WorldWideScience

Sample records for group evidence consumer

  1. Using Focus Groups to Study Consumer Understanding and Experiences with Tamper-Evident Packaging Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascall, Melvin A.; Lee, Ken; Fraser, Angela; Halim, Linna

    2009-01-01

    A focus group with an educational component was used to help initiate a new research hypothesis. Early-stage development of a new tamper-evident invention was improved with input from a consumer focus group. The focus group comprised consumers who were shown several tamper-evident devices, including a new color-changing cap under active…

  2. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  3. Understanding, comprehensibility and acceptance of an evidence-based consumer information brochure on fall prevention in old age: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Gabriele

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based patient and consumer information (EBPI is an indispensable component of the patients' decision making process in health care. Prevention of accidental falls in the elderly has gained a lot of public interest during preceding years. Several consumer information brochures on fall prevention have been published; however, none fulfilled the criteria of an EBPI. Little is known about the reception of EBPI by seniors. Therefore we aimed to evaluate a recently developed EBPI brochure on fall prevention with regard to seniors' acceptance and comprehensibility in focus groups and to explore whether the participants' judgements differed depending on the educational background of the study participants. Methods Seven focus groups were conducted with 40 seniors, aged 60 years or older living independently in a community. Participants were recruited by two gatekeepers. A discussion guide was used and seniors were asked to judge the EBPI brochure on fall prevention using a Likert scale 1-6. The focus group discussions were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using content analysis. Results The participants generally accepted the EBPI brochure on fall prevention. Several participants expressed a need for more practical advice. The comprehensibility of the brochure was influenced positively by brief chapter summaries. Participants dismissed the statistical illustrations such as confidence intervals or a Fagan nomogram and only half of them agreed with the meta-information presented in the first chapter. The detailed information about fall prevalence was criticised by some seniors. The use of a case story was well tolerated by the majority of participants. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the recently developed EBPI brochure on fall prevention in old age was generally well accepted by seniors, but some statistical descriptions were difficult for them to understand. The brochure has to be updated. However, not

  4. Understanding, comprehensibility and acceptance of an evidence-based consumer information brochure on fall prevention in old age: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Sabine; Icks, Andrea; Meyer, Gabriele

    2011-05-20

    Evidence-based patient and consumer information (EBPI) is an indispensable component of the patients' decision making process in health care. Prevention of accidental falls in the elderly has gained a lot of public interest during preceding years. Several consumer information brochures on fall prevention have been published; however, none fulfilled the criteria of an EBPI. Little is known about the reception of EBPI by seniors. Therefore we aimed to evaluate a recently developed EBPI brochure on fall prevention with regard to seniors' acceptance and comprehensibility in focus groups and to explore whether the participants' judgements differed depending on the educational background of the study participants. Seven focus groups were conducted with 40 seniors, aged 60 years or older living independently in a community. Participants were recruited by two gatekeepers. A discussion guide was used and seniors were asked to judge the EBPI brochure on fall prevention using a Likert scale 1-6. The focus group discussions were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using content analysis. The participants generally accepted the EBPI brochure on fall prevention. Several participants expressed a need for more practical advice. The comprehensibility of the brochure was influenced positively by brief chapter summaries. Participants dismissed the statistical illustrations such as confidence intervals or a Fagan nomogram and only half of them agreed with the meta-information presented in the first chapter. The detailed information about fall prevalence was criticised by some seniors. The use of a case story was well tolerated by the majority of participants. Our findings indicate that the recently developed EBPI brochure on fall prevention in old age was generally well accepted by seniors, but some statistical descriptions were difficult for them to understand. The brochure has to be updated. However, not all issues raised by the participants will be taken into account

  5. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence of farmed and wild fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Sioen, Isabelle; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    capture fisheries. The consumer's subjective point of view is of overriding importance for the production system and product acceptance as well as for future market success. In this paper consumer perception in Belgium is explored and compared against scientific evidence of farmed versus wild fish....... Primary data were collected through a consumer survey (April 2003) and focus group discussions (May 2004) with Belgian consumers. The majority of the consumer sample reported no perceived differences between farmed versus wild fish. However, mean perception scores were slightly in favour of wild fish...

  6. Evidence that consumers are skeptical about evidence-based health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Kristin L; Maurer, Maureen; Yegian, Jill Mathews; Dardess, Pamela; McGee, Jeanne; Evers, Mark; Marlo, Karen O

    2010-07-01

    We undertook focus groups, interviews, and an online survey with health care consumers as part of a recent project to assist purchasers in communicating more effectively about health care evidence and quality. Most of the consumers were ages 18-64; had health insurance through a current employer; and had taken part in making decisions about health insurance coverage for themselves, their spouse, or someone else. We found many of these consumers' beliefs, values, and knowledge to be at odds with what policy makers prescribe as evidence-based health care. Few consumers understood terms such as "medical evidence" or "quality guidelines." Most believed that more care meant higher-quality, better care. The gaps in knowledge and misconceptions point to serious challenges in engaging consumers in evidence-based decision making.

  7. Qualitative Research and Consumer Policy: Focus Group Discussions as a Form of Consumer Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…

  8. Three Essays Identifying Consumer Behavior by Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines consumer behavior in different markets. Six different types of Utah snow skiers, namely, half day, local, multiday, college and K-12 students, and season ticket holders, are analyzed in the first paper to determine their demand response to changes in prices, income, weather, transportation costs, and particular days. A…

  9. Three Essays Identifying Consumer Behavior by Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines consumer behavior in different markets. Six different types of Utah snow skiers, namely, half day, local, multiday, college and K-12 students, and season ticket holders, are analyzed in the first paper to determine their demand response to changes in prices, income, weather, transportation costs, and particular days. A…

  10. Consumer brand choice: individual and group analyses of demand elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Foxall, Gordon R; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2006-03-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine and tea) during a 16-week period were used. Elasticity coefficients were calculated for individual consumers with data from all or only 1 product category (intra-consumer elasticities), and for each product category using all data points from all consumers (overall product elasticity) or 1 average data point per consumer (interconsumer elasticity). In addition to this, split-sample elasticity coefficients were obtained for each individual with data from all product categories purchased during weeks 1 to 8 and 9 to 16. The results suggest that: 1) demand elasticity coefficients calculated for individual consumers purchasing supermarket food products are compatible with predictions from economic theory and behavioral economics; 2) overall product elasticities, typically employed in marketing and econometric research, include effects of interconsumer and intraconsumer elasticities; 3) when comparing demand elasticities of different product categories, group and individual analyses yield similar trends; and 4) individual differences in demand elasticity are relatively consistent across time, but do not seem to be consistent across products. These results demonstrate the theoretical, methodological, and managerial relevance of investigating the behavior of individual consumers.

  11. Food risk perceptions by different consumer groups in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Roosen, Jutta; Thiele, Silke; Hansen, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the changing food risk perceptions of German consumers over the period 1992 to 2002. We analyse the respondents' general risk attitudes and their specific perceptions of food risks. Using cluster analysis we generate a typology of four consumer types. One group is worried about natural food risks, the second does not worry about any types of food risks, the third is concerned about technical food risks and the fourth is concerned about all food risks. A mult...

  12. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence of farmed and wild fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Sioen, Isabelle; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    capture fisheries. The consumer's subjective point of view is of overriding importance for the production system and product acceptance as well as for future market success. In this paper consumer perception in Belgium is explored and compared against scientific evidence of farmed versus wild fish......The increasing number of marketable fish being supplied from aquaculture is a response to the increasing demand for healthy food and is filling the gap left by depleting natural fish stocks. Little is known about the awareness and perception of the consumer in terms of farmed fish versus fish from...

  13. Labour Standards as a Justification for Trade Barriers: Consumer Concerns, Protectionism and the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhshi, Samira; Kerr, William A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, justifications by producers (economic protectionism), consumers and social advocates (humanitarian motives) for including labour standards in international trade agreements are discussed. To date, little work has been undertaken to determine empirically whether low labour standards lead to trade distortions. This article provides some empirical evidence pertaining to this question. Consumer groups, social advocates and traditional vested interests such as labour unions have a...

  14. Labour Standards as a Justification for Trade Barriers: Consumer Concerns, Protectionism and the Evidence: Technical Annex

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhshi, Samira; Kerr, William A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, justifications by producers (economic protectionism), consumers and social advocates (humanitarian motives) for including labour standards in international trade agreements are discussed. To date, little work has been undertaken to determine empirically whether low labour standards lead to trade distortions. This article provides some empirical evidence pertaining to this question. Consumer groups, social advocates and traditional vested interests such as labour unions have a...

  15. Consumers' preferences for fresh yam: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlagne, Carla; Cornet, Denis; Blazy, Jean-Marc; Diman, Jean-Louis; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry

    2017-01-01

    In West and Central Africa and in the Caribbean, yam is one of the most important sources of carbohydrates and has a great potential to improve food security. The yam production sector is, however, now challenged by the satisfaction of evolving consumers' preferences. Since little is known about consumers' preferences regarding yams' characteristics, product quality, and the drivers of yam purchase, six focus group discussions were conducted (for a total of 31 participants). Among the purchasing criteria, price was considered more important than the others. It was followed by the external damage, the origin, and the size of the tuber. The most frequently cited consumption criteria were the taste, the texture, and color of flesh after cooking. Taste was considered more important than the other criteria. Three consumers' profiles were established reflecting heterogeneity in preferences, especially as concerns the willingness to pay for yam and consumption habits. They were designated as the Hedonistic, the Thrifty and the Flexible. Our results suggest that innovations can be implemented to sustain and stimulate the development of the yam sector in Guadeloupe. Two main development paths were identified. The first path is the valorization of the great existing diversity of yam varieties and the increase in the level of information for consumers about product attributes such as the cooking mode, the origin, and the mode of production. Building a marketing strategy based on the valorization of this diversity can help maintain and preserve yam's agro-biodiversity and the satisfaction of rapidly evolving consumption habits. The second path is the definition of yam ideotypes that suit consumers' needs. We expect that tailoring the production to consumers' needs will have a positive impact on global food security in the Caribbean region.

  16. Consumer perspectives on information and other inputs to decision-making: implications for evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2008-10-01

    This study is an exploration of mental health consumers' perspectives on information, including scientific information, and on other inputs to decision-making. Four focus groups were held with severely mentally ill consumers at two sites in the summer of 2005. Consumers varied in age, race and diagnosis. Participant responses were coded by theme and into subthematic categories. Implications for evidence-based decision-making included that: consumers desire and seek information about their illnesses and the mental health system; consumers identify scientific studies as information with special and welcome properties; and consumers also identify other influences on their decision-making, most of which fall under the "recovery" rubric.

  17. Involvement of Consumer Groups in Tobacco Control: Russia and Belarus Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yanin

    2017-05-01

    5. Cooperation of consumer organizations from Russia (KONFOP and Belarus (Belarus Consumer Society, launched to promote best Tobacco Control practices, according to FCTC provisions, is a success story of involvement of consumer groups in Tobacco Control.

  18. Collation of Scientific Evidence on Consumer Acceptance of New Food Technologies: Three roads to consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Hofenk, D.J.B.; Ronteltap, A.; Tudoran, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The current report investigates consumer acceptance of new food technologies by reviewing the scientific literature. The review is organised along three routes to consumer acceptance of new technologies: The consumer benefit road: the central road of technology features influencing experienced

  19. Collation of Scientific Evidence on Consumer Acceptance of New Food Technologies: Three roads to consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Hofenk, D.J.B.; Ronteltap, A.; Tudoran, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The current report investigates consumer acceptance of new food technologies by reviewing the scientific literature. The review is organised along three routes to consumer acceptance of new technologies: The consumer benefit road: the central road of technology features influencing experienced produ

  20. Ethical consumer groups: coordinating individual and organisational sustainable consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Colli, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    The idea and practice of ‘green’ or ‘ethical’ consumption is gaining traction, increasingly seen as not only an example of consumers acting individually but as collective action and a social movement in its own right. Its focus is inherently cross-movement, aiming at environmental, social and developmental goals: we are all consumers, so ethical consumption movements can – at least in theory – affect everyone. These movements also involve different actors, crossing the public-private divide a...

  1. The nutritional and toxicological value of organic vegetables: consumer perception versus scientific evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Hoefkens, Christine; Verbeke, Wim; Aertsens, Joris; Mondelaers, Koen; Van Camp, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The present study aims to explore and compare consumer perception and scientific evidence related to food quality and food safety aspects of organic versus conventional vegetables. Design/methodology/approach - Primary data on consumer perception were gathered in 2006-2007 through a consumer survey with Flemish adults (n = 529) and compared with scientific evidence from literature. Consumers of organic and conventional vegetables were selected by means of a convenience sampling p...

  2. Consumer Buying behaviour in Fashion Retailing: Empirical Evidencies

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Susana; Pereira, Madalena; Ferreira, João,; Pedroso, Vilma

    2008-01-01

    Consumer behaviour research is the scientific study of the processes consumers use to select, secure, use and dispose of products and services that satisfy their needs. Firms can satisfy those needs only to the extent that they understand their customers. The main objective of this paper is to study the gender differences in consumer buying behaviour of a Portuguese population when they go shopping to buy apparel products. To attain this objective a survey was developed and administered a...

  3. Are Durable Goods Consumers Forward Looking? Evidence from College Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Popular wisdom holds that publishers revise college textbooks mainly to kill off the secondary market for used books. While this behavior might be profitable if consumers are myopic, uninformed or have high short-run discount rates (that exceed the publishers'), neoclassical authors have noted that it will typically not be profitable if publishers can precommit not to cut prices and if consumers are forward-looking and have similar discount rates as the publishers; the consumer's willingness ...

  4. Comparison of consumer derived evidence with an omaha system evidence-based practice guideline for community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruinelli, Lisiane; Fu, Helen; Monsen, Karen A; Westra, Bonnie L

    2014-01-01

    Consumer involvement in healthcare is critical to support continuity of care for consumers to manage their health while transitioning from one care setting to another. Validation of evidence-based practice (EBP) guideline by consumers is essential to achieving consumer health goals over time that is consistent with their needs and preferences. The purpose of this study was to compare an Omaha System EBP guideline for community dwelling older adults with consumer-derived evidence of their ongoing needs, resources, and strategies after home care discharge. All identified problems were relevant for all patients except for Neglect and Substance use. Ten additional problems were identified from the interviews, five of which affected at least 10% of the participants. Consumer derived evidence both validated and expanded EBP guidelines; thus further emphasizing the importance of consumer involvement in the delivery of home healthcare.

  5. Direct-to-consumer marketing of evidence-based psychological interventions: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Lauren C; McHugh, R Kathryn; Barlow, David H

    2012-06-01

    The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological interventions (EBPIs) to service provision settings has been a major challenge. Most efforts to disseminate and implement EBPIs have focused on clinicians and clinical systems as the consumers of these treatments and thus have targeted efforts to these groups. An alternative, complementary approach to achieve more widespread utilization of EBPIs is to disseminate directly to patients themselves. The aim of this special section is to explore several direct-to-consumer (i.e., patient) dissemination and education efforts currently underway. This manuscript highlights the rationale for direct-to-patient dissemination strategies as well as the application of marketing science to dissemination efforts. Achieving greater access to EBPIs will require the use of multiple approaches to overcome the many and varied barriers to successful dissemination and implementation.

  6. Empirical evidence in consumer law cases: what are 'up to' claims up to?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.; Heiderhoff, B.; Schulze, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution I argue that in certain consumer law cases providing empirical evidence is necessary and that specific standards of proof should then apply. Only through analysing evidence of actual consumer behaviour as well as of trader’s commercial practices courts and enforcement authoritie

  7. Consumer Engagement and the Development, Evaluation, and Dissemination of Evidence-Based Parenting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Kirby, James N.

    2012-01-01

    A consumer perspective can contribute much to enhancing the "ecological fit" of population-level parenting interventions so they meet the needs of parents. This approach involves building relationships with consumer groups and soliciting consumer input into the relevance and acceptability of interventions, clarifying the enablers and barriers to…

  8. Consumer Engagement and the Development, Evaluation, and Dissemination of Evidence-Based Parenting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Kirby, James N.

    2012-01-01

    A consumer perspective can contribute much to enhancing the "ecological fit" of population-level parenting interventions so they meet the needs of parents. This approach involves building relationships with consumer groups and soliciting consumer input into the relevance and acceptability of interventions, clarifying the enablers and barriers to…

  9. Food groups consumed by infants and toddlers in urban areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food consumption patterns of young children in China are not well known. Objective: Characterised food groups consumed by infants and young children in urban China using data from the Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING study. Design: One 24-h dietary recall was completed for 1,350 infants and young children (436 infants aged 6–11 months and 914 young children aged 12–35 months, who were recruited from maternal and child care centres in eight cities via face-to-face interviews with the primary caregiver. All foods, beverages and supplements reported were assigned to one of 64 food groups categorised into the following: milk and milk products, grains, vegetables, fruits, protein foods and desserts/sweets. The percentage of infants and young children consuming foods from specific food groups was calculated, regardless of the amount consumed. Results: Less than half of infants consumed breast milk (47%, whereas 59% of infants consumed infant formula and 53–75% of young children consumed growing-up (fortified milk. Rice was the number one grain food consumed after 6 months (up to 88% and the consumption of infant cereal was low. About 50% of infants did not consume any fruits or vegetables, and 38% of young children did not consume any fruits on the day of the recall. Only 40% of all children consumed dark green leafy vegetables and even fewer consumed deep yellow vegetables. Eggs and pork were the most commonly consumed protein foods. Conclusions: The data provide important insight for developing detailed food consumption guidelines for this population group. Mothers of infants should be encouraged to continue breastfeeding after the first 6 months. Parents should be advised to offer a wide variety of vegetables and fruits daily, particularly dark green leafy and deep yellow vegetables and colourful fruits. The consumption of fortified infant cereal should be advocated to improve the iron intake of Chinese infants.

  10. Improving the use of research evidence in guideline development: 10. Integrating values and consumer involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2006-12-01

    should also be explicit. If differences in values are likely to affect a decision, such that people in different setting would likely make different choices about interventions or actions based on differences in their values, global recommendations should be explicit in terms of which values were applied and allow for adaptation after incorporating local values. How should WHO ensure that appropriate values are integrated in recommendations? • All WHO guideline groups should uniformly apply explicit, transparent and clearly described methods for integrating values. • WHO should consider involving relevant stakeholders if this is feasible and efficient. • WHO should develop a checklist for guidelines panels to help them to ensure that ethical considerations relevant to recommendations are addressed explicitly and transparently. How should users and consumers be involved in generating recommendations? • Including consumers in groups that are making global recommendations presents major challenges with respect to the impossibility of including a representative spectrum of consumers from a variety of cultures and settings. Nonetheless, consideration should be given to including consumers in groups who are able to challenge assumptions that are made about the values used for making recommendations, rather than represent the values of consumers around the world. • WHO should establish a network to facilitate involvement of users. • Draft recommendations should be reviewed by consumers, who should be asked explicitly to consider the values that were used. How should values be presented in recommendations? • Recommendations should include a description of how decisions were made about the relative importance of the consequences (benefits, harms and costs of a decision. • Values that influence recommendations should be reported along with the research evidence underlying recommendations. • When differences in values would lead to different decisions or there is

  11. The Power and Promise of Group Work: Consumer Evaluation of Group Work Services in Gauteng, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Shahana; Ross, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In light of the limited research into consumers' experiences of group work services in South Africa, the study evaluated groups offered by a range of social service agencies in Gauteng to determine whether group interventions were perceived by users as developmental and empowering. Methods: Program evaluation was employed to evaluate 47…

  12. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities.

  13. CONSUMERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cell court, white blood cell court and platelet count. The mean ... ethnic groups to alcohol consumption attributed mainly to geneti" differences! 2. These variations may be found at low .... vitamin content of burukutu, but like the industrial beer it.

  14. Engaging patients and consumers in research evidence: Applying the conceptual model of patient and family engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Kristin L; Workman, Thomas A

    2017-01-01

    This essay discusses applying the Conceptual Framework for Patient and Family Engagement to partnerships with patients and consumers to increase their use of research evidence in healthcare decisions. The framework's foundational principles hold that engagement occurs on a continuum across all levels of healthcare-from direct care to policymaking-with patients and healthcare professionals working in full partnership and sharing responsibility for achieving a safe, high-quality, efficient, and patient-centered healthcare system. Research evidence can serve as a critical decision-making tool in partnerships between patients and health professionals. However, as the framework suggests, without patient and consumer engagement in the design, planning, interpretation, and dissemination of research findings, it is unlikely that the broader consumer population will find research evidence useful, much less use it, to guide their healthcare decisions. Understanding what factors influence patient and consumer engagement can lead to effective strategies that enable meaningful partnerships between patients and researchers. Understanding patient and consumer perspectives of research evidence is critical to engaging them in meaningful partnerships that produce actionable research findings that they can in turn use in partnership with health professionals to improve their own health and the healthcare system as a whole. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Consumers´ Attitudes Towards Food Additives Using Focus Group Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Tarnavölgyi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are getting more and more importance among the consumers´ food safety concerns. In this research attitudes towards food additives were analyzed in three focus groups: common consumers, doctors and food industry experts by qualitative market research methods. It was observed that most consumers knew very little about food additives. While recognizing their technological importance, they are afraid of their health impairing effects. However, this fear is mostly theoretic; other quality characteristics and the price play a much more significant role when choosing foods. Doctors are more familiar with the chemical nature and health effects of food additives, but their shopping habits are mainly the same as the common consumers´. Through their job food industry experts get in closer relationship with food additives, therefore they generally have detailed knowledge of their technological and health functions as well. In their consumer decision process the food additive content of products is a more important factor than in the other groups. It was concluded that, with respect to the consumers´ requirements, food and health authorities should pay much more attention to providing authentic information to the public, because it is the only way to prevent developing the general fear of food additives. This project should include education involving the media and doctors, and additionally, making E-numbers list be available to the customers to help the easy identification of food additives.

  16. Collation of Scientific Evidence on Consumer Acceptance of New Food Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, A. R. H; van Trijp, H. C. M.; Hofenk,, D.

    The current report investigates consumer acceptance of new food technologies by reviewing the scientific literature. The review is organised along three routes to consumer acceptance of new technologies: The consumer benefit road: the central road of technology features influencing experienced...... not directly influence perceived product characteristics, but results in novel retail and caterer business models, product placement and customer relation services. The available literature on 4 types of novel food technologies Mild processing technologies; Electromagnetic methods; Texturizing technologies......; and Novel packaging and storage technologies is reviewed along these roads. The results show that research remains fragmented in approach and usually adopts the point of view of a single road to consumer acceptance of a novel technology. Nevertheless by combining the available evidence recommendation can...

  17. Periodontal manifestation comparison in a group of chimu consumers and smokers in Villavicencio, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Forero, Diana; Espinosa, Edgar; Pinzón Castro, Luis Alexys

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: the active ingredient of chewing tobacco, known as chimú in Colombia, is nicotine, a liquid, oily and colorless alkaloid that goes through the oral mucosa, which is a triggering factor and further problem in periodontal diseases. The objective of this analysis was to determine the difference in patients consuming chewing tobacco (chimu), compared to a group of cigarette smokers and a group of non-smokers. Methods: a case and cross-sectional study, with a sample, for convenience ...

  18. Group-Oriented Services: A Shift towards Consumer-Managed Relationships in the Telecom Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Luka; Bojic, Iva; Podobnik, Vedran; Jezic, Gordan; Kusek, Mario

    Today, telecom operators face a threefold challenge: a social challenge dealing with the evolution of the consumer lifestyle, a technological challenge dealing with ever changing ICT trends and a business challenge dealing with the need for innovative business models. This paper introduces an idea of group-oriented services, a special type of personalized telecom services, as a possible solution for all three of these challenges. A proof-of-concept service, called Agent-Based Mobile Content Brokerage, is presented and elaborated with the aim to demonstrate a shift towards consumer-managed relationships, a novel provisioning paradigm within the telecom industry.

  19. How report cards on physicians, physician groups, and hospitals can have greater impact on consumer choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Eastman, Diana; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2012-03-01

    Public report cards with quality and cost information on physicians, physician groups, and hospital providers have proliferated in recent years. However, many of these report cards are difficult for consumers to interpret and have had little impact on the provider choices consumers are making. To gain a more focused understanding of why these reports cards have not been more successful and what improvements could be made, we interviewed experts and surveyed registrants at the March 2011 AHRQ National Summit on Public Reporting for Consumers in Health Care. We found broad agreement that public reporting has been disconnected from consumer decisions about providers because of weaknesses in report card content, design, and accessibility. Policy makers have an opportunity to change the landscape of public reporting by taking advantage of advances in measurement, data collection, and information technology to deliver a more consumer-centered report card. Overcoming the constraint of limited public funding, and achieving the acceptance of providers, is critical to realizing future success.

  20. Consumer Perceived Risk, Attitude and Online Shopping Behaviour; Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin

    2014-06-01

    The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.

  1. Genetic evidence of geographical groups among Neanderthals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Fabre

    Full Text Available The Neanderthals are a well-distinguished Middle Pleistocene population which inhabited a vast geographical area extending from Europe to western Asia and the Middle East. Since the 1950s paleoanthropological studies have suggested variability in this group. Different sub-groups have been identified in western Europe, in southern Europe and in the Middle East. On the other hand, since 1997, research has been published in paleogenetics, carried out on 15 mtDNA sequences from 12 Neanderthals. In this paper we used a new methodology derived from different bioinformatic models based on data from genetics, demography and paleoanthropology. The adequacy of each model was measured by comparisons between simulated results (obtained by BayesianSSC software and those estimated from nucleotide sequences (obtained by DNAsp4 software. The conclusions of this study are consistent with existing paleoanthropological research and show that Neanderthals can be divided into at least three groups: one in western Europe, a second in the Southern area and a third in western Asia. Moreover, it seems from our results that the size of the Neanderthal population was not constant and that some migration occurred among the demes.

  2. Evidence for attitudinal-behaviour consistency:Implications for consumer research paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    1983-01-01

    Evidence is presented in this paper to show that the view ofmarketing communications effects promulgated by numerous marketing, advertising and consumer behaviour texts and journals should be questioned. This is the portrayal of advertising, in particular, as strongly persuasive, a pre-purchase influence which acts upon purchase behaviour by first operating upon and modifying mental attitudes. The latent process conception of attitude upon which this perspective is founded lacks convincing em...

  3. ANALYZING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN ONLINE GROUP BUYING IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Selimovic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Online buying is one of the most popular activities on the Internet, and within that group buying is one of the activities in the trend as a popular form of electronic commerce. Group buying is a worldwide phenomenon, and more recently very popular form of doing business on the local market. But the reasons why consumers are practicing such purchases, how they behave when buying, and what motivates them to buy are still not fully explored. The purpose of this paper is to get an insight into what the main factors are that the online consumers take into consideration when purchasing online. This paper will show how a new form of Internet commerce has found a way to turn the economic crisis to its benefit. Respectively, how consumers, encouraged by a limited purchasing power, unite and strengthen their position against the sellers to obtain a volume discount. The paper is based on an online questionnaire conducted by the authors on a sample of 562 respondents in BiH.

  4. Applying social marketing in health care: communicating evidence to change consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; McCormack, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    Social marketing uses commercial marketing strategies to change individual and organizational behavior and policies. It has been effective on a population level across a wide range of public health and health care domains. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing in changing health care consumer behavior through its impact on patient-provider interaction or provider behavior. Social marketers need to identify translatable strategies (e.g., competition analysis, branding, and tailored messages) that can be applied to health care provider and consumer behavior. Three case studies from social marketing illustrate potential strategies to change provider and consumer behavior. Countermarketing is a rapidly growing social marketing strategy that has been effective in tobacco control and may be effective in countering pharmaceutical marketing using specific message strategies. Informed decision making is a useful strategy when there is medical uncertainty, such as in prostate cancer screening and treatment. Pharmaceutical industry marketing practices offer valuable lessons for developing competing messages to reach providers and consumers. Social marketing is an effective population-based behavior change strategy that can be applied in individual clinical settings and as a complement to reinforce messages communicated on a population level. There is a need for more research on message strategies that work in health care and population-level effectiveness studies.

  5. The Impact of Smoking Bans on Smoking and Consumer Behavior: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Stefan; Marti, Joachim; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we exploit the progressive implementation of smoking bans in public venues at the state level in Switzerland to evaluate both the direct effects on smoking and the potential unintended consequences of these legislations on consumer behaviors as measured by visiting restaurants/bars and discos ('going out'). Our results indicate that public venue smoking bans in Switzerland reduce smoking rates, but the findings do not emerge until 1 year following the ban. This pattern of results is consistent with delays in ban enforcement on the part of business owners, difficulties in changing addictive behaviors such as smoking, and/or learning on the part of smokers. We find evidence that smoking bans influence going-out behavior and there is substantial heterogeneity across venue and consumer characteristics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Contrary to Psychological and Popular Opinion, There Is No Compelling Evidence That Older Adults Are Disproportionately Victimized by Consumer Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael; Grossmann, Igor; Schryer, Emily

    2014-07-01

    According to psychological and popular opinion, older persons are especially susceptible to consumer fraud. Research on cognitive and affective aging reveals age-related changes that could increase the vulnerability of older persons to consumer fraud. However, this research does not show that consumer fraud actually is more prevalent among older persons. In generalizing from laboratory findings of cognitive decline to age differences in the prevalence of consumer fraud, psychologists may underestimate the influence in everyday life of possible protective factors associated with old age, including increased experience and changes in goals, lifestyle, income, as well as purchasing and risk behaviors. We review evidence on the prevalence of consumer fraud and conclude that there is no clear indication that it is more prevalent among older persons. Aggregating across all consumer frauds, there is evidence that consumer fraud is less common among older persons than adults of other ages. This evidence is potentially flawed, however, because of failings inherent in the methodologies. In the absence of irrefutable data, it is premature to conclude that consumer fraud is less prevalent among older adults, but it is also premature to conclude that consumer fraud is more prevalent among older persons, as is assumed in conventional and psychological wisdom.

  7. Consumer evaluation and satisfaction with individual versus group parent training for children with hyperkinetic disorder (HKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubeck, Bernd G; Otte, Thomas A; Lauth, Gerhard W

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the social validity of cognitive-behavioural parent training (CBPT) delivered in two formats to parents who have children with hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) with and without medication. Compared individual with group treatment as part of a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Obtained a broad range of evaluations and satisfaction ratings post-treatment and related them to pre-treatment and treatment factors. Attendance rates were high in the individual and slightly less in the group training. Levels of satisfaction were high in both treatment arms with large numbers rating the outcomes, the trainers and the overall training very favourably. Medication showed no effect on parental evaluations. Evaluation of outcomes and satisfaction with the trainer emerged as strong predictors of overall programme satisfaction. The social validity of cognitive-behavioural parent training for hyperkinetic children was supported by high levels of treatment acceptability across a range of indicators and for children with and without medication. Both forms of treatment delivery lead to high rates of consumer satisfaction. Consumer evaluations of CBPT appear independent of medication for HKD. Course satisfaction is clearly associated with two factors that trainers can affect: The parent-trainer relationship and parents' sense of achievement. Far more mothers than fathers attended the trainings. Attitudes may differ in other cultures. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Effect of consumer behaviour and perception on car purchase decision: Empirical Evidence from Lagos - Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Samuel Taiwo Akinyele

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent days Nigeria is witnessing a change in consumerism. The market is now predominantly consumer driven. The focus is shifting for product based marketing to need based marketing. Consumer is given many options to decide. Passenger car segment is no exception to this general trend. An effective market communication is imperative for reaching the target audience. So it is important that we study the consumer perceptions and behaviour of the car owners which will give us feedback on how marketing strategies can be worked. Victoria Island in Lagos State, which is in the Southern part of Nigeria, has a progressive and growing market for cars. This area was selected for this study.Pre-testing was done by an interview schedule which was developed and administered to a convenient sample of twenty five car owners. A simple random sampling technique was adopted in the study to select the sample respondents. As the size of the universe is restricted, the study has been conducted on the respondents who are the owners of all the segments of passenger cars. A total of 350 interview schedules were prepared and out of this, only 327 interview schedules were filled up and collected. Data were collected through an interview schedule regarding reception of the respondents on the usage of cars. The following tools were used in testing the hypotheses and in the analysis of data. Descriptive statistical tools such as percentage, mean, median and standard deviation have been used to describe the profiles of consumers, preferred product attributes and level of satisfaction. ANOVA, T- Test and F- test have been used to test the significant differences between the groups of respondents in their perception and satisfaction for selected independent variable like age, sex and income. Chi-square test has been used to test the association between the consumer demographic characteristics and preferred product attributes and satisfaction. Multiple regression analysis has

  9. A focus group on cognition-enhancing medications in Alzheimer disease: disparities between professionals and consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, S G; Stuckey, J C; Whitehouse, P J; Ollerton, S; Durkin, C; Robbins, D; Fallcreek, S J

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of cognition-enhancing drugs in the treatment of Alzheimer disease raises questions about quality of lives for those with dementia and for their caregivers, and about the perceptions of health care professionals. This pilot study analyzes a limited data from a series of three focus groups on the experience of treatment. These groups engaged both Alzheimer disease-affected persons, their caregivers, and a multidisciplinary professional core. We conclude that therapeutic goals need to be better addressed with patients and families, as well as better monitored, with the possibility of withdrawing therapy as appropriate. We also detected, as hypothesized, considerable disparity between the perspectives of professionals and consumers regarding the benefits of therapy.

  10. HOW CAFE INFLUENCES AUTO FIRMS AND CONSUMERS?  USING EVIDENCE FROM U.S. MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the CAFE regulation influences the auto firms’ behavior and the consumers’ behavior. To be specific, I examine the influence of CAFE on three groups of auto firms’ pricing and production decision as well as the influence on consumers’ consumption decision on model choice and the vehicle miles to travel. Through estimating the simultaneous production and pricing equation system for firm, the paper indicates that previous literature that estimates the supply equation separately for each firm is misleading and CAFE regulation has different effects on unconstrained group, constrained group and fine-paying group through different channels. Also the CAFE regulation affects the consumer behavior since CAFE has unbalanced effects on prices of different auto models.

  11. Moderating effect of peer group environment on consumer predisposition towards premium promotions: A study on young urban consumers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhojit Banerjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of peer-group environment as an influencing factor in purchase decisions is well established. This paper broadens the above premise and studies the influence of peer-group environment on an individual's promotional choice in the context of premium promotions or freebies. Two sets of college students with distinctive peer-group settings in terms of their academic pursuit and residential details have been considered for the study. Discriminant analysis shows that higher interaction and educational orientation of group members influence the customer's promotional preference. Students pursuing professionally oriented courses had a distinctively higher preference for premium-promotions that were hedonic.

  12. The productive techniques and constitutive effects of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' discourses in health policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, K; Seear, K; Treloar, C; Ritter, A

    2017-03-01

    For over twenty years there have been calls for greater 'consumer' participation in health decision-making. While it is recognised by governments and other stakeholders that 'consumer' participation is desirable, barriers to meaningful involvement nonetheless remain. It has been suggested that the reifying of 'evidence-based policy' may be limiting opportunities for participation, through the way this discourse legitimates particular voices to the exclusion of others. Others have suggested that assumptions underpinning the very notion of the 'affected community' or 'consumers' as fixed and bounded 'policy publics' need to be problematised. In this paper, drawing on interviews (n = 41) with individuals closely involved in Australian drug policy discussions, we critically interrogate the productive techniques and constitutive effects of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' discourses in the context of drug policy processes. To inform our analysis, we draw on and combine a number of critical perspectives including Foucault's concept of subjugated knowledges, the work of feminist theorists, as well as recent work regarding conceptualisations of emergent policy publics. First, we explore how the subject position of 'consumer' might be seen as enacted in the material-discursive practices of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' in drug policy processes. Secondly, we consider the centralising power-effects of the dominant 'evidence-based policy' paradigm, and how resistance may be thought about in this context. We suggest that such interrogation has potential to recast the call for 'consumer' participation in health policy decision-making and drug policy processes.

  13. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  14. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00). Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  15. Self-expression, group affiliation, pleasure and memory as predictors of consumer product attachment and satisfaction among mobile phone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagiso Tlhabano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the post-purchase behaviour of a product, there are challenges with change in the degree of consumer product attachment, and these challenges affect consumer product satisfaction overtime. This study investigated how self-expression, group affiliation, memory, and demographic variables predicted consumer product attachment and satisfaction among mobile phone users in Ibadan. Three hundred students of the University of Ibadan were selected using convenient random selection. Their mean age was 20.7 and standard deviation of 2.52. A structured questionnaire consisting of the socio demographic section, measure of self-expression, group affiliation, memory, pleasure, consumer attachment and product satisfaction was used to collect the data. Using multiple regression analysis, the results showed that self-expression, group affiliation, memories and pleasure jointly predicted consumer attachment among mobile phone users, F (4,299 = 48.47; P<0.05 and they contributed 40% to the variance of consumer attachment. Self-expression (β = 0.26, t = 4.44, P<0.05, memory (β = 0.29, t = 4.97, P<0.05, and pleasure (β = 0.28, t =5.01, P<0.05 independently predicted consumer attachment while group affiliation did not. In addition, self- expression, group affiliation, memories and pleasure jointly predicted product satisfaction, F (4,299 =39.79; P<0.05 and they contributed 35% to the variance of product satisfaction. Pleasure (β=0.596, t =10.35, P<0.05 independently predicted product satisfaction while self-expression, group affiliation and memory did not. Furthermore, age, gender, mobile type, ethnicity and religion did not jointly and independently predict consumer product satisfaction. These findings have implication for mobile phone manufacturers in terms of product improvement and building a strategic marketing channel that would meet the needs of global consumers.

  16. Consumer Attention, Engagement, and Market Shares: Evidence from the Carbonated Soft Drinks Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizao; Rui, Huaxia

    2014-01-01

    among consumers and between consumers and brands. Social media users can now interact with brands directly through Facebook and Twitter. These new features make social media a very distinctive class of online WOM. In this paper, we formulate a random coefficient discrete choice model of consumer demand to study whether and how consumer engagement and attention on the Internet affect the consumption of carbonated soft drinks (CSDs). We model consumer attention and engagement on social media as...

  17. Book Review: Digital Health Information for the Consumer: Evidence and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Sedghi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wide and easy availability of health information for the general public is something that governments consider beneficial to the public as it improves the public health, helps large-scale preventative medicine and eventually reduces the costs of health services for governments. Most counties have plans for providing the public with easy-reachable health information. Developed countries make use of new information and communication technologies such as the Internet, digital interactive televisions and touch screen kiosks for this purpose. However, using new channels and media for providing information services on sensitive issues such as public health is not free from challenge and every new service needs to be evaluated and monitored carefully for the best outcome. The book ‘Digital Health Information for the Consumer: Evidence and Policy Implications’ is based on a range of qualitative and quantitative evaluative research studies conducted on several health information services in the UK.

  18. Presenting evidence to patients online: what do web users think of consumer summaries of cochrane musculoskeletal reviews?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehaut, Jamie C; Santesso, Nancy; O'Connor, Annette M; Lott, Alison; Lindgaard, Gitte; Syrowatka, Ania; Graham, Ian D; Tugwell, Peter S

    2011-01-18

    The Internet has the potential to be an effective medium for delivering health care knowledge to consumers. While computer usability research makes recommendations about how to present Web-based information generally, there remains no clear guidance on how to present specific forms of health care research evidence online in a way that facilitates understanding and good health care decision making. The two goals of this study were to describe the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group's (CMSG's) process for developing online patient-focused summaries of systematic reviews and to evaluate the impressions of these summaries formed by users. A process for summarizing the results of systematic reviews via consumer summaries has evolved over 15 years. An evaluation of this approach took the form of Internet surveys on the Arthritis Society of Canada website and surveys of members of the Canadian Arthritis Patient Alliance (CAPA). Respondents provided information on background, relationship to the decision, their satisfaction with and preparation for decision making, and suggestions for improvements to the summaries. Survey data were collected between August 1, 2005, and February 28, 2006. A total of 261 respondents completed the survey. The majority (226/261 or 87%) of respondents reported having an arthritis-related condition. The consumer summary approach was generally reviewed favorably by respondents, with most agreeing that the summary provided appropriate information (177/261 or 68%), would be useful to others (160/261 or 61%), was well laid out (159/261 or 61%), was easy to learn from (157/261 or 60%), and was useful to the reader (153/261 or 59%). Areas of potential improvement were indicated by relatively fewer respondents agreeing that they could easily find all the information they wanted (118/261 or 45%), by a substantial proportion being unable to judge whether the providers of the information are reliable (80/261 or 31%), and by a similar proportion being unable to

  19. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    OpenAIRE

    Munch-Andersen, Thor; Olsen, David B.; Søndergaard, Hans; Daugaard, Jens R.; Bysted, Anette; Dirk L. Christensen; Saltin, Bengt; Helge, Jørn W

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index). Study design: Cross sectional study, comparing Inuit eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Methods: Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq) and 15 eating a western...

  20. Optimal Effort in Consumer Choice : Theory and Experimental Evidence for Binary Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model of optimal effort in consumer choice.The model extends previous consumer choice models in that the consumer not only chooses a product, but also decides how much effort to apply to a given choice problem.The model yields a unique optimal level of effort, which

  1. Executive compensation in business groups: Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guilong Cai; Guojian Zheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines executive compensation in the subsidiaries of business groups in China. Analyzing a sample of China business groups(the so-called"Xi Zu Ji Tuan" in Chinese) from 2003 to 2012, we find convincing evidence of the use of Relative Performance Evaluation(RPE) in the executive compensation of the subsidiaries of business groups. Specifically, when the change in performance of one subsidiary is lower than that of the other subsidiaries,the change in its executive compensation is significantly lower. Further, when the business group is private and the level of marketization is high, the subsidiary’s executive compensation is more likely to be influenced by the performance of the other subsidiaries. This research improves our understanding of the decision mechanisms of executive compensation in business groups and enriches the literature on executive compensation and business groups.

  2. Operationalizing Consumer Decision Making and Choice in the VR Process. Institute on Rehabilitation Issues (21st, Baltimore, Maryland, March 1995). Report from the Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Ronald R., Ed.

    This document is the product of meetings of the Prime Study Group of the Institute on Rehabilitation Issues, whose mission was to: examine consumer choice and decision making in rehabilitation; review the legislation and consumer movements leading to greater consumer choice; identify the roles and responsibilities of the consumer, the counselor,…

  3. Multicultural competence and evidence-based practice in group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eric C; Kakkad, Dhruvi; Balzano, Julie

    2008-11-01

    The multicultural competence (MC) and evidence-based practice (EBP) initiatives have each generated healthy debates in the mental health field, with ample implications for clinical training and practice. Using two case illustrations, we highlight practical challenges and prospects in the intersection of MC and EBP. To facilitate complementary practice of MC and EBP, we offer strategies for the group therapist as a "local clinical scientist" to deliver culturally responsive treatments. We stress the importance of cultural adaptation of EBP models, namely, modifying evidence-based interventions that involve changes in service delivery, in the nature of the therapeutic relationship, or in components of the treatment itself to accommodate the cultural beliefs and behaviors of racial-cultural minority clients. Cultural adaptation of EBP in group therapy needs to be grounded in developmental contextualism and social justice. We discuss the two cases with an eye toward advancing multicultural competence in group therapy.

  4. Translating evidence for low back pain management into a consumer-focussed resource for use in community pharmacies: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Helen; Briggs, Andrew M; Watkins, Kim; Chua, Jason; Smith, Anne J

    2013-01-01

    This cluster-randomised controlled trial determined the effectiveness of an evidence-based, pamphlet intervention in improving low back pain (LBP)-related beliefs among pharmacy consumers. THIRTY FIVE COMMUNITY PHARMACIES WERE RANDOMISED TO THREE GROUPS: pamphlet+education intervention [n = 11]; pamphlet only intervention [n = 11]; control: usual care [n = 13]. Eligibility requirements for clusters included: community-based pharmacies and proprietor participation consent. Pharmacy consumers (N = 317) aged 18-65 years currently experiencing LBP participated. Intervention group allocation depended on the pharmacy attended. Individual-level outcomes were measured at pre-intervention (T0), at two (T1) and eight (T2) weeks post-intervention and included beliefs about LBP [Back Pain Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ); Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ)]. Secondary outcomes included pain severity, activity impairment and pamphlet perceived usefulness. Blinding to group allocation included primary investigators, outcome assessors and the statistician. Pharmacy staff and consumers were un-blinded. Of 35 pharmacies recruited (317 consumers), no clusters were lost to follow-up. Follow-up was available for n = 24 at 2 weeks only; n = 38 at 8 weeks only; n = 148 at both time points, with n = 148+24+38 = 210 analysed (107 excluded: no follow up). Adjusting for baseline scores demonstrated no significant differences in beliefs (2 or at 8 weeks) between pamphlet (with or without education) versus control, or between 'pamphlet with' versus 'without' education. Work-related fear (FABQ) was significantly lower in consumers receiving pamphlet (with or without education) versus control (difference -2.3, 95%CI: -4.4 to -0.2). There was no significant difference between "pamphlet with" versus "pamphlet without" groups. Consumers receiving the "pamphlet with" reported greater perceived usefulness than consumers receiving the "pamphlet without

  5. CORPORATE REPUTATION INFLUENCES CONSUMER SATISFACTION AND LOYALTY: EVIDENCE FROM CELLULAR INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMRAN ALI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that it takes five times more expenses to attract new customer than to retain existing consumer. The growing concern of corporations in today’s competitive environment is to retain consumers. As a result, plenty of researches have been conducted to identify the approaches to satisfy and retain consumers. The current study examines the affects of corporate reputation on consumer satisfaction and consumer loyalty. The primary data has been collected from the consumers of cellular industry in Pakistan. The rationale behind selecting respondents from cellular industry is the intense competition, which is enduring in the cellular companies of Pakistan. The study used SPSS and AMOS to analyze the data. The correlation analysis, regression analysis, reliability analysis and model fit index analysis has been used to test hypotheses and interpret some interesting results. The study found significantly positive associations of corporate reputation on consumer satisfaction and consumer loyalty. The study also found strongly positive affects of consumer satisfaction on consumer loyalty for the case of cellular industry of Pakistan. The study proposes some useful recommendations for policy makers in the area.

  6. IS IT WORTH THE COST? MARKETING TO NEGATIVELY PERCEIVED CONSUMER GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Baxter

    2007-01-01

    Examining consumer concerns is of importance to marketers. Some concerns include the desire for businesses to be more socially responsible through products and being more inclusive in advertisements. . To stress the need for social responsibility, consumers have reverted to using civil disobedience. A civil disobedience tool, the boycott, is now being used to protest not only unethical behaviors, but to also discourage businesses from marketing to certain populations and from giving employees...

  7. THE RESEARCH OF CONSUMER SATISFACTION, CASE: MONTENEGRO STARS HOTEL GROUP (MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Blagojević - Popović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to gain the insight into consumers' satisfaction and the measures undertaken by hotel management of the prestigious Montenegrin Company, Montenegro Stars, in order to improve the quality of customer relationships. The special focus is to emphasize the significance and causality of marketing research of consumer satisfaction in marketing decision-making process in the hotel industry in Montenegro. Approach- The basic principle of successful business involves an adequate marketing response to the increasingly sophisticated demands of the "new consumer", who more or less fits into the framework of a consumer society. It is possible to anticipate consumers and their needs by knowing them, and thus gain a strategic and competitive advantage in the market. Findings- The current international market situation is still influenced by the negative effects of the economic crisis. In this situation, most hotels in Montenegro find it difficult to achieve defined business goals. The answers should be sought primarily in the consumer, who is the center of all marketing activities, and therefore the marketing research. The subject and scope of this research define the methodology of the scientific research paper. The primary research is consisted of the test method, and the questionnaire is used as the instrument of research. It is expected that this research will initiate further research in this very actual and under-researched area, which "paves a new path" for contribution to science and to further interest in marketing research and tourism in general.

  8. The Influencing Factors and Inter-Group Differences for Urban Residents’ Behavior of Consuming Edible Vegetable Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi WU; Wenjie MA

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the determinant factors and inter-group differences of Chinese urban residents’ edible vegetable oil consuming behavior is very important for us to understand their consumption features of edible vegetable oil,so as to guide their consuming behavior and improve China’s vegetable oil industry security.In this article,urban residents of China’s three traditional vegetable oil main production areas have been chosen as study objects,and multiple linear regression and one-way ANOVA have been used to do empirical analysis on the determinant factors and inter-group differences of their edible vegetable oil consuming behavior.The results indicate that the edible vegetable oil consuming behavior of urban residents from China’s three traditional vegetable oil main production areas show a trend of diversification;" publicity measures"," preference evaluation"," personal characteristics" and " family characteristics" remarkably affect urban residents’ edible vegetable oil consuming behavior and show obvious provincial characteristics.In addition,urban residents from different groups show differences in terms of " publicity measures" and " preference evaluation".

