenty-four female BALB/c mice were orally inoculated with 10(8) CFU Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and euthanized 2.5, 7, 13 and 25 h post-inoculation. The levels of organ nitric oxide (NO) and plasma endotoxin, TNF-alpha and nitrite/nitrate (NO(x)) were compared to those found in sham-inoculated mice, to evaluate systemic host-response to a low-level oral exposure to Gram-negative bacteria. Organ bacterial culture and immunohistochemistry for iNOS were performed on lungs, liver, kidneys and brain from all mice. Organ NO and plasma TNF-alpha levels were higher in E. coli-inoculated animals, but no differences were detected in plasma endotoxin levels, NO(x) or iNOS immunostaining for any of the animal groups. Single oral gavage with live E. coli stimulates an early systemic immune response in clinically healthy mice as evidenced by increased plasma TNF-alpha and organ NO levels, but bacteremia and endotoxemia are not related to this inflammatory response.

  2. 'Heart-talk:' considering the role of the heart in therapy as evidenced in the Quran and medical research.

    Hussain, Feryad


    The emphasis on scientific approaches and evidence-based therapy has been a key force in developing and refining existing models of therapy. While this has been unquestioningly invaluable, it has similarly restricted the development and so implementation of those models that do not lend themselves easily to current research methodology, since the lack of evidence-practice research means they are not considered as 'legitimate' therapeutic practice. That the mind and body have an inter-dependent relationship is readily evidenced in numerous religious texts, but the lack of acknowledgement of that relationship in contemporary therapeutic approaches means that patients are not able to benefit from its use in sessions. Ironically, it is current developments in medical research that have discovered the reality around this relationship that have enabled such models to be further explore within an accepted context of evidence-based practice. This paper highlights the relationship between the heart and brain function as evidenced with brief reference to Quranic verses and medical (namely, neurocardiological) research. Further, it raises questions around the implications of this information for therapists working in both physical and mental health. The concept of 'heart talk' is an extension of the term 'heart brain' coined by Dr Armour (Professor of Pharmacology) in 1991 and is suggestive of its use in the world of psychological therapy. It relates to those cognitions which patients suggest come 'from the heart' which though previously dismissed are now suggestive of having some scientific basis and are potentially a legitimate source of information in understanding patients experiences.

  3. The prognostic significance of post-infarction angina pectoris and the effect of verapamil on the incidence of angina pectoris and prognosis. The Danish Study Group on Verapamil in Myocardial Infarction

    Jespersen, C M; Hansen, J F; Mortensen, L S


    The prognostic significance of angina pectoris and the effect of intervention with verapamil on the incidence of angina pectoris were studied in patients recovering from myocardial infarction and included in the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II. During the second week after admission patients...... were doubly-blindly randomized to treatment with verapamil 360 or placebo. Treatment was continued for up to 18 months. At discharge angina pectoris was reported in 11% of 869 patients randomized to verapamil and in 12% of 888 randomized to placebo (ns). One month after discharge a significant...... increase in the prevalance of angina pectoris was reported in both the verapamil (33%) (P angina pectoris (P = 0.03) and the 18 months overall incidence of angina pectoris (P = 0.002) were both significantly lower...

  4. Breast cancer in situ. From pre-malignant lesion of uncertain significance to well-defined non-invasive malignant lesion. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Register 1977-2007 revisited

    Laenkholm, A.V.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Kroman, N.;


    In addition to nationwide standardized pathology forms for operable primary invasive breast cancer, the Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) in 1982 introduced pathology forms for breast cancer in situ (CIS). The histological reporting form was used primarily for ductal cancer in situ...... the pleomorphic subtype of LCIS was added to histological subtypes. The present work reviews the DBCG guidelines and recommendations concerning CIS adding a brief characterization of the Danish CIS population. It also refers to the introduction of modern molecular pathology and distinction between low...

  5. The significance of Lactobacillus crispatus and L. vaginalis for vaginal health and the negative effect of recent sex: a cross-sectional descriptive study across groups of African women.

    Jespers, Vicky; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Cools, Piet; Verhelst, Rita; Verstraelen, Hans; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Mwaura, Mary; Ndayisaba, Gilles F; Mandaliya, Kishor; Menten, Joris; Hardy, Liselotte; Crucitti, Tania


    Women in sub-Saharan Africa are vulnerable to acquiring HIV infection and reproductive tract infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disruption of the vaginal microbiota, has been shown to be strongly associated with HIV infection. Risk factors related to potentially protective or harmful microbiota species are not known. We present cross-sectional quantitative polymerase chain reaction data of the Lactobacillus genus, five Lactobacillus species, and three BV-related bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, and Prevotella bivia) together with Escherichia coli and Candida albicans in 426 African women across different groups at risk for HIV. We selected a reference group of adult HIV-negative women at average risk for HIV acquisition and compared species variations in subgroups of adolescents, HIV-negative pregnant women, women engaging in traditional vaginal practices, sex workers and a group of HIV-positive women on combination antiretroviral therapy. We explored the associations between presence and quantity of the bacteria with BV by Nugent score, in relation to several factors of known or theoretical importance. The presence of species across Kenyan, South African and Rwandan women was remarkably similar and few differences were seen between the two groups of reference women in Kenya and South Africa. The Rwandan sex workers and HIV-positive women had the highest G. vaginalis presence (p = 0.006). Pregnant women had a higher Lactobacillus genus mean log (7.01 genome equivalents (geq)/ml) compared to the reference women (6.08 geq/ml). L. vaginalis (43%) was second to L. iners (81.9%) highly present in women with a normal Nugent score. Recent sexual exposure negatively affected the presence of L. crispatus (e. L. crispatus and L. vaginalis in women with a normal Nugent score appeared lower compared to non-African studies. Furthermore, Lactobacillus species were negatively affected by sexual behavioural. Strategies to support protective

  6. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Martens Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  7. Cell cycle aberration in ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: As evidenced by the expression of p53 and survivin.

    Shaikh, Zulfin; Niranjan, K C


    p53 and survivin are involved in cell cycle progression and inhibition of apoptosis, respectively. Survivin is a unique protein which functions in progression of cell division and inhibits apoptosis leading to cell proliferation and cell survival. According to the literature, mutation of p53 leads to promotion of survivin function. Thus, the importance of cell cycle aberration and uncontrolled proliferation resulting from mutation of p53 and up-regulation of survivin is discussed. To assess the role of p53 and survivin in ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT). The percentages of positive tumor cells were considered for statistical evaluation. Nuclear labeling index for p53 and nuclear, cytoplasmic and combined labeling index for survivin was obtained from the stained slides. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 and survivin was done qualitatively and quantitatively in 25 cases each of ameloblastoma and AOT. Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Pearson's correlation test. Quantitatively, p53 and survivin expression was statistically significant in AOT (P = 0.003) and qualitatively, in ameloblastoma (P = 0.004). Survivin expression was significant (P = 0.002) between the study groups unlike that of p53 (P = 0.554). There was no much difference in p53 expression in ameloblastoma and AOT suggestive of cell cycle aberration in both the odontogenic tumors, but significant difference in survivin expression in ameloblastoma and AOT with higher percentage of positive cells in ameloblastoma may be indicative of an aggressive behavior of ameloblastoma.

  8. Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific evidenced by lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in surface waters and aerosols.

    Gallon, Céline; Ranville, Mara A; Conaway, Christopher H; Landing, William M; Buck, Clifton S; Morton, Peter L; Flegal, A Russell


    Recent trends of atmospheric lead deposition to the North Pacific were investigated with analyses of lead in aerosols and surface waters collected on the fourth Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Contaminant Baseline Survey from May to June, 2002. Lead concentrations of the aerosols varied by 2 orders of magnitude (0.1-26.4 pmol/m(3)) due in part to variations in dust deposition during the cruise. The ranges in lead aerosol enrichment factors relative to iron (1-119) and aluminum (3-168) were similar, evidencing the transport of Asian industrial lead aerosols across the North Pacific. The oceanic deposition of some of those aerosols was substantiated by the gradient of lead concentrations of North Pacific waters, which varied 3-fold (32.7-103.5 pmol/kg), were highest along with the Asian margin of the basin, and decreased eastward. The hypothesized predominance of Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific was further corroborated by the lead isotopic composition of ocean surface waters ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.157-1.169; (208)Pb/(206)Pb = 2.093-2.118), which fell within the range of isotopic ratios reported in Asian aerosols that are primarily attributed to Chinese industrial lead emissions.

  9. Thoracic Limb Morphology of the Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) Evidenced by Gross Osteology and Radiography.

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N


    There is limited information available on the morphology of the thoracic limb of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). This study describes the morphology of the thoracic limb of captive ring-tailed lemurs evidenced by gross osteology and radiography as a guide for clinical use. Radiographic findings of 12 captive ring-tailed lemurs are correlated with bone specimens of three adult animals. The clavicle is well developed. The scapula has a large area for the origin of the m. teres major. The coracoid and hamate processes are well developed. The lateral supracondylar crest and medial epicondyle are prominent. The metacarpal bones are widely spread, and the radial tuberosity is prominent. These features indicate the presence of strong flexor muscles and flexibility of thoracic limb joints, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Furthermore, an ovoid ossicle is always seen at the inter-phalangeal joint of the first digit. Areas of increased soft tissue opacity are superimposed over the proximal half of the humerus and distal half of the antebrachium in male animals as a result of the scent gland. Knowledge of the morphology of the thoracic limb of individual species is important for accurate interpretation and diagnosis of musculoskeletal diseases. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Vaginal Infections of Albanian women Infected with HPV and their impact in intraepithelial cervical lesions evidenced by Pap test

    Kone, Elsa S; Balili, Avenir D; Paparisto, Piro D; Ceka, Xheladin R; Petrela, Elizana D


    Background: Cervical cytology is the best single method for large screening of the population in identifying precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. Aim: To estimate the frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity in a group of Albanian women, the prevalence of vaginal coinfections, and the relationship of coinfections with HPV, as well as their role in metaplasia or cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 2075 vaginal smears were examined. The Papanicolaou stain was used for all slides. The New Bethesda System 2001 was used for the interpretations of the smears. Data analysis was completed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 19.0. Results: Prevalence of HPV positivity was 43.9% with an average age of 35.48 ± 9.27 years. Candida coinfection resulted in 57.8% of HPV positive women with a significant relationship between them. Gardnerella coinfection resulted in 36 (23%), mixed flora in 34 (8%), and Trichomonas vaginalis in 50% of HPV positive woman. Among the women with positive HPV, 19% had CIN, 8% had metaplasia, and 1% had metaplasia and CIN; 9% of the women with HPV had CIN1 and one of the coinfections. Conclusions: There is a strong relationship between CIN1 and HPV positivity as well as between CIN1 and coinfections. HPV infection is a major factor contributing to metaplasia, and bacterial coinfections in HPV positive women have a statistically significant impact in the development of metaplasia. PMID:28182076

  11. Evidenced Formal Coverage Index and universal healthcare enactment: A prospective longitudinal study of economic, social, and political predictors of 194 countries.

    Feigl, Andrea B; Ding, Eric L


    Determinants of universal healthcare (UHC) are poorly empirically understood. We undertook a comprehensive study of UHC development using a novel Evidenced Formal Coverage (EFC) index that combines three key UHC elements: legal framework, population coverage, and accessibility. Applying the EFC index measures (legislation, ≥90% skilled birth attendance, ≥85% formal coverage) to 194 countries, aggregating time-varying data from 1880-2008, this study investigates which macro-economic, political, and social indicators are major longitudinal predictors of developing EFC globally, and in middle-income countries. Overall, 75 of 194 countries implemented legal-text UHC legislation, of which 51 achieved EFC. In a country-year prospective longitudinal analysis of EFC prediction, higher GDP-per-capita (per GDP-per-capita doubling, relative risk [RR]=1.77, 95% CI: 1.49-2.10), higher primary school completion (per +20% completion, RR=2.30, 1.65-3.21), and higher adult literacy were significantly associated with achieving EFC. Results also identify a GDP-per-capita of I$5000 as a minimum level for development of EFC. GDP-per-capita and education were each robust predictors in middle-income countries, and education remained significant even controlling for time-varying GDP growth. For income-inequality, the GINI coefficient was suggestive in its role in predicting EFC (p=0.024). For social and political indicators, a greater degree of ethnic fractionalization (per +25%, RR=0.51, 0.38-0.70), proportional electoral system (RR=2.80, 1.22-6.40), and dictatorships (RR=0.10, 0.05-0.27) were further associated with EFC. The novel EFC index and this longitudinal prospective study together indicate that investment in both economic growth and education should be seen of equal importance for development of UHC. Our findings help in understanding the social and political drivers of universal healthcare, especially for transitioning countries.

  12. Polyimides containing amide and perfluoroisopropylidene connecting groups

    Dezern, James F. (Inventor)


    New, thermooxidatively stable polyimides were prepared from the reaction of aromatic dianhydrides containing isopropylidene bridging groups with aromatic diamines containing amide connecting groups between the rings. Several of these polyimides were shown to be semi-crystalline as evidenced by wide angle x ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. Most of the polyimides form tough, flexible films with high tensile properties. These polyimide films exhibit enhanced solubility in organic solvents.

  13. Respiratory behavior in groups of deaf and non-deaf GFF male mice.

    Stupfel, M; Busnel, M C; Molin, D; Thierry, H; Gourlet, V


    Carbon dioxide emission (VCO2) of groups of 10 GFF mice, genetically deaf and non-deaf, were compared, in controlled conditions of temperature 20-21 degrees C, humidity 50-80% and light (LD12:12; L = 108 lux). A circadian rhythm of VCO2 was evidenced in both genotypes, with levels in D and in L significantly (0.001 less than p less than 0.01) greater in deaf than in non-deaf mice. Photic VCO2 variations were significantly (0.001 less than p less than 0.05) smaller at L----D and D----L in the deaf than in non-deaf genotype. Ultradian (tau greater than 20 minutes) rhythms were evidenced in both genotypes; Fourier periodic analysis showed several significant (0.001 less than p less than 0.05) differences between these 2 genotypes concerning mainly amplitudes, whilst spectral analysis showed slight frequency differences between them. Survival to an acute nitrogen hypoxia or to an acute carbon monoxide intoxication which was significantly (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.05) lower in deaf than in non-deaf individuals confirms the differences in respiratory behavior of groups of these two strains of mice.

  14. [Malignant melanoma of the skin as evidenced by epidemiological cancer registries in Germany -- incidence, clinical parameters, variations in recording].

    Lehnert, M; Eberle, A; Hentschel, S; Katalinic, A; Kieschke, J; Schmidtmann, I; Schubert-Fritschle, G; Stegmaier, C; Hense, H-W


    To exclude bias of registration evidenced by relevant differences among German cancer registries in the incidence of malignant melanoma (melanocarcinoma). Cancer registries in the Federal German states of Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Bremen, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, the Munich District and the County of Münster featured registration data of malignant melanoma diagnosed in 2000 A. D. Figures and incidence rates, distribution of T-stage of the primary tumour were analysed as well as the distribution of sources reporting melanoma to the registries. Details of outpatient treatment of cutaneous melanoma by dermatologists in private practice were investigated. Data of 2,471 malignant melanoma cases were analysed. The highest age standardised incidence rates were 15.7 per 100,000 women and 19 per 100,000 men while the lowest rates were reported as 7.8 and 6.6 per 100,000, respectively (European standard). The proportion of stage T1 tumours varied between 21.5 and 59.2 %. We observed remarkable variations in the structure of reporting sources among the registries. The proportion of reports from dermatologists in private practice varied between 2.2 and 62 %, with higher proportions associated with more T1-T2 tumours but also lower completeness of stage reports. No clear association was identified between incidence of melanoma and reporting sources. Malignant melanomas of smaller size (T1-T2) are reported more frequently in an outpatient setting but very often without data. Hospital departments of dermatology contribute high-quality data with better completeness especially for later stage melanomas. Desirable inclusion of notifications from nationwide operating dermatopathology laboratories is complicated by the Federal German structure of cancer registration. Especially in case of malignant melanoma of the skin notification reports from all sectors of the health care system are imperative for valid epidemiological results.

  15. Elementary, General-Education Teachers' Reports of Self-Efficacy in Using Evidenced-Based Instructional Strategies to Differentiate Instruction for Students with Disabilities

    Stevens, Kimberly Y.


    The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe elementary, general-education teachers' reports of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) in using Marzano et al.'s (2010) evidenced-based instructional strategies to differentiate instruction for students with disabilities. The two frameworks that guided this investigation were Bandura's (1997) theory…

  16. Seamount subduction and related deformation and seismicity of the continental slope off Manzanillo, Mexico, as evidenced by multibeam data

    Bandy, W. L.; Castillo Maldonado, M.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.


    The west coast of Mexico presents a complex pattern of deformation related to the convergence and subduction of the Rivera plate beneath the Jalisco Block/North American plate. Previous single beam bathymetric data have evidenced a large bathymetric high at 104.6218oW, 18.7123oN, in the continental slope region off Manzanillo, Mexico. One school of thought held that this high was the offshore extension of the onshore Manzanillo horst, although the two features are offset in a right-lateral sense. Alternatively, given the presence of a large positive magnetic anomaly near the bathymetric high, the high could also be caused by the collision and subsequent subduction of a large seamount. Given that the offset between the two structures was the main evidence for proposing the existence of a forearc sliver in the offshore area of the Jalisco margin, resolving the nature of this bathymetric high is quite important in our attempts to understand the plate kinematics and tectonics of this region. Thus, to better define the deformation pattern associated with the bathymetric high, multibeam bathymetric data (obtained using the Kongsberg EM300 multibeam system), subbottom profiles (obtained using the Kongsberg TOPAS18 system), and total field magnetic data (obtained using the Geometrics G877 marine proton precession magnetometer) were collected in the continental slope region between Manzanillo, Colima, and Chamela, Jalisco, during several cruises of UNAM´s research vessel the B.O. EL PUMA. The morphology and structural deformation patterns obtained in this study indicate very clearly that a large seamount is in the process of subducting beneath the continental slope off Manzanillo. The results also indicate that not only has the seamount uplifted the slope but has resulted in slumping of the area of the slope landward of the seamount. Given these results the proposal of the existence of an independent forearc sliver in the offshore area of the southern Jalisco block needs

  17. Interaction between a recombinant prion protein and organo-mineral complexes as evidenced by CPMAS 13C-NMR

    Russo, F.; Scotti, R.; Gianfreda, L.; Conte, P.; Rao, M. A.


    Prion proteins (PrP) are the main responsible for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE). The TSE etiological agent is a misfolded form of the normal cellular prion protein. The amyloidal aggregates accumulated in the brain of infected animals and mainly composed of PrPSc exhibit resistance to protease attack and many conventional inactivating procedures. The prion protein diseases cause an environmental issue because the environment and in particular the soil compartment can be contaminated and then become a potential reservoir and diffuser of TSEs infectivity as a consequence of (i) accidental dispersion from storage plants of meat and bone meal, (ii) incorporation of contaminated material in fertilizers, (iii) possible natural contamination of pasture soils by grazing herds, and (v) burial of carcasses. The environmental problem can be even more relevant because very low amounts of PrPSc are able to propagate the disease. Several studies evidenced that infectious prion protein remains active in soils for years. Contaminated soils result, thus, a possible critical route of TSE transmission in wild animals. Soil can also protect prion protein toward degradation processes due to the presence of humic substances and inorganic components such as clays. Mineral and organic colloids and the more common association between clay minerals and humic substances can contribute to the adsorption/entrapment of molecules and macromolecules. The polymerization of organic monomeric humic precursors occurring in soil in the presence of oxidative enzymes or manganese and iron oxides, is considered one of the most important processes contributing to the formation of humic substances. The process is very fast and produces a population of polymeric products of different molecular structures, sizes, shapes and complexity. Other molecules and possibly biomacromolecules such as proteins may be involved. The aim of the present work was to study by CPMAS 13C-NMR the interactions

  18. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  19. Choosing Outcomes of Significance.

    Spady, William G.


    Outcomes are high-quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context. The High Success Network uses the "Demonstration Mountain" to differentiate among three major "learning zones" and six different forms of learning demonstrations that increase in complexity, generalizability, and significance, along with…

  20. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.): A preferred timber for shipbuilding in India as evidenced from shipwrecks

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Shashikala, S.; Sardar, A.A.

    anatomy. INDIA has contributed significantly to world culture in the field of science, technology, culture and philosophy. One of the greatest achievements of man was the invention of watercraft made of reeds, logs and skins, which were used from...

  1. Significance Testing Without Truth


    ICES REPORT 12-34 August 2012 Significance testing without truth by William Perkins, Mark Tygert, and Rachel Ward The Institute for Computational...testing without truth , ICES REPORT 12-34, The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, August 2012...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance testing without truth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  2. Group Rapport: Posture Sharing as a Nonverbal Indicator

    LaFrance, Marianne; Broadbent, Maida


    Systematic observation and a questionnaire format were used to investigate the relationship between posture sharing and self-report indications of rapport in a group situation--college seminar classrooms. The greater the amount of mirroring and congruent postures evidenced by students vis-a-vis the teacher, the higher the ratings of involvement.…

  3. Group X

    Fields, Susannah


    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  4. Glycoproteins: Occurrence and Significance

    Wittmann, Valentin

    Protein glycosylation is regarded as the most complex form of post-translational modification leading to a heterogeneous expression of glycoproteins as mixtures of glycoforms. This chapter describes the structure and occurrence of glycoproteins with respect to their glycan chains. Discussed are different carbohydrate-peptide linkages including GPI anchors, common structures of N- and O-glycans, and the structure of glycosaminoglycans contained in proteoglycans. Also covered are the bacterial cell wall polymer peptidoglycan and the glycopeptide antibiotics of the vancomycin group. Properties and functions of the glycans contained in glycoproteins are dealt with in the next chapter of this book.

  5. A Significant Play

    梁海光; 陈明


    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  6. Filling the gap in Ca input-output budgets in base-poor forest ecosystems: The contribution of non-crystalline phases evidenced by stable isotopic dilution

    van der Heijden, Gregory; Legout, Arnaud; Mareschal, Louis; Ranger, Jacques; Dambrine, Etienne


    solution chemistry on very short-term time scales. These phases are very abundant in acid soils and, in the present study, represent a substantial calcium pool (equivalent in size to the Ca exchangeable pool). The gradual isotopic dilution of Mg and Ca isotope ratios in the leaching solution during the experiment evidenced an input flux of Mg and Ca originating from a pool other than the labile pool. While the Mg input flux originated primarily from the weathering of primary minerals and secondarily from the non-crystalline phases, the Ca input flux originated primarily from the non-crystalline phases. Our results also show that the net calcium release flux from these phases may represent a significant source of calcium in forest ecosystems and actively contribute to compensating the depletion of Ca exchangeable pools in the soil. Non-crystalline phases therefore should be taken into account when computing input-output nutrient budgets and soil acid neutralizing capacity.

  7. Significant Tsunami Events

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.


    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website

  8. Group morphology

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.


    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  9. Phenotypic plasticity in adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni (Trematoda:Schistosomatidae evidenced by brightfield and confocal laser scanning microscopies

    Renata Heisler Neves


    Full Text Available A comparative morphometric study was performed to identify host-induced morphological alterations in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. A wild parasite population was obtained from a naturally infected rodent (Nectomys squamipesand then recovered from laboratory infected C3H/He mice. Furthermore, allopatric worm populations maintained for long-term under laboratory conditions in Swiss Webster mice were passed on to N. squamipes. Suckers and genital system (testicular lobes, uterine egg, and egg spine were analyzed by a digital system for image analysis. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM showed details of the genital system (testicular lobes, vitelline glands, and ovary and the tegument just below the ventral sucker. Significant morphological changes (p < 0.05 were detected in male worms in all experimental conditions, with no significant variability as assessed by CLSM. Significant changes (p < 0.05 were evident in females from the wild population related to their ovaries and vitelline glands, whereas allopatric females presented differences only in this last character. We conclude that S. mansoni worms present the phenotypic plasticity induced by modifications in the parasite's microenvironment, mainly during the first passage under laboratory conditions.

  10. Early-adult outcome of child and adolescent mental disorders as evidenced by a national-based case register survey

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie; Caffo, Ernesto;


    Background Mental disorders show varying degrees of continuity from childhood to adulthood. This study addresses the relationship of child and adolescent mental disorders to early adult psychiatric morbidity. Methods From a population at risk of 830,819 children and adolescents aged 6–16 years, we...... selected all those (n = 6043) who were enrolled for the first time in the Danish Psychiatric Register with an ICD-10 F00–99 diagnosis in 1995–1997, and identified any mental disorder for which they received treatment up to 2009. Results Neurodevelopmental and conduct disorders were the principal diagnostic...... groups at 6–16 years and exhibited a characteristic male preponderance; while affective, eating, neurotic, stress-related and adjustment disorders were more common in girls. Over a mean follow-up period of 10.1 years, 1666 (27.6%) cases, mean age 23.4 years, were referred for treatment to mental health...

  11. A Significant Step Forward


    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  12. A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta

    Ren Jianfeng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms is a small taxon of worm-like marine organisms with an uncertain phylogenetic position. In this report, we present the mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta, the first complete mitochondrial genome of the phylum. Results The mitochondrial genome of P.esculenta is 15,494 bp in length. The coding strand consists of 32.1% A, 21.5% C, 13.0% G, and 33.4% T bases (AT = 65.5%; AT skew = -0.019; GC skew = -0.248. It contains thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs with 3,709 codons in total, twenty-two transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region (AT = 74.2%. All of the 37 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. Compared with the typical set of metazoan mt genomes, sipunculid lacks trnR but has an additional trnM. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the protein sequences show that Myzostomida, Sipuncula and Annelida (including echiurans and pogonophorans form a monophyletic group, which supports a closer relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida than with Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and some other lophotrochozoan groups. Conclusion This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome as a representative within the phylum Sipuncula. It shares many more similar features with the four known annelid and one echiuran mtDNAs. Firstly, sipunculans and annelids share quite similar gene order in the mitochondrial genome, with all 37 genes located on the same strand; secondly, phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated protein sequences also strongly support the sipunculan + annelid

  13. Barriers and promoters of an evidenced-based smoking cessation counseling during prenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay.

    Colomar, Mercedes; Tong, Van T; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando


    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A's model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers', clinic directors', and pregnant smokers' opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches.

  14. Atypical cleavage of protonated N-fatty acyl amino acids derived from aspartic acid evidenced by sequential MS(3) experiments.

    Boukerche, Toufik Taalibi; Alves, Sandra; Le Faouder, Pauline; Warnet, Anna; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Bouchekara, Mohamed; Belbachir, Mohammed; Tabet, Jean-Claude


    Lipidomics calls for information on detected lipids and conjugates whose structural elucidation by mass spectrometry requires to rationalization of their gas phase dissociations toward collision-induced dissociation (CID) processes. This study focused on activated dissociations of two lipoamino acid (LAA) systems composed of N-palmitoyl acyl coupled with aspartic and glutamic acid mono ethyl esters (as LAA(*D) and LAA(*E)). Although in MS/MS, their CID spectra show similar trends, e.g., release of water and ethanol, the [(LAA(*D/*E)+H)-C2H5OH](+) product ions dissociate via distinct pathways in sequential MS(3) experiments. The formation of all the product ions is rationalized by charge-promoted cleavages often involving stepwise processes with ion isomerization into ion-dipole prior to dissociation. The latter explains the maleic anhydride or ketene neutral losses from N-palmitoyl acyl aspartate and glutamate anhydride fragment ions, respectively. Consequently, protonated palmitoyl acid amide is generated from LAA(*D), whereas LAA(*E) leads to the [*E+H-H2O](+) anhydride. The former releases ammonia to provide acylium, which gives the C n H(2n-1) and C n H(2n-3) carbenium series. This should offer structural information, e.g., to locate either unsaturation(s) or alkyl group branching present on the various fatty acyl moieties of lipo-aspartic acid in further studies based on MS (n) experiments.

  15. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen


    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  16. 严重烧伤患者外周血高迁移率族蛋白B-1水平的检测及其临床意义%Detection of plasma high mobility group box-1 protein in severely burned patients and its clinical significance

    肖锦华; 王亚萍; 朱华燕; 潘宇红; 黄璇


    目的 检测严重烧伤后患者血浆高迁移率族蛋白B-1 (HMGB1)水平的变化并探讨其临床意义.方法 用酶联免疫吸附试验法检测77例严重烧伤患者血浆HMGB1水平,同步检测肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)含量,并与30名健康对照组进行比较.结果 77例严重烧伤患者按烧伤面积分为3组,A组31例,烧伤总面积30%~49%,B组25例,烧伤总面积50%~69%,C组21例,烧伤总面积70%~95%;烧伤患者血浆HMGB1及TNF-α水平在A组为(22.15±6.34) ng/ml、(89.26±21.41)pg/ml,B组为(26.24±9.71)ng/ml、( 132.45±76.32)pg/ml,C组为(36.45±11.63)ng/ml、(213.61±87.45) pg/ml,对照组为(2.17±1.13)ng/ml、(45.32±13.84)pg/m1,烧伤各组HMGB1及TNF-α水平明显高于对照组(P<0.01);24例特大面积烧伤患者根据预后情况分为生存组和死亡组进行动态观察,两组患者血浆HMGB1水平在伤后第1天即显著升高(P<0.01),在伤后3~21 d,死亡组明显高于生存组(P<0.05),而TNF-α含量在伤后第3~7 d达高峰,以后逐渐下降,到21d时生存组与死亡组相比已差异无统计学意义.结论 严重烧伤后HMGB1的表达异常升高,HMGB1作为重要的晚期炎症介质和TNF-α相互诱生相互作用,参与严重烧伤后全身炎症反应综合征的病理生理过程,动态观察其水平变化有助于烧伤患者病程监测及预后判断.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the changes of plasma high mobility group box-1 protein ( HMGB1) in severely burned patients and its clinical significance. METHODS The plasma HMGB1 and TNF-α levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) simultaneously in all patients and were compared with 30 healthy control subjects. RESULTS Totally 77 burned patients were involved in this study, and they were divided into three burn size groups: 30%-49% total body surface area(TBSA) burn(group A, n = 31), 50% - 69% TBSA burn (group B, n = 25) and 70%-95% TBSA burn(group C, n = 21). The levels of HMGB2 and TNF

  17. Group devaluation and group identification

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.


    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order manip

  18. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Saugstad, L F


    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.


    Iuliana Spiridon


    Full Text Available Attempts were made to enhance the hydrolysis of Asclepias syriaca (As seed floss and poplar seed floss (PSF by cellulase after pre-treatment with ionic liquids. Two ionic liquids, namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroaluminate [EMIM]Cl-AlCl3, were used. In comparison with conventional cellulose pretreatment processes, the ionic liquids were used under a milder condition corresponding to the optimum activity of cellulase. Hydrolysis kinetics of the IL-treated cellulose materials was significantly enhanced. The initial hydrolysis rates for IL-treated cellulose materials were greater than those of non-treated ones. The structural modifications of hydrolyzed cellulose materials were analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy.


