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Bülow, Anne Marie
This paper investigates a set of email negotiations in order to explain a high number of deadlocks. The paper argues that one reason is the combination of cognitive effort characteristic of the e-mail genre, and the argumentative pattern found when two parties simultaneously try to persuade the other of the justice of their cause. For a negotiation involving the wording of a contract, the evidence suggests that, while there is a distinct advantage in the features of reviewability and revis...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we show how counselors and psychologists can use emails for online management of substance abusers, including the anatomy and content of emails that clinicians should send substance abusers. Some investigators have attempted to determine if providing mental health services online is an efficacious delivery of treatment. The question of efficacy is an empirical issue that cannot be settled unless we are explicitly clear about the content and nature of online treatment. We believe that it is not the communications via internet that matters, but the content of these communications. The purpose of this paper is to provide the content of our online counseling services so others can duplicate the work and investigate its efficacy. Results We have managed nearly 300 clients online for recovery from substance abuse. Treatment included individual counseling (motivational interviewing, cognitive-behavior therapy, relapse prevention assignments, participation in an electronic support group and the development of a recovery team. Our findings of success with these interventions are reported elsewhere. Our experience has led to development of a protocol of care that is described more fully in this paper. This protocol is based on stages of change and relapse prevention theories and follows a Motivational Interviewing method of counseling. Conclusion The use of electronic media in providing mental health treatment remains controversial due to concerns about confidentiality, security and legal considerations. More research is needed to validate and generalize the use of online treatment for mental health problems. If researchers have to build on each others work, it is paramount that we share our protocols of care, as we have done in this paper.
Bülow, Anne Marie
the other of the justice of their cause. For a negotiation involving the wording of a contract, the evidence suggests that, while there is a distinct advantage in the features of reviewability and revisablity, the email format allows selective attention to the other party’s arguments, which can be shown...
Sroufe, Paul; Phithakkitnukoon, Santi; Dantu, Ram; Cangussu, João
Email has become an integral part of everyday life. Without a second thought we receive bills, bank statements, and sales promotions all to our inbox. Each email has hidden features that can be extracted. In this paper, we present a new mechanism to characterize an email without using content or context called Email Shape Analysis. We explore the applications of the email shape by carrying out a case study; botnet detection and two possible applications: spam filtering, and social-context bas...
The thesis deals with e-mail marketing. It focuses on identifying factors that affect the behavior of users of e-mail and newsletter subscribers. It evaluates the role of e-mail marketing as a part of communication mix of companies and e-shops, current trends, e-mail campaigns, e-mail marketing software provider. To study the behavior of users of e-mail and newsletter subscribers a questionnaire survey was conducted on a sample of 610 respondents and in-depth interviews (n = 30). Content anal...
... your email address was “spoofed,” or faked, and hackers don’t actually have access to your account. ... use public Wi-Fi .) Tagged with: antivirus , email , hacker , imposter , password , phishing , scam , social networking July 2013 ...
Oetomo, Budi Sutedjo Dharma
Lebih dari 500 juta orang dan badan USAha telah tergabung di internet. Pada umumnya, mereka telah terbiasa untuk memanfaatkan fitur dan aplikasi yang tersedia di internet, seperti email, mailing list, web, blog dan situs jejaring sosial. Diantara fitur dan aplikasi internet itu yang hampir digunakan oleh setiap orang dan badan USAha adalah email, karena mereka telah memiliki alamat email, bahkan lebih dari satu buah. Kini, fitur email telah dimanfaatkan untuk kegiatan pemasaran, khususnya pro...
Unsolicited email, commonly known as SPAM, is a growing problem across the Internet at large. You are recommended to delete it. If the email looks suspicious, do not even open it (from Outlook you can delete email using the right button of your mouse to select the message and then selecting delete). Viruses are often hidden inside attachments, so do not open attachments in unsolicited email. SPAM and virus emails can be disguised to trick you into reading the email and/or performing an action. Here are examples of some techniques to help you recognise them: fake email addresses: emails can appear to be from people you know or even from yourself. Your own email address can appear in emails which you did not send, resulting in non-delivery messages or unexpected replies. Fake addresses may be used to send viruses. If the email looks suspicious then delete it and do not open the attachments. If you are unsure then check with the sender first. enticing subjects: the email subject uses words to make you curious...
Matsubara, Yoshitsugu; Musashi, Yasuo
The purpose of this study is to explain fluctuations in email size. We have previously investigated the long-term correlations between email send requests and data flow in the system log of the primary staff email server at a university campus, finding that email size frequency follows a power-law distribution with two inflection points, and that the power-law property weakens the correlation of the data flow. However, the mechanism underlying this fluctuation is not completely understood. We collected new log data from both staff and students over six academic years and analyzed the frequency distribution thereof, focusing on the type of content contained in the emails. Furthermore, we obtained permission to collect "Content-Type" log data from the email headers. We therefore collected the staff log data from May 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015, creating two subdistributions. In this paper, we propose a model to explain these subdistributions, which follow log-normal-like distributions. In the log-normal-like model, email senders -consciously or unconsciously- regulate the size of new email sentences according to a normal distribution. The fitting of the model is acceptable for these subdistributions, and the model demonstrates power-law properties for large email sizes. An analysis of the length of new email sentences would be required for further discussion of our model; however, to protect user privacy at the participating organization, we left this analysis for future work. This study provides new knowledge on the properties of email sizes, and our model is expected to contribute to the decision on whether to establish upper size limits in the design of email services.
The aim of this work is to specify the e-mail marketing and in the practical application to evaluate the pros and cons of e-mail marketing as a tool of targeted marketing communication.Based on personal interviews with representatives of the company was described their existing e-mail marketing.Through the survey it was found, how customers perceive the company's e-mail marketing.Based on the survey, changes were proposed at the end of the thesis.
Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab
The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.
Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.
We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to
Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.
We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to
Erfani Joorabchi, Minoo; Yim, Ji-Dong; Shaw, Christopher D.
Although the discovery and analysis of communication patterns in large and complex email datasets are difficult tasks, they can be a valuable source of information. We present EmailTime, a visual analysis tool of email correspondence patterns over the course of time that interactively portrays personal and interpersonal networks using the correspondence in the email dataset. Our approach is to put time as a primary variable of interest, and plot emails along a time line. EmailTime helps email dataset explorers interpret archived messages by providing zooming, panning, filtering and highlighting etc. To support analysis, it also measures and visualizes histograms, graph centrality and frequency on the communication graph that can be induced from the email collection. This paper describes EmailTime's capabilities, along with a large case study with Enron email dataset to explore the behaviors of email users within different organizational positions from January 2000 to December 2001. We defined email behavior as the email activity level of people regarding a series of measured metrics e.g. sent and received emails, numbers of email addresses, etc. These metrics were calculated through EmailTime. Results showed specific patterns in the use email within different organizational positions. We suggest that integrating both statistics and visualizations in order to display information about the email datasets may simplify its evaluation.
Ryan, Julie JCH
Malicious email is, simply put, email with a malicious purpose. The malicious purpose could be fraud, theft, espionage, or malware injection. The processes by which email execute the malicious activity vary widely, from fully manual (e.g. human-directed) to fully automated. One example of a malicious email is one that contains an attachment which the recipient is directed to open. When the attachment is opened, malicious software is installed on the recipient's computer. Because malicious email can vary so broadly in form and function, automated detection is only marginally helpful. The education of all users to detect potential malicious email is important to containing the threat and limiting the damage. It is increasingly necessary for all email users to understand how to recognize and combat malicious email. Detecting and Combating Malicious Email describes the different types of malicious email, shows how to differentiate malicious email from benign email, and suggest protective strategies for both perso...
Full Text Available Salah satu layanan Internet yang sangat penting adalah electronic mail atau sering hanya disebut sebagai e-mail. Untuk menggunakan e-mail, diperlukan piranti lunak khusus supaya pengguna dapat mengirim dan menerima e-mail. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail diantaranya adalah Outlook Express yang merupakan satu paket yang didistribusikan bersama Internet Explorer versi 4. Piranti lunak ini dijalankan pada PC yang mempunyai sistem operasi Windows 95 atau 98. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail yang lain adalah Eudora, Pegasus dan sebagainya. Bahkan ada yang diintegrasikan dengan Web Browser (alat untuk menelusuri situs Web misalnya IE,dan Netscape.Sebagai layaknya pelayanan pos, maka setiap pengguna e-mail mempunyai alamat tertentu yang tidak mungkin dipunyai oleh pengguna lainnya diseluruh dunia. Untuk keperluan pendistribusian, maka e-mail mempunyai semacam kantor pos yang ditempatkan dalam sebuah komputer server (mail server atau sering disebut sebagai host.
Full Text Available Products currently available for monitoring children\\'s email usage are either considered to encourage dubious ethical behaviour or are time consuming for parents to administer. This paper describes the development of a new email client application for children called Mifrenz. This new application gives parents the ability to let their children safely use email, with the minimum of intervention. It was developed using mostly free software and also with the desire to provide real first hand programming examples to demonstrate to students.
Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie
This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were...... obtained during a 6‐month field studyof a case of cross‐border inter‐organisational collaboration in EastAsia. We observed that the individuals involved in the cross‐borderpartnership used email as a lean form of communication to stopcovert conflict from explicitly emerging. In contrast to prior researchon...... the leanness of email in managing conflict, we found that underthe described conflict situation the very leanness of emailwas appreciated and thus, exploited by those concerned tomanage the conflict situation. Specifically, we identified 4 keyconflict‐triggered adaptation strategies, namely...
Martínez López, Javier
Projecte final de carrera realitzat en col.laboració amb E-xpertel S.A El presente proyecto describe el diseño e implementación de un sistema de automatización de campañas de marketing a través de email hacia clientes y/o clientes potenciales. Este sistema tiene como objetivos principales adquirir nuevos clientes y conseguir la delización de los mismos. El sistema se complementa con una plataforma CRM (Customer Relationship Management) para el mantenimiento de datos de empresa...
Filippone, Monica; Survinski, Melissa
This article investigates the appropriate use of email among secondary and postsecondary students and instructors and provides recommendations for proper email etiquette. A review of the current literature shows that poor email etiquette can impact the working relationship between teachers and students. Evidence indicates that email etiquette must…
Gorton, Douglas; Murthy, Uma; Vemuri, Naga Srinivas; Pérez-Quiñones, Manuel A.
In this paper we describe ESVT – EmailSet Visualization Tool, an email archive tool that provides users a visualization to re-find and discover information in their email archive. ESVT is an end-to-end email archive tool that can be used from archiving a user’s email messages to visualizing queries on the email archive. We address email archiving by allowing import of email messages from an email server or from a standard existing email client. The central idea in ESVT’s visualization, an “em...
De Wang; Danesh Irani; Calton Pu
With the increasing dedication and sophistication of spammers, email spam is a persistent problem even today. Popular social network sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google+ are not exempt from email spam as they all interface with email systems. While some report predicts that email spam business is dying due to the decreasing volume of email spam. Whether email spam business is really dying is an interesting question. In this paper, we analyze email spam trends on Spam Archive dataset, ...
On today's age of technology, widely used email to send information throughout the world. During the classification of the email is still done manually and less objective. So in this study, the authors apply the method of Vector Space Model (VSM) to make an automatic email classification and more objective. With this method of email classification can be done automatically based on address, subject, and body of an email that allows users to email in the organization of every incoming email in...
Nuclear Malaysia e-mails can be accessed from any computer and anywhere, even worldwide, via web access. However, this mobility is lost when the e-mails are moved to a personal computer into archive files such as Microsoft Outlook data files. Outlook e-mail archives can only be read on the computer where it is stored. This removal has to be done because of storage space constraints on the e-mail server. This paper shows how e-mail archives can be made portable, brought and read anywhere using a free portable e-mail client application such as Mozilla Thunderbird, Portable Edition. (author)
Goyder, Clare; Atherton, Helen; Car, Mate; Heneghan, Carl J; Car, Josip
Email is one of the most widely used methods of communication, but its use in healthcare is still uncommon. Where email communication has been utilised in health care, its purposes have included clinical communication between healthcare professionals, but the effects of using email in this way are not well known. We updated a 2012 review of the use of email for two-way clinical communication between healthcare professionals. To assess the effects of email for clinical communication between healthcare professionals on healthcare professional outcomes, patient outcomes, health service performance, and service efficiency and acceptability, when compared to other forms of communicating clinical information. We searched: the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 9 2013), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1946 to August 2013), EMBASE (OvidSP) (1974 to August 2013), PsycINFO (1967 to August 2013), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1982 to August 2013), and ERIC (CSA) (1965 to January 2010). We searched grey literature: theses/dissertation repositories, trials registers and Google Scholar (searched November 2013). We used additional search methods: examining reference lists and contacting authors. Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series studies examining interventions in which healthcare professionals used email for communicating clinical information in the form of: 1) unsecured email, 2) secure email, or 3) web messaging. All healthcare professionals, patients and caregivers in all settings were considered. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed the included studies' risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information and have reported all measures as per the study report. The previous version of this review included one randomised controlled
Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław
Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..
Al Mahmud, A.; Martens, J.B.O.S.
An email program has been developed by the Aphasia Union Netherlands (AVN) to enhance communication between aphasics mutually and with their therapists. In this paper we report intermediate evaluation results of the AVN email program. We evaluated the email program in two ways: a. by analyzing the
Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock
and spam email detection. For our desired task, we have applied a boosting technique. With the use of boosting we can achieve high accuracy of traditional classification algorithms. When using boosting one has to choose a suitable weak learner as well as the number of boosting iterations. In this paper, we......In this paper, we report on experiments to detect illegitimate emails using boosting algorithm. We call an email illegitimate if it is not useful for the receiver or for the society. We have divided the problem into two major areas of illegitimate email detection: suspicious email detection...
Full Text Available This article is intended to be a simplified guide for the efficient use of e-mail in business and private communication in English. E-mailing is frequently used as a substitute for other kinds of communication in today’s working environment, due in particular, to the fact that messages are transmitted instantly, irrespective of the distance of the recipient. Due to the speed and volume of e-mail, mastering the art of effective e-mail writing includes the knowledge of Network Etiquette or ‘Netiquette’ and it is therefore important that whether it be for business or private use, the basics of e-mail etiquette are followed. When writing an e-mail it is important to consider the recipient. Careful consideration will determine the content and style of the e-mail. No less important is knowing the points of detail in writing e-mail. That is, to be clear and concise in the specific information that the e-mail should contain. Furthermore, abbreviations, acronyms and emoticons are frequently found in e-mail and their use should also be considered. An e-mail is a valuable communication tool and it is essential to use it effectively in order to improve both professional and private communication.
Sappelli, M.; Pasi, G.; Verberne, S.; Boer, M. de; Kraaij, W.
In this paper, we analyze corporate e-mail messages as a medium to convey work tasks. Research indicates that categorization of e-mail could alleviate the common problem of information overload. Although e-mail clients provide possibilities of e-mail categorization, not many users spend effort on
Ramsay, Judith; Renaud, Karen
One would expect email substantially to increase organisational productivity and efficiency. There is little empirical evidence of this since email use is such a complex tool that it would be well nigh impossible to attribute efficiency increases solely to email. There is anecdotal evidence of the positive aspects of email (Phillips, S.R. and…
Writing E-mail is the most popular Internet activity. Meanwhile, many people have more than one E-mail address. The question how people manage their E-mail addresses, more specifically, whether they use them deliberately for different purposes, is the central question of this paper. E-mail addresses
This paper aims to bring some clarifications on what could bring success to email marketingcampaigns. Responses are related to how sent emails can draw the attention of people (ie how theycan be observed, given that, users’ inboxes are invaded by messages of all kinds, how to measurethe results of a campaign and which are the best practices through which we can get higher returnsfrom email marketing campaigns.
Michalák, Juraj; Hudec, Ladislav
The paper deals with the security of e-mail messages and e-mail server implementation by means of a transparent SMTP proxy. The security features include encryption and signing of transported messages. The goal is to design and implement a software proxy for secure e-mail including its monitoring, administration, encryption and signing keys administration. In particular, we focus on automatic public key on-the-fly encryption and signing of e-mail messages according to S/MIME standard by means of an embedded computer system whose function can be briefly described as a brouter with transparent SMTP proxy.
This article is intended to be a simplified guide for the efficient use of e-mail in business and private communication in English. E-mailing is frequently used as a substitute for other kinds of communication in today’s working environment, due in particular, to the fact that messages are transmitted instantly, irrespective of the distance of the recipient. Due to the speed and volume of e-mail, mastering the art of effective e-mail writing includes the knowledge of Network Etiquette o...
... MedlinePlus Connect → Email List URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/emaillist.html MedlinePlus Connect: Email ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...
Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah
In this paper we present a model for email authorship identification (EAI) by employing a Cluster-based Classification (CCM) technique. Traditionally, stylometric features have been successfully employed in various authorship analysis tasks; we extend the traditional feature-set to include some...... more interesting and effective features for email authorship identification (e.g. the last punctuation mark used in an email, the tendency of an author to use capitalization at the start of an email, or the punctuation after a greeting or farewell). We also included Info Gain feature selection based...... reveal that the proposed CCM-based email authorship identification model, along with the proposed feature set, outperforms the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM)-based models, as well as the models proposed by Iqbal et al. [1, 2]. The proposed model attains an accuracy rate of 94% for 10...
Ellis, Susan J.
The challenge today is how to make e-mail and other forms of electronic communication effective in motivating volunteer action. Is it possible to make e-mails feel personal and welcoming? E-mail, instant messaging, texting, and social media are tools that allow individuals to communicate quickly and inexpensively, but they are lifeless without the…
Delsignore, Aba; Rufer, Michael; Emmerich, Juliane; Weidt, Steffi; Brühl, Annette Beatrix; Moergeli, Hanspeter
The present study evaluates the impact of semi-individualized e-mail support as an adjunct to cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on dropout and outcome. The effectiveness of additional semi-individualized e-mail support was evaluated for the whole sample and for a subsample of patients at risk of dropping out of therapy. A total of 91 patients with SAD were allocated either to the intervention condition (CBGT with e-mail support), or to the control con...
The diploma thesis has two main goals: the first objective is to develop a dynamic library, which will contain methods able to download e-mail messages from mail server using POP3 protocol. The second objective involves development of application for processing and distribution of e-mail messages. Introduction cointains presentation of a practical application example in real time situation. Here are described procedures used for development of server - client communication library, which u...
Raja, Seyyed H.; Afrooz, Farzad
E-mail technology, has become one of the requirements of human lives for correspondence between individuals. Given this, the important point is that the messages, server and client of e-mail and correspondences that exchanged between different people have acceptable security, to make people sure to use of this technology. In the information age, many of financial and non financial transactions are done electronically, data exchange takes place via the internet and theft and manipulation of data can make exorbitant cost in terms of integrity, financial, political, economic and culture. E-mail correspondence in there is same and it is very important. With review took place, a method that will focus on email system for risks assessment is not provided. We are examining ways of assessing for other systems and their strengths and weaknesses, then we use Mr Convery method for assessing email risks which it is for assessing network risks. At the end of paper we have offered special table for email risk assessment.
Full Text Available With the increasing dedication and sophistication of spammers, email spam is a persistent problem even today. Popular social network sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google+ are not exempt from email spam as they all interface with email systems. While some report predicts that email spam business is dying due to the decreasing volume of email spam. Whether email spam business is really dying is an interesting question. In this paper, we analyze email spam trends on Spam Archive dataset, which contains 5.5 million spam emails over 15 years (1998 – 2013. We statistically analyze emails contents including header information (e.g. content type and embedded items (e.g. URL links. Also, we investigate topic drift using topic modeling technique. Moreover, we perform network analysis on sender-to-receiver IP routing networks. Our study shows the dynamic nature of email spam over one and a half decades and demonstrate that the email spam business is not dying but more capricious.
Ashraf Mohamed A.Mohsen
The study deals great issue of digital preservation that is e-mail archiving, it covered all aspects of the topic; it discuss: e-mail system, components of e-mail message, advantages and disadvantages of e-mail, official e-mail messages, management of e-mail messages, organizing and arrangement of e-mail messages, keeping and deleting messages, archiving e-mail messages, and some related issues like: privacy and security.