  9. Consumer perceptions of food safety risk:Evidence from a segmentation study in Albania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edvin Zhllima; Drini Imami; Maurizio Canavari

    2015-01-01

    Albania is facing serious problems with the national food safety control system in terms of legislation, control and enforce-ment. The objective of this paper is to analyse consumer perceptions about safety of smal ruminant meat in Tirana, in a context of weak enforcement of the food safety system. Applying two-step clustering analyses, consumers were classiifed in four socio-demographic clusters, and it was found that the cluster composed of female consumers with lower education and income levels, and the two clusters composed of male consumers perceive consumed meat as safe. Consumers in the cluster composed of females with university education and higher income are, on average, more concerned with current meat safety measures and tend to place more trust in the veterinarian stamp on meat carcasses rather than in local butchers.

  10. IDENTIFYING CONSUMER VALUATION PATTERNS OF ALTERNATIVE NUTRITION AND HEALTH LABELS COMBINATIONS: EVIDENCE FROM SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro-Hurlé, Jesús; Gracia, Azucena; de Magistris, Tiziana

    2009-01-01

    The provision of nutrition and health information on food labels is increasing as an industry and regulation answer to the growing consumer concern with diet-health relationships. Prior research has shown that the presence of this information on food labels is valued by consumers; however there is still no clear pattern on which labelling options are more valued and how different consumers value the different options. This paper analyses the results of a choice experiment conducted to identif...

  11. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visram, Shelina; Cheetham, Mandy; Riby, Deborah M; Crossley, Stephen J; Lake, Amelia A

    2016-10-08

    To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority employed a cross-sectional design, involved participants aged 11-18 years, and were conducted in North America or Europe. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people was found to be patterned by gender, with boys consuming more than girls, and also by activity levels, with the highest consumption observed in the most and least sedentary individuals. Several studies identified a strong, positive association between the use of energy drinks and higher odds of health-damaging behaviours, as well as physical health symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, hyperactivity and insomnia. There was some evidence of a dose-response effect. 2 experimental studies involving small numbers of junior athletes demonstrated a positive impact on limited aspects of sports performance. 3 themes emerged from the qualitative studies: reasons for use; influences on use; and perceived efficacy and impact. Taste and energy-seeking were identified as key drivers, and branding and marketing were highlighted as major influences on young people's consumption choices. Awareness of possible negative effects was low. There is growing evidence that consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of adverse outcomes and risk behaviours in terms of children's health and well-being. However, taste, brand loyalty and perceived positive effects combine to ensure their popularity with young consumers. More research is needed to explore the short-term and long-term impacts in all spheres, including health, behaviour and education. CRD42014010192. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  12. Application of Group-Level Item Response Models in the Evaluation of Consumer Reports about Health Plan Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reise, Steven P.; Meijer, Rob R.; Ainsworth, Andrew T.; Morales, Leo S.; Hays, Ron D.

    2006-01-01

    Group-level parametric and non-parametric item response theory models were applied to the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS[R]) 2.0 core items in a sample of 35,572 Medicaid recipients nested within 131 health plans. Results indicated that CAHPS responses are dominated by within health plan variation, and only weakly…

  13. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Thor; Olsen, David B.; Søndergaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Methods: Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq) and 15 eating a western diet (TAB), age (mean (range)); 38, (22–58) yrs, BMI; 28 (20–40) were subjected to an oral glucose...

  14. Antecedents and effects of consumer involvement in fish as a product group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2000-01-01

    The importance of the symbolic value and of the product utility for a consumer's involvement in fish products was determined by applying a model tod ata collected in Denmark in 1999. The relative importance of these two antecedents of product involvement differed between two segments of consumers...... important to marketing strategies. However, the potential effects of involvement did not differ between the segments. Rather, the customer's involvement ensures that sign value and utility have effects such as greater enjoyment of shopping and higher frequency of usage....

  15. Antecedents and effects of consumer involvement in fish as a product group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2000-01-01

    The importance of the symbolic value and of the product utility for a consumer's involvement in fish products was determined by applying a model tod ata collected in Denmark in 1999. The relative importance of these two antecedents of product involvement differed between two segments of consumers...... important to marketing strategies. However, the potential effects of involvement did not differ between the segments. Rather, the customer's involvement ensures that sign value and utility have effects such as greater enjoyment of shopping and higher frequency of usage....

  16. Genetic evidence for patrilocal mating behavior among Neandertal groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena

    2011-01-01

    individuals stem from three different maternal lineages, accounting for seven, four, and one individual(s), respectively. Using a Y-chromosome assay to confirm the morphological determination of sex for each individual, we found that, although the three adult males carried the same mtDNA lineage, each...... of the three adult females carried different mtDNA lineages. These findings provide evidence to indicate that Neandertal groups not only were small and characterized by low genetic diversity but also were likely to have practiced patrilocal mating behavior....

  17. Does Consumer Confidence Forecast Household Saving and Borrowing Behavior? Evidence for Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłopocka, Aneta Maria

    2017-01-01

    Consumer confidence plays an important role in households' decision-making processes. This study investigates the effects of consumer confidence on household saving and borrowing behavior that are unsatisfactorily considered in previous discussions. The questions of interest are first, whether indexes of consumer confidence have any predictive power on their own for future household saving and borrowing rates, and second, whether they contain information about future household saving and borrowing rates aside from the information contained in other available indicators. In addition to aggregate confidence indicators, their components are used to provide more precise information. Overall, the multiple linear regression analysis (OLS technique) of Polish time-series data gives positive answers to both questions. This finding supports the recommendation of combining the strengths of objective indicators (such as economic fundamentals) and subjective indicators (such as consumer confidence) to improve household financial behavior forecasts.

  18. Intention to purchase organic food among young consumers: Evidences from a developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rambalak; Pathak, Govind Swaroop

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the consumer's intention to purchase organic food in the context of a developing nation (India) using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Further, the study has incorporated additional constructs (moral attitude, health consciousness and environmental concern) in the TPB and measured its appropriateness. Responses were collected from 220 young consumers adopting convenience sampling approach. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to evaluate the strength of relationship between the constructs. The findings reported that the TPB partially supported the organic food purchase intention. Among the additional constructs incorporated, moral attitude and health consciousness positively influenced the consumer's intention to purchase organic food. The study has supported the inclusion of new constructs in the TPB as it has improved the predictive power of the proposed framework in determining consumer's intention to purchase organic food.

  19. Sales drive advertising expenditures: Evidence for consumer packaged and durable goods in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Lischka, Juliane A.; Kienzler, Stephanie; Mellmann, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The relation between sales and advertising is both complex and diverse. Whether advertising activities drive or follow sales is still unclear. We uncover this relation distinguishing between consumer packaged goods (CPG) and durable consumer goods (DCG) industries. We fit vector autoregressive models to sales and advertising expenditures of four CPG and three DCG industries in Germany from 1991 q1 to 2009 q4. Findings reveal that advertising expenditures do not increase total sales of industr...

  20. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health.

  1. A small group learning model for evidence-based medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Achkar M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Morhaf Al Achkar, M Kelly Davies Department of Family Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: Evidence-based medicine (EBM skills are invaluable tools for residents and practicing physicians. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of small-group learning models in teaching fundamental EBM skills. Methods: The intervention consisted of an EBM bootcamp divided into four 2-hour sessions across 4-week rotations. Residents worked in small groups of three to four to explore fundamentals of EBM through interactive dialogue and mock clinical scenario practice. The intervention’s effectiveness was evaluated using pre- and post-assessments. Results: A total of 40 (93.0% residents out of a potential 43 participated in the EBM bootcamps across the 3 years. There was significant improvement of 3.28 points on self-assessed EBM skills from an average of 9.66–12.945 out of a maximum score of 15 (P=0.000. There was significant improvement of 1.68 points on the EBM skills test from an average of 6.02–7.71 out of a maximum score of 9 (P=0.00. All residents (100% agreed or strongly agreed that EBM is important for a physician’s clinical practice. This view did not change after the training. Conclusion: A brief small-group interactive workshop in EBM basic skills at the start of residency was effective in developing fundamental EBM skills. Keywords: evidence-based medicine, resident training, small group

  2. Consumer buying behavior in Chinese clothing market : Case Bestseller Fashion Group China Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Guodong

    2011-01-01

    The background of the thesis dates back to the year of 2010, when I was contacted by a Chinese fashion shop ShunTong Fashion Factory. To survive from the increasing competition, the shop was considering expanding product range by adding Bestseller on the list. Duo to that reason, the thesis was carried out for Shuntong Fashion factory to conduct a market research concerning Chinese consumer buying behavior regarding clothes buying and opinions on Bestseller products were also needed. The ...

  3. Does personality explain in-group identification and discrimination? Evidence from the minimal group paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Katherine J; Turner, John C; Haslam, S Alexander; Ryan, Michelle K; Bizumic, Boris; Subasic, Emina

    2007-09-01

    The idea that a person's personality can help explain prejudice has a long history in social psychology. The classic counter-argument has been that prejudice is much more a function of people's group memberships and the nature of intergroup relations rather than individual differences. Bringing these two lines of research together, it has been suggested that personality factors may not only affect intergroup discrimination directly, but also indirectly by predisposing some individuals to identify more strongly with some relevant in-group membership. Two experiments were conducted to investigate this possibility. The participants completed various personality measures (e.g. authoritarianism, personal need for structure and ethnocentrism as well as social dominance orientation (SDO) in Experiment 2). They were then assigned to minimal groups either randomly, by choice, or (supposedly) on the basis of attitudinal similarity. In Experiment 2, the minimal group paradigm was also adapted to examine the role of SDO. Overall, there was no evidence of significant relationships between traditional personality measures and either in-group identification or discrimination. In-group identification alone emerged as the strongest predictor of discrimination. There was evidence that those participants who scored higher in SDO were more likely to act in ways that supported the creation of a power hierarchy. The implications for broader understanding of prejudice are discussed.

  4. Implementing evidence-based medicine in general practice: a focus group based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aertgeerts Bert

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past years concerns are rising about the use of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM in health care. The calls for an increase in the practice of EBM, seem to be obstructed by many barriers preventing the implementation of evidence-based thinking and acting in general practice. This study aims to explore the barriers of Flemish GPs (General Practitioners to the implementation of EBM in routine clinical work and to identify possible strategies for integrating EBM in daily work. Methods We used a qualitative research strategy to gather and analyse data. We organised focus groups between September 2002 and April 2003. The focus group data were analysed using a combined strategy of 'between-case' analysis and 'grounded theory approach'. Thirty-one general practitioners participated in four focus groups. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants. Results A basic classification model documents the influencing factors and actors on a micro-, meso- as well as macro-level. Patients, colleagues, competences, logistics and time were identified on the micro-level (the GPs' individual practice, commercial and consumer organisations on the meso-level (institutions, organisations and health care policy, media and specific characteristics of evidence on the macro-level (policy level and international scientific community. Existing barriers and possible strategies to overcome these barriers were described. Conclusion In order to implement EBM in routine general practice, an integrated approach on different levels needs to be developed.

  5. Evidence-based practice in group work with incarcerated youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Ashley; Shera, Wes

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the Youth Criminal Justice Act's increased focus on restorative justice, treatment, rehabilitation, and reintegration of youth, many more juvenile offenders require mental health services while resident in youth detention facilities [Youth Criminal Justice Act (2002, c.1). Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved September 19, 2008 from http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/Y-1.5]. Several common characteristics such as violence, aggression, and other antisocial behaviors, associated with criminal behavior, have been identified among male and female offenders. Dialectical behavior therapy, originally developed by Linehan [Linehan, M. M., 1993a. Cognitive-behavioural treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guildford Press] for chronically parasuicidal women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, has been successfully modified for use with other populations, including violent and impulse-oriented male and female adolescents residing in correctional facilities. The intent of this article is to encourage the wider use of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) with young offenders. It includes an extensive review of the evidence-base to date and describes some of the creative modifications that have been made to standard DBT program format to meet the particular needs of various groups in both Canada and the United States. In keeping with the movement toward more evidence-based practice, the authors argue that DBT is a promising approach in group work with incarcerated adolescents and should be more widely used.

  6. How Social Ties Influence Consumer: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing; Yao, Zhong; Bai, Yan

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties) than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties). To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review]) that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review), participants were required to state their purchase intentions. The neurocognitive and emotional processes related to friend and stranger stimuli were delineated to suggest how social ties influence consumers during their shopping processes. Larger P2 (fronto-central scalp areas) and P3 (central and posterior-parietal scalp areas) components under stranger condition were elicited successfully. These findings demonstrate that the cognitive and emotional processing of friend and stranger stimuli occurs at stages of neural activity, and can be indicated by the P2 and P3 components. Electrophysiological data also support the hypothesis that different neural and emotional processing magnitude and strength underlie friend and stranger effect in the context of consumer purchase. During this process, the perception of stimuli evoked P2, subsequently emotional processing and attention modulation were activated and indicated by P2 and P3. The friend dominated phenomenon can be interpreted as the result of distinctive neurocognitive and emotional processing magnitude, which suggests that psychological and emotional factors can guide consumer decision making. This study consolidates that event related potential (ERP) methodology is likely to be a more sensitive method for investigating consumer behaviors. From the perspectives of management and marketing, our findings show that the P2 and P3 components can be employed as an indicator to probe the influential factors of consumer purchase intentions.

  7. How Social Ties Influence Consumer: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties) than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties). To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review]) that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review), participants were required to state their purchase intentions. The neurocognitive and emotional processes related to friend and stranger stimuli were delineated to suggest how social ties influence consumers during their shopping processes. Larger P2 (fronto-central scalp areas) and P3 (central and posterior-parietal scalp areas) components under stranger condition were elicited successfully. These findings demonstrate that the cognitive and emotional processing of friend and stranger stimuli occurs at stages of neural activity, and can be indicated by the P2 and P3 components. Electrophysiological data also support the hypothesis that different neural and emotional processing magnitude and strength underlie friend and stranger effect in the context of consumer purchase. During this process, the perception of stimuli evoked P2, subsequently emotional processing and attention modulation were activated and indicated by P2 and P3. The friend dominated phenomenon can be interpreted as the result of distinctive neurocognitive and emotional processing magnitude, which suggests that psychological and emotional factors can guide consumer decision making. This study consolidates that event related potential (ERP) methodology is likely to be a more sensitive method for investigating consumer behaviors. From the perspectives of management and marketing, our findings show that the P2 and P3 components can be employed as an indicator to probe the influential factors of consumer purchase intentions. PMID

  8. Subliminal Gestalt grouping: evidence of perceptual grouping by proximity and similarity in absence of conscious perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Pedro R; Luna, Dolores; Ortells, Juan J

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies making use of indirect processing measures have shown that perceptual grouping can occur outside the focus of attention. However, no previous study has examined the possibility of subliminal processing of perceptual grouping. The present work steps forward in the study of perceptual organization, reporting direct evidence of subliminal processing of Gestalt patterns. In two masked priming experiments, Gestalt patterns grouped by proximity or similarity that induced either a horizontal or vertical global orientation of the stimuli were presented as masked primes and followed by visible targets that could be congruent or incongruent with the orientation of the primes. The results showed a reliable priming effect in the complete absence of prime awareness for both proximity and similarity grouping principles. These findings suggest that a phenomenal report of the Gestalt pattern is not mandatory to observe an effect on the response based on the global properties of Gestalt stimuli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How do consumers perceive organic food from different geographic origins? Evidence from Hong Kong and Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Yip

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to understand how Chinese consumers perceive certified organic food, especially the differences between locally and nationally produced organic food compared to food produced overseas. In 2012, a consumer survey was conducted at supermarkets in Hong Kong and Shanghai (N=245. Participants were asked for their perception on four different food origins: locally produced organic food, organic food from China, imported organic food, and locally produced conventional food. Consumers in Hong Kong had a positive attitude towards local organic food and imported organic food. However, they were sceptical about organic food from China, in particular regarding chemical residues and the trustworthiness of producers. Consumers in Shanghai, in contrast, had a positive attitude towards all three tested geographical origins of organic food. Overall, the results suggest that it is challenging for marketers to promote and boost the sales of China-produced organic food in China. Better communication is essential to convince consumers that organic food from China is of similar quality as organic food produced elsewhere.

  10. Consumer trust in food safety--a multidisciplinary approach and empirical evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2008-12-01

    Food scandals that happened in recent years have increased consumers' risk perceptions of foods and decreased their trust in food safety. A better understanding of the consumer trust in food safety can improve the effectiveness of public policy and allow the development of the best practice in risk communication. This study proposes a research framework from a psychometric approach to investigate the relationships between the consumer's trust in food safety and the antecedents of risk perceptions of foods based on a reflexive modernization perspective and a cultural theory perspective in the hope of benefiting the future empirical study. The empirical results from a structural equation modeling analysis of Taiwan as a case in point reveal that this research framework based on a multidisciplinary perspective can be a valuable tool for a growing understanding of consumer trust in food safety. The antecedents in the psychometric research framework comprised reflexive modernization factors and cultural theory factors have all been supported in this study except the consumer's perception of pessimism toward food. Moreover, the empirical results of repeated measures analysis of variance give more detailed information to grasp empirical implications and to provide some suggestions to the actors and institutions involved in the food supply chain in Taiwan.

  11. Consumer-Oriented Policy towards Diffusion of Electric Vehicles: City-Level Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Public policy is crucial for the diffusion of green innovation, and debates exist about the effects of different policies. This paper explores appropriate types of policy instruments by explaining the quick rise in sales of electric vehicles (EVs in China. Based on a three-year longitudinal dataset across 88 cities, the study shows that consumer-oriented policies are able to significantly promote EV diffusion. Consumer-oriented policies target consumers to facilitate their usage of cars and lower the lifecycle cost, and typical examples include electricity charging and traffic management. This paper contributes to the literature of clean technology policy in two ways. Firstly, it reveals and empirically tests the importance of consumer-oriented policy instruments for the deployment of green innovation. Secondly, it is one of very few scholarly works offering a detailed review of city-level policies in China’s EV industry, which will be useful for scholars who are also interested in similar topics.

  12. Consumer Behavior Analysis of Fair Trade Coffee: Evidence from Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Jeanine P.; Werner, Matt J.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers have shown increased interest in purchasing goods with pro- environmental claims or products that promote societal well-being, such as fair wages paid to farmers of the raw materials and workers in the manufacturing process of a good (e.g., social product labels, including Fair Trade). However, few studies have explored actual purchase…

  13. Consumer Behavior Analysis of Fair Trade Coffee: Evidence from Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Jeanine P.; Werner, Matt J.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers have shown increased interest in purchasing goods with pro- environmental claims or products that promote societal well-being, such as fair wages paid to farmers of the raw materials and workers in the manufacturing process of a good (e.g., social product labels, including Fair Trade). However, few studies have explored actual purchase…

  14. Measures of the consumer food store environment: a systematic review of the evidence 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; Hankins, Scott; Jilcott, Stephanie

    2012-08-01

    Description of the consumer food environment has proliferated in publication. However, there has been a lack of systematic reviews focusing on how the consumer food environment is associated with the following: (1) neighborhood characteristics; (2) food prices; (3) dietary patterns; and (4) weight status. We conducted a systematic review of primary, quantitative, observational studies, published in English that conducted an audit of the consumer food environment. The literature search included electronic, hand searches, and peer-reviewed from 2000 to 2011. Fifty six papers met the inclusion criteria. Six studies reported stores in low income neighborhoods or high minority neighborhoods had less availability of healthy food. While, four studies found there was no difference in availability between neighborhoods. The results were also inconsistent for differences in food prices, dietary patterns, and weight status. This systematic review uncovered several key findings. (1) Systematic measurement of determining availability of food within stores and store types is needed; (2) Context is relevant for understanding the complexities of the consumer food environment; (3) Interventions and longitudinal studies addressing purchasing habits, diet, and obesity outcomes are needed; and (4) Influences of price and marketing that may be linked with why people purchase certain items.

  15. Analysis of Consumer Behavior in Virtual Group Buying%消费者网络团购行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯清麟; 张晖勇

    2011-01-01

    消费群体需求具有模糊性、聚集性、个性化以及互动交流话题的集中性、分享心得和体验的主动性等特征,在此基础上,网络团购环境下的消费者购买行为模型IEDGS应运而生。而网上交易的安全性、团购服务企业和商家信誉、售后服务体系、法律监管等问题成为网络团购时主要障碍。为保证消费者网络团购行为的正常进行,必须加强网上交易安全,加强网络团购服务企业和商家的信誉度,进一步完善售后服务,尽快完善法律监管制度。%Consumer groups demand has characters of fuzziness,aggregation,personality,centrality about interactive communication topic,sharing ideas and experience of the initiative,with which the consumer behavior in virtual group buying model-IEDGS emerged then.Some problems,such as online transaction security,group purchase service enterprises and business reputation,after-sales service system,legal and regulatory have been the main obstacles of virtual group buying.In order to ensure the normal consumer behavior in virtual group buying,we need to strengthen the security of online trading,heighten the reputation of group purchase enterprises and business,improve after-sales service and perfect the legal system of supervision.

  16. Factors affecting consumer's continued use of internet banking: Empirical Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujana Adapa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the factors that influence consumers continued use of internet banking in Australia. Patterns of continued use of internet banking have been neglected as most of the existing studies focus on either consumer adoption or acceptance of internet banking. However, in comparison to new customer acquisition, measures of continued use of internet banking are important as it is related to a cost-effective marketing strategy aimed at retaining customers. The present study is a response to a gap in existing literature which requires the application of more integrated theory testing and the identification of factors that influence the continued use of internet banking in order of importance to consumers. The study sets out to develop a conceptual framework based on theoretical models related to the acceptance of technology and diffusion of innovations theory. The conceptual model developed encompasses technology, channel, social and value for money factors as predictors in the identification of influential factors for consumers and their continued use of internet banking. Data were collected using a cross-sectional mall intercept survey in the Western Sydney region, comprising a sample of 372 internet banking users. After testing the data for accuracy, exploratory factor analysis was performed for factor clarification on five key scales related to the use of internet banking service delivery based on technology, channel, social, value for money and continued use factors. The final components that emerged were employed in hierarchical multiple regression analyses to test the proposed framework. Value for money, channel and technology factors was found, in that order, to be influential in predicting consumers’ continued and frequent use of internet banking.

  17. Will the poor and high consumers benefit more by obesity prevention fiscal policies? Evidence from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The increasing burden of obesity and related non-communicable diseases in the world has encouraged the design of effective policies in order to contain this trend. Excise taxes on low-nutritious food and sugar-sweetened beverages consumption, such as soft-drinks, have been proposed. Currently, a growing number of studies have calculated potential effects of soft-drinks taxes considering data for average consumers, and have assessed effectiveness of such measure on raising fresh revenues to th...

  18. Consumers behavior on organic food: Evidence from the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehapi Semir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, the demand for organic food has seen a significant increase in the past decade. However, the organic food market in Serbia is still in its infancy and can be considered an emerging market. By gaining an understanding of consumer behavior on the Serbian market, it is possible to provide a greater consumption of organic food per capita through an appropriate marketing approach, as well as quicker development of the national market. This paper will outline some of the most significant findings obtained from a quantitative study of the population of Serbia in the role of buyers and potential buyers of organic food. How much knowledge respondents have about organic food was also studied and presented here, as was the socio-demographic profile of the consumers as an important determinant of organic food consumption. In addition, we also analyzed consumer behavior when buying organic food from the standpoint of basic instruments of the marketing mix: the product, the price, marketing communication (promotion and marketing channels (place. The obtained results were explained in relation to the theoretical knowledge obtained from previous studies carried out on various national markets. Based on these findings, a solid foundation for the development of effective marketing strategies was obtained.

  19. Consumer Ethnocentrism and Attitudes Towards Foreign Beer Brands: With Evidence from Zlin Region in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanninayake W.M.C.Bandara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern times, consumer ethnocentrism has become an important strategic tool used by domestic firms in the face of global competition. However, the ability to use this phenomenon and its practical validity can vary in different industrial and cultural contexts. Hence, in this study, researchers address this issue by investigating the relationship between consumer ethnocentrismand the attitudes of Czech customers towards foreign beer brands while paying special attention to whether the ethnocentric tendencies of the Czech customers are altered by demographic variables. The sample for this study was drawn from adult customers who live in the Zlin region in the Czech Republic. The group of students from the bachelor degree programme in management and economics, Tomas Bata Universty in Zlin were selected as enumerators for data collection. Altogether 155 questionnaires were distributed and 108 completedquestionnaires were taken in for final analysis. The consumer ethnocentric tendency was measured using the famous CETSCALE developed by Shimp and Sharma. Cronbach’s Alpha values of each construct confirmed that a good interring reliability exists with the data. Principle component analysis was employed to determine the important factors of CETSCALE and independent t test, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis and one way ANOVA were used for testing hypotheses. The results revealed that the ethnocentric tendency of consumers is negatively correlated with the favorable attitudes of customers towards foreign beer brands in Czech Republic and also that highly ethnocentric customers hold less favorableattitudes towards foreign brands. Further findings revealed that there are no significant differences between consumer ethnocentrism and all the demographic variables of Czech customers. Finally, the researchers provide some suggestions for domestic brewery firms in the Czech Republic to develop appropriate branding strategies in considering

  20. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Munch-Andersen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index. Study design: Cross sectional study, comparing Inuit eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Methods: Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq and 15 eating a western diet (TAB, age (mean (range; 38, (22–58 yrs, BMI; 28 (20–40 were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, blood sampling, maximal oxygen uptake test, food interview/collection and monitoring of physical activity. Results: All Inuit had a normal OGTT. Fasting glucose (mmol/l, HbA1c (%, total cholesterol (mmol/l and HDL-C (mmol/l were for Qaanaaq women: 4.8±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 4.96±0.42, 1.34±0.06, for Qaanaaq men: 4.9±0.1, 5.7±0.1, 5.08±0.31, 1.28±0.09, for TAB women: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.22±0.39, 1.86±0.13, for TAB men: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.23±0.15, 1.60±0.10. No differences were found in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the groups. There was a more adverse distribution of small dense LDL-C particles and higher total cholesterol and HDL-C concentration in the western diet group. Conclusions: Diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance was not found in the Inuit consuming either the western or the traditional diet, and this could, at least partly, be due to the high amount of regular daily physical activity. However, when considering the total cardio vascular risk profile the Inuit consuming a western diet had a less healthy profile than the Inuit consuming a traditional diet.

  1. Studer Group® ' s evidence-based leadership initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Kristin A; Kash, Bita A; Gamm, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the implementation of an organizational change initiative--Studer Group®'s Evidence-Based Leadership (EBL)--in two large, US health systems by comparing and contrasting the factors associated with successful implementation and sustainability of the EBL initiative. This comparative case study assesses the responses to two pairs of open-ended questions during in-depth qualitative interviews of leaders and managers at both health systems. Qualitative content analysis was employed to identify major themes. Three themes associated with success and sustainability of EBL emerged at both health systems: leadership; culture; and organizational processes. The theme most frequently identified for both success and sustainability of EBL was culture. In contrast, there was a significant decline in salience of the leadership theme as attention shifts from success in implementation of EBL to sustaining EBL long term. Within the culture theme, accountability, and buy-in were most often cited by interviewees as success factors, while sense of accountability, buy-in, and communication were the most reported factors for sustainability. Cultural factors, such as accountability, staff support, and communication are driving forces of success and sustainability of EBL across both health systems. Leadership, a critical factor in several stages of implementation, appears to be less salient as among factors identified as important to longer term sustainability of EBL.

  2. Location, Location, Location: Eye-Tracking Evidence that Consumers Preferentially View Prominently Positioned Nutrition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dan J.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nutrition Facts labels can keep consumers better informed about their diets' nutritional composition, however, consumers currently do not understand these labels well or use them often. Thus, modifying existing labels may benefit public health. Objective The present study tracked the visual attention of individuals making simulated food-purchasing decisions to assess Nutrition Facts label viewing. Primary research questions were how self-reported viewing of Nutrition Facts labels and their components relates to measured viewing and whether locations of labels and specific label components relate to viewing. Design The study involved a simulated grocery shopping exercise conducted on a computer equipped with an eye-tracking camera. A post-task survey assessed self-reported nutrition information viewing, health behaviors, and demographics. Subjects/setting Individuals 18 years old and older and capable of reading English words on a computer (n=203) completed the 1-hour protocol at the University of Minnesota during Spring 2010. Statistical analyses Primary analyses included χ2, analysis of variance, and t tests comparing self-reported and measured viewing of label components in different presentation configurations. Results Self-reported viewing of Nutrition Facts label components was higher than objectively measured viewing. Label components at the top of the label were viewed more than those at the bottom, and labels positioned in the center of the screen were viewed more than those located on the sides. Conclusions Nutrition Facts label position within a viewing area and position of specific components on a label relate to viewing. Eye tracking is a valuable technology for evaluating consumers' attention to nutrition information, informing nutrition labeling policy (eg, front-of-pack labels), and designing labels that best support healthy dietary decisions. PMID:22027053

  3. Extremely frequent behavior in consumer research: theory and empirical evidence for chronic casino gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Ralph; Woodside, Arch G

    2009-09-01

    The present study informs understanding of customer segmentation strategies by extending Twedt's heavy-half propositions to include a segment of users that represent less than 2% of all households-consumers demonstrating extremely frequent behavior (EFB). Extremely frequent behavior (EFB) theory provides testable propositions relating to the observation that few (2%) consumers in many product and service categories constitute more than 25% of the frequency of product or service use. Using casino gambling as an example for testing EFB theory, an analysis of national survey data shows that extremely frequent casino gamblers do exist and that less than 2% of all casino gamblers are responsible for nearly 25% of all casino gambling usage. Approximately 14% of extremely frequent casino users have very low-household income, suggesting somewhat paradoxical consumption patterns (where do very low-income users find the money to gamble so frequently?). Understanding the differences light, heavy, and extreme users and non-users can help marketers and policymakers identify and exploit "blue ocean" opportunities (Kim and Mauborgne, Blue ocean strategy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2005), for example, creating effective strategies to convert extreme users into non-users or non-users into new users.

  4. Can Standards Increase Consumer Welfare? Evidence from a Change in Clothes Washer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaomei [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Roberts, Michael J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dale, Larry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-08

    We study prices and sales of individual clothes washer models before, during and after a 2007 standard that banned manufacture (but not sale) of low-e ciency units and increased the threshold for Energy Star certi cation. While quantities sold of washer models banned from manufacture decreased sharply, prices for banned models increased only modestly. At the same time, sales of higher-e ciency units rose markedly while prices for high-e ciency units declined. On average, washer e ciency increased but prices changed little. A simple welfare analysis indicates that consumer welfare loss from banned washers was far outweighed by gains from lower-priced high-e ciency units. While a full cost-bene t analysis is not feasible with the available data, we estimate a lower-bound gain in consumer surplus equal to 6-16 percent of total sales. This result may accord with earlier theoretical research that shows quality standards can increase welfare in monopolistically competitive industries that possess increasing returns to scale (Ronnen, 1991). Thus, if energy e ciency is a close proxy for quality, energy e ciency standards may increase competition, market e ciency and welfare.

  5. Evaluating direct-to-consumer marketing of race-based pharmacogenomics: a focus group study of public understandings of applied genomic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Benjamin R; Poirot, Kristan; Harris, Tina M; Condit, Celeste M; Achter, Paul J

    2004-01-01

    Some medical providers have advocated applied genomics, including the use of genetically linked racial phenotypes in medical practice, raising fear that race-based medication will become justified. As with other emerging medical genetic technologies, pharmaceutical companies may advertise these treatments. Researchers fear that consumers will uncritically accept pharmaceutical messages and demand the product. In this exploratory study, we examined public reactions to advertisements for applied genomic medications. A focus group methodology was employed. Participants tended to resist the message and generated warrants for doing so, indicating critical reception of the messages. Message accepters also provided warrants. Warrants for resistance and acceptance differ between self-identified racial groups. Consumers, health care providers, and pharmaceutical corporations will benefit from a better understanding of direct-to-consumer advertisements as medical communication. Our study concludes that both advocates and opponents of direct-to-consumer advertisements should recognize that potential consumers of pharmacogenomics act as critical consumers of health advertising discourse.

  6. Through the eyes of the consumer. A look at marketing group practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, G L

    1983-01-01

    The marketing concept should be understood and practiced in varying degrees by all medical groups; otherwise, growth is left to chance. Operating on this premise, the author has set forth a very clearly written description of the key components and general considerations of a long-range marketing plan. The managerial functions of a plan are presented, as well as controllable and uncontrollable factors, and the needs and associated risks of various marketing growth strategies. Within this discussion, the administrator will find a framework for evaluating his particular situation and planning for the future.

  7. Consumer attitudes about opioid addiction treatment: a focus group study in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohler, Nancy L; Weiss, Linda; Egan, James E; López, Carolina M; Favaro, Jamie; Cordero, Robert; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2013-01-01

    To develop effective programs for people who are opioid dependent and to impact the opioid epidemic in New York City, it is crucial to monitor attitudes about opioid addiction treatments among opioid users who have experienced barriers to engagement and retention in addiction treatment. The authors conducted a qualitative study using focus groups. Six focus groups in three needle exchanges in New York City were audio recorded, transcribed, and systematically coded. The authors report on the main themes related to the study objectives. Participants of each needle exchange who were opioid dependent and had some knowledge of both methadone and buprenorphine were eligible. There were four main findings. Participants felt the following: 1) buprenorphine is an appropriate option for those heroin users who are motivated to stop using, 2) they have less control over their addiction treatment with methadone than they would have with buprenorphine, 3) buprenorphine treatment is not accessible to many New York City residents who would benefit from this treatment, and 4) lack of access to buprenorphine treatment is a cause of treatment-related diversion. Both methadone maintenance and buprenorphine treatment opportunities are necessary to address the diverse treatment needs of opioid-dependent people in New York City. However, the current medical model of buprenorphine treatment may be too restrictive for some opioid-dependent people and may be contributing to the use of illicit buprenorphine. New models to deliver buprenorphine treatment may address these problems.

  8. Improving the use of research evidence in guideline development: 3. Group composition and consultation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO, like many other organisations around the world, has recognised the need to use more rigorous processes to ensure that health care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence. This is the third of a series of 16 reviews that have been prepared as background for advice from the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research to WHO on how to achieve this. Objective In this review we address the composition of guideline development groups and consultation processes during guideline development. Methods We searched PubMed and three databases of methodological studies for existing systematic reviews and relevant methodological research. We did not conduct systematic reviews ourselves. Our conclusions are based on the available evidence, consideration of what WHO and other organisations are doing and logical arguments. Key questions and answers What should be the composition of a WHO-panel that is set up to develop recommendations? The existing empirical evidence suggests that panel composition has an impact on the content of the recommendations that are made. There is limited research evidence to guide the exact composition of a panel. Based on logical arguments and the experience of other organisations we recommend the following: • Groups that develop guidelines or recommendations should be broadly composed and include important stakeholders such as consumers, health professionals that work within the relevant area, and managers or policy makers. • Groups should include or have access to individuals with the necessary technical skills, including information retrieval, systematic reviewing, health economics, group facilitation, project management, writing and editing. • Groups should include or have access to content experts. • To work well a group needs an effective leader, capable of guiding the group in terms of the task and process, and capable of facilitating

  9. Evidence-based Heuristics for Evaluating Demands on eHealth Literacy and Usability in a Mobile Consumer Health Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkman, Helen; Griffith, Janessa; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    Heuristic evaluations have proven to be valuable for identifying usability issues in systems. Commonly used sets of heuritics exist; however, they may not always be the most suitable, given the specific goal of the analysis. One such example is seeking to evaluate the demands on eHealth literacy and usability of consumer health information systems. In this study, eight essential heuristics and three optional heuristics subsumed from the evidence on eHealth/health literacy and usability were tested for their utility in assessing a mobile blood pressure tracking application (app). This evaluation revealed a variety of ways the design of the app could both benefit and impede users with limited eHealth literacy. This study demonstrated the utility of a low-cost, single evaluation approach for identifying both eHealth literacy and usability issues based on existing evidence in the literature.

  10. Consumers' Response to an On-Shelf Nutrition Labelling System in Supermarkets: Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Bollinger, Bryan; Sacco, Jocelyn; Liebman, Eli; Vanderlee, Lana; Zuo, Fei; Rosella, Laura; L'abbe, Mary; Manson, Heather; Hammond, David

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: On-shelf nutrition labelling systems in supermarkets, such as the Guiding Stars system, are intended to provide consumers with simple, standardized nutrition information to support more informed and healthier food choices. Policies that support the provision of simplified nutrition labelling systems may encourage consumers to make positive shifts in food-purchasing behaviors. The shifts in consumer food-purchasing patterns observed in our study after the introduction of the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets translated into measurable nutritional benefits, including more items purchased with slightly less trans fat and sugar and more fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. This study is one of the first to report the positive impact of an on-shelf nutrition labelling system on supermarket sales and revenues-key information that was specifically requested by the US National Academies, as such labelling interventions may be more sustainable if they lead to higher revenues. Providing a nutrition rating system on the front of food packages or on retail shelf tags has been proposed as a policy strategy for supporting healthier food choices. Guiding Stars is an on-shelf nutrition labelling system that scores foods in a supermarket based on nutritional quality; scores are then translated into ratings of 0 to 3 stars. It is consistent with evidence-informed recommendations for well-designed labels, except for not labelling 0-star products. The largest supermarket retailer in Canada rolled out the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets across Ontario, Canada. The aim of our study was to examine the extent to which consumers respond to an on-shelf nutrition labelling system in supermarkets to inform current and future nutrition labelling policies and practices. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we conducted a quasi-experimental study across 3 supermarket banners (or "chains") in Ontario, one of which implemented the Guiding Stars system in 2012. We used aggregated

  11. Do Political Attitudes Affect Consumer Choice? Evidence from a Large-Scale Field Study with Genetically Modified Bread in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Aerni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Independent of the left-right model of ideological structure, genetically modified organisms (GMOs in food and agriculture are resented across the political spectrum in Switzerland. In the absence of any real experience with genetically modified (GM food but faced with continuous exposure to warning messages in the media, conditioned feelings related to such a politically sensitive product may have a significant influence on revealed consumer choice. In our large-scale field study, we examined this assumption by selling three types of bread labeled as ‘made with organic corn’, ‘made with genetically modified corn’ and ‘made with conventional corn’ respectively in five locations across Switzerland using different price scenarios and selling groups. Customers who decided to buy bread also received an envelope containing a questionnaire about their prior political attitude expressed through their voting decision in a national referendum on a five-year ban on GMOs in 2005. The results demonstrate that consumer purchase decisions are determined by contextual factors not captured by general political attitudes. Surprisingly, the mere presence of GM food did have a positive impact on overall sales. The assumption that consumers would feel turned off by the mere presence of GM food for political reasons can therefore be safely discarded.

  12. Bromine in plastic consumer products - Evidence for the widespread recycling of electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat

    2017-12-01

    A range of plastic consumer products and components thereof have been analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry in a low density mode for Br as a surrogate for brominated flame retardant (BFR) content. Bromine was detected in about 42% of 267 analyses performed on electronic (and electrical) samples and 18% of 789 analyses performed on non-electronic samples, with respective concentrations ranging from 1.8 to 171,000μgg(-1) and 2.6 to 28,500μgg(-1). Amongst the electronic items, the highest concentrations of Br were encountered in relatively small appliances, many of which predated 2005 (e.g. a fan heater, boiler thermostat and smoke detector, and various rechargers, light bulb collars and printed circuit boards), and usually in association with Sb, a component of antimony oxide flame retardant synergists, and Pb, a heavy metal additive and contaminant. Amongst the non-electronic samples, Br concentrations were highest in items of jewellery, a coffee stirrer, a child's puzzle, a picture frame, and various clothes hangers, Christmas decorations and thermos cup lids, and were often associated with the presence of Sb and Pb. These observations, coupled with the presence of Br at concentrations below those required for flame-retardancy in a wider range of electronic and non-electronic items, are consistent with the widespread recycling of electronic plastic waste. That most Br-contaminated items were black suggests the current and recent demand for black plastics in particular is met, at least partially, through this route. Given many Br-contaminated items would evade the attention of the end-user and recycler, their disposal by conventional municipal means affords a course of BFR entry into the environment and, for food-contact items, a means of exposure to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hexabromocyclododecane in polystyrene based consumer products: an evidence of unregulated use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manviri; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2014-09-01

    Polystyrene (PS) is made flame retardant by combining with hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). HBCD can release from consumer products during their production, use or disposal. As a result, it has become a ubiquitous contaminant in the environment with a high potential for bioaccumulation. Therefore, to evaluate the extent of exposure to HBCD from PS, we determined the concentration of HBCD in a variety of products (n=34) made from three types of commonly used PS: expanded PS (EPS), extruded PS foam (XPS), and extruded PS. The concentration of HBCD was highest in EPS, with a mean value and range of 475643±16710ngg(-1) and 106-960000ngg(-1), respectively. PS related to building construction and laboratory uses had a significantly higher concentration of HBCD (3300-905000ngg(-1)), except XPS styroboard (191±100ngg(-1)). Lower concentrations were measured in most food-related products (24.3-199ngg(-1)). However, a relatively high concentration of HBCD was detected in an ice box (960000±29000ngg(-1)), aquaculture buoy (53500±2100ngg(-1)), and disposable tray (8430±730ngg(-1)) used in fish market, raising concern for public health. Our data demonstrate a wide variation in the concentration of HBCD, suggesting a lack of proper controls for the addition of HBCD to PS products. Other brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were also detected in a majority of the XPS products (TBBPA=3.83-545ngg(-1), BTBPE=44-216ngg(-1) and DBDPE=215-4200ngg(-1)). Thus, HBCD is being added to PS along with other BFRs that cannot be ignored.

  14. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Mandy; Riby, Deborah M; Crossley, Stephen J; Lake, Amelia A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. Design Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. Data sources 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. Results A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority employed a cross-sectional design, involved participants aged 11–18 years, and were conducted in North America or Europe. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people was found to be patterned by gender, with boys consuming more than girls, and also by activity levels, with the highest consumption observed in the most and least sedentary individuals. Several studies identified a strong, positive association between the use of energy drinks and higher odds of health-damaging behaviours, as well as physical health symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, hyperactivity and insomnia. There was some evidence of a dose–response effect. 2 experimental studies involving small numbers of junior athletes demonstrated a positive impact on limited aspects of sports performance. 3 themes emerged from the qualitative studies: reasons for use; influences on use; and perceived efficacy and impact. Taste and energy-seeking were identified as key drivers, and branding and marketing were highlighted as major influences on young people's consumption choices. Awareness of possible negative effects was low. Conclusions There is growing evidence that consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of adverse outcomes and risk behaviours in terms of children's health and well-being. However, taste, brand loyalty and perceived positive effects combine to ensure their popularity with young consumers. More research is needed to explore the short-term and long-term impacts in all spheres, including health, behaviour and

  15. Market power and contract form: evidence from physician group practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Robert; Feldman, Roger; Kralewski, John

    2011-06-01

    We examine how the market power of physician groups affects the form of their contracts with health insurers. We develop a simple model of physician contracting based on 'behavioral economics' and test it with data from two sources: a survey of physician group practices in Minnesota; and the physician component of the Community Tracking Survey. In both data sets we find that increases in groups' market power are associated with proportionately more fee-for-service revenue and less revenue from capitation.

  16. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production syste...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence.......Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... in use today were expressed, but rationalised in terms of consumer demands, market competition and by comparisons to previous systems of production. Knowledge of production systems appeared of little consequence in terms of any meat market potential as several groups freely remarked...

  17. How consumers are affected by product descriptions in online shopping: Event-related potentials evidence of the attribute framing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Zhang, Wuke; Chen, Mingliang

    2017-07-20

    Due to the limitations of the human ability to process information, e-consumers' decisions are likely to be influenced by various cognitive biases, such as the attribute framing effect. This effect has been well studied by numerous scholars; however, the associated underlying neural mechanisms with a critical temporal resolution have not been revealed. Thus, this study applies the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs) to directly examine the role of attribute framing in information processing and decision-making in online shopping. The behavioral results showed that participants demonstrated a higher purchase intention with a shorter reaction time under a positive framing condition compared to participants under a negative framing condition. Compared with positive framing messages, the results of ERPs indicated that negative framing messages attracted more attention resources at the early stage of rapid automatic processing (larger P2 amplitude) and resulted in greater cognitive conflict and decision difficulty (larger P2-N2 complex). Moreover, compared with negative messages, positive framing messages allowed consumers to perceive a better future performance of products and classify these products as a categorization of higher evaluation (larger LPP amplitude) at the late cognitive processing stage of evaluation. Based on these results, we provide evidence for a better understanding of how different attribute framing messages are processed and ultimately lead to the framing effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolution and early evidence of the impact of consumer-driven health plans: from e-commerce venture to health savings accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Stephen T; Feldman, Roger

    2008-08-01

    Using results from peer-reviewed empirical analyses we describe the development and impact of the consumer-driven health plan market over the last 5 years. The results of these analyses show that consumers are responding to the financial incentives of these new health insurance benefits. Although the results may not always be what the consumer-driven health plan developers intended, there is clear evidence of 'consumerism', where individuals act in a way that generally increases their access to healthcare or investments, if the opportunity is present. Just as Medicare Part D enrollment demonstrated consumers could identify differences in prescription drug plans and make rational choices, so too are prospective patients able to function as consumers in the medical marketplace when give the opportunity.

  19. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  20. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production syste...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. A weight-of-evidence approach to identify nanomaterials in consumer products: a case study of nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Michael F; Poda, Aimee R; Moser, Robert D; Weiss, Charles A; Cairns, Carolyn; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale ingredients in commercial products represent a point of emerging environmental concern due to recent findings that correlate toxicity with small particle size. A weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach based upon multiple lines of evidence (LOE) is developed here to assess nanomaterials as they exist in consumer product formulations, providing a qualitative assessment regarding the presence of nanomaterials, along with a baseline estimate of nanoparticle concentration if nanomaterials do exist. Electron microscopy, analytical separations, and X-ray detection methods were used to identify and characterize nanomaterials in sunscreen formulations. The WOE/LOE approach as applied to four commercial sunscreen products indicated that all four contained at least 10% dispersed primary particles having at least one dimension <100 nm in size. Analytical analyses confirmed that these constituents were comprised of zinc oxide (ZnO) or titanium dioxide (TiO2). The screening approaches developed herein offer a streamlined, facile means to identify potentially hazardous nanomaterial constituents with minimal abrasive processing of the raw material.

  2. Baiting of bacteria with hyphae of common soil fungi revealed a diverse group of potentially mycophagous secondary consumers in the rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudnick, M.B.; van Veen, J.A.; de Boer, W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fungi and bacteria are primary consumers of plant-derived organic compounds and therefore considered as basal members of soil food webs. Trophic interactions among these microorganisms could, however, induce shifts in food web energy flows. Given increasing evidence for a prominent role of

  3. Evidence for AGN Feedback in Galaxy Clusters and Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Gitti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current generation of flagship X-ray missions, Chandra and XMM-Newton, has changed our understanding of the so-called “cool-core” galaxy clusters and groups. Instead of the initial idea that the thermal gas is cooling and flowing toward the center, the new picture envisages a complex dynamical evolution of the intracluster medium (ICM regulated by the radiative cooling and the nongravitational heating from the active galactic nucleus (AGN. Understanding the physics of the hot gas and its interplay with the relativistic plasma ejected by the AGN is key for understanding the growth and evolution of galaxies and their central black holes, the history of star formation, and the formation of large-scale structures. It has thus become clear that the feedback from the central black hole must be taken into account in any model of galaxy evolution. In this paper, we draw a qualitative picture of the current knowledge of the effects of the AGN feedback on the ICM by summarizing the recent results in this field.

  4. Evidence for AGN Feedback in Galaxy Clusters and Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gitti, Myriam; McNamara, Brian R

    2011-01-01

    The current generation of flagship X-ray missions, Chandra and XMM-Newton, has changed our understanding of the so-called "cool core" galaxy clusters and groups. Instead of the initial idea that the thermal gas is cooling and flowing toward the center, the new picture envisages a complex dynamical evolution of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) regulated by the radiative cooling and the nongravitational heating from the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Understanding the physics of the hot gas and its interplay with the relativistic plasma ejected by the AGN is key for understanding the growth and evolution of galaxies and their central black holes, the history of star formation, and the formation of large-scale structures. It has thus become clear that the feedback from the central black hole must be taken into account in any model of galaxy evolution. In this paper, we draw a qualitative picture of the current knowledge of the effects of the AGN feedback on the ICM by summarizing the recent results in this field.