    Giusca, Cristina E; Tison, Yann; Silva, S. Ravi P.


    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy have been used in an attempt to elucidate the electronic structure of nanotube systems containing two constituent shells. Evidence for modified electronic structure due to the inter-layer interaction in double-walled carbon nanotubes is provided...... and the overall electronic structure for double-walled carbon nanotubes, is demonstrated by our experiments, showing that the effect the inner tube has on the overall electronic structure of double-walled nanotubes cannot be neglected, and is key to the opto-electronic properties of the system. We postulate...... that previous analysis of the opto-electronic properties on multiple-walled carbon nanotubes based purely on the outer layer chirality of the tube needs significant modification based on new understanding brought forth with our analysis....

  1. Barriers and Promoters of an Evidenced-Based Smoking Cessation Counseling During Prenatal Care in Argentina and Uruguay

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L.; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M.; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando


    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A’s model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers’, clinic directors’, and pregnant smokers’ opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches. PMID:25500989

  2. Cortical reorganization associated lower extremity motor recovery as evidenced by functional MRI and diffusion tensor tractography in a stroke patient.

    Jang, Sung Ho; You, Sung H; Kwon, Yong-Hyun; Hallett, Mark; Lee, Mi Young; Ahn, Sang Ho


    Recovery mechanisms supporting upper extremity motor recovery following stroke are well established, but cortical mechanism associated with lower extremity motor recovery is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess cortical reorganization associated with lower extremity motor recovery in a hemiparetic patient. Six control subjects and a 17 year-old woman with left intracerebral hemorrhage due to an arterio-venous malformation rupture were evaluated. The motor function of the paretic (left) hip and knee had recovered slowly to the extent of her being able to overcome gravity for 10 months after the onset of stroke. However, her paretic upper extremity showed no significant motor recovery. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI at 1.5 Tesla was used to determine the acutual location of cortical activation in the predefined regions of interest. Concurrently, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) in combination with a novel 3D-fiber reconstruction algorithm was utilized to investigate the pattern of the corticospinal pathway connectivity between the areas of the motor stream. All subjects' body parts were secured in the scanner and performed a sequential knee flexion-extension with a predetermined angle of 0-60 degrees at 0.5 Hz. Controls showed anticipated activation in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (SM1) and the descending corticospinal fibers stemming from motor cortex. In contrast to control normal subjects, the stroke patient showed fMRI activation only in the unaffected (right) primary SM1 during either paretic or nonparetic knee movements. DTT fiber tracing data showed that the corticospinal tract fibers were found only in the unaffected hemisphere but not in the affected hemisphere. Our results indicate that an ipsilateral motor pathway from the unaffected (right) motor cortex to the paretic (right) leg was present in this patient. This study raises the potential that the contralesional (ipsilateral) SM1 is involved in cortical

  3. Strong Tectonic Rotation Evidenced by the Study of a Widespread Remagnetization in the Corbières Thrust Sheet (France)

    Rouvier, H.; Henry, B.; Le Goff, M.


    This study was carried out in the eastern part of the French Pyrénées where the tectonic structures, E-W oriented, bend northward at the Corbières virgation. This change affects the North-Pyrenean zone that overlains the foreland at the North Pyrenean thrust and its eastern extension, the Corbières thrust sheet. In this area, the Corbières thrust sheet is formed by the Mesozoic cover overlying down flat the Cenozoic formations of the Aude basin. The studied sites belongs to the North Pyrenean zone and to the Corbières thrust sheet and correspond to ages from Lias to Lower Cretaceous. Rock-magnetism analyses indicate that magnetite is the main magnetization carrier. Natural Remanent Magnetization mostly corresponds to a viscous component A and a component B determined during treatments from 300 to 400-500°C. Some samples also present a higher temperature component C, which cannot be isolated because of strong mineralogical alteration during thermal demagnetization at these temperatures or of too weak magnetization intensity. Dip variation in neighboring sites allows fold tests indicating synfolding remagnetization (i.e. acquired between or during different tectonic phases) for the component B. Direction of the latter has been then determined using small circles method for groups of neighboring sites. Previous study presented last year and made in the large Saint-Paul de Fenouillet syncline showed that western E-W part of the syncline is only locally affected by weak rotations while a large counterclockwise rotation affected all the eastern part of the syncline at the Corbières virgation during the Tertiary tectonic phase. New data have been acquired in numerous sites from the Corbières thrust sheet south from the Aude River. They point out that the different units of the Corbières thrust sheet also show large counterclockwise rotation. The emplacement of the the Corbières thrust sheet then appears as the result of a large movement of rotation of the North

  4. Meaning and significance of

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela


    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  5. Host specific diversity in Lactobacillus johnsonii as evidenced by a major chromosomal inversion and phage resistance mechanisms.

    Caitriona M Guinane

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity and genomic rearrangements are a driving force in bacterial evolution and niche adaptation. We sequenced and annotated the genome of Lactobacillus johnsonii DPC6026, a strain isolated from the porcine intestinal tract. Although the genome of DPC6026 is similar in size (1.97 mbp and GC content (34.8% to the sequenced human isolate L. johnsonii NCC 533, a large symmetrical inversion of approximately 750 kb differentiated the two strains. Comparative analysis among 12 other strains of L. johnsonii including 8 porcine, 3 human and 1 poultry isolate indicated that the genome architecture found in DPC6026 is more common within the species than that of NCC 533. Furthermore a number of unique features were annotated in DPC6026, some of which are likely to have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT and contribute to protection against phage infection. A putative type III restriction-modification system was identified, as were novel Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR elements. Interestingly, these particular elements are not widely distributed among L. johnsonii strains. Taken together these data suggest intra-species genomic rearrangements and significant genetic diversity within the L. johnsonii species and indicate towards a host-specific divergence of L. johnsonii strains with respect to genome inversion and phage exposure.

  6. Interaction of aluminum with PHFtau in Alzheimer's disease neurofibrillary degeneration evidenced by desferrioxamine-assisted chelating autoclave method.

    Murayama, H; Shin, R W; Higuchi, J; Shibuya, S; Muramoto, T; Kitamoto, T


    To demonstrate that aluminum III (Al) interacts with PHFtau in neurofibrillary degeneration (NFD) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, we developed a "chelating autoclave method" that allows Al chelation by using trivalent-cationic chelator desferrioxamine. Its application to AD brain sections before Morin histochemistry for Al attenuated the positive fluorescence of neurofibrillary tangles, indicating Al removal from them. This method, applied for immunostaining with phosphorylation-dependent anti-tau antibodies, significantly enhanced the PHFtau immunoreactivity of the NFD. These results suggest that each of the phosphorylated epitopes in PHFtau are partially masked by Al binding. Incubation of AD sections with AlCl(3) before Morin staining revealed Al accumulation with association to neurofibrillary tangles. Such incubation before immunostaining with the phosphorylation-dependent anti-tau antibodies abolished the immunolabeling of the NFD and this abolition was reversed by the Al chelation. These findings indicate cumulative Al binding to and thereby antigenic masking of the phosphorylated epitopes of PHFtau. Al binding was further documented for electrophoretically-resolved PHFtau on immunoblots, indicating direct Al binding to PHFtau. In vitro aggregation by AlCl(3) was observed for PHFtau but was lost on dephosphorylation of PHFtau. Taken together, phosphorylation-dependent and direct PHFtau-Al interaction occurs in the NFD of the AD brain.

  7. Heterogeneity of breast cancer stem cells as evidenced with Notch-dependent and Notch-independent populations.

    Wong, Nelson K Y; Fuller, Megan; Sung, Sandy; Wong, Fred; Karsan, Aly


    Studies have suggested the potential importance of Notch signaling to the cancer stem cell population in some tumors, but it is not known whether all cells in the cancer stem cell fraction require Notch activity. To address this issue, we blocked Notch activity in MCF-7 cells by expressing a dominant-negative MAML-GFP (dnMAML) construct, which inhibits signaling through all Notch receptors, and quantified the effect on tumor-initiating activity. Inhibition of Notch signaling reduced primary tumor sphere formation and side population. Functional quantification of tumor-initiating cell numbers in vivo showed a significant decrease, but not a complete abrogation, of these cells in dnMAML-expressing cells. Interestingly, when assessed in secondary assays in vitro or in vivo, there was no difference in tumor-initiating activity between the dnMAML-expressing cells and control cells. The fact that a subpopulation of dnMAML-expressing cells was capable of forming primary and secondary tumors indicates that there are Notch-independent tumor-initiating cells in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Our findings thus provide direct evidence for a heterogeneous cancer stem cell pool, which will require combination therapies against multiple oncogenic pathways to eliminate the tumor-initiating cell population.

  8. Long-lasting transcurrent tectonics in SW Alps evidenced by Neogene to present-day stress fields

    Bauve, Victorien; Plateaux, Romain; Rolland, Yann; Sanchez, Guillaume; Bethoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand; Darnault, Romain


    The SW Alps are an active orogen undergoing intra-mountainous extension and peripheral compression. We discuss the significance of syn-orogenic extension based on a comparison of paleo-stress derived from fault-slip data inversion reflecting the long-term (< 12 Ma) evolution of SW Alps and the present-day stress state obtained by the inversion of the focal mechanisms of the last 30-years seismicity. The resulting stress states of long-term and active tectonic regimes are in good agreement, showing that extension accompanies strike-slip and reverse faulting in the southern part of the belt. The extensional deformation regime is limited to specific tectonic domains that can be interpreted as ‘transitional' between pure strike-slip segments where the deformation concentrates on inherited ductile shear zones that were formed between 32° and 20 Ma ago. We thus propose that the extensional deformation in the SW Alps can be defined as a local deformation in a pull-apart type domain (High Durance - Jausiers area) or above slowly exhuming internal massifs (Dora Maira - Ivrea Body) along a curved boundary between the slowly rotating Apulian block and the relatively immobile Western Europe. The transcurrent fault system merges into a compressional front along the Mediterranean - Ligurian coast mainly to the east of San Remo.

  9. Interaction of Aluminum with PHFτ in Alzheimer’s Disease Neurofibrillary Degeneration Evidenced by Desferrioxamine-Assisted Chelating Autoclave Method

    Murayama, Harunobu; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Higuchi, Jun; Shibuya, Satoshi; Muramoto, Tamaki; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki


    To demonstrate that aluminum III (Al) interacts with PHFτ in neurofibrillary degeneration (NFD) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain, we developed a “chelating autoclave method” that allows Al chelation by using trivalent-cationic chelator desferrioxamine. Its application to AD brain sections before Morin histochemistry for Al attenuated the positive fluorescence of neurofibrillary tangles, indicating Al removal from them. This method, applied for immunostaining with phosphorylation-dependent anti-τ antibodies, significantly enhanced the PHFτ immunoreactivity of the NFD. These results suggest that each of the phosphorylated epitopes in PHFτ are partially masked by Al binding. Incubation of AD sections with AlCl3 before Morin staining revealed Al accumulation with association to neurofibrillary tangles. Such incubation before immunostaining with the phosphorylation-dependent anti-τ antibodies abolished the immunolabeling of the NFD and this abolition was reversed by the Al chelation. These findings indicate cumulative Al binding to and thereby antigenic masking of the phosphorylated epitopes of PHFτ. Al binding was further documented for electrophoretically-resolved PHFτ on immunoblots, indicating direct Al binding to PHFτ. In vitro aggregation by AlCl3 was observed for PHFτ but was lost on dephosphorylation of PHFτ. Taken together, phosphorylation-dependent and direct PHFτ-Al interaction occurs in the NFD of the AD brain. PMID:10487845

  10. Quaternary volcanic-sedimentary sequences and evolution of the Llancanelo Lake region (Southern Mendoza, Western Argentina) evidenced from geoelectric methods

    de la Vega, Matias; Lopez, Ernesto; Osella, Ana; Rovere, Elizabeth I.; Violante, Roberto A.


    Llancanelo Lake region (Southern Mendoza Province, Western Argentina) is a key area for investigating the regional evolution of a tectonic basin affected by intense arc- and back-arc volcanism. However, the lack of enough outcrops makes it difficult to perform such reconstructions. In order to solve this problem, and with the aim of depicting the subsurface stratigraphy, 22 geoelectric surveys reaching more than 100 m depth were performed. The applied methodology, that combined geoelectrical measurements and field observations, is a continuation of previous works carried out in the region, and allowed for the first time to establish a near-surface stratigraphy that records the last evolutive stages of the lake. The studied region is mainly composed of Quaternary volcanic and sedimentary sequences. Four units were recognized on the basis of the geoelectrical differences (resistivity signal) supported by field observations where they crop out. Two of them have very high resistivity and are composed of basaltic lava flows, hence indicating the volcanic influence in the region. The other two have very low resistivity and correspond to sedimentary deposits, being the uppermost one composed of lacustrine sediments. The units were named according to the well-known stratigraphic scheme valid for the region. The studied stratigraphic sequence encompasses the time-span from the Pliocene to the present, and its interpretation allowed to establish the main evolutive stages, characterized by a complex interaction among tectonic, volcanic and climatic factors. The damming of the lake by basaltic flows and the consequent reduction of the lake's extension at times of intensive volcanic activity is one of the most significant events in its evolution.

  11. Interannual Changes in Biomass Affect the Spatial Aggregations of Anchovy and Sardine as Evidenced by Geostatistical and Spatial Indicators.

    Marco Barra

    Full Text Available Geostatistical techniques were applied and a series of spatial indicators were calculated (occupation, aggregation, location, dispersion, spatial autocorrelation and overlap to characterize the spatial distributions of European anchovy and sardine during summer. Two ecosystems were compared for this purpose, both located in the Mediterranean Sea: the Strait of Sicily (upwelling area and the North Aegean Sea (continental shelf area, influenced by freshwater. Although the biomass of anchovy and sardine presented high interannual variability in both areas, the location of the centres of gravity and the main spatial patches of their populations were very similar between years. The size of the patches representing the dominant part of the abundance (80% was mostly ecosystem- and species-specific. Occupation (area of presence appears to be shaped by the extent of suitable habitats in each ecosystem whereas aggregation patterns (how the populations are distributed within the area of presence were species-specific and related to levels of population biomass. In the upwelling area, both species showed consistently higher occupation values compared to the continental shelf area. Certain characteristics of the spatial distribution of sardine (e.g. spreading area, overlapping with anchovy differed substantially between the two ecosystems. Principal component analysis of geostatistical and spatial indicators revealed that biomass was significantly related to a suite of, rather than single, spatial indicators. At the spatial scale of our study, strong correlations emerged between biomass and the first principal component axis with highly positive loadings for occupation, aggregation and patchiness, independently of species and ecosystem. Overlapping between anchovy and sardine increased with the increase of sardine biomass but decreased with the increase of anchovy. This contrasting pattern was attributed to the location of the respective major patches

  12. Correlation between pediatrician supply and public health in Japan as evidenced by vaccination coverage in 2010: secondary data analysis.

    Sakai, Rie; Fink, Günther; Wang, Wei; Kawachi, Ichiro


    In industrialized countries, assessment of the causal effect of physician supply on population health has yielded mixed results. Since the scope of child vaccination is an indicator of preventive health service utilization, this study investigates the correlation between vaccination coverage and pediatrician supply as a reflection of overall pediatric health during a time of increasing pediatrician numbers in Japan. Cross-sectional data were collected from publicly available sources for 2010. Dependent variables were vaccination coverage for measles and diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) by region. The primary predictor of interest was number of pediatricians per 10,000-child population (pediatrician density) at the municipality level. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate associations of interest, conditional on a large range of demographic and infrastructure-related factors as covariates, including non-pediatric physician density, total population, per capita income, occupation, unemployment rate, prevalence of single motherhood, number of hospital beds per capita, length of roads, crime rate, accident rate, and metropolitan area code as urban/rural status. The percentage of the population who completed college-level education or higher in 2010 was included in the model as a proxy for education level. Pediatrician density was positively and significantly associated with vaccination coverage for both vaccine series. On average, each unit of pediatrician density increased odds by 1.012 for measles (95% confidence interval, 1.010-1.015) and 1.019 for DPT (95% confidence interval, 1.016-1.022). Policies increasing pediatrician supply contribute to improved preventive healthcare services utilization, such as immunizations, and presumably improved child health status in Japan.

  13. Specific versus non-specific immune responses in an invertebrate species evidenced by a comparative de novo sequencing study.

    Emeline Deleury

    Full Text Available Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5'-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5'-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of the 758,510 redundant sequences (ESTs, mRNAs of B. glabrata available in public databases. Computational analysis of Illumina reads followed by multivariate analyses allowed identification of 1685 candidate transcripts differentially expressed after an immune challenge, with a two fold ratio between transcripts showing a challenge-specific expression versus a lower or non-specific differential expression. Differential expression has been validated using quantitative PCR for a subset of randomly selected candidates. Predicted functions of annotated candidates (approx. 700 unisequences belonged to a large extend to similar functional categories or protein types. This work significantly expands upon previous gene discovery and expression studies on B. glabrata and suggests that responses to various pathogens may involve similar immune processes or signaling pathways but different genes belonging to multigenic families. These results raise the question of the importance

  14. Significance of arthrosonography in the diagnosis of metatarsophalangeal joint injury in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Rita Aleksandrovna Osipyants


    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the contribution of arthrosonography to the diagnosis of metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ injury and to reveal predictors for functional impairments in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 50 patients with the RA diagnosis meeting to the American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria. According to disease duration, the patients were divided into two groups: 1 9 patients with an early RA history of less than 2 years (ERA; 2 41 patients with a RA history of over 2 years (LRA. All the patients underwent clinical joint evaluation, laboratory and instrumental examination, including joint X-ray and ultrasonography (USG. Results. An inflammatory process in the foot joints is significantly more frequently detected on ultrasound than clinically (p < 0.0001. The detection rate of erosions, as evidenced by USG, was significantly higher than that by X-ray, in ERA in particular (p = 0.01. Comparison analysis of patients with low and high HAQ scores showed the relationship between functional status, age, pain degree, and inflammatory process in the fifth MTPJ, as shown by USG. There were no associations with disease duration, traditional clinical and laboratory parameters of RA activity, and erosive changes in the feet. Conclusion. Joint USG in daily clinical practice makes it possible to objectively evaluate pathological changes in the feet and the probability of work disability due to RA.

  15. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  16. Multi stage peridotite-melt reaction evidenced by xenolith suite from Wilcza Góra basanite (SW Poland)

    Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Wojtulek, Piotr


    Presence of hydrous phases in Earth's lithospheric mantle is a typical manifestation of modal metasomatism. Mantle xenoliths occurring in Northern margin of the Bohemian Massif usually contain no hydrous phases (Puziewicz et al., 2015). The latter, if present, form small and scarce crystals of pargasitic amphibole (e.g. Nowak et al., 2010, EGU abstracts; Matusiak-Małek et al., 2010, Lithos). The exception are xenoliths from Wilcza Góra basanite (SW Poland). The xenoliths have composition of harzburgite, scarce dunitic and wehrlitic ones occur as well. Pyroxenites of cumulative textures occur also in the Wilcza Góra.Pargasitic amphibole occurs in all the types of the xenoliths. Amphibole forms: 1) large (up to 1 cm) subhedral crystals, 2) exsolution lamellae in pyroxenes, and 3) cores of secondary clinopyroxenes in integranular aggregates. Composition of amphibole varies in wide ranges between xenoliths (e.g. mg# 0.73-0.95). The mineral is in equilibrium with coexisting clinopyroxene (mg#=0.79-0.93) in terms of major and trace elements. Variations in Mg and Fe contents in olivine and orthopyroxene are significant and continuous (Fo=77-92 and mg#=0.85-0.92, respectively). Enrichment of peridotites in Fe may result from: (1) cumulative origin, or (2) metasomatic enrichment due to reaction with mafic silicate melt. But, as was discussed in Matusiak-Małek et al. (2014), features like: lack of cumulative textures, high NiO in olivine (0.25-0.43 wt.%) promotes the second possibility. As clinopyroxene and spinel record no melting (e.g. lack of Al-Na positive and cr#-mg# negative correlations, respectively), they cannot be a primary phase and must have been introduced into peridotite by metasomatic reactions ("stealth" metasomatism; O'Reillly and Griffin, 2013, Springer). Trace element composition of clinopyroxene and amphibole and their equilibrium suggest their crystallization from the fractionating mafic silicate melt, possibly the same which caused enrichment of

  17. Late-stage stretching and subsidence rates in the Danakil Depression, evidenced from borehole records and seismic reflection data

    Booth, Adam; Bastow, Ian; Magee, Craig; Keir, Derek; Corti, Giacomo; Jackson, Chris; Wilkinson, Jason


    . This depth change corresponds to a plausible vertical subsidence rate of between 2-20 mma-1 and, assuming a 60° fault dip, a horizontal extension rate of 1-12 mma-1 during the deposition of the Houston Formation, consistent with recent geodetic constraints offered by Ar Rajehi et al. (2010). The borehole archive shows no evidence of significant magmatism anywhere in the survey area, and the characteristic reflectivity of igneous bodies is absent in the seismic data. Extension of this basin is, therefore, not obviously explained by dyke intrusion. We consider that the ˜500 m change in elevation of the Houston Formation is instead diagnostic of rapid stretching, possibly indicating a late period of non-magmatic extension in the transition to sea-floor spreading in the Danakil Depression.

  18. Algebraic Groups


    The workshop continued a series of Oberwolfach meetings on algebraic groups, started in 1971 by Tonny Springer and Jacques Tits who both attended the present conference. This time, the organizers were Michel Brion, Jens Carsten Jantzen, and Raphaël Rouquier. During the last years, the subject...... of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group......-theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology...

  19. Group Grammar

    Adams, Karen


    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.



    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  1. Abelian groups

    Fuchs, László


    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  2. Group Anonymity

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61


    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  3. Expression and significance of high mobility group box 1 in the renal tissues of urosepsis rabbits%高迁移率族蛋白-1在尿源性脓毒血症家兔肾脏组织中的表达及意义

    张轶庠; 袁也晴; 魏育英; 张学齐; 黄建生; 黄东龙; 刘红燕; 杨江根


    目的 探讨高迁移率族蛋白-1(HMGB1)在尿源性脓毒血症家兔肾组织中的表达水平及意义.方法 健康雄性家兔随机分为假手术组(Sham组)和尿源性脓毒血症组(US组).采用肾盂内高压法制备家兔尿源性脓毒血症模型.分别于术后12、24、36 h检测血白细胞计数、肾功能、早期炎性因子肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)和白细胞介素-6(IL-6),以及肾组织中HMGB1 mRNA表达.结果 与同时间点Sham组比较,US组血白细胞计数[36 h(×109/L):17.22 ±0.32比9.54±0.24]、尿素氮(BUN)[36 h (mmol/L):11.71±0.35比7.14 ±0.12]、肌酐(Cr) [36 h(μmol/L):136.10 ±7.39比82.74 ±2.18]水平均明显升高(P<0.05);US组血清TNF-α和IL-6水平先升高后降低,12 h[TNF-α (ng/L):124.6 ±4.42比18.18±1.26;IL-6 (ng/L):120.5±6.99比51.65 ±2.26]和24 h[TNF-α (ng/L):96.94 ±7.95比19.04 ±0.89;IL-6 (ng/L):83.22±4.23比53.95±2.26]与Sham组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);US组肾组织中HMGB1 mRNA表达逐渐升高,各时间点与Sham组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 尿源性脓毒症致急性肾损伤病程中,家兔肾组织HMGB1表达逐渐升高.%Objective To investigate the expression and significance of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in the renal tissues of rabbits with urosepsis.Methods Male rabbits were randomly divided into two group:sham group and urosepsis group.The rabbit urosepsis model was established by artificial high pressure in the infected pelvis.The blood white blood cells (WBC) count,serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN),creatinine (Cr),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),interleukin-6 (IL-6),and the expression of HMGB1 mRNA in the renal tissues of the two groups were observed at 12th,24th and 36th h after operation.Results As compared with sham group,the WBC count [36 h (× 109/L):17.22 ± 0.32 vs.9.54 ±0.24],serum levels of BUN [36 h (mmol/L):11.71 ±0.35 vs.7.14 ±0.12] and Cr [36 h (μmol/L):136.10 ± 7.39 vs.82.74 ± 2.18] in urosepsis

  4. Groups of Circle Diffeomorphisms

    Navas, Andrés


    In recent years scholars from a variety of branches of mathematics have made several significant developments in the theory of group actions. Groups of Circle Diffeomorphisms systematically explores group actions on the simplest closed manifold, the circle. As the group of circle diffeomorphisms is an important subject in modern mathematics, this book will be of interest to those doing research in group theory, dynamical systems, low dimensional geometry and topology, and foliation theory. The book is mostly self-contained and also includes numerous complementary exercises, making it an excell

  5. Informal groups

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart


    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an Inter


    L. Taylor


    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  7. Lego Group

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij


    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...... of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would...

  8. Group play

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea


    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  9. Group Connections: Whole Group Teaching.

    Griffiths, Dorothy


    A learner-centered approach to adult group instruction involved learners in investigating 20th-century events. The approach allowed learners to concentrate on different activities according to their abilities and gave them opportunities to develop basic skills and practice teamwork. (SK)


    L. Taylor


    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...


    L. Taylor


    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  12. Depositional Environment and Paleoclimatic Significance of the Early Oligocene Yaxicuo Group in the Hoh Xil Basin%可可西里盆地早渐新世雅西措群沉积环境分析及古气候意义

    刘志飞; 王成善


    The Hoh Xil basin, which is the largest Tertiary sedimentary basin in the hinterland of the Tibet plateau, isbounded on the north margin by the Kunlun Mountains and the South Kunlun suture zone, and on the south mar-gin by the Tanggula Mountains and the Kangbataqing fault. The basin contains a Tertiary sediment pile of approx-imately 5.4 km thick of fluvial mudstone, sanadstone, and conglomerate and 0.4 km thick of limestone, which wasreported to have a closed relationship with the continental collision and early uplift of the Tibet plateau. From low-er to upper, the Tertiary sediments include the Early Eocene to Early Oligocene Fenghuoshan Group, the EarlyOligocene Yaxicuo Group, and the Early Miocene Wudaoliang Group. Here we clarify the facies analysis of theYaxicuo Group, which was magnetostratigraphically dated as 32.0 - 30.0 Ma, and discuss its paleoclimatic signifi-cance. The Yaxicuo Group is 670.0 m thick and consists mainly of violet alternating sandstone and mudstone withintercalated gray layered and tubercular gypsolith. The standard section GG2 of the Yaxicuo Group is situated inthe southern part of the Wudaoliang area of the Hoh Xil basin. The Yaxicuo Group consists mainly of lacustrine fa-cies, but contains fluvial facies in the lower-middle part. The lacustrine facies includes shore, shallow lake, andsalt lake subfacies. They are characterized by coarsening and thickening upward of sandstone and siltstone. Thefluvial facies consists of point bars, natural levees, and flood plains and is characterized by sandstone and conglom-erate that fine and thin upward. Paleocurrent directions were measured from sedimentary structures of, for exam-ples, lamination, planar cross- bedding, parallel bedding, and climbing - ripple cross - lamination. They indicatethat the depocenter of the Hoh Xil basin was migrated eastward and northward during the period of 32.0 - 30.0Ma. The very thin stratified and nodulated types of gypsolith started to suddenly abundantly

  13. Group Milieu in systemic and psychodynamic group therapy

    Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    in a randomized study of systemic versus psychodynamic group therapy, that the short-term outcome for patients who received systemic group psychotherapy was significantly better than the outcome for patients who received psychodynamic group psychotherapy. The current study assessed the group milieu in both groups....... Methods: This randomized prospective study included 106 women: 52 assigned to psychodynamic group psychotherapy and 54 assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. The Group Environment Scale (GES) was filled in the mid phase of therapy and analysed in three dimensions and 10 subscales. Results: The systemic...... group was characterized by statistically significant highest scores on Relationship (ES = 1.27) and System Maintenance / Change Dimension (ES= 1.28), while the scores for Personal Growth Dimension were comparable in the two groups. Group S had statistically significant higher scores on the following...

  14. Cylindrotheca closterium Is a Species Complex as Was Evidenced by the Variations of rbcL Gene and SSU rDNA

    LI Haitao; YANG Guanpin; SUN Ying; WU Suihan; ZHANG Xiufang


    The genus Cylindrotheca consists of a small group of marine diatoms with a few species described. Eleven isolates of diatoms identified as Cylindrotheca closterium morphologically were obtained from Jiaozhou Bay with their nuclear-encoded small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) and chloroplast-encoded rbcL gene sequences determined in this study. Interestingly, very high sequence divergences of SSU rDNA and rbcL gene were found among these isolates, and numerous nucleotide variation of rbcL gene caused relatively few variation of deduced amino acid sequence. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA and rbcL gene, respectively, grouped the isolates into 6 clades. Phylogenetic tree of SSU rDNA placed all the Cylindrotheca isolates together, separating them into two lineages clearly. LineageⅠ was composed of the eleven C. closterium isolates obtained in this study together with another C. closterium isolate, but some clades were not well supported. LineageⅡ contained two C. closterium isolates and one C. fusiformis isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of rbcL gene also separated the Cylindrotheca isolates into two well-defined lineages. The eleven C. closterium isolates formed a lineage and all clades were supported strongly. Statistical comparisons of SSU rDNA indicated that the average distance within lineage Ⅰ was significantly higher than that of other microalgae species (P < 0.01). These results suggested the existence of cryptic species within C. closterium.

  15. Increased brain amyloid deposition in patients with a lifetime history of major depression: evidenced on {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) positron emission tomography

    Wu, Kuan-Yi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Liu, Chia-Yih [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Psychiatry, Tao-Yuan (China); Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Tao-Yuan (China); Chen, Cheng-Sheng [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung (China); Wai, Yau-Yau [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang, Chee-Jen [Chang Gung University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung University, Clinical Informatics and Medical Statistics Research Center, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Biostatistical Center for Clinical Research, Tao-Yuan (China); Tseng, Hsiao-Jung [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Biostatistical Center for Clinical Research, Tao-Yuan (China); Yen, Tzue-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju [Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Tao-Yuan (China)


    The literature suggests that a history of depression is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to examine brain amyloid accumulation in patients with lifetime major depression using {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET imaging in comparison with that in nondepressed subjects. The study groups comprised 25 depressed patients and 11 comparison subjects who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for AD or amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Vascular risk factors, homocysteine and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype were also examined. The standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) of each volume of interest was analysed using whole the cerebellum as the reference region. Patients with a lifetime history of major depression had higher {sup 18}F-florbetapir SUVRs in the precuneus (1.06 ± 0.08 vs. 1.00 ± 0.06, p = 0.045) and parietal region (1.05 ± 0.08 vs. 0.98 ± 0.07, p = 0.038) than the comparison subjects. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a significantly increased SUVR in depressed patients in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital areas (p < 0.01). There were no significant associations between global {sup 18}F-florbetapir SUVRs and prior depression episodes, age at onset of depression, or time since onset of first depression. Increased {sup 18}F-florbetapir binding values were found in patients with late-life major depression relative to comparison subjects in specific brain regions, despite no differences in age, sex, education, Mini Mental Status Examination score, vascular risk factor score, homocysteine and ApoE ε4 genotype between the two groups. A longitudinal follow-up study with a large sample size would be worthwhile. (orig.)