Delsignore, Aba; Rufer, Michael; Emmerich, Juliane; Weidt, Steffi; Brühl, Annette Beatrix; Moergeli, Hanspeter
The present study evaluates the impact of semi-individualized e-mail support as an adjunct to cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on dropout and outcome. The effectiveness of additional semi-individualized e-mail support was evaluated for the whole sample and for a subsample of patients at risk of dropping out of therapy. A total of 91 patients with SAD were allocated either to the intervention condition (CBGT with e-mail support), or to the control condition (CBGT without e-mail support). Anxiety symptoms, depression, global symptomatology and life satisfaction were assessed at pretreatment, post-treatment and follow-up (3, 6 and 12 months). From pre-treatment to post-treatment, both groups improved significantly on all symptom measures. Therapy gains were maintained at the 1-year follow-up. Subsample analyses showed that CBGT+e-mail was more effective than CGBT alone in reducing symptom severity among patients missing at least two therapy sessions. Additionally, in this subgroup, those receiving additional e-mail support showed a tendency towards lower dropout rates. Based on the results of this study, semi-individualized e-mail support between sessions seems to enhance the effectiveness of CBGT for SAD patients at risk of dropping out of treatment and should be considered as an additional tool in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
In an ongoing effort to improve quality of the repair requests, a new e-mail confirmation automatic system will be implemented starting from the 21st October. All repair requests transmitted to the TCR (72201) or the FM Helpdesk (77777) will be confirmed in an e-mail to the requestor, provided that the latter has a valid e-mail address in the HR database. The e-mail will contain a reference number, a brief description of the problem, the location and a contact where more information can be obtained. A second e-mail will be sent when the processing of the repair request is finished. We hope that this initiative will improve the transparency and quality of our service. Helpdesk Troubleshooting Requests (reminder) We remind you that all the repair requests and other communication concerning the CERN machine buildings have to be transmitted to the TCR via 72201, whereas the ones concerning tertiary buildings are handled directly by the FM helpdesk under the phone number 77777, i.e. problems on systems and equ...
Mohd Fauzi Haris; Raja Murzaferi Raja Moktar; Saaidi Ismail; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman
Task to protect network and data security is not simple and easy. The more advance ICT technology available in the market, the more dependability to the knowledge, skills and appropriate tools would be in order one to cater these threats. Cyber security threats can be considered almost impossible to be demolished or at least to be avoided totally and what we really need is technical capabilities that may include appropriate knowledge and tools to reduce the cyber threats in the organization. Email is one of the important today's application that is being used by many people all around the globe either they are in corporate organizations, government bodies, students and teachers. The total number of worldwide email accounts is expected to increase from 3.3 billion accounts in 2012 to over 4.3 billion accounts by year-end 2016. This represents an average annual growth rate of 6% over the next four years . Parallel with the increment of the usage, number of abusive and misuse of the email is also reported either in the form of spamming, delivery of malicious file attachments, phishing and others. These show the importance to tighten up the security of the email. This paper will discuss and share actions that have been taken by IT Center to enhance the security of official email application. (author)
Lina, Zhang; Jiang, Meng Hai.
Email has become one of the most important communication tools in modern internet society, and its security is an important issue that can't be ignored. The security requirements of Email can be summarized as confidentiality, integrity, authentication and non-repudiation. Recently many researches on IBE (identify based encrypt) have been carried out to solve these security problems. However, because of IBE's fatal flaws and great advantages of PKI (Public Key Infrastructure), PKI is found to be still irreplaceable especially in the applications based on smart card. In this paper, a construction of security Email is presented, then the design of relatively cryptography algorithms and the configuration of certificates are elaborated, and finally the security for the proposed system is discussed.
Luke, Melissa; Gordon, Cynthia
This article is a discourse analysis of weekly computer-mediated communications between 8 school counseling interns and their e-mail supervisor over a 16-week semester. Course-required e-mail supervision was provided as an adjunct to traditional face-to-face individual and group supervision. School counselor supervisees and supervisor enacted 3…
Salleh, Amla; Hamzah, Ramlan; Nordin, Norazah; Ghavifekr, Simin; Joorabchi, Toktam Namyandeh
Despite numerous studies in increasingly popular online mental health service, the nature of the relationship between online counselors and their clients, particularly in the email modality, deserves more attention. To enhance the knowledge in this area, this study was conducted to explore whether the online counseling relationship could be…
This pocket guide will help businesses to address the most important issues. Its comprehensive approach covers both the technical and the managerial aspects of the subject, offering valuable insights for IT professionals, managers and executives, as well as for individual users of e-mail.
Hardin, J. S.; Sarkis, G.; URC, P. .
We use the Enron email corpus to study relationships in a network by applying six different measures of centrality. Our results came out of an in-semester undergraduate research seminar. The Enron corpus is well suited to statistical analyses at all levels of undergraduate education. Through this article's focus on centrality, students can explore…
On average, more than 90% of email is unwanted junk mail--spam. Many spam messages include annoying promotions for irrelevant products, but others include viruses and pornographic content, which can pose a severe legal issue for schools. Spam puts districts in a difficult situation as schools try to enhance learning in the classroom with advanced…
This is an entry-level 1.5-hour training course aimed to show how to detect and avoid typical security pitfalls encountered when e-mailing and browsing the Web. It is designed for non-technical users of Internet Explorer and Outlook. Register at CTA
CERN’s Computing Rules (Operational Circular No. 5) require that passwords remain confidential and must never be given to anyone, not even helpdesk or other support personnel. If you think that your password could have been exposed then you must immediately change it. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake e-mail messages and Web sites to steal account and identity information from users. This technique is called ‘phishing’. The fake emails often look real and try to trick you into giving your password or other personal data. CERN has recently been targeted by a fake email message which requested users to send their username, password and date of birth. This case was promptly blocked by the CERN Mail Service, however future cases may still occur. Users need to be vigilant for any requests for passwords or personal data. Fake emails should be immediately deleted. In case of questions on this topic, you may contact email@example.com. CERN IT Department
Al Mahmud, A.; Martens, J.B.O.S.
Background: A social networking program has been developed by the Aphasia Union Netherlands (AVN) to enhance communication between older persons with aphasia (PWA) mutually and with their therapists. The medium of communication is email. Aims: The aim of the paper is to understand the email usage
Full Text Available Information users depend heavily on emails’ system as one of the major sources of communication. Its importance and usage are continuously growing despite the evolution of mobile applications, social networks, etc. Emails are used on both the personal and professional levels. They can be considered as official documents in communication among users. Emails’ data mining and analysis can be conducted for several purposes such as: Spam detection and classification, subject classification, etc. In this paper, a large set of personal emails is used for the purpose of folder and subject classifications. Algorithms are developed to perform clustering and classification for this large text collection. Classification based on NGram is shown to be the best for such large text collection especially as text is Bi-language (i.e. with English and Arabic content.
Full Text Available In Internet era E-mail has become the most important mode of communication in every day life. E-mail offers several advantages like secure delivery, speed, cheaper cost, acknowledgement report, transparent service, and distributed environment. As spammers try to induce large amount of spam or unsolicited mails, managing these E-mails’s in an efficient manner requires huge attention. This paper focus on personalizing the E-mail messages after eliminating the spam messages. The basic step starts with pre-processing the documents and classifying the contents into several folders or categories. The next step is to cluster the documents based on the relativeness they have using cosine similarity metric. This clustering approach is carried out using unsupervised method. The mail messages are the parsed through a filter that would identify the spam immediately. Studies on personalization of mails after spam identification, prioritizing the E-mail’s based on the importance and summarization of were also proposed. The results were quiet promising leading to efficient spam identification providing a platform for further improvements to build a domain independent personalizer system.
If you have a CERN e-mail account, you have probably already used one of the popular services that CERN’s IT Department offers to CERN users: the mail2SMS service. It allows any CERN e-mail account holder to send short messages (SMS) free of charge to CERN GSM phone numbers. Further to recent negotiations with our GSM operator, this service has been extended. It is now possible to send short messages free of charge to any Swiss mobile number. This extension of service aims at replacing the similar service that was made available by SWITCH(1) to CERN users (address: firstname.lastname@example.org). Because of repeated abuse, this service will be definitively stopped for CERN users on 15th January 2010. Please keep in mind that CERN’s e-mail to SMS service still has some restrictions: messages can only be sent from CERN mail accounts, and not from personal ones, such as GMAIL, MSN, Yahoo; the maximum length of the message is 160 characters (standard maximum SMS length); and only Swiss mobile...
According to the CNIC Security Policy for Control Systems (EDMS #584092), interactive emailing on PCs (and other devices) connected to the Technical Network is prohibited. Please note that from November 6th, neither reading emails nor sending emails interactively using e.g. Outlook or Pine mail clients on PCs connected to the Technical Network will be possible anymore. However, automatically generated emails will not be blocked and can still be sent off using CERNMX.CERN.CH as mail server. These restrictions DO NOT apply to PCs connected to any other network, like the General Purpose (or office) network. If you have questions, please do not hesitate to contact Uwe Epting, Pierre Charrue or Stefan Lueders (Technical-Network.Administrator@cern.ch). Your CNIC Working Group
Radin, Benjamin Theodore
The purpose of this study was to test the relationship between the type of school-to-home communication (regularly sent, structured emails versus ad hoc emails), the originator of these emails (teacher or student), and Parental Involvement (PI) as measured according to the frequency of email contact and distribution of student and parent emails…
Full Text Available A key problem for critical media practice is how to assess accurately the technological impact, historical significance and cultural consequences of a particular change in a communications system. Contemporary theorising about the impact of electronic, digitally networked culture is often articulated within an eschatological narrative of apocalypse and last things. The old is cast as naive and redundant while the new appears triumphant, conquering and redemptive. Washing away the sins of the old, the new technology arrives, it seems, out of nowhere. In response to such socio-technological representations, this paper argues that the dialectic between old and new communication systems is more complex than has been assumed by contemporary media theory. Rather than a narrative of radical changes, decisive shifts and abrupt breaks, the relation between epistolary and email technology reveals certain continuities. Specifically, tropes of presence and intimacy are traced through three media sites: a "virtual community" of British nineteenth-century letter writers, the postcard correspondence of an Australian First World War soldier and a twenty first century email discussion list. Mapping these sites reveals a central paradox of technological and discursive cultural practice, namely, that material signifiers can be used to produce incorporeal presence.
Atherton, Helen; Sawmynaden, Prescilla; Meyer, Barbara; Car, Josip
Email is a popular and commonly-used method of communication, but its use in health care is not routine. Where email communication has been utilised in health care, its purposes have included the coordination of healthcare appointments and attendance reminders, but the effects of using email in this way are not known. This review considers the use of email for the coordination of healthcare appointments and reminders for attendance; particularly scheduling, rescheduling and cancelling healthcare appointments, and providing prompts/reminders for attendance at appointments. To assess the effects of using email for the coordination of healthcare appointments and attendance reminders, compared to other forms of coordinating appointments and reminders, on outcomes for health professionals, patients and carers, and health services, including harms. We searched: the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1 2010), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1950 to January 2010), EMBASE (OvidSP) (1980 to January 2010), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1967 to January 2010), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1982 to February 2010),and ERIC (CSA) (1965 to January 2010). We searched grey literature: theses/dissertation repositories, trials registers and Google Scholar (searched July 2010). We used additional search methods: examining reference lists and contacting authors. Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies of interventions that use email for scheduling health appointments, for reminders for a scheduled health appointment or for ongoing coordination of health appointments and that took the form of 1) unsecured email 2) secure email or 3) web messaging. All healthcare professionals, patients and caregivers in all settings were considered. Two review authors independently assessed the titles and abstracts of retrieved
Bashar Awad Al-Shboul
Full Text Available The problem of spam e-mail has gained a tremendous amount of attention. Although entities tend to use e-mail spam filter applications to filter out received spam e-mails, marketing companies still tend to send unsolicited e-mails in bulk and users still receive a reasonable amount of spam e-mail despite those filtering applications. This work proposes a new method for classifying e-mails into spam and non-spam. First, several e-mail content features are extracted and then those features are used for classifying each e-mail individually. The classification results of three different classifiers (i.e. Decision Trees, Random Forests and k-Nearest Neighbor are combined in various voting schemes (i.e. majority vote, average probability, product of probabilities, minimum probability and maximum probability for making the final decision. To validate our method, two different spam e-mail collections were used.
Baker, James R; Phillips, James G
E-mail is a common but problematic work application. A scale was created to measure tendencies to use e-mail to take breaks (e-breaking); and self-esteem and decisional style (vigilance, procrastination, buck-passing, hypervigilance) were used to predict the self-reported and actual e-mail behaviors of 133 participants (students and marketing employees). Individuals who were low in defensive avoidance (buck-passing) engaged in more e-mailing per week, both in time spent on e-mail and message volume. E-breakers were more likely to engage in behavioral procrastination and spent more time on personal e-mail.
M. Tariq Banday
Simple Mail Transport Protocol is the most widely adopted protocol for e-mail delivery. However, it lackssecurity features for privacy, authentication of sending party, integrity of e-mail message, nonrepudiationand consistency of e-mail envelope. To make e-mail communication secure and private,e-mail servers incorporate one or more security features using add-on security protocols. The add-onsecurity protocols provide a reasonable security but have several limitations. This paper discussesli...
Rahman, Synthia Bintey
Facebook and email have become widely used communication media to Internet users. University students are a major part of Internet users and they use email and Facebook for multiple communication purposes. This research investigates the context of using Facebook and email by university students, the context of choosing any of the medium in respective communication over the last two years, and student perceptions with regard to Facebook and email as communication media. This study was accompli...
Kersten, Larry; Phillips, Stephen R.
Traditionally, e-mail (electronic mail) has been seen as an efficient communications medium for the transmission of simple, routine, unambiguous messages. More recent research has argued that the simple, efficient view of e-mail is incomplete. Future research should be extended into the strategic and symbolic functions of email, such as the use of…
P. Chaipornkaew (Piyanuch); T. Prexawanprasut (Takorn); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
textabstractOne of the most powerful internet communication channels is email. As employees and their clients communicate primarily via email, much crucial business data is conveyed via email content. Where businesses are understandably concerned, they need a sophisticated workflow management
Alzu'bi, Mohammad Akram mohammad; Sabha, Muhannad Rushdi Nimer
This study aimed at investigating the role of Mobile-based Email in improving Ajloun College English Students' Achievement. It attempts to answer the following questions: What is the potential contribution of mobile-based email exchanged to writing skills? What is the potential contribution of mobile-based email exchanged to vocabulary…
Writing status-congruent emails is a skill that requires high pragmatic competence and awareness of the politeness conventions and email etiquette that need to be followed. Planning and composing such emails pose a greater challenge for EFL learners who use English in "lingua franca" communication (ELF), as they not only often struggle…
P. Chaipornkaew (Piyanuch); T. Prexawanprasut (Takorn); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
textabstractEmail is one of the most powerful tools for communication. Many businesses use email as the main channel for communication, so it is possible that substantial data are included in email content. In order to help businesses grow faster, a workflow management system may be required. The
Hoiriyah, Hoiriyah; Sugiantoro, Bambang; Prayudi, Yudi
Email merupakan salah satu fasilitas internet yang banyak digunakan untuk komunikasi dan bertukar informasi. Hal ini memungkinkan pihak ketiga menyalahgunakan email untuk mendapatkan informasi secara ilegal dengan mengubah identitas pengirim email dan menjadikannya seperti email yang berasal dari email yang sah (legitimate email), aktivitas tersebut biasa dikenal dengan istilah email spoofing. Untuk dapat mendeteksi adanya email spoofing, maka perlu adanya investigasi forensik email terhadap ...
Email attacks comprise an overwhelming majority of the daily attacks on modern enterprise. "Phishing" is the leading attack vector for the world's most dangerous threats such as the so-called, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), and hacktivist groups such as Anonymous and LulzSec. The leading mitigation strategy is a combination of user…
van der Meij, Hans; Boersma, Kerst
Email was embedded in a project in design and technology education in elementary school. During four lessons children worked in groups on building a flying object. These groups communicated through email with groups of children from another school. The analyses of the emails, as viewed from
Meyer, Barbara; Atherton, Helen; Sawmynaden, Prescilla; Car, Josip
As medical care becomes more complex and the ability to test for conditions grows, pressure on healthcare providers to convey increasing volumes of test results to patients is driving investigation of alternative technological solutions for their delivery. This review addresses the use of email for communicating results of diagnostic medical investigations to patients. To assess the effects of using email for communicating results of diagnostic medical investigations to patients, compared to SMS/ text messaging, telephone communication or usual care, on outcomes, including harms, for health professionals, patients and caregivers, and health services. We searched: the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1 2010), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1950 to January 2010), EMBASE (OvidSP) (1980 to January 2010), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1967 to January 2010), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1982 to February 2010), and ERIC (CSA) (1965 to January 2010). We searched grey literature: theses/dissertation repositories, trials registers and Google Scholar (searched July 2010). We used additional search methods: examining reference lists and contacting authors. Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies of interventions using email for communicating results of any diagnostic medical investigations to patients, and taking the form of 1) unsecured email 2) secure email or 3) web messaging. All healthcare professionals, patients and caregivers in all settings were considered. Two review authors independently assessed the titles and abstracts of retrieved citations. No studies were identified for inclusion. Consequently, no data collection or analysis was possible. No studies met the inclusion criteria, therefore there are no results to report on the use of email for communicating results of diagnostic medical
Lioma, Christina; Moens, Marie-Francine; Gomez, Juan Carlos; De Beer, Jan; Bergholz, Andre; Paass, Gerhard; Horkan, Patrick
Salting is the intentional addition or distortion of content, aimed to evade automatic filtering. Salting is usually found in spam emails. Salting can also be hidden in phishing emails, which aim to steal personal information from users. We present a novel method that detects hidden salting tricks as visual anomalies in text. We solely use these salting tricks to successfully classify emails as phishing (F-measure >90%).
Perer, Adam; Shneiderman, Ben; Oard, Douglas W
...: analyzing the temporal rhythms of social relationships. We provide methods for constructing meaningful rhythms from the email headers by identifying relationships and interpreting their attributes. With these visualization techniques, email archive explorers can uncover insights that may have been otherwise hidden in the archive. We apply our methods to an individual's fifteen-year email archive, which consists of about 45,000 messages and over 4,000 relationships.
Baroni, Brian; Cook, Linda; Keitelman, Marian; Miller, Steven; Wardle, Adelia
Based on a class project that developed leadership communication competencies for seven levels of Army civilians, email was found to be the most prevalent means of communication, regardless of leadership level...
Eka Nugraha Putra
Full Text Available The Internet is part of the development of technology, where the internet provides many impacts, both positive and negative. Currently, privacy issues on the internet have also become a complicated legal issue, this is due to quite a number of privacy-related issues, but not all countries in the world manage privacy issues on the internet. As a means of communicating the Internet has introduced e-mail that provides convenience and practicality. But in its development e-mail has an adverse impact on its users in the form of e-mail spam. In terms of its actions, sending spam e-mail is quite a disadvantage, even violate the privacy. Some countries have also set it to one type of cybercrime (cybercrime. This research will discuss e-mail spam in Indonesia, how the legislation in Indonesia see the action of this spam e-mail, is there any possibility of spam e-mail is criminalized as a cybercrime. The research will also look at how spam e-mails violate privacy and review and analyze internet privacy settings in Indonesia in relation to the criminalization of spam email.
Shirren, S; Phillips, J G
To understand the use of technology to support interpersonal interaction, a theory of decisional style was applied to email use within the workplace. Previous research has used self-report and rating scales to address employee email behaviours, but this falls short of management's capability to monitor the actual behaviour. Thirty-nine employed individuals completed a five-day communication diary recording their actual behaviour upon receiving personal and work-related emails as well as the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. It was found that vigilant individuals were more likely to use email in an efficient manner by deleting personal email and being less likely to open email later. Procrastinators, buckpassers and people experiencing high levels of negative affect were all more likely to delay dealing with email, which could be viewed as dealing with email in a less efficient manner. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work offers insights as to how people receive and process emails and is thus relevant to the development and implementation of collaborative technologies. Whilst other studies use individual's self-reports, this study uses a more accurate communication diary. Decisional style can predict the monitoring and response to electronic communication.
Brock, Betsy; Carlson, Samantha C; Moilanen, Molly; Schillo, Barbara A
Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646) were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%), content on tobacco company websites (39.1%), and tobacco coupons (15.7%). Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52-2.37). Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.