  5. Fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol content of foods commonly consumed by ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Rebeca; Rossi, Megan; Muir, Jane; Yao, Ck; Whelan, Kevin; Lomer, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice.

  6. Exploring consumer and pharmacist views on the professional role of the pharmacist with respect to natural health products: a study of focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heschuk Shirley

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural health products (NHPs such as herbs, vitamins and homeopathic medicines, are currently available for sale in most Canadian pharmacies. However, most pharmacists report that they have limited knowledge about these products which have been regulated in Canada as a specific sub-category of drugs. In this paper, consumers' and practicing pharmacists' perceptions of pharmacists' professional responsibilities with respect to NHPs are examined. Methods A total of 16 focus groups were conducted with consumers (n = 50 and pharmacists (n = 47 from four different cities across Canada (Vancouver, Edmonton, Toronto, and Halifax. Results In this paper, we illustrate the ways in which pharmacists' professional responsibilities are impacted by changing consumer needs. Many consumers in the study utilized a wide range of information resources that may or may not have included pharmacists. Nevertheless, the majority of consumers and pharmacists agreed that pharmacists should be knowledgeable about NHPs and felt that pharmacists should be able to manage drug-NHPs interactions as well as identify and evaluate the variety of information available to help consumers make informed decisions. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that consumers' expectations and behaviour significantly impact pharmacists' perceptions of their professional responsibilities with respect to NHPs.

  7. Diversification of the economic profile and selected aspects of market activity in age groups of young consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Grażyna Adamczyk

    2010-01-01

    In the article an influence of the age of young consumers on chosen economic aspects of their market activity was described. It is stated that with the age of young consumers their purchasing fund and sources of its recruiting were increasing. Teenagers (secondary-school people) more often demonstrate also a tendency to save money to concrete objectives, e.g. holidays, travels, training, but their current expenses are concentrating mainly around different active or passive forms of spending f...

  8. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thor Munch; Olsen, David B; Søndergaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index).......To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index)....

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Commitment Concerning Evidence-Based Prevention Programs: Differences between Family and Consumer Sciences and 4-H Youth Development Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Olson, Jonathan R.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the results of a study designed to assess knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards evidence-based and other prevention programs among county Extension educators. We examined differences across educators from Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) and 4-H Youth Development. Analyses based on a multi-state sample of educators revealed…

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Commitment Concerning Evidence-Based Prevention Programs: Differences between Family and Consumer Sciences and 4-H Youth Development Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Olson, Jonathan R.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the results of a study designed to assess knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards evidence-based and other prevention programs among county Extension educators. We examined differences across educators from Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) and 4-H Youth Development. Analyses based on a multi-state sample of educators revealed…

  11. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.; Grunert, K.G.; Juhl, H.J.; Wasowicz-Kirylo, G.; Stysko-Kunkowska, M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label,

  12. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.; Grunert, K.G.; Juhl, H.J.; Wasowicz-Kirylo, G.; Stysko-Kunkowska, M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label,

  13. Healthy Eating Index-2010 and food groups consumed by US adults who meet or exceed fiber intake recommendations NHANES 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proportion of the US adult population who meet fiber intake recommendations is very low. Information about food groups consumed and diet quality for the adults who consume recommended amounts of fiber are scarce. Objective: To examine food groups consumed and Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores for US adults meeting the fiber adequate intake (AI based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data 2001–2010. Design: A secondary analysis of NHANES data from 2001 to 2010. Participants included adults aged 19 and older (n=24,807 with complete day 1 dietary records. Variables measured were food group sources of fiber and HEI-2010 scores. Sample-weighted data were used to calculate least square means (LSM±standard error of the mean (SEM by fiber intake quartile along with HEI-2010 scores. Significance was set at P<0.05. Results: Major fiber food sources for US adults meeting the AI were grain products, vegetables, legumes, and fruits. The top grain products consumed were grain mixtures, ready-to-eat (RTE cereals, and breads/rolls. The mean HEI-2010 score for adults meeting the AI for fiber was significantly (P<0.001 higher compared with all adult participants. The mean HEI-2010 score increased with increasing fiber intake in both groups. Conclusions: Adults who meet the AI for fiber have a higher quality diet. Fiber may be an important dietary component that predicts diet quality.

  14. Diversification of the economic profile and selected aspects of market activity in age groups of young consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Adamczyk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an influence of the age of young consumers on chosen economic aspects of their market activity was described. It is stated that with the age of young consumers their purchasing fund and sources of its recruiting were increasing. Teenagers (secondary-school people more often demonstrate also a tendency to save money to concrete objectives, e.g. holidays, travels, training, but their current expenses are concentrating mainly around different active or passive forms of spending free time. Older teenagers are also more critical in relation to advertisements, and price and different instruments of sales promotion are factors which are exerting a significant influence on their purchase decisions. With the growth of importance of goods in the hierarchy of satisfying needs, role of determinants of choice besides the price, also a brand of the product are assumed.

  15. Absolute risk representation in cardiovascular disease prevention: comprehension and preferences of health care consumers and general practitioners involved in a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Rebecca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicating risk is part of primary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke, collectively referred to as cardiovascular disease (CVD. In Australia, health organisations have promoted an absolute risk approach, thereby raising the question of suitable standardised formats for risk communication. Methods Sixteen formats of risk representation were prepared including statements, icons, graphical formats, alone or in combination, and with variable use of colours. All presented the same risk, i.e., the absolute risk for a 55 year old woman, 16% risk of CVD in five years. Preferences for a five or ten-year timeframe were explored. Australian GPs and consumers were recruited for participation in focus groups, with the data analysed thematically and preferred formats tallied. Results Three focus groups with health consumers and three with GPs were held, involving 19 consumers and 18 GPs. Consumers and GPs had similar views on which formats were more easily comprehended and which conveyed 16% risk as a high risk. A simple summation of preferences resulted in three graphical formats (thermometers, vertical bar chart and one statement format as the top choices. The use of colour to distinguish risk (red, yellow, green and comparative information (age, sex, smoking status were important ingredients. Consumers found formats which combined information helpful, such as colour, effect of changing behaviour on risk, or comparison with a healthy older person. GPs preferred formats that helped them relate the information about risk of CVD to their patients, and could be used to motivate patients to change behaviour. Several formats were reported as confusing, such as a percentage risk with no contextual information, line graphs, and icons, particularly those with larger numbers. Whilst consumers and GPs shared preferences, the use of one format for all situations was not recommended. Overall, people across groups felt that risk

  16. Safe use of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria in food: Bridging the gap between consumers, green groups, and industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sybesma, W; Hugenholtz, J; de Vos; Smid, E J

    2006-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU), the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production is not widely applied and accepted. In contrast to the United States of America, the current EU legislation limits the introduction of functional foods derived from GMOs that may bring a clear benefit to the consumer. Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria (GM-LAB) can be considered as a different class of GMOs, and the European Union is preparing regulations for the risk assessment of genet...

  17. Traditional low-alcoholic and non-alcoholic fermented beverages consumed in European countries: a neglected food group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschali, Aristea; Tsakalidou, Effie; Kyriacou, Adamantini; Karavasiloglou, Nena; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2017-06-01

    Fermented beverages hold a long tradition and contribution to the nutrition of many societies and cultures worldwide. Traditional fermentation has been empirically developed in ancient times as a process of raw food preservation and at the same time production of new foods with different sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavour and aroma, as well as nutritional value. Low-alcoholic fermented beverages (LAFB) and non-alcoholic fermented beverages (NAFB) represent a subgroup of fermented beverages that have received rather little attention by consumers and scientists alike, especially with regard to their types and traditional uses in European societies. A literature review was undertaken and research articles, review papers and textbooks were searched in order to retrieve data regarding the dietary role, nutrient composition, health benefits and other relevant aspects of diverse ethnic LAFB and NAFB consumed by European populations. A variety of traditional LAFB and NAFB consumed in European regions, such as kefir, kvass, kombucha and hardaliye, are presented. Milk-based LAFB and NAFB are also available on the market, often characterised as 'functional' foods on the basis of their probiotic culture content. Future research should focus on elucidating the dietary role and nutritional value of traditional and 'functional' LAFB and NAFB, their potential health benefits and consumption trends in European countries. Such data will allow for LAFB and NAFB to be included in national food composition tables.

  18. Perception Gaps on Food Additives among Various Groups in Korea: Food Experts, Teachers, Nutrition Teachers, Nongovernmental Organization Members, and General Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Suna; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and information needs of food experts, teachers, nutrition teachers, members of nongovernmental organizations, and general consumers concerning food additives. Questions in a survey format included perceptions, information needs, and preferred communication channels. The survey was conducted both off-line and on-line via e-mail and Google Drive in March 2015. The results indicated that most Korean consumers are concerned about the safety of using food additives in processed foods and do not recognize these additives as safe and useful materials as part of a modern diet. We also identified perception gaps among different groups regarding food additives. Nutrition teachers and members of nongovernmental organizations in Korea appeared to have a biased perception of food additives, which may cause general consumers to have a negative perception of food additives. The group of food experts did not have this bias. Governmental institutions must overcome the low confidence levels of various groups as an information provider about food additives. Based on the findings in this study, it will be possible to develop a strategy for risk communication about food additives for each group.

  19. How Many Focus Groups Are Enough? Building an Evidence Base for Nonprobability Sample Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Greg; Namey, Emily; McKenna, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Few empirical studies exist to guide researchers in determining the number of focus groups necessary for a research study. The analyses described here provide foundational evidence to help researchers in this regard. We conducted a thematic analysis of 40 focus groups on health-seeking behaviors of African American men in Durham, North Carolina.…

  20. How does consumer knowledge affect environmentally sustainable choices? Evidence from a cross-country latent class analysis of food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Anne O; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines consumers' knowledge and lifestyle profiles and preferences regarding two environmentally labeled food staples, potatoes and ground beef. Data from online choice experiments conducted in Canada and Germany are analyzed through latent class choice modeling to identify the influence of consumer knowledge (subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage experience) on environmentally sustainable choices. We find that irrespective of product or country under investigation, high subjective and objective knowledge levels drive environmentally sustainable food choices. Subjective knowledge was found to be more important in this context. Usage experience had relatively little impact on environmentally sustainable choices. Our results suggest that about 20% of consumers in both countries are ready to adopt footprint labels in their food choices. Another 10-20% could be targeted by enhancing subjective knowledge, for example through targeted marketing campaigns.

  1. The role of kelp crabs as consumers in bull kelp forests—evidence from laboratory feeding trials and field enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Dobkowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Northern kelp crab (Pugettia producta and the graceful kelp crab (Pugettia gracilis are common primary consumers in bull kelp beds near the San Juan Islands (Salish Sea, NE Pacific. In this system, urchins (often considered the most voracious herbivores exerting top-down control on kelp beds tend to remain sedentary because of the high availability of detrital macroalgae, but the extent to which kelp crabs consume kelp (and other food options is largely unknown. I conducted four types of laboratory feeding experiments to evaluate kelp crab feeding patterns: (1 feeding electivity between bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana and seven species of co-occurring local macroalgae; (2 feeding electivity on aged vs. fresh bull kelp; (3 feeding preference between N. luetkeana and small snails (Lacuna sp.; and (4 scaling of feeding rate with body size in P. producta and P. gracilis. In choice experiments, P. producta consumed greater mass of N. luetkeana than of other macroalgal species offered and elected to eat fresh bull kelp over aged. However, P. producta also consumed snails (Lacuna sp., indicating more generalized feeding than previously suspected. Feeding rates for P. producta exceeded the expected 3∕4 scaling rule of metabolic rates, indicating that larger P. producta may have a disproportionately large impact on bull kelp. A subtidal field experiment, designed to assess the influence of consumers on juvenile bull kelp net tissue gain, found that only fully enclosed (protected bull kelp increased in wet mass and blade length. Herbivory by kelp crabs, among other consumers, is likely to play a previously unrecognized role in mediating the growth and survival of this annual kelp species within the Salish Sea.

  2. A systematic evidence review of school-based group contingency interventions for students with challenging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggin, Daniel M; Johnson, Austin H; Chafouleas, Sandra M; Ruberto, Laura M; Berggren, Melissa

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research underlying group contingency interventions to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support their use for managing the classroom behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. An application of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) procedures for evaluating single-subject research revealed that the research investigating group contingencies demonstrated sufficient rigor, evidence, and replication to label the intervention as evidence-based. These findings were further supported across five quantitative indices of treatment effect. The results associated with the application of the WWC procedures and quantitative evaluations were supplemented with additional systematic coding of methodological features and study characteristics to evaluate the populations and conditions under which the effects of the group contingency best generalize. Findings associated with this coding revealed that the lack of detailed reporting across studies limited our ability to determine for whom and under what conditions group contingencies are best suited.

  3. Dry versus wet aging of beef: Retail cutting yields and consumer sensory attribute evaluations of steaks from ribeyes, strip loins, and top sirloins from two quality grade groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, M A; Smith, R D; Nicholson, K L; Nicholson, J D W; Miller, R K; Griffin, D B; Harris, K B; Savell, J W

    2008-11-01

    Top Choice (n=48) and Select (n=48) paired bone-in ribeye rolls, bone-in strip loins, and boneless top sirloin butts were assigned randomly to one of two aging treatments, dry or wet, and were aged for 14, 21, 28 or 35d. Cutting tests, performed to determine retail yields and processing times, showed dry-aged subprimals had lower total saleable yield percentages and increased processing times compared to wet-aged subprimals. Sensory and Warner-Bratzler shear evaluation was conducted to determine palatability characteristics. For the most part, aging treatment and aging period did not affect consumer sensory attributes. However, ribeye and top loin steaks from the Top Choice quality grade group received higher sensory ratings than their Select counterparts. For top sirloin steaks, no consumer sensory attributes were affected by aging treatment, aging period, or quality grade group.

  4. Is designation of origin an important cue driving consumer loyalty behaviour? Evidence from scanner data on dry-cured ham

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Giraud, Georges

    2007-01-01

    Reference to origin and region has become a factor of differentiation and added value for food product companies. Although previous studies argue that designation of origin can be considered as an extrinsic cue affecting consumer preferences, the main concern which still exists is whether designa...... is not that an important driver of loyalty comparing to price and brand name....

  5. Consumer Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Melissa Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to prove that despite consumers' impression that they are alone in deciding their consumption decision they are wrong. Consumers are manipulated on various levels by marketers. It is the marketer who decides what consumer identities should be created. Consumers are persuaded by marketers on different levels beginning with consumers' needs. Marketers begin by appealing to consumer drives, motivations and emotions to persuade their consumers to purchase their brand...

  6. Mid-Infrared Evidence for Accelerated Evolution in Compact Group Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Lisa May; Gallagher, Sarah C; Hibbard, John E; Hornschemeier, Ann E; Charlton, Jane C; Jarrett, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    We find evidence for accelerated evolution in compact group galaxies from the distribution in mid-infrared colorspace of 42 galaxies from 12 Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) compared to the the distributions of several other samples including the LVL+SINGS galaxies, interacting galaxies, and galaxies from the Coma Cluster. We find that the HCG galaxies are not uniformly distributed in colorspace, as well as quantitative evidence for a gap. Galaxies in the infall region of the Coma cluster also exhibit a non-uniform distribution and a less well defined gap, which may reflect a similarity with the compact group environment. Neither the Coma Center or interacting samples show evidence of a gap, leading us to speculate that the gap is unique to the environment of high galaxy density where gas has not been fully processed or stripped.

  7. [Pediatric pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Párniczky, Andrea; Czakó, László; Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Hegyi, Péter; Hritz, István; Kelemen, Dezső; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szabó, Flóra; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Takács, Tamás; Tiszlavicz, László; Veres, Gábor; Szücs, Ákos; Lásztity, Natália

    2015-02-22

    Pediatric pancreatitis is a rare disease with variable etiology. In the past 10-15 years the incidence of pediatric pancreatitis has been increased. The management of pediatric pancreatitis requires up-to-date and evidence based management guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available international guidelines and evidences. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented and/or modified the international guidelines if it was necessary. In 8 clinical topics (diagnosis; etiology; prognosis; imaging; therapy; biliary tract management; complications; chronic pancreatitis) 50 relevant questions were defined. Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate(®) grading system. The draft of the guidelines was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. All clinical statements were accepted with total (more than 95%) agreement. The present Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group guideline is the first evidence based pediatric pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The present guideline is the first evidence-based pancreatic cancer guideline in Hungary that provides a solid ground for teaching purposes, offers quick reference for daily patient care in pediatric pancreatitis and guides financing options. The authors strongly believe that these guidelines will become a standard reference for pancreatic cancer treatment in Hungary.

  8. Evaluating whether direct-to-consumer marketing can increase demand for evidence-based practice among parents of adolescents with substance use disorders: rationale and protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sara J

    2015-02-10

    Fewer than one in 10 adolescents with substance use disorders (ASUDs) will receive specialty treatment, and even fewer will receive treatment designated as evidence-based practice (EBP). Traditional efforts to increase the utilization of EBP by ASUDs typically focus on practitioners-either in substance use clinics or allied health settings. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that directly targets parents of ASUDs represents a potentially complementary paradigm that has yet to be evaluated. The current study is the first to evaluate the relevance of a well-established marketing framework (the Marketing Mix) and measurement approach (measurement of perceived service quality [PSQ]) with parents of ASUDs in need of treatment. A mixed-methods design is employed across three study phases, consistent with well-established methods used in the field of marketing science. Phase 1 consists of formative qualitative research with parents (and a supplementary sample of adolescents) in order to evaluate and potentially adapt a conceptual framework (Marketing Mix) and measure of PSQ. Phase 2 is a targeted survey of ASUD parents to elucidate their marketing preferences, using the adapted Marketing Mix framework, and to establish the psychometric properties of the PSQ measure. The survey will also gather data on parents' preferences for different targeted marketing messages. Phase 3 is a two-group randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of targeted marketing messages versus standard clinical information. Key outcomes will include parents' ratings of PSQ (using the new measure), behavioral intentions to seek out information about EBP, and actual information-seeking behavior. The current study will inform the field whether a well-established marketing framework and measurement approach can be used to increase demand for EBP among parents of ASUDs. Results of this study will have the potential to immediately inform DTC marketing efforts by professional organizations

  9. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...... and concerns associated with processing technologies, emerging scientific innovations and their own health status may enable the development of information strategies that are relevant to wider groups of individuals in the population, and deliver real health benefits to people suffering from illnesses relating...

  10. A path analysis on correlates of consumer trust in online health information: evidence from the health information national trends survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinjiao

    2010-01-01

    Many people look for health information online, and the Internet is the third most trusted health information source. What implications does this trust have on consumer health? Not much research has been done in this area. This study explored various health-related correlates of consumer trust in online health information, including Internet use for health, self-efficacy belief in managing one's own health, negative emotions, and subjective health status. The 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey data were analyzed. Results showed that controlling for demographics, trust in online health information was directly related to both Internet use for health and the self-efficacy belief, and was indirectly associated with negative emotions; the latter two factors in turn were associated with self-rated health.

  11. Resilience of experimentally seeded dietary traditions in wild vervets: Evidence from group fissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Waal, Erica; van Schaik, Carel P; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Controlled laboratory experiments have delivered extensive and compelling evidence for the diffusion and maintenance of socially learned behavior in primates and other animals. Such evidence is rarer in the wild, but we show that a behavior seeded in a majority of individuals within vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythus) groups may be sustained across several years. Here, we report results of two natural fission events in such groups that offer novel evidence of the resilience of socially transmitted group norms of behavior. Before fission, high ranked females exhibited an almost exclusive adherence to a group preference among two food options, originally introduced through a distasteful additive in one option, but no longer present in repeated later tests. Because of rank-dependent competition, low-ranked females ate more of the formerly distasteful food and so discovered it was now as palatable as the alternative. Despite this experience, low ranked females who formed the splinter groups then expressed a 100% bias for the preferred option of their original parent group, revealing these preferences to be resilient. We interpret this effect as conformity to either the preferences of high rankers or of a majority in the parent group, or both. However, given fissioned individuals' familiarity with their habitat and experimental options, we question the adequacy of the informational function usually ascribed to conformity and discuss alternatives under a concept of "social conformity". © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  13. Contextual perceived group threat and radical right-wing populist party preferences: Evidence from Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl C. Berning

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies suggest that perceived group threat is an important influence on radical right-wing populist party preferences. However, most have focused on perceived group threat at the individual level, overlooking the ideological climate. I examine how an ideological climate of group threat perception as a contextual factor can shape individual preferences for radical right-wing populist party preferences. I argue that above and beyond personal perceived group threat, the prevalence of local perceived group threat exerts a normative influence on personal preferences. Using voting preferences for the Swiss People’s Party, I employ multilevel structural equation modeling to examine the theoretical model. I find clear evidence for a contextual effect of perceived group threat on individual-level Swiss People’s Party preferences.

  14. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  15. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-05-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label, or color-coded GDA label) communicated the product's nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label than on products with monochrome GDAs or Choices logo. A health goal resulted in longer and more frequent fixations in comparison to a preference goal. Products with color-coded and monochrome GDAs had the highest likelihood of being chosen, and this effect was related to the attention-getting property of the label (irrespective of brand and flavor effects). The product fixated most had the highest likelihood of being chosen. These results suggest that attention mediates the effect of nutrition labels on choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Groups 4 Health: Evidence that a social-identity intervention that builds and strengthens social group membership improves mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation and disconnection have profound negative effects on mental health, but there are few, if any, theoretically-derived interventions that directly target this problem. We evaluate a new intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), a manualized 5-module psychological intervention that targets the development and maintenance of social group relationships to treat psychological distress arising from social isolation. G4H was tested using a non-randomized control design. The program was delivered to young adults presenting with social isolation and affective disturbance. Primary outcome measures assessed mental health (depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and stress), well-being (life satisfaction, self-esteem) and social connectedness (loneliness, social functioning). Our secondary goal was to assess whether mechanisms of social identification were responsible for changes in outcomes. G4H was found to significantly improve mental health, well-being, and social connectedness on all measures, both on program completion and 6-month follow-up. In line with social identity theorizing, analysis also showed that improvements in depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and life satisfaction were underpinned by participants' increased identification both with their G4H group and with multiple groups. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential value of G4H and its underlying mechanisms, but further examination is required in other populations to address issues of generalizability, and in randomized controlled trials to address its wider efficacy. Results of this pilot study confirm that G4H has the potential to reduce the negative health-related consequences of social disconnection. Future research will determine its utility in wider community contexts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Acute pancreatitis. Evidence-based practice guidelines, prepared by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritz, István; Czakó, László; Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Kelemen, Dezső; Lásztity, Natália; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Párniczky, Andrea; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Szücs, Ákos; Takács, Tamás; Tiszlavicz, László; Hegyi, Péter

    2015-02-15

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract associated with significant morbidity and mortality that requires up-to-date and evidence based treatment guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare evidence based guideline for the medical and surgical management of acute pancreatitis based on the available international guidelines and evidence. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and, if it was necessary, complemented and/or modified the international guidelines. All together 42 relevant clinical questions were defined in 11 topics (Diagnosis and etiology, Prognosis, Imaging, Fluid therapy, Intensive care management, Prevention of infectious complications, Nutrition, Biliary interventions, Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography pancreatitis, Indication, timing and strategy for intervention in necrotizing pancreatitis, Timing of cholecystectomy [or endoscopic sphincterotomy]). Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate® grading system. The draft of the guideline was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. 25 clinical questions with almost total (more than 95%) and 17 clinical questions with strong (more than 70%) agreement were accepted. The present guideline is the first evidence based acute pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The guideline may provide important help for tuition, everyday practice and for establishment of proper finance of acute pancreatitis. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become as basic reference in Hungary.

  18. [Autoimmune pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Hegyi, Péter; Hritz, István; Kelemen, Dezső; Lásztity, Natália; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Párniczky, Andrea; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Takács, Tamás; Tiszlavicz, László; Szücs, Ákos; Czakó, László

    2015-02-22

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare disease which can even mimic pancreatic tumor, however, unlike the latter, it requires not surgical but conservative management. Correct diagnosis and differential diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and treatment of these patients requires up-to-date and evidence based management guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available international guidelines and evidences. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented and/or modified the international guidelines if it was necessary. 29 relevant clinical questions in 4 topics were defined (Basics; Diagnosis; Differential diagnostics; Therapy). Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate(®) grading system. The draft of the guidelines was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. All clinial questions were accepted with almost total (more than 95%) agreement. The present guideline is the first evidence based autoimmune pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The guideline may provide very important and helpful data for tuition of autoimmune pancreatitis, for everyday practice and for establishing proper finance. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become a basic reference in Hungary.

  19. [Chronic pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Tamás; Czakó, László; Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Hegyi, Péter; Hritz, István; Kelemen, Dezső; Lásztity, Natália; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Párniczky, Andrea; Patai, Árpád; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Tiszlavicz, László; Szücs, Ákos

    2015-02-15

    Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease associated with structural and functional damage of the pancreas. In most cases pain, maldigestion and weight loss are the leading symptoms, which significantly worsen the quality of life. Correct diagnosis and differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and treatment of these patients requires up-to-date and evidence based treatment guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available international guidelines and evidence. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented and/or modified the international guidelines if it was necessary. 123 relevant clinical questions in 11 topics were defined. Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate® grading system. The draft of the guidelines were presented and discussed at the consensus meeting in September 12, 2014. All clinical questions were accepted with total or strong agreement. The present guideline is the first evidence based guideline for chronic pancreatitis in Hungary. This guideline provides very important and helpful data for tuition, everyday practice and proper financing of chronic pancreatitis. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become a basic reference in Hungary.

  20. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  1. What point-of-use water treatment products do consumers use? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial among the urban poor in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Luoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that household point-of-use (POU water treatment products can reduce the enormous burden of water-borne illness. Nevertheless, adoption among the global poor is very low, and little evidence exists on why. METHODS: We gave 600 households in poor communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh randomly-ordered two-month free trials of four water treatment products: dilute liquid chlorine (sodium hypochlorite solution, marketed locally as Water Guard, sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets (branded as Aquatabs, a combined flocculant-disinfectant powdered mixture (the PUR Purifier of Water, and a silver-coated ceramic siphon filter. Consumers also received education on the dangers of untreated drinking water. We measured which products consumers used with self-reports, observation (for the filter, and chlorine tests (for the other products. We also measured drinking water's contamination with E. coli (compared to 200 control households. FINDINGS: Households reported highest usage of the filter, although no product had even 30% usage. E. coli concentrations in stored drinking water were generally lowest when households had Water Guard. Households that self-reported product usage had large reductions in E. coli concentrations with any product as compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Traditional arguments for the low adoption of POU products focus on affordability, consumers' lack of information about germs and the dangers of unsafe water, and specific products not meshing with a household's preferences. In this study we provided free trials, repeated informational messages explaining the dangers of untreated water, and a variety of product designs. The low usage of all products despite such efforts makes clear that important barriers exist beyond cost, information, and variation among these four product designs. Without a better understanding of the choices and aspirations of the target end-users, household-based water treatment is unlikely

  2. What Point-of-Use Water Treatment Products Do Consumers Use? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial among the Urban Poor in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Jill; Najnin, Nusrat; Mahmud, Minhaj; Albert, Jeff; Islam, M. Sirajul; Luby, Stephen; Unicomb, Leanne; Levine, David I.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence that household point-of-use (POU) water treatment products can reduce the enormous burden of water-borne illness. Nevertheless, adoption among the global poor is very low, and little evidence exists on why. Methods We gave 600 households in poor communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh randomly-ordered two-month free trials of four water treatment products: dilute liquid chlorine (sodium hypochlorite solution, marketed locally as Water Guard), sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets (branded as Aquatabs), a combined flocculant-disinfectant powdered mixture (the PUR Purifier of Water), and a silver-coated ceramic siphon filter. Consumers also received education on the dangers of untreated drinking water. We measured which products consumers used with self-reports, observation (for the filter), and chlorine tests (for the other products). We also measured drinking water's contamination with E. coli (compared to 200 control households). Findings Households reported highest usage of the filter, although no product had even 30% usage. E. coli concentrations in stored drinking water were generally lowest when households had Water Guard. Households that self-reported product usage had large reductions in E. coli concentrations with any product as compared to controls. Conclusion Traditional arguments for the low adoption of POU products focus on affordability, consumers' lack of information about germs and the dangers of unsafe water, and specific products not meshing with a household's preferences. In this study we provided free trials, repeated informational messages explaining the dangers of untreated water, and a variety of product designs. The low usage of all products despite such efforts makes clear that important barriers exist beyond cost, information, and variation among these four product designs. Without a better understanding of the choices and aspirations of the target end-users, household-based water treatment is unlikely to reduce

  3. Complementarities among Authority, Accountability, and Monitoring: Evidence from Japanese Business Groups

    OpenAIRE

    ITOH, Hideshi; Kikutani, Tatsuya; Hayashida, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an empirical test of complementarities among delegated authority, accountability, and monitoring, using unique survey data collected from group affiliated companies in Japan. The survey provides information about how various decisions are made within business groups, each of which consists of a large core parent firm and its network of affiliated firms such as subsidiaries and related companies. We find some evidence that delegated authority and accountability are complement...

  4. A field investigation of flight anxiety: Evidence of gender differences in consumer behaviors among Las Vegas passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey A Harvell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines how anxious the Las Vegas public is through a case study of one local international airport. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study examines gender differences in consumer behaviors among the flying public inside Las Vegas McCarran International Airport in a field experiment theoretically grounded in Terror Management Theory. Findings and Originality/Value: Because airports are replete with reminders of human mortality, it is not a surprise that death awareness and flight anxiety may be closely related. The flying public that is anxious to fly presents an interesting public relations situation for airports. Therefore, this study examines how anxious the Las Vegas public is through a case study of one local international airport. Results show that flight anxiety does provoke the same kind of existential defenses that traditional death awareness does. This study also suggests that men and women do not react to flight anxiety in a uniform way, they are different in their reactions in seeking to gamble, eating unhealthy food, and an increased desire for electronic entertainment.

  5. Influence of piers on functional groups of benthic primary producers and consumers in the channel of a subtropical coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Pagliosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial habitats have become common in coastal areas worldwide and may influence the structure and functioning of benthic ecosystems. We analyze the influence of piers on the benthic morphofunctional groups of rocky seaweeds and of soft bottom macrofauna in the channel of Conceição Lagoon (southern Brazil. The main impact is a reduction in the luminosity available for photosynthetic activity which is directly related to a decrease in the biomasses of sediment microphytobenthos and of more highly structured macroalgae life-forms. Contrary to expectations, the morphotypes of potentially high biomass productivity, such as articulated coralline, corticated and leathery macroalgae, were in general less abundant and the low biomass foliose and filamentous macroalgae occurred in reference areas but not under the piers. The piers' effects on motile epifauna and infauna functional groups were site-specific and probably related to the general reduction in primary producer organisms in the new habitats. The discretely motile infauna was the only functional group able to thrive under the piers due to their reduced motility and fragile morphological structures, being benefited by the shelter provided by the artificial habitats. Our results showed that the piers might have a negative effect on the base-trophic level organisms responsible for bottom-up controls.Hábitats artificiais têm se tornado comum em áreas costeiras no mundo todo, podendo influenciar a estrutura e funcionamento de ecossistemas bênticos. Nós analisamos a influência de trapiches nos grupos morfofuncionais bênticos de algas associadas a substrato consolidado e de macrofauna em substrato inconsolidado, no canal da Lagoa da Conceição (sul do Brasil. O principal impacto da presença de trapiches é a redução da irradiação disponível para atividade fotossintética, o que está diretamente relacionado com o decréscimo na biomassa microfitobentônica no sedimento e de macroalga

  6. Slowed Search in the Context of Unimpaired Grouping in Autism: Evidence from Multiple Conjunction Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keehn, Brandon; Joseph, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    In multiple conjunction search, the target is not known in advance but is defined only with respect to the distractors in a given search array, thus reducing the contributions of bottom-up and top-down attentional and perceptual processes during search. This study investigated whether the superior visual search skills typically demonstrated by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would be evident in multiple conjunction search. Thirty-two children with ASD and 32 age- and nonverbal IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children were administered a multiple conjunction search task. Contrary to findings from the large majority of studies on visual search in ASD, response times of individuals with ASD were significantly slower than those of their TD peers. Evidence of slowed performance in ASD suggests that the mechanisms responsible for superior ASD performance in other visual search paradigms are not available in multiple conjunction search. Although the ASD group failed to exhibit superior performance, they showed efficient search and intertrial priming levels similar to the TD group. Efficient search indicates that ASD participants were able to group distractors into distinct subsets. In summary, while demonstrating grouping and priming effects comparable to those exhibited by their TD peers, children with ASD were slowed in their performance on a multiple conjunction search task, suggesting that their usual superior performance in visual search tasks is specifically dependent on top-down and/or bottom-up attentional and perceptual processes.

  7. Health Social Media and Patient-Centered Care: Buzz or Evidence? Findings from the Section "Education and Consumer Health Informatics" of the 2015 Edition of the IMIA Yearbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staccini, P; Fernandez-Luque, L

    2015-08-13

    To summarize the 2014 state of the art in the areas related to consumer health informatics and social media. We conducted a systematic review of articles published in 2014 in PubMed with a predefined set of queries. We identified 439 articles relevant for the review. The two section editors independently screened those papers taking into account their relevance to the topics covered by the section. In a second step, they jointly selected the 20 most representative papers as candidate best papers. Candidate best papers were then submitted for full review and scoring by external reviewers. Based on the scoring, section editors together with the IMIA Yearbook editorial board selected the four best papers published in 2014 in consumer health informatics. Helping patients acquire a healthier lifestyle is a crucial part of patient empowerment. In this line of work, new studies are exploring the efficacy of online health interventions for patient behavioral change. The special case of smoking cessation for consumers with low socio-economic status is particularly noticeable. Another study has explored how an online intervention can reduce the anxiety of women who experience an abnormal mammography. The team of PatientsLikeMe has studied how online support groups could play a role in the quality of life of organ transplant recipients. The patient perspective of online forums' users is also analyzed in the domain of anticoagulation therapy. Online health interventions, many of them using social media, have confirmed their potential to impact consumer behavioral change. However, there are still many methodological issues that need to be addressed in order to prove cost-effectiveness.

  8. MODELLING CONSUMER EMPOWERMENT LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megawati Simanjuntak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aimed to analyze the effect of socioeconomic characteristics, consumer reference group, and the intensity of having consumer education on consumer empowerment among the residents of urban and rural area in Bogor. Better socio-economic characteristics were associated with better consumer empowerment, i.e. more the subjects were more skillful, more to acknowledge their rights, and more assertive. Reference group had no direct effect on the consumer empowerment, but indirectly affected it through its consumer educational aspect. The intensity of consumer education was found to improve the consumer empowerment. All results applied to both in rural and urban areas.Keywords: socio-economic, consumer empowerment, consumer education, reference groupJEL Classification Number : D100, D180AbstrakTujuan penelitian adalah menganalisis pengaruh karakteristik sosial ekonomi, kelompok rujukan dan intensitas mengikuti pendidikan konsumen terhadap keberdayaan konsumen. Karakteristik sosial ekonomi yang semakin baik dan jumlah kelompok rujukan semakin banyak akan meningkatkan intensitas mengikuti kegiatan pendidikan konsumen. Karakteristik sosial ekonomi berpengaruh baik langsung maupun tidak langsung terhadap keberdayaan konsumen, artinya kondisi sosial ekonomi yang lebih baik akan meningkatkan keberdayaan konsumen menjadi lebih terampil, tahu hak-haknya dan lebih tegas. Kelompok rujukan secara langsung tidak meningkatkan keberdayaan konsumen, namun secara tidak langsung melalui pendidikan konsumen yang lebih intensif dapat meningkatkan keberdayaan konsumen. Intensitas mengikuti pendidikan konsumen mampu meningkatkan keberdayaan konsumen baik di perdesaan maupun perkotaan.Keywords: sosial ekonomi, keberdayaan, konsumen, pendidikan, kelompok rujukanJEL Classification Number: D100, D180

  9. Role of Gestalt grouping in selective attention: evidence from the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Martijn J M; Roelofs, Ardi

    2007-11-01

    Selective attention has been intensively studied using the Stroop task. Evidence suggests that Stroop interference in a color-naming task arises partly because of visual attention sharing between color and word: Removing the target color after 150 msec reduces interference (Neumann, 1986). Moreover, removing both the color and the word simultaneously reduces interference less than does removing the color only (La Heij, van der Heijden, & Plooij, 2001). These findings could also be attributed to Gestalt grouping principles, such as common fate. We report three experiments in which the role of Gestalt grouping was further investigated. Experiment I replicated the reduced interference, using words and color patches. In Experiment 2, the color patch was not removed but only repositioned (Gestalt grouping in selective attention.

  10. Extracting physician group intelligence from electronic health records to support evidence based medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin M Weber

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine employs expert opinion and clinical data to inform clinical decision making. The objective of this study is to determine whether it is possible to complement these sources of evidence with information about physician "group intelligence" that exists in electronic health records. Specifically, we measured laboratory test "repeat intervals", defined as the amount of time it takes for a physician to repeat a test that was previously ordered for the same patient. Our assumption is that while the result of a test is a direct measure of one marker of a patient's health, the physician's decision to order the test is based on multiple factors including past experience, available treatment options, and information about the patient that might not be coded in the electronic health record. By examining repeat intervals in aggregate over large numbers of patients, we show that it is possible to 1 determine what laboratory test results physicians consider "normal", 2 identify subpopulations of patients that deviate from the norm, and 3 identify situations where laboratory tests are over-ordered. We used laboratory tests as just one example of how physician group intelligence can be used to support evidence based medicine in a way that is automated and continually updated.

  11. Direct evidence of hierarchical assembly at low masses from isolated dwarf galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierwalt, S.; Liss, S. E.; Johnson, K. E.; Patton, D. R.; Privon, G. C.; Besla, G.; Kallivayalil, N.; Putman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The demographics of dwarf galaxy populations have long been in tension with predictions from the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) paradigm 1-4 . If primordial density fluctuations were scale-free as predicted, dwarf galaxies should themselves host dark-matter subhaloes 5 , the most massive of which may have undergone star formation resulting in dwarf galaxy groups. Ensembles of dwarf galaxies are observed as sate­llites of more massive galaxies 6-9 , and there is observational 10 and theoretical 11 evidence to suggest that these satellites at redshift z = 0 were captured by the massive host halo as a group. However, the evolution of dwarf galaxies is highly susceptible to environment 12-14 , making these satellite groups imperfect probes of ΛCDM in the low-mass regime. Here we report one of the clearest examples yet of hierarchical structure formation at low masses: using deep multi-wavelength data, we identify seven isolated, spectroscopically confirmed groups of only dwarf galaxies. Each group hosts three to five known members, has a baryonic mass of ~4.4 × 109 to 2 × 1010 solar masses (M ⊙), and requires a mass-to-light ratio of <100 to be gravitationally bound. Such groups are predicted to be rare theoretically and found to be rare observationally at the current epoch, and thus provide a unique window into the possible formation mechanism of more massive, isolated galaxies.

  12. The Brazilian consumer's understanding and perceptions of organic vegetables: a Focus Group approach Entendimento e percepções do consumidor brasileiro em relação a vegetais orgânicos: uma abordagem utilizando Focus Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Lopes Souza Soares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Focus Group is a tool which generates, through interview sessions with a small number of participants, preliminary data to be used in subsequent quantitative stages. Many consumer studies use qualitative research with the aim of obtaining information and opinions on a specific product or situation. The objective of the present study was to obtain knowledge on the opinion, understanding and perception of the Brazilian consumer with respect to vegetables, focusing on organic products, using Focus Group Sessions. Four Focus Group Sessions were held with men and women in different environments, following a previously elaborated interview guide. In this study, it was observed that the consumers demonstrated being interested in having a healthy diet, based on fruit, vegetables and natural products. However, only a few declared consuming organic foods. Some participants did not know what the term organic meant, and most of them think that organic products are still very expensive, are not easily available in the supermarkets, do not have a good appearance, mainly in terms of size and packaging, and their certification is not always trustworthy. Almost all participants stated that they read package labels and among the items most observed were best-before date, nutritional information, production system and price. This study has identified important vegetable attributes perceived by the consumer, favouring the planning of a subsequent quantitative research. The results suggest that more information on the benefits of organic agriculture has to be passed on to consumers in order to contribute to a higher consumption of such products.Focus Group é uma ferramenta que permite obter, através de sessões de entrevistas com reduzido número de participantes, informação e opinião sobre algum produto ou serviço específico, as quais podem ser utilizadas em etapas quantitativas subseqüentes. O presente estudo objetivou conhecer a opinião, entendimento e

  13. Consumers as four-faced creatures. Looking at food consumption from the perspective of contemporary consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagevos, Hans

    2005-08-01

    One would believe that with the increasing importance attached to consumers in contemporary affluent societies, the difficulty to understand today's 'butterfly' or 'unmanageable' consumers seems to double simultaneously. Modern consumers defy traditional segmentation by age, gender or income. Classical criteria to distinguish different homogeneous groups of consumers with corresponding behavioral intentions and patterns, have lost much of their explanatory power. Hence, the behaviour of the inhabitants of modern consumer society can no longer be understood by 'straight' and measurable segmentation criteria only. In order to meet the complexities of modern consumer behaviour, it is suggested that we need to improve our understanding of socio-cultural and socio-psychological influences on consumer choices. Such are awarded to be supplementary to socio-demographic (e.g. age, gender) or socio-economic (e.g. income, occupation) criteria, which are traditionally used in consumer studies. Our contribution to this quest for new perspectives, in which consumption is both seen as an economic/materialistic and a socio-cultural/attitudinal phenomenon, is called the consumer images approach. The underpinnings of this approach are the dimensions materialism/nonmaterialism and individualism/collectivism. Based on these two dimensions, four consumer images are distinguished in a four-quadrantic continuum. This implies that consumer images are not another set of taxonomies to 'box in' consumers. The consumer images approach is in tune with lines of thought in the recent renaissance of the sociology of consumption. To illustrate this, a presentation of the multifaceted consumer will be given that is interlarded with quotations from several new studies on contemporary consumerism which give evidence of the current vitality of scholarly interest in consumption.

  14. ''We are, therefore we should'' : evidence that in-group identification mediates the acquisition of in-group norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livingstone, Andrew G.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Postmes, Tom; Jetten, Jolanda

    2011-01-01

    In 2 field studies (Ns = 71 and 113), we tested the prediction that in-group identification would mediate the acquisition of group norms by new group members. Study 1 demonstrated that participants surveyed after a team-development program reported greater awareness of in-group norms of teamwork and

  15. If It Works for Pills, Can It Work for Skills? Direct-to-Consumer Social Marketing of Evidence-Based Psychological Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Robert D; Bayar, Hasan

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of evidence-based psychological treatments (EVPTs) is a scientific success story, but unfortunately the application of these empirically supported procedures has been slow to gain ground in treatment-as-usual settings. This Open Forum commentary argues that direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing, which has worked well in communicating the advantages of various medicines, should perhaps be considered for use in social marketing of EVPTs. DTC marketing of pharmaceuticals is a long-standing advertising strategy in the United States. In fact, DTC marketing of psychotropic medicines is quite a success story. The authors recommend various strategies for using marketing science to devise DTC advertising of EVPTs, discuss previous research on DTC campaigns, and describe initiatives launched in the United Kingdom and Europe to promote EVPTs. Suggestions for evaluating and regulating DTC marketing of EVPTs are included. Finally, the potential for DTC marketing of EVPTs to increase mental health literacy and reduce health disparities is explored.

  16. Obstacles to implementing evidence-based dentistry: a focus group-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannes, Karin; Norré, David; Goedhuys, Jo; Naert, Ignace; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2008-06-01

    In many countries, questions have been raised about the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) in oral health care. The call for an increase in EBP seems to face many obstacles. Only limited empirical studies address these obstacles. We present a qualitative study that explores the obstacles that Flemish (Belgian, Dutch-speaking) dentists experience in the implementation of EBP in routine clinical work. We collected data from discussions in focus groups. Seventy-nine dentists participated. The data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Three major categories of obstacles were identified. These categories relate to obstacles in 1) evidence, 2) partners in health care (medical doctors, patients, and government), and 3) the field of dentistry. Our findings suggest that educators should provide communication skills to aid decision making, address the technical dimensions of dentistry, promote lifelong learning, and close the gap between academics and general practitioners (dentists) in order to create mutual understanding. The obstacles identified are considered useful to support future quantitative research that can be generalized to a broader group.

  17. Effects of power on perceived and objective group variability: evidence that more powerful groups are more variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinote, Ana; Judd, Charles M; Brauer, Markus

    2002-05-01

    The perception of group variability is affected by social power and status. Three different mechanisms may be responsible for these effects: (a) the power of the perceiver affects perceived group variability; (b) the power of the perceived group affects its perceived variability; and (c) the power of the group affects its actual variability. Two studies are reported to tease apart these three mechanisms and provide support for the third. In the first study, high- and low-power groups interacted and subsequently judged each other. In the second study, participants observed and rated the Study 1 groups, either knowing their power relationship or not. Results suggest that members of high-power groups manifest greater interpersonal variability than members of low-power groups.

  18. Researching the mental health needs of hard-to-reach groups: managing multiple sources of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamb Jonathan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common mental health problems impose substantial challenges to patients, carers, and health care systems. A range of interventions have demonstrable efficacy in improving the lives of people experiencing such problems. However many people are disadvantaged, either because they are unable to access primary care, or because access does not lead to adequate help. New methods are needed to understand the problems of access and generate solutions. In this paper we describe our methodological approach to managing multiple and diverse sources of evidence, within a research programme to increase equity of access to high quality mental health services in primary care. Methods We began with a scoping review to identify the range and extent of relevant published material, and establish key concepts related to access. We then devised a strategy to collect - in parallel - evidence from six separate sources: a systematic review of published quantitative data on access-related studies; a meta-synthesis of published qualitative data on patient perspectives; dialogues with local stakeholders; a review of grey literature from statutory and voluntary service providers; secondary analysis of patient transcripts from previous qualitative studies; and primary data from interviews with service users and carers. We synthesised the findings from these diverse sources, made judgements on key emerging issues in relation to needs and services, and proposed a range of potential interventions. These proposals were debated and refined using iterative electronic and focus group consultation procedures involving international experts, local stakeholders and service users. Conclusions Our methods break new ground by generating and synthesising multiple sources of evidence, connecting scientific understanding with the perspectives of users, in order to develop innovative ways to meet the mental health needs of under-served groups.

  19. Group differences in physician responses to handheld presentation of clinical evidence: a verbal protocol analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovic Nada J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify individual differences in physicians' needs for the presentation of evidence resources and preferences for mobile devices. Methods Within-groups analysis of responses to semi-structured interviews. Interviews consisted of using prototypes in response to task-based scenarios. The prototypes were implemented on two different form factors: a tablet style PC and a pocketPC. Participants were from three user groups: general internists, family physicians and medicine residents, and from two different settings: urban and semi-urban. Verbal protocol analysis, which consists of coding utterances, was conducted on the transcripts of the testing sessions. Statistical relationships were investigated between staff physicians' and residents' background variables, self-reported experiences with the interfaces, and verbal code frequencies. Results 47 physicians were recruited from general internal medicine, family practice clinics and a residency training program. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years. Physician specialty had a greater effect on device and information-presentation preferences than gender, age, setting or previous technical experience. Family physicians preferred the screen size of the tablet computer and were less concerned about its portability. Residents liked the screen size of the tablet, but preferred the portability of the pocketPC. Internists liked the portability of the pocketPC, but saw less advantage to the large screen of the tablet computer (F[2,44] = 4.94, p = .012. Conclusion Different types of physicians have different needs and preferences for evidence-based resources and handheld devices. This study shows how user testing can be incorporated into the process of design to inform group-based customization.

  20. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  1. Selective information seeking: can consumers' avoidance of evidence-based information on colorectal cancer screening be explained by the theory of cognitive dissonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckelberg, Anke; Kasper, Jürgen; Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2007-08-27

    Evidence-based patient information (EBPI) is a prerequisite for informed decision-making. However, presentation of EBPI may lead to irrational reactions causing avoidance, minimisation and devaluation of the information. To explore whether the theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making and useful to explain these phenomena. 261 volunteers from Hamburg (157 women), >or=50 years old without diagnosis of colorectal cancer. DESIGN AND VARIABLES: Within an experiment we simulated information seeking on colorectal cancer screening. Consumers' attitudes towards screening were surveyed using a rating scale from -5 (participate in no way) to +5 (participate unconditionally) (independent variable). Using a cover story, participants were asked to sort 5 article headlines according to their reading preferences. The headlines simulated the pro to contra variety of contents to be found in print media about colorectal cancer screening. The dependent variable was the sequence of article headlines. Participants were very much in favour of screening with scores for faecal occult blood test of 4.0 (0.1) and for colonoscopy 3.3 (0.1). According to our hypothesis we found statistically significant positive correlations between the stimuli in favour of screening and attitudes and significant negative correlations between the stimuli against screening and attitudes. The theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making. It may explain some phenomena of irrational reactions to evidence-based patient information.