  16. Morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography.

    Makungu, M; du Plessis, W M; Groenewald, H B; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N


    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a quadrupedal arboreal animal primarily distributed in the Himalayas and southern China. It is a species commonly kept in zoological collections. This study was carried out to describe the morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography as a reference for clinical use and identification of skeletons. Radiography of the pelvis and right hind limb was performed in nine and seven animals, respectively. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. Computed tomography of the torso and hind limb was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone had a wide ventromedial surface of the ilium. The trochlea of the femur was wide and shallow. The patella was similar to that seen in feline species. The medial fabella was not seen radiographically in any animal. The cochlea grooves of the tibia were shallow with a poorly defined intermediate ridge. The trochlea of the talus was shallow and presented with an almost flattened medial ridge. The tarsal sesamoid bone was always present. The lateral process of the base of the fifth metatarsal (MT) bone was directed laterally. The MT bones were widely spaced. The morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda indicated flexibility of the pelvis and hind limb joints as an adaptation to an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle.

  17. Blood groups systems

    Ranadhir Mitra


    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.


    L. Taylor


    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. ( is now also available for mobile devices: Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: ( using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...


    L. Taylor


      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays []. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...


    L. Taylor


    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  1. BARD1剪切变异体在汉族女性散发性乳腺癌中的表达及临床意义探讨%Expression of BARD1 in sporadic breast carcinoma of the female Han ethnic group and its clinical significance

    华彬; 肖文政; 李波; 陆旭; 李尧; 修典荣


    Objective To evaluate the potential relationship between isoforms of BRCA1 associated RING domain 1 ( BARD1 ) and the pathophysiologic markers of sporadic breast carcinoma of female Han ethnic group. Methods The expression of BARD1 isoforms in 39 breast carcinomatous tissue, 12paracancerous-normal breast tissue and 7 controlled normal breast tissue was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and then cloned and sequenced.The difference of isoforms expression and their clinical significance were analyzed. Results There were four transcriptive products of BARD1 found in all these candidates,named full lenth,isoform γ,isoform δ and isoform e.The positive rate of isoform γ and δ was higher in carcinomatous tissues than in paracancerous-normal tissues and normal breast tissue in healthy women ( P < 0.05 ). Carcinomatous tissue expressed more kinds of isoforms.There was significant difference between carcinomatous tissue and paranormal/nomal tissue ( P =0.0075 ).There was significant correlation between isoform ε positive and poor prognosis factors such as poorly differentiation,HER2 positive,poor pathologic type and larger breast cancer lumps(P < 0.05 ). Conclusions There are significant differences in the expression of BARD1 isoforms among different kinds breast tissues in the female Han ethnic group.Positive isoform ε may predict poor prognosis of breast carcinoma in the female Han ethnic group.%目的 探讨乳腺癌基因1相关环指结构域蛋白1 (BRCA1 associated RING domain 1,BARD1)剪切变异体在乳腺癌组织中的表达及其临床意义.方法 对北京医院乳腺中心液氮冷冻储存的39例汉族女性散发性乳腺癌组织、12例癌旁乳腺组织和7例正常汉族女性乳腺组织提取目的基因,检测BARD1剪切变异体在不同组织中的表达状况,分析剪切变异体在不同组织中表达的差异及其临床意义.结果 在各种组织中共发现4种BARD1基因的转录产物,分别

  2. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    Kyle, Robert A; Vincent Rajkumar, S


    Summary Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history, pathogenesis, mechanisms of progression and prognosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS...

  3. Complexity of the food web structure of the Ascophyllum nodosum zone evidenced by a δ13C and δ15N study

    Golléty, Claire; Riera, Pascal; Davoult, Dominique


    Rocky shores dominated by canopy-forming macroalgae are characterized by complex communities making it difficult to assess whether the most abundant primary producers are at the base of the food web. This difficulty is exacerbated by the seasonal- and regional-scale variations of environmental and biotic factors that can affect the main trophic pathways. The food web structure of the Ascophyllum nodosum zone was studied during three seasons and at two sites separated by several 100s of kilometers by measuring the δ13C and δ15N of the major food sources and the dominant consumers of the zone. Despite the variability in isotopic compositions, both sites underwent similar significant seasonal variations. The main primary producers of the zone, A.nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus, were not at the base of the main trophic pathway but part of the diverse number of basal resources supporting the food web. The use of community-wide metric indices allowed further defining the food web structure of the A. nodosum zone as one characterized by trophic redundancy and numerous major trophic pathways. Indeed, grazers were dominated by generalists, filter-feeders utilized both planktonic and benthic organic matter, and predators displayed a high degree of omnivory. The range of values in δ15N showed a high spatiotemporal variability within and an important overlap between trophic groups. This prevented establishing distinctive trophic levels and further emphasized the complexity of the food web structure. The spatiotemporal stability of the relative isotopic composition of the dominant consumers within trophic groups and the low variability of the community-wide indices suggested a stability of the food web structure of the A.nodosum zone at a regional scale.

  4. Sal Adelante Mujer!: Support Group for Latina First-Year College Students

    Segura-Malady, Evelyn E.


    Latinas are at a disadvantage when it comes to earning a college degree, as is evidenced by the fact that they take longer to complete their degrees than Black, Asian, and white college students and have the lowest graduation rates in comparison to these respective groups (Fry, 2004; Fry, 2012; Rodriguez, Guido-Brito, Torres, & Talbot, 2000).…

  5. Taking Ownership of Learning in a Large Class: Group Projects and a Mini-Conference

    Borda, Emily J.; Kriz, George S.; Popejoy, Kate L.; Dickinson, Alison K.; Olson, Amy L.


    Helping students take ownership of their learning is often a challenge in a large lecture course. In this article, the authors describe a nature of science-oriented group project in a chemistry course in which students gave presentations in concurrent conference sessions as well as its impact on student learning as evidenced through multiple data…

  6. Taking Ownership of Learning in a Large Class: Group Projects and a Mini-Conference

    Borda, Emily J.; Kriz, George S.; Popejoy, Kate L.; Dickinson, Alison K.; Olson, Amy L.


    Helping students take ownership of their learning is often a challenge in a large lecture course. In this article, the authors describe a nature of science-oriented group project in a chemistry course in which students gave presentations in concurrent conference sessions as well as its impact on student learning as evidenced through multiple data…

  7. Light-Triggered Control of Plasmonic Refraction and Group Delay by Photochromic Molecular Switches

    Großmann, Malte; Klick, Alwin; Lemke, Christoph


    An interface supporting plasmonic switching is prepared from a gold substrate coated with a polymerfilm doped with photochromic molecular switches. A reversible light-induced change in the surface plasmon polariton dispersion curve of the interface is experimentally demonstrated, evidencing rever...... complex functionalities based on surface plasmon refraction and group delay....

  8. From mapping class groups to automorphism groups of free groups

    Wahl, Nathalie


    We show that the natural map from the mapping class groups of surfaces to the automorphism groups of free groups, induces an infinite loop map on the classifying spaces of the stable groups after plus construction. The proof uses automorphisms of free groups with boundaries which play the role...... of mapping class groups of surfaces with several boundary components....

  9. 汝阳地区熊耳群火山岩内夹层硅质岩的微区特征及地质意义%Micro-Area Characteristics of Laminated Chert in the Volcanic Rocks of Xionger Group of Ruyang Area and Its Geological Significances

    罗安; 李红中; 赵明臻; 杨志军; 梁锦; 何俊国


    hydrothermal sedimentation contributed to the bands (or lamellars) with minerals of much smaller grain size ,which therefore resulted in diversities from the other bands (or lamellars) .According to this ,the repeated bands (or lamellars) denoted the volcanic activities were cyclic dur-ing the formation of the chert .What’s more ,the carbonate vein came from the precipitation of subsequent hydrothermal fluids in the fracture of the chert ,which contributed to the changes (e.g. rising in crystallinity degree of silica and formation of micro-structure of new silicate) near the interface between chert and the carbonate vein .Although there were many impurity minerals with complex genesis ,the relatively lower content of silica in the chert of Xionger Group was due to the volcanic mineral mainly . Since there were impurity minerals of volcanic genesis in relatively large amount ,the content of silica in the chert of Xionger Group was hence relatively low .In this study ,the Raman analysis was witnessed to be an effective way in the researches on the chert ,and could open out the type of mineral ,micro-structure and degrees of crystallinity (or order) .These characteristics were well kept in the micro-area ,and played significant roles to reflect and understand the formation mechanism and subsequent evolu-tion of the chert .%熊耳群是前寒武纪火山-沉积作用的产物,其顶部的马家河组(玄武)安山质火山岩内发育了夹层状热水成因硅质岩。选择熊耳群马家河组硅质岩夹层中的碧玉岩为对象,利用偏光显微镜,XRD ,Raman和EBSD等方法剖析了其微区特征。研究结果显示:硅质岩内石英颗粒的显微镜和EBSD照片均表现出颗粒细小、结晶程度低和紧密堆积结构等特点,这完全吻合热水沉积硅质岩的特征;硅质岩内粒径不同的颗粒呈条带(或薄层)状交互出现,不同条带(或薄层)内矿物的组成存在明显的差异,这应该反映了原始物

  10. Left-lateral shear inside the North Gulf of Evia Rift, Central Greece, evidenced by relocated earthquake sequences and moment tensor inversion

    Ganas, Athanassios; Mouzakiotis, Evangelos; Moshou, Alexandra; Karastathis, Vassilios


    The use of local velocity model in the analysis of seismicity recorded by the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN), provides the opportunity to determine accurate hypocentral solutions using the weighted P- and S-wave arrival times for the November 2013, November 2014 and June 2015 North Gulf of Evia (Euboea) sequences. The hypocentral locations, including the determination of the location uncertainties, are obtained applying the non-linear probabilistic analysis. We also calculated the moment tensor solutions for the main events as well as for the strongest aftershocks. The accurate determination of seismicity showed the activation of two left-lateral, NW-SE striking, near-vertical faults, one onshore near village Taxiarchis (2013 sequence) and one offshore (offshore Malessina Peninsula, 2015 sequence). The 2014 sequence, also offshore Malessina Peninsula ruptured an oblique-slip, north-dipping normal fault with a strike of N280-290°E. All three faults occur at depths 10-16 km, with rupture zone dimensions 5-6 km along strike and 3-4 km along dip. These aftershock depths indicate a seismogenic (brittle) zone of about 15 km in depth for this rift. The left-lateral kinematics indicates strain partitioning inside the rift because of E-W horizontal compression, also evidenced by GPS data. The moderate magnitude of earthquakes (M5.2 ± 0.1) indicates that strike-slip events have a minor contribution to the crustal deformation and to active tectonics of the Gulf. Supplementary Information - Fig S2. Map of Greece showing seismic stations (green triangles) used in moment tensor analysis. Yellow stars show epicenter of mainshocks. Supplementary Fig. S3. a: Moment tensor solution of the 12 November 2013 (18:09 UTC) earthquake. To the left observed and synthetic displacement waveforms (continuous and dotted lines respectively) are shown, at the inverted stations for the radial, tangential and vertical components. At the right part of the figure the summary of the

  11. Structure and evolution of an active resurgent dome evidenced by geophysical investigations: The Yenkahe dome-Yasur volcano system (Siwi caldera, Vanuatu)

    Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Chaput, M.; Gailler, L.; Finizola, A.; Dumont, S.; Peltier, A.; Bachèlery, P.; Barde-Cabusson, S.; Byrdina, S.; Menny, P.; Colonge, J.; Douillet, G. A.; Letort, J.; Letourneur, L.; Merle, O.; Di Gangi, F.; Nakedau, D.; Garaebiti, E.


    In this contribution, we focus on one of the most active resurgences on Earth, that of the Yenkahe dome in the Siwi caldera (Tanna Island, Vanuatu), which is associated with the persistently active Yasur volcano. Gravity and magnetic surveys have been carried out over the past few years in the area, as well as electrical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), time domain electro-magnetics (TDEM) and self-potential (SP). These investigations were completed by thermometry, CO2 soil gas measurements, field observations and sampling. This multi-method approach allows geological structures within the caldera to be identified, as well as associated hydrothermal features. The global structure of the caldera is deduced from gravity data, which shows the caldera rim as a high density structure. Large lava fields, emplaced before and after the onset of resurgence, are evidenced by combined gravity, magnetic and resistivity signals. In the middle of the caldera, the Yenkahe dome apparently results from a combination of volcanic and tectonic events, showing that lava extrusion and resurgence have been operating simultaneously or alternately during the Siwi caldera post-collapse history. There is a clear distinction between the western and eastern parts of the dome. The western part is older and records the growth of an initial volcanic cone and the formation of a small caldera. This small caldera (paleo-Yasur caldera), partially filled with lava flows, is the present-day focus of volcanic activity and associated fluid circulation and alteration. The eastern part of the dome is presumably younger, and is characterized by intense, extensive hydrothermal alteration and activity. Its northern part is covered by lava flow piles and exhibits a shallow hydrothermal zone in ERT. The southern part has hydrothermal alteration and activity extending at least down to the base of the resurgent dome. This part of the dome is built up of low cohesion rock and is thus

  12. Farming of Guanzhong in Zhou Royal Period Evidenced in The Book of Songs%《诗经》所见周秦关中农事

    陈正奇; 高谨


    《诗经》是我国第一部诗歌总集,从各个方面描绘了西周至春秋时期的社会和生活状况。其中,农事诗占有重要地位,它涉及到农业生产的各个方面,既有认识层面的问题,也有操作层面的问题。但由于年代久远,加之资料有限,很多问题至今仍存争议。诸如农事发端,农作物名称的变化,粟、稷、禾、黍究竟指的是什么;再如生产工具的变迁,耒和耜是不是同一种生产农具;耦耕是怎样一种耕作方式等。文章仅就上述问题,作物品种类属,生产工具类别,耕作方法的种类作以论述,以求对见诸《诗经》的关中农业有一表象的认识。%The Book of Songs (Shijing) is the first collection of poetry in China ,which offers a panoramic depiction of life and society of the Zhou and the Periods of Spring and Autumn .One impressive aspect of the poems is the emphasis on farming life ,the accounts of w hich concern both the notions and the opera‐tions of farming .Up till now ,due to the long span of time and the limited availability of references ,there still remain many disputable issues in terms of the beginning of farming ,the changes in naming crops ,the exact referents by the w ords“su ,ji ,he ,shu” ,the evolutions of farming tools ,such as the identification of “lai”and“lü” ,and the method by“ougeng” .Ours is an attempt to address the above-mentioned issues in terms of classification of crops ,farming tools ,tillage methods as evidenced in T he Book of Songs .

  13. Denervation as a Common Mechanism Underlying Different Pulmonary Vein Isolation Strategies for Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: Evidenced by Heart Rate Variability after Ablation

    Kejing Wang


    Full Text Available Backgrounds. Segmental and circumferential pulmonary vein isolations (SPVI and CPVI have been demonstrated to be effective therapies for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF. PVI is well established as the endpoint of different ablation techniques, whereas it may not completely account for the long-term success. Methods. 181 drug-refractory symptomatic PAF patients were referred for segmental or circumferential PVI (SPVI = 67; CPVI = 114. Heart rate variability (HRV was assessed before and after the final ablation. Results. After following up for 62.23±12.75 months, patients underwent 1.41±0.68 procedures in average, and the success rates in SPVI and CPVI groups were comparable. 119 patients were free from AF recurrence (SPVI-S, n=43; CPVI-S, n=76. 56 patients had recurrent episodes (SPVI-R, n=21; CPVI-R, n=35. Either ablation technique decreased HRV significantly. Postablation SDNN and rMSSD were significantly lower in SPVI-S and CPVI-S subgroups than in SPVI-R and CPVI-R subgroups (SPVI-S versus SPVI-R: SDNN 91.8±32.6 versus 111.5±36.2 ms, rMSSD 47.4±32.3 versus 55.2±35.2 ms; CPVI-S versus CPVI-R: SDNN 83.0±35.6 versus 101.0±40.7 ms, rMSSD 41.1±22.9 versus 59.2±44.8 ms; all P<0.05. Attenuation of SDNN and rMSSD remained for 12 months in SPVI-S and CPVI-S subgroups, whereas it recovered earlier in SPVI-R and CPVI-R subgroups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified SDNN as the only predictor of long-term success. Conclusions. Beyond PVI, denervation may be a common mechanism underlying different ablation strategies for PAF.

  14. Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Hypointensity of the Pulvinar Nucleus of Patients with Alzheimer Disease: Its Possible Association with Iron Accumulation as Evidenced by the T2 Map

    Moon, Won Jin; Roh, Hong Gee; Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Jin [Dept. of Neurology, Hanyang University Medical Center, Hanyang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seol Heui [Center for Geriatric Neuroscience Research, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We hypothesized that prominent pulvinar hypointensity in brain MRI represents the disease process due to iron accumulation in Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to determine whether or not the pulvinar signal intensity (SI) on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at 3.0T MRI differs between AD patients and normal subjects, and also whether the pulvinar SI is correlated with the T2 map, an imaging marker for tissue iron, and a cognitive scale. Twenty one consecutive patients with AD and 21 age-matched control subjects were prospectively included in this study. The pulvinar SI was assessed on the FLAIR image. We measured the relative SI ratio of the pulvinar to the corpus callosum. The T2 values were calculated from the T2 relaxometry map. The differences between the two groups were analyzed, by using a Student t test. The correlation between the measurements was assessed by the Pearson's correlation test. As compared to the normal white matter, the FLAIR signal intensity of the pulvinar nucleus was significantly more hypointense in the AD patients than in the control subjects (p < 0.01). The pulvinar T2 was shorter in the AD patients than in the control subjects (51.5 {+-} 4.95 ms vs. 56.5 {+-} 5.49 ms, respectively, p = 0.003). The pulvinar SI ratio was strongly correlated with the pulvinar T2 (r = 0.745, p < 0.001). When controlling for age, only the pulvinar-to-CC SI ratio was positively correlated with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (r = 0.303, p < 0.050). Conversely, the pulvinar T2 was not correlated with the MMSE score (r = 0.277, p = 0.080). The FLAIR hypointensity of the pulvinar nucleus represents an abnormal iron accumulation in AD and may be used as an adjunctive finding for evaluating AD.

  15. Analytic and Systemic Specialized Incest Group Psychotherapy

    Elkjaer, Henriette Kiilsholm; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    PURPOSE: Women with long-term sequalae of child sexual abuse (CSA) were randomly assigned to analytic (Group A) or systemic group psychotherapy (Group S). Pre-post-analysis indicated that both therapies led to significant improvement, but overall Group S had significantly better outcome than Group...... and the four time points as repeated measures. Intention to treat analysis demonstrated that improvement were significant on all measures (P treated with Group A or Group S treatment...

  16. Significance Tests for Periodogram Peaks

    Frescura, F A M; Frank, B S


    We discuss methods currently in use for determining the significance of peaks in the periodograms of time series. We discuss some general methods for constructing significance tests, false alarm probability functions, and the role played in these by independent random variables and by empirical and theoretical cumulative distribution functions. We also discuss the concept of "independent frequencies" in periodogram analysis. We propose a practical method for estimating the significance of periodogram peaks, applicable to all time series irrespective of the spacing of the data. This method, based on Monte Carlo simulations, produces significance tests that are tailor-made for any given astronomical time series.

  17. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    Traag, V A; Van Dooren, P


    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationa...

  18. Complicações no tratamento com laser endovascular em varizes de membros inferiores Complications evidenced in the endovascular laser treatment for varicose veins

    Jorge Enrique Soracco


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo é relatar as complicações no tratamento de varizes em membros inferiores com laser endovascular. MÉTODOS: Foram levantadas, no período de junho de 1999 a dezembro de 2002, algumas complicações, como queimadura de pele, neurite do nervo safeno, hiperpigmentação e fibrose no local da safena em 250 pacientes submetidos a tratamento endovascular com laser em varizes de membros inferiores. O diagnóstico das complicações foi clínico e baseado nos sinais e sintomas. Avaliou-se 196 pacientes do sexo feminino e 54 do sexo masculino, com idades variando entre 25 e 79 anos, no Hospital Militar de Buenos Aires. Foram tratados com laser de diodo de alta potência de 810 nm de longitude de onda mediante um sistema de fibras óticas semi-rígidas de quartzo de 400 e 600 µm e ponta de contato plana em modo cirúrgico contínuo. Para análise estatística, foram calculadas as percentagens. RESULTADOS: Lesões tipo queimadura foram observadas em 3,2%, hiperpigmentação em 9,6%, fibrose no local da safena por mais de 6 meses em 5,6% e neurite do nervo safeno em 4,8%. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que o tratamento com laser endovascular de varizes de membros inferiores não é desprovido de intercorrências e que os fatores que levaram a essas complicações devem ser identificados e reavaliados.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to report the complications seen in the endovascular laser treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs. METHODS: From June 1999 to December 2002, 250 patients submitted to the endovascular treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs using lasers and suffering from complications, such as skin burns, saphenous neuritis, hyperpigmentation and fibrosis along the course of the saphenous vein, were assessed. The diagnosis of the complications was made clinically based on the signs and symptoms evidenced. Of the 250 patients, aged 25-79 years, treated in the Hospital Militar de Buenos

  19. Significance of serum fucose, sialic acid, haptoglobine and phospholipids levels in the evolution and treatment of breast cancer.

    Kiricuta, I; Bojan, O; Comes, R; Cristian, R


    Serum fucose, sialic acid, haptoglobine and phospholipids were determined in 167 women with breast cancer stages I--III, 30 with benign lesions of the breast, 42 women in various physiological states of the mammary gland (pregnancy, early childbed and lactation) and compared with 30 healthy women as control. Serial determinations of these parameters during the radio-surgical treatment were done in 28 patients with breast cancer stage III. Fucose and phospholipids levels were significantly increased respectively decreased in the group of patients with breast cancers but unmodified in the others. Sialic acid and haptoglobine -- increased in patients with cancer -- were also elevated in patients with early childbed and benign affections of the breast. The surveillance of these four parameters during the radio-surgical treatment of breast cancer evidenced a good correlation between their modified levels and clinical state of the patients. The increase in fucose, sialic acid and haptoglobine respectively the decrease in phospholipids levels was associated with the clinical evidence of recurrences and metastases.

  20. Body image concerns in professional fashion models: are they really an at-risk group?

    Swami, Viren; Szmigielska, Emilia


    Although professional models are thought to be a high-risk group for body image concerns, only a handful of studies have empirically investigated this possibility. The present study sought to overcome this dearth of information by comparing professional models and a matched sample on key indices of body image and appeared-related concerns. A group of 52 professional fashion models was compared with a matched sample of 51 non-models from London, England, on indices of weight discrepancy, body appreciation, social physique anxiety, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, internalization of sociocultural messages about appearance, and dysfunctional investment in appearance. Results indicated that professional models only evidenced significantly higher drive for thinness and dysfunctional investment in appearance than the control group. Greater duration of engagement as a professional model was associated with more positive body appreciation but also greater drive for thinness. These results indicate that models, who are already underweight, have a strong desire to maintain their low body mass or become thinner. Taken together, the present results suggest that interventions aimed at promoting healthy body image among fashion models may require different strategies than those aimed at the general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Internal communication in corporate groups

    Grzesik, Katarzyna


    This chapter is dedicated to internal communication in corporate groups. It discusses internal communication systems operating in the explored corporate groups and their significance for effective human resources management in those organisations. The chapter presents both the theoretical analysis based on the results of literature studies, and empirical research carried out in the explored groups. Narodowe Centrum Nauki Katarzyna Grzesik

  2. Clinical comparison of monophasic oral contraceptive preparations of gestodene/ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel/ethinyl estradiol. Latin American Oral Contraceptive Study Group.


    The efficacy, cycle control, subjective complaints, and safety of monophasic preparations of the oral contraceptives containing gestodene 75 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg versus desogestrel 150 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg were compared in a 6-cycle, open-label, parallel, randomized, multicenter phase IV clinical study in Latin America. Of a total of 176 women in each group, 163 in the gestodene group and 160 in the desogestrel group completed 6 cycles, providing data for 1,015 and 1,006 cycles, respectively. Subject compliance was excellent; pills were missed during only 6.9% of the cycles in each group. No woman became pregnant during the study. Gestodene group exhibited significantly better cycle control as evidenced by the lower incidence of breakthrough bleeding and spotting. Spotting in some cycles was reported by 11.9% of women taking the gestodene-combination compared with 21% of women taking the desogestrel-combination. Based on number of women, 86.4% of the gestodene group reported all cycles were normal (no BTB) compared with 76.7% of the desogestrel group. Also, the women in the gestodene group reported a significantly lower incidence of nuisance side effects during treatment cycles. No amenorrhea was observed for either group. There were no clinically significant differences between groups with respect to body weight, blood pressure, or laboratory evaluations. Seven women withdrew from the gestodene group and 8 women withdrew from the desogestrel group because of adverse reactions. The results of this study indicate that, although both OCs provided effective contraception, in comparison to the desogestrel-combination, the gestodene-containing OC is associated with better cycle control, less bleeding, and fewer subjective complaints.

  3. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    Simonia, I.


    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  4. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  5. 六盘山地区寺口子剖面早白垩世晚期的孢粉组合及其环境意义%Early Cretaceous palynological assemblage and its environmental significance in the sediments of Liupanshan Group (Sikouzi section), Liupanshan Region, central China

    张明震; 戴霜; 张永全; 苗运法; 刘俊伟; 黄永波; 赵杰; 刘学


    研究白垩纪植物演替与气候变化对认识现今生态环境形成过程与演变具有重要意义。基于在我国六盘山地区下白垩统六盘山群中发现的45属孢粉化石,探讨了孢粉组合、古生态与古气候变化特征。孢粉组合以裸子植物为主,蕨类植物次之,前者以松柏纲松杉目占优势,以掌鳞杉(Cheirolepidiaceae)科最为繁盛,尼藤目麻黄科(Ephedraceae)和苏铁目或银杏目占有很大比例;后者以真蕨目包括海金沙科(Lygodiaceae)、莎草蕨科(Schizaeaceae)为主。表明当时植物具有比较明显的多样性,既有生长于远处高山的松杉类高大植物,又有近湖低山及湖岸一带的掌鳞杉科及蕨类植物,湖泊水体中生长着淡水藻类。孢粉植物群的这种特征揭示出该地区在早白垩世晚期气候炎热干燥,并且可以划分为116~112Ma的气温相对较低和112~103Ma的气温波动升高两个阶段,这种变化与全球古气候的变化趋势一致,说明寺口子剖面孢粉记录的气候变化与对全球气候变化是响应的。%The research on the Cretaceous climate and vegetation is fundamental to understand the formation of present environment. The palynological study of 11 samplles from Lower Cretaceous Liupanshan Group on the Sik- ouzi section (spanning 116 -103 Ma), Liupanshan basin was carried out. 55 species (45 genera) of spore and pol- len are detected. The palynoassemblages are diverse, with gymnosperms dominant and ferns abundant but angio- sperms rare. the gymnosperms are predominated by Cheirolepidiaeeae of Coniferales, and the ferns are dominant of Lygodiaceae and Schizaeaceae. The palynological data show that the Early Cretaceous floras are derived from vari- ous settings, i. e. the Coniferales plants on the high elevation mountain, the Cheirolepidiaeeae plants along the low hill near the lake, the fern grow marsh wetland, and algae in the fresh water of the

  6. Interrelation of group, micro-group and interpersonal identities of employees in production groups

    Sidorenkov A.V.


    Full Text Available The article represents the results of mathematical and statistical analysis of the links between the levels of the identity of employees (group, micro-group and interpersonal by three components (cognitive, affective and behavioral in 37 industrial groups with expertise in different fields. The significant linear relationship between micro-group and interpersonal identity (for all components, high linear relationship between group identity and micro-group identity (only for affective component and the lack of linear relationship between the components of inter- personal and group identity are revealed. Higher influence of group identity on micro-group (for all components and interpersonal identity (for cognitive and behavioral components is found out in the totality of intercorrelation between group, micro-group and interpersonal identities. Non-linear relationship between group and micro-group identity for all components is revealed. This non-linear relation indicates that increase in expressiveness of one of the components of group iden- tity leads to decrease in expressiveness of the respective component of micro-group identity. This effect occurs until definite moment, after which, on the contrary, further reinforcement of the components of group identity leads to the increase in expressiveness of micro-group identity. These established consistent patterns are interpreted in the article.

  7. Integrated Groups and Smooth Distribution Groups

    Pedro J. MIANA


    In this paper, we prove directly that α-times integrated groups define algebra homo-morphisms. We also give a theorem of equivalence between smooth distribution groups and α-times integrated groups.

  8. Significant advancement in algebraic geometry


    @@ Supported by a grant for Distinguished Young Scholars of the National Natural Science Foundation of China,Prof.SUN Xiaotao with the CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science has recently achieved a research breakthrough in revealing the deep relationship between stability of vector bundles and Frobenius morphism.It is considered as significant work with important theoretical value.

  9. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Patterson, Meagan M


    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  10. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy


    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur...

  11. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Yongxiang Lu


    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  12. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet


    Background Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered...... in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  13. Atividades em pequenos grupos na Educação Física: jogos de significações Actividades en pequeños grupos en educación física: juegos de significaciones Physical Education activity in small groups: games of significances

    Leila Lira Peters


    /oposiciones /alianzas de puntos de vista entre esos sujetos.The objective of this study was to analyze the organization of an activity within small groups, starting from significations obtained within the context of physical education lessons. As tools of methodology, videography and micro-genetic analysis were employed, both utilized from a cultural-historical perspective. The activity under analysis was the development of a game, on part of a group of students. From the flow of interaction, it became evident that an element of vocal competition had arisen among the group members, in an attempt to occupy a position of prominence over the others, an event that lead to a little mediation on part of the teacher. Therefore, it can be seen that the activity performed in small groups is an important realm of interaction, where participating members act as locus of production of significations, through the possibility of alliances, confrontation and opposition of ideas between participating subjects.