Full Text Available Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646 were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%, content on tobacco company websites (39.1%, and tobacco coupons (15.7%. Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52–2.37. Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.
Gilat, Itzhak; Reshef, Eyal
The present research examined the perceived helpfulness of an increasingly widespread mode of psychological assistance, namely, emotional first aid via email. The sample comprised 62 naturally occurring email interactions between distressful clients and trained volunteers operating within the framework of the Israeli Association for Emotional…
Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Maier, David J.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of their peer's credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at a community college in Michigan where all students were registered and actively taking at least one course. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence other…
Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Scafe, Marla G.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate faculty perceptions of student credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence the…
Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of faculty credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a faculty member's selection of an email address does…
The study deals with the effect of instruction and study abroad (SA) on pragmatic knowledge. More specifically, the focus is on gains in explicit knowledge of request mitigators, and whether learners draw on this knowledge when they perform email requests. Email requests produced by 60 Spanish students staying abroad (30 treatment/30 control…
Barron, Greg; Yechiam, Eldad
Discussion of e-mail technology and requesting information from multiple sources simultaneously focuses on an experiment demonstrating that addressing e-mails simultaneously to multiple recipients may actually reduce the number of helpful responses. Discusses diffusion of responsibility and implications for the application of social cueing theory…
This paper examines the controversy of e-mail privacy in the workplace. Once an employee uses an e-mail system that belongs to the employer, according to recent case law, their privacy rights are forfeited. Employers will now have to start creating policies to safeguard themselves from expensive litigation, and employees will have to be more…
M. Tariq Banday
Full Text Available Electronic Mail (E-Mail, which is one of the most widely used applications of Internet, has become a global communication infrastructure service.Â However, security loopholes in it enable cybercriminals to misuse it by forging its headers or by sending it anonymously for illegitimate purposes, leading to e-mail forgeries. E-mail messages include transit handling envelope and trace information in the form of structured fields which are not stripped after messages are delivered, leaving a detailed record of e-mail transactions.Â A detailed header analysis can be used to map the networks traversed by messages, including information on the messaging software and patching policies of clients and gateways, etc. Cyber forensic e-mail analysis is employed to collect credible evidence to bring criminals to justice. This paper projects the need for e-mail forensic investigation and lists various methods and tools used for its realization. A detailed header analysis of a multiple tactic spoofed e-mail message is carried out in this paper. It also discusses various possibilities for detection of spoofed headers and identification of its originator. Further, difficulties that may be faced by investigators during forensic investigation of an e-mail message have been discussed along with their possible solutions.
Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Glasdam, Mathies
In this paper, we present a fraudulent email detection model using advanced feature choice. We extracted various kinds of features and compared the performance of each category of features with the others in terms of the fraudulent email detection rate. The different types of features...... are incorporated step by step. The detection of fraudulent email has been considered as a classification problem and it is evaluated using various state-of-the art algorithms and on CCM  which is authors' previous cluster based classification model. The experiments have been performed on diverse feature sets...... and the different classification methods. The comparison of the results is also presented and the evaluations shows that for the fraudulent email detection tasks, the feature set is more important regardless of classification method. The results of the study suggest that the task of fraudulent emails detection...
Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika K; Kulovaara, Heidi; Bell, J Simon; Enäkoski, Marianne; Airaksinen, Marja S
The importance of email as a mode of communication between medication users and pharmacists is likely to increase. However, little is known about the email medication counseling practices of community pharmacies. To determine the prevalence of email medication counseling services in Finland and to assess the accuracy and comprehensiveness of responses by pharmacies providing the opportunity for email medication counseling to inquiries related to use of antidepressants. An inventory was made of all Finnish community pharmacies that provided the opportunity for email medication counseling. Data related to the accuracy and comprehensiveness of responses were collected, using a virtual pseudo-customer method with 3 scenarios related to common concerns of patients on antidepressants. Two inquiries were emailed to each pharmacy that provided the opportunity for email medication counseling in January and February 2005. The responses were content analyzed by 2 researchers, using a prestructured scoring system. Almost one-third (30%, n = 182) of Finnish community pharmacies maintained a working Web site, and 94% of those provided the opportunity for email medication counseling. An online "ask-the-pharmacist" service was offered by 13% (n = 23) of the pharmacies with a Web site. Pharmacies responded to 54% of the email inquiries sent by the virtual pseudo-customers. The response rate and the content score ratio between mean and maximum scores varied among the scenarios. The content score ratio was highest for the scenarios concerning the adverse effects of fluoxetine (0.53, n = 55) and interactions with mirtazapine (0.52, n = 63) and lowest for the scenario related to sexual dysfunction and weight gain associated with citalopram (0.38, n = 52). Community pharmacies are potential providers of email medication counseling services. However, more attention should be directed to responding to consumer inquiries and to the content of these responses.
Full Text Available Analyzing E-mail communication of prospective learners Vibha JOSHIAnurag SAXENA Reader School of Management IGNOU, New Delhi, INDIA ABSTRACT Today, computer has replaced all means of communication significantly. E-mail is the most popular means of communication through computers. It has vanished the boundaries between the cities, countries and continents. Earlier Studies that used this medium, had shown evidence of higher quality of responses and also significant cost savings feature of this method (mainly for convenience of dispatch for research purposes. In this communication, an attempt has been made to utilize email responses of prospective learners in education discipline based programs offered through open learning system. The inception of this study is linked to the creation of website (http://www.ignou.ac.in/ and availability of information related to all activated and prospective programs of studies, various school of studies, faculty email addresses and faculty vis-à-vis program coordinator in the University. The present study analyzed 65 email responses received from July 2002 to till date by the researcher on her email ID. These respondents got the email ID from the University website and due to their eagerness to attain qualifications in the field of education/guidance/educational management, sent an e-mail to the program coordinator(s. These email responses were analyzed in order to visualize the learner profiles and viability of the ongoing as well as prospective programs of studies. This paper tries to analyze the e-mail responses of the people who either by surfing IGNOU’s website or from other sources came to know about the various programs of studies offered by the School of Education. The study validates that there is an amount of hidden information even in the curiosity of the learners.
At CERN, with collaborators all over the world, e-mail is inevitably the primary means of communication: we use it for everything from coordinating projects to organising lunches. But e-mail can also be one of the most inefficient means of communication we have! Here's how to fix it. Let’s get straight to the point: we receive too many e-mails. Think about all the e-mails that you deleted without a second thought. Think about the times you’ve unnecessarily been in CC. Take a look at the unread e-mails sitting in your inbox at this very moment, ones that you have no intention of ever looking at. You can, however, tame this overload with a few simple measures and turn e-mail into an important communication and productivity tool. Many recommendations for improving e-mail etiquette suggest an abrasive approach riddled with bullet points. In a vastly multi-cultural setting such as CERN, however this approach may fail. So, here are a few dos and don’ts based o...
Kaur, Kamaljeet; Gupta, Ishu; Singh, Ashutosh Kumar
Protection of digital assets and intellectual property is becoming a challenge for most of the companies. Due to increasing availability of database services on internet, data may be insecure after passing through precarious networks. To protect intellectual property (IP) is a major concern for today's organizations, because a leakage that compromises IP means, sensitive information of a company is in the hands of biggest competitors. Electronic information processing and communication is replacing paper in many applications increasingly. Instead of paper, an email is being used for communication at workplace and from social media logins to bank accounts. Nowadays an email is becoming a mainstream business tool. An email can be misused to leave company’s sensitive data open to compromise. So, it may be of little surprise that attacks on emails are common. So, here we need an email protection system (EPS) that will protect information to leave organization via mail. In this paper, we developed an algorithm that will offer email protection via gateway during data transfer. This algorithm matches the patterns with the keywords stored in the database and then takes the actions accordingly to protect the data. This paper describes why email protection is important? How companies can protect their confidential information from being leaked by insiders.
Astutik Nur Qomariyah
Full Text Available Today, the use of traditional reference desk in the academic libraries has been rarely used, thus expanding or even move to a virtual reference service. A minimum level of virtual reference services are provided in the academic library is currently in general is the electronic mail (e-mail. One of the academic library specifically provide virtual reference services via e-mail is a Petra Christian University (PCU Library (email@example.com.. In such services librarians provide assistance to users in finding information and answer questions. This study aimed to analyze the transaction reference services virtually through e-mail at the PCU Library, with a view of the types of questions based on user background, the writing style of language communication interaction used based on user background, and cultural values are revealed behind the user in virtual reference services (e-mail. This study uses content analysis (content analysis of the transcript e-mail received librarians of reference services began March 10 until June 16, 2015. The results showed that the types of questions asked in reference service virtual (e-mail in the Library UK Petra include: specific search, access online resources, operation of online resources, policies and procedures for services, and library holdings with background the student (PCU and non-PCU, faculty, and librarians. Based on the background of users found that overall more types of questions asked in virtual reference services (e-mail is a problem of access to online resources, and generally submitted by the students. Then, the writing style of the user's language in interaction reference service virtual (e-mail tends to be formal, which includes the word greeting, the message will be delivered, and regards cover, either by the student (PCU and non-PCU, lecturer, or librarians. While cultural values that revealed the background behind the user in virtual reference services (e-mail is obedience, courtesy and
Ebrahim, Nader Ale
Your research findings and publications have to reach thousands of your peers and colleagues by sending an email. If you have recently published a study that would be of interest to others in your field, market it through email. “E-mail marketing” allow the researchers to increase the research impact and citations for their publications. This workshop will provide various techniques to increase the visibility and enhance the impact of researcher’s output by employing the publications E-mail m...
Končar Jelena A.
Full Text Available Direct e-mail marketing refers to approaching customers directly, without employing intermediaries. It represents a direct mode of communication with the target population, which affects the creation of stronger and more loyal relationships with prospective customers, compared to traditional direct marketing resources (TV, radio, print and advertising panels, etc. The main goal of direct e-mail marketing is building long-term "one to one" relationships with current and prospective customers. Direct e-mail marketing is not aimed at momentary sale, but at boosting certain product preferences due to the engagement of numerous electronic media.
Einstein, Michael M.
As business e-mail volumes continue to grow and employees spend increasingly larger portions of their day processing e-mail, there is strong evidence of the negative impacts of e-mail processing, especially with respect to e-mail overload. This study sought to determine whether a training program focused on select e-mail features and processing…
A series of emails between Beemsterboer Slag Corp. and the Air Enforcement department of EPA Region 5 regarding site monitoring, and transportation of pet coke and met coke from facilities in Chicago, Illinois.
O. A. Okunade
Full Text Available The cyber criminals who infect machines with bots are not the same as the spammers who rent botnets to distribute their messages. The activities of these spammers account for the majority of spam emails traffic on the internet. Once their botnets and campaigns are identified, it is not enough to keep on filtering the spam emails, it is necessary to deploy techniques that will carry the fight to their end. It is observed that spammers also take into account server feedback (for example to detect and remove non-existent recipients from email address lists. We can take advantage of this observation by returning fake information, thereby poisoning the server feedback on which the spammers rely. The results of this paper show that by sending misleading information to a spammer, it is possible to prevent recipients from receiving subsequent spam emails from that same spammer.
Astutik Nur Qomariyah
Full Text Available Today, the use of traditional reference desk in the academic libraries has been rarely used, thus expanding or even move to a virtual reference service. A minimum level of virtual reference services are provided in the academic library is currently in general is the electronic mail (e-mail. One of the academic library specifically provide virtual reference services via e-mail is a Petra Christian University (PCU Library (firstname.lastname@example.org.. In such services librarians provide assistance to users in finding information and answer questions. This study aimed to analyze the transaction reference services virtually through e-mail at the PCU Library, with a view of the types of questions based on user background, the writing style of language communication interaction used based on user background, and cultural values are revealed behind the user in virtual reference services (e-mail. This study uses content analysis (content analysis of the transcript e-mail received librarians of reference services began March 10 until June 16, 2015. The results showed that the types of questions asked in reference service virtual (e-mail in the Library UK Petra include: specific search, access online resources, operation of online resources, policies and procedures for services, and library holdings with background the student (PCU and non-PCU, faculty, and librarians. Based on the background of users found that overall more types of questions asked in virtual reference services (e-mail is a problem of access to online resources, and generally submitted by the students. Then, the writing style of the user's language in interaction reference service virtual (e-mail tends to be formal, which includes the word greeting, the message will be delivered, and regards cover, either by the student (PCU and non-PCU, lecturer, or librarians. While cultural values that revealed the background behind the user in virtual reference services (e-mail is obedience, courtesy and
Newman, M. E.; Forrest, Stephanie; Balthrop, Justin
Many computer viruses spread via electronic mail, making use of computer users' email address books as a source for email addresses of new victims. These address books form a directed social network of connections between individuals over which the virus spreads. Here we investigate empirically the structure of this network using data drawn from a large computer installation, and discuss the implications of this structure for the understanding and prevention of computer virus epidemics.
Končar Jelena A.; Vukmirović Goran; Katai Žita
Direct e-mail marketing refers to approaching customers directly, without employing intermediaries. It represents a direct mode of communication with the target population, which affects the creation of stronger and more loyal relationships with prospective customers, compared to traditional direct marketing resources (TV, radio, print and advertising panels, etc). The main goal of direct e-mail marketing is building long-term "one to one" relationships with current and prospective customers....
Cernat, Alexandru; Lynn, Peter
We examine whether propensity to participate in a web-CAPI mixed-mode survey is influenced by being contacted by email in addition to mail. In panel surveys, researchers can ask at each wave for an email address, but there is little evidence regarding the value of doing so. Using data from a large sample with an experimental design (IP5) we find that using a respondent-supplied email address to send additional invites and reminders does not affect response rates compared to using mailed invit...
Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in using email for delivering various types of messages such as social, financial, etc. There are also people who use email messages to promote products and services or even to do criminal activities called Spam email. These unwanted messages are sent to different target population for different purposes and there is a growing interest to develop methods to filter such email messages. This paper presents a method to filter Spam email messages based on the keyword pattern. In this article, a multi-agent filter trade based on the Bayes rule, which has benefit of using the users’ interest, keywords and investigation the message content according to its topic, has been used. Then Nested Neural Network has been used to detect the spam messages. To check the authenticity of this proposed method, we test it for a couple of email messages, so that it could determine spams and hams from each other, effectively. The result shows the superiority of this method over the previous ones including filters with Multi-Layer Perceptron that detect spams.
Mario A. Brondani DDS, MSc, PhD
Full Text Available This article explores several aspects of electronic communication, specifically its advantages and disadvantages within the context of a brief experience using email to interview elders. Two older adults participated via email as the psychosocial impact of aging was collected using such venue. Our experiences are compared with published reports from others to analyze the benefits and limitations of email as a research tool. The email was spontaneous, comprehensive, interactive, efficient, confidential, and cost effective. The use of email within this exploratory study appeared to be an effective approach to collecting qualitative information about beliefs and behaviours from older adults who feel comfortable with this form of communication. The lack of similar studies limited the scope of discussion and comparison of findings; generalization is limited due to the small sample size. This investigation, however, suggested that the use of email as an interview tool may be considered in today's exploratory research arena as an alternative to conference calls or face-to-face interviews when time is a constraint.
Full Text Available In this paper we present a model for email authorship identification (EAI by employing a Cluster-based Classification (CCM technique. Traditionally, stylometric features have been successfully employed in various authorship analysis tasks; we extend the traditional feature set to include some more interesting and effective features for email authorship identification (e.g., the last punctuation mark used in an email, the tendency of an author to use capitalization at the start of an email, or the punctuation after a greeting or farewell. We also included Info Gain feature selection based content features. It is observed that the use of such features in the authorship identification process has a positive impact on the accuracy of the authorship identification task. We performed experiments to justify our arguments and compared the results with other base line models. Experimental results reveal that the proposed CCM-based email authorship identification model, along with the proposed feature set, outperforms the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM-based models, as well as the models proposed by Iqbal et al. (2010, 2013 [1,2]. The proposed model attains an accuracy rate of 94% for 10 authors, 89% for 25 authors, and 81% for 50 authors, respectively on Enron dataset, while 89.5% accuracy has been achieved on authors’ constructed real email dataset. The results on Enron dataset have been achieved on quite a large number of authors as compared to the models proposed by Iqbal et al. [1,2].
Mark, Karen E.; Wald, Anna; Drolette, Linda; Golden, Matthew R.
Background Little data exist on Internet and email use among STD clinic patients for research and clinical care communication. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional survey of STD clinic patients aged ≥ 18 years in Seattle, Washington, March 13–22, 2006. Results Of 489 study period patients, 251 (51%) completed the questionnaire. Participants had a median age of 30 (range 18–66) years and were 69% male, 56% White, 19% African-American, 9% Hispanic, and 7% Asian/Pacific Islander. 75% had some post-secondary education but half reported an annual income of email that they check at least 3 times a week, and 144 (57%) were willing to receive an email reminding them to come back for a follow-up appointment if diagnosed with an STD. MSM were more likely than women and heterosexual men to be regular Internet and email users (92% versus 70%, p = 0.001) and to have met a sex partner over the Internet during the past year (69% versus 11%, p email use, as was racial/ethnic background (86% of Whites, 48% of African-Americans, 73% of Hispanics, 100% of Asians/Pacific Islanders, and 57% of others, p email use are common and acceptable to many STD clinic patients for research and clinical purposes. PMID:18685548
Schiller, Jocelyn H; Christner, Jennifer G; Stansfield, Robert Brent; Watnick, Caroline S; Mullan, Patricia B
Physician-patient email communication is increasing but trainees receive no education on this communication medium. Research eliciting patient preferences about email communication could inform training. Investigators elicited parents' perspectives on physician-parent email communication and compared parent and faculty assessments of medical students' emails. This mixed methods study explored physician-parent email communication in 5 parent focus groups using qualitative analyses to identify themes. Differences between faculty and parent assessment scores for students' email responses were calculated using univariate general linear modeling. Themes that emerged were: (1) Building the Relationship, (2) Clarity of Communication and (3) Expectations. Parents criticized student's statements as condescending. The sum of assessment scores by parents and faculty were moderately correlated (r(44)=.407, Pparents gave students lower scores on "acknowledges validity/expresses empathy" (P=.01) and higher scores on "provides next steps" (PParents place value on students' abilities to communicate clearly and convey respect and empathy in email. Parent and faculty perspectives on email communication are similar but not the same. Differences between parental and faculty assessments of medical students' emails supports the need for the involvement of patients and families in email communication curriculum development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sutherland, Melissa A; Amar, Angela F; Laughon, Kathryn
Students aged 16-24 years are at greatest risk for interpersonal violence and the resulting short and long-term health consequences. Electronic survey methodology is well suited for research related to interpersonal violence. Yet methodological questions remain about best practices in using electronic surveys. While researchers often indicate that potential participants receive multiple emails as reminders to complete the survey, little mention is made of the sender of the recruitment email. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the response rates from three violence-focused research studies when the recruitment emails are sent from a campus office, researcher or survey sampling firm. Three violence-focused studies were conducted about interpersonal violence among college students in the United States. Seven universities and a survey sampling firm were used to recruit potential participants to complete an electronic survey. The sender of the recruitment emails varied within and across the each of the studies depending on institutional review boards and university protocols. An overall response rate of 30% was noted for the 3 studies. Universities in which researcher-initiated recruitment emails were used had higher response rates compared to universities where campus officials sent the recruitment emails. Researchers found lower response rates to electronic surveys at Historically Black Colleges or Universities and that other methods were needed to improve response rates. The sender of recruitment emails for electronic surveys may be an important factor in response rates for violence-focused research. For researchers identification of best practices for survey methodology is needed to promote accurate disclosure and increase response rates.
Melissa A Sutherland
Full Text Available Introduction: Students aged 16–24 years are at greatest risk for interpersonal violence and the resulting short and long-term health consequences. Electronic survey methodology is well suited for research related to interpersonal violence. Yet methodological questions remain about best practices in using electronic surveys. While researchers often indicate that potential participants receive multiple emails as reminders to complete the survey, little mention is made of the sender of the recruitment email. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the response rates from three violence-focused research studies when the recruitment emails are sent from a campus office, researcher or survey sampling firm. Methods: Three violence-focused studies were conducted about interpersonal violence among college students in the United States. Seven universities and a survey sampling firm were used to recruit potential participants to complete an electronic survey. The sender of the recruitment emails varied within and across the each of the studies depending on institutional review boards and university protocols.Results: An overall response rate of 30% was noted for the 3 studies. Universities in which researcher initiated recruitment emails were used had higher response rates compared to universities where campus officials sent the recruitment emails. Researchers found lower response rates to electronic surveys at Historically Black Colleges or Universities and that other methods were needed to improve response rates.Conclusion: The sender of recruitment emails for electronic surveys may be an important factor in response rates for violence-focused research. For researchers identification of best practices for survey methodology is needed to promote accurate disclosure and increase response rates. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:363–369.