  2. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004–11) of the ITC Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers’ perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Methods Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Results Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Conclusions Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires. PMID:24359292

  3. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004-11) of the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison, Sarah E; O'Connor, Richard J; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-12-21

    Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers' perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires.

  4. Evidence for implicit evaluative in-group bias : Affect-biased spontaneous trait inference in a minimal group paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, S; Moskowitz, GB

    2000-01-01

    Mere categorization of individuals into two distinct social categories has been shown to elicit in-group favoritism. Positive differentiation, even of trivial groups, has been explained in terms of a striving for a positive social identity (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). The present study questions this in

  5. Serological Evidence of Immune Priming by Group A Streptococci in Patients with Acute Rheumatic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M Raynes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute rheumatic fever (ARF is an autoimmune response to Group A Streptococcus (GAS infection. Repeated GAS exposures are proposed to ‘prime’ the immune system for autoimmunity. This notion of immune-priming by multiple GAS infections was first postulated in the 1960s, but direct experimental evidence to support the hypothesis has been lacking. Here we present novel methodology, based on antibody responses to GAS T‑antigens, that enables previous GAS exposures to be mapped in patient sera. T-antigens are surface expressed, type specific antigens and GAS strains fall into 18 major clades or T-types. A panel of recombinant T-antigens was generated and immunoassays were performed in parallel with serum depletion experiments allowing type-specific T‑antigen antibodies to be distinguished from cross-reactive antibodies. At least two distinct GAS exposures were detected in each of the ARF sera tested. Furthermore, no two sera had the same T-antigen reactivity profile suggesting that each patient was exposed to a unique series of GAS T‑types prior to developing ARF. The methods have provided much-needed experimental evidence to substantiate the immune-priming hypothesis, and will facilitate further serological profiling studies that explore the multifaceted interactions between GAS and the host.

  6. Evidence for tidal interaction and merger as the origin of galaxy morphology evolution in compact groups

    CERN Document Server

    Coziol, R

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a morphological study based on NIR images of 25 galaxies, with different levels of nuclear activity, in 8 Compact Groups of Galaxies (CGs). We perform independently two different analysis: a isophotal study and a study of morphological asymmetries. The results yielded by the two analysis are highly consistent. For the first time, it is possible to show that deviations from pure ellipses are produced by inhomogeneous stellar mass distributions related to galaxy interactions and mergers. We find evidence of mass asymmetries in 74% of the galaxies in our sample. In 59% of these cases, the asymmetries come in pairs, and are consistent with tidal effects produced by the proximity of companion galaxies. The symmetric galaxies are generally small in size or mass, inactive, and have an early-type morphology. In 20% of the galaxies we find evidence for cannibalism. In 36% of the early-type galaxies the color gradient is positive (blue nucleus) or flat. Summing up these results, as much as 52%...

  7. Consumer Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANKOT

    2004-01-01

    Fang Jun, the head of consumer and market insights of Unilever Shanghai, has summarized his early life as a market in two sentences: rush about to study market changes;act all day to observe consumer behavior. And now?"Tell stories, conduct interviews and piece together different data; calculate numbers,build models and write reports."

  8. Consumer protection in Turkey: law, informality and the role of the media. Monash University, Workplace and Corporate Law Research Group, Working Paper No. 21

    OpenAIRE

    Creutzfeldt, N.; Mahy, P.; Kazaz, J.; Caliskan, E.; Lu, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    This report is part of a University of Oxford John Fell funded collaborative project: Informality and the Media in Consumer Protection in Emerging Economies. This pilot project seeks to shed light upon consumer complaint behaviour through social media in emerging economies.

  9. Evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between Vinjamuru group and Udayagiri group of Nellore Schist Belt, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sankha; Shukla, Devasheesh; Mitra, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    The Nellore Schist Belt (NSB) is a curvilinear Archaean schist belt, approximately 350 km long and 8-50 km wide. The Nellore Schist Belt is considered to be Neoarchean in age and stratigraphically NSB is classified as the western Udayagiri group (dominated by metasediments) and underlying eastern Vinjamuru group (dominated by metabasalts). There is a long controversy regarding the contact relationship between Udayagiri and Vinjamuru groups. Earlier researchers regarded the contact between two groups as tectonic on the basis of metamorphism. A shear zone and a possible thrust contact between the two groups have also been reported. On the basis of present study, an NNW-SSE trending, westerly dipping inclined transpressional zone is found at the contact between Udayagiri and Vinjamuru groups in the central western part of the NSB. Kinematic analysis of both the hanging wall and foot wall of the westerly dipping thrust zone shows presence of strong S1 schistosity, shear bands and S-C fabric in both strike and dip section along with east-verging overturned fold, westerly dipping inverted beds, suggesting partitioning of non-coaxial deformation in strike-slip and dip-slip component along with a pure shear component. Strike-slip is more prominent in the northern part of the contact than the southern part. The presence of steep to moderate northerly plunging non-orthogonal stretching/mineral elongation lineation all along the contact and clockwise shift of plot of the same in stereo net from its orthogonal position and presence of other kinematic indicators in plan suggests a right lateral strike-slip component. As a whole, it is suggested that Udayagiri group is thrusted over Vinjamuru group along a westerly dipping thrust plane with a right lateral strike-slip motion and simultaneous E-W contraction.

  10. Evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between Vinjamuru group and Udayagiri group of Nellore Schist Belt, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sankha Das; Devasheesh Shukla; S K Mitra

    2016-07-01

    The Nellore Schist Belt (NSB) is a curvilinear Archaean schist belt, approximately 350 km long and 8–50 km wide. The Nellore Schist Belt is considered to be Neoarchean in age and stratigraphically NSB is classified as the western Udayagiri group (dominated by metasediments) and underlying eastern Vinjamuru group (dominated by metabasalts). There is a long controversy regarding the contact relationship between Udayagiri and Vinjamuru groups. Earlier researchers regarded the contact between two groups as tectonic on the basis of metamorphism. A shear zone and a possible thrust contact between the two groups have also been reported. On the basis of present study, an NNW–SSE trending, westerly dipping inclined transpressional zone is found at the contact between Udayagiri and Vinjamuru groups in the central western part of the NSB. Kinematic analysis of both the hanging wall and foot wall of the westerly dipping thrust zone shows presence of strong S1 schistosity, shear bands and S-C fabric in both strike and dip section along with east-verging overturned fold, westerly dipping inverted beds, suggesting partitioning of non-coaxial deformation in strike-slip and dip-slip component along with a pure shear component. Strike-slip is more prominent in the northern part of the contact than the southern part. The presence of steep to moderate northerly plunging non-orthogonal stretching/mineral elongation lineation all along the contact and clockwise shift of plot of the same in stereo net from its orthogonal position and presence of other kinematic indicators in plan suggests a right lateral strike-slip component. As a whole, it is suggested that Udayagiri group is thrusted over Vinjamuru group along a westerly dipping thrust plane with a right lateral strike-slip motion and simultaneous E–W contraction.

  11. Evidence for the alignment of quasar radio polarizations with large quasar group axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelgrims, V.; Hutsemékers, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, evidence has been presented for the polarization vectors from quasars to preferentially align with the axes of the large quasar groups (LQG) to which they belong. This report was based on observations made at optical wavelengths for two LQGs at redshift ~1.3. The correlation suggests that the spin axes of quasars preferentially align with their surrounding large-scale structure that is assumed to be traced by the LQGs. Here, we consider a large sample of LQGs built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalogue in the redshift range 1.0-1.8. For quasars embedded in this sample, we collected radio polarization measurements with the goal to study possible correlations between quasar polarization vectors and the major axis of their host LQGs. Assuming the radio polarization vector is perpendicular to the quasar spin axis, we found that the quasar spin axis is preferentially parallel to the LQG major axis inside LQGs that have at least 20 members. This result independently supports the observations at optical wavelengths. We additionally found that when the richness of an LQG decreases, the quasar spin axis becomes preferentially perpendicular to the LQG major axis and that no correlation is detected for quasar groups with fewer than 10 members.

  12. Revisiting the Diego Blood Group System in Amerindians: Evidence for Gene-Culture Comigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégat, Christophe; Bailly, Pascal; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mazières, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Six decades ago the DI*A allele of the Diego blood group system was instrumental in proving Native American populations originated from Siberia. Since then, it has received scant attention. The present study was undertaken to reappraise distribution of the DI*A allele in 144 Native American populations based on current knowledge. Using analysis of variance tests, frequency distribution was studied according to geographical, environmental, and cultural parameters. Frequencies were highest in Amazonian populations. In contrast, DI*A was undetectable in subarctic, Fuegian, Panamanian, Chaco and Yanomama populations. Closer study revealed a correlation that this unequal distribution was correlated with language, suggesting that linguistic divergence was a driving force in the expansion of DI*A among Native Americans. The absence of DI*A in circumpolar Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene speakers was consistent with a late migratory event confined to North America. Distribution of DI*A in subtropical areas indicated that gene and culture exchanges were more intense within than between ecozones. Bolstering the utility of classical genetic markers in biological anthropology, the present study of the expansion of Diego blood group genetic polymorphism in Native Americans shows strong evidence of gene-culture comigration.

  13. Revisiting the Diego Blood Group System in Amerindians: Evidence for Gene-Culture Comigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégat, Christophe; Bailly, Pascal; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mazières, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Six decades ago the DI*A allele of the Diego blood group system was instrumental in proving Native American populations originated from Siberia. Since then, it has received scant attention. The present study was undertaken to reappraise distribution of the DI*A allele in 144 Native American populations based on current knowledge. Using analysis of variance tests, frequency distribution was studied according to geographical, environmental, and cultural parameters. Frequencies were highest in Amazonian populations. In contrast, DI*A was undetectable in subarctic, Fuegian, Panamanian, Chaco and Yanomama populations. Closer study revealed a correlation that this unequal distribution was correlated with language, suggesting that linguistic divergence was a driving force in the expansion of DI*A among Native Americans. The absence of DI*A in circumpolar Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene speakers was consistent with a late migratory event confined to North America. Distribution of DI*A in subtropical areas indicated that gene and culture exchanges were more intense within than between ecozones. Bolstering the utility of classical genetic markers in biological anthropology, the present study of the expansion of Diego blood group genetic polymorphism in Native Americans shows strong evidence of gene-culture comigration. PMID:26148209

  14. Central gas entropy excess as direct evidence for AGN feedback in galaxy groups and clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Hai-Guang Xu; Jun-Hua Gu; Li-Yi Gu; Jing-Ying Wang; Zhong-Li Zhang

    2010-01-01

    By analyzing Chandra X-ray data of a sample of 21 galaxy groups and 19galaxy clusters,we find that in 31 sample systems there exists a significant central(R ≤10h-171 kpc)gas entropy excess(△K0),which corresponds to(=)0.1-0.5 keV per gas particle,beyond the power-law model that best fits the radial entropy profile of the outer regions.We also find a distinct correlation between the central entropy excess△K0 and K-band luminosity LK of the central dominating galaxies(CDGs),which is scaled as △K0 ∝ L1.6±0.4K,where LK is tightly associated with the mass of the supermassive black hole hosted in the CDG.In fact,if an effective mass-to-energy conversion-efficiency of 0.02 is assumed for the accretion process,the cumulative AGN feedback EAGNfeedback(=)ηMBHC2 yields an extra heating of(=)0.5-17.0keV per particle,which feedback is sufficient to explain the central entropy excess.In most cases,the AGN contribution can compensate the radiative loss of the X-ray gas within the cooling radius((=)0.002-2.2 keV per particle),and apparently exceeds the energy required to cause the scaling relations to deviate from the self-similar predictions((=)0.2-1.0 keV per particle).In contrast to the AGN feedback,the extra heating provided by supernova explosions accounts for(=)0.01-0.08 keV per particle in groups and is almost negligible in clusters.Therefore,the observed correlation between ΔK0 and LK can be considered as direct evidence for AGN feedback in galaxy groups and clusters.

  15. An Analysis of Consumer Behavior of Network Shopping Group%新生代消费群体的网络购物消费行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琍

    2012-01-01

    伴随着互联网的普及,网络购物成为消费者新的消费方式,深刻影响了人们的消费习惯。网络购物就是以国际互联网络为基础,利用数字化的信息和网络媒体的交互性来辅助营销目标实现的一种新型购物方式。特别是80后("后"指年代)、90后这些新生代的消费者伴随着互联网成长,与传统的60后、70后消费者在消费行为上有很多不同,惯性思维中的"孩子们"如今成了消费的主力,而90后是中国未来的消费生力军.产品若想获得这群人的青睐,特别是那些服装、手机、奢侈品企业,就需要从终端渠道营销、品牌沟通、外观设计等方面调整,迎合他们的消费心理。%Based on the Internet,online shopping is a new type of shopping,and makes use of the interactiveness of digital information and web media to help achieve marketing objectives.New generation of consumers such as the post 80s and 90s differ in consumer behavior from the 60s and 70s generation.Nowadays the former have constituted majority of customers and will be a major player in the future respectively.Producers should adjust terminal marketing channel,brand management and appearance design to meet with consumption psychology if such enterprises as produce costumes,cell phones,and luxury goods want to be popular for these groups.

  16. Consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    Štěrbová, Alena

    2010-01-01

    77 Resumé This thesis is dedicated to the consumer protection. My reason for the choice of this topic was following. A field of consumer protection is being continually developed. It is complicated for a layman to be well informed about all his rights and duties not only because the Czech legal regulation suffers from a immense fragmentation. Moreover, the implementation of EC directives ( as a source of many provisions protecting a consumer in the Civil Code) into our legal system was carrie...

  17. Framing the evidence for health smart homes and home-based consumer health technologies as a public health intervention for independent aging: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Blaine; Meyer, Ellen; Lazar, Amanda; Chaudhuri, Shomir; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George

    2013-07-01

    There is a critical need for public health interventions to support the independence of older adults as the world's population ages. Health smart homes (HSH) and home-based consumer health (HCH) technologies may play a role in these interventions. We conducted a systematic review of HSH and HCH literature from indexed repositories for health care and technology disciplines (e.g., MEDLINE, CINAHL, and IEEE Xplore) and classified included studies according to an evidence-based public health (EBPH) typology. One thousand, six hundred and thirty-nine candidate articles were identified. Thirty-one studies from the years 1998-2011 were included. Twenty-one included studies were classified as emerging, 10 as promising and 3 as effective (first tier). The majority of included studies were published in the period beginning in the year 2005. All 3 effective (first tier) studies and 9 of 10 of promising studies were published during this period. Almost all studies included an activity sensing component and most of them used passive infrared motion sensors. The three effective (first tier) studies all used a multicomponent technology approach that included activity sensing, reminders and other technologies tailored to individual preferences. Future research should explore the use of technology for self-management of health by older adults; social support; and self-reported health measures incorporated into personal health records, electronic medical records, and community health registries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do consumers of manufactured cigarettes respond differently to price changes compared with their Roll-Your-Own counterparts? Evidence from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter; Rutherford, Paul; Saunders, Caroline

    2015-05-01

    Price-based mechanisms are an important tobacco cessation policy tool in New Zealand (NZ) and so measurement of smokers' reaction to price changes is crucial in determining efficacy of this approach. Although approximately two-thirds of NZ tobacco demand is for manufactured cigarettes (MC) and one-third is for Roll-Your-Own (RYO) tobacco, previous price elasticity estimates have ignored differences between RYO tobacco and MC consumers. We employ a seemingly unrelated regression econometric approach applied to quarterly data over the period 1991-2011 to estimate price elasticities of demand separately for MC and RYO tobacco. Estimate of price elasticity of demand for MC is -1.033, and -0.441 for RYO tobacco. RYO tobacco is an inferior good; a 1% increase in average weekly income is associated with a 0.8% reduction in demand. RYO tobacco is a substitute for MC; a 1% increase in the price of MC is associated with a 0.867% increase in demand for RYO tobacco. There is significantly different price responsiveness across the two tobacco product types. MC smokers react far more strongly to price increases compared with RYO tobacco smokers. These findings suggest that pricing mechanisms may be more effective for reducing MC demand than for RYO tobacco. However, substitution between products means that this pricing effect is muted by the uptake of RYO tobacco use. Cessation policy specific to RYO use should be designed to target this growing group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Consumer Neoteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Alemany Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.

  20. Revisiting the out-group advantage in emotion recognition in a multicultural society: further evidence for the in-group advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sun-Mee; Lau, Anna S

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have accumulated supporting evidence for in-group advantage in emotion recognition, with individuals more accurately perceiving emotions expressed by cultural in-group members. However, inconsistent results appear in balanced-design studies involving the majority and minority groups residing within a single nation: There is an apparent pattern of an out-group advantage, implying that minority group members show heightened sensitivity toward emotional expressions of the majority group members. Two studies were conducted to further explore why the out-group advantage emerged in multicultural societies. In Study 1, based on a careful review of existing studies involving majority and minority groups, both new and previously reviewed, a new approach to assess the in-group and out-group advantage was proposed and applied. In Study 2, the minority out-group advantage was further tested in an experimental study. European American and Asian American students were asked to identify emotions of European and Asian Americans presented in static photos of imitated emotional expressions and full-channel video presentations of spontaneous emotional expressions. The results revealed that a mutual in-group advantage was observed in the spontaneous expressions condition, but not in the imitated expression condition. Significance and implications of the findings from this study are discussed regarding intergroup interactions in a multicultural society.

  1. Molecular evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae and Anaplasmataceae from ticks and stray dogs in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongjin; Nakao, Ryo; Thu, May June; Akter, Shirin; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Kato, Satomi; Katakura, Ken; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2016-03-01

    Emerging tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are important foci for human and animal health worldwide. However, these diseases are sometimes over looked, especially in countries with limited resources to perform molecular-based surveys. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and Anaplasmataceae in Bangladesh, which are important tick-borne pathogens for humans and animals worldwide. A total of 50 canine blood samples, 15 ticks collected from dogs, and 154 ticks collected from cattle were screened for the presence of SFG rickettsiae and Anaplasmataceae using molecular-based methods such as PCR and real-time PCR. The sequence analysis of the amplified products detected two different genotypes of SFG rickettsiae in ticks from cattle. The genotype detected in Rhipicephalus microplus was closely related to Rickettsia monacensis, while the genotype detected in Haemaphysalis bispinosa was closely related to Rickettsia sp. found in Korea and Japan. Anaplasma bovis was detected in canine blood and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and H. bispinosa). Unexpectedly, the partial genome sequence of Wolbachia sp., presumably associated with the nematode Dirofilaria immitis, was identified in canine blood. The present study provides the first molecular evidence of SFG rickettsiae and A. bovis in Bangladesh, indicating the possible emergence of previously unrecognized TBDs in this country.

  2. Molecular and serological evidence of flea-associated typhus group and spotted fever group rickettsial infections in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonanahary, Rado J L; Harrison, Alan; Maina, Alice N; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Telfer, Sandra

    2017-03-04

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for many febrile syndromes around the world, including in sub-Saharan Africa. Vectors of these pathogens include ticks, lice, mites and fleas. In order to assess exposure to flea-associated Rickettsia species in Madagascar, human and small mammal samples from an urban and a rural area, and their associated fleas were tested. Anti-typhus group (TGR)- and anti-spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR)-specific IgG were detected in 24 (39%) and 21 (34%) of 62 human serum samples, respectively, using indirect ELISAs, with six individuals seropositive for both. Only two (2%) Rattus rattus out of 86 small mammals presented antibodies against TGR. Out of 117 fleas collected from small mammals, Rickettsia typhi, a TGR, was detected in 26 Xenopsylla cheopis (24%) collected from rodents of an urban area (n = 107), while two of these urban X. cheopis (2%) were positive for Rickettsia felis, a SFGR. R. felis DNA was also detected in eight (31%) out of 26 Pulex irritans fleas. The general population in Madagascar are exposed to rickettsiae, and two flea-associated Rickettsia pathogens, R. typhi and R. felis, are present near or in homes. Although our results are from a single district, they demonstrate that rickettsiae should be considered as potential agents of undifferentiated fever in Madagascar.

  3. Children's Roles and Use of Evidence in Science: An Analysis of Decision-Making in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a research project concerned with children engaging in scientific argumentation. Discussion activities were designed to enable groups of children to use evidence when making decisions. The findings show a variation in the success with which children construct scientific arguments; some groups debate most of the…

  4. How to improve attitudes toward disliked groups: The effects of narrative versus numerical evidence on political persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Kim, N.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model of how messages about groups one personally dislikes affect individual attitudes. We build upon theories of message persuasion and out-group acceptance to account for evidence type (numerical vs. narrative), facilitating conditions (encouraging empathy vs. objectivity), and the un

  5. Trust in Consumer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursawe, Klaus; Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    While Trusted Computing is getting increasing attention in the PC world, consumer electronics devices have limited benefit from the Trusted Computing solutions currently under development. In this paper we outline the different requirements of consumer electronics devices, when compared to the PC world, and point out the technical consequences for standards like the Trusted Computing Group. In addition, we will touch on economic aspects that may inhibit or support Trusted Computing in this domain.

  6. Consumer Fetish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien

    2015-01-01

    What is the sovereign consumer that occupies such a central role in organizational discourse whose satisfaction has become an organizational imperative? Our research draws from extended fieldwork in the world of commercial ethnography. Our analysis shows how ethnography is implicated in the organ......What is the sovereign consumer that occupies such a central role in organizational discourse whose satisfaction has become an organizational imperative? Our research draws from extended fieldwork in the world of commercial ethnography. Our analysis shows how ethnography is implicated...... in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological......) theories of the fetish to organizational sensemaking. Second, we describe a distinctive process of organizational market sensemaking that is sensuous, magical, and analogical. Third, we offer a subtle critique of commercial ethnography, a popular research practice that aims to bring ‘real’ consumers...

  7. The Impact of Group Diversity on Class Performance: Evidence from College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Zeynep; Owan, Hideo; Pan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We combine class performance data from an undergraduate management course with students' personal records to examine how group diversity affects group work performance and individual learning. Students are exogenously assigned to groups. We find that, on average, male-dominant groups performed worse in their group work and learned less (based…

  8. The Impact of Group Diversity on Class Performance: Evidence from College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Zeynep; Owan, Hideo; Pan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We combine class performance data from an undergraduate management course with students' personal records to examine how group diversity affects group work performance and individual learning. Students are exogenously assigned to groups. We find that, on average, male-dominant groups performed worse in their group work and learned less (based…

  9. “FOCUS-GROUP” STUDY CONCERNING MEAT CONSUMER`S BEHAVIOR IN THE CITY OF TIMISOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GENOVEVA BUZAMĂT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Focus-group is an exploratory qualitative research, a demi-structured interview whichallows us to get to know the consumer`s perceptions, reasons, feelings, needs andattitudes. This technique has been used to make evident what especially determines theconsumers to choose a certain meat sort. The research has been carried out on twogroups, in the city of Timisoara. The objectives aimed at within this research were:determination of the consumer`s motivation for a certain meat sort; correlation betweenlifestyle and meat sort; consumption habits. The main tool was represented by theinterview guide, in which we have used open questions in order to hear our subjects`opinions concerning the meat consumption, open questions for their familiarization andintroductive questions, with the help of which we introduced the subjects to the theme ofthis research.

  10. Escala de comportamentos socialmente responsáveis do consumidor: estudo preliminar de evidência de validade Socially responsible consumer behavior scale: a preliminary study for evidence of validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Queiroga

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo adaptar para o Brasil a Escala de Comportamentos Socialmente Responsáveis do Consumidor - ECSRC (Roberts, 1996, cujo objetivo principal é avaliar em que medida os consumidores tendentes a expressar condutas indicativas de preocupação de ordem social também as levam em consideração no momento de adquirir seus produtos. Participaram 298 estudantes universitários, com idade média de 21 anos (d.p. = 4,60, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino (72,4%. Por meio de uma análise fatorial dos eixos principais (PAF com rotação promax foram identificados três fatores que explicam conjuntamente 41,1% da variância total. O primeiro fator agrupou cinco itens e foi denominado como preocupação ambiental (a = 0,90, o segundo, preocupação com reciclagem, ficou composto por quatro itens (a = 0,75; e, por fim, o fator denominado de preocupação social (a = 0,70 reuniu seis itens da escala. Estes resultados são coerentes com a concepção de que múltiplos fatores são necessários para avaliar o comportamento do consumidor, ademais sugerem a adequação da ECSRC ao contexto brasileiro.The objective of this study was to adapt The Socially Responsible Consumer Behavior Scale -ECSRC (Roberts, 1996 to Brazil. The main objective of this scale is to evaluate to what degree consumers who tend to express conduct which indicates social responsibility take this conduct into consideration at the moment of product acquisition. Two hundred ninety-eight university students (average 21 yrs old, d.p. = 4.60, 72.4% female participated in this study. Three factors, which explain 41.1% of the total variance were found through an analysis of the principal axes (PAF with a Promax rotation. The first factor grouped five items together and was called environmental concern (a = 0.90, the second, concern about recycling, was composed of four items (a = 0.75 and, finally, six items from the scale were grouped together in the third factor called

  11. Lack of Impact of Posidonia oceanica Leaf Nutrient Enrichment on Sarpa salpa Herbivory: Additional Evidence for the Generalist Consumer Behavior of This Cornerstone Mediterranean Herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Méndez, Candela; Wessel, Caitlin; Scheffel, Whitney; Ferrero-Vicente, Luis; Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; Cebrián, Just; Heck, Kenneth L; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    The fish Sarpa salpa (L.) is one of the main macroherbivores in the western Mediterranean. Through direct and indirect mechanisms, this herbivore can exert significant control on the structure and functional dynamics of seagrass beds and macroalgae. Past research has suggested nutritional quality of their diet influences S. salpa herbivory, with the fish feeding more intensively and exerting greater top down control on macrophytes with higher internal nutrient contents. However recent findings have questioned this notion and shown that herbivores do not preferentially feed on macrophytes with higher nutrient contents, but rather feed on a wide variety of them with no apparent selectivity. To contribute to this debate, we conducted a field fertilization experiment where we enriched leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, a staple diet for S. salpa, and examined the response by the herbivore. These responses included quantification of leaf consumption in fertilized and non-fertilized/control plots within the bed, and food choice assays where fertilized and non-fertilized/control leaves were simultaneously offered to the herbivore. Despite the duration of leaf exposure to herbivores (30 days) and abundant schools of S. salpa observed around the plots, leaf consumption was generally low in the plots examined. Consumption was not higher on fertilized than on non-fertilized leaves. Food choice experiments did not show strong evidence for selectivity of enriched leaves. These results add to a recent body of work reporting a broad generalist feeding behavior by S. salpa with no clear selectivity for seagrass with higher nutrient content. In concert, this and other studies suggest S. salpa is often generalist consumers not only dictated by diet nutrient content but by complex interactions between other traits of nutritional quality, habitat heterogeneity within their ample foraging area, and responses to predation risk.

  12. The genesis of glaucony in the Oligo Miocene Torquay Group, southeastern Australia: petrographic and geochemical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jonathan C.; Webb, John A.

    1999-04-01

    The Oligo-Miocene Torquay Group at Bird Rock, in southeastern Australia, comprises a sequence of fine-grained skeletal carbonates and argillaceous and glauconitic sandstones, which were deposited in a cool-water, mid-shelf environment. The Bird Rock glaucony consists predominantly of randomly interstratified glauconitic smectite, which constitutes bioclast infills and faecal pellet replacements. Petrographic and geochemical evidence indicates that the glaucony is autochthonous and comprises chemical components derived primarily from argillaceous matrix material; seawater is unlikely to be a significant source of ions. The glauconitization of the Bird Rock sediments occurred under sub-oxic partially reducing conditions, in the very shallow burial environment, and involved local iron redistribution. Sub-oxic conditions favour glauconitization because iron is stable in the soluble ferrous state and can be fixed in authigenic silicates due to the negligible concentrations of hydrogen sulphide. It is likely that localised acidic conditions were initiated during the glauconitization process; this acidity appears to have been buffered by the dissolution of bioclastic carbonate. The fact that glaucony predominantly occurs as bioclast infills and faecal pellet replacements implies that the physico-chemical conditions appropriate for glauconitization develop preferentially in such biogenic detritus. The development of appropriate micro-environments within such sediments probably relates to their physical confinement and/or high organic matter content. The Bird Rock glaucony developed during intervals of slow sedimentation and environmental quiescence associated with marine flooding events. These conditions facilitated glauconitization by allowing the favoured clay-rich sediments to accumulate and remain in the appropriate physico-chemical regime sufficiently long for the complex glauconitic structures to form.

  13. Health care consumer reports: an evaluation of consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Daniel R; Everet, Kevin D

    2003-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of health care consumer reports, also known as "consumer guides," "report cards," and "performance reports," which are designed to assist consumers in making more informed health care decisions. While there is evidence that providers use such reports to identify and make changes in practice, thus improving the quality of care, there is little empirical evidence on how consumer guides/report cards are used by consumers. This study fills that gap by surveying 925 patients as they wait for ambulatory care in several clinics in a midwestern city. Findings indicate that consumers are selective in their use of these reports and quickly identify those sections of the report of most interest to them. Report developers should take precautions to ensure such reports are viewed as credible sources of health care information.

  14. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  15. Consumer evaluation of food with nutritional benefits: a systematic review and narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Makokha, Anselimo

    2016-06-01

    As a consequence of the growing interest in, and development of, various types of food with nutritional benefits, the modern consumer views their kitchen cabinet more and more as a medicine cabinet. Given that consumer evaluation of food is considered key to the successful production, marketing and finally consumption of food, a procedure commonly used in medical fields was employed to systematically review and summarize evidence of consumer evaluation studies on nutritious foods. The focus is primarily on consumer understanding of nutritious food and the underlying determinants of consumer evaluation. Our results highlight four groups of key determinants: (1) nutrition knowledge and information; (2) attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and behavioural determinants; (3) price, process and product characteristics; and (4) socio-demographics. The findings also point to the importance of understanding consumer acceptance as one many concepts in the consumer evaluation process, and provide support for developing appropriate strategies for improving health and well-being of consumers.

  16. Local dark energy: HST evidence from the vicinity of the M 81/M 82 galaxy group

    CERN Document Server

    Chernin, A D; Kashibadze, O G; Makarov, D I; Teerikorpi, P; Valtonen, M J; Dolgachev, V P; Domozhilova, L M

    2007-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope observations of the nearby galaxy group M 81/M 82 and its vicinity indicate that the expansion outflow around the group is dominated by the antigravity of the dark energy background. The local density of dark energy in the area is estimated to be near the global dark energy density or perhaps exactly equal to it. This conclusion agrees with our previous results for the Local group vicinity and the vicinity of the Cen A/M 83 group.

  17. The Consumer Direct Services Revolution in Grocery Retailing: an exploratory investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Teller, C; Kotzab, H; Grant, D B

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - To provide empirical evidence and explanation of the phenomenon that providers of home delivery of groceries are still of minor importance in highly concentrated retail markets. Design/methodology/approach - Based on a critical literature review three propositions were set up. A web based survey was conducted with two prospective consumer groups for home delivery providers: time starved consumers and consumers with Internet affinity. A structural equation modeling analysis was appli...

  18. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programs : Evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R; Mehrteab, HT

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of monitoring and social ties on moral hazard behavior within group lending programs. Our study is based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We separately analyze the impact of group leaders and other grou

  19. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...

  20. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in different lifestyle groups: recommendations for program development based on behavioral research and consumer media data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della, Lindsay J; DeJoy, David M; Lance, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption affects the etiology of cardiovascular disease as well as many different types of cancers. Still, Americans' consumption of fruit and vegetables is low. This article builds on initial research that assessed the validity of using a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation in tandem with the theory of planned behavior to explain differences among individuals' consumption of fruit and vegetables. In this article, we integrate the findings from our initial analyses with media and purchase data from each audience segment. We then propose distinct, tailored program suggestions for reinventing social marketing programs focused on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in each segment. Finally, we discuss the implications of utilizing a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation versus a more traditional readiness-to-change social marketing segmentation. Differences between these two segmentation strategies, such as the ability to access media usage and purchase data, are highlighted and discussed.

  1. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in different lifestyle groups: Recommendations for program development based on behavioral research and consumer media data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M.; Lance, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption impacts the etiology of cardiovascular disease as well as many different types of cancers. Still, Americans' consumption of fruit and vegetables is low. This article builds on initial research that assessed the validity of using a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation in tandem with the theory of planned behavior to explain differences among individuals' consumption of fruit and vegetables. In this article, we integrate the findings from our initial analyses with media and purchase data from each audience segment. We then propose distinct, tailored program suggestions for reinventing social marketing programs focused on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in each segment. Finally, we discuss the implications of utilizing a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation versus more traditional readiness-to-change social marketing segmentation. Differences between these two segmentation strategies, such as the ability to access media usage and purchase data, are highlighted and discussed. PMID:18935880

  2. X-ray Cavities in Galaxy Groups and Clusters: Central Gas Entropy Excess as Direct Evidence for AGN Feedback

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu Wang

    2011-03-01

    Observations of X-ray jets and cavities in clusters of galaxies observed by Chandra are briefly reviewed. A recent study on the excess of central gas entropy, which can be considered as direct evidence for AGN feedback in galaxy groups and clusters is presented. An expanded account of this study has been presented in RAA (Wang et al. 2010).

  3. Does Financial-Industrial Group Membership Affect Fixed Investment: Evidence from Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Volchkova Natalya

    2001-01-01

    The current research estimates the accelerator type model of fixed investment using a Russian industrial enterprise dataset . This dataset contains individual firms’ accounting data for 1996 and 1997. The sample of firms was divided into three subsamples based on the ownership structure data. Registered Financial-Industrial Groups, unregistered Financial-Industrial Groups and non-group subsets were analyzed in order to compare sensitivities of investment to changes in internal liquidity in th...

  4. Local dark energy: HST evidence from the vicinity of the M81/M82 galaxy group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Kashibadze, O. G.; Makarov, D. I.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.

    2007-10-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope observations of the nearby galaxy group M81/M82 and its vicinity indicate that the dynamics of the expansion outflow around the group is dominated by the antigravity of the dark energy background. The local density of dark energy in the area is estimated to be near the global dark energy density or perhaps exactly equal to it. This conclusion agrees well with our previous results for the Local Group vicinity and the vicinity of the Cen A/M83 group.

  5. Severe Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease with Rhabdomyolysis but without Evidence of Shock or Local Myositis

    OpenAIRE

    Okere, Arthur; Schwartz, David; Tierno, Philip; Schlievert, Patrick; Hamadeh, Randa

    2009-01-01

    We report a presentation in an adult with Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia and invasive tissue disease with rhabdomyolysis, but without evidence of toxic shock syndrome or local myonecrosis. We thus investigated how this infecting strain differed from strains known to cause toxic shock syndrome.

  6. Delinquent Peer Group Formation: Evidence of a Gene X Environment Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul; DeLisi, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that variants of specific genes may influence some youths to seek out or associate with antisocial peers. Using genotypic data (N = 1,816) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (J. R. Udry, 1998, 2003), the authors tested this possibility. They found that the 10R allele of the dopamine transporter…

  7. Delinquent Peer Group Formation: Evidence of a Gene X Environment Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul; DeLisi, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that variants of specific genes may influence some youths to seek out or associate with antisocial peers. Using genotypic data (N = 1,816) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (J. R. Udry, 1998, 2003), the authors tested this possibility. They found that the 10R allele of the dopamine transporter…

  8. Role of Gestalt grouping in selective attention: Evidence from the Stroop task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.J.M.; Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Selective attention has been intensively studied using the Stroop task. Evidence suggests that Stroop interference in a color-naming task arises partly because of visual attention sharing between color and word: Removing the target color after 150 msec reduces interference (Neumann, 1986). Moreover,

  9. Ability Grouping and Student Achievement in Elementary Schools: A Best-Evidence Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Review of research of between-class and within-class ability grouping on the achievement of elementary students. Ability grouping appears most effective for specific subjects with students remaining in heterogeneous classes most of the day. Cross-grade assignment for selected subjects can increase achievement. (SLD)

  10. Investment - Cash Flow Sensitivity and Financing Constraints: New Evidence from Indian Business Group Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallathitta, Rejie; Kabir, Rezaul; Qian, Jing

    2010-01-01

    A controversy exists on the use of the investment – cash flow sensitivity as a measure of financing constraints of firms. We re-examine this controversy by analyzing firms affiliated to Indian business groups. We find a strong investment – cash flow sensitivity for both group-affiliated and independ

  11. Investment–cash flow sensitivity and financing constraints: new evidence from Indian business group firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.; Kabir, M.R.; Qian, J.

    2011-01-01

    A controversy exists on the use of the investment–cash flow sensitivity as a measure of financing constraints of firms.Were-examine this controversy by analyzing firms affiliated to Indian business groups. We find a strong investment–cash flow sensitivity for both group-affiliated and independent fi

  12. EVIDENCE FOR INDEPENDENT ACQUISITION OF GROUP-I INTRONS IN GREEN-ALGAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOPPEN, MJH; OLSEN, JL; STAM, WT

    1993-01-01

    We report the occurrence of a group I intron, 452 nucleotides in length, in the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal gene of the benthic seaweed Urospora penicilliformis, a member of the green algal class Ulvophyceae. Group I introns have been reported in fungi, myxomycetes, the ciliate genus

  13. EVIDENCE FOR INDEPENDENT ACQUISITION OF GROUP-I INTRONS IN GREEN-ALGAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOPPEN, MJH; OLSEN, JL; STAM, WT

    1993-01-01

    We report the occurrence of a group I intron, 452 nucleotides in length, in the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal gene of the benthic seaweed Urospora penicilliformis, a member of the green algal class Ulvophyceae. Group I introns have been reported in fungi, myxomycetes, the ciliate genus Tetrahymena

  14. Palynological evidence concerning the Devonian age of the dingle group, Southwest Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwan, C.J. van der

    1980-01-01

    From the Dingle Group, southwest Ireland, generally considered to be of Downtonian age, a presumed Late Emsian palynological assemblage is described, which supports a considerably younger age of the group, viz. late Early Devonian-Middle Devonian. The species Cymbosporites hornei n.sp. is described

  15. Food safety and the reversed political consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Denver, Sigrid; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    We address the question of whether people act as political consumers in relation to food safety. By linking evidence from economic valuation studies on consumers' willingness to pay with sociological studies on consumer behaviour and market studies, we find that food safety does not call for poli......We address the question of whether people act as political consumers in relation to food safety. By linking evidence from economic valuation studies on consumers' willingness to pay with sociological studies on consumer behaviour and market studies, we find that food safety does not call...... for political consumption - rather, food safety calls for reversed political consumption....

  16. How neuroscience can inform consumer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenning, Peter H; Plassmann, Hilke

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a rapidly growing approach within consumer research has developed under the label of "consumer neuroscience." Its goal is to use insights and methods from neuroscience to enhance the understanding of consumer behavior. In this paper we aim to provide an overview of questions of interest to consumer researchers, to present initial research findings, and to outline potential implications for consumer research. In order to do so, we first discuss the term "consumer neuroscience" and give a brief description of recently discussed issues in consumer research. We then provide a review and short description of initial empirical evidence from past studies in consumer neuroscience. Next, we present an example of how consumer research or, more specifically, customer loyalty research, may benefit from the consumer neuroscience approach. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential implications and suggestions for future research in the nascent field of consumer neuroscience.

  17. Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content.

  18. Paleontological evidence of Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrug, Raphael; Unrug, Sophia

    1990-11-01

    A newly discovered fossil assemblage including trilobite, ostracod, bryozoan, and microcrinoid fragments and agglutinated foraminifers has been found in the Wilhite Formation, Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, in the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. These fossils prove a Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, which had been interpreted to be of Late Proterozoic age. The foraminiferal assemblage indicaes the Silurian as the older age limit for the Walden Creek Group. These findings make necessary a redefinition of the Ocoee sedimentary basin and reinterpretation of models of the evolution of the Blue Ridge structural province.

  19. The GRADE Working Group clarifies the construct of certainty of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultcrantz, Monica; Rind, David; Akl, Elie A

    2017-01-01

    : Certainty of evidence is best considered as the certainty that a true effect lies on one side of a specified threshold, or within a chosen range. We define possible approaches for choosing threshold or range. For guidelines, what we call a fully contextualized approach requires simultaneously considering...... all critical outcomes and their relative value. Less contextualized approaches, more appropriate for systematic reviews and health technology assessments, include using specified ranges of magnitude of effect, e.g. ranges of what we might consider no effect, trivial, small, moderate, or large effects....... CONCLUSION: It is desirable for systematic review authors, guideline panelists, and health technology assessors to specify the threshold or ranges they are using when rating the certainty in evidence....

  20. Do business groups affect corporate cash holdings?Evidence from a transition economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weixing Cai; Cheng(Colin) Zeng; Edward Lee; Neslihan Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    We examine whether business groups’ influence on cash holdings depends on ownership. Group affiliation can increase firms’ agency costs or benefit firms by providing an internal capital market, especially in transition economies characterized by weak investor protection and difficult external capital acquisition. A hand-collected dataset of Chinese firms reveals that group affiliation decreases cash holdings, alleviating the free-cash-flow problem of agency costs.State ownership and control of listed firms moderate this benefit, which is more pronounced when the financial market is less liquid. Group affiliation facilitates related-party transactions, increases debt capacity and decreases investmentcash-flow sensitivity and overinvestment. In transitional economies, privately controlled firms are more likely to benefit from group affiliation than statecontrolled firms propped up by the government.

  1. Group-based discrimination in judgments of moral purity-related behaviors: experimental and archival evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masicampo, E J; Barth, Maria; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of individuals' group membership can alter moral judgments of their behavior. We found that such moral judgments were amplified when judgers learned that a person belonged to a group shown to elicit disgust in others. When a person was labeled as obese, a hippie, or "trailer trash," people judged that person's behavior differently than when such descriptors were omitted: Virtuous behaviors were more highly praised, and moral violations were more severely criticized. Such group-based discrimination in moral judgment was specific to the domain of moral purity. Members of disgust-eliciting groups but not members of other minorities were the target of harsh judgments for purity violations (e.g., lewd behavior) but not for other violations (e.g., refusing to help others). The same pattern held true for virtuous behaviors, so that members of disgust-eliciting groups were more highly praised than others but only in the purity domain. Furthermore, group-based discrimination was mediated by feelings of disgust toward the target group but not by other emotions. Last, analysis of New York Police Department officers' encounters with suspected criminals revealed a similar pattern to that found in laboratory experiments. Police officers were increasingly likely to make an arrest or issue a summons as body mass index increased (i.e., as obesity rose) among people suspected of purity crimes (e.g., prostitution) but not of other crimes (e.g., burglary). Thus, moral judgments in the lab and in the real world exhibit patterns of discrimination that are both group and behavior specific.

  2. The Isolated Elliptical NGC 1132 Evidence For a Merged Group of Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Mulchaey, J S; Mulchaey, John S.; Zabludoff, Ann I.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical simulations predict that some poor groups of galaxies have merged by the present epoch into giant ellipticals (cf. Barnes 1989). To identify the possible remnants of such mergers, we have compiled a sample of nearby, isolated ellipticals (Colbert, Mulchaey, & Zabludoff 1998). ASCA observations of the first galaxy studied, NGC 1132 reveal an X-ray halo that extends out to at least 250 kpc. The temperature, metallicity and luminosity of NGC 1132's X-ray halo are comparable to those of poor group halos. The total mass inferred from the X-ray emission is also like that of an X-ray detected group. Optical imaging uncovers a dwarf galaxy population clustered about NGC 1132 that is consistent in number density and in projected radial distribution with that of an X-ray group. The similarities of NGC 1132 to poor groups in both the X-ray band and at the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function, combined with the deficit of luminous galaxies in the NGC 1132 field, are compatible with the merged group p...

  3. Mortality from Diabetes by Hispanic Groups: Evidence from the US National Longitudinal Mortality Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine J. Kposowa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, especially in minority communities. In mortality research, Hispanics are frequently studied as a homogeneous group. The present study was undertaken to compare diabetes deaths among persons of Hispanic origin by disaggregating groups in order to determine whether the components in the Hispanic label have differential mortality. Data utilized were from the US National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Cox proportional hazards regression models were fitted to the data. Findings showed that individuals in the broader Hispanic label were 28% more likely to die from diabetes mellitus than non-Hispanic whites (ARR = 1.28, CI = 1.05, 1.55. When groups were broken down, it was observed that Mexicans were 50% more likely to die of diabetes than their non-Hispanic white counterparts. No other Hispanic origin group was significantly associated with diabetes mortality risk. Education and family income were strong predictors of mortality, regardless of Hispanic origin grouping. It was concluded from the analysis that future behavioral and social science research would be more informative if the broader Hispanic label was broken down into subcategories. Failure to do so might lead to drawing false inferences as a finding may well hold for one group within the Hispanic label, but not for others.

  4. Models of consumer value cocreation in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambisan, Priya; Nambisan, Satish

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, consumer participation in health care has gained critical importance as health care organizations (HCOs) seek varied avenues to enhance the quality and the value of their offerings. Many large HCOs have established online health communities where health care consumers (patients) can interact with one another to share knowledge and offer emotional support in disease management and care. Importantly, the focus of consumer participation in health care has moved beyond such personal health care management as the potential for consumers to participate in innovation and value creation in varied areas of the health care industry becomes increasingly evident. Realizing such potential, however, will require HCOs to develop a better understanding of the varied types of consumer value cocreation that are enabled by new information and communication technologies such as online health communities and Web 2.0 (social media) technologies. This article seeks to contribute toward such an understanding by offering a concise and coherent theoretical framework to analyze consumer value cocreation in health care. We identify four alternate models of consumer value cocreation-the partnership model, the open-source model, the support-group model, and the diffusion model-and discuss their implications for HCOs. We develop our theoretical framework by drawing on theories and concepts in knowledge creation, innovation management, and online communities. A set of propositions are developed by combining theoretical insights from these areas with real-world examples of consumer value cocreation in health care. The theoretical framework offered here informs on the potential impact of the different models of consumer value cocreation on important organizational variables such as innovation cost and time, service quality, and consumer perceptions of HCO. An understanding of the four models of consumer value cocreation can help HCOs adopt appropriate strategies and practices to

  5. Evidence for contact calls in fish: conspecific vocalisations and ambient soundscape influence group cohesion in a nocturnal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosterom, L.; Montgomery, J. C.; Jeffs, A. G.; Radford, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Soundscapes provide a new tool for the study of fish communities. Bigeyes (Pempheris adspersa) are nocturnal planktivorous reef fish, feed in loose shoals and are soniferous. These vocalisations have been suggested to be contact calls to maintain group cohesion, however direct evidence for this is absent, despite the fact that contact calls are well documented for many other vertebrates, including marine mammals. For fish, direct evidence for group cohesion signals is restricted to the use of visual and hydrodynamic cues. In support of adding vocalisation as a contributing cue, our laboratory experiments show that bigeyes significantly increased group cohesion when exposed to recordings of ambient reef sound at higher sound levels while also decreasing vocalisations. These patterns of behaviour are consistent with acoustic masking. When exposed to playback of conspecific vocalisations, the group cohesion and vocalisation rates of bigeyes both significantly increased. These results provide the first direct experimental support for the hypotheses that vocalisations are used as contact calls to maintain group cohesion in fishes, making fish the evolutionarily oldest vertebrate group in which this phenomenon has been observed, and adding a new dimension to the interpretation of nocturnal reef soundscapes.