  14. Which Reconstruction Results are Significant?


    other significant result is due to Tutte [17]. Tutte’s Theorem: The characteristic polynomial of a graph can be reconstructed. Equivalently, two...hypomorphic graphs must have the same characteristic polynomial . Several points should be noted concerning this theorem: 1. The derivative of the...characteristic polynomial is the sum of the char- acteristic polynomials of the vertex-deleted subgraphs. Thus the characteristic polynomials of hypomorphic

  15. Amonites y Bioestratigrafía del grupo Cuyo en la Sierra de Reyes (Cuenca Neuquina central, Argentina y su significado secuencial Ammonites and biostratigraphy of the Cuyo Group in the Sierra de Reyes (central Neuquén Basin, Argentina and their sequential significance

    Luis A Spalletti


    Reyes y su comparación con el de regiones vecinas permiten tener un mejor conocimiento de la evolución secuencial del Jurásico Inferior alto a Medio en el sector central de la Cuenca Neuquina.This paper deals with the stratigraphy, the systematics of the ammonite faunas and the biostratigraphy of the Cuyo Group in the Sierra de Reyes (southern Mendoza Province, Argentina. The 230 m-thick marine siliciclastic succession of the Cuyo Group is composed, from base to top, of the Bardas Blancas Formation (mudstones, sandy mudstones and fine-grained sandstones, the Los Molles Formation (black shales and the Lajas Formation (coarse- to fine-grained sandstones. Four ammonite levels have been recognised in the Cuyo Group. The first two levels (I and II are located in the lower section of the Bardas Blancas Formation. The monospecific level I yielded Dumortieria cf. pusilla and is regarded as upper Toarcian-lower Aalenian, whereas level II is composed of an association of Podagrosiceras cf. athleticum,Planammatoceras sp., Phylloceras sp. and Eudmetoceras? sp. which can be assigned to the upper Aalenian-lower Bajocian Malarguense Standard Zone. The third level appears in the middle part of the Bardas Blancas Formation and containsMorphoceras sp., Phylloceras sp. and Lytoceras cf. eudesianum, and is assigned to the lower Bathonian. The younger level (IV was identified in the lower section of the Lajas Formation and yielded Iniskinites crassus, Stehnocephalites gerthi and Lilloettia cf. steinmanni. This association corresponds to the upper Bathonian Steinmanni Standard Zone. The ammonite record of the Cuyo Group in the Sierra de Reyes allowed dating the transgressive succession represented by the Bardas Blancas and Los Molles formations as late Toarcian-early Bathonian. The ammonite fauna identified in the lower section of the Lajas Formation (level IV indicates that the change from transgressive to regressive conditions recorded at the upper part of the Cuyo Group occurred around

  16. Significance of Shale Gas Development

    John Shelton; Mike D. Bumaman; Wenwu Xia; Nathaniel Harding


    Natural gas production from shale formations is growing exponentially in the United States. This paper introduces the five major shale formations in the United States and the technologies used to produce them. The Barnett, Haynesville,Fayetteville, Woodford, and Marcellus combined hold an estimated 978 trillion cubic feet of total gas reserves. These findings along with recent technological advances in horizontal drilling and completion methods have transformed the natural gas exploration and production industry in the U.S. and have fundamentally changed the U.S. energy picture. Specifically this paper states that the United States through the utilization of natural gas from shale can reduce its carbon emissions and can become more energy self-sufficient. Finally, the Harding & Shelton Group states in this paper that the opportunity to locate and produce shale gas in China is very similar to that which has taken place in the United States.

  17. Quassinoids and Their Chemotaxonomic Significance

    Anakshi Khare


    Full Text Available The quassinoids are a group of complex, highly oxygenated, degraded triterpene mostly found in Simaroubaceae family. Two quassinoids (degraded triterpenes, 1 and 2 were isolated first time from the stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa. Compound 1 is C19 quassinoid. C19 quassinoid derived biogenetically from a C20 quassinoid, via a 1,2 –dioxo derivative. The structural elucidation is based on the analysis of spectroscopic data. Interest in these quassinoids has increased enormously in recent years due in part to the finding of the American National Cancer Institute that these compounds display marked antileukamic activity. The ways in which plants interact with other organisms in an environment are complex. Ailanthus also produces toxins in its root, bark and leaves. These toxins inhibit the growth of other plants. The isolated quassinoids are currently being studied as a possible source of a natural herbicide. Extracts of this plant have anti-insect activity and anti-tuberculosis activity.

  18. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel


    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  19. The significance of the integumentary profile.

    Satravaha, S; Schlegel, K D


    Profile analysis was performed on 180 Thai female subjects with ages ranging from 16 to 21 years. Seventy were of Chinese origin. The determination of the profile analysis mean values was based on the methods of Schwarz, Subtelny, Ricketts, Burstone, and Schwartz. The results were compared to Caucasian standards and to the findings of our previous study on a Javanese population. For the profile forms, our investigated groups showed mainly prognathic faces (75% to 84%). A "shift backward" profile flow dominated. We found a "prognathic face" combined with a "shift backward" in 50% to 60% of the Asian subjects analyzed. Our soft-tissue profile results (approximately 165 +/- 6 degrees) showed less convexity than that of the Caucasians and there was no significant difference in overall profile between the 2 Thai groups (approximately 134 +/- 5 degrees); this is in the range given by Subtelny (141 degrees to 131 degrees) except for that of the Javanese subjects. For the lip analysis, we listed a posterior position or a lip position upon the esthetic line between 60% to 70% of both Thai groups with respect to the upper lip and only 28% to 33% for the lower lip. The Javanese group, however, showed 90% anterior position of the upper lip and 93% of the lower lip to this line. It is significant that proper blending of the integumentary profile produces an esthetically pleasing face and this varies in different ethnic groups. A good combination could even make a "prognathic face shift backward" very acceptable as illustrated by a profile analysis of Miss Thailand, 1984.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Zircons LA ICP MS U Pb Ages of the Lower Triassic Lujiatun Group and Its Geological Significance in Jilin Province%吉林省下三叠统卢家屯组 LA-ICP-MS锆石 U-Pb 定年及其地质意义

    聂立军; 于宏斌; 张建泽; 王聪; 李栋; 李阳


    According to the associated lithologic feature,the Lujiatun Formation is divided into Yingbeishan conglomerate section,Loudoushan variegated rock section,and Yangshuhezi black rock section.Based on the fossil assemblages,such as Palaeanodonta-Palaeomutela fauna,P leuroneia ? sp. and the conchostracan,it was formed in Permian.A systematic U Pb isotopic chronology of the detrital zircon is studied for the Bottom,Middle,and Upper Section of the construction profiles of Lujiatun Formation in Yingbeishan Shuangdingshan in Jiutai.The results show three minimum zircon age peaks at (283.4±7.9)Ma,(262.4±3.9)Ma,and (255.5 ±5.8)Ma from the bottom to the top.It can be confirmed that the top section of the formation belonged to the Late Permian.The detrital zircon ages of 1 800 Ma and 2 500 Ma in the Lujiantun Group are typical for the base plate age of North China Plate.In conclusion,the plate closure happened probably during P3 T1 between the northern margin of North China Plate and the group of plates to its north.%卢家屯组按岩性组合自下而上分为影背山砾岩段、漏斗山杂色岩段、杨树河子黑色岩段,前人采集到的 Palaeanodonta-Palaeomutela 动物群、P leuroneia? sp.和叶肢介等生物化石组合指示时代为二叠纪。本次对九台市影背山双顶山卢家屯组建组剖面下、中、上段进行了系统的碎屑锆石 U Pb 同位素年代学研究,证实卢家屯组由下至上存在3个最小锆石年龄峰值,分别为(283.4±7.9)、(262.4±3.9)、(255.5±5.8)Ma,确定了卢家屯组的上限为晚二叠世。根据卢家屯组中碎屑锆石存在1800 Ma 和2500 Ma 左右的典型华北板块基底年龄,认为华北板块北缘与其北侧地块群最终闭合时间应为 P3 T1。

  1. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Zimpfer, David G.


    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  2. Robust Simulations and Significant Separations

    Fortnow, Lance


    We define and study a new notion of "robust simulations" between complexity classes which is intermediate between the traditional notions of infinitely-often and almost-everywhere, as well as a corresponding notion of "significant separations". A language L has a robust simulation in a complexity class C if there is a language in C which agrees with L on arbitrarily large polynomial stretches of input lengths. There is a significant separation of L from C if there is no robust simulation of L in C. The new notion of simulation is a cleaner and more natural notion of simulation than the infinitely-often notion. We show that various implications in complexity theory such as the collapse of PH if NP = P and the Karp-Lipton theorem have analogues for robust simulations. We then use these results to prove that most known separations in complexity theory, such as hierarchy theorems, fixed polynomial circuit lower bounds, time-space tradeoffs, and the theorems of Allender and Williams, can be strengthened to signifi...

  3. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta


    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  4. Onychomycosis: A significant medical problem

    Jesudanam T


    Full Text Available The importance of onychomycosis is often underestimated. Far more than being a simple cosmetic problem, infected nails serve as a chronic reservoir of infection which can give rise to repeated mycotic infections of the skin. 448 patients with nail abnormalities attending Skin O. P. D of King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam during a 1(one year period between November′98 - October′99, were subjected to detailed clinical, epidemiological study. Diagnosis was confirmed in 204 cases by direct microscopy or culture or by both. Females (51. 96% were slightly more than the males (48. 04%. Majority of the cases were between 21-40 years age group. Housewives (33. 33% were most frequently affected. Trauma was a predisposing factor in 11. 27% of the cases. The duration of lesions varied from 3 months to 15 years. In the majority (38. 23% it was less than one year. Candidal onychomycosis was the most prevalent clinical type (58. 82% followed by distal subungual onychomycosis (38. 72%. Disease was limited only to finger nails in 57. 35% and toe nails in 32. 35%. Ptedominant isolates obtained were condida spp. (56. 7%, followed by dermatophytes (38. 2% and non-dermatophyte molds (3. 37%. 26. 96% of the patients had experienced physical, psychosocial and occupational problems.

  5. Neutral Hydrogen in Galaxy Groups

    McKay, N P F; Brough, S; Forbes, D A; Barnes, D G


    We present preliminary results from a study of the neutral hydrogen (HI) properties of an X-ray selected sample of nearby loose galaxy groups. This forms part of a multi-wavelength investigation (X-ray, optical and radio) of the formation and evolution of galaxies within a group environment. Some initial findings of an ATNF Parkes Multibeam wide-area neutral hydrogen imaging survey of 17 nearby galaxy groups include two new, potentially isolated clouds of HI in the NGC 1052 and NGC 5044 groups and significant amounts of HI within the group virial radii of groups NGC 3557 and IC 1459 - two groups with complex X-ray structures that suggest they may still be in the act of virialisation. Here we present ATCA high-resolution synthesis-imaging follow-up observations of the distribution and kinematics of HI in these four groups.

  6. The significance of constitutional values

    HN Nisihara


    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of the meaning and legal significance of constitutional values in contemporary times. The article attends also to related questions namely, what constitute “constitutional values” and what are the limitations of the meaning afforded to this notion. Attention is paid in the particular, to freedom, equality and democracy as value-neutral criteria of fairness and government neutrality with reference to the South African and German contexts as well as to value-neutrality as a culturally conditioned value. The author concludes with a cosmopolitan view of freedom and the right to peace with reference to the constitutional texts of Japan and the United States.

  7. The significance of small streams

    Wohl, Ellen


    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  8. [Hypertriglyceridemia: concept and clinical significance].

    Hirano, Tsutomu


    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common lipid disorder as well as hypercholesterolemia. However clinical significance of hypertriglyceridemia is not fully understood because of its heterogeneous lipoprotein phenotypes and complex etiology. Severe hypertriglyceridemia increases the risk for pancreatitis, whereas mild or moderate hypertriglyceridemia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia are usually accompanied by other cardiovascular related disorders, such as central obesity, type 2 diabetes, and liver steatosis. Ectopic fat accumulation is often seen in hypertriglyceridemic subjects and various organ injuries are developed by the lipotoxicity. Hypertriglyceridemia is strongly associated with remnant lipoprotein accumulation, increased small dense LDL, and low HDL-cholesterol. All these lipid abnormalities are recognized as cardiovascular risk factors. The pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism related to the hypertriglyceridemia is summarized in this brief review.

  9. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    Benevento, A L


    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  10. [Health significance of inhaled particles].

    Gillissen, A; Gessner, C; Hammerschmidt, S; Hoheisel, G; Wirtz, H


    Particulates refer to particles, dust, dirt, soot and aerosol mists that has suspended in the surrounding air. They may consist of solids of various forms including fibres or liquids. Long term exposure to silicon dioxide containing dusts (crystalline silica: quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite) may cause pneumoconiosis in the form of acute or/either chronic silicosis. Asbestos refers to a divers family of crystalline hydrated fibrous siliates typically exhibiting a greater tha 3:1 length ot diameter ratio. It is subdivided into serpentine (Chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, actinolite). Exposure to asbestos fibres may cause lung fibrosis and promote cancer of the lung or the pleura. Besides the induction of malignant diseases dust exposure may result in obstructive as well as restrictive lung diseases which may be compensate in case of the recognition as a occupational diseases. Other occupational exposures leading to pneumoconiosis are caused be talc, or metals including aluminium containing dusts. Also the group of man-made mineral (MMMFs) or vitreous fibres (MMVFs), including glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, glass filaments, microfibres, refractory ceramic fibres are bioactive under certain experimental conditions. Although it has been shown that MMMFs may cause malignancies when injected intraperitoneally in high quantities in rodents, inhalation trials and human studies could not reproduce these results in the same precision. Fine particles (particulate matter = PM) comprise one of the most widespread and harmful air pollutants in the industrialized world. PM may cause worsening of asthma and other respiratory diseases, reduce lung function development in children, potentially increased the risk of premature death in the elderly and enhance mortality from cardiac diseases. Because of the small size PM2.5 is seen to be even more hazardous than PM10.

  11. White matter microstructural abnormalities in girls with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Fragile X or Turner syndrome as evidenced by diffusion tensor imaging

    Villalon, Julio; Jahanshad, Neda; Beaton, Elliott; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Simon, Tony J.


    Children with chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS), Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), or Turner Syndrome (TS) are considered to belong to distinct genetic groups, as each disorder is caused by separate genetic alterations. Even so, they have similar cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, particularly in visuospatial and numerical abilities. To assess evidence for common underlying neural microstructural alterations, we set out to determine whether these groups have partially overlapping white matter abnormalities, relative to typically developing controls. We scanned 101 female children between 7 and 14 years old: 25 with 22q11.2DS, 18 with FXS, 17 with TS, and 41 aged-matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Anisotropy and diffusivity measures were calculated and all brain scans were nonlinearly aligned to population and site-specific templates. We performed voxel-based statistical comparisons of the DTI-derived metrics between each disease group and the controls, while adjusting for age. Girls with 22q11.2DS showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) than controls in the association fibers of the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, the splenium of the corpus callosum, and the corticospinal tract. FA was abnormally lower in girls with FXS in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule, posterior thalami, and precentral gyrus. Girls with TS had lower FA in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right internal capsule and left cerebellar peduncle. Partially overlapping neurodevelopmental anomalies were detected in all three neurogenetic disorders. Altered white matter integrity in the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and thalamic to frontal tracts may contribute to the behavioral characteristics of all of these disorders. PMID:23602925

  12. Methods and significance of author group analysis by network environment in sci-tech journals%网络环境中科技期刊作者群深层次数据分析方法及其意义



    To collect information about the data of the authors by online paper management system of sci-tech journals. It' s important of the establishment and continuous improvement of the repository, and make full use of networked digital operators of analysis and management platform, and timely analysis of the data of the authors of the deep-seated understanding. The author' s data of respective geographical, institutional, is involving to the topics planning, and what' s focus on in the sci-tech journals. The policy of soliciting contributions, as well as distribution and advertising and marketing is also related to author analysis. Under the network environment, applied sci-tech journals digital operation in the author' s group of deep data, regular authors analysis should become the digital sci-tech periodical editorial department on a daily basis.%通过科技期刊的稿件网络在线管理系统收集作者群的相关信息数据,建立并不断完善“作者信息库”,同时充分运用网络数字运营商的作者群分析管理平台,及时对作者群数据进行深层次分析,了解作者所属地域、机构、涉及课题、文章被引情况等,对指导科技期刊的选题策划、组稿、发行及广告营销、品牌延伸,以及对学科建设与发展都具有重要的现实意义.网络环境中,应用科技期刊数字化运营中所获得的作者群的深层次数据,定期进行作者群分析应成为现代科技期刊社管理流程的重要组成部分.

  13. Significant Life Experiences and Environmental Justice: Positionality and the Significance of Negative Social/Environmental Experiences

    Ceaser, Donovon


    Significant life experiences (SLE) research has been criticized for a disproportionate focus on privileged groups and positive experiences. In this paper, I use textual analysis to examine the SLEs within the Environmental Justice (EJ) literature. Theoretically, I blend feminist theory, the sociology of disaster, and research on EJ motives for…

  14. Learning science through talk: A case study of middle school students engaged in collaborative group investigation

    Zinicola, Debra Ann

    Reformers call for change in how science is taught in schools by shifting the focus towards conceptual understanding for all students. Constructivist learning is being promoted through the dissemination of National and State Science Standards that recommend group learning practices in science classrooms. This study examined the science learning and interactions, using case study methodology, of one collaborative group of 4 students in an urban middle school. Data on science talk and social interaction were collected over 9 weeks through 12 science problem solving sessions. To determine student learning through peer interaction, varied group structures were implemented, and students reflected on the group learning experience. Data included: field notes, cognitive and reflective journals, audiotapes and videotapes of student talk, and audiotapes of group interviews. Journal data were analyzed quantitatively and all other data was transcribed into The Ethnograph database for qualitative analysis. The data record was organized into social and cognitive domains and coded with respect to interaction patterns to show how group members experienced the social construction of science concepts. The most significant finding was that all students learned as a result of 12 talk sessions as evidenced by pre- and post-conceptual change scores. Interactions that promoted learning involved students connecting their thoughts, rephrasing, and challenging ideas. The role structure was only used by students about 15% of the time, but it started the talk with a science focus, created awareness of scientific methods, and created an awareness of equitable member participation. Students offered more spontaneous, explanatory talk when the role structure was relaxed, but did not engage in as much scientific writing. They said the role structure was important for helping them know what to do in the talk but they no longer needed it after a time. Gender bias, status, and early adolescent

  15. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.


    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  16. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Taha, Kamal


    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  17. Phylogeny and chromosomal diversification in the Dichroplus elongatus species group (Orthoptera, Melanoplinae)

    Taffarel, Alberto; Maronna, Maximiliano M.; Cigliano, María Marta; Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio M.; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C.; Martí, Dardo A.


    In an attempt to track the chromosomal differentiation in the Dichroplus elongatus species group, we analyzed the karyotypes of four species with classical cytogenetic and mapping several multigene families through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We improved the taxon sampling of the D. elongatus species group adding new molecular data to infer the phylogeny of the genus and reconstruct the karyotype evolution. Our molecular analyses recovered a fully resolved tree with no evidence for the monophyly of Dichroplus. However, we recovered several stable clades within the genus, including the D. elongatus species group, under the different strategies of tree analyses (Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood). The chromosomal data revealed minor variation in the D. elongatus species group’s karyotypes caused by chromosome rearrangements compared to the phylogenetically related D. maculipennis species group. The karyotypes of D. intermedius and D. exilis described herein showed the standard characteristics found in most Dichroplini, 2n = 23/24, X0♂ XX♀, Fundamental number (FN) = 23/24. However, we noticed two established pericentric inversions in D. intermedius karyotype, raising the FN to 27♂/28♀. A strong variation in the heterochromatic blocks distribution was evidenced at interespecific level. The multigene families’ mapping revealed significant variation, mainly in rDNA clusters. These variations are probably caused by micro chromosomal changes, such as movement of transposable elements (TEs) and ectopic recombination. These observations suggest a high genomic dynamism for these repetitive DNA sequences in related species. The reconstruction of the chromosome character “variation in the FN” posits the FN = 23/24 as the ancestral state, and it is hypothesized that variations due to pericentric inversions has arisen independently three times in the evolutionary history of Dichroplus. One of these independent events occurred in the D

  18. Magnetic translation groups as group extension

    Florek, Wojciech


    Extensions of a direct product T of two cyclic groups Z_n1 and Z_n2 by an Abelian (gauge) group G with the trivial action of T on G are considered. All possible (nonequivalent) factor systems are determined using the Mac Lane method. Some of resulting groups describe magnetic translation groups. As examples extensions with G=U(1) and G=Z_n are considered and discussed.

  19. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    Alpay, Esat


    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  20. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group



    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  1. AREVA group overview; Presentation du groupe AREVA



    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  2. Significance of Conflict Talk in interpersonal Relationships

    柯建华; 罗丹


    Conflict talks occur in almost every field of human life such as medicine, school, court, and some other social organizations where the interaction results are of much significance to the conversationalists, or in others words, to their status in the organization and honor in the society. A lot of conflicts go unresolved. Oppositional exchanges in a conflict may be used by participants to achieve certain goals, for instance, exploring and developing verbal skills as candidates in a debate competition do, and maintaining social hierarchies within groups or organizations such as leaders giving orders in an institution. Dealing with conflict helps to promote interpersonal relationships.

  3. Un Abrazo Para La Familia: an evidenced-based rehabilitation approach in providing cancer education to low-SES Hispanic co-survivors.

    Marshall, Catherine A; Curran, Melissa A; Koerner, Susan Silverberg; Kroll, Thilo; Hickman, Amy C; García, Francisco


    We discuss Un Abrazo Para La Familia as an effective, rehabilitation-informed evidence-based model of education, information-sharing, and skill teaching for use with low-income Hispanic co-survivors of cancer. Over 2 years, 120 co-survivors participated in the intervention. The majority of participants (96 %) were women and all but one reported being Hispanic. Both in years 1 and 2, we followed the same pre- and post-intervention evaluation design. Based on pre- and post-intervention assessments of cancer-related knowledge and self-efficacy, the percentage of questions answered correctly about cancer significantly increased for co-survivors. Self-efficacy significantly increased as well. Using item analysis, we explored skill teaching as a mechanism for the effective delivery of Un Abrazo and recommend the use of promotoras in providing the intervention. Of the 12 cancer knowledge items resulting in statistically significant increases of cancer knowledge, 5 were taught via interactive skill teaching. Given the projected rise in the incidence of cancer in Hispanic populations, coupled with the fact that people from low-income backgrounds face unique challenges in cancer prevention and management, implications of the Un Abrazo model for future research and policy regarding cancer and families are considered.

  4. Non-equilibrium effects evidenced by vibrational spectra during the coil-to-globule transition in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) subjected to an ultrafast heating-cooling cycle.

    Deshmukh, Sanket A; Kamath, Ganesh; Suthar, Kamlesh J; Mancini, Derrick C; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S


    Molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with finite element calculations are used to explore the conformational dynamics of a thermo-sensitive oligomer, namely poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), subjected to an ultra-fast heating-cooling cycle. Finite element (FE) calculations were used to predict the temperature profile resulting from laser-induced heating of the polymer-aqueous system. The heating rate (∼0.6 K ps(-1)) deduced from FE calculations was used to heat an aqueous solution of PNIPAM consisting of 30 monomeric units (30-mer) from 285 K to 315 K. Non-equilibrium effects arising from the ultra-fast heating-cooling cycle results in a hysteresis during the coil-to-globule transition. The corresponding atomic scale conformations were characterized by monitoring the changes in the vibrational spectra, which provided a reliable metric to study the coil-to-globule transition in PNIPAM and vice-versa across the LCST. The vibrational spectra of bonds involving atoms from the oligomer backbone and the various side-groups (amide I, amide II, and the isopropyl group of PNIPAM) of the oligomers were analyzed to study the conformational changes in the oligomer corresponding to the observed hysteresis. The differences in the vibrational spectra calculated at various temperatures during heating and cooling cycles were used to understand the coil-to-globule and globule-to-coil transitions in the PNIPAM oligomer and identify the changes in the relative interactions between various atoms in the backbone and in the side groups of the oligomer with water. The shifts in the computed vibrational spectral peaks and the changes in the intensity of peaks for the different regions of PNIPAM, seen across the LCST during the heating cycle, are in good agreement with previous experimental studies. The changes in the radius of gyration (Rg) and vibrational spectra for amide I and amide II regions of PNIPAM suggest a clear coil-to-globule transition at ∼301 K during the

  5. 江西南部震旦-寒武纪寻乌岩组变沉积岩地球化学特征及构造意义%The geochemical characteristics and tectonic significance of metasedimentary rocks in Sinian-Cambrian Xunwu rock group, southern Jiangxi Province

    杨世文; 楼法生; 杨坤光; 张芳荣; 凌国卿; 曹员兵


    Metasedimentary rocks in Sinian-Cambrian Xunwu rock group of southern Jiangxi Province show obvious variation of SiO2 values. Except for one sample with a relatively lower concentration, the average SiO2 content is 63.01%. These rocks show comparatively high K2O, Al2O3 and (TFeO+MgO) values and low Na2O and CaO values. Compared with the concentrations of compatible trace elements, they are very close to values of Archaean Australian Shales (PASS), but their values are dramatically higher than values of the upper crust, and are consistent with the characteristics of high (TFeO+MgO) values, indicating that a certain amount of intermediate-basic components existed in the source region. Total REE concentrations are higher than those of the upper crust and PAAS. Nevertheless,, the chondrite-normalized REE patterns exhibit a slanting rightward shape with enriched LREE, flat HREE, obvious negative Eu anomalies and less obvious negative Ce anomalies, similar to features of the typical upper crust and PAAS. Based on the geochemical characteristics, the protolith should be terrigenous clastic rocks with intermediate maturity, and the provenance was mainly dominated by reconstructed felsic and granitic sediments from the upper crust, with partly contributed by certain amounts of intermediate-basic components. Immobile elements like high field-strength elements and rare earth elements reveal that the sedimentary environment was bathyal to abyssal and the tectonic background was the passive continental margin with rift systems. The results obtained by the authors shed some light on the tectonic attributes of southern China in Early Paleozoic from the perspective of sedimentary geochemistry.%提寻乌岩组变沉积岩发育在江西南部新元古代—早古生代南城—寻乌盆地内,时代为震旦—寒武纪。寻乌岩组的SiO2含量变化较大,除1个含量较低的样品外,平均为63.01%,具有相对较高的K2O、Al2O3及(TFeO+MgO)值,较低的Na2

  6. Representativeness and significance factors in ESP texts

    Alejandro Curado Fuentes


    Full Text Available The development of communicative approaches and strategies in specialized discourse has led to revising notions of representative and significant language . Particularly in the work with academic genres, in science and technology (EST settings such as our own institution, the need for determining these factors is ever growing. The application of empirical resources such as specific language corpora, in fact, becomes convenient. In this paper, the aim is to specify the type of corpus linguistic representativeness and significance sought in the case of teaching English to our groups of Computer Science students. In that scope, we present data and samples on which to base our suggestions and claims regarding the exploitation of textual material.

  7. About group digital signatures

    Adriana Cristina Enache


    ...).A group digital signature is a digital signature with enhanced privacy features that allows members of a given group to anonymously sign messages on behalf of the group, producing a group signature...

  8. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.


    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  9. Gastric siderosis: patterns and significance.