Full Text Available It is a relatively new field that examines how Korean culture affects Korean language use in terms of age difference in a corpus of computer mediated email discourse. The purpose of this descriptive study and experiment is to prove the close relationship between Korean language and culture. This paper shows the descriptive study of Korean culture in relation to language use. Korean culture acknowledges an inherent hierarchy with regard to age, and considers [+age] as relating socially to [+power]. When younger Koreans converse with older ones, they express different morpho-syntactic patterns, which is an age complex. The main task of the experiment was to examine the way through which the age complex is reflected by Korean honorific linguistic system in email discourse. I asked 15 Korean native speakers between the ages of 20 to 25 to write emails expressing an impositive request to [+age (46-50 years old], [-age (below 25 years old] and [=age] recipients. The results show significant differences in the use of grammatical features in emails written to [+age] recipients, as compared to emails written to [-age] and [=age] recipients. The implication of the findings is that the cultural values that are attached to age and aging in the Korean society affects Koreans’ language use, which means Korean language and culture are closely intermingled.
Full Text Available In the world of Internet nothing is really safe. There's always a gap in any application made. Likewise in email delivery. To minimize attacks on the data transmission is usually applied cryptography. One fairly popular cryptographic algorithms are RSA algorithm. In this study will discuss the implementation of a cryptographic algorithm RSA encryption and decryption process email. To test created a java-based email client program with message encryption and decryption features messages. This application uses the Java programming language and Netbeans 7.4 as editor. Mail servers used is Google Mail. The initial step of this study was to download email from the Google server and encrypt the message. The second step is decrypt the message to verify whether the message is still the same as the original message before it is encrypted . Results from this study is the application that can encrypt and decrypt messages using RSA cryptographic algorithm. With this application is expected to mail delivery is much safer. Because encrypted email will generate a random decimal number of unknown value .
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a fraudulent email detection model using advanced feature choice. We extracted various kinds of features and compared the performance of each category of features with the others in terms of the fraudulent email detection rate. The different types of features are incorporated step by step. The detection of fraudulent email has been considered as a classification problem and it is evaluated using various state-of-the art algorithms and on CCM (Nizamani et al., 2011  which is authors’ previous cluster based classification model. The experiments have been performed on diverse feature sets and the different classification methods. The comparison of the results is also presented and the evaluation show that for the fraudulent email detection tasks, the feature set is more important regardless of classification method. The results of the study suggest that the task of fraudulent emails detection requires the better choice of feature set; while the choice of classification method is of less importance.
Full Text Available Social network analysis aims to obtain relational data from social systems to identify leaders, roles, and communities in order to model profiles or predict a specific behavior in users’ network. Preserving anonymity in social networks is a subject of major concern. Anonymity can be compromised by disclosing senders’ or receivers’ identity, message content, or sender-receiver relationships. Under strongly incomplete information, a statistical disclosure attack is used to estimate the network and node characteristics such as centrality and clustering measures, degree distribution, and small-world-ness. A database of email networks in 29 university faculties is used to study the method. A research on the small-world-ness and Power law characteristics of these email networks is also developed, helping to understand the behavior of small email networks.
Portela, Javier; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Silva Trujillo, Alejandra Guadalupe; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; Kim, Tai-Hoon
Social network analysis aims to obtain relational data from social systems to identify leaders, roles, and communities in order to model profiles or predict a specific behavior in users’ network. Preserving anonymity in social networks is a subject of major concern. Anonymity can be compromised by disclosing senders’ or receivers’ identity, message content, or sender-receiver relationships. Under strongly incomplete information, a statistical disclosure attack is used to estimate the network and node characteristics such as centrality and clustering measures, degree distribution, and small-world-ness. A database of email networks in 29 university faculties is used to study the method. A research on the small-world-ness and Power law characteristics of these email networks is also developed, helping to understand the behavior of small email networks. PMID:27809275
K. M. Rezanur RAHMAN
Full Text Available Today computer has replaced all means of traditional communication significantly. Many distant learning tools claim to be interactive, but few can offer two-way communication. Email is the most popular means of communication medium now-a-days. Therefore, it may be used as an educational tool for learning. In present socio-economic condition of Bangladesh, learners can afford computer, cell phone and Internet. We took this opportunity to investigate the prospective use of these tools for distant learning. The present survey has been carried out to understand the present status of Internet knowledge among the learners and their views for possible introduction of e-mail communication as supporting tool for learning. BOU’s available infrastructural facilities for providing Internet support have been investigated. Furthermore, possible solutions have been pointed out to provide e-mail facility to the learner in a cost effective way.
The purpose of this article is to report on some of the preliminary results of an on-going study on the use of discourse strategies in e-mail negotiation. The analysis aims at showing how relations between the participants develop through the use of specific discourse strategies in their e......-mail communication which covers a period of three months, during which the relationship progresses from initial contact to on-going business. Drawing on Hyland's (2005) concept of metadiscourse combined with Charles' (1996) categories of ‘old and new relationship negotiations', this study provides insights...
Following the recent e-mail viruses you are asked to be cautious when opening e-mail attachments on your PC. Attachments that are apparently harmless might hide active content producing nasty effects as soon as they are opened. Some of these so called 'Trojan horses' can conceal themselves in very attractive pictures and funny slide shows.On the PC Windows infrastructure, CERN runs software to protect users from known viruses, but new ones can sometimes arrive before our software recognises them. They can enter your system when you open an attachment. To remove them it may be necessary to re-install the Windows software on your PC.
If you're an experienced programmer willing to crunch data, this concise guide will show you how to use machine learning to work with email. You'll learn how to write algorithms that automatically sort and redirect email based on statistical patterns. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White approach the process in a practical fashion, using a case-study driven approach rather than a traditional math-heavy presentation. This book also includes a short tutorial on using the popular R language to manipulate and analyze data. You'll get clear examples for analyzing sample data and writing machi
Raluca Dania TODOR
Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to try to emphasize the e-mail marketing campaigns importance and efficiency and the way they increase the interaction between a company and potential customers and to increase their interest in a company’s products and services and finally trigger the buying decision. Also the present paper’s aim is to exemplify how business can gain benefits by using marketing automation tools like e-mail marketing campaigns which is considered nowadays a form of direct marketing which is less expensive than the traditional direct marketing alternatives.
The aim of this study is to shed light on questions of “multiple translatorship” and particularly on translation collaboration processes. The empirical material consists of more than three hundred e-mails exchanged between two co-translators who translated Claudio Magris’s novel Alla cieca (2005......) into Danish. The theoretical framework presents a double perspective through which the e-mail correspondence is studied: on the one hand, as an ethnographic “thick description” (focusing on translation as an event), with the aim of uncovering who the agents involved are, how they interact, and what...
Bacci, Tina Marie
This dissertation examines the social affordances of workplace email use. Through group and individual interviews of six knowledge workers in a distributed real estate firm, it explores the extent workplace writers recognize and rely on extra-textual devices (i.e., copy, blind-copy, and forward devices) and email applications (i.e., email…
Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Menon, R. G. Vishnu; Sigurdarson, Johannes Pall; Kristjansson, Jon Skafti; Foxall, Gordon R.
An e-mail marketing experiment based on the behavioral perspective model was conducted to investigate consumer choice. Conversion e-mails were sent to two groups from the same marketing database of registered consumers interested in children's books. The experiment was based on A-B-A-C-A and A-C-A-B-A withdrawal designs and consisted of sending B…
Présentation orale en français, support visuel en anglais. À travers des exemples concrets, vous consoliderez vos connaissances et pourrez ainsi réajuster vos habitudes concernant l’utilisation sécurisée de votre boîte e-mail et de votre navigateur Web.
Serafin, Ana Gil
This study examined the e-mail interactions of teachers who were graduate students in an educational leadership program at a commuter university. Participants attended a 3-hour-per-week course. The instructor inserted into the course syllabus an assessment plan that required computer use, making the students responsible for accessing the…
In this paper I seek to deconstruct internet-based communication. I highlight Derrida’s focus on the margins and in-betweens of communication, and relate it to the genre of e-mail. I argue (i) that the silence between the dialogic turns becomes more marked, while (ii) the separation of present an...
Frantic troubleshooting by an overworked staff versus someone else fixing problems smoothly. A sliver of server space per person versus a five-gigabyte chunk. Half a million dollars versus free. That's what colleges are faced with as they decide whether to continue running their own e-mail services or outsource them to a professional service like…
Legg, Angela M.; Wilson, Janie H.
Traditionally, professors use the first day of class to build rapport. However, current technology allows professors to contact students prior to the first day of class. This study assessed how the receipt of a welcoming e-mail from a female professor 1 week before the first day of class affected student motivation and attitudes toward the…
CERN’s Computing Rules (Operational Circular No. 5) require that passwords remain confidential and never be given to anyone, not even helpdesk or other support personnel. If you think that your password could have been exposed then you must immediately change it. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake e-mail messages and Web sites to steal account and identity information from users. This technique is called ‘phishing’. The fake e-mails often look real and try to trick you into giving your password or other personal data. CERN has recently been targeted by a fake e-mail message which requested users to send their username, password and date of birth. This case was promptly blocked by the CERN Mail Service, but future cases may still occur. Users need to be vigilant regarding any requests for passwords or personal data. Fake e-mails should be immediately deleted. In case of questions on this topic, you may contact mailto:email@example.com. CERN IT Department
Skovholt, Karianne; Grønning, Anette; Kankaanranta, Anne
CMC research presents emoticons as visual representations of writers' emotions. We argue that the emoticons in authentic workplace e-mails do not primarily indicate writers' emotions. Rather, they provide information about how an utterance is supposed to be interpreted. We show that emoticons...
Gabriela Dumbravă; Adriana Koronka
Starting from the premise that electronic mail has experienced an explosive development throughout the world over the past few years, gaining substantial territory in the field of business communication, the paper focuses on the basic elements of email etiquette and on their importance in writing an effective and competitive electronic message. adapted to the context and purpose of professional writing.
Carmen Pérez Sabater
Full Text Available Approaches to the linguistic characteristics of computer-mediated communication (CMC have highlighted the frequent oral traits involved in electronic mail along with features of written language. But email is today a new communication exchange medium in social, professional and academic settings, frequently used as a substitute for the traditional formal letter. The oral characterizations and linguistic formality involved in this use of emails are still in need of research. This paper explores the formal and informal features in emails based on a corpus of messages exchanged by academic institutions, and studies the similarities and differences on the basis of their mode of communication (one-to-one or one-to-many and the sender’s mother tongue (native or nonnative. The language samples collected were systematically analyzed for formality of greetings and farewells, use of contractions, politeness indicators and non-standard linguistic features. The findings provide new insights into traits of orality and formality in email communication and demonstrate the emergence of a new style in writing for even the most important, confidential and formal purposes which seems to be forming a new sub-genre of letter-writing.
Barton, Erin E.; Fuller, Elizabeth A.; Schnitz, Alana
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of performance feedback on preservice teachers' use of recommended practices within inclusive early childhood classrooms. A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to examine the relation between performance feedback delivered via email and practicum students' use of target-recommended…
Rahman, K. M. Rezanur; Anwar, Sadat; Numan, Sharker Md.
Today computer has replaced all means of traditional communication significantly. Many distant learning tools claim to be interactive, but few can offer two-way communication. Email is the most popular means of communication medium now-a-days. Therefore, it may be used as an educational tool for learning. In present socioeconomic condition of…
Verheij, R.; Ton, C.; Tates, K.
Introduction: The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care reported in 2005 that 70% of internet users would want to have the opportunity to consult their own general practitioner by e-mail . Since January 1, 2006, general practitioners in the Netherlands are reimbursed 4.50 euro for
Sawmynaden, Prescilla; Atherton, Helen; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip
Email is a popular and commonly used method of communication, but its use in health care is not routine. Its application in health care has included the provision of information on disease prevention and health promotion, but the effects of using email in this way are not known. This review assesses the use of email for the provision of information on disease prevention and health promotion. To assess the effects of email for the provision of information on disease prevention and health promotion, compared to standard mail or usual care, on outcomes for healthcare professionals, patients and caregivers, and health services, including harms. We searched: the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group Specialised Register (January 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1 2010), MEDLINE (1950 to January 2010), EMBASE (1980 to January 2010), CINAHL (1982 to February 2010), ERIC (1965 to January 2010) and PsycINFO (1967 to January 2010). We searched grey literature: theses/dissertation repositories, trials registers and Google Scholar (searched July 2010). We used additional search methods: examining reference lists, contacting authors. Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies examining interventions where email is used by healthcare professionals to provide information to patients on disease prevention and health promotion, and taking the form of 1) unsecured email 2) secure email or 3) web messaging. We considered healthcare professionals or associated administrative staff as participants originating the email communication, and patients and caregivers as participants receiving the email communication, in all settings. Email communication was one-way from healthcare professionals or associated administrative staff originating the email communication, to patients or caregivers receiving the email communication. Two
Kunderewicz, Larisa; Michener, Stacey; Chambliss, Catherine
College students (N=151) completed surveys assessing the relationship between e-mail use and extraversion. The variables studied included time spent on e-mail; the frequency of e-mail usage; and the purposes e-mail served for each student. The results suggest that extraverts use e-mail as a form of procrastination more than introverts, and that…
Full Text Available The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via e-mail by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners’ writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of Oxford English Language Placement Test (OELPT the students' proficiency level seems to be nearly the same. Participants were randomly assign into two groups of experimental and control, each consisting of 25 students. After the administration of the proficiency test, all groups were assigned to write topic 1 as the pre-test. Next, the teacher involved the learners in the new instruction (treatment. During writing topics 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 experimental group’s background knowledge was activated through e-mail before writing and e-mailing topics while the control group received no background knowledge activation through e-mail. After the treatment was given to the experimental group, the students in both groups were required to write another composition about the last topic, topic 8. Again, in this phase, none of the groups received any background information. The results indicated that providing background information via e-mail by the teacher to write e-mail by the students significantly improved learners’ writing ability.
Sundqvist, Anett; Rönnberg, Jerker
The aim of this study was to introduce email as a form of interaction for a group of six children who used augmentative and alternative communication. In a 12-week exploratory study, aspects of the email messages sent were analyzed. The content of the messages was analyzed by an inductive qualitative method, and seven descriptive categories emerged. The most frequently occurring categories were Social Etiquette, Personal/Family Statistics and Personal Common Ground. The children utilized different email strategies that included use of most of the above-mentioned categories. Through the email writing practice, the children developed new social skills and increased their social participation. Email practice may be a good strategy to increase children's social networks.
Full Text Available On today's "wired" college campuses, students avail themselves in increasing numbers of electronic channels, most notably e-mail, as a means to consult with their professors. While some research has investigated the purposes for which university students communicate with their instructors via e-mail, little research has examined differences in e-mail use between American and international students. In the present study, e-mail messages sent by American and international students enrolled in a teacher-preparation program to their professor were collected over the course of one semester. The messages were examined for three major communication topics (facilitative, substantive, relational and communication strategies (requesting, negotiating, reporting. Results indicate quantitative and qualitative differences in American and international students' e-mail topics and strategies, suggesting, similar to findings for face-to-face academic advising sessions, that American students demonstrate greater initiative and ability to adapt to the spatial and temporal remoteness between interlocutors in e-mail interaction, especially when using e-mail to solicit face-to-face appointments and input on projects. Findings also show that messages from both groups of students contained substantial relational communication, perhaps in an attempt to compensate for the lack of visual and paralinguistic clues in the e-mail medium.
Abroms, Lorien C; Fagan, Pebbles; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lee, Hye-Seung H; Remba, Natania; Sorensen, Glorian
Few studies have investigated the efficacy of e-mail for promoting behavior change. This study evaluates the participation in and outcomes associated with an e-mail-based health promotion program. Adolescent girls aged 15 to 17 years were recruited at a shopping mall. Participants with an e-mail address were assigned to the interactive e-mail magazine (Ezine) group (n = 37), whereas those not reporting an e-mail address were assigned to the non-Ezine group (n = 33). Participants in the Ezine group received the health Ezine, which included a quiz and an advice column, on a weekly basis. Results indicate that among the Ezine group, there was a high recall of the Ezine (81.1%), and more than one third of the participants replied to Ezine volumes with quiz answers or an advice question (36.6%). Differences in health behavior change between the Ezine and non-Ezine groups were not significant. E-mails on health-related matters can generate moderate levels of involvement in adolescent girls. Given the widespread use of e-mail, more studies are needed on the effective application of e-mail for health behavior change.
Harun A. Gunawan
Full Text Available Topical fluoridation recently has become the method of choice in caries prevention. Fluoride plays an important role not only in the formation of fluoroapatite, but also promoting enamel remineralization. Enamel remineralization occur when the enamel environment supersaturated with calcium and phosphate ions. When the pH level decrease, the rise of H+ ions, the hydroxyl of the apatite will be drawn out from the enamel, and substitute by fluoride ions, this condition will cause apatite breakdown, and both calcium and phosphate will be released to the enamel environment. The release of those minerals will cause supersaturation and promoting enamel remineralization. In the nature fluoride can be found in the sea fishes, such like teri (anchovy, Stolephora sp fishes. Teri fish has about 17 - 38 ppm of fluoride content. The high fluoride content of teri fish, lead this research to knwo the influence of its application to the enamel surface on remineralization process, measured with enamel surfacce roughness and hardness tests. Seven enamel discs, 5x10 mm (W and L obtained from 4 impacted third molars, were used in this research. One disc used as initial control, and 6 discs divided into 2 groups, used as experiment groups. All of the experimental discs, demineralized using 50% phosphoric acid, then 3 of them were applied with teri substrate, whether other 3 discs applied with non ionic aquadest. All experimental discs, then immersed in the remineralization solution containing calcium phosphate stabilized with caseinphosphopeptide. The cycle above repeated for 26 times. Analysis of the specimens were done using surfcom for enamel rougness and Buehler microhardness tester for surface hardness. Surfaace roughness of the group is 1,78 μm compared to the initial group (215 μm, and enamel surface micro hardness of the group is (376 VHN, significantly differ from the control group, 358 VHN. Conclusion: based on this research result, it can be concluded
Yi, Junkai; Su, Yueyang; Zhao, Xianghui
With the development of information technology, e-mail has become a popular communication medium. It has great significant to determine the relationship between the two sides of the communication. Firstly, this paper analysed and processed the content and attachment of e-mail using the skill of steganalysis and malware analysis. And it also conducts the following feature extracting and behaviour model establishing which based on Naive Bayesian theory. Then a behaviour analysis method was employed to calculate and evaluate the communication security. Finally, some experiments about the accuracy of the behavioural relationship of communication identifying has been carried out. The result shows that this method has a great effects and correctness as eighty-four percent.
Full Text Available Expensive internet facilities require prudent in its use both as a source of information and communication media. This paper discusses observations of the perceived burden of network bandwidth when accessing some of the mail server using a webmail application. Mail server in question consists of three commercial server and 2 non-commercial server. Data when it download home page, while logged in, open the email, and during idle logout recorded with sniffer Wireshark. Observations in various situations and scenarios indicate that access Yahoo email gives the network load is very high while the SquirrelMail gives the network load is very low than 5 other mail servers. For an institution, use a local mail server (institutional is highly recommended in the context of banddwidth savings.