  6. Legal physician-assisted dying in Oregon and the Netherlands: evidence concerning the impact on patients in "vulnerable" groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Margaret P; van der Heide, Agnes; Ganzini, Linda; van der Wal, Gerrit; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2007-10-01

    Debates over legalisation of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) or euthanasia often warn of a "slippery slope", predicting abuse of people in vulnerable groups. To assess this concern, the authors examined data from Oregon and the Netherlands, the two principal jurisdictions in which physician-assisted dying is legal and data have been collected over a substantial period. The data from Oregon (where PAS, now called death under the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, is legal) comprised all annual and cumulative Department of Human Services reports 1998-2006 and three independent studies; the data from the Netherlands (where both PAS and euthanasia are now legal) comprised all four government-commissioned nationwide studies of end-of-life decision making (1990, 1995, 2001 and 2005) and specialised studies. Evidence of any disproportionate impact on 10 groups of potentially vulnerable patients was sought. Rates of assisted dying in Oregon and in the Netherlands showed no evidence of heightened risk for the elderly, women, the uninsured (inapplicable in the Netherlands, where all are insured), people with low educational status, the poor, the physically disabled or chronically ill, minors, people with psychiatric illnesses including depression, or racial or ethnic minorities, compared with background populations. The only group with a heightened risk was people with AIDS. While extralegal cases were not the focus of this study, none have been uncovered in Oregon; among extralegal cases in the Netherlands, there was no evidence of higher rates in vulnerable groups. Where assisted dying is already legal, there is no current evidence for the claim that legalised PAS or euthanasia will have disproportionate impact on patients in vulnerable groups. Those who received physician-assisted dying in the jurisdictions studied appeared to enjoy comparative social, economic, educational, professional and other privileges.

  7. Consumer-Based Product Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2013-01-01

    novices. The aim was to explore the usability of the Napping® method by untrained consumers and to analyze differences between beer novices and experts in their ability to discriminate and describe the products. The method succeeded in discriminating between the beers, revealing sensory descriptors...... for sensory characterization, with the advantage of providing a product characterization based on consumer descriptions, thus better reflecting consumers' experience with the product. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  8. Group Supervision Attitudes: Supervisory Practices Fostering Resistance to Adoption of Evidence-Based Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Charles T; Patterson, David A; McKiernan, Patrick M

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was to qualitatively evaluate worker's attitudes about clinical supervision. It is believed that poor attitudes toward clinical supervision can create barriers during supervision sessions. Fifty-one participants within a social services organization completed an open-ended questionnaire regarding their clinical supervision experiences. Results suggest four key areas which appear to be strong factors in workers' experiences and attitudes regarding group supervision: a. facilitator's skill level; b. creativity; c. utilization of technology; and d. applicability. For organizations interested in overcoming potential barriers to adopting best practices, effectively addressing workers' negative attitudes toward group supervision would be a worthy endeavor.

  9. De novo fear conditioning across diagnostic groups in the affective disorders: evidence for learning impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael W; Moshier, Samantha J; Kinner, Dina G; Simon, Naomi M; Pollack, Mark H; Orr, Scott P

    2014-09-01

    De novo fear conditioning paradigms have served as a model for how clinical anxiety may be acquired and maintained. To further examine variable findings in the acquisition and extinction of fear responses between clinical and nonclinical samples, we assessed de novo fear conditioning outcomes in outpatients with either anxiety disorders or depression and healthy subjects recruited from the community. Overall, we found evidence for attenuated fear conditioning, as measured by skin conductance, among the patient sample, with significantly lower fear acquisition among patients with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. These acquisition deficits were evident in both the simple (considering the CS+only) and differential (evaluating the CS+in relation to the CS-) paradigms. Examination of extinction outcomes were hampered by the low numbers of patients who achieved adequate conditioning, but the available data indicated slower extinction among the patient, primarily panic disorder, sample. Results are interpreted in the context of the cognitive deficits that are common to the anxiety and mood disorders, with attention to a range of potential factors, including mood comorbidity, higher-and lower-order cognitive processes and deficits, and medication use, that may modulate outcomes in fear conditioning studies, and, potentially, in exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Inter-Group Contact at School and Social Attitudes: Evidence from Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joanne; Campbell, Andrea; Lolliot, Simon; Hewstone, Miles; Gallagher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Debate continues about the relationship between schools divided on ethno-religious lines and their implications for social cohesion. One argument against the existence of separate schools is that they limit opportunities for children from different groups to engage with each other, promoting intergroup suspicion and sectarianism. Using intergroup…

  11. Talking Science: The Research Evidence on the Use of Small Group Discussions in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Judith; Hogarth, Sylvia; Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Robinson, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two systematic reviews of the use and effects of small group discussions in high school science teaching. Ninety-four studies were included in an overview (systematic map) of work in the area, and 24 studies formed the basis of the in-depth reviews. The reviews indicate that there is considerable diversity in the…

  12. Acidobacteria form a coherent but highly diverse group within the bacterial domain: evidence from environmental genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaiser, Achim; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Lanz, Christa;

    2003-01-01

    Acidobacteria have been established as a novel phylum of Bacteria that is consistently detected in many different habitats around the globe by 16S rDNA-based molecular surveys. The phylogenetic diversity, ubiquity and abundance of this group, particularly in soil habitats, suggest an important...

  13. Who Supports the English-Only Movement? Evidence for Misconceptions About Latino Group Vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Valerie; Giles, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Using vitality theory as a framework, investigates whether support for English-only policies among Anglo-Americans is related to perceptions about growing Latino group vitality and the presence of Spanish in the linguistic landscape. Conducted a telephone survey in Santa Barbara, California. Found Anglo-Americans' perceptions of growing latino…

  14. The group A3 chondrules of Krymka: Further evidence for major evaporative loss during the formation of chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Like Semarkona (type 3.0), Krymka (type 3.1) contains two distinct types of chondrule (namely groups A and B) which differ in their bulk compositions, phase compositions, and CL properties. The group A chondrules in both meteorites show evidence for major loss of material by evaporation(i.e. elemental abundance patterns, size, redox state, olivine-pyroxene abundances). Group A and B chondrules probably formed from common or very similar precursors by the same processes acting with different intensities, group A suffering greater mass-loss by evaporation and reduction of FeO and SiO2. While Krymka chondrules share many primary mineralogical and compositional properties with Semarkona chondrules, the minimal metamorphism it has suffered has also had a significant effect on its chondrules.

  15. Consumers' Perceptions about Genetically Modified Foods and Their Stated Willingness-to-Pay for Genetically Modified Food Labeling: Evidences from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Karli, Bahri; Bilgic, Abdulbaki; Miran, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    We applied a multinomial logit model to determine consumer characteristics affecting three possible policy regulations that wanted to be implemented for genetically modified foods in Turkey. The study reveals that many household characteristics including food spending amount, education, gender, marital status, knowledge about food related policies and regional variables are key policy factors to choose regulation programs on GMO foods. People are more prone to implement compulsory policy on G...

  16. Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Estelle

    2005-12-01

    The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct pseudo-toothed birds have remained controversial. Some authors noted that they resemble both pelicans and allies (Pelecaniformes) and tube-nosed birds (Procellariiformes), but assigned them to a distinct taxon, the Odontopterygiformes. In most recent studies, the pseudo-toothed birds are referred to the family Pelagornithidae inside the Pelecaniformes. Here, I perform a cladistic analysis with five taxa of the pseudo-toothed birds including two undescribed new species from the Early Tertiary of Morocco. The present hypothesis strongly supports a sister group relationship of pseudo-toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes). The Odontoanserae (Odontopterygiformes plus Anseriformes) are the sister group of Neoaves. The placement of the landfowls (Galliformes) as the sister taxon of all other neognathous birds does not support the consensus view that the Galloanserae (Galliformes plus Anseriformes) are monophyletic.

  17. Interaction of hydrogen with ZnO nanopowders--evidence of hydroxyl group formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kester W J; Field, Matthew R; Ou, Jian Zhen; Latham, Kay; Spencer, Michelle J S; Yarovsky, Irene; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2012-01-13

    There have been many investigations to reveal the nature of the hydrogen gas and ZnO nanopowder interaction at elevated temperatures, while at present no conclusive description of such an interaction has been confidently reported. In this work, we demonstrate that a hydroxyl group is formed during this interaction, depending on size and relative crystallinity of nanopowders. Our in situ Raman spectroscopy investigations show that the interaction directly affects the intensity of the Raman signal at 483 cm(-1), relative to the peak at 519 cm(-1). Ex situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy also show extra peaks at 44° and 1618 cm(-1), respectively, after hydrogenation. These peaks were all identified as surface hydroxyl groups, which can be related to the formation of water on the ZnO nanopowder surfaces.

  18. Acidobacteria form a coherent but highly diverse group within the bacterial domain: evidence from environmental genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaiser, Achim; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Lanz, Christa

    2003-01-01

    Acidobacteria have been established as a novel phylum of Bacteria that is consistently detected in many different habitats around the globe by 16S rDNA-based molecular surveys. The phylogenetic diversity, ubiquity and abundance of this group, particularly in soil habitats, suggest an important...... insert libraries directly from DNA of a calcerous grassland soil. Genomic fragments of Acidobacteria were identified with specific 16S rDNA probes and sequence analyses of six independently identified clones were performed, representing in total more than 210,000 bp. The 16S rRNA genes of the genomic...... fragments differed between 2.3% and 19.9% and were placed into two different subgroups of Acidobacteria (groups III and V). Although partial co-linearity was found between genomic fragments, the gene content around the rRNA operons was generally not conserved. Phylogenetic reconstructions with orthologues...

  19. Thiol groups controls on arsenite binding by organic matter: new experimental and modeling evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrouillet, Charlotte; Davranche, Mélanie; Dia, Aline; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine; Pédrot, Mathieu; Marsac, Rémi; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-12-15

    Although it has been suggested that several mechanisms can describe the direct binding of As(III) to organic matter (OM), more recently, the thiol functional group of humic acid (HA) was shown to be an important potential binding site for As(III). Isotherm experiments on As(III) sorption to HAs, that have either been grafted with thiol or not, were thus conducted to investigate the preferential As(III) binding sites. There was a low level of binding of As(III) to HA, which was strongly dependent on the abundance of the thiols. Experimental datasets were used to develop a new model (the modified PHREEQC-Model VI), which defines HA as a group of discrete carboxylic, phenolic and thiol sites. Protonation/deprotonation constants were determined for each group of sites (pKA=4.28±0.03; ΔpKA=2.13±0.10; pKB=7.11±0.26; ΔpKB=3.52±0.49; pKS=5.82±0.052; ΔpKS=6.12±0.12 for the carboxylic, phenolic and thiols sites, respectively) from HAs that were either grafted with thiol or not. The pKS value corresponds to that of single thiol-containing organic ligands. Two binding models were tested: the Mono model, which considered that As(III) is bound to the HA thiol site as monodentate complexes, and the Tri model, which considered that As(III) is bound as tridentate complexes. A simulation of the available literature datasets was used to validate the Mono model, with logKMS=2.91±0.04, i.e. the monodentate hypothesis. This study highlighted the importance of thiol groups in OM reactivity and, notably, determined the As(III) concentration bound to OM (considering that Fe is lacking or at least negligible) and was used to develop a model that is able to determine the As(III) concentrations bound to OM.

  20. ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori cagA infection: evidence of an association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases resulting from Helicobacter pylori infection appear to be dependent on a host of genetic traits and virulence factors possessed by this microorganism. This paper aimed to investigate the association between the ABO histo-blood groups and H. pylori cagA infections. Genomic DNA samples (n = 110 of gastric biopsies obtained from patients with endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcers (n = 25 and chronic active gastritis (n = 85 were analyzed by PCR using specific primers for the cagA gene. Of the samples, 66.4% (n = 73 tested positive and 33.6% (n = 37 negative for the gene. The cagA strain was predominant in peptic ulcers (n = 21; 84.0% compared with chronic active gastritis (n = 52; 61.2% (p = 0.05; OR 3.332; 95% CI: 1.050-10.576. Additionally, the cagA strain was prevalent in the type O blood (48/63; 76.2% compared with other ABO phenotypes (25/47; 53.2% (p = 0.01; OR 2.816; 95% CI: 1.246-6.364. These results suggest that H. pylori cagA infection is associated with the O blood group in Brazilian patients suffering from chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcers.

  1. Food safety and the reversed political consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Denver, Sigrid; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    We address the question of whether people act as political consumers in relation to food safety. By linking evidence from economic valuation studies on consumers' willingness to pay with sociological studies on consumer behaviour and market studies, we find that food safety does not call...... for political consumption - rather, food safety calls for reversed political consumption....

  2. [Isolated primary nocturnal enuresis: international evidence based management. Consensus recommendations by French expert group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, D; Berard, E; Blanc, J-P; Lenoir, G; Liard, F; Lottmann, H

    2010-05-01

    The causes and treatment of isolated primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) are the subject of ongoing controversy. We are proposing consensus practical recommendations, based on a formalised analysis of the literature and validated by a large panel of experts. A task force of six experts based its work on the guide for literature analysis and recommendations and recommendation grading of the French Haute Autorité de Santé (formalized consensus process methodological guidelines) to evaluate the level of scientific proof (grade of 1 to 4) and the strength of the recommendations (grade A, B, C) of the publications on PNE. As a result of this, 223 articles from 2003 on were identified, of which only 127 (57 %) have an evaluable level of proof. This evaluation was then reviewed by a 19-member rating group. Several recommendations, poorly defined by the literature, had to be proposed by a professional agreement resulting from a consultation between the members of the task force and those of the rating group. For its final validation, the document was submitted to a reading group of 21 members working in a wide range of specialist areas and practices but all involved in PNE. The definition of PNE is very specific: intermittent incontinence during sleep, from the age of 5, with no continuous period of continence longer than 6 months, with no other associated symptom, particularly during the day. Its diagnosis is clinical by the exclusion of all other urinary pathologies. Two factors must be identified during the consultation: nocturnal polyuria promoted by excessive fluid intake, inverse secretion of vasopressin, snoring and sleep apnoea. It is sensitive to desmopressin; small bladder capacity evaluated according to a voiding diary and the ICCS formula. It may be associated with diurnal hyperactivity of the detrusor (30 %). It is resistant to desmopressin. Problems associated with PNE are: abnormal arousal threshold, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (10 %), low

  3. The Effects of the Introduction of Prepayment Meters on the Energy Usage Behaviour of Different Housing Consumer Groups in Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Malama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on research conducted in Kitwe, Zambia on the effects of the introduction of prepayment meters on the energy usage behaviour of domestic consumers in the Low, Medium and High Income categories. The research was motivated by the fact that there is very little information that exists on the subject not just in Zambia but world-wide. The paper has identified some key issue vis-a-viz: behavioral change as a result of the introduction of the prepayment meters, debt recovery and reduction of pilferage, disconnection of consumers and alternative energy sources and feedback. The data was collected in Kwacha (Low Income, Ndeke (Medium Income and Parklands (High Income. This was both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was collected through structured questionnaires of which 151 were collected in total as follows: 59 (Kwacha; 50 (Ndeke and 42 (Parklands. The qualitative data was collected through detailed interviews conducted with four households in each of the three household categories.The major findings are that there is general satisfaction from the households on the introduction of the prepayment meters citing control over expenditure and no disputes on bills as the main reasons. Many of the households also reported an improvement in their budgeting for electricity and there seems to have been a drop in the numbers of households with historical debt. Many households in Ndeke and Kwacha reported spending less on electricity after the introduction of the prepayment meters which has been attributed to the fact that they are no longer on flat tariffs and also they are now able to conserve electricity as they are more conscious about expenditure on the same. Many households in Ndeke and Kwacha also reported being disconnected because they run out of credit due to lack of money. Rationing was also reported to be actively being used by households in Ndeke and Kwacha as a way of extending their credit in times when they

  4. Motion transparency arises from perceptual grouping: evidence from luminance and contrast modulation motion displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwan, P W; Johnston, A

    1996-10-01

    What circumstance lead to the perception of global motion transparency? it has been shown that, in paired random dot displays, motion transparency can be abolished if the separation of the dot pairs is sufficiently small. Motion transparency has also been shown to be influenced by high level cognitive cues. Here, we report that the combination of two moving dot stimuli, which separately invoke a percept of transparent motion, gives rise to a non-transparent percept of local rotation. These stimuli were constructed using various different pattern elements, including luminance defined elements and contrast modulations. The results extend and support the view that high-level grouping of local measures of the velocity field can determine whether a motion transparency is perceived or not.

  5. The relationship between relational models and individualism and collectivism: evidence from culturally diverse work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodosek, Markus

    2009-04-01

    Relational models theory (Fiske, 1991 ) proposes that all thinking about social relationships is based on four elementary mental models: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. Triandis and his colleagues (e.g., Triandis, Kurowski, & Gelfand, 1994 ) have suggested a relationship between the constructs of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism and Fiske's relational models. However, no previous research has examined this proposed relationship empirically. The objective of the current study was to test the association between the two frameworks in order to further our understanding of why members of culturally diverse groups may prefer different relational models in interactions with other group members. Findings from this study support a relationship between Triandis' constructs and Fiske's four relational models and uphold Fiske's ( 1991 ) claim that the use of the relational models is culturally dependent. As hypothesized, horizontal collectivism was associated with a preference for equality matching and communal sharing, vertical individualism was related to a preference for authority ranking, and vertical collectivism was related to a preference for authority ranking and communal sharing. However, contrary to expectations, horizontal individualism was not related to a preference for equality matching and market pricing, and vertical individualism was not associated with market pricing. By showing that there is a relationship between Triandis' and Fiske's frameworks, this study closes a gap in relational models theory, namely how culture relates to people's preferences for relational models. Thus, the findings from this study will enable future researchers to explain and predict what relational models are likely to be used in a certain cultural context.

  6. Phosphorus-rich olivine overgrowths: Evidence for additional impact to the Main Group pallasite parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler-Gerace, Neva; Tait, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus-rich olivine (1-7 wt% P2O5) is a metastable phase known from fewer than a dozen meteoritic or terrestrial occurrences. We have thoroughly examined P-rich olivine in the Springwater pallasite to characterise its distribution, textural relationships, and geochemical signature. P-rich olivine is abundant in Springwater as randomly distributed millimetre-scale partial overgrowths on the nominally P-free forsterite crystals. Geochemical analyses support the substitution mechanism of P into the tetrahedral Si site with octahedral site vacancies for charge balance; observed trace element variations, on the other hand, are not related to P substitution. Element mapping reveals fine-scale oscillatory P zoning in unusual serrate patterns, indicating rapid crystal nucleation from a melt and a subsequently variable rate of crystallisation. We constrain P-rich olivine formation in Springwater to at least 10-100 Myr subsequent to the introduction of the metal but before cooling below 700°C. Because the P-rich overgrowths overprint specific host grain boundary modifications, we suggest an impact to the Main Group pallasite parent body may have triggered the episode of extremely rapid cooling necessary to crystallise and preserve this rare phase.

  7. The Unusually High Halo Concentration of the Fossil Group NGC 6482: Evidence for Weak Adiabatic Contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Buote, David A

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the massive isolated elliptical galaxy / fossil group NGC 6482 for which previous X-ray studies of a modest Chandra observation obtained a very uncertain, but also possibly very high, halo concentration. We present new measurements of the hot gas surface brightness, temperature, and iron abundance using the modest Chandra observation and a previously unpublished Suzaku observation, the latter of which allows measurements of the gas properties to be extended out to ~r_2500. By constructing hydrostatic equilibrium models of the gas with separate components for the gas, BCG stellar mass, and the dark matter (DM), we measure c_200 = 32.2 +/- 7.1 and M_200 = (4.5 +/- 0.6 x 10^12 M_sun using an NFW DM profile. For a halo of this mass, c_200 exceeds the mean value (7.1) expected for relaxed LCDM halos by $3.5 \\sigma$ in terms of the observational error, and by $6 \\sigma$ considering the intrinsic scatter in the LCDM c-M relation, which situates NGC 6482 as the most extreme outlier known for a fossil syste...

  8. Mate value and self-esteem: evidence from eight cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Marshall, Tara; Fülöp, Marta; Adonu, Joseph; Spiewak, Slawomir; Neto, Felix; Hernandez Plaza, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores self-perceived mate value (SPMV), and its association with self-esteem, in eight cultures. 1066 participants, from 8 cultural groups in 7 countries, rated themselves on 24 SPMVs and completed a measure of self-esteem. Consistent with evolutionary theory, women were more likely to emphasise their caring and passionate romantic nature. In line with previous cross-cultural research, characteristics indicating passion and romance and social attractiveness were stressed more by respondents from individualistic cultures, and those higher on self-expression (rather than survival) values; characteristics indicative of maturity and confidence were more likely to be mentioned by those from Traditional, rather than Secular, cultures. Contrary to gender role theory, societal equality had only limited interactions with sex and SPMV, with honesty of greater significance for male self-esteem in societies with unequal gender roles. These results point to the importance of cultural and environmental factors in influencing self-perceived mate qualities, and are discussed in relation to broader debates about the impact of gender role equality on sex differences in personality and mating strategies.

  9. Mate value and self-esteem: evidence from eight cultural groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Goodwin

    Full Text Available This paper explores self-perceived mate value (SPMV, and its association with self-esteem, in eight cultures. 1066 participants, from 8 cultural groups in 7 countries, rated themselves on 24 SPMVs and completed a measure of self-esteem. Consistent with evolutionary theory, women were more likely to emphasise their caring and passionate romantic nature. In line with previous cross-cultural research, characteristics indicating passion and romance and social attractiveness were stressed more by respondents from individualistic cultures, and those higher on self-expression (rather than survival values; characteristics indicative of maturity and confidence were more likely to be mentioned by those from Traditional, rather than Secular, cultures. Contrary to gender role theory, societal equality had only limited interactions with sex and SPMV, with honesty of greater significance for male self-esteem in societies with unequal gender roles. These results point to the importance of cultural and environmental factors in influencing self-perceived mate qualities, and are discussed in relation to broader debates about the impact of gender role equality on sex differences in personality and mating strategies.

  10. Systematics of the Ceracis furcifer Species-Group (Coleoptera: Ciidae): The Specialized Consumers of the Blood-Red Bracket Fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci-Maddalena, Italo S. C.; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    The Ceracis furcifer species-group (Coleoptera: Ciidae) originally comprised nine species names: Ceracis cornifer (Mellié, 1849); C. cylindricus (Brèthes, 1922); C. furcifer Mellié, 1849; C. hastifer (Mellié, 1849); C. monocerus Lawrence, 1967; C. ruficornis Pic, 1916; C. simplicicornis (Pic, 1916); C. semipallidus Pic, 1922 and C. unicornis Gorham, 1898. Ceracis semipallidus was synonymised with C. furcifer and then no further changes were made to the composition of the group. Here, we provide a taxonomic revision of the Ceracis furcifer species-group and new data on the geographic distribution and host fungi of the included species. Lectotypes are designated for C. cornifer, C. furcifer, C. hastifer, C. ruficornis, C. semipallidus and C. unicornis. As results we: (i) synonymise C. cylindricus, C. monocerus, C. simplicicornis, C. unicornis with C. cornifer; (ii) confirm the synonymy of C. semipallidus with C. furcifer; (iii) redescribe C. cornifer, C. hastifer, C. furcifer and C. ruficornis; and (iv) provide an identification key for species in the furcifer group. The frontoclypeal horn and body coloration showed great intraspecific variation. We show that species in the furcifer group have distributions wider than previously known and use mainly Pycnoporus sanguineus as host fungus. Species of the furcifer group are the only animals specialized in feeding on basidiomes of P. sanguineus. PMID:28714939

  11. Molecular evidence for novel tick-associated spotted fever group rickettsiae from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Cornet, Jean-Paul; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2003-03-01

    Ticks are of considerable medical and veterinary importance because they directly harm the host through their feeding action and indirectly through vectoring many bacterial pathogens. Despite many ticks being known from Thailand, very little is known about the bacteria they may harbor. We report here the results of a survey of tick-associated bacteria in Thailand. A total of 334 individuals representing 14 species of ticks in five genera were collected from 10 locations in Thailand and were examined for the human pathogens, Borrelia, Francisella, Rickettsia, and the common arthropod endosymbionts, Wolbachia, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using specific primers. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 30% (9/30) of Amblyomma testudinarium (Koch, 1844) collected from Khao Yai National Park, Nakhon Nayok Province and 16.84% (16/95) of Hemaphysalis ornithophila (Hoogstraal and Kohls, 1959) collected from Khao Yai National Park, Nakhon Nayok Province and Khao Ang Rue Nai Wildlife Sanctuary, Chachoengsao Province. Rickettsial DNA was not detected in any of the other tick species and no DNA of Borrelia, Francisella, or Wolbachia was detected in any of 14 tick species. Phylogenetic relationships among the rickettsiae detected in this study and those of other rickettsiae were inferred from comparison of sequences of the 17-kDa antigen gene, the citrate synthase gene (gltA), and the 190-kDa outer membrane protein gene (ompA). Results indicated that the three Thai rickettsiae detected in this study represent new rickettsial genotypes and form a separate cluster among the spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  12. Using Focus Groups in the Consumer Research Phase of a Social Marketing Program to Promote Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity and Walking Trail Use in Sumter County, South Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka L. Burroughs, MA, MPH

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the “four Ps” (product, price, place, and promotion, social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer research to develop a social marketing program to promote walking and other moderate-intensity physical activities. MethodsTwo phases of focus groups were conducted. Phase 1 groups, which included both men and women, were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a social marketing program based on social marketing concepts. Phase 1 also determined the intervention’s target audience, which was irregularly active women aged 35 to 54. Phase 2 groups, composed of members of the target audience, were asked to further define the product and discuss specific promotion strategies. ResultsPhase 1 participants determined that the program product, or target behavior, should be walking. In addition, they identified price, place, and promotion strategies. Phase 2 participants determined that moderate-intensity physical activity is best promoted using the term exercise and offered suggestions for marketing walking, or exercise, to the target audience.ConclusionThere have been few published studies of social marketing campaigns to promote physical activity. In this study, focus groups were key to understanding the target audience in a way that would not have been accomplished with quantitative data alone. The group discussions generated important insights into values and motivations that affect consumers’ decisions to adopt a product or behavior. The focus group results guided the development of a social marketing program to promote physical

  13. Micromorphologic evidence for paleosol development in the Endicott group, Siksikpuk formation, Kingak(?) shale, and Ipewik formation, western Brooks range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; White, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Micromorphologic evidence indicates the presence of paleosols in drill-core samples from four sedimentary units in the Red Dog area, western Brooks Range. Well-developed sepic-plasmic fabrics and siderite spherules occur in claystones of the Upper Devonian through Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate (Endicott Group), the Pennsylvanian through Permian Siksikpuk Formation (Etivluk Group), the Jurassic through Lower Cretaceous Kingak(?) Shale, and the Lower Cretaceous Ipewik Formation. Although exposure surfaces have been previously recognized in the Endicott Group and Kingak Shale on the basis of outcrop features, our study is the first microscopic analysis of paleosols from these units, and it provides the first evidence of subaerial exposure in the Siksikpuk and Ipewik Formations. Regional stratigraphic relations and geochemical data support our interpretations. Paleosols in the Siksikpuk, Kingak, and Ipewik Formations likely formed in nearshore coastal-plain environments, with pore waters subjected to inundation by the updip migration of slightly brackish ground water, whereas paleosols in the Kanayut Conglomerate probably formed in a more distal setting relative to a marine basin.

  14. Tactile Stimulation and Consumer Response.

    OpenAIRE

    Hornik, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Tactile behavior is a basic communication form as well as an expression of interpersonal involvement. This article presents three studies offering evidence for the positive role of casual interpersonal touch on consumer behavior. More specifically, it provides initial support for the view that tactile stimulation in various consumer behavior situations enhances the positive feeling for and evaluation of both the external stimuli and the touching source. Further, customers touched by a request...

  15. The Unusually High Halo Concentration of the Fossil Group NGC 6482: Evidence for Weak Adiabatic Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Although fossil galaxy systems are thought to be very old, and thus should possess above-average halo concentrations, typically fossils have unexceptional concentrations of their masses. We revisit the massive isolated elliptical galaxy/fossil group NGC 6482 for which previous X-ray studies of a modest Chandra observation obtained a very uncertain, but also possibly very high, halo concentration. We present new measurements of the hot gas surface brightness, temperature, and iron abundance using the modest Chandra observation and a previously unpublished Suzaku observation, the latter of which allows the measurements of the gas properties to be extended out to ∼ {r}2500. By constructing hydrostatic equilibrium models of the gas with separate components for the gas, the stellar mass of the large central galaxy (BCG), and the dark matter (DM), we measure {c}200=32.2+/- 7.1 and {M}200=(4.5+/- 0.6)× {10}12 {M}ȯ using a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) DM profile. For a halo of this mass, the measured concentration c200 exceeds the mean value (7.1) expected for relaxed ΛCDM halos by 3.5σ in terms of the observational error, and by 6σ considering the intrinsic scatter in the ΛCDM c–M relation, which situates NGC 6482 as the most extreme outlier known for a fossil system. We explored several variants of adiabatic contraction (AC) models and, while the AC models provide fits of the same quality as the uncontracted models, they do have the following advantages: (1) lower c200 that is less of an outlier in the ΛCDM c–M relation, and (2) baryon fractions ({f}{{b},200}) that agree better with the mean cosmic value. While the standard AC prescriptions yield a BCG stellar mass that is uncomfortably low compared to results from stellar population synthesis (SPS) models, a weaker AC variant that artificially shuts off cooling and star formation at z = 2 yields the same stellar mass as the uncontracted models. These are probably the reasons why our X-ray analysis prefers this

  16. Application of Evidence-based Management of High Value Consumables in Hospital%浅谈循证管理在医院高值耗材管理中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾天红; 杨俊

    2012-01-01

    The status of high value consumables management in hospital is analyzed, and how to use evidence-based management to improve the management level of high value medical consumables in hospital is explained. The usage safety and quality control of high value medical consumables are ensured by tracking, the medical care quality is improved, and the doctor-patient relationship is harmonious.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2012,33(5):124,129]%介绍了医院高值医用耗材管理的现状,阐述了医院如何运用循证管理来提高高值医用耗材的管理水平,通过对高值医用耗材的全程跟踪,保证高值医用耗材的使用安全和质量控制,提高了医疗质量,和谐了医患关系.

  17. Older Consumers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Phillips

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to understand the concerns and problems faced by older people in an industrializing middle-income country, Malaysia, in their process of acquiring products to meet their everyday needs. Respondents aged 55 and over were interviewed in eight states throughout Peninsular Malaysia providing 1356 usable questionnaires; two-thirds from urban and one-third from rural areas. Education, health status, and life satisfaction were recorded. Service patronage behaviour was examined for four main categories of commonly-sought consumer goods: groceries, health supplements, apparel, eating outlets, plus selected services (public transport, vacation packages and financial services. The findings showed that older adults in Malaysia are rather discerning consumers. Many respondents are price conscious and have developed consumer attitudes with regard to attitude of staff and assistance rendered. Many display a good ability to discriminate and to select, especially on the basis of price and durability of products and many appear to be acting as effectively as consumers in any other age group.

  18. Factors predicting meat and meat products consumption among middle-aged and elderly people: evidence from a consumer survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Gille, Doreen; Piccinali, Patrizia; Bütikofer, Ueli; Chollet, Magali; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Honkanen, Pirjo; Walther, Barbara; Stoffers, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Background: An adequate diet contributes to health and wellbeing in older age. This is nowadays more important than ever since in industrialised countries the elderly population is growing continually. However, information regarding the consumption behaviour of older persons in Switzerland is limited. Objective: The objective of this investigation was to explore how middle-aged and elderly Swiss view animal products in relation to diet and health, and what factors predict consumption frequency. Design: A representative consumer survey among 632 people over the age of 50 years, living in the German-, French- and Italian-speaking regions of Switzerland was conducted. Results: This paper presents the results related to meat and meat products consumption. Most participants consumed meat and meat products regularly. The majority of participants with low meat intake indicated that eating small amounts would be enough. Respondents judged fresh meat (except pork) to be healthier than meat products, and poultry to be the healthiest meat. Overall meat consumption frequency was predicted by language region, gender, household size, and BMI. Furthermore, participants' opinion about healthiness, taste and safety of meat but not their adherence to the Swiss food pyramid was found to be correlated to the consumption frequency of individual types of meat. Conclusion: Several factors have an impact on consumption frequency of meat and meat products in the middle-aged and elderly Swiss population and the importance varies according to the individual types of meat and meat products. The results show that the traditional food pyramid is not one of these factors for which reason new tools must be explored to support elderly people in regard to a healthy dietary behaviour.

  19. Factors predicting meat and meat products consumption among middle-aged and elderly people: evidence from a consumer survey in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Gille, Doreen; Piccinali, Patrizia; Bütikofer, Ueli; Chollet, Magali; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Honkanen, Pirjo; Walther, Barbara; Stoffers, Helena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: An adequate diet contributes to health and wellbeing in older age. This is nowadays more important than ever since in industrialised countries the elderly population is growing continually. However, information regarding the consumption behaviour of older persons in Switzerland is limited. Objective: The objective of this investigation was to explore how middle-aged and elderly Swiss view animal products in relation to diet and health, and what factors predict consumption frequency. Design: A representative consumer survey among 632 people over the age of 50 years, living in the German-, French- and Italian-speaking regions of Switzerland was conducted. Results: This paper presents the results related to meat and meat products consumption. Most participants consumed meat and meat products regularly. The majority of participants with low meat intake indicated that eating small amounts would be enough. Respondents judged fresh meat (except pork) to be healthier than meat products, and poultry to be the healthiest meat. Overall meat consumption frequency was predicted by language region, gender, household size, and BMI. Furthermore, participants’ opinion about healthiness, taste and safety of meat but not their adherence to the Swiss food pyramid was found to be correlated to the consumption frequency of individual types of meat. Conclusion: Several factors have an impact on consumption frequency of meat and meat products in the middle-aged and elderly Swiss population and the importance varies according to the individual types of meat and meat products. The results show that the traditional food pyramid is not one of these factors for which reason new tools must be explored to support elderly people in regard to a healthy dietary behaviour. PMID:28469547

  20. Obstacles to the implementation of evidence-based physiotherapy in practice: a focus group-based study in Belgium (Flanders).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Hannes; Filip, Staes; Jo, Goedhuys; Bert, Aertgeerts

    2009-10-01

    Over the past few years concerns have been rising about the use of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP). We explored obstacles among Belgian physiotherapists to the implementation of EBP in clinical work. We used a qualitative research strategy based on five focus groups, organised between October 2004 and May 2005. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 43 participants from diverse geographical regions in Flanders, working in different settings and with a variety of interest and expertise in EBP. Data collection and analysis were concurrent and guided by "grounded theory approach." A problem tree was developed. Important obstacles to the implementation of EBP include physiotherapists' lack of autonomy and authority to decide on patients' treatments or to negotiate with government. In addition, the lack of evidence, inaccessibility and inapplicability of scientific evidence, the economic parameters influencing government and physicians, the expectations from patients and a lack of motivation hamper the implementation of EBP. The problem tree developed reveals direct links between the lack of autonomy from physiotherapists and the dominant position from physicians in the Belgian health care system, which further impacts the boundaries between both professions and the weight of physiotherapists in governmental advisory boards. Direct access to physiotherapy has not yet been considered in Belgium. However, it could have major advantages for physiotherapists who are in favour of a more autonomous, professional status.

  1. Investigating consumers' and informal carers' views and preferences for consumer directed care: A discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaambwa, Billingsley; Lancsar, Emily; McCaffrey, Nicola; Chen, Gang; Gill, Liz; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Consumer directed care (CDC) is currently being embraced internationally as a means to promote autonomy and choice for consumers (people aged 65 and over) receiving community aged care services (CACSs). CDC involves giving CACS clients (consumers and informal carers of consumers) control over how CACSs are administered. However, CDC models have largely developed in the absence of evidence on clients' views and preferences. We explored CACS clients' preferences for a variety of CDC attributes and identified factors that may influence these preferences and potentially inform improved design of future CDC models. Study participants were clients of CACSs delivered by five Australian providers. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) approach undertaken in a group setting between June and December 2013, we investigated the relative importance to CACS consumers and informal (family) carers of gradations relating to six salient features of CDC (choice of service provider(s), budget management, saving unused/unspent funds, choice of support/care worker(s), support-worker flexibility and level of contact with service coordinator). The DCE data were analysed using conditional, mixed and generalised logit regression models, accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Mean ages for 117 study participants were 80 years (87 consumers) and 74 years (30 informal carers). All participants preferred a CDC approach that allowed them to: save unused funds from a CACS package for future use; have support workers that were flexible in terms of changing activities within their CACS care plan and; choose the support workers that provide their day-to-day CACSs. The CDC attributes found to be important to both consumers and informal carers receiving CACSs will inform the design of future CDC models of service delivery. The DCE approach used in this study has the potential for wide applicability and facilitates the assessment of preferences for elements of potential future aged care

  2. 广告设计在儿童消费群体中的效应分析%Discussions on the Advertising Design’ s Effect of Child-Consumer-Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冰清

    2013-01-01

      广告设计在儿童消费群体中的效应,是指广告设计在儿童消费群体中的作用和影响。就广告设计在儿童消费群体中产生的效应而言,有正效应也有负效应。扩大正效应,避免负效应,是儿童广告设计的出发点和落脚点。只有准确把握广告设计的效应,才能实现广告设计的目标和价值。广告设计要扩大正效应避免负效应,就应根据儿童健康的心理、正确的价值观和正确的消费行为形成的需要来设计广告。就应承担起社会责任和义务,加强内部自律和外部监管,按照社会主义核心价值体系的要求,遵守社会主义道德规范,遵守国家法律法规,弘扬先进文化,提高艺术设计水平,关心儿童健康成长,关心社会进步发展。%The advertising design ’ s effect of children consumer group is about the affect that advertising design brings in children group, for good or ill.Advertising design must emphasize advertisement effect .Only hold the advertisement effect accurately can we a-chieve the goals and values of advertising design .To grasp the advertisement effect properly , we must analyze children ’ s consumer psychology , comprehend the characteristic of their psychology , and value the significance of children ’ s consumer psychology .In addi-tion, advertising design must seize advertising psychology accurately , follow the rules of advertising design correctly , and use the men-tal effect of advertising elements felicitously .Since the bright and dark sides are coexisting in advertisements , we should use all the ways we can to enlarge the positivity effect and avoid the negative effect of advertisement in children consumer group .

  3. Unglaciated areas in East Antarctica during the Last Glacial (Marine Isotope Stage 3) - New evidence from Rauer Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Sonja; White, Duanne A.; Bennike, Ole; Fülöp, Réka-H.; Fink, David; Wagner, Bernd; Melles, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Limited information on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) geometry during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3; 60-25 ka) restricts our understanding of its behaviour during periods of climate and sea level change. Ice sheet models forced by global parameters suggest an expanded EAIS compared to the Holocene during MIS 3, but field evidence from East Antarctic coastal areas contradicts such modelling, and suggests that the ice sheet margins were no more advanced than at present. Here we present a new lake sediment record, and cosmogenic exposure results from bedrock, which confirm that Rauer Group (eastern Prydz Bay) was ice-free for much of MIS 3. We also refine the likely duration of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) glaciation in the region. Lacustrine and marine sediments from Rauer Group indicate the penultimate period of ice retreat predates 50 ka. The lacustrine record indicates a change from warmer/wetter conditions to cooler/drier conditions after ca. 35 ka. Substantive ice sheet re-advance, however, may not have occurred until much closer to 20 ka. Contemporary coastal areas were still connected to the sea during MIS 3, restricting the possible extent of grounded ice in Prydz Bay on the continental shelf. In contrast, relative sea levels (RSL) deduced from field evidence indicate an extra ice load averaging several hundred metres thicker ice across the Bay between 45 and 32 ka. Thus, ice must either have been thicker immediately inland (with a steeper ice profile), or there were additional ice domes on the shallow banks of the outer continental shelf. Further work is required to reconcile the differences between empirical evidence of past ice sheet histories, and the history predicted by ice sheet models from far-field temperature and sea level records.

  4. Empirical Analysis on Influencing Factors of Consumer Online Banking Adoption:A Case Study of the Consumer Groups of University Students%消费者网上银行业务使用意向的影响因素实证分析——以大学生消费者为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 吴冠洲

    2012-01-01

    The paper takes the consumer groups of university students as an example. Based on Technology Acceptance Model, the paper combines the characteristics of online banking, increases the perceived risk factors in this study and uses a questionnaire and empirical data to analyze influencing factors of consumer online banking adoption. Research results show that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived risk have significant impacts on intentions to use online banking services, perceived usefulness and perceived risk have more impact on the consumer groups for university students online banking options than perceived ease of use.%本文以大学生消费者为例,结合网上银行特点对科技接受模型进行拓展,增加了感知风险这一研究因素,通过问卷调查和假设检验的方法对影响消费者网上银行使用意向的影响因素进行实证研究.研究结果表明,感知有用性、感知易用性和感知风险对网上银行业务的使用意向均有显著影响,其中感知有用性和感知风险对于大学生这一消费群体的网上银行业务选择影响最大,其次是感知易用性.

  5. Research on the Participating Motivations and Typology of Chinese Online Group Buying Consumers%中国消费者网络团购动机及其类型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓之宏; 邵兵家

    2015-01-01

    Consumer loyalty to group-buying website is low,so comprehensive understanding of the consumer motivations to participate online group-buying is of great significance for operators to improve customer loyalty and operational performance.This paper built the initial motivation scale for consumers to participate in online group buying.Conducting the item analysis and exploratory factor analysis to analyze data collected from online questionnaires on Chinese consumers who have taken part in online group buying,this study constructs and refines the scale which contains 24 items in six dimensions:pleasure,convenience,safety,service,price and sociality.To verify the factor structure of the scale,this study conducts confirmatory factor analysis.The validate results show that the scale has a high level of reliability and validity.In order to investigate the usefulness of scale,based on these factors,this study performs a cluster analysis with hierarchical and K-means methods to suggest the existence of four shopping types: enthusiastic shopper, social shopper, pragmatic shopper and conservative shopper. Shopping types are profiled in terms of demographic and behavioral variables.The motivation scale of online group buying can provide meaningful insights for group buying retailers to develop marketing communication strategies and consumer segmentation.%消费者对团购网站的忠诚度较低,全面厘清消费者网络团购动机对于团购运营商提升顾客忠诚度和运营绩效具有重要意义。构建了消费者网络团购参与动机初始量表,通过项目分析和探索性因子分析等方法确定了正式量表,获得了消费者参与网络团购动机的六个维度:愉悦、便利、安全、服务、价格以及社交。采用验证性因子分析法对量表进行了实证检验,表明量表具有较高的信度和效度。为了考察量表的实用性,基于六大动机维度,采用层次聚类和 K-means 聚类相结合的方

  6. [Survey on evidence-based medicine teaching activities in the German-speaking area: a target-group specific analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Joshua; Valipour, Arash; Strametz, Reinhard; Meyer, Gabriele; Lühmann, Dagmar; Steurer, Johann; Horvath, Karl; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Forster, Johannes; Sauder, Karsta; Ollenschläger, Günther; Ochsendorf, Falk; Weberschock, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    A survey conducted in 2011/12 on evidence-based medicine teaching activities in Germany, Austria and Switzerland shows an apparent increase of undergraduate and postgraduate teaching activities addressing different target groups. The potential target-group specific or generalised nature of teaching activities in EbM were explored by comparing the contents and structures of educational offers in order to detect differences and commonalities. First, several large institutions of the healthcare system were contacted. In addition, the participants of the EbM Academy were consulted as key informants, and the members of the German-speaking colleges of general practitioners and the German Network for EBM were asked to identify potential providers of EbM teaching activities. In the second step pretested detailed questionnaires were sent out that allowed a target-group specific analysis of contents, structures and didactic methods. Altogether, 185 teaching activities in EbM are described; 117 (6.8%) of these address students, 70 (37.8%) physicians and 55 (29.7%) caregivers and members of other healthcare professions. Further target groups include people interested in the healthcare system with a total of 38 (i.e., 20.5%) and patients with 18 (9.7%) teaching activities (multiple responses allowed). Students are mainly taught in obligatory seminars, courses or lectures with a high number of participants, whereas teaching activities addressing other target groups are mostly offered to small groups of participants in the form of optional seminars, courses or workshops lasting a similar length of time. As regards the content, attendees from all target groups with only little previous knowledge are taught the first three steps of EbM according to Sackett. Specialised contents are not distributed evenly and reveal some adaptation to the respective target groups. Structural differences between the target groups are most likely attributed to distinct framework conditions in

  7. 基于情感型消费群的ITMC营销沙盘价格策略探讨%A Discussion on Price Strategy of the ITMC Marketing Sandbox Based on Emotional Consumer Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康元华

    2015-01-01

    在ITMC市场营销沙盘的六类零售消费群体中,情感型消费群体的交易条件相对独立,这有利于企业掌握定价主动权。文章在分析情感型群体交易条件的基础上,探讨了针对这一消费群体的定价模型,明确了价格的计算方法,并将该定价策略延伸至理智型和习惯型消费群体,有助于沙盘经营者进行价格决策。%In the six types of retail consumer groups in ITMC marketing sandbox,the emotional group’s trading conditions are rela⁃tively independent,which is helpful for enterprises to grasp the initiative in pricing. On the basis of analyzing the emotional group’s trad⁃ing terms,the paper explores the pricing model and the method of calculating the price. And extend the price strategy to other consumer groups,such as the rational type and habit type to help sandbox operators with price decisions.

  8. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  9. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  10. A Study on Factors Influencing Online Group-buying Repurchase Intentions of Chinese Consumers%中国消费者网络团购再购意愿影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓之宏

    2016-01-01

    Based on the convergent perspective of"Antecedent- Process- Result",this paper extends the TAM model,in which the six major motivations for consumers to participate in online group-buying:pleasure,convenience,safety,service, price and sociality,act as the antecedent variables,perceived usefulness,perceived ease of use,trust and perceived risk act as the process variables,and consumer repurchase intentions act as the result variable,and builds an integrated model of repur-chase intentions affected by motivations for consumers to participate in online group-buying,which can fully demonstrate the influencing path and transformation mechanism of repurchase intentions affected by online group-buying motivations. And this paper also empirically tests the integrated model based on the Chinese online group-buying market. This paper ,according to the study conclusions,puts forth some concrete countermeasures and suggestions for online group-buying retailers to devel-op scientific and effective internet marketing strategies and operational tactics.%文章基于"前因—过程—结果"的汇合视角,对TAM模型进行了扩展,以愉悦、便利、安全、服务、价格和社交等六大网络团购参与动机为前因变量,以感知有用、感知易用、信任和感知风险为过程变量,以消费者再购意愿为结果变量,构建了消费者网络团购参与动机影响再购意愿的整合模型,全面展现了消费者参与动机对再购意愿的影响路径和转化机理,并基于中国网络团购市场对整合模型进行实证检验.根据研究结论,对网络团购零售商如何制定科学有效的网络团购营销战略与运营策略,提出了一些具体的对策和建议.

  11. Satiety Innovations: Food Products to Assist Consumers with Weight Loss, Evidence on the Role of Satiety in Healthy Eating: Overview and In Vitro Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, Rubén; Marzorati, Massimo; Scarabottolo, Lia; Halford, Jason C G; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; Sanmartín, Angel M; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Harrold, Joanne A

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally, driven by the availability of energy-dense palatable foods. Most dietary strategies fail because of hunger generated by calorie restriction, and interventions that specifically control hunger and/or promote fullness may aid success. Current consumers have a limited choice of satiety-enhancing products with proven health benefits, and innovative ways to produce new foods (as structural modification) to enhance satiety/satiation may provide new opportunities. However, this potential is hindered by the cost of product testing. Within the SATIN-SATiety INnovation project-an in vitro platform has been developed to offer a cost-effective means of assessing the potential satiation/satiety effect of novel foods. This combines in vitro technologies to assess changes in colonic bacteria metabolism, appetite hormone release and the stability and bioavailability of active compounds in the new products/ingredients. This article provides a brief review of nutrients for which an impact on short-term appetite regulation has been demonstrated, and a summary of the changes to food structure which can be used to produce a change in appetite expression. Furthermore, the SATIN in vitro platform is discussed as a means of assessing the impact of nutritional and structural manipulations on appetite.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF LENDING ACTIVITY OVER CONSUMER\\'S BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Mirela STEFAN-DUICU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lending activity involves an embedding of general principles which require the analysis of risks incorporated in banking operations, both from a consumer and bank perspective. Correlated with economic environment shifts, the consumer’s definition concentrates a series of individual and group necessities with a decisive role in a possible lending decision. As socio-economic issue, the consumer is oriented at lending when his income in order to buy goods or services is not satisfactory. This paper aims at presenting the consumer hypostasis resulted from lending activities, identifying its purposes and risks.