    Marginean, Esmeralda C; Bennick, Michael; Cyczk, Jan; Robert, Marie E; Jain, Dhanpat


    Recently, we encountered 2 cases of diffuse iron deposition in gastric antral and fundic glandular epithelium, which in 1 patient eventually led to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Gastric mucosal siderosis (GS) has previously been described in hemochromatosis patients, alcoholics, and in association with iron medications. However, the prevalence of various patterns of iron deposition in the gastric mucosa and their clinical significance have not been studied in detail. The 2 index cases mentioned above and 500 additional consecutive gastric biopsies examined over a period of 8 months at our institution were stained for iron by the Prussian blue method. In addition, all patients with genetic hemochromatosis diagnosed by liver biopsy in our department between 1998 and 2003 who also had gastric biopsies were identified from the surgical pathology files and included in the study (n = 3). The location of iron deposition [stromal cells (endothelium, fibroblasts, macrophages), glandular epithelium, or extracellular] was recorded and subjectively graded as 1+ to 3+ according to the severity of deposition within the mucosa. Relevant histologic changes (inflammation, presence of H. pylori, ulceration) and clinical features were reviewed. Three patterns of GS were identified: A) "nonspecific GS" with predominant iron deposition in the stromal cells including macrophages, and focally in epithelium; B) "iron-pill gastritis" with often mild gastritis and reactive gastropathy type changes, and mostly extracellular deposition with focal stromal cells and epithelial deposition; and C) predominant deposition in antral and fundic glandular epithelium. Of the 500 cases studied, a total of 18 (3.6%) cases were found to have GS. Of these 18 cases, 11 (2.2%) showed pattern A, 4 (0.8%) showed pattern B, and 3 (0.6%) showed pattern C. The GS in patterns A and B was always focal or patchy (1+ to 2+), whereas in pattern C it was generally diffuse and strong (2+ to 3+). A history of oral

  10. Ability of Lactobacillus fermentum to overcome host α-galactosidase deficiency, as evidenced by reduction of hydrogen excretion in rats consuming soya α-galacto-oligosaccharides

    Sesma Fernando


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soya and its derivatives represent nutritionally high quality food products whose major drawback is their high content of α-galacto-oligosaccharides. These are not digested in the small intestine due to the natural absence of tissular α-galactosidase in mammals. The passage of these carbohydrates to the large intestine makes them available for fermentation by gas-producing bacteria leading to intestinal flatulence. The aim of the work reported here was to assess the ability of α-galactosidase-producing lactobacilli to improve the digestibility of α-galacto-oligosaccharides in situ. Results Gnotobiotic rats were orally fed with soy milk and placed in respiratory chambers designed to monitor fermentative gas excretion. The validity of the animal model was first checked using gnotobiotic rats monoassociated with a Clostridium butyricum hydrogen (H2-producing strain. Ingestion of native soy milk by these rats caused significant H2 emission while ingestion of α-galacto-oligosaccharide-free soy milk did not, thus validating the experimental system. When native soy milk was fermented using the α-galactosidase-producing Lactobacillus fermentum CRL722 strain, the resulting product failed to induce H2 emission in rats thus validating the bacterial model. When L. fermentum CRL722 was coadministered with native soy milk, a significant reduction (50 %, P = 0.019 in H2 emission was observed, showing that α-galactosidase from L. fermentum CRL722 remained active in situ, in the gastrointestinal tract of rats monoassociated with C. butyricum. In human-microbiota associated rats, L. fermentum CRL722 also induced a significant reduction of H2 emission (70 %, P = 0.004. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that L. fermentum α-galactosidase is able to partially alleviate α-galactosidase deficiency in rats. This offers interesting perspectives in various applications in which lactic acid bacteria could be used as a vector for

  11. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Luis J. Boya


    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  12. Significant new quantitative EGG patterns in fibromyalgia

    Jorge Navarro López


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: We analyzed the EEG recordings of a sample of fibromyalgia patients, with the goal of looking for new, more objective indicators on the diagnosis and severity assessment of this pathology, and looking also to establish the relationship of these new indicators with different psychological and neuropsychiatric tests. Methods: We compared the EEG recordings of a group of 13 fibromyalgia patients with a normalized database built into the software of the equipment used (Neuronic, and also with a control group of 13 individuals; both groups were selected under the same criteria of inclusion-exclusion. Patients and controls underwent quantitative EEG (eyes closed, according to international 10-20 EEG system and were specifically evaluated throughout various neuropsychiatric and psychological questionnaires. Results: We obtained the absolute powers of QEEG (quantitative for the different electrode sites and frequency bands, we determined the corresponding values of the deviation from normal (Z-scores, and estimated various indicators and ratios, as well as correlations with the results of psychological tests. Interestingly, the ratios of theta and beta frequencies in relation with alpha appear as one of the most relevant indicators of the severity of the pathology; significant differences were also found in the peak frequency (maximum power per Hz of the alpha band, and in the frequency peak of the total spectrum. Conclusions: The consistency of the abnormal EEG patterns of fibromyalgia patients revealed the presence of systemic dysfunction at the central nervous system level, beyond possible peripheral anomalies and specific tissue pathologies. Among the indicators and benchmarks achieved, the most important changes concern the frequencies theta, alpha and beta, and still more significant were the values of their ratios in the comparison between patients and controls. The relative values of peak frequencies are also of

  13. Understanding ageing in older Australians: The contribution of the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project to the evidenced base and policy

    Anstey, Kaarin J; Bielak, Allison AM; Birrell, Carole L; Browning, Colette J; Burns, Richard A; Byles, Julie; Kiley, Kim M; Nepal, Binod; Ross, Lesley A; Steel, David; Windsor, Timothy D


    Aim To describe the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project and illustrate its contributions to understanding ageing through innovative methodology, and investigations on outcomes based on the project themes. DYNOPTA provides a platform and technical expertise that may be used to combine other national and international datasets. Method The DYNOPTA project has pooled and harmonized data from nine Australian longitudinal studies to create the largest available longitudinal dataset (N=50652) on ageing in Australia. Results A range of findings have resulted from the study to date, including methodological advances, prevalence rates of disease and disability, and mapping trajectories of ageing with and without increasing morbidity. DYNOPTA also forms the basis of a microsimulation model that will provide projections of future costs of disease and disability for the baby boomer cohort. Conclusion DYNOPTA contributes significantly to the Australian evidence-base on ageing to inform key social and health policy domains. PMID:22032767

  14. Delayed and asynchronous ganglionic maturation during cephalopod neurogenesis as evidenced by Sof-elav1 expression in embryos of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Buresi, Auxane; Canali, Ester; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien


    Among the Lophotrochozoa, centralization of the nervous system reaches an exceptional level of complexity in cephalopods, where the typical molluscan ganglia become highly developed and fuse into hierarchized lobes. It is known that ganglionic primordia initially emerge early and simultaneously during cephalopod embryogenesis but no data exist on the process of neuron differentiation in this group. We searched for members of the elav/hu family in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, since they are one of the first genetic markers of postmitotic neural cells. Two paralogs were identified and the expression of the most neural-specific gene, Sof-elav1, was characterized during embryogenesis. Sof-elav1 is expressed in all ganglia at one time of development, which provides the first genetic map of neurogenesis in a cephalopod. Our results unexpectedly revealed that Sof-elav1 expression is not similar and not coordinated in all the prospective ganglia. Both palliovisceral ganglia show extensive Sof-elav1 expression soon after emergence, showing that most of their cells differentiate into neurons at an early stage. On the contrary, other ganglia, and especially both cerebral ganglia that contribute to the main parts of the brain learning centers, show a late extensive Sof-elav1 expression. These delayed expressions in ganglia suggest that most ganglionic cells retain their proliferative capacities and postpone differentiation. In other molluscs, where a larval nervous system predates the development of the definitive adult nervous system, cerebral ganglia are among the first to mature. Thus, such a difference may constitute a cue in understanding the peculiar brain evolution in cephalopods.

  15. {sup 210}Pb and composition data of near-surface sediments and interstitial waters evidencing anthropogenic inputs in Amazon River mouth, Macapa, Brazil

    Cardoso Nery, Jose Reinaldo, E-mail: jrnery@unifap.b [Universidade Federal do Amapa (UNIFAP), Campus Marco Zero, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek, km 2, CEP 68902-280, Macapa, Amapa (Brazil); Marcos Bonotto, Daniel, E-mail: [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus de Rio Claro, Av. 24-A No.1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    Activity profiles of excess {sup 210}Pb determined in three sediment cores from Amazon River mouth, Macapa city, Brazil, provided the evaluation of sedimentation rates, contributing to a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in the site that is the capital of Amapa State and is drained by the waters of the huge Amazon River. Chemical data were also determined in the sediments, allowing identify signatures coupled to anthropogenic inputs held in the past in Amapa State. Significant direct relationships between LOI (loss on ignition) and organic matter were found for all sediments profiles. Silica was found to be inversely related to organic matter in the three profiles; its decrease accompanied an increase on the specific surface of the sediments. This relationship was confirmed by a great number of inverse significant correlations among silica and oxides Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MnO. It was possible to identify the role of organic matter on adsorption of several oxides in the core sediments profiles. Apparent sediment mass accumulation rates corresponding to values between 450 and 2510 mg cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1} were obtained, and are compatible with the results of others studies. The {sup 210}Pb activities in one sampling point suggested the occurrence of anthropogenic inputs related to the initial period of the mining activities conducted in Serra do Navio, Amapa State, for the commercialization of Mn ores. This was reinforced by the abrupt fluctuations in chemical data obtained for the sediments and composition of the interstitial waters occurring there. The Atlantic hurricane activity also appeared to affect the sedimentation rates in the area, as two different values were recorded in each profile. - Highlights: {yields} New 210Pb and composition dataset at the Amazon River mouth. {yields} Chemical and 210Pb data revealed anthropogenic inputs in the area. {yields} Mining activities at

  16. High-Temperature, Perhaps Silicic, Volcanism on Mars Evidenced by Tridymite Detection in High-SiO2 Sedimentary Rock at Gale Crater, Mars

    Morris, R. V.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Gellert, R.; Chipera, S. J.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Treiman, A. H.; Yen, A. S.; Achilles, C. N.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Des Marais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Fendrich, K. V.; Frydenvang, J.; Graff, T. G.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Morookian, J. M.; Schwenzer, S. P.


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, has been exploring sedimentary rocks within Gale crater since landing in August, 2012. On the lower slopes of Aeolis Mons (a.k.a. Mount Sharp), drill powder was collected from a high-silica (74 wt% SiO2) outcrop named Buckskin (BK). It was a surprise to find that the Buckskin sample contained significant amounts of the relatively rare silica polymorph tridymite. We describe the setting of the Buckskin sample, the detection of tridymite by the MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffraction instrument, and detection implications. Geologic setting: The Buckskin outcrop is part of the Murray formation exposed in the Marias Pass area. The formation was previously studied by CheMin in the Pahrump Hills member [1] where three samples of drill fines were analyzed (Confidence Hills (CH), Mojave2 (MJ) and Telegraph Peak (TP) [2]). Assuming approximately horizontal bedding, the Buckskin outcrop is approx.15 m stratigraphically above the bottom of the Pahrump Hills member. Mudstone, generally characterized by fine lamination, is the dominant depositional facies [1]. Buckskin Mineralogical and Chemical Composition: The CheMin instrument and XRD pattern analysis procedures have been previously discussed [3-6]. The diffraction pattern used for quantitative XRD analysis (Fig. 1) is the sum of the first 4 of 45 diffraction images. The remaining images are all characterized by both on-ring and off-ring diffraction spots that we attributed to poor grain motion and particle clumping. Coincident with particle clumping was a significant decrease in the intensity of the tridymite diffraction peaks (Fig. 2a). The derived mineralogical composition of the crystalline component (derived from the first 4 diffraction images) is given in Table 1. The tridymite is well-crystalline and its pattern is refined as monoclinic tridymite (Fig 1). Mineral chemical compositions were derived from XRD unit cell parameters or obtained from

  17. Remarkable effect of the preparation technique on the state of cobalt ions in BEA zeolites evidenced by FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO and NO, TPR and XRD.

    Mihaylova, Angelina; Hadjiivanov, Konstantin; Dzwigaj, Stanislaw; Che, Michel


    The state of cobalt in two BEA zeolites was studied by XRD, TPR, and FTIR spectroscopy using CO and NO as probe molecules. One of the samples, CoAlBEA (0.4 wt % of Co), was prepared by conventional ion exchange and the other, CoSiBEA (0.7 wt % Co), by a two-step postsynthesis method involving dealuminated SiBEA zeolite. The introduction of Co into SiBEA leads to an increase of unit cell parameters of the BEA structure and to the consumption of silanol groups in vacant T-sites of the dealuminated zeolite. In contrast, no structural changes are observed after incorporation of cobalt into AlBEA by ion-exchange. The reduction temperature of cobalt in CoSiBEA zeolite (1130 K), is much higher than for CoAlBEA and indicates a strong interaction of cobalt ions with SiBEA. Low-temperature CO adsorption on CoAlBEA results in (i) H-bonded CO, (ii) Co(3+)-CO adducts (2,208 cm(-1)) and (iii) a small amount of Co(2+)-CO complexes (2,188 cm(-1)). In agreement with these results, NO adsorption leads to the appearance of (i) NO(+) (2,133 cm(-1), formed with the participation of the zeolite acidic hydroxyls), (ii) Co(3+)-NO (1932 cm(-1)), and (iii) a small amount of Co(2+)(NO)(2) dinitrosyls (nu(s) = 1,898 and nu(as) = 1,814 cm(-1)). Low-temperature CO adsorption on CoSiBEA leads to formation of two kinds of Co(2+)-CO adducts (2,185 and 2,178 cm(-1)). No Co(3+) cations are detected. In line with these results, adsorption of NO reveals the existence of two kinds of Co(2+)(NO)(2) dinitrosyls (nu(s) = 1,888 and nu(as) = 1,808 cm(-1) and nu(s) = 1,878 and nu(as) = 1,799 cm(-1), respectively).

  18. When the brain decides: a familiarity-based approach to the recognition heuristic as evidenced by event-related brain potentials.

    Rosburg, Timm; Mecklinger, Axel; Frings, Christian


    Humans can make fast and highly efficient decisions by using simple heuristics that are assumed to exploit basic cognitive functions. In the study reported here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to disclose the psychological mechanisms underlying one of the most frugal decision rules, namely, the recognition heuristic. According to this heuristic, whenever two objects have to be ranked by a specific criterion and only one object is recognized, the recognized object is ranked higher than the unrecognized object. Using a standard recognition-heuristic paradigm, we predicted participants' decisions by analyzing an ERP correlate of familiarity-based recognition occurring 300 to 450 ms after stimulus onset. The measure remained a significant predictor even when later ERP correlates were taken into account. These findings are evidence for the thesis that simple heuristics exploit basic cognitive processes. Specifically, the findings show that familiarity--that is, recognition in the absence of recollection--contributes to decisions made on the basis of such heuristics.

  19. A Kungurian Oceanic Upwelling on Yangtze Platform:Evidenced byδ13Corg and Authigenic Silica in the Lower Chihsia Formation of Enshi Section in South China

    Hao Yu; Hengye Wei


    The Late Paleozoic Ice Age across Carboniferous and Permian had a significant impact on the Kungurian (Upper Cisuralian series of Permian) Chihsia Formation in South China. This re-sulted in a unique interval with features such as the lack of reef in Chihsian limestone, widespread stinkstone and nodular/bedded chert. The Chihsia limestone (Kungurian stage) deposited during a time of cooling was resulted from oceanic upwelling. Here we present evidence for this upwelling using sev-eral geochemical analyses: bulk organic carbon isotope, biomarker molecular geochemical data, and authigenic silica of the stinkstone member in the lower Chihsia Formation of the Kuangurian stage from the Enshi Section in western Hubei Province, South China. The lower part of the stinkstone member shows a rapid organic carbon isotope excursion with a-3‰shift triggered by the upwelling of 13C-depleted bottom water. The concurrent rapid increasing of authigenic silica content resulted from the enhanced supply of dissolved silica in the upwelling water mass. This upwelling at the Enshi Section also led to relative high TOC content, accounting for the widespread stinkstone in the lower Chihsia Formation during the Kungurian stage in Permian.

  20. Contribution of PPi-Hydrolyzing Function of Vacuolar H(+)-Pyrophosphatase in Vegetative Growth of Arabidopsis: Evidenced by Expression of Uncoupling Mutated Enzymes.

    Asaoka, Mariko Mariko Asaoka; Segami, Shoji; Ferjani, Ali; Maeshima, Masayoshi


    The vacuolar-type H(+)-pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase) catalyzes a coupled reaction of pyrophosphate (PPi) hydrolysis and active proton translocation across the tonoplast. Overexpression of H(+)-PPase improves growth in various plant species, and loss-of-function mutants (fugu5s) of H(+)-PPase in Arabidopsis thaliana have post-germinative developmental defects. Here, to further clarify the physiological significance of this important enzyme, we newly generated three varieties of H(+)-PPase overexpressing lines with different levels of activity that we analyzed together with the loss-of-function mutant fugu5-3. The H(+)-PPase overexpressors exhibited enhanced activity of H(+)-PPase during vegetative growth, but no change in the activity of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Overexpressors with high enzymatic activity grew more vigorously with fresh weight increased by more than 24 and 44%, compared to the wild type and fugu5-3, respectively. Consistently, the overexpressors had larger rosette leaves and nearly 30% more cells in leaves than the wild type. When uncoupling mutated variants of H(+)-PPase, that could hydrolyze PPi but could not translocate protons, were introduced into the fugu5-3 mutant background, shoot growth defects recovered to the same levels as when a normal H(+)-PPase was introduced. Taken together, our findings clearly demonstrate that additional expression of H(+)-PPase improves plant growth by increasing cell number, predominantly as a consequence of the PPi-hydrolyzing activity of the enzyme.

  1. Silicon-mediated alleviation of Cr(VI) toxicity in wheat seedlings as evidenced by chlorophyll florescence, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and anatomical changes.

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar; Kishore Dubey, Nawal; Rai, Awadhesh Kumar


    Silicon (Si)-mediated alleviation of Cr(VI) toxicity was examined in wheat seedlings using an in vivo approach that involves chlorophyll fluorescence, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and anatomical changes. Exposure to Cr(VI) significantly reduced the growth and photosynthetic activities (chlorophyll fluorescence) in wheat which was accompanied by remarkable accumulation of this element in tissues. However, addition of Si to the growth medium alleviated the effects of Cr(VI). The LIBS spectra were used as a fingerprint of the elemental compositions in wheat seedlings, which showed a reduction in Cr accumulation following Si addition. Nutrient element levels (Ca, Mg, K and Na) declined in wheat following the addition of Cr (VI), as recorded by LIBS and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICAP-AES). However, addition of Si along with Cr(VI) increased the contents of nutrient elements in wheat. LIBS, ICAP-AES and AAS showed a similar distribution pattern of elements measured in wheat. Anatomical observations of leaf and root revealed that Cr(VI) affected internal structures while Si played a role in protection from toxic effects. The results showed the suitability of chlorophyll fluorescence as a parameter and appropriateness of LIBS technique and anatomical procedures to elucidate Si-mediated alleviation of Cr(VI) toxicity. Furthermore, our results suggest that the measured parameters and techniques can be used non-invasively for monitoring the growth of crops under different environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A significant role for nitrate and peroxide groups on indoor secondary organic aerosol.

    Carslaw, Nicola; Mota, Tiago; Jenkin, Michael E; Barley, Mark H; McFiggans, Gordon


    This paper reports indoor secondary organic aerosol, SOA, composition based on the results from an improved model for indoor air chemistry. The model uses a detailed chemical mechanism that is near-explicit to describe the gas-phase degradation of relevant indoor VOC species. In addition, gas-to-particle partitioning is included for oxygenated products formed from the degradation of limonene, the most ubiquitous terpenoid species in the indoor environment. The detail inherent in the chemical mechanism permits the indoor SOA composition to be reported in greater detail than currently possible using experimental techniques. For typical indoor conditions in the suburban UK, SOA concentrations are ~1 μg m(-3) and dominated by nitrated material (~85%), with smaller contributions from peroxide (12%), carbonyl (3%), and acidic (1%) material. During cleaning activities, SOA concentrations can reach 20 μg m(-3) with the composition dominated by peroxide material (73%), with a smaller contribution from nitrated material (21%). The relative importance of these different moieties depends crucially (in order) on the outdoor concentration of O(3), the deposition rates employed and the scaling factor value applied to the partitioning coefficient. There are currently few studies that report observation of aerosol composition indoors, and most of these have been carried out under conditions that are not directly relevant. This study highlights the need to investigate SOA composition in real indoor environments. Further, there is a need to measure deposition rates for key indoor air species on relevant indoor surfaces and to reduce the uncertainties that still exist in gas-to-particle phase parametrization for both indoor and outdoor air chemistry models.

  3. Group theory and its applications

    Thapa, Ram Kumar


    Every molecule possesses symmetry and hence has symmetry operations and symmetry elements. From symmetry properties of a system we can deduce its significant physical results. Consequently it is essential to operations of a system forms a group. Group theory is an abstract mathematical tool that underlies the study of symmetry and invariance. By using the concepts of symmetry and group theory, it is possible to obtain the members of complete set of known basis functions of the various irreducible representations of the group. I practice this is achieved by applying the projection operators to linear combinations of atomic orbital (LCAO) when the valence electrons are tightly bound to the ions, to orthogonalized plane waves (OPW) when valence electrons are nearly free and to the other given functions that are judged to the particular system under consideration. In solid state physics the group theory is indispensable in the context of finding the energy bands of electrons in solids. Group theory can be applied...

  4. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    Burke, Alison


    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  5. A robust index of lexical representation in the left occipito-temporal cortex as evidenced by EEG responses to fast periodic visual stimulation.

    Lochy, Aliette; Van Belle, Goedele; Rossion, Bruno


    Despite decades of research on reading, including the relatively recent contributions of neuroimaging and electrophysiology, identifying selective representations of whole visual words (in contrast to pseudowords) in the human brain remains challenging, in particular without an explicit linguistic task. Here we measured discrimination responses to written words by means of electroencephalography (EEG) during fast periodic visual stimulation. Sequences of pseudofonts, nonwords, or pseudowords were presented through sinusoidal contrast modulation at a periodic 10 Hz frequency rate (F), in which words were interspersed at regular intervals of every fifth item (i.e., F/5, 2 Hz). Participants monitored a central cross color change and had no linguistic task to perform. Within only 3 min of stimulation, a robust discrimination response for words at 2 Hz (and its harmonics, i.e., 4 and 6 Hz) was observed in all conditions, located predominantly over the left occipito-temporal cortex. The magnitude of the response was largest for words embedded in pseudofonts, and larger in nonwords than in pseudowords, showing that list context effects classically reported in behavioral lexical decision tasks are due to visual discrimination rather than decisional processes. Remarkably, the oddball response was significant even for the critical words/pseudowords discrimination condition in every individual participant. A second experiment replicated this words/pseudowords discrimination, and showed that this effect is not accounted for by a higher bigram frequency of words than pseudowords. Without any explicit task, our results highlight the potential of an EEG fast periodic visual stimulation approach for understanding the representation of written language. Its development in the scientific community might be valuable to rapidly and objectively measure sensitivity to word processing in different human populations, including neuropsychological patients with dyslexia and other reading

  6. Ligand binding study of human PEBP1/RKIP: interaction with nucleotides and Raf-1 peptides evidenced by NMR and mass spectrometry.

    Laurette Tavel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1 (hPEBP1 also known as Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP, affects various cellular processes, and is implicated in metastasis formation and Alzheimer's disease. Human PEBP1 has also been shown to inhibit the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. Numerous reports concern various mammalian PEBP1 binding ligands. However, since PEBP1 proteins from many different species were investigated, drawing general conclusions regarding human PEBP1 binding properties is rather difficult. Moreover, the binding site of Raf-1 on hPEBP1 is still unknown. METHODS/FINDINGS: In the present study, we investigated human PEBP1 by NMR to determine the binding site of four different ligands: GTP, FMN, and one Raf-1 peptide in tri-phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms. The study was carried out by NMR in near physiological conditions, allowing for the identification of the binding site and the determination of the affinity constants K(D for different ligands. Native mass spectrometry was used as an alternative method for measuring K(D values. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrates and/or confirms the binding of hPEBP1 to the four studied ligands. All of them bind to the same region centered on the conserved ligand-binding pocket of hPEBP1. Although the affinities for GTP and FMN decrease as pH, salt concentration and temperature increase from pH 6.5/NaCl 0 mM/20°C to pH 7.5/NaCl 100 mM/30°C, both ligands clearly do bind under conditions similar to what is found in cells regarding pH, salt concentration and temperature. In addition, our work confirms that residues in the vicinity of the pocket rather than those within the pocket seem to be required for interaction with Raf-1.

  7. Small Group Research

    McGrath, Joseph E.


    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  8. Free Boolean Topological Groups

    Ol’ga Sipacheva


    Full Text Available Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.

  9. HSD17B1 expression enhances estrogen signaling stimulated by the low active estrone, evidenced by an estrogen responsive element-driven reporter gene in vivo.

    Järvensivu, Päivi; Saloniemi-Heinonen, Taija; Awosanya, Michael; Koskimies, Pasi; Saarinen, Niina; Poutanen, Matti


    Hydroxysteroid (17beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD17B1) belongs to a family of short-chain-dehydrogenases. The enzyme utilizes NAD(P) and NAD(P)H as cofactors, and catalyzes the reversible reaction between estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) in vitro. Of these steroids, E1 presents with lower estrogenic activity, but is converted to highly active E2 by HSD17B1. HSD17B1 is expressed especially in tissues with a high E2-producing capacity such as human ovaries and placenta, but also in several peripheral estrogen target tissues in humans, and inhibiting the enzyme activity is, thus, considered a promising approach to treat estrogen-dependent diseases. By analyzing transgenic mice universally expressing human HSD17B1 and carrying estrogen-response element (ERE)-driven luciferase reporter gene (Bi-transgenic ERELuc-HSD17B1TG mice) we showed a markedly higher reporter gene activity in various peripheral tissues of these mice as compared with ERELuc mice, indicating enhanced estrogen response generated by human HSD17B1 expression. An increased response after E1 administration was also evident in the Bi-TG mice, indicated by the increased uterus growth response and by the higher ERELuc reporter gene activity in the uterus. Moreover, a HSD17B1 inhibitor significantly reduced E1-induced increase in the uterus weight and uterine epithelial proliferation in the Bi-TG mice. Also the E1-induced ERELuc activity in the inhibitor-treated uterus was reduced by the HSD17B1 inhibitor in immature mice ex vivo, as well as in the liver of adult mice. The data, thus, demonstrate the potential use of the Bi-TG mice as a preclinical in vivo model for screening the efficacy of HSD17B1 inhibitors. As compared with the existing models, the Bi-TG mice present with luciferase activity as an additional, easily quantitative endpoint for the estrogen action.

  10. MSUD Family Support Group

    ... Group The MSUD Family Support Group is a non-profit 501 (c)(3) organization for those with MSUD ... Family Support Group is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with no paid staff. Funds are needed ...

  11. Profinite graphs and groups

    Ribes, Luis


    This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest...

  12. Homomorphisms of quantum groups

    Meyer, Ralf; Woronowicz, Stanisław Lech


    We introduce some equivalent notions of homomorphisms between quantum groups that behave well with respect to duality of quantum groups. Our equivalent definitions are based on bicharacters, coactions, and universal quantum groups, respectively.

  13. Food Groups Recipes


    15 pages In 2011, My Plate replaced the Food Pyramid as a visual representation for the USDA Dietary Guidelines. This publication, a group of recipes based on this new division of food groups, reflects the effort of the USDA and other groups to translate science-based research into everyday practice for Americans. Fifteen recipes (3 from each food group) show ways to use foods from each food group. They are complete with basic nutritional analyses and food group amounts.

  14. Locally minimal topological groups

    Außenhofer, Lydia; Chasco, María Jesús; Dikranjan, Dikran; Domínguez, Xabier


    A Hausdorff topological group $(G,\\tau)$ is called locally minimal if there exists a neighborhood $U$ of 0 in $\\tau$ such that $U$ fails to be a neighborhood of zero in any Hausdorff group topology on $G$ which is strictly coarser than $\\tau.$ Examples of locally minimal groups are all subgroups of Banach-Lie groups, all locally compact groups and all minimal groups. Motivated by the fact that locally compact NSS groups are Lie groups, we study the connection between local minimality and the ...

  15. GROUP PROFILE Computer Technique

    Andrey V. Sidorenkov


    Full Text Available This article contains a description of the structure, the software and functional capabilities, and the scope and purposes of application of the Group Profile (GP computer technique. This technique rests on a conceptual basis (the microgroup theory, includes 16 new and modified questionnaires, and a unique algorithm, tied to the questionnaires, for identification of informal groups. The GP yields a wide range of data about the group as a whole (47 indices, each informal group (43 indices, and each group member (16 indices. The GP technique can be used to study different types of groups: production (work groups, design teams, military units, etc., academic (school classes, student groups, and sports.

  16. The nature of the interaction of dimethylselenide with IIIA group element compounds.

    Madzhidov, Timur I; Chmutova, Galina A


    The first systematic theoretical study of the nature of intermolecular bonding of dimethylselenide as donor and IIIA group element halides as acceptors was made with the help of the approach of Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules. Density Functional Theory with "old" Sapporo triple-ζ basis sets was used to calculate geometry, thermodynamics, and wave function of Me2Se···AX3 complexes. The analysis of the electron density distribution and the Laplacian of the electron density allowed us to reveal and explain the tendencies in the influence of the central atom (A = B, Al, Ga, In) and halogen (X = F, Cl, Br, I) on the nature of Se···A bonding. Significant changes in properties of the selenium lone pair upon complexation were described by means of the analysis of the Laplacian of the charge density. Charge transfer characteristics and the contributions to it from electron localization and delocalization were analyzed in terms of localization and delocalization indexes. Common features of the complexation and differences in the nature of bonding were revealed. Performed analysis evidenced that gallium and indium halide complexes can be attributed to charge transfer-driven complexes; aluminum halides complexes seem to be mainly of an electrostatic nature. The nature of bonding in different boron halides essentially varies; these complexes are stabilized mainly by covalent Se···B interaction. In all the complexes under study covalence of the Se···A interaction is rather high.

  17. A Comparison of Verbal and Nonverbal Groups

    Harvey, Virginia; And Others


    The FIRO-B by Schutz and the Personal Orientation Inventory by Shostrum were used to assess personality changes in a verbal and a nonverbal T-group. Personality measures used failed to find significant posttreatment differences between groups. Several significant differences occurred within groups. (Author)

  18. Looking at Gestalt Group Impact: An Experiment.

    Serok, Shraga; Bar, Ruth


    Tested the impact of gestalt group therapy on aspects of self-concept in graduate students (N=33). Results showed a significant rise in decisiveness, general adaptation and self-criticism in the gestalt group as compared to the control groups and showed no significant changes in the self-identification and self-acceptance parameters. (LLL)

  19. A Comparison of Verbal and Nonverbal Groups

    Harvey, Virginia; And Others


    The FIRO-B by Schutz and the Personal Orientation Inventory by Shostrum were used to assess personality changes in a verbal and a nonverbal T-group. Personality measures used failed to find significant posttreatment differences between groups. Several significant differences occurred within groups. (Author)

  20. Ordered groups and infinite permutation groups


    The subjects of ordered groups and of infinite permutation groups have long en­ joyed a symbiotic relationship. Although the two subjects come from very different sources, they have in certain ways come together, and each has derived considerable benefit from the other. My own personal contact with this interaction began in 1961. I had done Ph. D. work on sequence convergence in totally ordered groups under the direction of Paul Conrad. In the process, I had encountered "pseudo-convergent" sequences in an ordered group G, which are like Cauchy sequences, except that the differences be­ tween terms of large index approach not 0 but a convex subgroup G of G. If G is normal, then such sequences are conveniently described as Cauchy sequences in the quotient ordered group GIG. If G is not normal, of course GIG has no group structure, though it is still a totally ordered set. The best that can be said is that the elements of G permute GIG in an order-preserving fashion. In independent investigations around that t...

  1. Strategic Groups and Banks’ Performance

    Gregorz Halaj


    Full Text Available The theory of strategic groups predicts the existence of stable groups of companies that adopt similar business strategies. The theory also predicts that groups will differ in performance and in their reaction to external shocks. We use cluster analysis to identify strategic groups in the Polish banking sector. We find stable groups in the Polish banking sector constituted after the year 2000 following the major privatisation and ownership changes connected with transition to the mostly-privately-owned banking sector in the late 90s. Using panel regression methods we show that the allocation of banks to groups is statistically significant in explaining the profitability of banks. Thus, breaking down the banks into strategic groups and allowing for the different reaction of the groups to external shocks helps in a more accurate explanation of profits of the banking sector as a whole.Therefore, a more precise ex ante assessment of the loss absorption capabilities of banks is possible, which is crucial for an analysis of banking sector stability. However, we did not find evidence of the usefulness of strategic groups in explaining the quality of bank portfolios as measured by irregular loans over total loans, which is a more direct way to assess risks to financial stability.

  2. The Nearest Group of Galaxies

    Van den Bergh, S


    The small Antlia-Sextans clustering of galaxies is located at a distance of only 1.36 Mpc from the Sun, and 1.72 Mpc from the adopted barycenter of the Local Group. The latter value is significantly greater than the radius of the zero- velocity surface of the Local Group which, for an assumed age of 14 Gyr, has Ro = 1.18 " 0.15 Mpc. This, together with the observation that the members of the Ant-Sex group have a mean redshift of +114 " 12 km s-1 relative to the centroid of the Local Group, suggests that the Antlia-Sextans group is not bound to our Local Group, and that it is expanding with the Hubble flow. If this conclusion is correct, then Antlia-Sextans may be the nearest external clustering of galaxies. The total galaxian population of the Ant-Sex group is ~ 1/5 that of the Local Group. However, the integrated luminosity of Ant-Sex is two orders of magnitude lower than that of the Local Group. Subject headings: Galaxies - clusters: individual (Antlia-Sextans)

  3. Significance of CSF-LDH in various types of meningitis

    Vekaria, Parul N; Jasani, Jasmin H; Dhruva, Gauravi; Kotadia, Tarun


    The cerebrospinal fluid concentration of Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was studied in patients with pyogenic and tubercular meningitis. Significant increase in LDH level (P<0.001) were observed in the test group when compared to the control group. LDH may  useful in differentiating viral from other meningitis. It may act as corroborative evidence of meningitis.