A considerable body of research has documented the negative effects of job burnout on employees and their organizations, emphasizing the importance of the identification of early signs of the phenomenon for the purposes of prevention and intervention. However, such timely identification is difficult due to the time and cost of assessing the burnout levels of all employees in an organization using established scales. In this paper, we propose an innovative way to identify employees at risk of job burnout by analyzing their e-mail communication patterns. Building on the Job Demands–Resources model, we theorize about the relationship between e-mail communication patterns and levels of employee exhaustion and disengagement (two dimensions of burnout). We analyzed 52,190 e-mails exchanged between 57 employees of a medium sized R&D company over a five-month period. We then related these employees’ communication patterns to their levels of burnout, collected using an established scale (the OLBI–Oldenburg Burnout Inventory). Our results provide support for the overall proposition of the paper, that e-mail communications can be used to identify individuals at risk of job burnout. Our models explain up to 34% of the variance of burnout and up to 37% and 19% respectively of the variance of exhaustion and disengagement. They also successfully distinguish between employees with a higher risk of burnout and those with lower levels of risk (F1 score of 84% with recall of 100% and 73% precision). We discuss the implications of our results and present suggestions for future research. PMID:29518128
In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity. Luke* holds a key position in the coordination of a large project. He is also a recognized expert in modeling complicated structures. Because of his expertise in the field, he receives a considerable number of e-mails every day which he has trouble responding to in addition to his responsibilities of management and development. Constantly interrupted, he tends to answer his emails quickly, sometimes even in an instinctive way, which leads to somewhat laconic messages. One day he receives an e-mail from Dave* challenging some of the decisions taken by the project’s management. Luke agrees with Dave’s remarks, which seem justified given his own expertise of the su...
Andronicus A. Akinyelu
Full Text Available Phishing is one of the major challenges faced by the world of e-commerce today. Thanks to phishing attacks, billions of dollars have been lost by many companies and individuals. In 2012, an online report put the loss due to phishing attack at about $1.5 billion. This global impact of phishing attacks will continue to be on the increase and thus requires more efficient phishing detection techniques to curb the menace. This paper investigates and reports the use of random forest machine learning algorithm in classification of phishing attacks, with the major objective of developing an improved phishing email classifier with better prediction accuracy and fewer numbers of features. From a dataset consisting of 2000 phishing and ham emails, a set of prominent phishing email features (identified from the literature were extracted and used by the machine learning algorithm with a resulting classification accuracy of 99.7% and low false negative (FN and false positive (FP rates.
Dudas, Robert Arthur; Crocetti, Michael
Overall usage of email communication between patients and physicians continues to increase, due in part to expanding the adoption of electronic health records and patient portals. Unequal access and acceptance of these technologies has the potential to exacerbate disparities in care. Little is known about the attitudes of pediatric caregivers with regard to their acceptance of email as a means to communicate with their health care providers. We conducted a survey to assess pediatric caregiver access to and attitudes toward the use of electronic communication modalities to communicate with health care providers in an urban pediatric primary care clinic. Participants were pediatric caregivers recruited from an urban pediatric primary care clinic in Baltimore, Maryland, who completed a 35-item questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. Of the 229 caregivers who completed the survey (91.2% response rate), 171 (74.6%) reported that they use email to communicate with others. Of the email users, 145 respondents (86.3%) stated that they would like to email doctors, although only 18 (10.7%) actually do so. Among email users, African-American caregivers were much less likely to support the expanded use of email communication with health care providers (adjusted OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.82) as were those with annual incomes less than US $30,000 (adjusted OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09-0.74). Caregivers of children have access to email and many would be interested in communicating with health care providers. However, African-Americans and those in lower socioeconomic groups were much less likely to have positive attitudes toward email.
Katzen, C.S.; Dicker, A.P.
white (94%) with 6% African American. Sixty-four percent or respondents had access to an e-mail account at home or work. Among these e-mail users, 66% were between the ages of 58-68, and 34% were more than 68 years old. Eight-one percent of email users had completed some or all of college, and 19 % had completed some or all of high school. The majority of patients indicated that the benefits of e-mail were to eliminate phone calls (70%), to increase the timeliness of a message (81%), to arrange appointments (73%), to ask a physician health related questions (79%), to refill prescriptions (64 %). Only one-third of patients felt e-mail to be appropriate to ask urgent health questions. Most patients (72%) felt comfortable responding to health questions sent by their doctor by e-mail. When controlling for age within this group 57% of patients who preferred e-mail were under 68 years old and 43% of patients were over 68 years old. When evaluating education level, 64% of the patients that preferred using email had a college or graduate degree and 36% had completed some or all of high school. More than half of respondents (61%) felt comfortable answering questions via e-mail that were posed to them by someone in their doctor's office, such as, a nurse, or physician's assistant. Patients were evenly divided when asked about confidentiality (56% unconcerned). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that patients were interested in using e-mail in non-urgent situations and to improve the timeliness of communication. Patients preferred e-mail for increased convenience and efficiency regarding minor health problems and did not prefer it for answers to more urgent health questions. Patients with at least a college degree were inclined to use e-mail over those who had completed some or all of high school. Patients who were not currently using e-mail responded favorably to the notion of communicating via e-mail with their physician and/or physician's staff. Our survey revealed that
Grayman, Jesse Hession
After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The majority of documented phishing attacks have been carried by email, yet few studies have measured the impact of email headers on the predictive accuracy of machine learning techniques in detecting email phishing attacks. Research has shown that the inclusion of a limited subset of email headers as features in training machine learning…
@@ Email has fast emerged as the world's most preferred form of communication. Billions of email messages traverse1 the globe daily. Like any other form of communication, email is also misused by criminal elements. The ease, speed and relative anonymity2 of email has made it a powerful tool for criminals.
Hagler, Barbara E.; Erthal, Margaret; Walzer, Dona; Anderson, Marcia A.
Objective: This research was conducted to determine if relationships exist among college students' business email message productivity score and (a) email message quality score, (b) text keying method used to create email message, and (c) self-reported college English grade. Background: Email is increasingly the communication channel preferred for…
Pignata, Silvia; Lushington, Kurt; Sloan, Jeremy; Buchanan, Fiona
Despite email playing a central role in university business, little is known about the strategies used by staff to manage email and the factors contributing to email overload. In a mixed method study undertaken in one Australian university comparing academic (n = 193) and professional (n = 278) staff, we found that while email volume was higher in…
... request through email? 1250.24 Section 1250.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND... Access Records Under FOIA § 1250.24 Will you accept a FOIA request through email? Yes, send email FOIA... of your email message that you are sending a FOIA request. The body of the message must contain all...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I email my FOIA appeal... email my FOIA appeal? Yes, you may submit a FOIA appeal via email to http://www.archives.gov/global_pages/inquire_form.html. You must put the words “FOIA Appeal” in the subject line of your email message...
Lyra, M; Skouroliakou, K; Perris, A; Georgossopoulos, C; Pappas, D [Radiology Department, Athens University, Athens (Greece); Stefanides, C [Pediatric Hospital, Aglaia Kyriakou, Athens (Greece)
Prosperity of easy interchange in every day practice of Nuclear Medicine found its application through the INTERNET media. We use a simple and safe way to interchange images and diagnostic information between the scintigraphic acquisition and processing location and the clinical department in order to improve patient`s health care and young doctor`s education. images and patient reports are transferred and saved through dedicated software to a workstation that transforms y-camera scintigraphic images in a PC readable format. Diagnosis reports and scintigraphic images are incorporated to a database directory in hypertext form. Usual WWW connection gives the possibility of patients` examinations transfer by email attachments as well as interchange of relative comments towards both directions. Cost effective solution has been achieved using standard hard- and soft-ware. Furthermore, both educational files can be downloaded from our department ftp location, by a unique password. (authors) 7 refs., 3 figs.
In the coming weeks, users of mail clients other than Outlook (e.g. Pine, Mozilla, Mac Mail, etc.) may receive an e-mail from Mailfirstname.lastname@example.org with instructions to update the security settings of their mail client. The aim of this campaign is to enforce the use of encrypted and authenticated mail protocols in order to prevent the propagation of viruses and protect passwords from theft. As a first step, from 6 June 2006 onwards, access to mail servers from outside CERN will require a securely configured mail client as described in the help page http://cern.ch/mmmservices/Help/?kbid=191040. On this page most users will also find tools that will update their mail client settings automatically. Note that Outlook clients and WebMail access are not affected. The Mail Team
Lyra, M.; Skouroliakou, K.; Perris, A.; Georgossopoulos, C.; Pappas, D.; Stefanides, C.
Prosperity of easy interchange in every day practice of Nuclear Medicine found its application through the INTERNET media. We use a simple and safe way to interchange images and diagnostic information between the scintigraphic acquisition and processing location and the clinical department in order to improve patient's health care and young doctor's education. images and patient reports are transferred and saved through dedicated software to a workstation that transforms y-camera scintigraphic images in a PC readable format. Diagnosis reports and scintigraphic images are incorporated to a database directory in hypertext form. Usual WWW connection gives the possibility of patients' examinations transfer by email attachments as well as interchange of relative comments towards both directions. Cost effective solution has been achieved using standard hard- and soft-ware. Furthermore, both educational files can be downloaded from our department ftp location, by a unique password. (authors)
Cosmin Catalin Olteanu
Full Text Available Emails represents one of the most used communication system in world wide web for more than 15 years and “spam” messages are one of the most annoying and disturbing phenomena. All of us are aware that online marketers are trying to transmit their advertising messages to as many addresses they can. For such “unwanted” messages, adaptive systems must be assembled to review and mark what is wright and what is bad. Always these systems must adapt to consumers preferences to mark only that messages that are not in his white list. Surveys for more than 3000000 messages showed me that some criteria can be defined by start.
Badran, Hani; Grad, Roland
Background Electronic knowledge resources constitute an important channel for accredited Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities. However, email usage for educational purposes is controversial. On the one hand, family physicians become aware of new information, confirm what they already know, and obtain reassurance by reading educational email alerts. Email alerts can also encourage physicians to search Web-based resources. On the other hand, technical difficulties and privacy issues are common obstacles. Objective The purpose of this discussion paper, informed by a literature review and a small qualitative study, was to understand family physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in regard to email in general and educational emails in particular, and to explore the advantages and disadvantages of educational email alerts. In addition, we documented participants’ suggestions to improve email alert services for CME. Methods We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using the “Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior” model. We conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 15 family physicians. We analyzed the collected data using inductive-deductive thematic qualitative data analysis. Results All 15 participants scanned and prioritized their email, and 13 of them checked their email daily. Participants mentioned (1) advantages of educational email alerts such as saving time, convenience and valid information, and (2) disadvantages such as an overwhelming number of emails and irrelevance. They offered suggestions to improve educational email. Conclusions The advantages of email alerts seem to compensate for their disadvantages. Suggestions proposed by family physicians can help to improve educational email alerts. PMID:25803184
Badran, Hani; Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland
Electronic knowledge resources constitute an important channel for accredited Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities. However, email usage for educational purposes is controversial. On the one hand, family physicians become aware of new information, confirm what they already know, and obtain reassurance by reading educational email alerts. Email alerts can also encourage physicians to search Web-based resources. On the other hand, technical difficulties and privacy issues are common obstacles. The purpose of this discussion paper, informed by a literature review and a small qualitative study, was to understand family physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in regard to email in general and educational emails in particular, and to explore the advantages and disadvantages of educational email alerts. In addition, we documented participants' suggestions to improve email alert services for CME. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using the "Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior" model. We conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 15 family physicians. We analyzed the collected data using inductive-deductive thematic qualitative data analysis. All 15 participants scanned and prioritized their email, and 13 of them checked their email daily. Participants mentioned (1) advantages of educational email alerts such as saving time, convenience and valid information, and (2) disadvantages such as an overwhelming number of emails and irrelevance. They offered suggestions to improve educational email. The advantages of email alerts seem to compensate for their disadvantages. Suggestions proposed by family physicians can help to improve educational email alerts.
Germain, M; Godin, G
The aim of the study was to test the relative efficacy of telephone and email reminders to trigger blood donation. A sample of 3454 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: phone only (n = 1176), email only (n = 1091) and phone + email (n = 1187). There was a higher proportion of donors who registered to give blood in the phone + email condition (18·45%) compared to the other two conditions (phone: 15·73%, P email: 13·20%; P email conditions did not differ significantly (P = 0·16), suggesting equivalent efficacy. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Atherton, Helen; Pappas, Yannis; Heneghan, Carl; Murray, Elizabeth
Reports suggest approximately 21-23% of GPs in the UK have consulted with patients using email, but little is known about the nature of this use and what it means for clinicians and patients in general practice. To understand the use of email consultation in general practice by investigating the experiences of existing users and views of experts. A qualitative study conducted in 2010 using purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews in general practice and community settings in some London boroughs. A maximum variation sample of GPs and patients who had used email for consultation in general practice were recruited, as were policy and/or implementation experts. Interviews continued until saturation was achieved. In total 10 GPs, 14 patients, and six experts were interviewed. Consultation by email was often triggered by logistic or practical issues; motivators for ongoing use were the benefits, such as convenience, for GPs and patients. Both GPs and patients reported concerns about safety and lack of guidance about the 'rules of engagement' in email consultations, with GPs also concerned about workload. In response, both groups attempted to introduce their own rules, although this only went some way to addressing uncertainty. Long term, participants felt there was a need for regulation and guidance. Consultations by email in general practice occur in an unregulated and unstructured way. Current UK policy is to promote consultations by email, making it crucial to consider the responsibility and workload faced by clinicians, and the changes required to ensure safe use; not doing so may risk safety breaches and result in suboptimal care for patients.
Pedraza, M Isabel; Herrero-Velázquez, Sonia; López-Mesonero, Luis; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Posadas, Javier; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel L
The use of email can facilitate communication between the different levels of an organisation. Our primary care physicians have had an email service in the dedicated headache clinic (DHC) since November 2009, and our aim is therefore to analyse the use of email over that five-year period. Data concerning the emails sent up until October 2014 were collected prospectively. The questions were classified as need for referral to the DHC (group 1), progress made by the cases seen in the DHC (group 2), training in headaches (group 3) or the treatment of the headaches suffered by primary care physicians themselves as patients (group 4). A total of 274 email messages were analysed. Monthly consultations have increased (from 1.5 per month during the first year to 7.5 per month during the fifth). Findings showed that 10.2% of the email messages came from rural health centres and 89.8% were sent from urban health centres. Replies were sent within 2 ± 2.8 days (range: 0-24 days). Altogether 130 consultations were classified as belonging to group 1 (47.4%), in which referral through the normal channel was recommended in 60 cases (46.2%), via the preferential channel in 47 (36.2%) and non-referral was suggested in 23 cases (17.6%). Group 2 included 125 emails (45.7%) and in 80 cases there was no need to make a new appointment or to bring forward the existing one (64%). Thirteen visits (4.7%) were classified into group 3 and six (2.2%) in group 4. Our primary care physicians are using the email of the DHC on an increasingly more frequent basis. Its use makes it possible to detect patients whose appointment -whether the first or a follow-up- needs to be brought forward, as well as allowing issues to be solved without the need for referral. It is effective for the treatment of physicians who themselves have headaches and as a tool for continuing education.
prof.dr. Jo Hermanns; prof.dr. Ruben Fukkink; dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer
This study evaluated the effect of single session email consultation on empowerment of parents. Practitioners in a control group (N = 19) received no training; practitioners in an experimental group (N = 21) were trained to use empowerment oriented techniques in online consultation. Parental
Nieuwboer, Christa C.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.
This study evaluated the effect of single session email consultation (SSEC) on empowerment of parents. Practitioners in a control group (n = 19) received no training and practitioners in an experimental group (n = 21) were trained to use empowerment-oriented techniques in online consultation. Parental empowerment was measured (n = 96) through a…
This project explores women and educational leadership from the perspective of an individual who moved from the UK to Australia in order to take up the position of Dean of an education grouping in a university. Emails sent by the Dean to the group are analysed after nine months in post and categorised according to the requirements of the position…
Halim, Mohamad Azhar Abdul; Wen, Chuah Chai; Rahmi, Isredza; Abdullah, Nurul Azma; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Ab.
Protection of sensitive or classified data from unauthorized access, hackers and other personals is virtue. Storage of data is done in devices such as USB, external hard disk, laptops, I-Pad or at cloud. Cloud computing presents with both ups and downs. However, storing information elsewhere increases risk of being attacked by hackers. Besides, the risk of losing the device or being stolen is increased in case of storage in portable devices. There are array of mediums of communications and even emails used to send data or information but these technologies come along with severe weaknesses such as absence of confidentiality where the message sent can be altered and sent to the recipient. No proofs are shown to the recipient that the message received is altered. The recipient would not find out unless he or she checks with the sender. Without encrypted of data or message, sniffing tools and software can be used to hack and read the information since it is in plaintext. Therefore, an electronic mail authentication is proposed, namely Hybrid Encryption System (HES). The security of HES is protected using asymmetric and symmetric key algorithms. The asymmetric algorithm is RSA and symmetric algorithm is Advance Encryption Standard. With the combination for both algorithms in the HES may provide the confidentiality and authenticity to the electronic documents send from the sender to the recipient. In a nutshell, the HES will help users to protect their valuable documentation and data from illegal third party user.
Bugeja, Justine; Grech, Victor
Publishing is important for career progression. The traditional journal model results in subscribers bearing publication costs. The eagerness with which researchers seek journals for the publishing of their work, along with the internet, has resulted in the creation of a new model called open access (OA). Author/s or their institution/s pay an actual publication fee. This has in turn resulted in the creation of questionable journals which charge steep publishing fees. Emails soliciting publication to one of the authors (VG) were collected for the month of March 2015. Information collected included costs of OA publishing, and whether or not this information was readily available. The appropriateness of said solicitations was also assessed with regard to topics with which the targeted author was familiar. There was a total of 44 solicitations: 3 were duplicates. Out of 41 solicitations, 20 (49%) were appropriate. The open access fee was readily available in 27 out of 41 solicitations (66%). The open access fee averaged $475, ranging from $25 to $1500. The only journal which provided true OA was Medical Principles and Practice, with no fees charged whatsoever. Potential authors should carefully investigate OA journals prior to choosing journals wherein to submit their work.
Armstrong, Melissa J
Physician burnout is gaining increased attention in medicine and neurology and often relates to hours worked and insufficient time. One component of this is administrative burden, which relates to regulatory requirements and electronic health record tasks but may also involve increased time spent processing emails. Research in academic medical centers demonstrates that physicians face increasing inbox sizes related to mass distribution emails from various sources on top of emails required for patient care, research, and teaching. This commentary highlights the contribution of administrative tasks to physician burnout, research to date on email in medical contexts, and corporate strategies for reducing email burden that are applicable to neurology clinical practice. Increased productivity and decreased stress can be achieved by limiting the amount one accesses email, managing inbox size, and utilizing good email etiquette. Department and practice physician leaders have roles in decreasing email volume and modeling good practice.
Atherton, Helen; Sawmynaden, Prescilla; Sheikh, Aziz; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip
Email is a popular and commonly-used method of communication, but its use in health care is not routine. Where email communication has been demonstrated in health care this has included its use for communication between patients/caregivers and healthcare professionals for clinical purposes, but the effects of using email in this way is not known.This review addresses the use of email for two-way clinical communication between patients/caregivers and healthcare professionals. To assess the effects of healthcare professionals and patients using email to communicate with each other, on patient outcomes, health service performance, service efficiency and acceptability. We searched: the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1 2010), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1950 to January 2010), EMBASE (OvidSP) (1980 to January 2010), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1967 to January 2010), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1982 to February 2010) and ERIC (CSA) (1965 to January 2010). We searched grey literature: theses/dissertation repositories, trials registers and Google Scholar (searched July 2010). We used additional search methods: examining reference lists, contacting authors. Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies examining interventions using email to allow patients to communicate clinical concerns to a healthcare professional and receive a reply, and taking the form of 1) unsecured email 2) secure email or 3) web messaging. All healthcare professionals, patients and caregivers in all settings were considered. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We assessed risk of bias according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. For continuous measures, we report effect sizes as mean
Full Text Available The need for the application of technology in education has been increased. One of the new approaches in technology is using email for learning a second or a foreign language. The present study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of using email in improving writing skills among Iranian EFL students. The participants of the study were 42 pre-intermediate Iranian EFL students in an English language institute in Shiraz, Iran. The participants were randomly assigned into an experimental and a control group. Each group consisted of 21 participants. The treatment continued for three weeks and 3 sessions a week. The students in the experimental group used email for sending their assignments. These students were in contact with their teacher via email and asked writing questions. In contrast, the students in the control group taught writing without using the computer in traditional way. To be sure of homogeneity of the participants, a pre-test was administered before the treatment. After three weeks treatment, a post-test was administered to check the students’ improvement in writing. The findings revealed that the students in in the experimental group performed significantly better than the students in the control group.