  13. Fast color grouping and slow color inhibition: evidence for distinct temporal windows for separate processes in preview search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jason J; Humphreys, Glyn W; Hulleman, Johan; Watson, Derrick G

    2007-06-01

    The authors report 4 experiments that examined color grouping and negative carryover effects in preview search via a probe detection task (J. J. Braithwaite, G. W. Humphreys, & J. Hodsoll, 2003). In Experiment 1, there was evidence of a negative color carryover from the preview to new items, using both search and probe detection measures. There was also a negative bias against probes on old items that carried the majority color in the preview. With a short preview duration (150 ms) carryover effects to new items were greatly reduced, but probe detection remained biased against the majority color in the old items. Experiments 2 and 4 showed that the color bias effects on old items could be reduced when these items had to be prioritized relative to being ignored. Experiment 3 tested and rejected the idea that variations in the probability of whether minority or majority colors were probed were crucial. These results show that the time course of color carryover effects can be separated from effects of early color grouping in the preview display: Color grouping is fast, and inhibitory color carryover effects are slow.

  14. Is sociality required for the evolution of communicative complexity? Evidence weighed against alternative hypotheses in diverse taxonomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, Terry J; Garcia-Porta, Joan

    2012-07-05

    Complex social communication is expected to evolve whenever animals engage in many and varied social interactions; that is, sociality should promote communicative complexity. Yet, informal comparisons among phylogenetically independent taxonomic groups seem to cast doubt on the putative role of social factors in the evolution of complex communication. Here, we provide a formal test of the sociality hypothesis alongside alternative explanations for the evolution of communicative complexity. We compiled data documenting variations in signal complexity among closely related species for several case study groups--ants, frogs, lizards and birds--and used new phylogenetic methods to investigate the factors underlying communication evolution. Social factors were only implicated in the evolution of complex visual signals in lizards. Ecology, and to some degree allometry, were most likely explanations for complexity in the vocal signals of frogs (ecology) and birds (ecology and allometry). There was some evidence for adaptive evolution in the pheromone complexity of ants, although no compelling selection pressure was identified. For most taxa, phylogenetic null models were consistently ranked above adaptive models and, for some taxa, signal complexity seems to have accumulated in species via incremental or random changes over long periods of evolutionary time. Becoming social presumably leads to the origin of social communication in animals, but its subsequent influence on the trajectory of signal evolution has been neither clear-cut nor general among taxonomic groups.

  15. Age differences in how consumers behave following exposure to DTC advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, Denise E; Huh, Jisu; Reid, Leonard N

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide additional evidence on how consumers behave following direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising exposure and to determine if there are differences in ad-prompted acts (drug inquiry and drug requests) between different age groups (i.e., older, mature, and younger adults). The results suggest that younger, mature, and older consumers are all moved to act by DTC drug ads, but that each age group behaves in different ways. Somewhat surprisingly, age was not predictive of ad-prompted behavior. DTC advertising was no more effective at moving older consumers to behave than their younger counterparts. These results suggest that age does not matter that much when it comes to the "moving power" of prescription drug advertising, even though research indicates that older consumers are more vulnerable to the persuasive effects of communication.

  16. The Consumer Health Information System Adoption Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    Derived from overlapping concepts in consumer health, a consumer health information system refers to any of the broad range of applications, tools, and educational resources developed to empower consumers with knowledge, techniques, and strategies, to manage their own health. As consumer health information systems become increasingly popular, it is important to explore the factors that impact their adoption and success. Accumulating evidence indicates a relationship between usability and consumers' eHealth Literacy skills and the demands consumer HISs place on their skills. Here, we present a new model called the Consumer Health Information System Adoption Model, which depicts both consumer eHealth literacy skills and system demands on eHealth literacy as moderators with the potential to affect the strength of relationship between usefulness and usability (predictors of usage) and adoption, value, and successful use (actual usage outcomes). Strategies for aligning these two moderating factors are described.

  17. The Neuroscience of Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    We review progress and challenges relating to scientific and applied goals of the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. Scientifically, substantial progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of choice processes. Further advances, however, require researchers to begin clarifying the set of developmental and cognitive processes that shape and constrain choices. First, despite the centrality of preferences in theories of consumer choice, we still know little about where preferences come from and the underlying developmental processes. Second, the role of attention and memory processes in consumer choice remains poorly understood, despite importance ascribed to them in interpreting data from the field. The applied goal of consumer neuroscience concerns our ability to translate this understanding to augment prediction at the population level. Although the use of neuroscientific data for market-level predictions remains speculative, there is growing evidence of superiority in specific cases over existing market research techniques. PMID:26665152

  18. An Empirical Research on the Influencing Factors of Consumers' Intention of Network Group Purchase%网络团购消费者购买意愿影响因素实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何云春

    2015-01-01

    本文基于TAM模型,引入感知风险和感知信任两个中间变量构建概念模型并形成研究假设,通过网络实地调研获取原始问卷的基础上,运用SPSS21.0和AMOS21.0分析软件对调研数据进行分析,检验了团购网站形象因素、团购商家因素、团购产品因素以及参照群体因素对网络团购消费者购买意愿的影响路径及程度。%Based on the TAM model, this paper constructs the conceptual model and puts forward research hypothesis formation with the introduction of two intermediate variables (perceived risk and perceived trust). The author obtains the original questionnaires on the basis of field investigation through the network, then makes quantitative analysis of the survey data used software SPSS21.0 and AMOS21.0, inspects the impaction path and degree of the group image factors, group-buying business factors, group purchase products as well as the reference group factors on consumer purchase intention of network group purchase.

  19. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  20. Single case design studies in music therapy: resurrecting experimental evidence in small group and individual music therapy clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Kamile; Hitchcock, John H

    2014-01-01

    The profession would benefit from greater and routine generation of causal evidence pertaining to the impact of music therapy interventions on client outcomes. One way to meet this goal is to revisit the use of Single Case Designs (SCDs) in clinical practice and research endeavors in music therapy. Given the appropriate setting and goals, this design can be accomplished with small sample sizes and it is often appropriate for studying music therapy interventions. In this article, we promote and discuss implementation of SCD studies in music therapy settings, review the meaning of internal study validity and by extension the notion of causality, and describe two of the most commonly used SCDs to demonstrate how they can help generate causal evidence to inform the field. In closing, we describe the need for replication and future meta-analysis of SCD studies completed in music therapy settings. SCD studies are both feasible and appropriate for use in music therapy clinical practice settings, particularly for testing effectiveness of interventions for individuals or small groups. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Analysis of consumer information brochures on osteoporosis prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Evidence-based consumer information is a prerequisite for informed decision making. So far, there are no reports on the quality of consumer information brochures on osteoporosis. In the present study we analysed brochures on osteoporosis available in Germany. Method: All printed brochures from patient and consumer advocacy groups, physician and governmental organisations, health insurances, and pharmaceutical companies were initially collected in 2001, and updated in December 2004. Brochures were analysed by two independent researchers using 37 internationally proposed criteria addressing evidence-based content, risk communication, transparency of the development process, and layout and design. Results: A total of 165 brochures were identified; 59 were included as they specifically targeted osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Most brochures were provided by pharmaceutical companies (n=25, followed by health insurances (n=11 and patient and consumer advocacy groups (n=11. Quality of brochures did not differ between providers. Only 1 brochure presented lifetime risk estimate; 4 mentioned natural course of osteoporosis. A balanced report on benefit versus lack of benefit was presented in 2 brochures and on benefit versus adverse effects in 8 brochures. Four brochures mentioned relative risk reduction, 1 reported absolute risk reduction through hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Out of 28 brochures accessed in 2004 10 still recommended HRT without discussing adverse effects. Transparency of the development process was limited: 25 brochures reported publication date, 26 cited author and only 1 references. In contrast, readability and design was generally good. Conclusion: The quality of consumer brochures on osteoporosis in Germany is utterly inadequate. They fail to give evidence-based data on diagnosis and treatment options. Therefore, the material is not useful to enhance informed consumer choice.

  2. Analysis of consumer information brochures on osteoporosis prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gabriele; Steckelberg, Anke; Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2007-01-11

    Evidence-based consumer information is a prerequisite for informed decision making. So far, there are no reports on the quality of consumer information brochures on osteoporosis. In the present study we analysed brochures on osteoporosis available in Germany. All printed brochures from patient and consumer advocacy groups, physician and governmental organisations, health insurances, and pharmaceutical companies were initially collected in 2001, and updated in December 2004. Brochures were analysed by two independent researchers using 37 internationally proposed criteria addressing evidence-based content, risk communication, transparency of the development process, and layout and design. A total of 165 brochures were identified; 59 were included as they specifically targeted osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Most brochures were provided by pharmaceutical companies (n=25), followed by health insurances (n=11) and patient and consumer advocacy groups (n=11). Quality of brochures did not differ between providers. Only 1 brochure presented lifetime risk estimate; 4 mentioned natural course of osteoporosis. A balanced report on benefit versus lack of benefit was presented in 2 brochures and on benefit versus adverse effects in 8 brochures. Four brochures mentioned relative risk reduction, 1 reported absolute risk reduction through hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Out of 28 brochures accessed in 2004 10 still recommended HRT without discussing adverse effects. Transparency of the development process was limited: 25 brochures reported publication date, 26 cited author and only 1 references. In contrast, readability and design was generally good. The quality of consumer brochures on osteoporosis in Germany is utterly inadequate. They fail to give evidence-based data on diagnosis and treatment options. Therefore, the material is not useful to enhance informed consumer choice.

  3. Selective information seeking: can consumers' avoidance of evidence-based information on colorectal cancer screening be explained by the theory of cognitive dissonance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence-based patient information (EBPI is a prerequisite for informed decision-making. However, presentation of EBPI may lead to irrational reactions causing avoidance, minimisation and devaluation of the information. Objective: To explore whether the theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making and useful to explain these phenomena. Setting and participants: 261 volunteers from Hamburg (157 women, ≥50 years old without diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Design and variables: Within an experiment we simulated information seeking on colorectal cancer screening. Consumers’ attitudes towards screening were surveyed using a rating scale from -5 (participate in no way to +5 (participate unconditionally (independent variable. Using a cover story, participants were asked to sort 5 article headlines according to their reading preferences. The headlines simulated the pro to contra variety of contents to be found in print media about colorectal cancer screening. The dependent variable was the sequence of article headlines. Results: Participants were very much in favour of screening with scores for faecal occult blood test of 4.0 (0.1 and for colonoscopy 3.3 (0.1. According to our hypothesis we found statistically significant positive correlations between the stimuli in favour of screening and attitudes and significant negative correlations between the stimuli against screening and attitudes. Conclusion: The theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making. It may explain some phenomena of irrational reactions to evidence-based patient information.

  4. Amoebozoans Are Secretly but Ancestrally Sexual: Evidence for Sex Genes and Potential Novel Crossover Pathways in Diverse Groups of Amoebae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Fiona C.; Katz, Laura A.; Cerón-Romero, Mario A.; Gorfu, Lydia A.

    2017-01-01

    Sex is beneficial in eukaryotes as it can increase genetic diversity, reshuffle their genomes, and purge deleterious mutations. Yet, its evolution remains a mystery. The eukaryotic clade supergroup Amoebozoa encompasses diverse lineages of polymorphic amoeboid forms, including both free-living and parasitic lineages. The group is generally believed to be asexual, though recent studies show that some of its members are implicated in cryptic forms of sexual cycles. In this study, we conduct a comprehensive inventory and analysis of genes involved in meiosis and related processes, in order to investigate the evolutionary history of sex in the clade. We analyzed genomic and transcriptomic data of 39 amoebozoans representing all major subclades of Amoebozoa. Our results show that Amoebozoa possess most of the genes exclusive to meiosis but lack genes encoding synaptonemal complex (SC). The absence of SC genes is discussed in the context of earlier studies that reported ultrastructural evidence of SC in some amoebae. We also find interclade and intrageneric variation in sex gene distribution, indicating diversity in sexual pathways in the group. Particularly, members of Mycetozoa engage in a novel sexual pathway independent of the universally conserved meiosis initiator gene, SPO11. Our findings strongly suggest that not only do amoebozoans possess sex genes in their genomes, but also, based on the transcriptome evidence, the present sex genes are functional. We conclude that Amoebozoa is ancestrally sexual, contrary to the long held belief that most of its members are asexual. Thus, asexuality in Amoebozoa, if confirmed to be present, is a derived-trait that appeared later in their evolution. PMID:28087686

  5. Consumers' misunderstanding of health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, George; Friedman, Joelle Y; McGill, Barbara; Ahmad, Sarah; Linck, Suzanne; Sinkula, Stacey; Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Kolstad, Jonathan; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C; List, John A; Volpp, Kevin G

    2013-09-01

    We report results from two surveys of representative samples of Americans with private health insurance. The first examines how well Americans understand, and believe they understand, traditional health insurance coverage. The second examines whether those insured under a simplified all-copay insurance plan will be more likely to engage in cost-reducing behaviors relative to those insured under a traditional plan with deductibles and coinsurance, and measures consumer preferences between the two plans. The surveys provide strong evidence that consumers do not understand traditional plans and would better understand a simplified plan, but weaker evidence that a simplified plan would have strong appeal to consumers or change their healthcare choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intelligence in the power grid and services to the consumers. Issue paper - working group 4; Denmark. Smart Grid Network; Intelligens i el-nettet og serviceydelser til forbrugerne. Issue paper, arbejdsgruppe 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsen, B.O. (Solar Danmark A/S, Vejen (Denmark)); Hauge, B. (IT-Branchen, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Strunge, C. (Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark)) (and others)

    2011-07-01

    The Smart Grid Network was established in 2010 by the Danish climate and energy minister tasked with developing recommendations for future actions and initiatives that make it possible to handle up to 50% electricity from wind energy in the power system in 2020. The task of working group 4 was to investigate what it takes to involve consumers in smart grid and how to create good conditions for new services related to smart grid. Against this background, the working group agreed the following recommendations: 1) Enhance consumer engagement. A prerequisite for electricity customers becoming involved in smart grid is that they have awareness and knowledge about the smart grid and their own possibilities for action in relation thereto. Therefore it is important that concepts such as smart grid and flexible electricity consumption gradually become popular among electric customers; 2) Minimize the risk. In order to promote electric customers' and other stakeholders' participation in the smart grid, the risk of this participation must be minimized. It is therefore recommended to enhance the skills of the professionals and to establish a common framework for security; 3) Make it easier to create new services. Part of the potential of smart grid can be realized through new services such as delivery of flexible electricity consumption for electric cars and heat pumps and the resale of local power generation at the customer. To facilitate the conditions for these services, the working group recommends that better access to relevant data is created, that the interoperability of smart grid solutions is strengthened, that requirements for buildings are made, that it is made easier to be an aggregator, and that test and inspiration laboratories for small and medium enterprises in the smart grid area are established. (LN)

  7. CGB - Consumer Complaints Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — Individual informal consumer complaint data detailing complaints filed with the Consumer Help Center beginning October 31, 2014. This data represents information...

  8. Ledipasvir-Sofosbuvir for Treating Chronic Hepatitis C: A NICE Single Technology Appraisal-An Evidence Review Group Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokala, P; Simpson, E L; Tappenden, P; Stevens, J W; Dickinson, K; Ryder, S; Harrison, P

    2016-08-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Gilead, the company manufacturing ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF), to submit evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of LDV/SOF for treating chronic hepatitis C. The School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR) Technology Assessment Group was commissioned as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This paper describes the company's submission (CS), the ERG review and the subsequent decision of the NICE Appraisal Committee (AC). The ERG produced a critical review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness evidence of LDV/SOF based upon the CS. The clinical effectiveness data for LDV/SOF were taken from ten trials: three phase III trials and seven phase II trials. Trials compared different durations of LDV/SOF, with and without ribavirin (RBV). There were no head-to-head trials comparing LDV/SOF with any comparator listed in the NICE scope. Data from the trials were mostly from populations with genotype 1 (GT1) disease, although some limited data were available for populations with genotypes 3 and 4. For GT1 treatment-naïve patients, sustained viral response for 12 weeks (SVR12) rates for LDV/SOF ranged from 93.1 to 99.4 % for subgroups of patients with non-cirrhotic disease, whilst SVR rates of 94.1 to 100 % were reported for subgroups of patients with compensated cirrhosis. For GT1 treatment-experienced patients, SVR12 rates ranging from 95.4 to 100 % were reported for subgroups of non-cirrhotic patients, and SVR rates ranging from 81.8 to 100 % were reported within subgroups of patients with compensated cirrhosis. Comparator data were not searched systematically as part of the submission, but were based on the company's previous NICE submission of sofosbuvir, with additional targeted searches. The ERG's critical appraisal of the company's economic evaluation highlighted a number of concerns. The ERG's base case analyses suggested that the incremental cost

  9. HEALTH CONSUMER DIVERSITY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lars EDGREN

    2006-01-01

    Health care consumers no longer want to be passive receivers of treatment and care, they want to be to health information, thanks largely to the Internet, and active health consumer organizations have provided consumers with enabling independent health information. Individual consumers are also more willing to enter into a dialogue, participate and influence decisions concerning their own care. At the same time the consumer role becomes more diverse. Populations in many countries today are culturally,socially, and demographically diverse. Understanding consumer diversity is one of the greatest challenges facing health care providers. There is a risk that the quality of health care provided to consumers can vary depending on the skills of the professionals to rune into the values and preferences of the individual consumer. Health care providers need to listen to and incorporate consumers'experiences into their health service offerings in new and creative ways. They need to engage in a dialogue with various consumer groups using multiple channels. There is a need for a new business logic, which would structurally help the providers, on an individual basis to deal with more sophisticated health care consumers. This is a review paper and provides a framework and a set of strategies for dealing with health consumer diversity. We draw on three interrelated theories - open systems theory, service management research and the concept of consumer segmentation to understand health care consumers' attitudes and behaviour, and their expectations.

  10. Evidence that some Frankia sp. strains are able to cross boundaries between Alnus and Elaeagnus host specificity groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, M; Fernandez, M P; Simonet, P; Materassi, R; Normand, P

    1992-05-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to prove the existence of Frankia strains isolated from an Elaeagnus sp. that are able to cross the inoculation barriers and infect Alnus spp. also. Repeated cycles of inoculation, nodulation, and reisolation were performed under axenic conditions. Frankia wild-type strain UFI 13270257 and three of its coisolates did exhibit complete infectivity and effectiveness on Elaeagnus spp. and Hippophaë rhamnoides and variable infectivity on Alnus spp. Microscopical observation of host plant roots showed that these strains are able to infect Alnus spp. by penetrating deformed root hairs. Reisolates obtained from nodules induced on monoxenic Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, and Elaeagnus angustifolia resembled the parent strains in host infectivity range, in planta and in vitro morphophysiology, isoenzymes, and nif and rrn restriction fragment length polymorphisms, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates on both host plant genera. Alnus and Elaeagnus group-specific polymerase chain reaction DNA amplifications, DNA-DNA hybridizations, and partial gene sequences coding for 16S rRNA provided evidence for the genetic uniformity of wild-type strains and their inclusion into one and the same genomic species, clearly belonging to the Elaeagnus group of Frankia species.

  11. Polymorphism of CRISPR shows separated natural groupings of Shigella subtypes and evidence of horizontal transfer of CRISPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojie; Li, Peng; Su, Wenli; Li, Hao; Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Guang; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Wang, Jian; Cui, Xianyan; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Jia, Leili; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) act as an adaptive RNA-mediated immune mechanism in bacteria. They can also be used for identification and evolutionary studies based on polymorphisms within the CRISPR locus. We amplified and analyzed 6 CRISPR loci from 237 Shigella strains belonging to the 4 species groups, as well as 13 Escherichia coli strains. The CRISPR-associated (cas) gene sequence arrays of these strains were screened and compared. The CRISPR sequences from Shigella were conserved among subtypes, suggesting that CRISPR may represent a new identification tool for the detection and discrimination of Shigella species. Secondary structure analysis showed a different stem-loop structure at the terminal repeat, suggesting a distinct recognition mechanism in the formation of crRNA. In addition, the presence of "self-target" spacers and polymorphisms within CRISPR in Shigella indicated a selective pressure for inhibition of this system, which has the potential to damage "self DNA." Homology analysis of spacers showed that CRISPR might be involved in the regulation of virulence transmission. Phylogenetic analysis based on CRISPR sequences from Shigella and E. coli indicated that although phenotypic properties maintain convergent evolution, the 4 Shigella species do not represent natural groupings. Surprisingly, comparative analysis of Shigella repeats with other species provided new evidence for CRISPR horizontal transfer. Our results suggested that CRISPR analysis is applicable for the detection of Shigella species and for investigation of evolutionary relationships.

  12. Polymorphism of CRISPR shows separated natural groupings of Shigella subtypes and evidence of horizontal transfer of CRISPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojie; Li, Peng; Su, Wenli; Li, Hao; Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Guang; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Wang, Jian; Cui, Xianyan; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Jia, Leili; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) act as an adaptive RNA-mediated immune mechanism in bacteria. They can also be used for identification and evolutionary studies based on polymorphisms within the CRISPR locus. We amplified and analyzed 6 CRISPR loci from 237 Shigella strains belonging to the 4 species groups, as well as 13 Escherichia coli strains. The CRISPR-associated (cas) gene sequence arrays of these strains were screened and compared. The CRISPR sequences from Shigella were conserved among subtypes, suggesting that CRISPR may represent a new identification tool for the detection and discrimination of Shigella species. Secondary structure analysis showed a different stem-loop structure at the terminal repeat, suggesting a distinct recognition mechanism in the formation of crRNA. In addition, the presence of “self-target” spacers and polymorphisms within CRISPR in Shigella indicated a selective pressure for inhibition of this system, which has the potential to damage “self DNA.” Homology analysis of spacers showed that CRISPR might be involved in the regulation of virulence transmission. Phylogenetic analysis based on CRISPR sequences from Shigella and E. coli indicated that although phenotypic properties maintain convergent evolution, the 4 Shigella species do not represent natural groupings. Surprisingly, comparative analysis of Shigella repeats with other species provided new evidence for CRISPR horizontal transfer. Our results suggested that CRISPR analysis is applicable for the detection of Shigella species and for investigation of evolutionary relationships. PMID:26327282

  13. Getting evidence into practice: the work of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of care Group (EPOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowatt, G; Grimshaw, J M; Davis, D A; Mazmanian, P E

    2001-01-01

    Policy makers and continuing educators often face difficult decisions about which educational and quality assurance interventions to provide. Where possible, such decisions are best informed by rigorous evidence, such as that provided by systematic reviews. The Cochrane Collaboration is an international organization that aims to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining, and ensuring the accessibility of systematic reviews of the benefits and risks of health care interventions. International collaborative review groups prepare Cochrane reviews for publication in The Cochrane Library, a collection of databases available on CD-ROM and the World Wide Web and updated quarterly. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group (EPOC) aims to prepare and maintain systematic reviews of professional, financial, organizational, and regulatory interventions that are designed to improve professional practice and the delivery of effective health services. EPOC has 17 reviews and 20 protocols published in Issue 3, 2000, of the Cochrane Library, with further protocols in development. We also have undertaken an overview of previously published systematic reviews of professional behavior change strategies. Our specialized register contains details of over 1,800 studies that fall within the group's scope. Systematic reviews provide a valuable source of information for policy makers and educators involved in planning continuing education and quality assurance initiatives and organizational change. EPOC will attempt to keep the Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions informed on an ongoing basis about new systematic reviews that it produces in the area of continuing medical education and quality assurance.

  14. Consumer perceptions: pork and pig production. Insights from France, England, Sweden and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngapo, T M; Dransfield, E; Martin, J-F; Magnusson, M; Bredahl, L; Nute, G R

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems in use today were expressed, but rationalised in terms of consumer demands, market competition and by comparisons to previous systems of production. Knowledge of production systems appeared of little consequence in terms of any meat market potential as several groups freely remarked that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence.

  15. XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the Galaxy Group NGC 5044. 1; Evidence for Limited Multiphase Hot Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, David A.; Lewis, Aaron D.; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2003-01-01

    Using new XMM and Chandra observations, we present an analysis of the temperature structure of the hot gas within a radius of 100 kpc of the bright nearby galaxy group NGC 5044. A spectral deprojection analysis of data extracted from circular annuli reveals that a two-temperature model (2T) of the hot gas is favored over single-phase or cooling flow (M = 4.5 +/- 0.2 solar mass/yr) models within the central approx.30 kpc. Alternatively, the data can be fitted equally well if the temperature within each spherical shell varies continuously from approx.T(sub h) to T(sub c) approx. T(sub h)/2, but no lower. The high spatial resolution of the Chandra data allows us to determine that the temperature excursion T(sub h) approaches T(sub c) required in each shell exceeds the temperature range between the boundaries of the same shell in the best-fitting single-phase model. This is strong evidence for a multiphase gas having a limited temperature range. We do not find any evidence that azimuthal temperature variations within each annulus on the sky can account for the range in temperatures within each shell. We provide a detailed investigation of the systematic errors on the derived spectral models considering the effects of calibration, plasma codes, bandwidth, variable NH, and background rate. We find that the RGS gratings and the EPIC and ACIS CCDs give fully consistent results when the same models are fitted over the same energy ranges for each instrument. The cooler component of the 2T model has a temperature (T(sub c) approx. 0.7 keV) similar to the kinetic temperature of the stars. The hot phase has a temperature (T(sub h) approx. 1.4 keV) characteristic of the virial temperature of the solar mass halo expected in the NGC 5044 group. However, in view of the morphological disturbances and X-ray holes visible in the Chandra image within R approx. equals 10 kpc, bubbles of gas heated to approx.T(sub h) in this region may be formed by intermittent AGN feedback. Some

  16. Evidence of Meso-Archaean subduction from the Torckler-Tango Layered Complex, Rauer Group, Prydz bay, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, C. A.; Harley, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Archaean Torckler Tango Layered complex (TTLC) of the Rauer Group, East Antarctica, consists of a series of elongate mega-boudins that can be traced over a strike length of 7 km, enclosed within and intruded by c. 2.8 Ga homogeneous tonalitic orthogneisses. Despite later granulite facies metamorphism (860-900°C, 0.7 GPa) original igneous structures and layering features of the TTLC are very well preserved. Graded and cross stratified layering is evident, as are load-cast structures and geopetal structures. Isotopic and LILE signatures indicate that crustal contamination has been negligible and that metamorphic disturbances have been minor. As a result, the whole rock chemistry of the TTLC is considered to reflect its igneous protoliths. This whole rock geochemistry is distinctive, with high MgO (av. 15.8 wt%), high Mg# (av. 79.1) low TiO2 (av.< 0.33 wt%), and high SiO2 (av. 52.5 wt%). The TTLC can be subdivided into two geochemical groupings based upon Al2O3 and Cr abundances, which provide clear evidence for the crystal fractionation and accumulation processes active within the complex. Trace-element and REE element ratios show coherent trends. Based on its systematic major element (Al2O3/TiO2 ~40), trace element ratios Ti/Zr vs. Zr (Ti/Zr ~34-59 at Zr ~15-40 ppm), and negative HSFE anomalies, the TTLC is similar in geochemistry to both modern, neo-Proterozoic and Archaean boninitic rocks. Magmatic zircons define an intrusive age for the TTLC of ca. 3280 ± 22 Ma. HSFE ratios, and whole rock Nd isotope ratios recalculated back to this age, are consistent with a juvenile depleted source for the primary magma. The TTLC is therefore interpreted as the intrusive equivalent of a boninite, produced through the shallow melting of refractory mantle and supportive of the operation of subduction-like processes in the early-mid Archaean.

  17. Consumer Perceived Ethicality: An Impression Formation Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Brunk, Katja H.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the process of how consumers form ethical perceptions of companies or brands by means of twenty in-depth interviews with general consumers. The study offers illustrative examples of evidence that the formation of consumer perceived ethicality (CPE) appears more in line with the configural model of impression formation, suggesting that perception formation is holistic and gestalt-like, rather than following the algebraic model, which takes a piecemeal information int...

  18. Resveratrol and health from a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is an ingredient widely researched, with growing evidence of health-promoting effects. However, the reactions of supplement or food consumers to resveratrol has not been researched, and the ingredient is yet unknown to most consumers. We used respective literature and our own...... resveratrol consumer studies with Danish and U.S. consumers to look at current findings and future research directions for three questions. (1)Which factors determine consumer interest in a yet unknown functional ingredient such as resveratrol? (2)Howshould resveratrol bemarketed as a new functional...... ingredient to be understood and favorably perceived? (3) What could be the effects of adoption of an ingredient such as resveratrol on the healthy lifestyle of a consumer? Literature and first results indicate that personal relevance and familiarity are crucial factors; however, consumers show little...

  19. Deficits in implicit attention to social signals in schizophrenia and high risk groups: behavioural evidence from a new illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha van 't Wout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing body of evidence suggests that the apparent social impairments observed in schizophrenia may arise from deficits in social cognitive processing capacities. The ability to process basic social cues, such as gaze direction and biological motion, effortlessly and implicitly is thought to be a prerequisite for establishing successful social interactions and for construing a sense of "social intuition." However, studies that address the ability to effortlessly process basic social cues in schizophrenia are lacking. Because social cognitive processing deficits may be part of the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia, we also investigated two groups that have been shown to be at increased risk of developing schizophrenia-spectrum pathology: first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and men with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY. RESULTS: We compared 28 patients with schizophrenia, 29 siblings of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 individuals with Klinefelter syndrome with 46 matched healthy control subjects on a new paradigm. This paradigm measures one's susceptibility for a bias in distance estimation between two agents that is induced by the implicit processing of gaze direction and biological motion conveyed by these agents. Compared to control subjects, patients with schizophrenia, as well as siblings of patients and Klinefelter men, showed a lack of influence of social cues on their distance judgments. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the insensitivity for social cues is a cognitive aspect of schizophrenia that may be seen as an endophenotype as it appears to be present both in relatives who are at increased genetic risk and in a genetic disorder at risk for schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. These social cue-processing deficits could contribute, in part, to the difficulties in higher order social cognitive tasks and, hence, to decreased social competence that has been observed in these groups.

  20. No evidence of the effect of extreme weather events on annual occurrence of four groups of ectothermic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka H Malinowska

    Full Text Available Weather extremes may have strong effects on biodiversity, as known from theoretical and modelling studies. Predicted negative effects of increased weather variation are found only for a few species, mostly plants and birds in empirical studies. Therefore, we investigated correlations between weather variability and patterns in occupancy, local colonisations and local extinctions (metapopulation metrics across four groups of ectotherms: Odonata, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Reptilia. We analysed data of 134 species on a 1×1 km-grid base, collected in the last 20 years from the Netherlands, combining standardised data and opportunistic data. We applied dynamic site-occupancy models and used the results as input for analyses of (i trends in distribution patterns, (ii the effect of temperature on colonisation and persistence probability, and (iii the effect of years with extreme weather on all the three metapopulation metrics. All groups, except butterflies, showed more positive than negative trends in metapopulation metrics. We did not find evidence that the probability of colonisation or persistence increases with temperature nor that extreme weather events are reflected in higher extinction risks. We could not prove that weather extremes have visible and consistent negative effects on ectothermic species in temperate northern hemisphere. These findings do not confirm the general prediction that increased weather variability imperils biodiversity. We conclude that weather extremes might not be ecologically relevant for the majority of species. Populations might be buffered against weather variation (e.g. by habitat heterogeneity, or other factors might be masking the effects (e.g. availability and quality of habitat. Consequently, we postulate that weather extremes have less, or different, impact in real world metapopulations than theory and models suggest.

  1. Exploring Differences in Commuting Behaviour among Various Income Groups during Polycentric Urban Development in China: New Evidence and Its Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Income status is an important variable that is strongly associated with certain commuting behaviours of workers. This paper presents new evidence on how polycentric development impacts on workers’ commuting behaviour among various income groups in Beijing, China. This study suggests that three key influencing factors—the public transport network, the location of affordable housing projects and the process of employment decentralisation—have played significant roles in affecting workers’ commuting behaviour. The results of regression analysis indicate that subway and bus transport significantly and negatively influenced the commuting times of low- and middle-income workers, but the two transport modes did not have a significant influence on the commuting times of high-income workers. The findings from this research suggest that policies for promoting employment decentralisation during polycentric development have the potential to reduce workers’ commuting times through promoting jobs-housing balance in the sub-centres. The results of this study indicate that a balanced jobs-housing relationship can be achieved through adjustment of affordable housing locations, and this can be effective in shortening low-income workers’ commuting times in the sub-centres of Beijing.

  2. 基于TAM的消费者网络团购态度影响的实证研究%An Empirical Research on The Consumer Attitudes of Network Group Buying Influence Model Based on The Technology Acceptance Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷培莉; 蔡晓娜; 温波; 张彦歆

    2012-01-01

    伴随着团购网站Groupon在美国的巨大成功,从2010年3月开始,国内掀起了空前的团购热潮,在不到一年的时间里,已由"百团大战"上升到"千团大战"。团购网站如何在这场声势浩大的角逐之中吸引消费者,取得长足发展成为了当前最应该关注的问题。而消费者对网络团购的态度直接决定了其是否会进行网络团购以及选择哪家团购网站。因此有必要对网络团购态度的影响因素进行研究,识别出影响消费者网络团购态度的主要因素。本研究以参加过网络团购或未参加过但对网络团购有了解的人群为调研对象,结合SPSS13.0和AMOS17.0对数据进行了分析和模型检验,以此探讨影响消费者网络团购态度的因素。实证结果表明:感知网络团购有用、感知网络团购易用及感知网络团购风险是影响消费者网络团购态度的关键因素;除娱乐导向外,其他购物导向均会显著影响感知有用或感知风险变量;而人口统计特征对网络团购态度无显著影响。%With the great success of online group buying website Groupon in the United States,from March 2010,a great number of group-buying websites have been established in a less year.It has been the most concern that online group buying websites how to attract consumers and make great strides in the violent competition.The consumers' attitude to online group buying determines whether they choose this shopping channel or not and which website they will choose.It's very necessary to study and identify that which factors influence the consumers' attitude to group buying.We proceed with empirical study through investigation based on consumers who have taken part in or know about the online group buying and analyze data using SPSS 13.0 and AMOS 17.0 to research the factors that affect the consumer' attitude.The result shows that perceived usefulness,perceived ease of use,and perceived risks have obvious

  3. Consumer understanding of food labels: toward a generic tool for identifying the average consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe; Holm, Lotte; Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of informedness of an individual consumer against the national median at any time. Informedness, i.e. the individual consumer's ability to interpret correctly the meaning of the words and signs on a food label is isolated as one essential dimension for dividing consumers into three groups: less-informed, informed...

  4. Monitoring of PAEMs and beta-agonists in urine for a small group of experimental subjects and PAEs and beta-agonists in drinking water consumed by the same subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yang, Gordon C C; Wang, Chih-Lung; Chiu, Yu-Han

    2014-07-30

    This 5-month study contains two parts: (1) to monitor the concentrations of 11 phthalate esters metabolites (PAEMs) and two beta-agonists in human urine samples collected from a small group of consented participants including 16 females and five males; and (2) to analyze the residues of phthalate esters (PAEs) and beta-agonists in various categories of drinking water consumed by the same group of subjects. Each category of human urine and drinking water had 183 samples of its own. The analytical results showed that nine PAEMs were detected in human urine and eight PAEs were detected in drinking water samples. It was found that average concentrations of PAEMs increased as the age increased, but no significant difference between sexes. Further, using the principal component analysis, the loadings of age effect were found to be two times greater than that of gender effect in terms of four DEHP metabolites. Regarding beta-agonists of concern (i.e., ractopamine and salbutamol), they were neither detected in human urine nor drinking water samples in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Consumer energy conservation options - professional and consumer perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, B.J.R.; Claxton, J.D.; McDougall, G.H.G.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify government policies for reducing Canadian consumption of home heating fuel, electricity, and gasoline; assess probable effectiveness of different policy alternatives as a means of reducing consumer energy consumption; and measure the acceptability to Canadian consumers of the different policy alternatives. Interviews were conducted with energy conservation professionals to identify and evaluate existing energy conservation programs, and interviews were conducted with consumers who had evaluated selected programs previously reviewed by the professionals. Information was also gathered on energy conservation activities of consumers surveyed. A directory of 34 energy conservation programs was also compiled. Some of the conclusions reached in this report are as follows. There is a need for an information system to gather data on existing conservation programs in order to increase the knowledge of relevant parties as to the outcomes of operating programs. This would help evaluation and improvement of current programs and suggest new program possibilities. The professionals rated six of the 34 programs highly, including the Energuide and the Canadian Home Insulation Program (CHIP). Retrofitting programs for houses are recommended for continuation and expansion, with some consideration given to linking these kinds of programs with home audit programs. In the private transport sector, any new conservation programs should be thoroughly tested on a small scale before widespread implementation, as evidence indicates that certain programs favorably evaluated by professionals may not be received favorably by consumers. 3 refs., 24 tabs.

  6. Identification of unique food handling practices that could represent food safety risks for minority consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Shauna C; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2012-11-01

    Foodborne illness caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter is a concern for consumers, and there is evidence that minority racial-ethnic populations experience greater rates of illness because of these pathogens. The limited body of research concerning food safety knowledge and practices among minority consumers has focused more on general food safety knowledge than on culturally specific food handling practices. The purpose of the research reported here was to explore food handling behaviors of minority racial-ethnic consumers through in-depth discussions in focus group settings. In this way, we hoped to identify potential unique, previously unidentified food handling practices among these consumers. Nine focus groups were held in Philadelphia, PA. Three focus groups were conducted with African American consumers, three with Hispanic consumers, and three with Asian consumers. In all, 56 consumers participated. Data were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for unique and potentially unsafe food handling behaviors. Potentially unsafe food handling practices identified among all three groups included extended time to transport food from retail to home and washing of raw poultry. Culturally unique behaviors within groups included (i) using hot water (Asian, Hispanic) or acidic solutions (African American, Hispanic) to clean raw poultry, (ii) purchasing live poultry (Asian, Hispanic), (iii) cooking poultry overnight (African American), and (iv) preparing bite-size pieces of meat prior to cooking (Asian, Hispanic). To have focus groups include a limited number of participants and nonrandom sampling means that these themes and trends cannot be extrapolated to represent food mishandling among these populations in general. Results presented here allow modification of an existing food safety survey to identify the prevalence of these food handling practices among consumers of different demographics.

  7. [Evidence-based medicine. 1. The transfer of research results to clinical practice. The Italian Group for Evidence-Based Medicine-GIMBE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartabellotta, A

    1998-03-01

    Evidence-based Medicine, born officially in November 1992, during last five years is grown everywhere, showing its power to influence virtually all aspects of health care: clinical practice, medical education, patient information and health policy. Because of the raising interest also in Italy for the new paradigm of clinical practice, "Recently Progress in Medicina" launches a series of articles with the aim of giving to physicians tools and skills for searching, critically appraising and implementing in their own decisions the best results of clinical research. For a better explanation of practical aspects of Evidence-based Medicine, the first article discusses about several obstacles existing in transferring correctly and timely the results of research into clinical practice, and about the potential role of Evidence-based Medicine in the evolution of the medical art and the health systems of the third millennium.

  8. 个人感知、创新扩散与消费者参与网络团购行为的关系研究%Personal Perception, Innovation Diffusion and Consumer Participating in Online Group-buying Behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雨洁; 廖成林

    2013-01-01

    The paper integrates the Technology Acceptance Model -2 ( TAM2 ) , and Innovation Diffusion Theory ( IDT) into one model to built the concept model of influence factors of consumer participating in online group -buying behavior by introducing the communication channels and the time variable , the perceived risk and perceived price varia-ble in the process of diffusion .The empirical results show the factors affecting the consumer participating in online group-buying intention are personal perception factors and the innovation diffusion factors .Online group-buying communica-tion channels ( mass media and interpersonal relationships ) , time ( the transaction orders ) compatibility and perceived usefulness have significant positive effect on consumer′s will to participate in the online group -buying; perceived risk and perceived price have significant negative impact on consumer′s will to participate in the online group -buying;per-ceived usefulness has no significant influence on consumer′s will to participate in the online group -buying.Among them, effect of compatibility on consumer′s will to participate in the online group -buying is the most significant , and impact of perceived usefulness and interpersonal communication is more significant .%本文对创新扩散理论( IDT)和技术接受模型( TAM2)进行拓展,分别引入扩散过程中的传播渠道和时间变量、感知风险与感知价格变量,并将两个模型进行整合,构建消费者参与网络团购行为影响因素的概念模型,进行实证研究。研究结果表明:影响消费者参与网络团购意愿的因素可以归纳为个人感知因素与创新扩散因素两大类。网络团购的传播渠道(大众传媒和人际关系)、时间(成交订单数)相容性、感知有用性对消费者参与网络团购的意愿有显著的正向影响;感知风险与感知价格对消费者参与网络团购的意愿有显著的负向影响;感知易

  9. Fluid or fuel? The context of consuming a beverage is important for satiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri McCrickerd

    Full Text Available Energy-containing beverages have a weak effect on satiety, limited by their fluid characteristics and perhaps because they are not considered 'food'. This study investigated whether the context of consuming a beverage can influence the satiating power of its nutrients. Eighty participants consumed a lower- (LE, 75 kcal and higher-energy (HE, 272 kcal version of a beverage (covertly manipulated within-groups on two test days, in one of four beverage contexts (between-groups: thin versions of the test-drinks were consumed as a thirst-quenching drink (n = 20, a filling snack (n = 20, or without additional information (n = 20. A fourth group consumed subtly thicker versions of the beverages without additional information (n = 20. Lunch intake 60 minutes later depended on the beverage context and energy content (p = 0.030: participants who consumed the thin beverages without additional information ate a similar amount of lunch after the LE and HE versions (LE = 475 kcal, HE = 464 kcal; p = 0.690 as did those participants who believed the beverages were designed to quench-thirst (LE = 442 kcal, HE = 402 kcal; p = 0.213, despite consuming an additional 197 kcal in the HE beverage. Consuming the beverage as a filling snack led participants to consume less at lunch after the HE beverage compared to the LE version (LE = 506 kcal, HE = 437 kcal; p = 0.025. This effect was also seen when the beverages were subtly thicker, with participants in this group displaying the largest response to the beverage's energy content, consuming less at lunch after the HE version (LE = 552 kcal, HE = 415 kcal; p<0.001. These data indicate that beliefs about the consequences of consuming a beverage can affect the impact of its nutrients on appetite regulation and provide further evidence that a beverage's sensory characteristics can limit its satiating power.

  10. PRICE DISCRIMINATION THROUGH GROUP BUYING

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that when consumers are heterogeneous in group-buying costs, a monopolist seller may practice price discrimination through inducing certain consumers to participate in group buying. In contrast to the standard model, the optimal quantity/quality level for low valuation consumers without group buying is further distorted downward, whereas the levels for other consumers are socially optimal. Inducing group buying is more favorable when the proportion of high valuation consumer...

  11. Platinum-group minerals from the Jinbaoshan Pd-Pt deposit, SW China: evidence for magmatic origin and hydrothermal alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina Yan; Prichard, Hazel M.; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Fisher, Peter C.

    2008-09-01

    The Jinbaoshan Pt-Pd deposit in Yunnan, SW China, is hosted in a wehrlite body, which is a member of the Permian (˜260 Ma) Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP). The deposit is reported to contain one million tonnes of Pt-Pd ore grading 0.21% Ni and 0.16% Cu with 3.0 g/t (Pd + Pt). Platinum-group minerals (PGM) mostly are ˜10 μm in diameter, and are commonly Te-, Sn- and As-bearing, including moncheite (PtTe2), atokite (Pd3Sn), kotulskite (PdTe), sperrylite (PtAs2), irarsite (IrAsS), cooperite (PtS), sudburyite (PdSb), and Pt-Fe alloy. Primary rock-forming minerals are olivine and clinopyroxene, with clinopyroxene forming anhedral poikilitic crystals surrounding olivine. Primary chromite occurs either as euhedral grains enclosed within olivine or as an interstitial phase to the olivine. However, the intrusion has undergone extensive hydrothermal alteration. Most olivine grains have been altered to serpentine, and interstitial clinopyroxene is often altered to actinolite/tremolite and locally biotite. Interstitial chromite grains are either partially or totally replaced by secondary magnetite. Base-metal sulfides (BMS), such as pentlandite and chalcopyrite, are usually interstitial to the altered olivine. PGM are located with the BMS and are therefore also interstitial to the serpentinized olivine grains, occurring within altered interstitial clinopyroxene and chromite, or along the edges of these minerals, which predominantly altered to actinolite/tremolite, serpentine and magnetite. Hydrothermal fluids were responsible for the release of the platinum-group elements (PGE) from the BMS to precipitate the PGM at low temperature during pervasive alteration. A sequence of alteration of the PGM has been recognized. Initially moncheite and atokite have been corroded and recrystallized during the formation of actinolite/tremolite, and then, cooperite and moncheite were altered to Pt-Fe alloy where they are in contact with serpentine. Sudburyite occurs in veins

  12. Evidence of natural transmission of group A rotavirus between domestic pigs and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okadera, Kota; Abe, Masako; Ito, Naoto; Morikawa, Shigeki; Yamasaki, Ari; Masatani, Tatsunori; Nakagawa, Keisuke; Yamaoka, Satoko; Sugiyama, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are a major cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young animals worldwide. RVAs have also been detected in several wild and zoo animals, indicating wide susceptibility of wild animals. However, the role of wild animals in the infection cycle of RVAs is unclear. Wild boars are indigenous in many countries in the world. Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) have been migrating close to human habitats in Japan, indicating the possibility of natural transmission between domestic animals or humans and wild boars. We investigated infection of RVAs in wild boars in Japan to identify types of RVAs infecting wild animals. We obtained stool samples from 90 wild boars and detected a VP4 gene of RVAs by RT-semi-nested PCR. RVAs were detected in samples from four of the 90 wild boars. Nucleotide analyses of VP7 and VP4 genes revealed that the four strains belong to G9P[23], G4P[23], G9P[13] and G4P[6], suggesting a relation to porcine and human RVAs. We therefore characterized RVAs circulating among domestic pigs living in the same area as the wild boars. We collected stool samples from 82 domestic pigs. RVAs were detected in samples from 49 of the 82 domestic pigs. Phylogenetic and similarity analyses provided evidence for natural transmission between domestic pigs and wild boars. The results also suggested that natural reassortment events occurred before or after transmission between domestic pigs and wild boars. Our findings indicate the possibility that RVAs circulate among wild animals, humans and domestic animals in nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The life of relationship in globalized financial economic devices: Evidences from the experience of a group-analytic transcultural workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Lo Mauro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution - starting from the experience of the EATGA Workshop 2011 that took place in Palermo and that had as its theme “Intersubjective bonds in the globalized economy” - invites to reflect on the quality of the life of relationship and intersubjective connectedness in social contemporary world. One of the characterizing cultural phenomena influencing contemporary reality is made up by the dominant and pervasive presence of logic and language of financial markets in policies and activities that organize and articulate daily life. Theoretical hypothesis driving our research is that the structures of subjectivity, the meaning and the way of being in a relationship are characteristics (cultural themes that emerge within a defined cultural and historical system. In such a theoretical perspective, cultural themes are incorporated or interiorized by men belonging a shared cultural system and so became elements of the shared subjectivity and of the meanings given to intersubjective exchanges and bonds. From the workshop experience some meanings emerge concerning the role of economical-financial system in promoting codes and symbols that define the shape and the sense of relationship. The cultural codes of the market have gone out from the economic circle in which they were born and they are offered as organizers of affections and relationships. This is an evidence for the critical actual historical moment, in which the values and the cultural codes organized on the trust, on the reciprocity, on the common share and participation seems to be interdicted.Keywords: Transcultural Group-Analysis, Intersubjective Relationship, Cultural Models of the Exchange

  14. The life of relationship in globalized financial economic devices: Evidences from the experience of a group-analytic transcultural workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Lo Mauro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution - starting from the experience of the EATGA Workshop 2011 that took place in Palermo and that had as its theme “Intersubjective bonds in the globalized economy” - invites to reflect on the quality of the life of relationship and intersubjective connectedness in social contemporary world. One of the characterizing cultural phenomena influencing contemporary reality is made up by the dominant and pervasive presence of logic and language of financial markets in policies and activities that organize and articulate daily life. Theoretical hypothesis driving our research is that the structures of subjectivity, the meaning and the way of being in a relationship are characteristics (cultural themes that emerge within a defined cultural and historical system. In such a theoretical perspective, cultural themes are incorporated or interiorized by men belonging a shared cultural system and so became elements of the shared subjectivity and of the meanings given to intersubjective exchanges and bonds. From the workshop experience some meanings emerge concerning the role of economical-financial system in promoting codes and symbols that define the shape and the sense of relationship. The cultural codes of the market have gone out from the economic circle in which they were born and they are offered as organizers of affections and relationships. This is an evidence for the critical actual historical moment, in which the values and the cultural codes organized on the trust, on the reciprocity, on the common share and participation seems to be interdicted.Keywords: Transcultural Group-Analysis, Intersubjective Relationships, Cultural Models of the Exchange

  15. Evidence-based decision-making for vaccine introductions: Overview of the ProVac International Working Group's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Barbara; Garcia, Ana Gabriela Felix; Bess Janusz, Cara; Blau, Julia; Munier, Aline; Atherly, Deborah; Mvundura, Mercy; Hajjeh, Rana; Lopman, Benjamin; Clark, Andrew David; Baxter, Louise; Hutubessy, Raymond; de Quadros, Ciro; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2015-05-07

    Pan American Health Organization's (PAHO) ProVac Initiative aims to strengthen countries' technical capacity to make evidence-based immunization policy. With financial support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, PAHO established the ProVac International Working Group (IWG), a platform created for two years to transfer the ProVac Initiative's tools and methods to support decisions in non-PAHO regions. In 2011, WHO Regional Offices and partner agencies established the IWG to transfer the ProVac framework for new vaccine decision support, including tools and trainings to other regions of the world. During the two year period, PAHO served as the coordinating secretariat and partner agencies played implementing or advisory roles. Fifty nine national professionals from 17 countries received training on the use of economic evaluations to aid vaccine policy making through regional workshops. The IWG provided direct technical support to nine countries to develop cost-effectiveness analyses to inform decisions. All nine countries introduced the new vaccine evaluated or their NITAGs have made a recommendation to the Ministry of Health to introduce the new vaccine. Developing countries around the world are increasingly interested in weighing the potential health impact due to new vaccine introduction against the investments required. During the two years, the ProVac approach proved valuable and timely to aid the national decision making processes, even despite the different challenges and idiosyncrasies encountered in each region. The results of this work suggest that: (1) there is great need and demand for technical support and for capacity building around economic evaluations; and (2) the ProVac method of supporting country-owned analyses is as effective in other regions as it has been in the PAHO region. Decision support for new vaccine introduction in low- and middle-income countries is critical to guiding the efficient use of resources and prioritizing high impact

  16. Consumer Involvement in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Susan

    1976-01-01

    With the emphasis on consumer involvement in the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, changes in the counseling relationship must occur. This article discusses new interaction patterns for consumer and counselor. (Author)

  17. Consumer rights and responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which included the Consumer Bill of Rights and Responsibilities. The Commission was appointed by President Bill Clinton, ... role in making sure they have rights and responsibilities with regard to health improvement. The Consumer Bill ...