  4. Communication in Organizational Groups

    Monica RADU


    Organizational group can be defined as some persons between who exist interactive connections (functional, communication, affective, normative type). Classification of these groups can reflect the dimension, type of relationship or type of rules included. Organizational groups and their influence over the individual efficiency and the efficiency of the entire group are interconnected. Spontaneous roles in these groups sustain the structure of the relationship, and the personality of each indi...

  5. Masculist Groups in Poland: Aids of Mainstream Antifeminism

    Katarzyna Wojnicka


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role masculist groups currently play in fostering resistance to feminist-influenced efforts to advance the autonomy and equality of women in Poland, where the strong influence of the Polish Catholic Church continues to shape attitudes and actions in professional, governmental and civil society spheres. The paper argues that Polish public discourse since 1989 has been strongly dominated by antifeminist rhetoric advanced by masculist groups. This rhetoric is not only used in the media and in political discourse; it also influences legislation and thus hinders efforts to secure a satisfactory level of equality for women, evidenced in struggles over abortion reform, the Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women, and the trivialisation of rape. The findings of the paper are based on qualitative social research on men’s social movements in Poland between 2009 and 2012 and on qualitative media discourse analysis of articles published between 2009 and 2014.

  6. Infantile hypopituitarism: etiological variability evidenced by MRI

    Smet, M.H. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Zegher, F. de [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospitals, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Vanderschueren-Lodeweyckx, M. [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospitals, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Marchal, G. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, K.U. Leuven (Belgium)


    In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to document potentially present morphostructural abnormalities of the hypothalamopituitary region in seven infants (age 0-21 months) who presented very early in life with clinical and biochemical evidence of hypopituitarism. Four infants had associated congenital cerebro-facial malformations. The following anatomical abnormalities were identified in variable combinations: ectopic neurohypophysis, absence of the pituitary stalk, extreme elongation of the pituitary stalk, aplasia of the anterior pituitary lobe and no identification of the hypothalamopituitary complex. MRI proved to be very sensitive in the identification of structural malformations of the hypothalamopituitary region in infants with or without cerebro-facial malformations. Although the magnetic resonance image does not appear to be a good predictor of endocrine dysfunction, it provides us more insight into the precise aetiology of this disorder and may be therefore of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic importance. (orig.)

  7. The evidenced-based shoulder evaluation.

    O'Kane, John W; Toresdahl, Brett G


    The physical examination of the shoulder has been studied extensively, but the quality and statistical power of the published research often is lacking. The initial reports of new shoulder examination techniques commonly describe impressive performance. However recent meta-analyses have found that when the majority of these tests are used in isolation, they lack the ability to rule in or rule out the pathology in question, with few exceptions. The diagnostic accuracy of the physical examination improves when the shoulder tests are evaluated in combination, such as positive passive distraction and active compression identifying a superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesion. The accuracy also can be improved when the shoulder tests are evaluated in conjunction with specific historical findings, such as age greater than 39 years, history of popping or clicking, and a positive painful arc (pain experienced between 60° and 120° of abduction) identifying rotator cuff tendinopathy. The literature on shoulder imaging demonstrates that rotator cuff tears can be ruled in or ruled out by both ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. For SLAP lesions, magnetic resonance arthrography can be used to rule out a tear but may not be as accurate as combined physical examinations to rule in a tear.

  8. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    Ívarsson, Ómar


    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  9. Locally minimal topological groups

    enhofer, Lydia Au\\ss; Dikranjan, Dikran; Domínguez, Xabier


    A Hausdorff topological group $(G,\\tau)$ is called locally minimal if there exists a neighborhood $U$ of 0 in $\\tau$ such that $U$ fails to be a neighborhood of zero in any Hausdorff group topology on $G$ which is strictly coarser than $\\tau.$ Examples of locally minimal groups are all subgroups of Banach-Lie groups, all locally compact groups and all minimal groups. Motivated by the fact that locally compact NSS groups are Lie groups, we study the connection between local minimality and the NSS property, establishing that under certain conditions, locally minimal NSS groups are metrizable. A symmetric subset of an abelian group containing zero is said to be a GTG set if it generates a group topology in an analogous way as convex and symmetric subsets are unit balls for pseudonorms on a vector space. We consider topological groups which have a neighborhood basis at zero consisting of GTG sets. Examples of these locally GTG groups are: locally pseudo--convex spaces, groups uniformly free from small subgroups (...

  10. Basic and ultrabasic volcanic rocks from the Argyll Group (Dalradian) of NE Scotland


    The Dalradian Supergroup of the Scottish Highlands is a largely metasedimentary succession of Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian age, metamorphosed during the Caledonian Orogeny. The rocks were deposited on the Laurentian margin during and following the break-up of Rodinia. This rift setting is evidenced, in the upper half of the succession, by the presence of several volcanic sequences. A significant development of these volcanic rocks occurs in the NE Grampian Highlands. There, the Blackwater...

  11. Practical significance of weld strength matching

    Sloterdijk, W. [N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands); Schipaanboord, W.N. [N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)


    Defect tolerance in welds in pipelines constructed in modern high strength material depends on the balance in strength between weld material and pipe material. The Guidelines on the assessment of girth weld defects published by the European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) define in Tier 2 defect limits assuming that the (actual) weld metal yield strength is equal or greater than the yield strength of the parent material. The defect limits according to Tier 2 exceed the defect limits in `workmanship standards` (l>25 mm). Nevertheless, the draft European welding standard EN 288 does not yet require a test to measure and verify the weld metal yield strength. Gasunie has performed a test program with the aim to look at the practical significance of weld strength matching in a strain controlled situation and to verify the relevance of limits given in the European welding and line pipe codes, in combination with the EPRG Guidelines. It is concluded that the results of the tests confirm the defect acceptance limits according to Tier 2 of the EPRG Guidelines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Zulaessigkeit von Fehlern in Rundschweissnaehten in Rohrleitungen aus modernen hochfesten Baustaehlen haengt von dem Verhaeltnis der Werkstofffestigkeit des Schweissgutes zu der des Grundwerkstoffs ab. Die von der European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) veroeffentlichte Richtlinie zur Bewertung von Schweissnahtfehlern gibt in der zweiten Bewertungsstufe (Tier 2) Werte fuer zulaessige Schweissnahtfehlergroessen unter der Bedingung an, dass die Dehngrenze des Schweissgutes groesser oder gleich der Dehngrenze des Grundwerkstoffs ist. Die nach Tier 2 zulaessigen Fehler sind groesser als die in `Good-workmanship`-Regelwerken angegebenen Fehlerlaenge (l>25 mm). Demgegenueber fehlt im Entwurf der europaeischen Schweissnorm EN 288 bislang ein solcher Dehngrenzennachweis. Gasunie hat ein Versuchsprogramm durchgefuehrt, um die Bedeutung der Schweissgutfestigkeit bei dehnungskontrollierter Belastung sowie

  12. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    Gil, J I Burgos


    We give a new construction of higher arithmetic Chow groups for quasi-projective arithmetic varieties over a field. Our definition agrees with the higher arithmetic Chow groups defined by Goncharov for projective arithmetic varieties over a field. These groups are the analogue, in the Arakelov context, of the higher algebraic Chow groups defined by Bloch. The degree zero group agrees with the arithmetic Chow groups of Burgos. Our new construction is shown to be a contravariant functor and is endowed with a product structure, which is commutative and associative.

  13. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Thilo Welsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (Epo administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. METHODOLOGY: The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150, serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87 and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104 was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. RESULTS: Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05 and PDAC (p<0.001, reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46, 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99 but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85. Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml were not significantly different in M0 (20% and M1 (30% groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05. The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold

  14. Working with Groups.

    Morris, Joan, Ed.


    Describes nine Canadian programs for counseling groups of students. Topics include introducing computer-assisted guidance, future challenges for counselors, sociometry, sexuality, parent counseling, reluctant students, shyness, peer groups, education for living, and guidance advisory committees. (JAC)

  15. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.


    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  16. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    ... page: // Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that ...

  17. Group Decision Process Support

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao


    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  18. About group digital signatures

    Adriana Cristina Enache


    Full Text Available

    Group signatures try to combine security (no framing, no cheating and privacy(anonymity, unlinkability.A group digital signature is a digital signature with enhanced privacy features that allows members of a given group to anonymously sign messages on behalf of the group, producing a group signature. However, in the case of dispute the identity of the signature's originator can be revealed by a designated entity (group manager. The present paper describes the main concepts about group signatures, along with a brief state of the art and shows a personal cryptographic library implemented in Java that includes two group signatures.

  19. Fast Overlapping Group Lasso

    Liu, Jun


    The group Lasso is an extension of the Lasso for feature selection on (predefined) non-overlapping groups of features. The non-overlapping group structure limits its applicability in practice. There have been several recent attempts to study a more general formulation, where groups of features are given, potentially with overlaps between the groups. The resulting optimization is, however, much more challenging to solve due to the group overlaps. In this paper, we consider the efficient optimization of the overlapping group Lasso penalized problem. We reveal several key properties of the proximal operator associated with the overlapping group Lasso, and compute the proximal operator by solving the smooth and convex dual problem, which allows the use of the gradient descent type of algorithms for the optimization. We have performed empirical evaluations using the breast cancer gene expression data set, which consists of 8,141 genes organized into (overlapping) gene sets. Experimental results demonstrate the eff...

  20. Generalized Group Signature Scheme


    The concept of generalized group signature scheme will bepresent. Based on the generalized secret sharing scheme proposed by Lin and Ha rn, a non-interactive approach is designed for realizing such generalized group signature scheme. Using the new scheme, the authorized subsets of the group in w hich the group member can cooperate to produce the valid signature for any messa ge can be randomly specified

  1. Multicultural group work

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted


    Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds.......Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds....

  2. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.


    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  3. Relationship between ABO blood groups and malaria*

    Gupta, Madhu; Chowdhuri, A. N. Rai


    A total of 736 patients with fever was tested for malaria and classified according to ABO blood group. Of these, 476 cases had patent parasitaemia at the time of investigation. The distribution of blood groups in this group was significantly different from that in 1300 controls from the same area. While group A was found to be more common in malaria cases than in normals, the reverse situation was found for group O. Possible explanations for this are discussed. PMID:6971187

  4. Team reasoning and group identification

    Hindriks, Frank

    The team reasoning approach explains cooperation in terms of group identification, which in turn is explicated in terms of agency transformation and payoff transformation. Empirical research in social psychology is consistent with the significance of agency and payoff transformation. However, it

  5. Groups, combinatorics and geometry

    Ivanov, A A; Saxl, J


    Over the past 20 years, the theory of groups in particular simplegroups, finite and algebraic has influenced a number of diverseareas of mathematics. Such areas include topics where groups have beentraditionally applied, such as algebraic combinatorics, finitegeometries, Galois theory and permutation groups, as well as severalmore recent developments.

  6. Asymmetry within social groups

    Barker, Jessie; Loope, Kevin J.; Reeve, H. Kern


    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account...

  7. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    Gil, J. I. Burgos; Feliu, Elisenda


    We give a new construction of higher arithmetic Chow groups for quasi-projective arithmetic varieties over a field. Our definition agrees with the higher arithmetic Chow groups defined by Goncharov for projective arithmetic varieties over a field. These groups are the analogue, in the Arakelov co...

  8. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso


    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  9. Human group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 induces neuronal cell death via apoptosis.

    Yagami, Tatsurou; Ueda, Keiichi; Asakura, Kenji; Hata, Satoshi; Kuroda, Takayuki; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Takasu, Nobuo; Tanaka, Kazushige; Gemba, Takefumi; Hori, Yozo


    Expression of group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is documented in the cerebral cortex (CTX) after ischemia, suggesting that sPLA2-IIA is associated with neurodegeneration. However, how sPLA2-IIA is involved in the neurodegeneration remains obscure. To clarify the pathologic role of sPLA2-IIA, we examined its neurotoxicity in rats that had the middle cerebral artery occluded and in primary cultures of cortical neurons. After occlusion, sPLA2 activity was increased in the CTX. An sPLA2 inhibitor, indoxam, significantly ameliorated not only the elevated activity of the sPLA2 but also the neurodegeneration in the CTX. The neuroprotective effect of indoxam was observed even when it was administered after occlusion. In primary cultures, sPLA2-IIA caused marked neuronal cell death. Morphologic and ultrastructural characteristics of neuronal cell death by sPLA2-IIA were apoptotic, as evidenced by condensed chromatin and fragmented DNA. Before apoptosis, sPLA2-IIA liberated arachidonic acid (AA) and generated prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), an AA metabolite, from neurons. Indoxam significantly suppressed not only AA release, but also PGD2 generation. Indoxam prevented neurons from sPLA2-IIA-induced neuronal cell death. The neuroprotective effect of indoxam was observed even when it was administered after sPLA2-IIA treatment. Furthermore, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor significantly prevented neurons from sPLA2-IIA-induced PGD2 generation and neuronal cell death. In conclusion, sPLA2-IIA induces neuronal cell death via apoptosis, which might be associated with AA metabolites, especially PGD2. Furthermore, sPLA2 contributes to neurodegeneration in the ischemic brain, highlighting the therapeutic potential of sPLA2-IIA inhibitors for stroke.

  10. Work group diversity.

    van Knippenberg, Daan; Schippers, Michaéla C


    Work group diversity, the degree to which there are differences between group members, may affect group process and performance positively as well as negatively. Much is still unclear about the effects of diversity, however. We review the 1997-2005 literature on work group diversity to assess the state of the art and to identify key issues for future research. This review points to the need for more complex conceptualizations of diversity, as well as to the need for more empirical attention to the processes that are assumed to underlie the effects of diversity on group process and performance and to the contingency factors of these processes.

  11. On -nilpotent abelian groups

    Mohammad Mehdi Nasrabadi; Ali Gholamian


    Let be a group and $A = \\text{Aut}(G)$ be the group of automorphisms of . Then, the element $[g, ] = g^{-1}(g)$ is an autocommutator of $g \\in G$ and $ \\in A$. Hence, for any natural number the -th autocommutator subgroup of is defined as $K_{m}(G)=\\langle [g,_{1},\\ldots,_{m}]|g\\in G,_{1},\\ldots,_{m}\\in A\\rangle$, where $[g, _{1}, _{2},\\ldots, _{m}] = [[g,_{1},\\ldots,_{m−1}], _{m}]$. In this paper, we introduce the new notion of -nilpotent groups and classify all abelian groups which are -nilpotent groups.


    ShiEnhui; ZhouLizhen; ZhouYoucheng


    It is proved that there is no chaotic group actions on any topological space with free arc.In this paper the chaotic actions of the group like G×F,where F is a finite group,are studied.In particular,under a suitable assumption ,if F is a cyclic group,then the topological space which admits a chaotic action of Z×F must admit a chatotic homeomorphism.A topological space which admits a chaotic group action but admits no chaotic horneomorphism is constructed.

  13. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Coit, William George [Bellaire, TX; Griffin, Peter Terry [Brixham, GB; Hamilton, Paul Taylor [Houston, TX; Hsu, Chia-Fu [Granada Hills, CA; Mason, Stanley Leroy [Allen, TX; Samuel, Allan James [Kular Lumpar, ML; Watkins, Ronnie Wade [Cypress, TX


    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  14. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)


    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  15. Group I intron ribozymes

    Nielsen, Henrik


    Group I intron ribozymes constitute one of the main classes of ribozymes and have been a particularly important model in the discovery of key concepts in RNA biology as well as in the development of new methods. Compared to other ribozyme classes, group I intron ribozymes display considerable......, the intronic products of these pathways have the potential to integrate into targets and to form various types of circular RNA molecules. Thus, group I intron ribozymes and associated elements found within group I introns is a rich source of biological phenomena. This chapter provides a strategy and protocols...... for initial characterization of new group I intron ribozymes....

  16. Group theory I essentials

    Milewski, Emil G


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Group Theory I includes sets and mapping, groupoids and semi-groups, groups, isomorphisms and homomorphisms, cyclic groups, the Sylow theorems, and finite p-groups.

  17. E-groups training

    HR Department


    There will be an e-groups training course on 16 March 2012 which will cover the main e-groups functionalities i.e.: creating and managing e-groups, difference between static and dynamic e-groups, configuring posting restrictions and archives, examples of where e-groups can be used in daily work. Even if you have already worked with e-groups, this may be a good opportunity to learn about the best practices and security related recommendations when using e-groups. You can find more details as well as enrolment form for the training (it’s free) here. The number of places is limited, so enrolling early is recommended.   Technical Training Tel. 72844

  18. Lectures on Chevalley groups

    Steinberg, Robert


    Robert Steinberg's Lectures on Chevalley Groups were delivered and written during the author's sabbatical visit to Yale University in the 1967-1968 academic year. The work presents the status of the theory of Chevalley groups as it was in the mid-1960s. Much of this material was instrumental in many areas of mathematics, in particular in the theory of algebraic groups and in the subsequent classification of finite groups. This posthumous edition incorporates additions and corrections prepared by the author during his retirement, including a new introductory chapter. A bibliography and editorial notes have also been added. This is a great unsurpassed introduction to the subject of Chevalley groups that influenced generations of mathematicians. I would recommend it to anybody whose interests include group theory. -Efim Zelmanov, University of California, San Diego Robert Steinberg's lectures on Chevalley groups were given at Yale University in 1967. The notes for the lectures contain a wonderful exposition of ...

  19. Combined intravitreal bevacizumab with phacoemulsification in visually significant cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy

    Ahmad Mansour


    Full Text Available Purpose : We investigated the visual outcome of combined phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab, in eyes with dense cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy. Materials and Methods : Prospective longitudinal pilot study of consecutive patients treated by two surgeons in 2006, using intravitreal bevacizumab at the end of phacoemulsification. The historical control group consisted of consecutive subjects with exudative maculopathy and dense cataract treated by the same surgeons with the help of phacoemulsification without intravitreal bevacizumab prior to 2006. Results : Thirty-one treated patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.48 (0.50 preoperatively to - 0.67 (0.38 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.64 (0.40 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.62 (0.42 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow-up (mean 4.2 months, range 1 - 9 months. Fourteen control patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.78 (0.79 preoperatively, to - 0.91 (0.53 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.86 (0.45 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.90 (0.47 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow- up (mean 19.6 months, range 1 - 49 months. Initial visual acuities, final visual acuities, and percentage of visual improvement at one month were all not significantly better in the intervention compared to the control group at one month. In the study group, the fovea was flattened at the one-month follow-up, by 90-diopter slit lamp examination and / or Optical coherence tomography. Conclusion : The combination of intravitreal bevacizumab and phacoemulsification is beneficial for maximal visual rehabilitation in the first postoperative month.

  20. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria


    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  1. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Welsch, Thilo; Zschäbitz, Stefanie; Becker, Verena; Giese, Thomas; Bergmann, Frank; Hinz, Ulf; Keleg, Shereen; Heller, Anette; Sipos, Bence; Klingmüller, Ursula; Büchler, Markus W; Werner, Jens; Giese, Nathalia A


    Erythropoietin (Epo) administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150), serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87) and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104) was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05) and PDAC (p<0.001), reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46), 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99) but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85). Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01)--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml) were not significantly different in M0 (20%) and M1 (30%) groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05). The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold ≥16 mU/ml by endogenous or exogenous means may predispose to or

  2. Stochastic Lie group integrators

    Malham, Simon J A


    We present Lie group integrators for nonlinear stochastic differential equations with non-commutative vector fields whose solution evolves on a smooth finite dimensional manifold. Given a Lie group action that generates transport along the manifold, we pull back the stochastic flow on the manifold to the Lie group via the action, and subsequently pull back the flow to the corresponding Lie algebra via the exponential map. We construct an approximation to the stochastic flow in the Lie algebra via closed operations and then push back to the Lie group and then to the manifold, thus ensuring our approximation lies in the manifold. We call such schemes stochastic Munthe-Kaas methods after their deterministic counterparts. We also present stochastic Lie group integration schemes based on Castell--Gaines methods. These involve using an underlying ordinary differential integrator to approximate the flow generated by a truncated stochastic exponential Lie series. They become stochastic Lie group integrator schemes if...

  3. Geometric group theory

    Bestvina, Mladen; Vogtmann, Karen


    Geometric group theory refers to the study of discrete groups using tools from topology, geometry, dynamics and analysis. The field is evolving very rapidly and the present volume provides an introduction to and overview of various topics which have played critical roles in this evolution. The book contains lecture notes from courses given at the Park City Math Institute on Geometric Group Theory. The institute consists of a set of intensive short courses offered by leaders in the field, designed to introduce students to exciting, current research in mathematics. These lectures do not duplicate standard courses available elsewhere. The courses begin at an introductory level suitable for graduate students and lead up to currently active topics of research. The articles in this volume include introductions to CAT(0) cube complexes and groups, to modern small cancellation theory, to isometry groups of general CAT(0) spaces, and a discussion of nilpotent genus in the context of mapping class groups and CAT(0) gro...

  4. Quantum isometry groups

    Goswami, Debashish


    This book offers an up-to-date overview of the recently proposed theory of quantum isometry groups. Written by the founders, it is the first book to present the research on the “quantum isometry group”, highlighting the interaction of noncommutative geometry and quantum groups, which is a noncommutative generalization of the notion of group of isometry of a classical Riemannian manifold. The motivation for this generalization is the importance of isometry groups in both mathematics and physics. The framework consists of Alain Connes’ “noncommutative geometry” and the operator-algebraic theory of “quantum groups”. The authors prove the existence of quantum isometry group for noncommutative manifolds given by spectral triples under mild conditions and discuss a number of methods for computing them. One of the most striking and profound findings is the non-existence of non-classical quantum isometry groups for arbitrary classical connected compact manifolds and, by using this, the authors explicitl...

  5. Presentations of groups

    Johnson, D L


    The aim of this book is to provide an introduction to combinatorial group theory. Any reader who has completed first courses in linear algebra, group theory and ring theory will find this book accessible. The emphasis is on computational techniques but rigorous proofs of all theorems are supplied. This new edition has been revised throughout, including new exercises and an additional chapter on proving that certain groups are infinite.

  6. Semisimple Metacyclic Group Algebras

    Gurmeet K Bakshi; Shalini Gupta; Inder Bir S Passi


    Given a group of order $p_1p_2$, where $p_1,p_2$ are primes, and $\\mathbb{F}_q$, a finite field of order coprime to $p_1p_2$, the object of this paper is to compute a complete set of primitive central idempotents of the semisimple group algebra $\\mathbb{F}_q[G]$. As a consequence, we obtain the structure of $\\mathbb{F}_q[G]$ and its group of automorphisms.

  7. Definably amenable NIP groups

    Chernikov, Artem; Simon, Pierre


    We study definably amenable NIP groups. We develop a theory of generics, showing that various definitions considered previously coincide, and study invariant measures. Applications include: characterization of regular ergodic measures, a proof of the conjecture of Petrykowski connecting existence of bounded orbits with definable amenability in the NIP case, and the Ellis group conjecture of Newelski and Pillay connecting the model-theoretic connected component of an NIP group with the ideal s...

  8. Group Problem Solving

    Laughlin, Patrick R


    Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical

  9. E-Group Arrangements

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Group E at Uaxactún has long been considered an ancient Maya observatory in which an observer could see the sun rise along architectural alignments at the solstices and equinoxes. E-Groups named for the architectural complex list identified in Group E at Uaxactún, typically consist of a large radial pyramid on their west side and three temples on a raised platform on their east side.

  10. Explosive Technology Group

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...


    Natalia Romanova


    Full Text Available New types of criminal groups are emerging in modern society.  These types have their special criminal subculture. The research objective is to develop new parameters of classification of modern criminal groups, create a new typology of criminal groups and identify some features of their subculture. Research methodology is based on the system approach that includes using the method of analysis of documentary sources (materials of a criminal case, method of conversations with themembers of the criminal group, method of testing the members of the criminal group and method of observation. As a result of the conducted research, we have created a new classification of criminal groups. The first type is a lawful group in its form and criminal according to its content (i.e., its target is criminal enrichment. The second type is a criminal organization which is run by so-called "white-collars" that "remain in the shadow". The third type is traditional criminal groups.  The fourth type is the criminal group, which openly demonstrates its criminal activity.

  12. Significance of hyperprolactinemia for cytomorphologic features of breast secretions

    Radojković Danijela


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nipple discharge syndrome is a clinical entity capable of presenting various disorders such is mammary infection (nonpuerperal and puerperal mastitis, intraductal papillomas, fibrodenoma, breast cancer and hyperprolactinemia syndrome. The aim of the study was to determine differencies in cytological features of mammary secretion in patients with hyperprolactinemia and those with normal serum prolactin levels and to define the role of growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone in creating cellular profile of breast secretion. Methods. The study included 50 patients with nipple discharge syndrome. The patients were devided into the clinical group (27 patients with hyperprolactinemia and nipple discharge and the control group I (23 patients with normal serum prolactin and nipple discharge. The control group II included the patients of the clinical group achiving normalised serum prolactin levels after the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Serum prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels were assessed by RIA using commercial kits IRMA hPRL, hLH and hFSH, (INEP, Zemun, Serbia while serum growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were assessed by RIA using commercial kits LKB-wallac. Cytologic evaluation of samples, taken from all the patients with mammary secretion, was done using standard techniques of staining Haemathoxilin-eozine and May- Grünwald/Giemsa. Results. Our results showed a significantly higher presence of lipid and protein material in clinical group, in comparison with the control group I (p < 0.01. Also, our data demonstrated significantly higher number of ductal epithelial cells (p < 0.05 and ductal histiocities (p < 0.001 in the clinical group, compared with the control group I. Macrophagies frequency was proportionally higher in clinical group (44.44% compared the control group I (17.39%. Erythrocites were significantly

  13. Group Work in College English Teaching



    <正>In order to realize the communicative function of English and reduce the disadvantages of large-class teaching,group work can be adopted to achieve the goal to some extent with its practical significance.This paper aims to illustrate the advantages of group work and some reflections on the real application of group work activities in teaching.

  14. Study of otoacoustic emissions in workers of various professional groups of the coal industry

    Shydlovska T.A.


    auditory analyzer according to the OAE among all the examined workers of different professional groups of the coal industry was found in drifters, miners had less pronounced violations and the least significant ones were in longwall miners. At the same time in 42,9% drifters caused OAE at frequency distortion products was not recorded on any of the investigated frequencies. Received averages of OAE amplitude in the studied frequencies differed significantly in drifters not only from the norm, but also from that in the group of longwall miners in the 4-6 kHz region. The most prominent disorders according to the speech and above-threshold audiometry were found in drifters and miners, testifying to violations in the receptor part of the auditory analyzer. Conclusions: In all occupational groups of coal industry workers according to OAE data, more pronounced violations were found in the frequency distortion products in the 4-6 kHz. This is evidenced by significant decrease of OAE amplitudes averages, especially pronounced in 4 and 6 kHz, where they significantly differ from the norm and from the indicators in the group of longwall miners; and OAE registration was absent in the drifters. The identified differences in OAE indicators and dysfunction severity in the receptor structures of the auditory analyzer, obviously, could be explained by the nature of industrial noise and hygienic working conditions in the workplaces of the studied workers of coal industry.

  15. Trajectory grouping structure

    Maike Buchin


    Full Text Available The collective motion of a set of moving entities like people, birds, or other animals, is characterized by groups arising, merging, splitting, and ending. Given the trajectories of these entities, we define and model a structure that captures all of such changes using the Reeb graph, a concept from topology. The trajectory grouping structure has three natural parameters that allow more global views of the data in group size, group duration, and entity inter-distance. We prove complexity bounds on the maximum number of maximal groups that can be present, and give algorithms to compute the grouping structure efficiently. We also study how the trajectory grouping structure can be made robust, that is, how brief interruptions of groups can be disregarded in the global structure, adding a notion of persistence to the structure. Furthermore, we showcase the results of experiments using data generated by the NetLogo flocking model and from the Starkey project. The Starkey data describe the movement of elk, deer, and cattle. Although there is no ground truth for the grouping structure in this data, the experiments show that the trajectory grouping structure is plausible and has the desired effects when changing the essential parameters. Our research provides the first complete study of trajectory group evolvement, including combinatorial,algorithmic, and experimental results.

  16. Thyroid status alters gill ionic metabolism and chloride cell morphology as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy in a teleost Anabas testudineus (Bloch): short and long term in vivo study.

    Sreejith, P; Beyo, R S; Prasad, G; Sunny, F; Oommen, O V


    Gill is the main organ of osmotic regulation in teleosts and chloride cells are the sites of ion transport across gill epithelium. Thyroid hormones are implicated in the regulation of osmotic balance in teleosts also. Treatment with 6-propyl thiouracil (6-PTU) inhibited the membrane bound enzyme Na+K+ ATPase in the gill while triiodothyronine (T3) injection stimulated it in a short-term in vivo study in the teleost Anabas testudineus. Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ions were also decreased in the 6-PTU treated fish and the T3 treatment increased their concentrations in the gill lamellae. The gill morphology also changed according to the thyroid status in the long term study. 6-PTU treatment altered the typical serrated morphology of the gill lamellae, while the T3 treatment reversed it. T3 injection increased the density of pavement and chloride cells as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that physiological status of the thyroid influences gill Na+ pump activity and chloride cell morphological changes. Further, the study suggests a regulatory role of T3 on gill ions (Na+, K+ and Ca2+), Na+K+ and Ca2+ ATPase activity and the different gill cell types in A. testudineus.

  17. RP-HPLC-ESI-MS evidenced that salivary cystatin B is detectable in adult human whole saliva mostly as S-modified derivatives: S-Glutathionyl, S-cysteinyl and S-S 2-mer.