Gleerup, Maria; Larsen, Anders; Leth-Petersen, Søren
This paper analyzes the effect of supplying feedback by text messages (SMS) and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted in which 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control....... Results suggest that email and SMS messaging that communicated timely information about a household's 'exceptional' consumption periods (e.g. highest week of electricity use in past quarter) produced average reductions in total annual electricity use of about 3%. The feedback technology is cheap...
... Population Survey (CPS) Email Address Collection Test Supplement AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION... request clearance for the collection of data concerning the November 2013 Email Address Collection Test... tool to help increase response rates. We foresee that in the future, we could collect email addresses...
... email or facsimile? 551.63 Section 551.63 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... foreign manufacturer submit a designation by email or facsimile? No, the statute requires designation... designation documents submitted via email or facsimile, as they do not satisfy this requirement. ...
With the development of information technology in the past 10 years, e-mail has been widely used in the field of English teaching. This paper, based on an analysis of the ways of using e-mail in college English teaching in China, probes the feasibility and the benefits of application of e-mail to college English teaching.
Western teachers working in China often experience cultural conflicts arising from, for instance, the ways that Chinese students perceive face and express criticism. To better understand these face-concerned conflicts, this paper explores the role and significance of email for a group of Chinese students to communicate pedagogical criticism with…
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,218; TA-W-73,218A] International Business Machines Corporation, ITD Business Unit, Division 7, E-mail and Collaboration Group, Including Workers Off-Site From Various States in the United States Reporting to Armonk, NY; International Business Machines Corporation, Web Strategy...
Kim, Do-Hwan; Yoon, Hyun Bae; Yoo, Dong-Mi; Lee, Sang-Min; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Seog Ju; Shin, Jwa-Seop; Lee, Seunghee; Yim, Jae-Joon
Email is widely used as a means of communication between faculty members and students in medical education because of its practical and educational advantages. However, because of the distinctive nature of medical education, students' inappropriate email etiquette may adversely affect their learning as well as faculty members' perception of them. Little data on medical students' competency in professional email writing is available; therefore, this study explored the strengths and weaknesses of medical students' email etiquette and factors that contribute to professional email writing. A total of 210 emails from four faculty members at Seoul National University College of Medicine were collected. An evaluation criteria and a scoring rubric were developed based on the various email-writing guidelines. The rubric comprised 10 items, including nine items for evaluation related to the email components and one item for the assessment of global impression of politeness. Three evaluators independently assessed all emails according to the criteria. Students were identified as being 61.0% male and 52.8% were in the undergraduate-entry program. The sum of each component score was 62.21 out of 100 and the mean value for global impression was 2.6 out of 4. The results demonstrated that students' email etiquettes remained low-to-mediocre for most criteria, except for readability and honorifics. Three criteria, salutation (r=0.668), closing (r=0.653), and sign-off (r=0.646), showed a strong positive correlation with the global impression of politeness. Whether a student entered a graduate-entry program or an undergraduate-entry program significantly contributed to professional email writing after other variables were controlled. Although students in the graduate-entry program demonstrated a relatively superior level of email etiquette, the majority of medical students did not write emails professionally. Educating all medical students in email etiquette may well contribute to
Full Text Available The email is a valuable marketing tool for conveying short, simple messages that call for action on behalf of the recipient. Usually companies develop email marketing campaigns for attracting new customers, persuading the existing customers to buy again, encourage customer loyalty, announce or remind about special offers or events. For an email marketing campaign to be efficient, it is wanted a greater number of responses from those in the target. The paper assesses in an exploratory manner the frequency in using the email accounts, the level of exposure to email marketing campaigns as well as the type of information wanted to be received by the Romanian users.
Morgan, Matthew; Lau, Davina; Jivraj, Tanaz; Principi, Tania; Dietrich, Sandra; Bell, Chaim M
Email is becoming a widely accepted communication tool in healthcare settings. This study sought to test the feasibility of Internet-based email surveys of patient experience in the ambulatory setting. We conducted a study of email Internet-based surveys sent to patients in selected ambulatory clinics at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Our findings suggest that email links to Internet surveys are a feasible, timely and efficient method to solicit patient feedback about their experience. Further research is required to optimally leverage Internet-based email surveys as a tool to better understand the patient experience.
Full Text Available One of the most popular internet services is electronic mail (e-mail. By using mobile devices with internet connection, e-mail can be widely used by anyone to exchange information anywhere and anytime whether public or confidential. Unfortunately, there are some security issues with email communication; e-mail is sent in over open networks and e-mail is stored on potentially insecure mail servers. Moreover, e-mail has no integrity protection so the body can be undectected altered in transit or on the e-mail server. E-mail also has no data origin authentication, so people cannot be sure that the emails they receive are from the e-mail address owner. In order to solve this problem, this study proposes a secure method of e-mail communication on Android-based mobile devices using a hybrid cryptosystem which combines symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption and hash function. The experimental results show that the proposed method succeeded in meeting those aspects of information security including confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation.
Full Text Available E-commerce becomes a cornerstone for many businesses over the recent years. Align with e-commerce activities, the marketing communication through online media plays a major role in achieving competitive advantageous. E-mail advertising in this context offers a cost effective, direct and reciprocal means for businesses overcoming time and geographical barriers. As so, this study discussed the advertising e-mail characteristics and its influences on customers' attitude about email-based advertisement. According to the research findings, entertainment and informativeness of advertising email content is strongly and positively affect customers’ attitude about email-based advertisement. On the other hand, the privacy of advertising e-mail is strongly, yet negatively influences the customers’ attitude towards email-based advertisement.
Komives, Eugenie M
Clinicians are rapidly gaining experience with online clinician-patient consultation, and more tools are becoming available to support these efforts. In addition, we now have evidence that using electronic communication is cost-effective to payers and appealing to patients and providers. At present, there appear to be few barriers to the adoption of these solutions for practices that use other online services. Security concerns can easily be overcome by using programs described in this commentary. Larger and longer studies that evaluate the benefits and cost savings in more detail may help convince other payers and providers of the utility of the Web-based programs. More studies are needed to understand the effect of dinician-patient electronic communication on the costs of caring for chronic illness. When these solutions also include support tools, such as electronic prescribing, which could improve patient safety and quality of care, they should be encouraged. In their article entitled, "Electrons in Flight-Email between Doctors and Patients," Delbanco and Sands postulate that the future of e-communication in medicine will be integrated with a patient-controlled health record and will include secure synchronous and asynchronous communication, video conferencing and messaging, instant transcription into the written record, full-patient access to the record, translation into different languages, connectivity to multiple data sources, incorporation of multi-media educational materials. It-will also allow data from home-based diagnostic technology to be sent to clinicians. "Electronic communication will move medicine inexorably toward such transparency, enabling doctors and patients to share knowledge, responsibility, and decision-making more equally. We need to explore rapidly how this change will affect the quality of care for patients and the quality of life for doctors." The widespread dependence on Internet-based electronic communication to support a variety of
Kothe, Emily J; Mullan, Barbara A
Fresh Facts is a 30-day email-delivered intervention designed to increase the fruit and vegetable consumption of Australian young adults. This study investigated the extent to which the program was acceptable to members of the target audience and examined the relationships between participant and intervention characteristics, attrition, effectiveness, and acceptability ratings. Young adults were randomised to two levels of message frequency: high-frequency (n = 102), low-frequency (n = 173). Individuals in the high-frequency group received daily emails while individuals in the low-frequency group received an email every 3 days. Individuals in the high-frequency group were more likely to indicate that they received too many emails than individuals in the low-frequency group. No other differences in acceptability were observed. Baseline beliefs about fruit and vegetables were an important predictor of intervention acceptability. In turn, acceptability was associated with a number of indicators of intervention success, including change in fruit and vegetable consumption. The findings highlight the importance of considering the relationship between these intervention and participant factors and acceptability in intervention design and evaluation. Results support the ongoing use of email-based interventions to target fruit and vegetable consumption within young adults. However, the relationships between beliefs about fruit and vegetable consumption and acceptability suggest that this intervention may be differentially effective depending on individual's existing beliefs about fruit and vegetable consumption. As such, there is a pressing need to consider these factors in future research in order to minimize attrition and maximize intervention effectiveness when interventions are implemented outside of a research context.
Kothe, E J; Mullan, B A
This study investigated feasibility and acceptability of a new email-delivered intervention promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in a university-based population of Australian young adults. The study explored whether there are differences in the reported feasibility and acceptability between demographic groups within the population of interest and at three levels of intervention intensity. The email-delivered intervention program consists of an implementation intention 'planning task' and between 3 and 15 short email messages over a 15-day study period. The intervention program was developed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and was designed to modify perceived behavioural control. One hundred and ten participants (mean age = 19.21 years, 25.6% male) completed the feasibility and acceptability questionnaire at Day 15. This questionnaire contained items about all intervention components. High acceptability and feasibility scores were found for all intervention parts and at all levels of intervention intensity. There were few significant differences in the reported acceptability of items between key demographic sub-groups, and no differences in reported acceptability at different levels of intervention intensity. These results suggest that this email-delivered intervention is an acceptable and feasible tool for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption for participants in the target population.
Hughes, J A; Pakieser, R A
As electronic applications are used increasingly in healthcare, nurses are being challenged to adopt them. Electronic mail (e-mail) is an electronic tool with general as well as healthcare uses. E-mail use may be an opportunity to learn a tool that requires skills similar to those used in other applications. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators that impact nurses' use of e-mail in the workplace. Data for this study were gathered using focus group methodology. Content analysis identified and labeled factors into seven major categories. Specific factors identified were generally consistent with those previously described in the literature as affecting use of computers in general. However, there were several additional factors identified that were not reported in other previous studies: lack of face-to-face communication, individual writing skills, recency of any educational experience, volume of mail received, password integrity, and technical support. Findings from this study provide information for any individual involved in introducing or updating an e-mail system in a healthcare environment.
Chi-Fen Emily Chen
Full Text Available Though e-mail has become a common interpersonal communication medium, it does not mean that this medium is used without difficulty. While people can write e-mails to peers in any manner they like, writing e-mails to authority figures requires higher pragmatic competence and critical language awareness of how discourse shapes and reflects power asymmetry in an institutional context. For L2 learners, the challenge of composing this type of e-mail can be greater due not only to their limited linguistic ability but also their unfamiliarity with the target culture's norms and values. To provide a deeper understanding of how an L2 learner develops e-mail literacy in the target language environment, this paper presents a longitudinal case study of a Taiwanese graduate student’s e-mail practice in English during her studies at a U.S. university for two and a half years. Using a critical discourse analysis approach, the study reveals the complexity of an L2 learner’s evolving e-mail practice and struggle for appropriateness, particularly in her e-mail communication with professors. Her development of e-mail literacy is discussed in relation to her evolving understanding of the e-mail medium, changing performance of student identity, increasing knowledge of student-professor interaction and realization of culture-specific politeness.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a corpus-based study which investigates the genre of academic email and more specifically its pragmatic dimension. Four conversational routines (thank yous, apologies, requests, offers are analysed and compared in two channels: academic e-mails and conventional print letters. In addition, data from both native and non-native speakers of English is considered, which sheds light on some of the differences found in the academic e-mail writing of learners of English. The findings indicate that academic e-mail is a relatively formal type of correspondence which is still largely influenced, as is to be expected, by the genre of the academic letter, and that as a genre, academic e-mail is in the process of formation or semi-formation. Finally, native speakers of English are found to be more informal than non-native speakers of English in academic e-mails.
Yoo S.; Yang, Y.; Carbonell, J.
Email overload, even after spam filtering, presents a serious productivity challenge for busy professionals and executives. One solution is automated prioritization of incoming emails to ensure the most important are read and processed quickly, while others are processed later as/if time permits in declining priority levels. This paper presents a study of machine learning approaches to email prioritization into discrete levels, comparing ordinal regression versus classier cascades. Given the ordinal nature of discrete email priority levels, SVM ordinal regression would be expected to perform well, but surprisingly a cascade of SVM classifiers significantly outperforms ordinal regression for email prioritization. In contrast, SVM regression performs well -- better than classifiers -- on selected UCI data sets. This unexpected performance inversion is analyzed and results are presented, providing core functionality for email prioritization systems.
Timothy John Pattiasina
Full Text Available Advanced Encryption Standard (AES dan Knapsack adalah dua algoritma enkripsi simetris dan asimetris yang paling sering digunakan. Penelitian ini menganalisa kedua algoritma AES dan algoritma Knapsack. Prototipe aplikasi enkripsi email ini dirancang dengan menggabungkan karateristik algoritma AES dan Knapsack untuk memecahkan masalah keamanan email. Algoritma AES digunakan untuk mengenkripsi dan deskripsi email berupa teks atau file, sedangkan Algoritma Knapsack di gunakan untuk mengenkripsi kunci AES. Enkripsi hybrid yang diterapkan pada aplikasi bertujuan untuk menambah keamanan informasi dalam sebuah jaringan.
Full Text Available This dataset includes emails from forty two control participants ranging from 16 to 88 years of age (mean = 46 and 9 to 24 years of education (mean = 13. Three emails were produced by each participant (between 2011 and 2014, each within a time limit of three minutes. It is expected that this normative data will be useful for clinicians and researchers working with adults with acquired language disorders in assessing email writing.
Thiel, Lindsey; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul
This dataset includes emails from forty two control participants ranging from 16 to 88 years of age (mean = 46) and 9 to 24 years of education (mean = 13). Three emails were produced by each participant (between 2011 and 2014), each within a time limit of three minutes. It is expected that this normative data will be useful for clinicians and researchers working with adults with acquired language disorders in assessing email writing.
Dhuper, Sonal; Siva, Chokkalingam; Fresen, John L; Petruc, Marius; Velázquez, Celso R
Physician–patient email communication is gaining popularity. However, a formal assessment of physicians' email communication skills has not been described. We hypothesized that the email communication skills of rheumatology fellows can be measured in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) setting using a novel email content analysis instrument which has 18 items. During an OSCE, we asked 50 rheumatology fellows to respond to a simulated patient email. The content of the responses was assessed using our instrument. The majority of rheumatology fellows wrote appropriate responses scoring a mean (±SD) of 10.6 (±2.6) points (maximum score 18), with high inter-rater reliability (0.86). Most fellows were concise (74%) and courteous (68%) but not formal (22%). Ninety-two percent of fellows acknowledged that the patient's condition required urgent medical attention, but only 30% took active measures to contact the patient. No one encrypted their messages. The objective assessment of email communication skills is possible using simulated emails in an OSCE setting. The variable email communication scores and incidental patient safety gaps identified, suggest a need for further training and defined proficiency standards for physicians' email communication skills. PMID:20962134
Hershberger, Patricia E; Kavanaugh, Karen
Despite an increasing use of qualitative email interviews by nurse researchers, there is little understanding about the appropriateness and equivalence of email interviews to other qualitative data collection methods, especially on sensitive topics research. The purpose is to describe our procedures for completing asynchronous, email interviews and to evaluate the appropriateness and equivalency of email interviews to phone interviews in two qualitative research studies that examined reproductive decisions. Content analysis guided the methodological appraisal of appropriateness and equivalency of in-depth, asynchronous email interviews to single phone interviews. Appropriateness was determined by: (a) participants' willingness to engage in email or phone interviews, (b) completing data collection in a timely period, and (c) participants' satisfaction with the interview. Equivalency was evaluated by: (a) completeness of the interview data, and (b) insight obtained from the data. Of the combined sample in the two studies (N=71), 31% of participants chose to participate via an email interview over a phone interview. The time needed to complete the email interviews averaged 27 to 28days and the number of investigator probe-participant response interchanges was 4 to 5cycles on average. In contrast, the phone interviews averaged 59 to 61min in duration. Most participants in both the email and phone interviews reported they were satisfied or very satisfied with their ability to express their true feelings throughout the interview. Regarding equivalence, 100% of the email and phone interviews provided insight into decision processes. Although insightful, two of the email and one phone interview had short answers or, at times, underdeveloped responses. Participants' quotes and behaviors cited within four published articles, a novel evaluation of equivalency, revealed that 20% to 37.5% of the citations about decision processes were from email participants, which is
Makarem, Nisrine N; Antoun, Jumana
Email communication between physicians and patients could improve access to and delivery of health care. Most of the literature studies about email communication between physicians and patients have been conducted in developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the practices, attitudes, and barriers of both physicians' and patients' use of email within the same health care setting of a developing country. A cross-sectional paper-based survey was conducted among 39 physicians and 500 patients at the Family Medicine clinics of the American University of Beirut, a tertiary academic medical center. Most of the surveyed patients and physicians reported that they would like to communicate through email and agreed that it is useful. However, only 19% of the patients have ever communicated with their physicians via email, and only 5.1% of physicians have often communicated with their patients via email. Almost half of the patients surveyed were unaware of the possibility of this form of communication, and only 17% reported that their physician offered them his or her email address. In addition, physicians and patients did not agree on the services to be provided by email communication. For instance, almost half of the patients indicated consultation for an urgent medical matter as suitable for email communication. The use of email communication in health care is still scarce. Patients and physicians have different perspectives of its use and importance. Further rigorous research is needed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of this form of communication, especially in the developing world. Interested physicians are encouraged to establish appropriate personal policies for email communication with adequate announcement and patient education plans.
Turner, Paul D.; Monaghan, Michael S.; Walters, Ryan W.; Merkel, Jennifer J.; Lipschultz, Jeremy H.; Lenz, Thomas L.
Objective To examine faculty members' and students' expectations and perceptions of e-mail communication in a dual pathway pharmacy program. Methods Three parallel survey instruments were administered to campus students, distance students, and faculty members, respectively. Focus groups with students and faculty were conducted. Results Faculty members perceived themselves as more accessible and approachable by e-mail than either group of students did. Campus students expected a shorter faculty response time to e-mail and for faculty members to be more available than did distance students. Conclusion E-mail is an effective means of computer-mediated communication between faculty members and students and can be used to promote a sense of community and inclusiveness (ie, immediacy), especially with distant students. PMID:21436932
Mohamed, Shafinah Farvin Packeer; Ku-Mahamud, Ku Ruhana; Ramli, Razamin; Abdullah, Kamarudin
The use of e-mail has become common either for work purposes or personal usage. Despite its usefulness, complain about the overwhelming messages received which cause the users to have problem in managing those messages. Similar situation occurred among Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) staff. Thus, a pilot study was conducted to investigate its staff's perception and use of e-mail in order to improve the e-mail service provided to them. This paper discusses the findings from the pilot study, which involves 41 UUM staff. Self-administered questionnaires were used to gather the data, while descriptive statistical analysis was used for data analysis. The findings of the study reveal that UUM staff appreciate the e-mail service. However they faced problems like limited storage size and overwhelming e-mails. They think that UUM e-mail is being abused by the repeating advertisements and news sent to them. The output of this study can be used as a guideline by the UUM management in revising its e-mail policy to serve better quality of e-mail service.
The goal of this study was to determine utilization patterns of an Adolescent Medicine Clinic e-mail service. An e-mail service was offered to 6134 patients presenting for care to a military Adolescent Medicine Clinic in San Antonio, Texas over a 6-month period. Families had to complete an authorization form acknowledging ...
Keith, Nancy; Perreault, Heidi; Sutliff, Kris
A survey of 1,272 college students showed that most believed it appropriate to use company e-mail accounts for personal messages, but inappropriate to read others' e-mail or send messages with ethnic, racial, or sexual content. Students who participated in ethics discussions were less likely to rate certain behaviors as appropriate. (Contains 22…
Young, Jeffrey R.
An e-mail scam has hit tens of thousands of users at dozens of colleges over the past few weeks, leaving network administrators scrambling to respond before campus computer accounts are taken over by spammers. Students, professors, and staff members at the affected colleges received e-mail messages that purported to come from the colleges' help…
Jorge Iván Martínez Espitia
Full Text Available Research that was conducted was aimed to determine their use of e-mail independent health professionals. Email is one of the tools of information and communication that has shown great versatility and efciency as a means to improve the relationship between those who provide services or sell products users. Good communication is essential to keep current customers and attract new business prospects. To achieve the objective of the research a survey that measured the perception and use of email marketing by independent health professionals was conducted in Colombia. Four variables, including tenure email account, receiving these email accounts marketing of products or services, read marketing emails and use by marketing professionals were measured with email. The result of this study showed that independent health professionals in Colombia are familiar with this type of marketing. Generally interested incorporate it as one of your marketing tools, but do not know how to do this activity, which is described in a simple way how to do a marketing campaign with the use of emails to the users of health services.