  18. Consumer Empowerment in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Heather E.; Busse, Kristine L.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Health care consumers increasingly confront and collaborate with their medical providers. We describe consumer success in other medical fields and in dermatology, especially dermatologic disease advocacy and improving dermatologist-patient interactions. PMID:19254661

  19. Confronting diversity in the production of clinical evidence goes beyond merely including under-represented groups in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, Karien; Wieringa, Nicolien F.; Hardon, Anita

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that outcomes of health care differ by patient characteristics, such as gender and ethnicity. If evidence-based medicine is to improve quality of care for all patients, it is essential to take this diversity into account when designing clinical studies. So far, this noti

  20. Consumer Behavior and Food Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2015-01-01

    From the consumer's point of view, food is at the same time among the most trivial and the most complex of all product groups. Food is at the same time a mundane and a functional product. Sometimes we eat for sustenance, for example, while sitting behind our desks when typing reports, and at other

  1. Consumer Behavior and Food Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2015-01-01

    From the consumer's point of view, food is at the same time among the most trivial and the most complex of all product groups. Food is at the same time a mundane and a functional product. Sometimes we eat for sustenance, for example, while sitting behind our desks when typing reports, and at other t

  2. Consumer protection and grocery

    OpenAIRE

    Sklář, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with consumer protection and grocery section regulations. It's objective is to evaluate whether grocery stores stick to law while selling food and to analyze attitudes and behavior of consumers. The theoretical part deals with definition of consumer and other related concepts and with obligations of food sellers and consumer rights. The practical part consists of three parts that contain expert commentary, own research performed through grocery stores and survey tak...

  3. Law and the Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    One of eleven modules developed for secondary school consumer education, this document emphasizes the need of the consumer, especially the disadvantaged consumer, to understand the law and the protection it can offer. The material is presented in three columns: understandings (usually formulated as questions followed by commentary), suggested…

  4. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  5. A Nation of Consumers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    What is the true potential of Chinese consumers? This is a longstanding and difficult question to answer. It is not a lack of statistics that makes this question unanswerable, but there is a paradox in China's consumer market-while the rate of household consumption is falling, total retail sales of consumer goods are rising.

  6. Be a Smart Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Elizabeth Ann

    This book was prepared especially for the students of the Marie Katzenbach School for the Deaf as a one-year course in consumer education. The purpose of the book is to provide students with necessary information and skills to make wise decisions as consumers in the areas of realizing consumer values and goals; evaluating advertising; managing…

  7. Self-consuming materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoma, Steven G.; Grubelich, Mark C; Celina, Mathias C.; Vaughn, Mark R.; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-05-23

    A self-consuming structure is disclosed that is formed from a self-consuming composition based on an epoxy or polyurethane having fuel and/or oxidizer molecularly dispersed and/or as particulates in the epoxy or polyurethane. The composition may be used to form self-consuming structural components.

  8. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  9. MEASUREMENT OF CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM OF SLOVAK CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of consumer ethnocentrism is inferred from the general concept of ethnocentrism which assumes that ethnocentrism starts with the culture into which an individual is born. Over time, the individual will accept the values and behaviour of this particular culture as a norm. However, when the individual becomes aware of other cultures with different values and behaviours, there develops the need of belonging and identification with own culture rather than that of others. When analysing the consumer ethnocentrism, it is also essential to examine whether consumer ethnocentrism operates uniformly across all consumers or there exist some specific factors moderating their ethnocentric tendencies. A lot of studies researching these issues can be found in various cultural contexts, however in Slovakia we found certain gap since there is just a few of them. The aim of the paper is to investigate the level of consumer ethnocentricity of Slovak consumers in general and with the respect to chosen variables – age and gender. The results can serve as an information base for decision-making process of marketing managers focusing especially on local production of domestic products.

  10. Consumer attitudes and olive oil acceptance: The potential consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwan, Jean A.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available       This paper outlines the results of consumer research to investigate consumer attitudes towards olive oil, and to evaluate selected experimental samples for acceptability.
          Consumer focus group discussions were used to investigate consumer attitudes to and awareness of olive oil, in relation to other culinary oils. A wide range of information was obtained, indicating the increasing importance of olive oil in the UK.
           Product use was examined to investigate the different types of olive oils consumers use, and the importance of different attributes for purchase. Price, quality and colour were the most important considerations for purchasing an olive oil, whilst package design, package material and brand were the least important.       Eight samples of virgin olive oil were evaluated for acceptability of appearance, odour, flavour and mouthfeel. These data indicated clear differences in acceptability between the samples, particularly on flavour, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. These data were then linked to sensory information to determine the characteristics of oil associated with liking for the product.

  11. Consuming Hygge at Home: Perception, Representation, Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bean, Jonathan Yorke

    2011-01-01

    Comparative research on the relationship between everyday spaces of consumption and cultural metaconcepts offers insight into how consumers experience and construct meaning through the use of space. In practice theory, metaconcepts, the "structuring structures" of consumer meaning and emotion, are understood to operate at the individual, group, and cultural level. Consumers engage cultural metaconcepts -- in this case, the Danish concept of hygge and coziness, its typical American translation...

  12. Research on Willingness of Online Consumer to Accept Initiative Recommendation Group-buying%在线消费者对主动式推荐团购的接受意愿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万君; 吴迪; 赵宏霞

    2015-01-01

    笔者以心理抗拒理论为基础,构建影响消费者对主动式推荐团购接受意愿的理论模型,通过情景实验的方式收集458份有效问卷,利用结构方程模型方法对研究模型进行实证检验,研究结果表明:消费者对主动式推荐团购的接受意愿与其心理抗拒情绪有关,而后者又会受到环境因素、产品因素和消费者个人因素的影响。%Based on the psychology reactance theory, this paper constructed the theoretical model about elements which would affect consumers’ acceptance intention to initiative recommendation group-buying. 458 valid responses were collected based on context exper-iment,and the research model was empirically tested by using structural equation modeling. The results reveal that consumers’ accept-ance intention to initiative recommendation group-buying has positive relationship with their psychology reactance emotion,and the psy-chology reactance emotion is influenced by the buying environment,product and the consumers’ personal characteristics. Research re-sults can help online businesses to reduce consumers produce psychological resistance to its active recommend buying mood factor,can optimize active recommend buying for online merchants to offer reference to the marketing effect.

  13. Consumer Behavior of College Students in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horakova Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is a follow-up to the topic of consumer behavior which is analyzed from the economic theory perspective on microeconomic as well as a macroeconomic level. The main objective of the article is to reveal the structure of college students’ consumer basket determined according to disposable income and its changes. In this article, the methodology of a consumer basket was used. The division of it was done by Czech Statistical Office to calculate the inflation rate in the environment of the Czech Republic. In this article, the analysis of college students’ consumer basket was done. The pressure on having a higher qualification in tertiary education is a typical trend across Europe, which is also one of strategic goals of EU Strategy 2020 and its concept. There is clear evidence of a growing segment of college students that represents a significant demand group on the product and service market. The knowledge of their consumer habits is definitely beneficial for companies regarding their competitive advantage and reaching higher incomes from the products offered. The market product consumption is dependent on the total disposable income mainly. That is fundamentally dependent on hours of paid work or other fund contributions. The current disposable income shows the differences regarding consumption expenditures of a consumer basket and its various categories. A lower disposable income is typical for flowing the highest consumer expenditures from class 1 (Food and non-alcoholic beverages to class 4 (Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels of a higher disposal income. If the current disposable income of college students increases, there would be higher consumption expenditures regarding classes 9, 3 and 5 (Recreation and culture; Clothing and footwear; Furnishings, household equipment and routine household maintenance. On the contrary, a lower disposable income would mean lower expenditures regarding classes 3, 2 and 9

  14. Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group to play a leading role in guiding the production of informed high-quality, timely research evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritty, Chantelle; Stevens, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald; King, Valerie; Kamel, Chris

    2016-10-28

    Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the methodologies that make systematic reviews authoritative take time, typically 1 to 2 years to complete. Outside the traditional SR timeline, "rapid reviews" have emerged as an efficient tool to get evidence to decision-makers more quickly. However, the use of rapid reviews does present challenges. To date, there has been limited published empirical information about this approach to compiling evidence. Thus, it remains a poorly understood and ill-defined set of diverse methodologies with various labels. In recent years, the need to further explore rapid review methods, characteristics, and their use has been recognized by a growing network of healthcare researchers, policymakers, and organizations, several with ties to Cochrane, which is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high-quality, systematic reviews. In this commentary, we introduce the newly established Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group developed to play a leading role in guiding the production of rapid reviews given they are increasingly employed as a research synthesis tool to support timely evidence-informed decision-making. We discuss how the group was formed and outline the group's structure and remit. We also discuss the need to establish a more robust evidence base for rapid reviews in the published literature, and the importance of promoting registration of rapid review protocols in an effort to promote efficiency and transparency in research. As with standard systematic reviews, the core principles of evidence-based synthesis should apply to rapid reviews in order to minimize bias to the extent possible. The Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group will serve to establish a network of rapid review stakeholders and provide a forum for discussion and training. By facilitating

  15. Specified problems of consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    KRCHOVÁ, Ladislava

    2009-01-01

    Problems of consumer protection are always on the surface and they concern all of us. Consumer protection should not only be important for consumers, but for all of society as well. The aim of consumer protection is the existence of convenient consumer rights, supervisory institutions and consumer organizations. The task of these consumer organizations is giving information, advising and educating consumers. The well-educated and informed consumer will be equal partners with sellers, who are ...

  16. Brazilian Consumer views on food irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, J.H.; Barcellos, M.N.; Frewer, L.J.; Nunes, T.P.; Landgraf, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the consumer attitude to food irradiation in São Paulo, Brazil, through a qualitative research perspective. Three focus groups were conducted with 30 consumers, responsible for food choices and purchases. Both irradiated and nonirradiated food samples were served in the

  17. Researching consumers' attitudes: Some difficulties, problems and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutić Dragutin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers' attitudes have always had a central place in marketing theory and practice. There is a great number of different problems, difficulties and dilemmas, which come from different sources and have different content, and which very often arise as a stumbling block in researching consumers' attitudes. Part of them is already contained in different views on term attitudes itself. The second part lies in an unsolved puzzle of consumers' attitudes and behaviour relation. The third part is of methodological nature in research. The fourth is in usage of different, numerous techniques that researchers have at their disposal when researching attitudes. It might sound unbelievable, but since the 1960s till today, very few researchers have understood, and knew real nature of the term, essence and meaning of attitudes in marketing. There is even less of them who know how to examine attitudes and generally use adequately and productively. Attitudes belong to the most complex psychical processes. The complexity of attitudes is manifesting during the research. It is not a rarity to become convinced that important contents, such as: determining dimensions, components, sources of emerging and stability of researched attitudes are not present in attitudes' examination and research. In most cases, research results of consumers' attitudes are actually nothing more than statements about the existence of positive and negative attitudes. There is still no complex method that can be used in research. Different, essentially partial methods are being used instead, usually to investigate particular components and dimensions of consumers' attitudes. There are more groups of problems that appear in consumers' attitudes examination. For this occasion, we point out three: problems that result from lack of knowledge and not adequate understanding of attitudes; problems related to level of examinee's (consumer's consciousness of his attitude; problems emerging from

  18. Evidence from a Large Sample on the Effects of Group Size and Decision-Making Time on Performance in a Marketing Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treen, Emily; Atanasova, Christina; Pitt, Leyland; Johnson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Marketing instructors using simulation games as a way of inducing some realism into a marketing course are faced with many dilemmas. Two important quandaries are the optimal size of groups and how much of the students' time should ideally be devoted to the game. Using evidence from a very large sample of teams playing a simulation game, the study…

  19. On Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Consumer Trust in Group-purchase Tourism Websites%旅游团购网站消费者信任度模糊综合评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞世海; 严伟

    2011-01-01

    Tourist trust in group-purchase tourism website originates from tourists~ trust and its intensity in the tourist products offered by tourist service provider. For this new tourist business model of online group-purchase of tourist products prevailing in China since 2010, it is very significant and practical to evaluate customer trust in the tourist websites. This study first builds up the framework of factors affecting the customers~ trust in those websites and divides it into three layers, then evaluates the trustworthiness of these websites based on fuzzy com- prehensive evaluation by means of expert consultation and customer questionnaire survey, and finally selects a famous group-purchase tourism website as a case study to evaluate its consumer trust.%游客对旅游服务商的信任度是其在心理上对旅游服务商提供的旅游产品所产生的信任感及其强度。对于2010年在国内开始快速发展的旅游在线团购这一新兴旅游商业模式而言,通过对其产品团购的消费者信任度进行评价研究有着非常重要的现实意义。首先根据影响消费者对旅游团购网站信任度评估的因素,将旅游团购网站信任度的评价指标框架分为三个一级指标。再基于专家咨询和客户问卷调查的多层次模糊综合评价方法对旅游网站信任度进行评价。最后以某旅游团购网站为例,对其消费者信任度进行评价。

  20. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    . A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very....... The remaining consumers, about 55%, trust the institutions guaranteeing the labels and they use the labels as a signal without actually knowing the content of each label. Segment composition will probably change depending on the food group studied. It is therefore recommended that the different consumer types...

  1. Consumer Rights between Regulation and Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Gabriela Belu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated globalization of recent decades has made the world economy is becoming more integrated, strengthening the global business environment, beyond national and regional environment. This process rises new challenges for the protection of consumer rights. This paper aims to examine consumers' awareness of the rights stipulated in the existing legislation at Community and national level. To achieve this objective, a survey was conducted on a sample of 250 persons in the age group 18-30 in Bucharest, results show the need for information campaigns for consumers on their rights campaigns aimed at awareness knowledge of their consumer rights.

  2. Evolution of group I introns in Porifera: new evidence for intron mobility and implications for DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Astrid; Lopez, Jose V; Becking, Leontine E; Kelly, Michelle; Pomponi, Shirley A; Wörheide, Gert; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Cárdenas, Paco

    2017-03-20

    Mitochondrial introns intermit coding regions of genes and feature characteristic secondary structures and splicing mechanisms. In metazoans, mitochondrial introns have only been detected in sponges, cnidarians, placozoans and one annelid species. Within demosponges, group I and group II introns are present in six families. Based on different insertion sites within the cox1 gene and secondary structures, four types of group I and two types of group II introns are known, which can harbor up to three encoding homing endonuclease genes (HEG) of the LAGLIDADG family (group I) and/or reverse transcriptase (group II). However, only little is known about sponge intron mobility, transmission, and origin due to the lack of a comprehensive dataset. We analyzed the largest dataset on sponge mitochondrial group I introns to date: 95 specimens, from 11 different sponge genera which provided novel insights into the evolution of group I introns. For the first time group I introns were detected in four genera of the sponge family Scleritodermidae (Scleritoderma, Microscleroderma, Aciculites, Setidium). We demonstrated that group I introns in sponges aggregate in the most conserved regions of cox1. We showed that co-occurrence of two introns in cox1 is unique among metazoans, but not uncommon in sponges. However, this combination always associates an active intron with a degenerating one. Earlier hypotheses of HGT were confirmed and for the first time VGT and secondary losses of introns conclusively demonstrated. This study validates the subclass Spirophorina (Tetractinellida) as an intron hotspot in sponges. Our analyses confirm that most sponge group I introns probably originated from fungi. DNA barcoding is discussed and the application of alternative primers suggested.

  3. Evidence of neofunctionalization after the duplication of the highly conserved Polycomb group gene Caf1-55 in the obscura group of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Martín, Juan M; Papaceit, Montserrat; Segarra, Carmen

    2017-01-17

    Drosophila CAF1-55 protein is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex PRC2 and other protein complexes. It is a multifunctional and evolutionarily conserved protein that participates in nucleosome assembly and remodelling, as well as in the epigenetic regulation of a large set of target genes. Here, we describe and analyze the duplication of Caf1-55 in the obscura group of Drosophila. Paralogs exhibited a strong asymmetry in evolutionary rates, which suggests that they have evolved according to a neofunctionalization process. During this process, the ancestral copy has been kept under steady purifying selection to retain the ancestral function and the derived copy (Caf1-55dup) that originated via a DNA-mediated duplication event ~18 Mya, has been under clear episodic selection. Different maximum likelihood approaches confirmed the action of positive selection, in contrast to relaxed selection, on Caf1-55dup after the duplication. This adaptive process has also taken place more recently during the divergence of D. subobscura and D. guanche. The possible association of this duplication with a previously detected acceleration in the evolutionary rate of three CAF1-55 partners in PRC2 complexes is discussed. Finally, the timing and functional consequences of the Caf1-55 duplication is compared to other duplications of Polycomb genes.

  4. No evidence for a direct effect of von Willebrand factor's ABH blood group antigens on von Willebrand factor clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, D J; van Bekkum, T; Cheung, K L; Dirven, R J; Castaman, G; Reitsma, P H; van Vlijmen, B; Eikenboom, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the major determinants of von Willebrand factor (VWF) plasma levels is ABO blood group status, and individuals with blood group O have ~ 25% lower plasma levels. The exact mechanism behind this relationship remains unknown, although effects on clearance have been postulated. OBJEC

  5. Group Incentives for Teachers and Their Effects on Student Learning: A Systematic Review of Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirivayi, Nyasha; Maasen van den Brink, Henriette; Groot, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The effects of teachers' group incentives on student achievement are examined by reviewing theoretical arguments and empirical studies published between 1990 and 2011. Studies from developing countries reported positive effects of group incentives on student test scores. However, experimental studies from developed countries reported insignificant…

  6. Global market and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.

  7. A general consumer-resource population model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  8. 77 FR 5801 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... within the jurisdiction of the Commission and to facilitate the participation of all consumers in... recommendations from its Universal Service Fund Working Group regarding Lifeline Modernization and the Connect...

  9. Vulnerable Consumers in the Deregulated Dutch Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Booltink, L.; Genugten, M.L. van; Lako, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Public service deregulation is favoured for motivating providers to offer consumers better price-quality services. Consequently, consumers are enabled to make informed choices and choose for the best service provider. However, recent publications reveal that consumers are not capable of exercising optimal choice behaviour. Despite these concerns, evidence is lacking on the extent to which potentially vulnerable consumers make use of the core element of deregulation—switching health plans. Thi...

  10. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  11. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...

  12. Advancing consumer neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidts, A.; Hsu, M.; Sanfey, A.G.; Boksem, M.A.S.; Ebstein, R.P.; Huettel, S.A.; Kable, J.W.; Karmarkar, U.R.; Kitayama, S.; Knutson, B.; Liberzon, I.; Lohrenz, T.; Stallen, Mirre; Yoon, C.

    2014-01-01

    In the first decade of consumer neuroscience, strong progress has been made in understanding how neuroscience can inform consumer decision making. Here, we sketch the development of this discipline and compare it to that of the adjacent field of neuroeconomics. We describe three new frontiers for on

  13. Consumer Mathematics. Teaching Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary school. SUBJECT MATTER: Consumer mathematics including--money management, transportation, probability, swindles and gyps, insurance, housing, taxes, consumer credit, banks, savings, and investments. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into ten parallel units, one for each of the above areas, which…

  14. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  15. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    ' in risk perception research covering structure, process, and the social dynamics of risk debates. After that I will present results from a recently completed research project. In this project, we specifically looked into consumers' perceptions of gene technology applied to brewing, and how...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....

  16. Consumer's Resource Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This handbook is intended to help consumers exercise their rights in the marketplace in three ways. It shows how to communicate more effectively with manufacturers, retailers, and service providers; it is a self-help manual for resolving individual consumer complaints; and it lists helpful sources of assistance. The handbook has two sections. Part…

  17. Online consumer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The new Consumer Rights Directive introduced some changes to the level of consumers’ protection online. However, just like with its predecessor, the Distance Selling Directive, the main focus of the protection that consumers have been granted online is to provide them with transparent and salient

  18. Consumers + Questions = Confusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rise of the “Google generation”, consumers can easily access information with a simple click. Unfortunately, this information is not always accurate or honest. This can pose many problems if consumer perception of your product is swayed by erroneous information. Being able to factually a...

  19. Working for the Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabecoff, Alice

    1976-01-01

    In response to the concerns of the consumer movement, the Department of Labor (DOL) is instituting new procedures and improving existing ones to draw its clients more fully into the policy-setting and decision-making process. The Department is also adding the viewpoint of the consumer to its plans. (WL)

  20. Consumer Health: CAM Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health Don't take all CAM claims at face value. Do your homework when considering CAM therapies. By ... dose of skepticism. Federal Trade Commission. http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0167-miracle-health-claims. Accessed ...

  1. Consumer Product Safety Bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This legislative analysis of the actions of the 92nd Congress concerning consumer product safety bills, current as of March 20, 1972, presents briefly the background of Congressional investigations in this area. Describing in detail four major bills which focus on the establishment of an independent government agency regulating consumer products…

  2. Working for the Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabecoff, Alice

    1976-01-01

    In response to the concerns of the consumer movement, the Department of Labor (DOL) is instituting new procedures and improving existing ones to draw its clients more fully into the policy-setting and decision-making process. The Department is also adding the viewpoint of the consumer to its plans. (WL)

  3. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  4. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-08-07

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause.

  5. Direct observational evidence for a large transient galaxy population in groups at 0.85

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, Michael L; Wilman, David J; Finoguenov, Alexis; Parker, Laura C; Connelly, Jennifer L; Mulchaey, John S; Bower, Richard G; Tanaka, Masayuki; Giodini, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) We introduce our survey of galaxy groups at 0.8515 members. The dynamical mass estimates are in good agreement with the masses estimated from the X-ray luminosity, with most of the groups having 131E10.1 Msun, and for blue galaxies we sample masses as low as Mstar=1E8.8 Msun. Like lower-redshift groups, these systems are dominated by red galaxies, at all stellar masses Mstar>1E10.1 Msun. Few group galaxies inhabit the ``blue cloud'' that dominates the surrounding field; instead, we find a large and possibly distinct population of galaxies with intermediate colours. The ``green valley'' that exists at low redshift is instead well-populated in these groups, containing ~30 per cent of galaxies. These do not appear to be exceptionally dusty galaxies, and about half show prominent Balmer-absorption lines. Furthermore, their HST morphologies appear to be intermediate between those of red-sequence and blue-cloud galaxies of the same stellar mass. We postulate that these are a transi ent population, migrat...

  6. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause. PMID:24966311

  7. Legal physician‐assisted dying in Oregon and the Netherlands: evidence concerning the impact on patients in “vulnerable” groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Margaret P; van der Heide, Agnes; Ganzini, Linda; van der Wal, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Background Debates over legalisation of physician‐assisted suicide (PAS) or euthanasia often warn of a “slippery slope”, predicting abuse of people in vulnerable groups. To assess this concern, the authors examined data from Oregon and the Netherlands, the two principal jurisdictions in which physician‐assisted dying is legal and data have been collected over a substantial period. Methods The data from Oregon (where PAS, now called death under the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, is legal) comprised all annual and cumulative Department of Human Services reports 1998–2006 and three independent studies; the data from the Netherlands (where both PAS and euthanasia are now legal) comprised all four government‐commissioned nationwide studies of end‐of‐life decision making (1990, 1995, 2001 and 2005) and specialised studies. Evidence of any disproportionate impact on 10 groups of potentially vulnerable patients was sought. Results Rates of assisted dying in Oregon and in the Netherlands showed no evidence of heightened risk for the elderly, women, the uninsured (inapplicable in the Netherlands, where all are insured), people with low educational status, the poor, the physically disabled or chronically ill, minors, people with psychiatric illnesses including depression, or racial or ethnic minorities, compared with background populations. The only group with a heightened risk was people with AIDS. While extralegal cases were not the focus of this study, none have been uncovered in Oregon; among extralegal cases in the Netherlands, there was no evidence of higher rates in vulnerable groups. Conclusions Where assisted dying is already legal, there is no current evidence for the claim that legalised PAS or euthanasia will have disproportionate impact on patients in vulnerable groups. Those who received physician‐assisted dying in the jurisdictions studied appeared to enjoy comparative social, economic, educational, professional and other privileges. PMID

  8. Holding health providers in developing countries accountable to consumers: a synthesis of relevant scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlan, David; Shiffman, Jeremy

    2012-07-01

    Health care providers in low-income countries often treat consumers poorly. Many providers do not consider it their responsibility to listen carefully to consumer preferences, to facilitate access to care, to offer detailed information, or to treat patients with respect. A lack of provider accountability to health consumers may have adverse effects on the quality of health care they provide, and ultimately on health outcomes. This paper synthesizes relevant research on health provision in low-, middle- and high-income countries with the aim of identifying factors that shape health provider accountability to consumers, and discerning promising interventions to enhance responsiveness. Drawing on this scholarship, we develop a framework that classifies factors into two categories: those concerning the health system and those that pertain to social influences. Among the health systems factors that may shape provider accountability are oversight mechanisms, revenue sources, and the nature of competition in the health sector-all influences that may lead providers to be accountable to entities other than consumers, such as governments and donors. Among the social factors we explore are consumer power, especially information levels, and provider beliefs surrounding accountability. Evidence on factors and interventions shaping health provider accountability is thin. For this reason, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions on what works to enhance accountability. This being said, research does suggest four mechanisms that may improve provider responsiveness: 1. Creating official community participation mechanisms in the context of health service decentralization; 2. Enhancing the quality of health information that consumers receive; 3. Establishing community groups that empower consumers to take action; 4. Including non-governmental organizations in efforts to expand access to care. This synthesis reviews evidence on these and other interventions, and points to future

  9. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  10. Gender and theory of mind in preschoolers' group effort: evidence for timing differences behind children's earliest social loafing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R Bruce; Thornton, Bill

    2014-01-01

    This study explored mental state reasoning within the context of group effort and possible differences in development between boys and girls. Preschool children (59 girls, 47 boys) were assessed for theory of mind (ToM) ability using classic false belief tests. Children participated in group effort conditions that alternated from one condition, where individual effort was transparent and obvious, to one where individual effort remained anonymous. The aim was to investigate if emergent mental state reasoning, after controlling for age, was associated with the well-known phenomenon of reduced effort in group tasks ("social loafing"). Girls had slightly higher ToM scores and social loafing than boys. Hierarchical regression, controlling for age, indicated that understanding of others' false beliefs uniquely predicted social loafing and interacted weakly with gender status.

  11. Local dark energy: HST evidence from the expansion flow around Cen A/M83 galaxy group

    CERN Document Server

    Chernin, A D; Makarov, D I; Kashibadze, O G; Teerikorpi, P; Valtonen, M J; Dolgachev, V P; Domozhilova, L M

    2007-01-01

    A structure with a massive group in its center and a cool expansion outflow outside is studied around the Cen A galaxy with the use of the Hubble Space Telescope observations. It is demonstrated that the dynamics of the flow is dominated by the antigravity of the dark energy background. The density of dark energy in the cell is estimated to be near the global cosmological density. This agrees with our previous result from the neighborhood of the Local group. A notion of the ``Hubble cell'' is introduced as a building block of the local structure of the universe.

  12. Victimization among female and male sexual minority status groups: evidence from the British Crime Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Bere; Davies, Michelle; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2014-01-01

    International surveys of victims show crime rates in England and Wales, including hate crimes, are among the highest in Europe. Nevertheless, sexual minority status is a less considered risk factor in general victimization research. This study used sexual minority status and sex to predict victimization across British Crime Surveys from 2007-2010. Logistic regression analyses showed sexual minority status groups were more likely than heterosexuals to be victimized from any and some specific crimes. However, bisexuals rather than lesbians or gay men were more consistently victimized, notably by sexual attacks and within the household. Implications for understanding victimization among these groups are discussed.

  13. Measurement of Consumer Ethnocentrism of Slovak Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova; Maria Gibalova

    2014-01-01

    The conceptualization of consumer ethnocentrism is inferred from the general concept of ethnocentrism which assumes that ethnocentrism starts with the culture into which an individual is born. Over time, the individual will accept the values and behaviour of this particular culture as a norm. However, when the individual becomes aware of other cultures with different values and behaviours, there develops the need of belonging and identification with own culture rather than that of others. Whe...

  14. Invasive group A streptococcal disease in The Netherlands : Evidence for a protective role of anti-exotoxin A antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascini, EM; Jansze, M; Schellekens, JFP; Musser, JM; Faber, JAJ; Verhoef-Verhage, LAE; Schouls, L; van Leeuwen, WJ; Verhoef, J; van Dijk, H

    As part of a nationwide surveillance in The Netherlands during 1994-1997, 53 patients with invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections were evaluated for medical history, symptoms, and outcome. Patients' isolates were tested for the production of pyrogenic exotoxins A (SPE-A) and B (SPE-B).

  15. Irregular sloshing cold fronts in the nearby merging groups NGC 7618 and UGC 12491: evidence for Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Roediger, E; Machacek, M E; Forman, W R; Nulsen, P E J; Jones, C; Murray, S S

    2012-01-01

    We present results from two \\sim30 ks Chandra observations of the hot atmospheres of the merging galaxy groups centered around NGC 7618 and UGC 12491. Our images show the presence of arc-like sloshing cold fronts wrapped around each group center and \\sim100 kpc long spiral tails in both groups. Most interestingly, the cold fronts are highly distorted in both groups, exhibiting 'wings' along the fronts. These features resemble the structures predicted from non-viscous hydrodynamic simulations of gas sloshing, where Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHIs) distort the cold fronts. This is in contrast to the structure seen in many other sloshing and merger cold fronts, which are smooth and featureless at the current observational resolution. Both magnetic fields and viscosity have been invoked to explain the absence of KHIs in these smooth cold fronts, but the NGC 7618/UGC 12491 pair are two in a growing number of both sloshing and merger cold fronts that appear distorted. Magnetic fields and/or viscosity may be ab...

  16. X-Ray Evidence for Multiphase Hot Gas with Nearly Solar Fe Abundances in the Brightest Groups of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Buote, D A

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the ASCA spectra accumulated within ~100 kpc radii of 12 of the brightest groups of galaxies. Upon fitting isothermal models (1T) jointly to the ASCA SIS and GIS spectra we obtain fits for most groups that are of poor or at best marginal quality and give very sub-solar metallicities similar to previous studies, = 0.29 +/- 0.12 Z_sun. Two-temperature models (2T) provide significantly better fits for 11 out of the 12 groups and in every case have metallicities that are substantially larger than obtained for the 1T models, = 0.75 +/- 0.24 Z_sun. Although not very well constrained, for most of the groups absorption in excess of the Galactic value is indicated for the cooler temperature component of the 2T models. A simple multiphase cooling flow model gives results analogous to the 2T models including large metallicities, = 0.65 +/- 0.17 Z_sun. The nearly solar Fe abundances and also solar alpha/Fe ratios indicated by the 2T and cooling flow models are consistent with the standard models of chemical...

  17. Parent Training with High-Risk Immigrant Chinese Families: A Pilot Group Randomized Trial Yielding Practice-Based Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Fung, Joey J.; Ho, Lorinda Y.; Liu, Lisa L.; Gudino, Omar G.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the efficacy and implementation outcomes of a culturally responsive parent training (PT) program. Fifty-four Chinese American parents participated in a wait-list controlled group randomized trial (32 immediate treatment, 22 delayed treatment) of a 14-week intervention designed to address the needs of high-risk immigrant families.…

  18. J0454-0309: Evidence for a strong lensing fossil group falling into a poor galaxy cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Schirmer, Mischa; Schrabback, Tim; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Halkola, Aleksi; Erben, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered a strong lensing fossil group (J0454) at z=0.26, projected near the well-studied cluster MS0451-0305. Using multicolour Subaru/Suprime-Cam and CFHT/Megaprime imaging together with Keck spectroscopy we identify member galaxies. A VLT/FORS2 spectrum was taken to determine the redshifts of the brightest elliptical and the lensed arc. Using HST/ACS images we determine the group's weak lensing signal and model the strong lens system. This is the first time that a fossil group is analysed with lensing methods. The X-ray luminosity and temperature are derived from XMM-Newton data. We find two filaments extending over 4 Mpc, and within the virial radius we identify 31 members spectroscopically and 33 via the red sequence with i<22 mag. They segregate into spirals and a dynamically cooler central concentration of ellipticals with a velocity dispersion of 480 km/s. Weak lensing and cluster richness relations yield r200 = 830 kpc and M200 = 0.85 x 10^14 Msun. The brightest group galaxy (BGG) is inc...

  19. On the Function of Stress Rhythms in Speech: Evidence of a Link with Grouping Effects on Serial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Victor J.

    2006-01-01

    Language learning requires a capacity to recall novel series of speech sounds. Research shows that prosodic marks create grouping effects enhancing serial recall. However, any restriction on memory affecting the reproduction of prosody would limit the set of patterns that could be learned and subsequently used in speech. By implication, grouping…

  20. The Over-Education of UK Immigrants and Minority Ethnic Groups: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the incidence of over and under education and the effect on earnings for immigrants and natives who hold UK qualifications, drawn from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey 1993-2003. The paper also compares earnings penalties associated with over and under education across immigrant and minority ethnic groups for men and women. The…

  1. Invasive group A streptococcal disease in The Netherlands : Evidence for a protective role of anti-exotoxin A antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascini, EM; Jansze, M; Schellekens, JFP; Musser, JM; Faber, JAJ; Verhoef-Verhage, LAE; Schouls, L; van Leeuwen, WJ; Verhoef, J; van Dijk, H

    2000-01-01

    As part of a nationwide surveillance in The Netherlands during 1994-1997, 53 patients with invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections were evaluated for medical history, symptoms, and outcome. Patients' isolates were tested for the production of pyrogenic exotoxins A (SPE-A) and B (SPE-B). Acut

  2. Dysfunctional Consumer Behavior: Proposition of a Measurement Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Lara Marcondes Machado de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the development of a scale that can identify customers that are more prone to behave in a dysfunctional manner. Dysfunctional Consumer Behavior can negatively influence the organization profits, since this kind of consumer can generate monetary losses, such as fixing damaged pr operty. Several hypotheses are proposed based on consumer characteristics that could foster dysfunctional behavior. For this, we used an hybrid methodology, combining Churchill’s (1979 with C - OAR - SE (2002. In order to develop the scale, scenarios with dy sfunctional behaviors where constructed. Respondents were asked to rate the appropriateness of each behavior and answers a group of questions based on the hypothesis developed. The data was collected over the Internet (Amazon Turk and the statistical meth ods used for the scale development were cluster and discriminant analysis. The results showed evidence that it is possible to distinguish consumers through a discriminant function using interpersonal influence, such as aggressiveness, self - exposure, moral flexibility and machiavellianism; and personality aspects, such as dissatisfaction and acceptance.

  3. [Nutrition and Metabolism Group of the Spanish Neonatology Society: recommendations and evidence for dietary supplementation with probiotics in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbona López, E; Uberos Fernández, J; Armadá Maresca, M I; Couce Pico, M L; Rodríguez Martínez, G; Saenz de Pipaon, M

    2014-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for improving healthcare. In recent years there has been accumulating evidence on the impact of nutritional supplementation with probiotics in the very low birth weight infants. With no uniformity in microorganisms and strains used. The Spanish Neonatology Society (SENeo), through its Nutrition and Metabolism Group has undertaken to develop recommendations that will be useful as a guide for the neonatologist in this field.

  4. Consumer identification with store brands: Differences between consumers according to their brand loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rubio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Retail management of store brands (SBs has focused on achieving positioning in value and creating associations of smart or expert shopping. The result is that value-conscious consumers and market mavens are the main targets of these brands. This study proposes and contrasts empirically a theoretical model of the effect of market mavenism and value consciousness on consumer identification with SBs. We also perform a multi-group analysis based on the consumer tendency to be loyal to the brands he or she buys. Consumers who are loyal to brands are very attractive segments for firms, due to the potential benefits these consumers represent in the long term, whereas consumers with little loyalty to brands can be an attractive segment for potential benefits in the short term. The results obtained in this study show differences between these two groups. For consumers who are loyal to brands, the results stress strong identification with the SB among the most value-conscious consumers, due fundamentally to their greater disagreement with the greater functional risk of these brands as compared to manufacturer brands and due to their greater conviction of the better price-quality ratio of SBs. In consumers with little brand loyalty, we find identification with the SB among the consumers with the greatest market mavenism, as a result of their greater perception of smart or expert shopping for these brands. Significant implications for management are derived from this study.

  5. Variation in Response to Evidence-Based Group Preventive Intervention for Disruptive Behavior Problems: A View from 938 Coping Power Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Dishion, Thomas J; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Powell, Nicole P; Qu, Lixin

    2017-01-05

    Prior research suggests that under some conditions, interventions that aggregate high-risk youth may be less effective, or at worse, iatrogenic. However, group formats have considerable practical utility for delivery of preventive interventions, and thus it is crucial to understand child and therapist factors that predict which aggressive children can profit from group intervention and which do not. To address these questions we video-recorded group Coping Power intervention sessions (938 sessions), coded both leader and participant behavior, and analyzed both leader and children's behaviors in the sessions that predicted changes in teacher and parent, reports of problem behavior at 1-year follow up. The sample included 180 high-risk children (69% male) who received intervention in 30 separate Coping Power intervention groups (six children assigned per group). The evidence-based Coping Power prevention program consists of 32 sessions delivered during the 4th and 5th grade years; only the child component was used in this study. The behavioral coding system used in the analyses included two clusters of behaviors for children (positive; negative) and two for the primary group leaders (group management; clinical skills). Growth spline models suggest that high levels of children's negative behaviors predicted increases in teacher and parent rated aggressive and conduct problem behaviors during the follow-up period in the three of the four models. Therapist use of clinical skills (e.g., warmth, nonreactive) predicted less increase in children's teacher-rated conduct problems. These findings suggest the importance of clinical training in the effective delivery of evidence-based practices, particularly when working with high-risk youth in groups.

  6. Women’s Empowerment through Self-help Groups and its Impact on Health Issues: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assist. Prof. Sudipta De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an empirical study in West Bengal, this paper attempts toexamine whether women’s involvement in the microcredit programmethrough SHGs makes any positive change on women’s empowerment.From the assessment of various criteria of empowerment(power,autonomy and self-reliance, entitlement, participation and awarenessand capacity-building, the study suggests that if women participatingin the microcredit programme through SHGs sustain for some longerperiod (eight years or more, such programme might contribute tohigher level of women’s empowerment than women’s empowermentunder all types of control group. This paper also finds that women’searnings from saving and credit have positive and significant effect onnutritional status of the children of women members of SHGs and onthe protein-intake for their household compared with that of amongcontrol groups.

  7. Group-based and personalized care in an age of genomic and evidence-based medicine: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglo, Koffi N

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the philosophical and moral foundations of group-based and individualized therapy in connection with population care equality. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently modified its public health policy by seeking to enhance the efficacy and equality of care through the approval of group-specific prescriptions and doses for some drugs. In the age of genomics, when individualization of care increasingly has become a major concern, investigating the relationship between population health, stratified medicine, and personalized therapy can improve our understanding of the ethical and biomedical implications of genomic medicine. I suggest that the need to optimize population health through population substructure-sensitive research and the need to individualize care through genetically targeted therapies are not necessarily incompatible. Accordingly, the article reconceptualizes a unified goal for modern scientific medicine in terms of individualized equal care.

  8. Status, challenges and facilitators of consumer involvement in Australian health and medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis Afaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergent international practice of involving consumers in health research is driven, in part, by the growing share of health research that can only be applied in and emerge from knowledge that is shaped by human values and societal contexts. This is the first investigation of its kind to identify the current prevalence, challenges, enabling factors and range of approaches to consumer involvement in health and medical research in Australia. Methods A nation-wide survey of research funding organisations and organisations that conduct research was performed during 2008-2009. Results Marked variation in consumer involvement experience and perceptions exists between research funders and researchers. Research funders were over eight times more likely than organisations conducting research to involve consumers in identifying research needs and prioritising research topics. Across both groups, practical and time constraints were reported as key challenges to involving consumers, while guidelines on consumer involvement and evidence of effect were the most important potential enablers. More than a third of research organisations indicated that when consumer involvement was a condition of research funding, it was an important facilitator of involvement. Conclusion It is no longer simply enough to keep society informed of important scientific breakthroughs. If Australian health research is to take into account important social contexts and consequences, it must involve consumers. A set of minimum consumer involvement standards and associated guidelines, that are agreed and routinely adopted, could ensure that consumers and the Australian community they represent, are given an opportunity to shed light on experiences and local circumstance, and express views and concerns relevant to health research.

  9. Quantifying consumer portion control practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spence, M.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Stancu, Violeta;

    2015-01-01

    ) examine how the usage of portion control practices predicts the estimated consumption of an energy dense food (i.e. pizza). Twenty-two portion control practices were rated in terms of their frequency of use from ‘never’ to ‘very often’ by a representative sample of 1012 consumers from the island......, while this study demonstrates that the reported use of portion control practices is low, the findings provide preliminary evidence for their validity. Further studies are needed to explore how portion control practices are used in different kinds of portion size decisions and what their contribution...

  10. J0454-0309: evidence of a strong lensing fossil group falling into a poor galaxy cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Suyu, S.; Schrabback, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Erben, T.; Halkola, A.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: We have discovered a strong lensing fossil group (J0454) projected near the well-studied cluster MS0451-0305. Using the large amount of available archival data, we compare J0454 to normal groups and clusters. A highly asymmetric image configuration of the strong lens enables us to study the substructure of the system. Methods: We used multicolour Subaru/Suprime-Cam and CFHT/Megaprime imaging, together with Keck spectroscopy to identify member galaxies. A VLT/FORS2 spectrum was taken to determine the redshifts of the brightest elliptical and the lensed arc. Using HST/ACS images, we determined the group's weak lensing signal and modelled the strong lens system. This is the first time that a fossil group is analysed with lensing methods. The X-ray luminosity and temperature were derived from XMM-Newton data. Results: J0454 is located at z = 0.26, with a gap of 2.5 mag between the brightest and second brightest galaxies within half the virial radius. Outside a radius of 1.5 Mpc, we find two filaments extending over 4 Mpc, and within we identify 31 members spectroscopically and 33 via the red sequence with i instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  11. Conformation of a group 2 late embryogenesis abundant protein from soybean. Evidence of poly (L-proline)-type II structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulages, Jose L; Kim, Kangmin; Arrese, Estela L; Walters, Christina; Cushman, John C

    2003-03-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are members of a large group of hydrophilic, glycine-rich proteins found in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria known collectively as hydrophilins that are preferentially expressed in response to dehydration or hyperosmotic stress. Group 2 LEA (dehydrins or responsive to abscisic acid) proteins are postulated to stabilize macromolecules against damage by freezing, dehydration, ionic, or osmotic stress. However, the structural and physicochemical properties of group 2 LEA proteins that account for such functions remain unknown. We have analyzed the structural properties of a recombinant form of a soybean (Glycine max) group 2 LEA (rGmDHN1). Differential scanning calorimetry of purified rGmDHN1 demonstrated that the protein does not display a cooperative unfolding transition upon heating. Ultraviolet absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the protein is in a largely hydrated and unstructured conformation in solution. However, ultraviolet absorption and circular dichroism measurements collected at different temperatures showed that the protein exists in equilibrium between two extended conformational states: unordered and left-handed extended helical or poly (L-proline)-type II structures. It is estimated that 27% of the residues of rGmDHN1 adopt or poly (L-proline)-type II-like helical conformation at 12 degrees C. The content of extended helix gradually decreases to 15% as the temperature is increased to 80 degrees C. Studies of the conformation of the protein in solution in the presence of liposomes, trifluoroethanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate indicated that rGmDHN1 has a very low intrinsic ability to adopt alpha-helical structure and to interact with phospholipid bilayers through amphipathic alpha-helices. The ability of the protein to remain in a highly extended conformation at low temperatures could constitute the basis of the functional role of GmDHN1 in the prevention of freezing, desiccation

  12. SPORT CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftime Dragoș Adrian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Without any doubt, sport has become a major consumer market, either we discuss about practicing any kind of sport at professional or amateur level, or we are just interested by a competition, sport organization or an athlete as a regular consumer. From this last perspective, we can distinguish between two types of behaviors, respectively the spectator and the supporter or fan. Each of these two typologies has its own characteristics which define, in a significant manner, the consumer behavior. A correct understanding and management of this phenomenon, of the factors that influence the attitudes and the decisions taken by the respective consumer, of the display manner for the consumer behavior have a major importance from the management and marketing point of view. This paper focuses on the football consumer and describes, first of all, the main characteristics of each of the typologies mentioned above from this perspective, presenting also the reasons for their transition from passive supporter to fan. Another issue we approach in the current paper refers to the changes appeared in the consumer behavior when the market segment is represented by those supporters whose teams are either relegated or liquidated, which is a global phenomenon in the football area. Having in mind this aspect and taking into consideration the influence of media (TV, press, Internet, social media etc, some individual benchmarks that influence those consumer’s behavior are identified within the context of the general typologies previously mentioned. These influences help the consumer to obtain benefits or satisfaction similar to those already lost. The findings may be used in further research focused on that particular market segment and could provide the necessary support data for further development of proper techniques and tools for reshaping and changing the respective consumer behavior.

  13. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation......This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  14. Cultural Activation of Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary

    2016-02-01

    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  15. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...... become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community...

  16. The effect of Self-Help Groups on access to maternal health services: evidence from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somen; Annear, Peter Leslie; Pathak, Swati

    2013-05-28

    The main challenge for achieving universal health coverage in India is ensuring effective coverage of poor and vulnerable communities in the face of high levels of income and gender inequity in access to health care. Drawing on the social capital generated through women's participation in community organizations like SHGs can influence health outcomes. To date, evidence about the impact of SHGs on health outcomes has been derived from pilot-level interventions, some using randomised controlled trials and other rigorous methods. While the evidence from these studies is convincing, our study is the first to analyse the impact of SHGs at national level. We analyzed the entire dataset from the third national District Level Household Survey from 601 districts in India to assess the impact of the presence of SHGs on maternal health service uptake. The primary predictor variable was presence of a SHG in the village. The outcome variables were: institutional delivery; feeding newborns colostrum; knowledge about family planning methods; and ever used family planning. We controlled for respondent education, wealth, heard or seen health messages, availability of health facilities and the existence of a village health and sanitation committee. Stepwise logistic regression shows respondents from villages with a SHG were 19 per cent (OR: 1.19, CI: 1.13-1.24) more likely to have delivered in an institution, 8 per cent (OR: 1.08, CI: 1.05-1.14) more likely to have fed newborns colostrum, have knowledge (OR: 1.48, CI 1.39 - 1.57) and utilized (OR: 1.19, CI 1.11 - 1.27) family planning products and services. These results are significant after controlling for individual and village-level heterogeneities and are consistent with existing literature that the social capital generated through women's participation in SHGs influences health outcome. The study concludes that the presence of SHGs in a village is associated with higher knowledge of family planning and maternal health service

  17. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLellan Deborah L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758 were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy.