    Cabras, Tiziana; Manconi, Barbara; Iavarone, Federica; Fanali, Chiara; Nemolato, Sonia; Fiorita, Antonella; Scarano, Emanuele; Passali, Giulio Cesare; Manni, Armando; Cordaro, Massimo; Paludetti, Gaetano; Faa, Gavino; Messana, Irene; Castagnola, Massimo


    An HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of adult human whole saliva evidenced three protein masses (M average 11,487±2, 11,301±2 and 22,362±3Da) eluting in the 32.5-35.0min range. Treatment in reducing conditions allowed establishing that they are S-derivatives of N-terminal acetylated cystatin B, namely its S-glutathionyl, S-cysteinyl and S-S dimer. The identification was confirmed by high resolution HPLC-ESI-MS-MS experiments on the intact naturally occurring proteins and their tryptic digests. S-unmodified cystatin B is rarely detectable in whole saliva of healthy adults (5 subjects out of 65) and its percentage does not overcome approximately 20% of total cystatin B (11±9%). In the majority of subjects (60 out of 65) the mean percentages of the S-modified derivatives were S-glutathionyl 53±13%, S-cysteinyl 15±5%, S-S 2-mer 32±13%. Variations of the percentages of these S-modified derivatives of cystatin B could be indicative of oral oxidative stress. As we are aware, this is the first time that S-glutathionylation and S-cysteinylation were described as extensive PTM of a salivary protein and the first time that these PTMs were detected in naturally occurring cystatin B.

  18. Groups as moral anchors

    Ellemers, N.; van der Toorn, J


    Morality indicates what is the ‘right’ and the ‘wrong’ way to behave. However, what people see as moral can shift, depending on defining norms and distinctive features of the groups to which they belong. Acting in ways that are considered ‘moral’ by the group secures inclusion and elicits respect

  19. Study Groups in Denmark

    Hjorth, Poul G.


    Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions....

  20. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    Strike, Kenneth A.


    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  1. Group Work. Research Brief

    Walker, Karen


    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  2. Democratic Group Work

    Laursen, Erik K.; Tate, Thomas F.


    For a century, democratic values have called for abandoning coercive approaches and teaching children and youth to be responsible citizens. The authors explore strategies for creating respectful environments and positive group cultures with challenging youth. They offer suggestions to adult group facilitators to support youth in developing…

  3. Small Group Inquiry.

    Koller, Martin M.

    Learning in small groups is a practical way to bring about behavior change. The inquiry learning process is perceived to be the most natural and scientific way of learning. Skills developed include those of problem-solving task analysis, decision-making, value formation and adaptability. The art of small group interaction is developed. Factual…



    The China International Publishing Group (CIPG) specializes in international communications. Its operationsencompass reporting, editing, translation, publishing, printing, distribution, and the Internet. It incorporates sevenpublishing companies, five magazines and 19 periodicals, published in over 20 languages. The ChinaInternational Book Trading Corporation, another group facet, distributes all of these to over 180 countries and

  5. Isotropy in group cohomology

    Ben David, Nir; Ginosar, Yuval; Meir, Ehud


    The analog of Lagrangians for symplectic forms over finite groups is studied, motivated by the fact that symplectic G  -forms with a normal Lagrangian N◃G  are in one-to-one correspondence, up to inflation, with bijective 1-cocycle data on the quotients G/N  . This yields a method to construct...... groups of central type from such quotients, known as Involutive Yang–Baxter groups. Another motivation for the search of normal Lagrangians comes from a non-commutative generalization of Heisenberg liftings that require normality. Although it is true that symplectic forms over finite nilpotent groups...... always admit Lagrangians, we exhibit an example where none of these subgroups is normal. However, we prove that symplectic forms over nilpotent groups always admit normal Lagrangians if all their p  -Sylow subgroups are of order less than p 8   ....

  6. Ordered groups and topology

    Clay, Adam


    This book deals with the connections between topology and ordered groups. It begins with a self-contained introduction to orderable groups and from there explores the interactions between orderability and objects in low-dimensional topology, such as knot theory, braid groups, and 3-manifolds, as well as groups of homeomorphisms and other topological structures. The book also addresses recent applications of orderability in the studies of codimension-one foliations and Heegaard-Floer homology. The use of topological methods in proving algebraic results is another feature of the book. The book was written to serve both as a textbook for graduate students, containing many exercises, and as a reference for researchers in topology, algebra, and dynamical systems. A basic background in group theory and topology is the only prerequisite for the reader.

  7. Supervision and group dynamics

    Hansen, Søren; Jensen, Lars Peter


    as well as at Aalborg University. The first visible result has been participating supervisors telling us that the course has inspired them to try supervising group dynamics in the future. This paper will explore some aspects of supervising group dynamics as well as, how to develop the Aalborg model...... An important aspect of the problem based and project organized study at Aalborg University is the supervision of the project groups. At the basic education (first year) it is stated in the curriculum that part of the supervisors' job is to deal with group dynamics. This is due to the experience...... that many students are having difficulties with practical issues such as collaboration, communication, and project management. Most supervisors either ignore this demand, because they do not find it important or they find it frustrating, because they do not know, how to supervise group dynamics...

  8. Automorphism groups of Quandles

    Elhamdadi, M; Restrepo, R


    We prove that the automorphism group of the dihedral quandle with n elements is isomorphic to the affine group of the integers mod n, and also obtain the inner automorphism group of this quandle. In [9], automorphism groups of quandles (up to isomorphisms) of order less than or equal to 5 were given. With the help of the software Maple, we compute the inner and automorphism groups of all seventy three quandles of order six listed in the appendix of [4]. Since computations of automorphisms of quandles relates to the problem of classification of quandles, we also describe an algorithm implemented in C for computing all quandles (up to isomorphism) of order less than or equal to nine.

  9. Perceiving persons and groups.

    Hamilton, D L; Sherman, S J


    This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed.

  10. The inter-group comparison-intra-group cooperation hypothesis: comparisons between groups increase efficiency in public goods provision.

    Böhm, Robert; Rockenbach, Bettina


    Identifying methods to increase cooperation and efficiency in public goods provision is of vital interest for human societies. The methods that have been proposed often incur costs that (more than) destroy the efficiency gains through increased cooperation. It has for example been shown that inter-group conflict increases intra-group cooperation, however at the cost of collective efficiency. We propose a new method that makes use of the positive effects associated with inter-group competition but avoids the detrimental (cost) effects of a structural conflict. We show that the mere comparison to another structurally independent group increases both the level of intra-group cooperation and overall efficiency. The advantage of this new method is that it directly transfers the benefits from increased cooperation into increased efficiency. In repeated public goods provision we experimentally manipulated the participants' level of contribution feedback (intra-group only vs. both intra- and inter-group) as well as the provision environment (smaller groups with higher individual benefits from cooperation vs. larger groups with lower individual benefits from cooperation). Irrespective of the provision environment groups with an inter-group comparison opportunity exhibited a significantly stronger cooperation than groups without this opportunity. Participants conditionally cooperated within their group and additionally acted to advance their group to not fall behind the other group. The individual efforts to advance the own group cushion the downward trend in the above average contributors and thus render contributions on a higher level. We discuss areas of practical application.

  11. Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Maréchal, Laëtitia


    Aggressive interactions between groups are frequent in human societies and can bear significant fitness costs and benefits (e.g. death or access to resources). During between-group competitive interactions, more cohesive groups (i.e. groups formed by individuals who cooperate in group defence) should out-perform less cohesive groups, other factors being equal (e.g. group size). The cost/benefit of between-group competition are thought to have driven correlated evolution of traits that favour between-group aggression and within-group cooperation (e.g. parochial altruism). Our aim was to analyse whether the proximate relationship between between-group competition and within-group cooperation is found in 3–10 years old children and the developmental trajectory of such a relationship. We used a large cohort of children (n = 120) and tested whether simulated between-group competition increased within-group cooperation (i.e. how much of a resource children were giving to their group companions) in two experiments. We found greater within-group cooperation when groups of four children were competing with other groups then in the control condition (no between-group competition). Within-group cooperation increased with age. Our study suggests that parochial altruism and in-group/out-group biases emerge early during the course of human development. PMID:28233820

  12. Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children.

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Maréchal, Laëtitia


    Aggressive interactions between groups are frequent in human societies and can bear significant fitness costs and benefits (e.g. death or access to resources). During between-group competitive interactions, more cohesive groups (i.e. groups formed by individuals who cooperate in group defence) should out-perform less cohesive groups, other factors being equal (e.g. group size). The cost/benefit of between-group competition are thought to have driven correlated evolution of traits that favour between-group aggression and within-group cooperation (e.g. parochial altruism). Our aim was to analyse whether the proximate relationship between between-group competition and within-group cooperation is found in 3-10 years old children and the developmental trajectory of such a relationship. We used a large cohort of children (n = 120) and tested whether simulated between-group competition increased within-group cooperation (i.e. how much of a resource children were giving to their group companions) in two experiments. We found greater within-group cooperation when groups of four children were competing with other groups then in the control condition (no between-group competition). Within-group cooperation increased with age. Our study suggests that parochial altruism and in-group/out-group biases emerge early during the course of human development.

  13. Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Maréchal, Laëtitia


    Aggressive interactions between groups are frequent in human societies and can bear significant fitness costs and benefits (e.g. death or access to resources). During between-group competitive interactions, more cohesive groups (i.e. groups formed by individuals who cooperate in group defence) should out-perform less cohesive groups, other factors being equal (e.g. group size). The cost/benefit of between-group competition are thought to have driven correlated evolution of traits that favour between-group aggression and within-group cooperation (e.g. parochial altruism). Our aim was to analyse whether the proximate relationship between between-group competition and within-group cooperation is found in 3-10 years old children and the developmental trajectory of such a relationship. We used a large cohort of children (n = 120) and tested whether simulated between-group competition increased within-group cooperation (i.e. how much of a resource children were giving to their group companions) in two experiments. We found greater within-group cooperation when groups of four children were competing with other groups then in the control condition (no between-group competition). Within-group cooperation increased with age. Our study suggests that parochial altruism and in-group/out-group biases emerge early during the course of human development.

  14. Clinical Significance of Evaluating Antihypertensive Effect with Arterial Compliance

    李新立; 倪春辉; 王震震


    Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of antihypertensive effect witharterial compliance. Methods In males, 72 cases were control group, 35 cases were EH-controlled,and 35 cases were EH-uncontrolled groups. Blood pressure and arterial compliance (C1 and C2) weredetected by HDI DO-2020. Results In the EH-uncontrolled group,the values of systolic blood pres-sure (SBP) , diastolic blood pressure (DBP) , mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure(PP) were significantly higher than those of the control and the EH-controlled groups (P<0.01),however ,there was no difference between the control and the EH-controlled groups. In the EH-uncon-trolled group,the values of C1 and C2 were lower tlan those of both the control and the EH-controlledgroups (P<0.01) ,again,with no difference between the control and the EH-controlled groups. Con-clttsion Arterial compliance (C1 and C2) measurements may serve as a sensitive indicator of evalu-ating antihypertensive effect.

  15. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    Steering Group, Fermilab; /Fermilab


    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOvA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the

  16. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    Beier, Eugene; /Pennsylvania U.; Butler, Joel; /Fermilab; Dawson, Sally; /Brookhaven; Edwards, Helen; /Fermilab; Himel, Thomas; /SLAC; Holmes, Stephen; /Fermilab; Kim, Young-Kee; /Fermilab /Chicago U.; Lankford, Andrew; /UC, Irvine; McGinnis, David; /Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab


    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the

  17. Psychodrama groups for girls coping with trauma.

    Carbonell, D M; Parteleno-Barehmi, C


    This study evaluated the effectiveness of psychodrama groups with traumatized middle-school girls. Comparisons of treatment and control group members' pre- and postintervention adjustment revealed significant decreases in group participants' self-reported difficulties in withdrawn behavior and anxiety/depression. Interviews with the participants reinforced the value of psychodrama group participation in the resolution of trauma and in increasing a sense of competence and self-efficacy. A brief outline of the group structure and a description of the process offer examples that illustrate the practice methodology and provide guidance for conducting psychodrama groups with vulnerable populations. Concerns with safety and containment are addressed.

  18. Impedance group summary

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Dooling, J.; Dyachkov, M.; Fedotov, A.; Gluckstern, R.; Hahn, H.; Huang, H.; Kurennoy, S.; Linnecar, T.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Stupakov, G.; Toyama, T.; Wang, J. G.; Weng, W. T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zotter, B.


    The impedance working group was charged to reply to the following 8 questions relevant to the design of high-intensity proton machines such as the SNS or the FNAL driver. These questions were first discussed one by one in the whole group, then each ne of them assigned to one member to summarize. On the lst morning these contributions were publicly read, re-discussed and re-written where required—hence they are not the opinion of a particular person, but rather the averaged opinion of all members of the working group. (AIP)

  19. Group key management

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.


    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  20. Groups and Violence

    Bhavnani, Ravi; Miodownik, Dan; Riolo, Rick

    Violence can take place along a multitude of cleavages, e.g., (1) between political groups like the Kach Movement, pitting West Bank settlers against Israeli governments supporting the land-for-peace agenda; (2) between religious groups, such as Christians and Muslims in the Nigerian cities of Jos and Kaduna; (3) along class lines, as in India between Dalits and members of the Brahminical upper castes, upwardly mobile intermediate castes, and even other backward castes such as the Thevars; and (4) between ethnic groups such as the Hutu and Tutsi, both within and across state boundaries in Rwanda and neighboring Burundi.

  1. Targeting binge eating through components of dialectical behavior therapy: preliminary outcomes for individually supported diary card self-monitoring versus group-based DBT.

    Klein, Angela S; Skinner, Jeremy B; Hawley, Kristin M


    The current study examined two condensed adaptations of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for binge eating. Women with full- or sub-threshold variants of either binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to individually supported self-monitoring using adapted DBT diary cards (DC) or group-based DBT, each 15 sessions over 16 weeks. DC sessions focused on problem-solving diary card completion issues, praising diary card completion, and supporting nonjudgmental awareness of eating-related habits and urges, but not formally teaching DBT skills. Group-based DBT included eating mindfulness, progressing through graded exposure; mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills; and coaching calls between sessions. Both treatments evidenced large and significant improvements in binge eating, bulimic symptoms, and interoceptive awareness. For group-based DBT, ineffectiveness, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and perfectionism also decreased significantly, with medium to large effect sizes. For DC, results were not significant but large in effect size for body dissatisfaction and medium in effect size for ineffectiveness and drive for thinness. Retention for both treatments was higher than recent trends for eating disorder treatment in fee-for-service practice and for similar clinic settings, but favored DC, with the greater attrition of group-based DBT primarily attributed to its more intensive and time-consuming nature, and dropout overall associated with less pretreatment impairment and greater interoceptive awareness. This preliminary investigation suggests that with both abbreviated DBT-based treatments, substantial improvement in core binge eating symptoms is possible, enhancing potential avenues for implementation beyond more time-intensive DBT.

  2. [Real groups in the minimal group paradigm; does the group context work as corrective or catalysing agent for social discrimination?].

    Petersen, L E; Blank, H


    Studies applying the minimal group paradigm to analyze social discrimination processes have been analyzing for the most part the behavior of individuals. The present experiment extends the minimal group paradigm to the group level. The aim of the present study was to compare the decisions made by real groups (N = 3 persons) with those made by single persons. The analysis of the total points given to the in- or the outgroup as well as the strategy MIP + MDI on F revealed that groups are significantly more biased towards the ingroup than individuals. On the other hand, individuals use the strategy F on MIP + MDI significantly more than groups and thus show a greater amount of fairness. These conclusions are qualified by a new method of identifying dominant strategies which shows that the dominant strategy used by individuals and groups is fairness. A theoretical explanation of the results is offered based on social identity theory, the groupthink model and self-awareness theory.

  3. Creativity and group innovation

    Nijstad, B.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.


    Comments on M. West's article regarding the validity of an integrative model of creativity and innovation implementation in work groups. Variables affecting the level of team innovation; Relationship between predictors and team innovation; Promotion of constructive conflict.

  4. Groups – Additive Notation

    Coghetto Roland


    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  5. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Francesca Natascia Vasta


    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  6. Language and Group Identity.

    Milroy, Leslie


    Explores the tension between the manner in which intergroup language differences are used to symbolize group membership and the manner in which they mirror and reinforce social class and power distinctions. (EKN)

  7. Homogenous finitary symmetric groups

    Otto‎. ‎H‎. Kegel


    Full Text Available We characterize strictly diagonal type of embeddings of finitary symmetric groups in terms of cardinality and the characteristic. Namely, we prove the following. Let kappa be an infinite cardinal. If G=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupG i , where G i =FSym(kappan i , (H=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupH i , where H i =Alt(kappan i , is a group of strictly diagonal type and xi=(p 1 ,p 2 ,ldots is an infinite sequence of primes, then G is isomorphic to the homogenous finitary symmetric group FSym(kappa(xi (H is isomorphic to the homogenous alternating group Alt(kappa(xi , where n 0 =1,n i =p 1 p 2 ldotsp i .

  8. Building Bunk Group Buddies.

    Nelson, Denise Cabrero


    Describes how camp counselors can foster camaraderie among campers through participative decision making, name games, listening, adventure courses, storytelling, spending time in nature, decorating cabins, avoiding favoritism, setting rules, admitting faults, setting group goals, and praising sincere efforts. (TD)

  9. Singular Renormalization Group Equations

    Minoru, HIRAYAMA; Department of Physics, Toyama University


    The possible behaviour of the effective charge is discussed in Oehme and Zimmermann's scheme of the renormalization group equation. The effective charge in an example considered oscillates so violently in the ultraviolet limit that the bare charge becomes indefinable.

  10. Toleration, Groups, and Multiculturalism

    Lægaard, Sune


    to the political and social relationship between the subject and the objects of toleration. Finally, toleration is often argued to be a normative requirement on the basis of the way it affects the object or receiver of toleration, e.g. on the basis of the good of or right to freedom from non-interference which......The chapter considers how groups might be relevant as objects of policies of toleration and the different senses 'group' might have in relation to questions of toleration. The chapter argues that groups can be relevant to toleration in several different ways as objects of toleration. Toleration...... is routinely defined as involving an objection component, a power requirement and an acceptance component. The objection and acceptance components refer to reasons or dispositions of the subjects of toleration, e.g. public authorities deciding how to act in relation to groups. The power condition refers...

  11. Radiation Protection Group


    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to inform you that the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre will be closed on the afternoon of Tuesday 19 December 2006. Thank-you for your understanding.

  12. Parton Distributions Working Group

    de Barbaro, L.; Keller, S. A.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schellman, H.; Tung, W.-K.


    This report summarizes the activities of the Parton Distributions Working Group of the QCD and Weak Boson Physics workshop held in preparation for Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. The main focus of this working group was to investigate the different issues associated with the development of quantitative tools to estimate parton distribution functions uncertainties. In the conclusion, the authors introduce a Manifesto that describes an optimal method for reporting data.

  13. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups

    S. Nazmul


    Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied.

  14. Networks and Small Groups

    Kadushin, Charles


    Homans' insights that interaction and sentiment are in a feedback loop that includes clique formation, social ranking and leadership are formalized and derived from a set of limited assumptions and propositions. Freeman's model of groups is used to detect pure informal groups, those that are not consequential upon anything else than sheer hanging around. It produces a system of cliques and rankings based purely on the rates of transitive triads that may include a third who is only weakly conn...

  15. Groups, rings, modules

    Auslander, Maurice


    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  16. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  17. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.


    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  18. N-ary Groups

    Gal'mak, Alexander M


    The book "N-ary Groups" (in Russian) consists of two Parts. It is intended on the one hand as an initial introduction to the theory of n-ary groups, and on the other hand it contains the published results by the author on this subject. At present, the theory of n-ary groups developing but slowly from group theory. Nonetheless, ternary and n-ary structures have recently been applied to modern models of elementary particle physics. One of the author's goals in this book is to draw the attention of mathematicians and theoretical physicists to the theory of n-ary groups, to some of its distinguishing features, and to details relevant to its further development and application. Part I: Theorems of Post and Gluskin-Hosszu. 1.1. Classical definitions of n-ary groups. Examples. 1.2. Analogies of identity and inverse elements. 1.3. Equivalent sequences. 1.4. Post's coset theorem. 1.5. Theorem of Gluskin-Hosszu. 1.6. Connection between the Post's coset theorem and theorem of Gluskin-Hosszu. Addition and comments. Part ...

  19. Leadership behaviours that foster nursing group power.

    Sieloff, Christina Leibold


    Today's health care environment presents many challenges to nursing groups as they seek to achieve their goals. All resources must be recognized and effectively utilized. Power, defined as the capacity to achieve goals (Sieloff 1995), is a valuable resource that can assist nursing groups in the achievement of their goals. The leader of a nursing group can make a significant difference in a group's ability to actualize their power capacity. The purpose of this article is to identify and discuss the use of a tool (Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Power within Organizations) to identify the nurse leader/group power variables that can be used to improve a nursing group's power as a resource in the achievement of its goals. Using behaviours related to a Nurse Leader's Power Competency and Power Perspective variables, identified in the Theory of Group Power within Organizations (Sieloff 1999), a nurse leader can foster a nursing group's power.

  20. Clinical significance in nursing research: A discussion and descriptive analysis.

    Polit, Denise F


    It is widely understood that statistical significance should not be equated with clinical significance, but the topic of clinical significance has not received much attention in the nursing literature. By contrast, interest in conceptualizing and operationalizing clinical significance has been a "hot topic" in other health care fields for several decades. The major purpose of this paper is to briefly describe recent advances in defining and quantifying clinical significance. The overview covers both group-level indicators of clinical significance (e.g., effect size indexes), and individual-level benchmarks (e.g., the minimal important change index). A secondary purpose is to describe the extent to which developments in clinical significance have penetrated the nursing literature. A descriptive analysis of a sample of primary research articles published in three high-impact nursing research journals in 2016 was undertaken. A total of 362 articles were electronically searched for terms relating to statistical and clinical significance. Of the 362 articles, 261 were reports of quantitative studies, the vast majority of which (93%) included a formal evaluation of the statistical significance of the results. By contrast, the term "clinical significance" or related surrogate terms were found in only 33 papers, and most often the term was used informally, without explicit definition or assessment. Raising consciousness about clinical significance should be an important priority among nurse researchers. Several recommendations are offered to improve the visibility and salience of clinical significance in nursing science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On combining significances. Some trivial examples

    Krasnikov, N V


    For Poisson distribution $Pois(n, \\lambda)$ with $\\lambda \\gg 1$, $n \\gg 1$ we propose to determine significance as $S = \\frac{n_{obs}-\\lambda}{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}$. The significance $S$ coincides up to sign with often used significance. For experiments which measure the same quantities the natural but not unique rule for significance combining is $S_{comb}(S_1, S_2) = \\frac{S_1\\sigma_1+S_2\\sigma_2}{\\sqrt{\\sigma^2_1+\\sigma^2_2}}$, where $\\sigma_1$ and $\\sigma_2$ are variations. We also propose the rule for significances combining for the case with systematic errors.

  2. Coordinating Group report


    In December 1992, western governors and four federal agencies established a Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-site Innovative Technologies for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (the DOIT Committee). The purpose of the Committee is to advise the federal government on ways to improve waste cleanup technology development and the cleanup of federal sites in the West. The Committee directed in January 1993 that information be collected from a wide range of potential stakeholders and that innovative technology candidate projects be identified, organized, set in motion, and evaluated to test new partnerships, regulatory approaches, and technologies which will lead to improve site cleanup. Five working groups were organized, one to develop broad project selection and evaluation criteria and four to focus on specific contaminant problems. A Coordinating Group comprised of working group spokesmen and federal and state representatives, was set up to plan and organize the routine functioning of these working groups. The working groups were charged with defining particular contaminant problems; identifying shortcomings in technology development, stakeholder involvement, regulatory review, and commercialization which impede the resolution of these problems; and identifying candidate sites or technologies which could serve as regional innovative demonstration projects to test new approaches to overcome the shortcomings. This report from the Coordinating Group to the DOIT Committee highlights the key findings and opportunities uncovered by these fact-finding working groups. It provides a basis from which recommendations from the DOIT Committee to the federal government can be made. It also includes observations from two public roundtables, one on commercialization and another on regulatory and institutional barriers impeding technology development and cleanup.

  3. Facilities removal working group



    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  4. The Lost Generation and its significance to American Culture

    尹剑波; 刘佳


    The Lost Generation is actually a group of American writers who were rebelling against what America had become by the 1900s. The Lost generation tendency and Lost generation writers are of great importance to the American and world literature. This article serves as a brief introduction to the Lost generation and its significant writers.

  5. Linear algebraic groups

    Springer, T A


    "[The first] ten chapters...are an efficient, accessible, and self-contained introduction to affine algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. The author includes exercises and the book is certainly usable by graduate students as a text or for self-study...the author [has a] student-friendly style… [The following] seven chapters... would also be a good introduction to rationality issues for algebraic groups. A number of results from the literature…appear for the first time in a text." –Mathematical Reviews (Review of the Second Edition) "This book is a completely new version of the first edition. The aim of the old book was to present the theory of linear algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. Reading that book, many people entered the research field of linear algebraic groups. The present book has a wider scope. Its aim is to treat the theory of linear algebraic groups over arbitrary fields. Again, the author keeps the treatment of prerequisites self-contained. The material of t...

  6. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    Tapp, Kristopher


    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe the basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, maximal tori, homogeneous spaces, and roots. This second edition includes two new chapters that allow for an easier transition to the general theory of Lie groups. From reviews of the First Edition: This book could be used as an excellent textbook for a one semester course at university and it will prepare students for a graduate course on Lie groups, Lie algebras, etc. … The book combines an intuitive style of writing w...

  7. How do we make sense of significance?

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone


    Determination of significance is widely recognised as an important step in environmental assessment (EA) processes. The prescriptive literature and guidance on significance determination is comprehensive within the field of EA, whereas descriptive and explorative studies of how we go about making...... sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...... about a strategic choice and as part of this make their initial judgement of significance. An experiment is designed and conducted to investigate how persons make sense of a specific case and determine significance in a screening and scoping context. The experiment indicates patterns in the test persons...

  8. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    David G. Loomis


    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  9. Transitive conformal holonomy groups

    Alt, Jesse


    For $(M,[g])$ a conformal manifold of signature $(p,q)$ and dimension at least three, the conformal holonomy group $\\mathrm{Hol}(M,[g]) \\subset O(p+1,q+1)$ is an invariant induced by the canonical Cartan geometry of $(M,[g])$. We give a description of all possible connected conformal holonomy groups which act transitively on the M\\"obius sphere $S^{p,q}$, the homogeneous model space for conformal structures of signature $(p,q)$. The main part of this description is a list of all such groups which also act irreducibly on $\\R^{p+1,q+1}$. For the rest, we show that they must be compact and act decomposably on $\\R^{p+1,q+1}$, in particular, by known facts about conformal holonomy the conformal class $[g]$ must contain a metric which is locally isometric to a so-called special Einstein product.

  10. Quantum threshold group signature


    In most situations, the signer is generally a single person. However, when the message is written on behalf of an organization, a valid message may require the approval or consent of several persons. Threshold signature is a solution to this problem. Generally speaking, as an authority which can be trusted by all members does not exist, a threshold signature scheme without a trusted party appears more attractive. Following some ideas of the classical Shamir’s threshold signature scheme, a quantum threshold group signature one is proposed. In the proposed scheme, only t or more of n persons in the group can generate the group signature and any t-1 or fewer ones cannot do that. In the verification phase, any t or more of n signature receivers can verify the message and any t-1 or fewer receivers cannot verify the validity of the signature.

  11. Focus group discussions

    Hennink, Monique M


    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  12. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  13. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  14. Hierarchies in student groups

    Güntert, Manuel


    This is a research about hierarchies in student groups. It shows how they are built und what sense they have. The position of a student in his student peer group is evaluated. The influence of the look, the style, the behaviour of the other sex, the gender, the origin, the prehistory, the appearance, achievement and their effect on hierarchies is analysed and the impact of charisma and organisation are compared. The meaning of this research is to indicate how a student must be to get the lead...

  15. Fourier Analysis on Groups

    Rudin, Walter


    In the late 1950s, many of the more refined aspects of Fourier analysis were transferred from their original settings (the unit circle, the integers, the real line) to arbitrary locally compact abelian (LCA) groups. Rudin's book, published in 1962, was the first to give a systematic account of these developments and has come to be regarded as a classic in the field. The basic facts concerning Fourier analysis and the structure of LCA groups are proved in the opening chapters, in order to make the treatment relatively self-contained.

  16. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Evan Hughes


    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  17. Group theory and chemistry

    Bishop, David M


    Group theoretical principles are an integral part of modern chemistry. Not only do they help account for a wide variety of chemical phenomena, they simplify quantum chemical calculations. Indeed, knowledge of their application to chemical problems is essential for students of chemistry. This complete, self-contained study, written for advanced undergraduate-level and graduate-level chemistry students, clearly and concisely introduces the subject of group theory and demonstrates its application to chemical problems.To assist chemistry students with the mathematics involved, Professor Bishop ha

  18. GroupFinder

    Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden; Skovsgaard, Anders; Jensen, Christian S.


    of PoIs relevant to a user's intent has became a problem of automated spatio-textual information retrieval. Over the last several years, substantial research has gone into the invention of functionality and efficient implementations for retrieving nearby PoIs. However, with a couple of exceptions....... Such groups are relevant to users who wish to conveniently explore several options before making a decision such as to purchase a specific product. Specifically, we demonstrate a practical proposal for finding top-k PoI groups in response to a query. We show how problem parameter settings can be mapped...

  19. Homomorphisms between Kaehler groups

    Arapura, Donu


    This is partly a survey and partly a research article. Some known results and open problems about Kaehler groups (fundamental groups of compact Kaehler manifolds) are discussed. A new notion of Kaehler homomorphism is introduced. This is a homomorphism induced by a holomorphic map between these types of manifolds. Some obstructions for a homomorphism to be Kaehler are discussed. Among these is the main result on the vanishing of a certain cohomology class associated to such map. This is reduced to the decomposition theorem for perverse sheaves suitably extended to Kaehler orbifolds.

  20. Group Based Interference Alignment

    Ma, Yanjun; Chen, Rui; Yao, Junliang


    in $K$-user single-input single-output (SISO) frequency selective fading interference channels, it is shown that the achievable multiplexing gain is almost surely $K/2$ by using interference alignment (IA). However when the signaling dimensions is limited, allocating all the resource to all the users simultaneously is not optimal. According to this problem, a group based interference alignment (GIA) scheme is proposed and a search algorithm is designed to get the group patterns and the resource allocation among them. Analysis results show that our proposed scheme achieves a higher multiplexing gain when the resource is limited.