Managed care plans are jumping onto the electronic marketing bandwagon in a big way, taking advantage of not only the basic E-mail system but also expanding on that medium and developing creative vehicles to send the health plan's message. In this article, the author describes how E-mail technology is being used to hone the marketing edge in MCOs.
Collins, Susan L.
Reference e-mail continues to be a vital reference service. This article studies the trends in reference e-mail use over an eight year period. Usage statistics are analyzed particularly in light of the marketing of the service via changes in the location of the service on the official university libraries' Web pages. Included are recommendations…
Conclusion Study sample closely mirrored current NZ GP population. Although few GPs emailed with patients, many might once barriers are addressed. GPs had a collective view of the appropriate boundaries for email communication, routine tasks and the transmission of information. GPs would encourage professional debate regarding guidelines for good practice, managing demand and remuneration.
M.S. Bargh; A. Padmos; R. Choenni; F. Jansen; N. Stembert
Cyber criminals use phishing emails in high-volume and spear phishing emails in low volume to achieve their malicious objectives. Hereby they inflict financial, reputational, and emotional damages on individuals and organizations. These (spear) phishing attacks get steadily more sophisticated as
Janfaza, Abusaied; Shahsavari, Khadijeh; Soori, Afshin
The need for the application of technology in education has been increased. One of the new approaches in technology is using email for learning a second or a foreign language. The present study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of using email in improving writing skills among Iranian EFL students. The participants of the study were 42…
The present study investigates EFL students' perceptions of power differentials and their negotiation strategies when communicating with native English-speaking students via emails. The study involved 28 Taiwanese and American undergraduates who participated in a semester-long cross-national email writing activity. Findings show that students in…
Mahmud, Al A.; Martens, J.B.O.S.
In this paper we present some preliminary outcomes concerning the design of an email communication tool for persons with expressive aphasia. The purpose of our design is to make email accessible for aphasics. It is based on interviews with persons with aphasia and their partners and has been
Nazari, Behzad; Ninknejad, Sahar
The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via email by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners' writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of…
Conclusion Especially during periods of change in the workplace, it is very important that management is conducted personally. Care must be taken so that disinformation does not spoil the informative value of email in the administration of primary health care. The needed technical assistance should be given to everyone in order to get the best advantage from the use of the email system.
Kato, Shogo; Kato, Yuuki; Scott, Douglass
Three related studies conducted on the role of emotional transfer in email messages were studied in order to better understand Japanese college students' online communications and their broader participation in online communications. The first study investigated users' initiatives in preventing emotional misunderstandings when sending email.…
International new ventures use e-mail frequently to communicate with globally dispersed contacts. In this paper we present and discuss a qualitative research method to map international network development based on company e-mails. Our approach also allows for combinations of inductive and deductive
Jorge Iván Martínez Espitia
Full Text Available Research that was conducted was aimed to determine their use of e-mail independent health professionals. Email is one of the tools of information and communication that has shown great versatility and efciency as a means to improve the relationship between those who provide services or sell products users. Good communication is essential to keep current customers and attract new business prospects. To achieve the objective of the research a survey that measured the perception and use of email marketing by independent health professionals was conducted in Colombia. Four variables, including tenure email account, receiving these email accounts marketing of products or services, read marketing emails and use by marketing professionals were measured with email. The result of this study showed that independent health professionals in Colombia are familiar with this type of marketing. Generally interested incorporate it as one of your marketing tools, but do not know how to do this activity, which is described in a simple way how to do a marketing campaign with the use of emails to the users of health services.
The article explores how the Internet and email offer space for participants to think and make sense of their experiences in the qualitative research encounter. It draws on a research study that used email interviewing to generate online narratives to understand academic lives and identities through research encounters in virtual space. The…
Lewin-Jones, Jenny; Mason, Victoria
This study investigates academic staff and student attitudes to style and etiquette of emails. Data were collected through two online staff and student surveys. Reported use and acceptability of particular features of email style were assessed. Open-ended responses yielded four themes: the balance between formality and informality, relationships,…
Amin, Rohan Mahesh
Targeted email attacks to enable computer network exploitation have become more prevalent, more insidious, and more widely documented in recent years. Beyond nuisance spam or phishing designed to trick users into revealing personal information, targeted malicious email (TME) facilitates computer network exploitation and the gathering of sensitive…
Nguyen, Thi Thuy Minh; Do, Thi Thanh Ha; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Pham, Thi Thanh Thuy
As email requests from students to professors have become increasingly common in academic settings, research has also shown second-language (L2) students' unfamiliarity with email etiquette in L2 has adversely affected their communication with their professors. The present study examines whether giving corrective feedback on students' performance…
This article argues that technology that supports both noncognitive and cognitive aspects can make learning more effective, efficient, and engaging (e[superscript 3]-learning). The technology of interest in this article is email. The investigation focuses on characteristics of email that are likely to enable e[superscript 3]-learning. In addition,…
Sappelli, M.; Verberne, S.; Kraaij, W.
In this work, we present a binary classification problem in which we aim to identify those email messages that the receiver will reply to. The future goal is to develop a tool that informs a knowledge worker which emails are likely to need a reply. The Enron corpus was used to extract training
Chen Liangchen; Liu Shuzhen; Yan Xiaofei; Sun Gongxing
In order to achieve IMAP4 support agreement in the mobile e-mail client application on the smart phone, using the Qualcomm introduced wireless devices designed for the BREW platform. Research on the BREW platform mobile and IMAP4 protocol, design and implement the 3G technology standard smart phone e-mail client based on the BREW platform. (authors)
This paper notes the advantages of using e-mail in computer literacy classes, and discusses the results of incorporating an e-mail assignment in the "Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning and Computer Programming" core course at Brooklyn College (New York). The assignment consisted of several steps. The students first read and responded…
Full Text Available Objective – This study examined the effects that mentioning the survey incentive prize in the subject line of a reminder email had on the response rate and data quality. To date, manipulation of the subject line, specifically in terms of mentioning the incentive prize, has received limited attention in the survey design literature. Methods – The delivery of the survey invitation is discussed in terms of the timing of the launch and reminder emails. Particular emphasis is given to the design of the email subject line and justification of the format. Weekly response rates from four LibQUAL+TM surveys were compared. In addition, weekly responses for one year were analyzed using SPSS to investigate if there were any between means differences in terms of three elements of data quality. The three elements were: length of time it took to complete the survey, the number of core questions with an N/A response, and the number of illogical responses where minimum scores were higher than desired. Results – The response rates for the second week were grouped together based on the presence or absence of the subject line manipulation. There was a significant difference between these means (4.75%, p 0.033. There was no statistical difference in regards to the measures of data quality as determined by a one-way ANOVA test. Conclusions – Reminding survey participants with an email that mentions the incentive prize in the subject line appears to increase response rates with no deleterious effects on data quality. The results of this investigation are encouraging, and those running the LibQUAL+TM survey in their universities should consider implementing this method to increase response rates. Further research to replicate these findings in other contexts and using an experimental design would be beneficial.
Ruiz, Irene Solera; García, Guadalupe Población; Riquelme, Irene
Information technology can play a vital role in meeting patient needs and reinforcing the relationship among patients and their pain physicians. However, strong resistance remains on the medical side to this type of non-frontal care. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an E-mail intervention on customers' satisfaction. The secondary goals were to analyze the messages from patients to their clinician (not only the volume but also the content) and the impact on client, professional and health services outcomes. A prospective, non-randomized evaluation of patients undergoing treatment for chronic pain from September 2011 to May 2012. A private, specialty referral center in Spain. Participants were users visiting the Pain Management Unit evaluated by one physician. The E-mail address of the facility was written in every medical report provided. Patient satisfaction at the end of the 8-month trial period was assessed and outcomes recorded. Patients reported better communication with their therapist and greater satisfaction with overall care. 780 E-mails were read. Specialists received an average of 5 messages per day (standard deviation 0,3). None of them was unsuitable. This is a prospective, single center evaluation performed by one doctor. There was no control group due to ethical considerations. Electronic communication is a cheap, easy and feasible way to address a wide range of concerns, thus enhancing patients' satisfaction. More efforts are needed to implement routinely usage of this tool. If used appropriately, E-mail can facilitate physician-dependent interactions, promote access to care, save time and reduce costs. Concerns about billing, improper utilization, privacy and confidentiality might complicate its introduction and acceptance. Internet access remains a significant barrier to online patient-provider transference.
Irene Solera Ruiz
Full Text Available Background: Information technology can play a vital role in meeting patient needs and reinforcing the relationship among patients and their pain physicians. However, strong resistance remains on the medical side to this type of non-frontal care. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an E-mail intervention on customers′ satisfaction. The secondary goals were to analyze the messages from patients to their clinician (not only the volume but also the content and the impact on client, professional and health services outcomes. Study Design: A prospective, non-randomized evaluation of patients undergoing treatment for chronic pain from September 2011 to May 2012. Setting: A private, specialty referral center in Spain. Materials and Methods: Participants were users visiting the Pain Management Unit evaluated by one physician. The E-mail address of the facility was written in every medical report provided. Patient satisfaction at the end of the 8-month trial period was assessed and outcomes recorded. Results: Patients reported better communication with their therapist and greater satisfaction with overall care. 780 E-mails were read. Specialists received an average of 5 messages per day (standard deviation 0,3. None of them was unsuitable. Limitations: This is a prospective, single center evaluation performed by one doctor. There was no control group due to ethical considerations. Conclusion s : Electronic communication is a cheap, easy and feasible way to address a wide range of concerns, thus enhancing patients′ satisfaction. More efforts are needed to implement routinely usage of this tool. If used appropriately, E-mail can facilitate physician-dependent interactions, promote access to care, save time and reduce costs. Concerns about billing, improper utilization, privacy and confidentiality might complicate its introduction and acceptance. Internet access remains a significant barrier to online
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Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the speech act of assignment submission and presence of facework in submission emails sent to faculty members by native and nonnative English speaking graduate students. Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory (1987 and Spencer-Oatey’s (2002, 2008 rapport management framework were utilized to analyze the emails. The corpus consisted of 105 emails from 40 NES and NNES students. Drawing on speech event analysis approach (Merrison, Wilson, Davies, & Haugh, 2012, we analyze both submission head act as well as optional elements like openings, small talk and closings in an email. Our exploratory study revealed that, contrary to the argument that CMC is a lean medium (Duthler, 2006 in which it is difficult to achieve interpersonal communication, through the employment of opening, small talk and closing strategies, students attended to relational goals in their email communication.
Mohammad Awad AlAfnan
Full Text Available This study investigated the moves and communicative purposes used in 522 email messages that were exchanged in a Malaysian private educational institute. Using Swales’s (1990 move approach, this study revealed that email writers used fourteen moves that are mainly six framing and eight content moves. Content moves included four main, one intertextual, one supporting and two follow-up moves. The four main content moves reflected the main communicative purposes of the emails that are discussing issues, enquiring about issues, couriering (delivering documents and informing about organizational and academic issues. The four communicative purposes varied in their structural organization, number of recipients and reaction to receiving the email. Keywords: Genre analysis; Email communication; Rhetorical moves; Communicative purposes; Discourse community
Email English will help students of English to write effective and convincing communications, whether for work or study, whether by email or via social media. Based on hundreds of real examples, Email English deals systematically with key language for constructing effective and convincing emails in English as well as developing an appropriate voice through social media. Basics, including opening and closing emails, giving information, making requests, arranging meetings and checking understanding. Specific situations, such as negotiating, asking for payment and dealing with a supplier or customer. Skills such as describing business trends, relating cause and effect and reporting. General grammar problems, for instance, sentence structure, verb forms, comparison and punctuation. Communication styles: formal and informal, direct and indirect, ways of seeming friendlier. A NEW social media section presents strategies, tips and key language and expressions for writing blogs and on social media platforms such as F...
Kita, Toshihiro; Miyazaki, Makoto; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sugitani, Kenichi; Akiyama, Hidenori
We have developed a simple e-mail application named Seemit which is designed for being used in information literacy courses. It has necessary and sufficient functionality of an e-mail application, and it has been developed for the purpose of learning basic operations and mechanisms of e-mail transfer easily. It is equipped with the function to automatically set the configuration of user's SMTP/POP servers and e-mail address, etc. The process of transferring e-mail via SMTP and POP can be demonstrated step by step showing actual messages passed during the client-server interaction. We have utilized Seemit in a university-wide information literacy course which holds about 1800 students.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging practicing physicians in educational strategies that reinforce guideline adoption and improve the quality of healthcare may be difficult. Push technologies such as email offer new opportunities to engage physicians in online educational reinforcing strategies. The objectives are to investigate 1 the effectiveness of email announcements in engaging recruited community-based primary care physicians in an online guideline reinforcement strategy designed to promote Chlamydia screening, 2 the characteristics of physicians who respond to email announcements, as well as 3 how quickly and when they respond to email announcements. Methods Over a 45-week period, 445 recruited physicians received up to 33 email contacts announcing and reminding them of an online women's health guideline reinforcing CME activity. Participation was defined as physician log-on at least once to the website. Data were analyzed to determine participation, to compare characteristics of participants with recruited physicians who did not participate, and to determine at what point and when participants logged on. Results Of 445 recruited physicians with accurate email addresses, 47.2% logged on and completed at least one module. There were no significant differences by age, race, or specialty between participants and non-participants. Female physicians, US medical graduates and MDs had higher participation rates than male physicians, international medical graduates and DOs. Physicians with higher baseline screening rates were significantly more likely to log on to the course. The first 10 emails were the most effective in engaging community-based physicians to complete the intervention. Physicians were more likely to log on in the afternoon and evening and on Monday or Thursday. Conclusions Email course reminders may enhance recruitment of physicians to interventions designed to reinforce guideline adoption; physicians' response to email reminders may
Dombkowski, Kevin J; Cowan, Anne E; Reeves, Sarah L; Foley, Matthew R; Dempsey, Amanda F
We sought to: (1) explore the feasibility of using email for seasonal influenza vaccination reminders to parents of adolescents and (2) assess influenza vaccination rates among adolescents whose parents were randomized to either receive or not receive email reminders. Email addresses were obtained for parents of patients 10-18years from 4 practices in Michigan. Addresses were randomized to either receive email reminders, or not. Reminder messages were sent during October 2012-March 2013 (Season 1) and October 2013-March 2014 (Season 2). Vaccination status was determined 60days following the last email reminder for each season using the statewide Michigan Care Improvement Registry (MCIR); per protocol bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate reminder notification. After email cleaning, testing, and matching with MCIR, approximately half of email addresses (2348 of 5312 in Season 1; 3457 of 6549 in Season 2) were randomized. Bivariate analyses found that influenza vaccination within 60days after notification date was similar among those notified (34%) versus not notified (29%) in both Season 1 (p=0.06) and Season 2 (39% vs. 37%, p=0.20). However, multivariate models adjusted for season, site, and receipt of notification in two seasons found a higher likelihood of influenza vaccination among children that received notification (aOR=1.28, 95% CI=1.09, 1.51); in addition, differences in influenza vaccination were also observed between practice sites (range: p=0.15 to pemail influenza vaccine reminders to parents of adolescents are feasible, but not without complications. Our study demonstrates that email reminders from practices can yield increases in influenza vaccination rates among adolescents. Practices should consider email as an option for influenza reminders and establish business practices for collecting and maintaining patient email addresses. This study is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov id #NCT01732315. Copyright
Yates, Bradford L.; Adams, Jennifer Wood; Brunner, Brigitta R.
Nearly 700 US journalism and mass communication faculty (all teaching personnel) reported their perceptions of student email use via a web-based survey. This nationwide study focused on the content of email sent by faculty to students, email's effectiveness, and email's effect on student learning. Comparisons were made based on faculty gender,…
Sampson, Rod; Barbour, Rosaline; Wilson, Philip
Background There is little published research into the influence of email communication between primary and secondary care clinicians on patient care. Aim To explore the use of email communication between clinicians across the primary– secondary care interface, and how this may relate to patient care. Design and setting A qualitative study involving primary and secondary care services in the NHS Highland Health Board area, Scotland. Ten GPs and 12 hospital consultants were purposively sampled to reflect diversity. Method Eligible clinicians were invited to take part in a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Key themes that emerged for clinicians included general perceptions of email; using email in practice (managing workload, impact on patient journeys, and ‘quick answers’); system issues (variability and governance); relational aspects; and email skills. Conclusion Email communication between primary and secondary care clinicians generally has a positive impact on patient access to specialist expertise. Governance issues around the use of clinical email need to be defined. There may currently be a two-tier health service for those patients (and their GPs) requiring ‘quick answers’. PMID:27162209
Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary; Jensen, Matilde Nisbeth
Email communication is being integrated relatively slowly into doctor–patient communication. Patients have expressed enthusiasm for the medium, while doctors are generally more reluctant. As existing health communication models have characteristically assumed the co-presence of doctor and patient and primarily reflect medical practitioners’ perspectives, their suitability in relation to email communication and patients’ perspectives warrants further investigation. Following a two-step process and using the methodology of the integrative literature review, 29 articles from 2004–2014 are analysed with the aim of investigating the advantages and disadvantages of the medium of email from the patient’s perspective. The findings are compared to the health communication models of biomedicine, patient-centeredness, patient education and patient empowerment to investigate these models’ relevance for doctor–patient email communication. Results show that patients identify numerous advantages with email communication, including improved convenience and access, more detailed informational exchanges, greater reflection opportunities, freedom from the medical gaze and the potential to level out power imbalances, as well as a number of primarily medium-related disadvantages. The findings indicate that email can counteract some of the communicative problems associated with biomedicine and suggest the ongoing relevance of aspects of the models of patient empowerment, patient-centeredness and patient education for email communication.
Sampson, Rod; Barbour, Rosaline; Wilson, Philip
There is little published research into the influence of email communication between primary and secondary care clinicians on patient care. To explore the use of email communication between clinicians across the primary- secondary care interface, and how this may relate to patient care. A qualitative study involving primary and secondary care services in the NHS Highland Health Board area, Scotland. Ten GPs and 12 hospital consultants were purposively sampled to reflect diversity. Eligible clinicians were invited to take part in a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Key themes that emerged for clinicians included general perceptions of email; using email in practice (managing workload, impact on patient journeys, and 'quick answers'); system issues (variability and governance); relational aspects; and email skills. Email communication between primary and secondary care clinicians generally has a positive impact on patient access to specialist expertise. Governance issues around the use of clinical email need to be defined. There may currently be a two-tier health service for those patients (and their GPs) requiring 'quick answers'. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Mildenberger, P.; Kaemmerer, M.; Klos, G.; Schuetze, B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Engelmann, U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abt. Medizinische und Biologische Informatik, Heidelberg (Germany); Ruggiero, S.; Runa, A.; Weisser, G. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim (Germany); Schroeter, A. [CHILI GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Walz, M. [TUeV Industrie Service GmbH, TUeV-SUeD-Gruppe, Aerztliche Stelle fuer Qualitaetssicherung in der Radiologie, Eschborn (Germany)
E-mail is ideal for ad-hoc connections in teleradiology. The DICOM standard offers the possibility to append DICOM data types as a MIME attachment to any e-mail, thus ensuring the transmission of the original DICOM data. Nevertheless, there are additional requirements (e.g. protection of data privacy) which must be obeyed. Because of the lack of given standards which would grant interoperability as well as manufacturer independence, teleradiology has not been established in Germany until today. Therefore, the IT-Team (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Informationstechnologie, rate at GIT) of the Radiological Society of Germany (Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, DRG) set up an initiative to standardise telemedicine by using e-mail. Its members agreed that an e-mail-based variant would be the most practicable way to a communication solution - as easy to implement as to use. In their opinion, e-mail represents the smallest common denominator for a safe data interchange that would fulfill the legal advantages for telemedicine in Germany. (orig.)
This thesis took an analytical and practical approach on email marketing, and studied it from the perspective of the case study company Onninen. The aim was at finding out how to increase the efficiency and reach of email marketing at the case company. The case company, Onninen, is a large Finnish distributor of HVACR, steel, and electrical goods. Email marketing can be one of the most effective tools for marketers to invest in. In order to find solutions to the aforementioned aim of the...