  18. Evidence for an initiation of the methanol-to-olefin process by reactive surface methoxy groups on acidic zeolite catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Buchholz, Andreas; Seiler, Michael; Hunger, Michael

    2003-12-10

    Recent progress reveals that, in the methanol-to-olefin (MTO) process on acidic zeolites, the conversion of an equilibrium mixture of methanol and DME is dominated by a "hydrocarbon pool" mechanism. However, the initial C-C bond formation, that is, the chemistry during the kinetic "induction period" leading to the reactive hydrocarbon pool, still remains unclear. With the application of a stopped-flow protocol, in the present work, pure surface methoxy groups [SiO(CH(3))Al] were prepared on various acidic zeolite catalysts (H-Y, H-ZSM-5, H-SAPO-34) at temperatures lower than 473 K, and the further reaction of these methoxy species was investigated by in situ (13)C MAS NMR spectroscopy. By using toluene and cyclohexane as probe molecules which are possibly involved in the MTO process, we show the high reactivity of surface methoxy species. Most importantly, the formation of hydrocarbons from pure methoxy species alone is demonstrated for the first time. It was found that (i) surface methoxy species react at room temperature with water to methanol, indicating the occurrence of a chemical equilibrium between these species at low temperatures. In the presence of aromatics and alkanes, (ii) the reactivity of surface methoxy groups allows a methylation of these organic compounds at reaction temperatures of ca. 433 and 493 K, respectively. In the absence of water and other organic species, that is, under flow conditions and on partially methylated catalysts, (iii) a conversion of pure methoxy groups alone to hydrocarbons was observed at temperatures of T >/= 523 K. This finding indicates a possible formation of the first hydrocarbons during the kinetic induction period of the MTO process via the conversion of pure surface methoxy species (case iii). After the first hydrocarbons are formed, or in the presence of a small amount of organic impurities, surface methoxy groups contribute to a further methylation of these organic compounds (case ii), leading to the formation of

  19. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more. Find answers to common questions Reach your financial goals For the big financial decisions in your life, we offer free tools ... 2016 Events Field hearing on consumer access to financial records in Salt Lake City, Utah NOV 03, ...

  20. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results...... of involvement with beef consumption. Fulfillment and pleasantness were found to be positive emotions expected in special beef consumption situations. Relevant multicultural data were obtained. Segmented marketing campaigns and sales efforts can be market-driven towards consumers' needs and expectations....... indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  1. Gambling: A Consumer Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makela, Carole J.; Tucker, Suzanne

    1993-01-01

    Focuses upon gambling, the twelfth largest industry in the United States, and its impact on families. Discusses the history of gambling, the cost of gambling, and the growth of lotteries. Suggests issues for consumer professionals to explore. (JOW)

  2. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  3. CONFIDENCE FOR CONSUMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Government tightens regulation on food additives in response to safety concerns after several food safety scandals were brought to light When buying food these days,Chinese consumers become nervous at the mere mention of

  4. Consumer responses to ecolabels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Haugaard, Pernille; Olesen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a framework for understanding consumer responses to ecolabelling. Design/methodology/approach - From a consumer perspective, ecolabels are tools for supporting decision making with regard to environmentally significant products. The paper...... proposes an adoption of innovation framework for understanding consumer responses. The framework is applied in a mall-intercept survey of the early adoption of a new ecolabel, the MSC label for sustainable fishery, in Denmark. Findings - Early adopters of a new ecolabel mostly employ a high effort adoption...... process. Starting the adoption process depends on both motivation (intention to buy sustainable fish products) and ability (issue-relevant knowledge). Whether and how quickly the consumer completes the adoption depends on his or her motivation, past experience with using ecolabels, and trust...

  5. Consumer responses to ecolabels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Haugaard, Pernille; Olesen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a framework for understanding consumer responses to ecolabelling. Design/methodology/approach - From a consumer perspective, ecolabels are tools for supporting decision making with regard to environmentally significant products. The paper...... process. Starting the adoption process depends on both motivation (intention to buy sustainable fish products) and ability (issue-relevant knowledge). Whether and how quickly the consumer completes the adoption depends on his or her motivation, past experience with using ecolabels, and trust...... proposes an adoption of innovation framework for understanding consumer responses. The framework is applied in a mall-intercept survey of the early adoption of a new ecolabel, the MSC label for sustainable fishery, in Denmark. Findings - Early adopters of a new ecolabel mostly employ a high effort adoption...

  6. 291__Kazeem_consumer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ASSESSMENT OF CONSUMERS' PREFERENCE TO THE USE OF GARLIC AND. CINNAMON OILS ... into other products such as low moisture food Kilishi. The use of garlic ... temperature is fast making it a house-hold name in. Nigeria and ...

  7. Online grocery retailing: What do consumers think?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Kim Bjarne; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2005-01-01

    Kingdom and three in Denmark, were conducted among consumers with different degrees of experience with internet grocery shopping. This diversification of respondents was chosen to capture a broad range of the consumer beliefs that predict intentions to buy groceries online or not. The TPB framework...... of consumers in an underperforming and understudied branch of internet retailing. Barriers in the consumers' minds to shop for groceries online are identified using an established theoretical framework.......Purpose: To use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework to explore in depth the range of beliefs held by consumers about internet shopping in general and internet grocery shopping in particular. Design/methodology/approach: Seven focus group interviews, four in the United...

  8. Consumer behavior changing: methods of evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elīna Gaile-Sarkane

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methods of analyses of consumer buying behavior as well as to evaluation of most important factors what influences consumer behavior. This research aims at investigations about the changes in consumer behavior caused by globalization and development of information technologies; it helps to understand the specific factors what should be taken into account in evaluation of consumer behavior. The authors employ well-established quantitative and qualitative methods of research: grouping, analysis, synthesis, expert method, statistic method, etc. Research findings disclosed that there is possibility to introduce new methods for evaluation of changing consumer behavior.

  9. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... and analysed possible segments in the market. Results show that the statistical model used identified two segments - a segment of so-called "fish lovers" and another segment called "traditionalists". The "fish lovers" are very fond of eating fish and they actually prefer fish to other dishes...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...

  10. Students' online collaborative intention for group projects: Evidence from an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eddie W L; Chu, Samuel K W

    2016-08-01

    Given the increasing use of web technology for teaching and learning, this study developed and examined an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model, which explained students' intention to collaborate online for their group projects. Results indicated that past experience predicted the three antecedents of intention, while past behaviour was predictive of subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Moreover, the three antecedents (attitude towards e-collaboration, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control) were found to significantly predict e-collaborative intention. This study explored the use of the "remember" type of awareness (i.e. past experience) and evaluated the value of the "know" type of awareness (i.e. past behaviour) in the TPB model.

  11. An evidence-based group coping intervention for women living with HIV and history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Eve S; Kochman, Arlene; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2011-01-01

    Women living with HIV/AIDS and a history of childhood sexual abuse often exhibit sexual trauma symptoms and elevated rates of HIV-risk behaviors. In this paper, we describe a coping skills group intervention that reduced traumatic stress and sexual-risk behavior in a recent randomized clinical trial. We focused on clinical issues that emerged among female participants receiving the intervention. Clinical observations showed that recognizing connections between trauma, psychological distress, and high risk behaviors was a new and powerful experience for many participants. Participants successfully applied psychoeducational material, expressing an increased sense of power and control over their relationships and behaviors as they developed more adaptive cognitive and behavioral skills. Women expressed high levels of satisfaction with the intervention. Recommendations for clinical practice are provided.

  12. Quality of life, social position and occupational groups in Brazil: evidence from a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Sorio Flor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether occupation, variable that reflects social position, is associated with good quality of life among Brazilians. It is a cross-sectional study based on data obtained from a population-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2008. The sample composed of 12,423 Brazilians, older than 20 years. Physical and mental quality of life were both measured by SF-36 and scores were grouped in "above the mean" and "below the mean" to set binary outcomes. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to verify the impact of occupational position on the chances of better physical and mental quality of life, controlling it by socio-demographic and health variables. Results showed that Brazilians included on the labour market have better chances of a good physical and mental quality of life, even if controlled by other variables.

  13. Structures and dynamics of transnational cooperation networks: evidence based on Local Action Groups in the Veneto Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pisani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the structures and dynamics of transnational cooperation projects promoted by Local Action Groups (LAGs in different periods (from LEADER II to LEADER Axis using Social Network Analysis (SNA in a specific case study: the Veneto Region in Italy. The classical indexes of SNA have been critically examined, and the paper also presents innovative indexes that can capture the peculiarity of transnational cooperation: disaggregated densities of the network and transnational centrality of the node. These indexes are useful in order to quantify how transnational a network actually is, and to measure the power-information that each actor (LAG can acquire through its transnational contacts. The methodology can become a tool for Managing Authorities to implement new forms of evaluation of transnational cooperation of LAGs.

  14. Sub-volcanic development of kimberlite pipes: Evidence from the Lace and Voorspoed (Group II) kimberlites, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Skinner, E. Michael W.

    2013-12-01

    The Lace and Voorspoed kimberlites occur on the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa), and form part of the Kroonstad Group II kimberlite (orangeite) cluster. The Lace kimberlite is composed of a main pipe and a satellite blind pipe, the latter of which does not reach the current land surface (~ 30 m below the current land surface), and is not observed connecting with the main pipe at depth. The main pipe increases in size from ~ 100 m to ~ 250 m in diameter at depth. The Voorspoed kimberlite pipe is the largest of the cluster and is dominantly infilled with massive layers (up to 200 m thick) of resedimented volcaniclastic kimberlite (RVK). Coherent kimberlite (CK), identified at all three pipes, is described here in order to constrain their formation.

  15. Reexamining the validity and reliability of the clinical version of the Iowa gambling task: Evidence from a normal subject group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung eLin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Over past decade, the Iowa gambling task (IGT has been utilized to test various decision deficits induced by neurological damage or psychiatric disorders. The IGT has recently been standardized for identifying 13 different neuropsychological disorders. Neuropsychological patients choose bad decks frequently, and normal subjects prefer good EV decks. However, the IGT has several validity and reliability problems. Some research groups have pointed out that the validity of IGT is influenced by the personality and emotional state of subjects. Additionally, several other studies have proposed that the prominent deck B phenomenon (PDB phenomenon – that is, normal subjects preferring bad deck B – may be the most serious problem confronting IGT validity. Specifically, deck B offers a high frequency of gains but negative EV. In the standard IGT administration, choice behavior can be understood with reference to gain-loss frequency (GLF rather than inferred future consequences (EV, the basic assumption of IGT. Furthermore, using two different criteria (basic assumption vs. professional norm results in significantly different classification results. Therefore, we recruited 72 normal subjects to test the validity and reliability of IGT. Each subject performed three runs of the computer-based clinical IGT version. The PDB phenomenon has been observed to a significant degree in the first and second stages of the clinical IGT version. Obviously, validity, reliability and the practice effect were unstable between two given stages. The present form of the clinical IGT version has only one stage, so its use should be reconsidered for examining normal decision makers; results from patient groups must also be interpreted with great care. GLF could be the main factor to be considered in establishing the constructional validity and reliability of the clinical IGT version.

  16. A generalised model for individualising a treatment recommendation based on group-level evidence from randomised clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Maura; Sinclair, John C

    2013-08-13

    Randomised controlled trials report group-level treatment effects. However, an individual patient confronting a treatment decision needs to know whether that person's expected treatment benefit will exceed the expected treatment harm. We describe a flexible model for individualising a treatment decision. It individualises group-level results from randomised trials using clinical prediction guides. We constructed models that estimate the size of individualised absolute risk reduction (ARR) for the target outcome that is required to offset individualised absolute risk increase (ARI) for the treatment harm. Inputs to the model include estimates for the individualised predicted absolute treatment benefit and harm, and the relative value assigned by the patient to harm/benefit. A decision rule recommends treatment when the predicted benefit exceeds the predicted harm, value-adjusted. We also derived expressions for the maximum treatment harm, or the maximum relative value for harm/benefit, above which treatment would not be recommended. For the simpler model, including one kind of benefit and one kind of harm, the individualised ARR required to justify treatment was expressed as required ARRtarget(i)=ARIharm(i) × RVharm/target(i). A complex model was also developed, applicable to treatments causing multiple kinds of benefits and/or harms. We demonstrated the applicability of the models to treatments tested in superiority trials (either placebo or active control, either fixed harm or variable harm) and non-inferiority trials. Individualised treatment recommendations can be derived using a model that applies clinical prediction guides to the results of randomised trials in order to identify which individual patients are likely to derive a clinically important benefit from the treatment. The resulting individualised prediction-based recommendations require validation by comparison with strategies of treat all or treat none.

  17. Is consumer confidence an indicator of JSE performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Solanki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While most studies examine the impact of business confidence on market performance, we instead focus on the consumer because consumer spending habits are a natural extension of trading activity on the equity market. This particular study examines investor sentiment as measured by the Consumer Confidence Index in South Africa and its effect on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE. We employ Granger causality tests to investigate the relationship across time between the Consumer Confidence Index and market performance. The results show weak evidence of a contemporaneous relationship; however, significant evidence of a Granger caused relationship is apparent. Further, changes in investor sentiment Granger-cause changes in the two indices used, generally with a lag of 9 and 12 months, but not vice versa. Thus, we find that Consumer Confidence leads JSE performance during our sample period. Our research provides evidence contradicting the common perception of consumer confidence lagging market performance, particularly in the South African context.

  18. Working group reports: evaluation of the evidence to support practice guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants-the Pre-B Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Steiber, Alison L; Carlson, Susan E; Griffin, Ian; Anderson, Diane; Hay, William W; Robins, Sandra; Neu, Josef; Georgieff, Michael K; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Fenton, Tanis R

    2016-02-01

    The "Evaluation of the Evidence to Support Practice Guidelines for the Nutritional Care of Preterm Infants: The Pre-B Project" is the first phase in a process to present the current state of knowledge and to support the development of evidence-informed guidance for the nutritional care of preterm and high-risk newborn infants. The future systematic reviews that will ultimately provide the underpinning for guideline development will be conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Library (EAL). To accomplish the objectives of this first phase, the Pre-B Project organizers established 4 working groups (WGs) to address the following themes: 1) nutrient specifications for preterm infants, 2) clinical and practical issues in enteral feeding of preterm infants, 3) gastrointestinal and surgical issues, and 4) current standards of infant feeding. Each WG was asked to 1) develop a series of topics relevant to their respective themes, 2) identify questions for which there is sufficient evidence to support a systematic review process conducted by the EAL, and 3) develop a research agenda to address priority gaps in our understanding of the role of nutrition in health and development of preterm/neonatal intensive care unit infants. This article is a summary of the reports from the 4 Pre-B WGs.

  19. Geophysical evidence for a major palaeochannel within the Obosum Group of the Volta Basin, Northern Region, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessell, Mark; Boamah, Kwame; Duodu, John Agyei; Ley-Cooper, Yusen

    2015-12-01

    We have identified a 230 km long palaeochannel cutting through the sediments of the Obosum Group within the Volta Basin, Ghana. The channel is visible in regional airborne magnetic data as a pair of parallel magnetic anomalies which we interpret to be lateral terrace placer deposits of magnetite or maghemite and show both meandering and braided geometries. The palaeochannel is also visible in the airborne radiometric data for part of its length, as well as in airborne electromagnetic data, where it is marked by a zone of low conductivity. The meanders have a wavelength of around 20 km and together with the 2 km spacing between magnetic anomalies, suggest a major palaeo-river system, of as yet unknown age, although based on published detrital zircon ages for the host sediments and geomorphological arguments it is probably between 509 ± 68 and 45 Ma, and is comparable in size to the modern-day Niger River. Given the known occurrences of alluvial gold and diamonds in Ghana, and the general prospectivity of meandering and braided rivers systems, we believe the region has exploration potential for a range of economically valuable minerals, and could also potentially host a shallow aquifer.

  20. Osmium isotope evidence for a crustal origin of platinum group elements in the Sudbury nickel ore, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickin, A. P.; Richardson, J. M.; Crocket, J. H.; McNutt, R. H.; Peredery, W. V.

    1992-09-01

    Sulphide ores from the International Nickel Company's (INCO) Creighton Mine, Sudbury, were analysed for osmium isotope ratios by ICP-MS. Rhenium and osmium abundances were determined by isotope dilution using a mixed spike in solid solution in a nickel sulphide matrix. Calculated initial 187Os /188Os ratios at 1.85 Ga (the emplacement age of the Sudbury complex) cluster around 0.60. The occurrence of less radiogenic compositions is attributed to post-emplacement, open-system behaviour of the Re/Os system. The Creighton results strongly overlap the initial ratios of published osmium data from two other Sudbury mines, suggesting a narrow range of isotope ratio in the original ore, within the range of estimated osmium isotope compositions in the country rock at 1.85 Ga, using published and new data. Therefore, the sulphide ores of the Sudbury complex can have an entirely crustal source without a mantle-derived contribution. This conclusion is consistent with published neodymium isotope data for the complex and supports the meteorite impact hypothesis, since this is the most effective means of fusing the large quantity of crustal rocks necessary to generate the complex. The extraction of platinum group elements (PGE) from this silicate melt by a nickel sulphide liquid was probably analogous to the laboratory fire assay procedure.

  1. Molecular evidence of potential novel spotted fever group rickettsiae, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in Amblyomma ticks parasitizing wild snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Tay, Sun Tee

    2015-02-19

    Amblyomma ticks parasitize a wide range of animals in tropical regions. This study describes the identification of Amblyomma ticks from wild snakes in Malaysia and the detection of potential human pathogens such as Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and bartonellae in the ticks. Twenty one adult ticks (twelve A. varanense and nine Amblyomma helvolum ticks) identified from seven Python molurus snakes in Sepang and a pool of six A. helvolum ticks from a Naja sumatrana snake in Johore, Malaysia were investigated in this study. Amplification of the citrate synthase (gltA), 190-kDa surface antigen gene (ompA), 135-kDa surface antigen (ompB) and surface cell antigen (sca4) genes followed by sequence analysis confirmed the presence of two potential novel spotted fever group rickettsiae in the ticks. Candidatus Rickettsia sepangensis from an engorged A. varanense tick demonstrated high sequence similarity to Rickettsia tamurae; while Candidatus Rickettsia johorensis from two samples (individual and pooled) of A. helvolum and two A. varanense ticks were closely related to Rickettsia raoultii. Anaplasma and Ehrlichia DNA were detected from seven and two ticks, respectively. No bartonellae was detected from any of the ticks. The finding in this study suggests that Amblyomma ticks parasitizing wild snakes may serve as reservoir hosts and carriers for rickettsioses, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in this region.

  2. Evidence summary: why is access to dental care for frail elderly people worse than for other groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caines, Beth

    2010-02-13

    In August 2009, members of the newly redeveloped Primary Care Dentistry Research Forum (http://www.dentistryresearch.org) took part in an online vote to identify questions in day-to-day practice that they felt most needed to be answered with conclusive research. The question which received the most votes formed the subject of a critical appraisal of the relevant literature. Each month a new round of voting will take place to decide which further questions will be reviewed. Dental practitioners and dental care professionals are encouraged to take part in the voting and submit their own questions to be included in the vote by joining the website.This paper details a summary of the findings of the first critical appraisal. In conclusion, the critical appraisal has identified that primary research is needed to look at the subject of access to dental care for frail elderly people. Similar barriers to accessing care for this group of people are still being reported today as they were 20 years ago.

  3. Effects of milk type and consumer factors on the acceptance of milk among Korean female consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seo-Jin

    2009-08-01

    Despite an overall increase in the consumption of milk products, the consumption of plain processed milk in South Korea is decreasing. One of the major reasons for this phenomenon is that consumers in Korea find the taste of plain milk unpalatable. The principal objective of this study was to identify the internal and external drivers of liking for milk among Korean consumers. The results of descriptive analysis (Chung and others 2008) were correlated to the results of consumer taste tests to identify the sensory characteristics that positively and negatively affect consumers' liking of milk. Consumers' health and food-related attitudes were surveyed as well as their daily milk consumption patterns to investigate the effects of these attitudes and consumption patterns on the liking for various types of milk. Consumers' liking of milk samples was positively correlated with sweetness, sweet cream flavor, and smooth texture. Grassy odor, raw milk flavor, artificial milk flavor, and rancid flavor were the negative drivers of liking. Consumers who frequently drink plain processed milk, in particular, preferred the UHT-processed whole milk samples, whereas infrequent drinkers preferred lactose-free milk samples. Consumers with strong food neophobic tendency significantly rated lower than consumers with weak tendency for most of the liking categories and some of the attribute intensities. Finally, when the consumers were grouped based on their common preference for milk samples, plain processed milk consumption frequency was the major determinant affecting the preference for milk.

  4. Evidence for transitional stages in the evolution of euglenid group II introns and twintrons in the Monomorphina aenigmatica plastid genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Pombert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic euglenids acquired their plastid by secondary endosymbiosis of a prasinophyte-like green alga. But unlike its prasinophyte counterparts, the plastid genome of the euglenid Euglena gracilis is riddled with introns that interrupt almost every protein-encoding gene. The atypical group II introns and twintrons (introns-within-introns found in the E. gracilis plastid have been hypothesized to have been acquired late in the evolution of euglenids, implying that massive numbers of introns may be lacking in other taxa. This late emergence was recently corroborated by the plastid genome sequences of the two basal euglenids, Eutreptiella gymnastica and Eutreptia viridis, which were found to contain fewer introns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain further insights into the proliferation of introns in euglenid plastids, we have characterized the complete plastid genome sequence of Monomorphina aenigmatica, a freshwater species occupying an intermediate phylogenetic position between early and late branching euglenids. The M. aenigmatica UTEX 1284 plastid genome (74,746 bp, 70.6% A+T, 87 genes contains 53 intron insertion sites, of which 41 were found to be shared with other euglenids including 12 of the 15 twintron insertion sites reported in E. gracilis. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of insertion sites suggests an ongoing but uneven process of intron gain in the lineage, with perhaps a minimum of two bursts of rapid intron proliferation. We also identified several sites that represent intermediates in the process of twintron evolution, where the external intron is in place, but not the internal one, offering a glimpse into how these convoluted molecular contraptions originate.

  5. Nonclassical dynamics of the methyl group in 1,1,1-triphenylethane. Evidence from powder 1H NMR spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Osior, Agnieszka

    2017-03-14

    According to the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory, hindered rotation of methyl groups, evidenced in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) line shapes, is a nonclassical process. It comprises a number of quantum-rate processes measured by two different quantum-rate constants. The classical jump model employing only one rate constant is reproduced if these quantum constants happen to be equal. The values of their ratio, or the nonclassicallity coefficient, determined hitherto from NMR spectra of single crystals and solutions range from about 1.20 to 1.30 in the latter case to above 5.0 in the former, with the value of 1 corresponding to the jump model. Presently, first systematic investigations of the DQR effects in wide-line NMR spectra of a powder sample are reported. For 1,1,1-triphenylethane deuterated in the aromatic positions, the relevant line-shape effects were monitored in the range 99–121 K. The values of the nonclassicality coefficient dropping from 2.7 to 1.7 were evaluated in line shape fits to the experimental powder spectra from the range 99–108 K. At these temperatures, the fits with the conventional line-shape model are visibly inferior to the DQR fits. Using a theoretical model reported earlier, a semiquantitative interpretation of the DQR parameters evaluated from the spectra is given. It is shown that the DQR effects as such can be detected in wide-line NMR spectra of powdered samples, which are relatively facile to measure. However, a fully quantitative picture of these effects can only be obtained from the much more demanding experiments on single crystals.

  6. Training Consumer Educators: A Curriculum and Program Handbook. A Report on the Experience of the Consumer Law Training Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Law School, NY. Consumer Law Training Center.

    Information is presented on the administration of consumer education programs to train teachers and community group leaders who will be teaching consumer education in their own communities. Suggestions and examples are based on experience in creating and teaching such a program in consumer law in New York City. The first three chapters give…

  7. Training Consumer Educators: A Curriculum and Program Handbook. A Report on the Experience of the Consumer Law Training Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Law School, NY. Consumer Law Training Center.

    Information is presented on the administration of consumer education programs to train teachers and community group leaders who will be teaching consumer education in their own communities. Suggestions and examples are based on experience in creating and teaching such a program in consumer law in New York City. The first three chapters give…

  8. Consumer perceptions of nanotechnology applications in Italian wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chiodo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Italian consumer acceptance of nanotechnology applications in wine production, surveying wine consumers from the Abruzzo Region. Conjoint and post-hoc segmentation analysis establishes how consumers value different wine product attributes and place them within the context of applications of nanotechnology. Consumers appear relatively unfamiliar with nanotechnology applications, both generally and specifically to food. Although, an overall rejection of the concept of “nano wine” is evident, low acceptance scores disguise a somewhat more open attitude to specific applications of the technology. In particular, consumers appear more receptive to applications that enhance certain wine attributes. Practical implications are discussed.

  9. Overcoming the challenges to consumer involvement in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Tony; Wilde, David; Hunt, John; Ahmedzai, Sam H

    2003-01-01

    Introduction  Within the last decade, there have been many government initiatives to promote consumer involvement in research, especially in cancer. At the same time, the number and influence of consumer groups themselves have expanded. However, the organizational infrastructure necessary to facilitate consumer involvement has not been developed. Consequently, consumer involvement has tended to remain essentially localized and project driven, with no strategic or regional lead.

  10. Status of Austro-Asiatic groups in the peopling of India: An exploratory study based on the available prehistoric, linguistic and biological evidences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikrant Kumar; B Mohan Reddy

    2003-06-01

    Among the most contentious currently debated issues is about the people who had settled first in the Indian subcontinent. It has been suggested that the communities affiliated to the Austro-Asiatic linguistic family are perhaps the first to settle in India and the palaeoanthropological evidences suggest the earliest settlement probably around 60,000 years BP. Recent speculations, based on both traditional genetic markers and DNA markers, seem to corroborate the aforesaid view. However, these studies are inadequate both in terms of the representation of the constituent groups within this broad linguistic category as well as the number of samples that represent each of them. We strongly feel that, before making any formidable conclusions on the peopling of India and/or the history of settlement, it is necessary to ascertain that the Austro-Asiatic speakers, represented by over 30 different tribal groups, either genetically constitute a homogenous single entity or are a heterogeneous conglomeration, derived from different sources. As a first step towards this we tried to collate and analyse the existing information – geographic, ethno-historic, cultural and biological. The results of the analyses of anthropometric and genetic marker data indicate that the Austro-Asiatic groups, particularly the Mundari speakers, with certain exceptions, show greater homogeneity among them when compared to the other linguistic groups, although certain groups show as outliers. However, traditional genetic markers show lower within population heterozygosity compared to Dravidian and other Indian populations. This is contrary to what has been claimed in case of certain DNA markers. Given that relatively greater heterozygosity among the Austro-Asiatic populations has been taken as one of the important evidences supporting greater antiquity of these populations one should await results of detailed DNA studies being currently undertaken by us, involving a number of Austro-Asiatic and other

  11. CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi S

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing internet literacy, the prospect of online marketing is increasing. There are millions of people online any time and they all are a potential consumer in the online market. Since there are so many providers, the most important thing for organizations is to understand what are consumer wants and needs in this competitive business environment. Customer buying behaviors are influenced by different factors such as culture, social class, references group relation, family, salary...

  12. Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations I: Critical appraisal of existing approaches The GRADE Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schünemann Holger

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of approaches have been used to grade levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations. The use of many different approaches detracts from one of the main reasons for having explicit approaches: to concisely characterise and communicate this information so that it can easily be understood and thereby help people make well-informed decisions. Our objective was to critically appraise six prominent systems for grading levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations as a basis for agreeing on characteristics of a common, sensible approach to grading levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations. Methods Six prominent systems for grading levels of evidence and strength of recommendations were selected and someone familiar with each system prepared a description of each of these. Twelve assessors independently evaluated each system based on twelve criteria to assess the sensibility of the different approaches. Systems used by 51 organisations were compared with these six approaches. Results There was poor agreement about the sensibility of the six systems. Only one of the systems was suitable for all four types of questions we considered (effectiveness, harm, diagnosis and prognosis. None of the systems was considered usable for all of the target groups we considered (professionals, patients and policy makers. The raters found low reproducibility of judgements made using all six systems. Systems used by 51 organisations that sponsor clinical practice guidelines included a number of minor variations of the six systems that we critically appraised. Conclusions All of the currently used approaches to grading levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations have important shortcomings.

  13. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  14. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...

  15. Consumer Energy Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  16. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. RESULTS: Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  17. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    ). The consumer survey was conducted in four countries (Germany, Poland, Sweden, and United States) with approximately 1,000 respondents per country. The purpose of the survey was to explore consumption and psychological differences across markets and cultures. The collected data represents the empirical...... clothing consumption. One of the main results of the descriptive analyses was that the average consumer across all four countries purchased 5.74 clothing items worth €153.79 over a three-month period. Interestingly, country differences were observed in relation to consumption volume, spending, preferred...

  18. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico.

  19. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Shivalingaiah, Sudharshan

    2016-03-01

    The standard aqueous stem bark extract is consumed as herbal drink and used in the pharmaceutical formulations to treat patients suffering from various disease conditions in Cuba. This study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on Group IA sPLA2. M. indica extract, dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIa-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value 8.1 µg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ~40 µg/ml concentration and at various concentrations (0-50 µg/ml), it dose dependently inhibited the edema formation. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect on the GIA sPLA2. Furthermore, the inhibition was irreversible as evidenced from binding studies. It is observed that the aqueous extract ofM. indica effectively inhibits sPLA2 and it is associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate their anti-inflammatory properties. The mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract, with sPLA2 enzyme. Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop this into potent anti-inflammatory agent.

  20. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHADRAPURA LAKKAPPA DHANANJAYA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The standard aqueous stem bark extract is consumed as herbal drink and used in the pharmaceutical formulations to treat patients suffering from various disease conditions in Cuba. This study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on Group IA sPLA2. M. indica extract, dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIa-PLA2 activity with an IC50 value 8.1 µg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ~40 µg/ml concentration and at various concentrations (0-50 µg/ml, it dose dependently inhibited the edema formation. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect on the GIA sPLA2. Furthermore, the inhibition was irreversible as evidenced from binding studies. It is observed that the aqueous extract ofM. indica effectively inhibits sPLA2 and it is associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate their anti-inflammatory properties. The mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract, with sPLA2 enzyme. Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop this into potent anti-inflammatory agent.

  1. Minnesota Consumer Education Program. "Consumers of the 90s."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Council on Economic Education, Minneapolis.

    This teacher's guide on consumer literacy for grades 9-12 is designed for use in the following subject areas: business education, consumer law, economics, home economics, and social studies. Four units are included: (1) consumer decision making--consumer law and protection; (2) major shopping areas--transportation dilemma; (3) housing; and (4)…

  2. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  3. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  4. Minnesota Consumer Education Program. "Consumers of the 90s."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Council on Economic Education, Minneapolis.

    This teacher's guide on consumer literacy for grades 9-12 is designed for use in the following subject areas: business education, consumer law, economics, home economics, and social studies. Four units are included: (1) consumer decision making--consumer law and protection; (2) major shopping areas--transportation dilemma; (3) housing; and (4)…

  5. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods ‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom

  6. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, Andrija; Koller, Monika; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2013-02-06

    'Neuromarketing' is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods 'neuromarketing' and scientific ones 'consumer neuroscience'. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology:First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington's disease.Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom.Third, trust research in the medical context lacks

  7. The relationship between consumer insight and provider-consumer agreement regarding consumer's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Roe, David; Kravetz, Shlomo; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Meir, Taly

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between insight and mental health consumers and providers agreement regarding consumers rated quality of life (QoL). Seventy mental health consumers and their 23 care providers filled-out parallel questionnaires designed to measure consumer QoL. Consumers' insight was also assessed. For most QoL domains, agreement between consumers and providers was higher for persons with high insight. For the Psychological well being dimension a negative correlation was uncovered for persons with low insight indicating disagreement between consumer and provider. These findings are discussed within the context of the literature on insight and agreement between consumer and provider as related to the therapeutic alliance.

  8. ["All of us actually practice EBM!" - Attitudes of German GPs towards evidence-based medicine and clinical guidelines in daily practice: a focus group study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Bettina; Redaèlli, Marcus; Simic, Dusan; Wilm, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of guidelines in general practice is difficult. Do general practitioners (GPs) reject evidence-based medicine (EBM) in general? Which attitudes do GPs have towards EBM and guidelines, and which value do they attach to EBM in daily routine? We conducted a qualitative study using five focus groups with 53 GPs. The study was set in the German federal states of Bavaria, Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Hesse and Hamburg. Participants were selected according to area (rural/urban), region (North/South, East/West) and grade of professionalisation. Focus groups were digitally recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analysed in a multidisciplinary team using qualitative content analysis. Most participants felt positive towards EBM. Lack of feasibility was explicitly mentioned: the participants distinguished between "practised" and "true" EBM. Guidelines are often considered unsuitable for general practice. The GPs felt confident that their treatment of patients was evidence-based. Compared to older studies, German GPs have an increasingly favourable opinion about EBM. In order to enhance the practical application of EBM and guidelines the attitudes of GPs need to be considered. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in Muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Gailbreath, K.; Bender, L.C.; West, K.; Keller, J.; Crawford, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Based on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2003.

  10. Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Gailbreath, Katherine; Bender, Louis C; West, Keith; Keller, Janice; Crawford, Timothy B

    2003-10-01

    Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with (degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Base on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found.

  11. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Wadephul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their ‘normality’. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features.

  12. Vedolizumab for the Treatment of Adults with Moderate-to-Severe Active Ulcerative Colitis: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essat, Munira; Tappenden, Paul; Ren, Shijie; Bessey, Alice; Archer, Rachel; Wong, Ruth; Lobo, Alan; Hoque, Sami

    2016-03-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of vedolizumab (Takeda UK) to submit evidence of the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of vedolizumab for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe active ulcerative colitis (UC). The Evidence Review Group (ERG) produced a critical review of the evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the technology, based upon the company's submission to NICE. The evidence was derived mainly from GEMINI 1, a Phase 3, multicentre, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of the induction and maintenance of clinical response and remission by vedolizumab (MLN0002) in patients with moderate-to-severe active UC with an inadequate response to, loss of response to or intolerance of conventional therapy or anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The clinical evidence showed that vedolizumab performed significantly better than placebo in both the induction and maintenance phases. In the post hoc subgroup analyses in patients with or without prior anti-TNF-α therapy, vedolizumab performed better then placebo (p value not reported). In addition, a greater improvement in health-related quality of life was observed in patients treated with vedolizumab, and the frequency and types of adverse events were similar in the vedolizumab and placebo groups, but the evidence was limited to short-term follow-up. There were a number of limitations and uncertainties in the clinical evidence base, which warrants caution in its interpretation--in particular, the post hoc subgroup analyses and high dropout rates in the maintenance phase of GEMINI 1. The company also presented a network meta-analysis of vedolizumab versus other biologic therapies indicated for moderate-to-severe UC. However, the ERG considered that the results presented may have underestimated the uncertainty in treatment effects, since fixed

  13. Analysis of Influential Factors on Consumer Behavior in Tourist Real Estate Based on the Method of Group AHP%基于群组 AHP 法的旅游房产购买行为影响因素分析--以合肥市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪磊; 徐荣

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influential factors of consumer behavior in tourism real estate would have some positive impact on the marketing strategies .In this paper , based on the related literature and combined with the empirical survey .Factors influencing the consumer behavior in tourism real estate could be classified into five categories :environment, project, housing, developer and consumer.With the Group AHP model, we found out the key factor affecting consumer behavior in tourist real estate and put for -ward some reasonable countermeasures and suggestions .%了解影响旅游房产购买行为因素对制定合理的营销决策具有积极意义。试以相关文献为基础,结合实证调查找出影响旅游房产购买行为的五类因素:环境因素、项目因素、房屋因素、开发商因素和消费者因素;通过群组AHP建模,对各影响因素进行数据处理,得到影响消费者购买旅游房产行为的关键性因素并提出合理的对策与建议。

  14. Environmentally Friendly Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijonen, Satu

    2011-01-01

    Several attempts have been made by academics in the past to explain the so-called ‘environmentally conscious’ consumer. These explanations share an important feature, namely determinism. This paper identifies three different sources of determinism that are distinguished in recent literature...

  15. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...

  16. Research in consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1988-01-01

    The present state of consumer behavior research is analysed here by Klaus Grunert, of the Aarhus Graduate School of Management, Denmark. Against the background of crisis in the existing research paradigm, he suggests a number of possible new directions in the field, at the same time emphasizing...

  17. Educating Tomorrow's Culture Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1979-01-01

    In light of the fact that young Americans spend hundreds of dollars each year on the arts yet have little training in developing critical skills, this writer outlines what must be done in school arts programs to educate culture consumers. (Author/JM)

  18. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  19. Consumer Rights in Academe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    Attempts in both academia and the legal arena to delineate the concepts of academic fraud and malpractice and to develop the positive implications of the student as a responsible consumer may lead to the establishment of a more appropriate student-institution relationship for today's highly diversified and demanding college learners. (Author/EB)

  20. Young Market: Young Consumers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lin'aiyi

    2009-01-01

    @@ This young generation enjoys a staggering amount of purchasing power in China.That's because the population of young consumers in China is massive. They were born after China instituted its one-child policy in the late 1970s and grew up in the context of China launching its economic reforms and opening up to the world outside.

  1. Understanding the Child Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Juliet B.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine whether exposure to continuous commercial messages affects children's fundamental sense of well-being and whether they are at risk for a series of negative outcomes. Results show that consumer culture is harmful to adults and children, and both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychology…

  2. Consumer Markets & Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemsky, Robert

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that one external force, consumerism, is determining what happens in colleges and universities. The new market for higher education is dominated by students who make choices in a very different way from traditional students. Current students seek credentials and want practical knowledge in an easily consumed package. (MSE)

  3. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  4. Understanding the Child Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Juliet B.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine whether exposure to continuous commercial messages affects children's fundamental sense of well-being and whether they are at risk for a series of negative outcomes. Results show that consumer culture is harmful to adults and children, and both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychology…

  5. Reviewing Illness Self-Management Programs: A Selection Guide for Consumers, Practitioners, and Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petros, Ryan; Solomon, Phyllis

    2015-11-01

    Illness self-management (ISM) programs for adults with serious mental illness offer strategies to increase self-directed recovery activities to maximize wellness and increase independence from the service delivery system. This article describes five of the most popular ISM programs: Pathways to Recovery, The Recovery Workbook, Building Recovery of Individual Dreams and Goals through Education and Support, Wellness and Recovery Action Planning, and Illness Management and Recovery. It provides guidance for administrators, practitioners, and consumers for the purposes of selecting the program or programs providing the best fit. The framework for describing the five programs encompasses four contextual domains that supplement empirical evidence for a more comprehensive evaluation: structure, value orientation toward recovery, methods of teaching, and educational content. Contextual domains distinguish programs from one another, including length and time commitment, requisite resources, inclusion of group support, utilization of medical language and pathology, degree of traditional didactic education, and prioritization of consumer-driven self-exploration. The authors also searched PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews for empirical evidence and evaluated the five programs on the strength of the evidence and the effectiveness of the intervention. Evidence of program effectiveness was found to range from low to moderate. However, empirical evidence alone is insufficient for selecting among the five programs, and contextual domains may offer the most relevant guidance by matching program features with goals of consumers, practitioners, and administrators.

  6. Managing Behaviour of Retail Trade Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Maryna M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of management of behaviour of retail trade consumers. It shows importance of this topic at the stage of market changes in economic and social spheres. Generalising theoretical provisions about models of consumer behaviour, the article marks out three main groups of factors that influence them: external, internal and situational. The authors offer to allocate sensor forms of communications into a separate group of factors due to a distinctive property of their impact – orientation at subconsciousness of consumers. The article analyses a psychological process of making a decision on purchase of a commodity and draws a conclusion about necessity of exerting subconsciousness influence upon consumer behaviour using the modern marketing instruments. It develops an improved model of consumer behaviour, which takes into account innovation means of impact on the buyer. The prospect of further development of this direction in science is creation of theoretical methods of managing consumer behaviour on the basis of co-operation of specialists in the field of economy, management, marketing, sociology and psychology, which would be applied in practice of management of trade enterprises.

  7. The awareness of osteoporosis among health professionals, consumers, and journalists.

    OpenAIRE

    Renner, J H

    1989-01-01

    A survey of physicians, consumers, journalists, and experts on osteoporosis showed that the level of awareness, particularly among consumers and physicians, regarding osteoporosis and calcium supplementation is high. Professionals and consumers alike agree that osteoporosis is a serious disease. Most think that the disease is preventable, although serious. Most women are aware that osteoporosis may begin years before symptoms become evident, and that they may be subject to the disease. Most c...

  8. Online grocery retailing: What do consumers think?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Kim Bjarne; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework to explore in depth the range of beliefs held by consumers about internet shopping in general and internet grocery shopping in particular. Design/methodology/approach: Seven focus group interviews, four in the United...... Kingdom and three in Denmark, were conducted among consumers with different degrees of experience with internet grocery shopping. This diversification of respondents was chosen to capture a broad range of the consumer beliefs that predict intentions to buy groceries online or not. The TPB framework...... beliefs in predicting internet shopping behavior. Practical implications: The findings could be used to direct attention to consumer beliefs about internet grocery shopping which have the potential of acting as barriers to this line of e-commerce. Originality/value: To shed some light on the role...

  9. Consumer Privacy and Marketing Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Il-Horn Hann; Kai-Lung Hui; Sang-Yong Tom Lee; Ivan Png

    2005-01-01

    We introduce consumer avoidance into analytical marketing research. We show that consumer efforts to conceal themselves and to deflect marketing have a crucial impact on sellers¡¯ marketing strategy. Under reasonable conditions, seller marketing is a strategic complement with consumer concealment. Hence, consumer measures to conceal themselves from marketing will increase its cost-effectiveness and lead sellers to market more. Policies that encourage consumers to conceal their identities woul...

  10. Consumer protection in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The consumer protection is a very actual topic in the european policy. It is necessary for the right function of the internal market. The document mentions the development of the consumer protection policy - the past and the future strategy. The valid legislation is listed and also mentioned is the Proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights. It gives an overview of european consumer organisations and their function . There are also mentioned some alternatives of the consumer's redress. Docum...

  11. Consumer drop-in centers: operations, services, and consumer involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Carol T; Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Holter, Mark C

    2002-11-01

    Interest in involvement of consumers in mental health and psychiatric rehabilitation services delivery has expanded in recent years, encompassing self-help approaches, consumers employed as providers in formal agencies, and consumers operating their own services. This study reports results from in-depth phone surveys conducted with 32 consumer drop-in centers in Michigan. Results indicate that centers operate in many ways like other human services businesses, albeit with much smaller budgets. Funding levels, salaries, and services showed great heterogeneity among the centers and in comparison with reports in the literature. Centers autonomously run by consumers and centers with consumer involvement (operated by a non-consumer agency) were found to differ significantly on several variables, including consumer control, funding and service levels, and challenges. Implications for the growth and increased use of consumer drop-in centers are discussed.

  12. Repeat prenatal corticosteroid prior to preterm birth: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis for the PRECISE study group (prenatal repeat corticosteroid international IPD study group: assessing the effects using the best level of evidence - study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Caroline A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this individual participant data (IPD meta-analysis is to assess whether the effects of repeat prenatal corticosteroid treatment given to women at risk of preterm birth to benefit their babies are modified in a clinically meaningful way by factors related to the women or the trial protocol. Methods/Design The Prenatal Repeat Corticosteroid International IPD Study Group: assessing the effects using the best level of Evidence (PRECISE Group will conduct an IPD meta-analysis. The PRECISE International Collaborative Group was formed in 2010 and data collection commenced in 2011. Eleven trials with up to 5,000 women and 6,000 infants are eligible for the PRECISE IPD meta-analysis. The primary study outcomes for the infants will be serious neonatal outcome (defined by the PRECISE International IPD Study Group as one of death (foetal, neonatal or infant; severe respiratory disease; severe intraventricular haemorrhage (grade 3 and 4; chronic lung disease; necrotising enterocolitis; serious retinopathy of prematurity; and cystic periventricular leukomalacia; use of respiratory support (defined as mechanical ventilation or continuous positive airways pressure or other respiratory support; and birth weight (Z-scores. For the children, the primary study outcomes will be death or any neurological disability (however defined by trialists at childhood follow up and may include developmental delay or intellectual impairment (developmental quotient or intelligence quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean, cerebral palsy (abnormality of tone with motor dysfunction, blindness (for example, corrected visual acuity worse than 6/60 in the better eye or deafness (for example, hearing loss requiring amplification or worse. For the women, the primary outcome will be maternal sepsis (defined as chorioamnionitis; pyrexia after trial entry requiring the use of antibiotics; puerperal sepsis; intrapartum fever requiring the use

  13. Dissemination of drinking water contamination data to consumers: a systematic review of impact on consumer behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Lucas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination. Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26-72% among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0-0.46] 6-12 months post intervention suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment. CONCLUSION: Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of

  14. Dissemination of Drinking Water Contamination Data to Consumers: A Systematic Review of Impact on Consumer Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Patricia J.; Cabral, Christie; Colford, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities) to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes. Methods/Principal Findings A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination). Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26–72%) among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0–0.46] 6–12 months post intervention) suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment. Conclusion Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of contamination data to

  15. Evidence for spreading in the lower Kam Group of the Yellowknife greenstone belt: Implications for Archaean basin evolution in the Slave Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstaedt, H.; Padgham, W. A.

    The Yellowknife greenstone belt is the western margin of an Archean turbidite-filled basin bordered on the east by the Cameron River and Beaulieu River volcanic belts (Henderson, 1981; Lambert, 1982). This model implies that rifting was entirely ensialic and did not proceed beyond the graben stage. Volcanism is assumed to have been restricted to the boundary faults, and the basin was floored by a downfaulted granitic basement. On the other hand, the enormous thickness of submarine volcanic rocks and the presence of a spreading complex at the base of the Kam Group suggest that volcanic rocks were much more widespread than indicated by their present distribution. Rather than resembling volcanic sequences in intracratonic graben structures, the Kam Group and its tectonic setting within the Yellowknife greenstone belt have greater affinities to the Rocas Verdes of southern Chile, Mesozoic ophiolites, that were formed in an arc-related marginal basin setting. The similarities of these ophiolites with some Archean volcanic sequences was previously recognized, and served as basis for their marginal-basin model of greenstone belts. The discovery of a multiple and sheeted dike complex in the Kam Group confirms that features typical of Phanerozoic ophiolites are indeed preserved in some greenstone belts and provides further field evidence in support of such a model.

  16. Differentiating the consumer benefits from labeling of GM food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Hobbs, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Although recurrent evidence is found that consumers have different willingness to pay for GM and non-GM products, there is disagreement in the scientific community about the size of consumer benefits from GM labeling. In this article we use a theoretical model based on a standard constant elasticity

  17. Digital consumers and the law: towards a cohesive European framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Guibault, L.; Loos, M.; Mak, C.; Pessers, L.; van der Sloot, B.

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a critical analysis of how digitisation affects established concepts and policies in consumer law. Based on evidence of the actual experience and problems encountered by consumers in digital markets, the book offers a ground-breaking study of the main issues arising in relation to

  18. Digital consumers and the law: towards a cohesive European framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Guibault, L.; Loos, M.; Mak, C.; Pessers, L.; van der Sloot, B.

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a critical analysis of how digitisation affects established concepts and policies in consumer law. Based on evidence of the actual experience and problems encountered by consumers in digital markets, the book offers a ground-breaking study of the main issues arising in relation to

  19. Digital consumers and the law: towards a cohesive European framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Guibault, L.; Loos, M.; Mak, C.; Pessers, L.; van der Sloot, B.

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a critical analysis of how digitisation affects established concepts and policies in consumer law. Based on evidence of the actual experience and problems encountered by consumers in digital markets, the book offers a ground-breaking study of the main issues arising in relation to

  20. Consumer Concerns about Nutrition: Opportunities for the Food Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazao, Elizabeth

    The growing evidence of the link between diet and health has not been lost on consumers in the United States. As awareness of the diet-health link has increased through nutrition education, consumers have changed their diets. Although there is still considerable room for improvement in meeting Federal food-guidance recommendations, nutrition…