  1. Clinical Significance of Biliary Dilatation and Cholelithiasis after Subtotal Gastrectomy.

    Yoon, Harry; Kwon, Chang Il; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Tae Hoon; Han, Joung Ho; Song, Tae Jun; Hwang, Jae Chul; Kim, Dae Jung


    The well-organized study to support that increased cholelithiasis and bile duct dilatation can occur after gastrectomy has not been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of cholelithiasis and the degree of common bile duct (CBD) dilatation in patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy, compared to those undergoing endoscopic treatment for gastric cancer. Patients who diagnosed with gastric cancer and received treatment at six academic referral centers were investigated for the incidence and time of cholelithiasis and the degree of CBD dilatation after treatment by analysis of 5-year follow-up CTs. The operation group underwent subtotal gastrectomy without vagotomy, while in the control group endoscopic treatment was administered for gastric cancer. A total of 802 patients were enrolled in 5-year analysis (735 patients in the operation group and 67 patients in the control group). Cholelithiasis occurred in 47 patients (6.39%) in the operation group and 3 patients (4.48%) in the control group (p=0.7909). The incidences of cholelithiasis were 4.28% in Billoth-I and 7.89% in Billoth-II (p=0.0487). The diameter of proximal CBD and distal CBD increased by 1.11 mm and 1.41 mm, respectively, in the operation group, compared to 0.4 mm and 0.38 mm, respectively, in the control group (pœ0.05). Patients with increased CBD dilatation more than 5 mm showed statistically significant increases in alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase. The incidence of cholelithiasis was not increased due to subtotal gastrectomy without vagotomy, but the incidence was higher after Billoth-II compared to Billoth-I. In addition, significant change in the CBD diameter was observed after subtotal gastrectomy.

  2. Significance of screening mammography in the detection of breast diseases

    Ham, Soo Youn; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Oh, Yu Whan; Kim, Hong In; Chung, Kyoo Byung [College of Medicine Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the clinical significance of the screening mammography in the detection of the breast diseases, especially breast carcinoma. We analyzed 1,800 cases of mammography retrospectively. The mammography was done as a part of routine check in Health Counselling Center, Korea University Medical Center, during 9 months from November 1993 to July 1994. The age range was from 23 years to 76 years, mean 49.8 years, and the largest age group was 6th decade (31.4%). According to the mammographic findings, we divided the subjects into three groups; normal group, abnormal group in need of follow-up study, abnormal group requiring biopsy. On mammography, the normal group consisted of 1,534 cases (85%), and the abnormal group consisted of 266 cases (15%). The abnormal findings were benign-looking calcification (n = 140), fibroadeno ma (n = 29), fibrocystic changes (n = 27), cyst (n = 23), malignant lesion (n = 15) lipoma (n = 7), and others. In four of 15 cases, which were suspected to be malignant on mammograms, breast carcinoma was confirmed pathologically. In four cases of breast carcinoma, one was under 40 and the other 3 were over 50 years of age. All of the breast cancers were under 3 cm in size, and the mammographic findings of breast cancer included spiculated margin (n = 3), parenchymal distortion (n = 3), malignant calcification (n = 2) and enlarged axillary node (n = 1). Screening mammogram is helpful for early detection of non-palpable breast cancer, especially for women over 50 years of age.

  3. The Multiplication Group of an AG-group

    Shah, Muhammad; Ali, Asif; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Sorge, Volker


    We investigate the multiplication group of a special class of quasigroup called AG-group. We prove some interesting results such as: the multiplication group of an AG-group of order n is non-abelian group of order 2n and its left section is an abelian group of order n. The inner mapping group of an AG-group of any order is a cyclic group of order 2.

  4. Asymptotic Distributions for Tests of Combined Significance.

    Becker, Betsy Jane

    This paper discusses distribution theory and power computations for four common "tests of combined significance." These tests are calculated using one-sided sample probabilities or p values from independent studies (or hypothesis tests), and provide an overall significance level for the series of results. Noncentral asymptotic sampling…

  5. A Differentiated Program: Significant Curriculum Adaptations.

    Alonso, Juan A.


    This article describes a model for curricular adaptations for gifted students. A distinction is made between non-significant curriculum adaptations that can be easily made by the regular teacher and significant curriculum adaptations that involve deep changes in aims, content, and evaluation criteria. (Contains references.) (DB)

  6. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    Oberhofer, E. S.


    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  7. Lacunarity for compact groups.

    Edwards, R E; Hewitt, E; Ross, K A


    Let G be a compact Abelian group with character group X. A subset Delta of X is called a [unk](q) set (1 < q < infinity) if for all trigonometric polynomials f = [unk](k=1) (n) alpha(k)chi(k) (chi(1),...,chi(n) [unk] Delta) an inequality parallelf parallel(q) [unk] [unk] parallelf parallel(1) obtains, where [unk] is a positive constant depending only on Delta. The subset Delta is called a Sidon set if every bounded function on Delta can be matched by a Fourier-Stieltjes transform. It is known that every Sidon set is a [unk](q) set for all q. For G = T, X = Z, Rudin (J. Math. Mech., 9, 203 (1960)) has found a set that is [unk](q) for all q but not Sidon. We extend this result to all infinite compact Abelian groups G: the character group X contains a subset Delta that is [unk](q) for all q, 1 < q < infinity, but Delta is not a Sidon set.

  8. FAW Group Gorporation

    Yan Feng


    @@ As the founder of China's automobile industry, FAW Group Corporation (FAW) has maintained a dominant position in the automotive industry since its founding in 1953 in terms of its total assets, Production capacity, domestic and international sales, market share, and brand recognition.

  9. Working Group Report: Neutrinos

    de Gouvea, A.; Pitts, K.; Scholberg, K.; Zeller, G. P. [et al.


    This document represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Neutrino Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of neutrino physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of neutrinos and for addressing important physics and astrophysics questions with neutrinos.

  10. Parton Distributions Working Group

    de Barbaro, Lucy; Brock, R.; Casey, D.; Demina, R.; Giele, W.T.; Hirosky, R.; Huston, J.; Kalk, J.; Keller, S.A.; Klasen, M.; Kosower, D.A.; Kramer, M.; Kretzer, S.; Kuhlmann, S.; Martin, R.; Olness, Fredrick I.; Plehn, T.; Pumplin, J.; Scalise, R.J.; Schellman, H.; Smith, J.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, George F.; Stump, D.; Tung, W.K.; Varelas, N.; Vogelsang, W.; Yang, Un-Ki


    The main focus of this working group was to investigate the different issues associated with the development of quantitative tools to estimate parton distribution functions uncertainties. In the conclusion, we introduce a "Manifesto" that describes an optimal method for reporting data.

  11. An Intergenerational Women's Group.

    Fogler, Janet


    Discusses the Intergenerational Women's Group, formed to provide social support and an interchange of ideas between women of different generations. Provides a model for such a program that may be offered in geriatric medical clinics. Discusses the impact of intergenerational support for both the old and the young. (Author/BHK)

  12. Group B Streptococcus

    Albert H. Adriaanse


    Full Text Available Objective: Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae is an important cause of neonatal sepsis. Prevention is possible by intrapartum screening for maternal GBS carriership and antimicrobial treatment of colonized women with risk factors during labor. The conflicting results of diagnostic performance are reported both for the newly developed rapid GBS antigen tests and Gram's stain.

  13. Unclonable Group Identification

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Dupont, Kasper; Pedersen, Michael Østergaard


    We introduce and motivate the concept of unclonable group identification, that provides maximal protection against sharing of identities while still protecting the anonymity of users. We prove that the notion can be realized from any one-way function and suggest a more efficient implementation...

  14. Anaphylaxis vulnerable groups


    Professor of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Age groups ... fever, emotional stress, travel or other disruption of routine ... Anaphylaxis following immunization is a rare event ... estimated.15,16 An estimate of 1 per 100 000 after. MMR ... pregnancy include low back pain, uterine cramps,.


    asparagine amino acid residues and other amino acids having amide groups at ... Amines were reacted with Boc-Asp-on-OBzl in the presence of DCC to give .... systems chloroform-ethyl acetate (321 iv/v) (A) and chloroform-methanol-glacial acetic ... three 12 mL portions of 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate, and five 15 mL ...

  16. Grouping Illumination Frameworks

    Zdravkovic, Suncica; Economou, Elias; Gilchrist, Alan


    According to Koffka (1935), the lightness of a target surface is determined by the relationship between the target and the illumination frame of reference to which it belongs. However, each scene contains numerous illumination frames, and judging each one separately would lead to an enormous amount of computing. Grouping those frames that are in…

  17. Convolution Operators on Groups

    Derighetti, Antoine


    This volume is devoted to a systematic study of the Banach algebra of the convolution operators of a locally compact group. Inspired by classical Fourier analysis we consider operators on Lp spaces, arriving at a description of these operators and Lp versions of the theorems of Wiener and Kaplansky-Helson.

  18. With the Radiobiology Group


    The Radiobiology Group carries out experiments to study the effect of radiation on living cells. The photo shows the apparatus for growing broad beans which have been irradiated by 250 GeV protons. The roots are immersed in a tank of running water (CERN Weekly Bulletin 26 January 1981 and Annual Report 1980 p. 160). Karen Panman, Marilena Streit-Bianchi, Roger Paris.

  19. Leukosis/Sarcoma Group

    The leukosis/sarcoma (L/S) group of diseases designates a variety of transmissible benign and malignant neoplasms of chickens caused by members that belong to the family Retroviridae. Because the expansion of the literature on this disease, it is no longer feasible to cite all relevant publications ...

  20. Group theory in physics

    Cornwell, J F


    Recent devopments, particularly in high-energy physics, have projected group theory and symmetry consideration into a central position in theoretical physics. These developments have taken physicists increasingly deeper into the fascinating world of pure mathematics. This work presents important mathematical developments of the last fifteen years in a form that is easy to comprehend and appreciate.

  1. Dimensions of Group Interaction

    Dawidowicz, Paula


    The correlation between positive and negative group interactions and one or another of individuals' attitudes or characteristics--moral development, critical thinking, resilience, and self efficacy--has been examined previously. However, no systemic examination of individuals' development of patterns of these characteristics and those patterns'…

  2. Abandoning wells working group



    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  3. Enhancing the impact of groups: an evaluation of two group formats for smokers.

    Hajek, P; Belcher, M; Stapleton, J


    The effects of two different group formats constituting part of an otherwise identical smoking cessation programme were evaluated. Each group format was in use for one full calendar year. One hundred and thirty-two smokers were treated in 14 'therapist-oriented' (T-O) groups run in traditional didactic style and 138 in 14 'group-oriented' (G-O) groups, where the primary emphasis was on group resources (group support, group pressure and spontaneous modelling of coping responses). G-O groups were significantly more successful. The two types of groups did not differ in the number of clients who succeeded in stopping smoking just after the first meeting, i.e. before the difference in group formats could have any impact; but in the G-O groups more of those who failed initially persisted in trying and succeeded later in the course. Independently of the format, larger groups were more successful and in addition there was significant variation between single groups regardless of both format and size. Group processes seem to play an important role in smoking cessation and the way in which a group is structured can affect outcome.

  4. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per


    threshold if the trial is stopped early or if interim analyses have been conducted; (4) adjust the confidence intervals and the P-values for multiplicity due to number of outcome comparisons; and (5) assess clinical significance of the trial results. CONCLUSIONS: If the proposed five-step procedure...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore......, assessment of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials deserves more rigour in order to become more valid. METHODS: Several methodologies for assessing the statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials were considered. Balancing simplicity...

  5. Anthropological significance of dermatoglyphic trait variation: an ...

    Conclusion: The intra-Tunisian population analysis shows that Tunisians living in the North and the .... The different pattern types are broadly classified into three principal patterns ... for 15 quantitative digito-palmar dermatoglyhic traits revealed that out of five canonical ... coordinates of group centroïds in discriminant space.

  6. [Significance of somatometric analysis in medical research].

    Gubina-Vakulik, G I


    The literature data are presented on body weight and height changes in different population groups. Somatometria (particularly that of growing body allows one to determine the effect of each individual factor. Constitutional predisposition to certain diseases is conditioned by "the somatotype endocrinologic formula".

  7. Determining the clinical significance of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a SEER-Medicare population analysis.

    Go, Ronald S; Gundrum, Jacob D; Neuner, Joan M


    Clinical guidelines have recommended annual follow-up examinations of most patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); however, evidence supporting this practice is lacking. We performed a population-based study to examine the patterns of disease presentation and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (monoclonal gammopathy-associated malignancies) comparing those with or without a previous MGUS follow-up examination. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy-associated malignancy from 1994 through 2007 were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database and divided into 2 cohorts: those with follow-up (MGUS follow-up examination preceding the diagnosis) and those with no follow-up (no such follow-up examination). We compared the outcomes, including the rates of major complications at cancer diagnosis (acute kidney injury, cord compression, dialysis use, fracture, and hypercalcemia) and survival using propensity score adjustment and Cox proportional hazard models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Of the 17,457 study patients, 6% had undergone MGUS follow-up. After multivariable modeling, the follow-up group had significantly fewer major complications at diagnosis (odds ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.80) and better disease-specific (median, 38 vs. 29 months, P < .001; hazard ratio [HR] 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94) and overall (median, 23 vs. 19 months, P < .001; HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95) survival. Patients with MGUS follow-up preceding the diagnosis of a monoclonal gammopathy-associated malignancy can experience fewer major complications and have longer survival than those without such follow-up examinations. Future studies replicating our findings in the non-Medicare population and determining the optimal schedule and cost-effectiveness of MGUS follow-up are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Significances and meanings of the musical identity of patients and relatives receiving oncological palliative care

    Vladimir Araujo de Silva


    Full Text Available This phenomenological study was structured on Heidegger’s theoretical-philosophical framework, with the objective of unveiling the significances and meanings of the musical identity of patients and relatives under oncological palliative care. Individual interviews were performed with 12 clients (seven patients and five relatives staying at the support residence of the Maringa Female Network Against Cancer. A total of eight musical meetings were performed between January and February of 2011. I understood that the musical identity of the evidenced beings refers to the religious and country music styles, that their significances and meanings are connected to their spirituality and the significant events of their historicity, and that their mood and reflection intermediated by music can influence their musical choice. I gave evidence to the need to consider the music identity and empowerment in musical choices, which carries existential, social, cultural, spiritual and family aspects as qualifying elements of nursing in palliative care. Descriptors: Nursing Care; Oncology Nursing; Music; Music Therapy; Palliative Care.

  9. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.


    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  10. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.


    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  11. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard


    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  12. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    Christensen, Flemming


    Elderly people, especially some old men, appear to have very large ears. This paper presents an investigation on the acoustic significance of the age dependent ear elongation. HRTFs and ear lengths were measured for two groups of young and old people. The older groups had larger ears on average......, corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis...

  13. Communication from ST Group

    TS Department


    Please note that owing the preparations for the Open Days, the FM Group will not able to handle specific requests for waste collection from 2nd to 6th of April, nor removal or PC transport requests between the 31 March and 11 April. We kindly ask you to plan the collection of all types of waste and any urgent transport of office furniture or PCs before 31 March. Waste collection requests must be made by contacting FM Support on 77777 or at the e-mail address; removal of office furniture or PC transport requests must be made using the EDH ‘Transport request’ form (select "Removals" or "PC transport" from the drop-down menu). For any question concerning the sorting of waste, please consult the following web site: Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. TS/FM Group

  14. Group and representation theory

    Vergados, J D


    This volume goes beyond the understanding of symmetries and exploits them in the study of the behavior of both classical and quantum physical systems. Thus it is important to study the symmetries described by continuous (Lie) groups of transformations. We then discuss how we get operators that form a Lie algebra. Of particular interest to physics is the representation of the elements of the algebra and the group in terms of matrices and, in particular, the irreducible representations. These representations can be identified with physical observables. This leads to the study of the classical Lie algebras, associated with unitary, unimodular, orthogonal and symplectic transformations. We also discuss some special algebras in some detail. The discussion proceeds along the lines of the Cartan-Weyl theory via the root vectors and root diagrams and, in particular, the Dynkin representation of the roots. Thus the representations are expressed in terms of weights, which are generated by the application of the elemen...

  15. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon


    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  16. Gravitation Gauge Group

    Ter-Kazarian, G T


    Suggested theory involves a drastic revision of a role of local internal symmetries in physical concept of curved geometry. Under the reflection of fields and their dynamics from Minkowski to Riemannian space a standard gauge principle of local internal symmetries is generalized. The gravitation gauge group is proposed, which is generated by hidden local internal symmetries. The developed mechanism enables one to infer Einstein's equation of gravitation, but only with strong difference from Einstein's theory at the vital point of well-defined energy-momentum tensor of gravitational field and conservation laws. The gravitational interaction as well as general distortion of manifold G(2.2.3) with hidden group U(1) was considered.

  17. Group Leaders Optimization Algorithm

    Daskin, Anmer


    Complexity of global optimization algorithms makes implementation of the algorithms difficult and leads the algorithms to require more computer resources for the optimization process. The ability to explore the whole solution space without increasing the complexity of algorithms has a great importance to not only get reliable results but so also make the implementation of these algorithms more convenient for higher dimensional and complex-real world problems in science and engineering. In this paper, we present a new global optimization algorithm in which the influence of the leaders in social groups is used as an inspiration for the evolutionary technique that is designed into a group architecture similar to the architecture of Cooperative Coevolutionary Algorithms. Therefore, we present the implementation method and the experimental results for the single and multidimensional optimization test problems and a scientific real world problem, the energies and the geometric structures of Lennard-Jones clusters.

  18. Group Formation in Economics

    Demange, Gabrielle; Wooders, Myrna


    Broad and diverse ranges of activities are conducted within and by organized groups of individuals, including political, economic and social activities. These activities have recently become a subject of intense interest in economics and game theory. Some of the topics investigated in this collection are models of networks of power and privilege, trade networks, co-authorship networks, buyer-seller networks with differentiated products, and networks of medical innovation and the adaptation of new information. Other topics are social norms on punctuality, clubs and the provision of club goods and public goods, research and development and collusive alliances among corporations, and international alliances and trading agreements. While relatively recent, the literature on game theoretic studies of group formation in economics is already vast. This volume provides an introduction to this important literature on game-theoretic treatments of situations with networks, clubs, and coalitions, including some applications.

  19. The Ombudperson Initiative Group

    Laura Stewart

    Following many discussions that took place at some of the ATLAS Women's Network lunch gatherings, a few ATLAS women joined forces with similarly concerned CERN staff women to form a small group last Fall to discuss the need for a CERN-wide Ombudsperson. This has since evolved into the Ombudsperson Initiative Group (OIG) currently composed of the following members: Barbro Asman, Stockholm University; Pierre Charrue, CERN AB; Anna Cook, CERN IT; Catherine Delamare, CERN and IT Ombudsperson; Paula Eerola, Lund University; Pauline Gagnon, Indiana University; Eugenia Hatziangeli, CERN AB; Doreen Klem, CERN IT; Bertrand Nicquevert, CERN TS and Laura Stewart, CERN AT. On June 12, members of the OIG met with representatives of Human Resources (HR) and the Equal Opportunity Advisory Panel (EOAP) to discuss the proposal drafted by the OIG. The meeting was very positive. Everybody agreed that the current procedures at CERN applicable in the event of conflict required a thorough review, and that a professionnally trai...

  20. How do we make sense of significance?

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone


    sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...... about a strategic choice and as part of this make their initial judgement of significance. An experiment is designed and conducted to investigate how persons make sense of a specific case and determine significance in a screening and scoping context. The experiment indicates patterns in the test persons......' sense-making, including important differences in the way individuals screen and scope. These patterns concern what we notice, how fast we frame the choice, and when we are critical about the provided information. The indications provide a basis for reflections on practice and on how to organise EA...

  1. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  2. Significant communities in large sparse networks

    Mirshahvalad, Atieh; Derlen, Mattias; Rosvall, Martin


    Researchers use community-detection algorithms to reveal large-scale organization in biological and social networks, but community detection is useful only if the communities are significant and not a result of noisy data. To assess the statistical significance of the network communities, or the robustness of the detected structure, one approach is to perturb the network structure by removing links and measure how much the communities change. However, perturbing sparse networks is challenging because they are inherently sensitive; they shatter easily if links are removed. Here we propose a simple method to perturb sparse networks and assess the significance of their communities. We generate resampled networks by adding extra links based on local information, then we aggregate the information from multiple resampled networks to find a coarse-grained description of significant clusters. In addition to testing our method on benchmark networks, we use our method on the sparse network of the European Court of Just...

  3. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)


    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  4. Fostering significant learning in graduate nursing education.

    Marrocco, Geraldine F


    Faculty who want to energize graduate students with creative classes that lead to long-lasting learning will benefit by designing course objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools using Fink's taxonomy of significant learning and Wiggins's insights on performance-based or educative assessments. Research shows that course designs relying on content-driven lectures and written examinations do not promote significant learning among adult learners. This article reviews six types of significant learning using Fink's taxonomy and examines Wiggins's "backward" approach to designing courses using performance-based assessments that gauge true learning and learning that promotes a lasting change. When designing courses, educators should ask: "What do I really want students to get out of this course?" The answers will direct the design of objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools. Designing graduate courses using Fink's taxonomy and Wiggins's backward approach can lead to significant learning to better prepare nurse practitioners for the future of health care. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Multibunch working group



    The goal of this working group was to foment discussions about the use and limitations of multi-bunch, representatives from most operating or in-project synchrotron radiation sources (ALS, SPEAR, BESSY-2, SPRING-8, ANKA, DELTA, PEP-2, DIAMOND, ESRF...) have presented their experience. The discussions have been led around 3 topics: 1) resistive wall instabilities and ion instabilities, 2) higher harmonic cavities, and 3) multibunch feedback systems.

  6. Formal groups and applications

    Hazewinkel, Michiel


    This book is a comprehensive treatment of the theory of formal groups and its numerous applications in several areas of mathematics. The seven chapters of the book present basics and main results of the theory, as well as very important applications in algebraic topology, number theory, and algebraic geometry. Each chapter ends with several pages of historical and bibliographic summary. One prerequisite for reading the book is an introductory graduate algebra course, including certain familiarity with category theory.

  7. Summaries of group discussions

    Jensen, L. D.


    Group discussions following the presentations of reports on the remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay resources are presented. The parameters to be investigated by the remote sensors and the specifications of the sensors are described. Specific sensors for obtaining data on various aspects of the ecology are identified. Recommendations for establishing a data bank and additional efforts to obtain increased understanding of the ecology are submitted.

  8. Group Size and Conformity

    Bond, Rod


    Abstract This paper reviews theory and research on the relationship between group size and conformity and presents a meta-analysis of 125 Asch-type conformity studies. It questions the assumption of a single function made in formal models of social influence and proposes instead that the function will vary depending on which social influence process predominates. It is argued that normative influence is lik...

  9. Combinatorial group theory

    Lyndon, Roger C


    From the reviews: "This book (...) defines the boundaries of the subject now called combinatorial group theory. (...)it is a considerable achievement to have concentrated a survey of the subject into 339 pages. This includes a substantial and useful bibliography; (over 1100 ÄitemsÜ). ...the book is a valuable and welcome addition to the literature, containing many results not previously available in a book. It will undoubtedly become a standard reference." Mathematical Reviews, AMS, 1979.

  10. Significance of Studies of Stylistics and Rhetoric



    Stylistics is a scientific study of style. It is a mode of encoding and decoding language and can be associated with various fields. In this paper,we talk about the great significances of stylistic and rhetoric studies. It refers to great help in expressing and understanding languages;in combining the linguistics and literary criticism and linguistics;great help in promoting and developing computer science and information technology;great significance in sharing heritage of human civilizations.

  11. Facilitating a Summer Reading Book Group Program

    Malin, Ginger Goldman


    Summer book groups enhance and sustain student literacy behaviors over the break, making available an enjoyable social forum for critical-thinking and critical-reading practices to occur naturally. Significantly, the book groups grant faculty and students an informal space to connect meaningfully through reflective discussion of texts. Because…

  12. Expression and significance of Pdlim2 in the glomerular podocyte of hyperlipidemic rate



    Objective To investigate the expression changes and significance of Pdlim2 in the glomerular podocyte of hyperlipidemic rats.Methods Forty-five individuals of SD rats were divided randomly into 3 groups(n=15 in each group).The control group was fed with normal diet.The high fat group was fed with high fat diet.The simvastatin

  13. Langmuir-Blodgett films of ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene derivative containing hydroxyl groups

    Sawant, Shilpa N., E-mail: [Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay-400085 (India); Kulshreshtha, S.K. [Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay-400085 (India); Yakhmi, J.V. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, BARC, Trombay-400085 (India); Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology, IIT Madras, Chennai-600 036 (India); Miyazaki, Akira; Enoki, Toshiaki [Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8551 (Japan)


    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of an ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (EDT-TTF) derivative containing hydroxyl groups, 4, 5-bis(11-hydroxyundecylthio)-4', 5'-ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene were deposited without using stabilizer molecules. Doping of the film with iodine leads to oxidation of EDT-TTF moiety as evidenced by UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the presence of layered arrangement of the EDT-TTF derivative molecules in the LB film. Cyclic voltammetry studies indicate that the electrochemical oxidation of the EDT-TTF derivative in its LB film is irreversible. Due to the insulating nature of the alkyl chains, only the first layer of the LB film was found to be redox-active. The electrical conductivity of the 25 layer LB film was found to increase by two orders of magnitude on doping with iodine. On equilibrating the doped film in air, the conductivity gradually reduced with time and finally reached the conductivity of undoped film. This reversibility could be because of the steric hindrance induced by the two long alkyl groups. The alkyl chains help in rendering the EDT-TTF molecule amiable to LB film formation but are found to reduce the electrical conductivity of the films and also cause instability of the doped state. The hydroxyl groups at the end of the alky chain impart amphiphilic nature to the molecules and help in stabilizing the film at the air-water interface.

  14. Innovative trend significance test and applications

    Şen, Zekai


    Hydro-climatological time series might embed characteristics of past changes concerning climate variability in terms of shifts, cyclic fluctuations, and more significantly in the form of trends. Identification of such features from the available records is one of the prime tasks of hydrologists, climatologists, applied statisticians, or experts in related topics. Although there are different trend identification and significance tests in the literature, they require restrictive assumptions, which may not be existent in the structure of hydro-climatological time series. In this paper, a method is suggested with statistical significance test for trend identification in an innovative manner. This method has non-parametric basis without any restrictive assumption, and its application is rather simple with the concept of sub-series comparisons that are extracted from the main time series. The method provides privilege for selection of sub-temporal half periods for the comparison and, finally, generates trend on objective and quantitative manners. The necessary statistical equations are derived for innovative trend identification and statistical significance test application. The application of the proposed methodology is suggested for three time series from different parts of the world including Southern New Jersey annual temperature, Danube River annual discharge, and Tigris River Diyarbakir meteorology station annual total rainfall records. Each record has significant trend with increasing type in the New Jersey case, whereas in other two cases, decreasing trends exist.

  15. Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: sense and significance.

    Hibberd, Rachel


    Recently there has been growing empirical and theoretical attention to the role of meaning in grief along with increased recognition of the need for more sophisticated definitions of meaning. The present article highlights philosophical issues inherent in the study of meaning and grief reviews the place of meaning in current theories of grief and provides a brief overview of the ways that meaning has been operationalized by grief researchers, including sense-making, benefit finding, identity change, and purpose in life. It is argued that, in our focus on the ways mourners make sense of loss, we have neglected an important aspect of meaning: life significance. Life significance is the felt perception that some aspect of one's life experience "matters." The construct is explored as a potentially important outcome of bereavement; mourners may lose life significance along with their lost loved one, or they may develop new avenues to life significance as they confront mortality and rebuild shattered worldviews. Related literature, such as appreciation of life as a facet of posttraumatic growth, is surveyed for clues as to the role of life significance in grief. Suggestions for future study are offered.

  16. Group Variables and Gaming Success.

    Norris, Dwight R.; Niebuhr, Robert E.


    Describes a study designed to determine the effects of group cohesiveness on group performance in a management game and, to examine the effects voluntary v assigned group membership has on the cohesiveness of the group. (Author/LLS)

  17. Stock return comovement and Korean business groups

    Chan Ho Cho


    Full Text Available This paper explores whether business group affiliations affect the covariance structure of stock returns in Korea. We find that the stock returns of firms belonging to the same business group show positive and significant comovement. The strong comovement between group returns and firm returns is explained by correlated fundamentals. We find strong comovement among business group affiliate earnings. Moreover, variance decomposition of returns shows that cash flow news plays a relatively more important role in explaining group comovement than discount rate news, suggesting a link between stock return comovement and the “tunneling” and “propping” behaviors of business groups. Finally, return comovement increases when a firm joins a business group.

  18. Change in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Sensitivity Training Groups

    Pollack, Herbert B.


    Among the findings was that the heterogeneous groups showed more change on the FIRO scale. Also, on rating scales measuring positive feeling towards group, the initial superiority of homogeneous groups was reduced by the end of the T group and that heterogeneous groups manifested more significant increases. (Author/CG)

  19. Detection and significance of serum inflammatory factors and oxidative stress indicators in diabetic retinopathy

    Wei Gao; Jing Wang; Chao Zhang; Ping Qin


    Objective:To determine the serum inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress parameters of diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients to explore their possible role in the DR.Methods: 116 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were selected from June 2015 to June 2016 in our hospital as research subjects, divided into diabetic Diabetes without retinopathy (NDR group,n = 63) and diabetic with retinopathy patients (DR group,n = 53). And 60 cases of healthy check-ups of the same period in our hospital medical center were selected as normal control group (NC). The VEGF, IL-6, TNF-α , MDA and SOD levels of three groups of patients were detected. Results:The IL-6 levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The TNF-α levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The VEGF levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were decreased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: DR patients express high levels of IL-6, TNF-α and VEGF, and there exists significant oxidative stress in DR, which shows that the inflammation occurrence and oxidative stress state play an important role in the development of DR.

  20. Statistical significance of cis-regulatory modules

    Smith Andrew D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is becoming increasingly important for researchers to be able to scan through large genomic regions for transcription factor binding sites or clusters of binding sites forming cis-regulatory modules. Correspondingly, there has been a push to develop algorithms for the rapid detection and assessment of cis-regulatory modules. While various algorithms for this purpose have been introduced, most are not well suited for rapid, genome scale scanning. Results We introduce methods designed for the detection and statistical evaluation of cis-regulatory modules, modeled as either clusters of individual binding sites or as combinations of sites with constrained organization. In order to determine the statistical significance of module sites, we first need a method to determine the statistical significance of single transcription factor binding site matches. We introduce a straightforward method of estimating the statistical significance of single site matches using a database of known promoters to produce data structures that can be used to estimate p-values for binding site matches. We next introduce a technique to calculate the statistical significance of the arrangement of binding sites within a module using a max-gap model. If the module scanned for has defined organizational parameters, the probability of the module is corrected to account for organizational constraints. The statistical significance of single site matches and the architecture of sites within the module can be combined to provide an overall estimation of statistical significance of cis-regulatory module sites. Conclusion The methods introduced in this paper allow for the detection and statistical evaluation of single transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules. The features described are implemented in the Search Tool for Occurrences of Regulatory Motifs (STORM and MODSTORM software.