Biloš, Antun; Turkalj, Davorin; Kelić, Ivan
Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to test the controlled experiment (A/B split) methodology in B2C oriented e-mail marketing campaigns. Design/Methodology/Approach – E-mail marketing techniques have been a substantial part of e-marketing methodology since the early Internet days of the mid-1990s. From the very beginning of Internet utilization for business purposes, e-mail was one of the most widely used communication techniques in B2B and B2C markets alike. Due to high volumes o...
Seth, Puneet; Abu-Abed, Mohamed Ismail; Kapoor, Vikram; Nicholson, Kathryn; Agarwal, Gina
Email between patients and their health care providers can serve as a continuous and collaborative forum to improve access to care, enhance convenience of communication, reduce administrative costs and missed appointments, and improve satisfaction with the patient-provider relationship. The main objective of this study was to investigate the attitudes of patients aged 16 years and older toward receiving email communication for health-related purposes from an academic inner-city family health team in Southern Ontario. In addition to exploring the proportion of patients with a functioning email address and interest in email communication with their health care provider, we also examined patient-level predictors of interest in email communication. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered, 1-page survey of attitudes toward electronic communication for health purposes. Participants were recruited from attending patients at the McMaster Family Practice in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. These patients were aged 16 years and older and were approached consecutively to complete the self-administered survey (N=624). Descriptive analyses were conducted using the Pearson chi-square test to examine correlations between variables. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine statistically significant predictors of interest in email communication (yes or no). The majority of respondents (73.2%, 457/624) reported that they would be willing to have their health care provider (from the McMaster Family Practice) contact them via email to communicate health-related information. Those respondents who checked their personal email more frequently were less likely to want to engage in this electronic communication. Among respondents who check their email less frequently (fewer than every 3 days), 46% (37/81) preferred to communicate with the McMaster Family Practice via email. Online applications, including email, are emerging as a viable avenue for patient
Voorstel van de schrijver om in het wetsontwerp massale bezwaarschriften de factor rechtsbescherming een ruimere plek te geven en de belastingplichtige het recht te laten behouden een bezwaarschrift in te dienen dat individueel wordt behandeld en afgedaan.
Suggs, Suzanne; Blake, Holly; Bardus, Marco; Lloyd, Scott
To test the effects of adding text messages to weekly email communications on recipients' total physical activity (leisure-time; workplace; domestic and garden; and active transportation) in employees of universities and colleges in the UK. A randomised trial with two study groups (email only or email plus text messaging for 12 weeks) was implemented at five workplaces. Data were collected at baseline, immediately after, and four weeks after the intervention. Intervention effects on physical activity were evaluated using latent growth modelling. Total physical activity decreased over time in both groups but the decrease was non-significant. The only significant difference between groups was found for workplace physical activity, with the group receiving emails and text messages having a linear decrease of 2.81 Metabolic Equivalent h/week (β = -0.31, p = 0.035) compared to the email only group. Sending employees two additional text messages resulted in less physical activity. Further investigation is needed to understand whether text messaging may play a beneficial role in promoting physical activity in workplace settings. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Horvath, Monica; Levy, Janet; L'Engle, Pete; Carlson, Boyd; Ahmad, Asif; Ferranti, Jeffrey
Internet portal technologies that provide access to portions of electronic health records have the potential to revolutionize patients' involvement in their care. However, relatively few descriptions of the demographic characteristics of portal enrollees or of the effects of portal technology on quality outcomes exist. This study examined data from patients who attended one of seven Duke Medicine clinics and who were offered the option of enrolling in and using the Duke Medicine HealthView portal (HVP). The HVP allows patients to manage details of their appointment scheduling and provides automated email appointment reminders in addition to the telephone and mail reminders that all patients receive. Our objective was to test whether portal enrollment with an email reminder functionality is significantly related to decreases in rates of appointment "no-shows," which are known to impair clinic operational efficiency. Appointment activity during a 1-year period was examined for all patients attending one of seven Duke Medicine clinics. Patients were categorized as portal enrollees or as nonusers either by their status at time of appointment or at the end of the 1-year period. Demographic characteristics and no-show rates among these groups were compared. A binomial logistic regression model was constructed to measure the adjusted impact of HVP enrollment on no-show rates, given confounding factors. To demonstrate the effect of HVP use over time, monthly no-show rates were calculated for patient appointment keeping and contrasted between preportal and postportal deployment periods. Across seven clinics, 58,942 patients, 15.7% (9239/58,942) of whom were portal enrollees, scheduled 198,199 appointments with an overall no-show rate of 9.9% (19,668/198,199). We found that HVP enrollees were significantly more likely to be female, white, and privately insured compared with nonusers. Bivariate no-show rate differences between portal enrollment groups varied widely according
Report #13-P-0433, September 26, 2013. We found no evidence that the EPA used, promoted or encouraged the use of private “non-governmental” email accounts to circumvent records management responsibilities
Sims, Benjamin H.; Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Eidenbenz, Stephan J.
This paper presents findings from a study of the email network of a large scientific research organization, focusing on methods for visualizing and modeling organizational hierarchies within large, complex network datasets. In the first part of the paper, we find that visualization and interpretation of complex organizational network data is facilitated by integration of network data with information on formal organizational divisions and levels. By aggregating and visualizing email traffic b...
Background The provision of cell phone numbers and email addresses enhances the accessibility of medical consultations, but can add to the burden of physicians' routine clinical practice and affect their free time. The objective was to assess the attitudes of physicians to providing their telephone number or email address to patients. Methods Primary care physicians in the southern region of Israel completed a structured questionnaire that related to the study objective. Results The study population included 120 primary care physicians with a mean age of 41.2 ± 8.5, 88 of them women (73.3%). Physicians preferred to provide their cell phone number rather than their email address (P = 0.0007). They preferred to answer their cell phones only during the daytime and at predetermined times, but would answer email most hours of the day, including weekends and holidays (P = 0.001). More physicians (79.7%) would have preferred allotted time for email communication than allotted time for cell phone communication (50%). However, they felt that email communication was more likely to lead to miscommunication than telephone calls (P = 0.0001). There were no differences between male and female physicians on the provision of cell phone numbers or email addresses to patients. Older physicians were more prepared to provide cell phone numbers that younger ones (P = 0.039). Conclusions The attitude of participating physicians was to provide their cell phone number or email address to some of their patients, but most of them preferred to give out their cell phone number. PMID:21426591
Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of cell phone numbers and email addresses enhances the accessibility of medical consultations, but can add to the burden of physicians' routine clinical practice and affect their free time. The objective was to assess the attitudes of physicians to providing their telephone number or email address to patients. Methods Primary care physicians in the southern region of Israel completed a structured questionnaire that related to the study objective. Results The study population included 120 primary care physicians with a mean age of 41.2 ± 8.5, 88 of them women (73.3%. Physicians preferred to provide their cell phone number rather than their email address (P = 0.0007. They preferred to answer their cell phones only during the daytime and at predetermined times, but would answer email most hours of the day, including weekends and holidays (P = 0.001. More physicians (79.7% would have preferred allotted time for email communication than allotted time for cell phone communication (50%. However, they felt that email communication was more likely to lead to miscommunication than telephone calls (P = 0.0001. There were no differences between male and female physicians on the provision of cell phone numbers or email addresses to patients. Older physicians were more prepared to provide cell phone numbers that younger ones (P = 0.039. Conclusions The attitude of participating physicians was to provide their cell phone number or email address to some of their patients, but most of them preferred to give out their cell phone number.
There are many benefits of e-mails. Through e-mail, a person can relay specific details to any number of "need to know" persons at the press of a "send" key at any time of day, without playing endless phone tag or waking someone up on the wrong side of the time zone. A person can also get "newsy" information out fast and save printing money, too.…
Fitriah Rusland, Nurul; Wahid, Norfaradilla; Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti
E-mail spam continues to become a problem on the Internet. Spammed e-mail may contain many copies of the same message, commercial advertisement or other irrelevant posts like pornographic content. In previous research, different filtering techniques are used to detect these e-mails such as using Random Forest, Naïve Bayesian, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neutral Network. In this research, we test Naïve Bayes algorithm for e-mail spam filtering on two datasets and test its performance, i.e., Spam Data and SPAMBASE datasets . The performance of the datasets is evaluated based on their accuracy, recall, precision and F-measure. Our research use WEKA tool for the evaluation of Naïve Bayes algorithm for e-mail spam filtering on both datasets. The result shows that the type of email and the number of instances of the dataset has an influence towards the performance of Naïve Bayes.
Segura, M.A.; Rither, A.C.
This paper examines the legal issues involved with employer monitoring of employee e-mail. In addition to identifying pertinent legal issues, the paper provides guidelines that will help the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) establish a program for monitoring outgoing e-mail to insure compliance with company policies, particularly those regarding protection of trade secrets and proprietary information, and to comply with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) procedures for protecting Export Controlled Information (ECI). Electronic communication has allowed companies to enhance efficiency, responsiveness and effectiveness. E-mail allows employees to transmit all types of data to other individuals inside and outside of their companies. The ease with which information can be transmitted by e-mail has placed trade secrets, proprietary information, and other sensitive data at risk from inadvertent disclosure by employees. As employers attempt to protect their interests through measures such as monitoring e-mail, they may expose themselves to liability under federal and state laws for violating employee privacy. Business use of e-mail has proliferated so rapidly that the federal and state legal systems have not been able to adequately address the issues arising out of its use in the workplace.
dibandingkan tanpa aplikasi ultraEZ terhadap kekerasan email pada p>0,05. Background. One of the side effect of bleaching agent is a dentine hypersensitive and ultraEZ is an agent can diminish this process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate difference of enamel microhardness post external bleaching with or without ultra-eze application. Method. Twenty extracted permanent bicuspid used in this study were divided into two group, each group contains 10 bicupids. Group I was treated external bleaching without ultra-eze application and group II was treated external bleaching with application ultraEZ for five minutes. After that all of the subject were seaked the artificial saliva and kept in the incubator 24 hours. Teeth were embedded into acrylic resin with the buccal sirface facing up. Further all of the subject was evaluated by Vickers using 100 g load for 15 seconds. Teeth were stapled on the Micro Hardness Tester table diagonal of emage was measure using micrometer attach on ocular lesnse. Email hardness can be known after calculating, the everage diagonal length, the load used and the duration of hardness test. Further the data was analize using t-test. The result shows there is significant difference between bleaching with and without the application of ultra-eze.
Full Text Available As Internet usage becomes more commonplace, researchers are beginning to explore the use of email interviews. Email interviews have a unique set of tools, advantages, and limitations, and are not meant to be blind reproductions of traditional face-to-face interview techniques. Email interviews should be implemented when: 1 researchers can justify email interviews are useful to a research project; 2 there is evidence that the target population will be open to email interviewing as a form of data collection; and 3 the justification of the email interview supports the researchers’ theoretical perspective. The objective of this study was to develop an email interviewing methodology. As with other forms of qualitative interviewing, it is important that the researcher: 1 identifies constraints; 2 adequately prepares for the interview; 3 establishes rapport; 4 asks appropriate questions; 5 actively listens; and 6 ends the email interview appropriately.
... their ability to detect email forgery. The results did determine that government computer users are extremely vulnerable to email forgery and that new security measures need to be adapted to protect these systems from this type...
Dalal, Anuj K; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Poon, Eric G; Williams, Deborah H; Rossi-Roh, Kathleen; Macleay, Allison; Liang, Catherine L; Nolido, Nyryan; Budris, Jonas; Bates, David W; Roy, Christopher L
Physicians are often unaware of the results of tests pending at discharge (TPADs). The authors designed and implemented an automated system to notify the responsible inpatient physician of the finalized results of TPADs using secure, network email. The system coordinates a series of electronic events triggered by the discharge time stamp and sends an email to the identified discharging attending physician once finalized results are available. A carbon copy is sent to the primary care physicians in order to facilitate communication and the subsequent transfer of responsibility. Logic was incorporated to suppress selected tests and to limit notification volume. The system was activated for patients with TPADs discharged by randomly selected inpatient-attending physicians during a 6-month pilot. They received approximately 1.6 email notifications per discharged patient with TPADs. Eighty-four per cent of inpatient-attending physicians receiving automated email notifications stated that they were satisfied with the system in a brief survey (59% survey response rate). Automated email notification is a useful strategy for managing results of TPADs.
M. Z. Gashti
Full Text Available Spam emails is probable the main problem faced by most e-mail users. There are many features in spam email detection and some of these features have little effect on detection and cause skew detection and classification of spam email. Thus, Feature Selection (FS is one of the key topics in spam email detection systems. With choosing the important and effective features in classification, its performance can be optimized. Selector features has the task of finding a subset of features to improve the accuracy of its predictions. In this paper, a hybrid of Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA and decision tree is used for selecting the best features and classification. The obtained results on Spam-base dataset show that the rate of recognition accuracy in the proposed model is 95.25% which is high in comparison with models such as SVM, NB, J48 and MLP. Also, the accuracy of the proposed model on the datasets of Ling-spam and PU1 is high in comparison with models such as NB, SVM and LR.
Wang, Jing; Madnick, Stuart; Li, Xitong; Alstott, Jeff; Velu, Chander
Social mobilization is a process that enlists a large number of people to achieve a goal within a limited time, especially through the use of social media. There is increasing interest in understanding the factors that affect the speed of social mobilization. Based on the Langley Knights competition data set, we analyzed the differences in mobilization speed between users of Facebook and e-mail. We include other factors that may influence mobilization speed (gender, age, timing, and homophily of information source) in our model as control variables in order to isolate the effect of such factors. We show that, in this experiment, although more people used e-mail to recruit, the mobilization speed of Facebook users was faster than that of those that used e-mail. We were also able to measure and show that the mobilization speed for Facebook users was on average seven times faster compared to e-mail before controlling for other factors. After controlling for other factors, we show that Facebook users were 1.84 times more likely to register compared to e-mail users in the next period if they have not done so at any point in time. This finding could provide useful insights for future social mobilization efforts.
Full Text Available Social mobilization is a process that enlists a large number of people to achieve a goal within a limited time, especially through the use of social media. There is increasing interest in understanding the factors that affect the speed of social mobilization. Based on the Langley Knights competition data set, we analyzed the differences in mobilization speed between users of Facebook and e-mail. We include other factors that may influence mobilization speed (gender, age, timing, and homophily of information source in our model as control variables in order to isolate the effect of such factors. We show that, in this experiment, although more people used e-mail to recruit, the mobilization speed of Facebook users was faster than that of those that used e-mail. We were also able to measure and show that the mobilization speed for Facebook users was on average seven times faster compared to e-mail before controlling for other factors. After controlling for other factors, we show that Facebook users were 1.84 times more likely to register compared to e-mail users in the next period if they have not done so at any point in time. This finding could provide useful insights for future social mobilization efforts.
Full Text Available Nowadays electronic mail (e-mail is a communication tool that is often used in everyday life. One of the utilizations of e-mail is used in practical purposes such as making a request. This paper provided views on linguistic politeness in submitting an e-mail containing the request based on e-mail data written by native speakers of Japanese (J and the Indonesian Japanese language learners (IJL. The data was analyzed using the theory of politeness expressed by Brown and Levinson. This paper focused on the strategy that what more likely was to be used by J and IJL in the expression of request. In the final part, it concluded the view about what should be considered in connection with the linguistic politeness in Japanese e-mail containing request. It was intended for learners of foreign language, especially Indonesian people, to know the limitation of politeness, so that IJL will not repeat the same mistakes in the future.
Zakaria, Chahnez; Curé, Olivier; Salzano, Gabriella; Smaïli, Kamel
In Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), it is crucial for project leaders to detect conflicting situations as early as possible. Generally, this task is performed manually by studying a set of documents exchanged between team members. In this paper, we propose a full-fledged automatic solution that identifies documents, subjects and actors involved in relational conflicts. Our approach detects conflicts in emails, probably the most popular type of documents in CSCW, but the methods used can handle other text-based documents. These methods rely on the combination of statistical and ontological operations. The proposed solution is decomposed in several steps: (i) we enrich a simple negative emotion ontology with terms occuring in the corpus of emails, (ii) we categorize each conflicting email according to the concepts of this ontology and (iii) we identify emails, subjects and team members involved in conflicting emails using possibilistic description logic and a set of proposed measures. Each of these steps are evaluated and validated on concrete examples. Moreover, this approach's framework is generic and can be easily adapted to domains other than conflicts, e.g. security issues, and extended with operations making use of our proposed set of measures.
Geyer, Maria Elena
With the emergence of e-mail as a common form of communication, it is important to understand the role and impact e-mail can have on acquiring and retaining whole-blood donors. Whole-blood donors who opted in to receive e-mail communications (n = 43,232) from the Puget Sound Blood Center (PSBC) and as a result participated in one or more of five e-mail marketing campaigns between July 2002 and March 2003 were studied. New donors with e-mail addresses grew by 74 percent over the measurement period compared with 2 percent growth of those without e-mail addresses. Nearly 15,000 prospective donors were reached as a result of donors passing along e-mails they received from PSBC to friends and family. Nearly 5 percent of PSBC e-mail campaign recipients registered to donate online. PSBC e-mail campaigns have outperformed e-mail marketing industry mean open rates by 44 percent and click-through rates by 36 percent. E-mail is now a mainstream communication medium. It has proven to be an effective method of reaching new donors and generating new donation registrations. Donors respond more favorably to e-mail communications from PSBC compared with e-mail they receive from other organizations. Deeper understanding of how different segments of blood donors use e-mail may help blood centers adjust their donor acquisition and retention programs. New recruitment methods are needed to grow the overall donor base, and e-mail appears to have the potential to make a significant contribution to meeting this objective.
Full Text Available Communication through email represents one of the most important forms of business communication, not just within a company but also externally with customers. The paper examines email interactions between the agents representing a Slovenian transport company and its customers. More specifically, the study examines specific aspects and elements of email production in a Slovenian customer service setting. It is hoped that the findings will help enhance the communication skills of learners of Slovenian as a foreign language and students of translation and increase their cultural awareness and their knowledge of technology-mediated customer service communication. Moreover, the findings could increase students’ understanding of the pragmatic motivations behind interactants’ linguistic choices.
Okolica, James; Peterson, Gilbert; Mills, Robert
Despite a technology bias that focuses on external electronic threats, insiders pose the greatest threat to commercial and government organizations. Once information on a specific topic has gone missing, being able to quickly determine who has shown an interest in that topic can allow investigators to focus their attention. Even more promising is when individuals can be found who have an interest in the topic but who have never communicated that interest within the organization. An employee's interests can be discerned by data mining corporate email correspondence. These interests can be used to construct social networks that graphically expose investigative leads. This paper describes the use of Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing (PLSI)  extended to include users (PLSI-U) to determine topics that are of interest to employees from their email activity. It then applies PLSI-U to the Enron email corpus and finds a small number of employees (0.02%) who appear to have had clandestine interests.
Full Text Available This study is performed to evaluate E-mail usage by Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM2 and to test the moderation effects of Espoused National Cultural Values between Subjective Norm (SN and E-mail usage Behavioral Intention (BI/Perceived Usefulness (PU. Survey was conducted in Adana Branches of an important Turkish State-Run Bank including 151 participants who have E-mail access for work purposes. As the results of the study; PU and Perceived Ease Of Use (PEOU have positive effects on BI, PEOU and SN both effect PU, Femininity (F shows positive moderating effect on the relationship between SN and PU as well as the relation between SN and BI, Collectivism (C shows positive moderation effect between SN and PU, moderation effect of SN on PU is higher for people who have higher tolerance to uncertainty.
Jensen, Matilde Nisbeth; Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary
Background and objective: Although theoretical perspectives on the doctor-patient relationship have characteristically assumed the temporal and physical co-presence of doctor and patient, the advent of email in doctor-patient communication has brought with it a different communicative reality. New...... technologies come with significant implications as, amongst other things, they impose practices and identities on participants (Malater 2007). The purpose of this integrative literature review is thus to investigate how the advent of email as a medium of communication affects the doctor-patient relationship...... of the medium, convenience, freedom from the clinical gaze, pseudo-anonymity and greater opportunities for reflection, whilst doctors express concerns about confidentiality, time and the challenge of conveying empathy electronically. Implications: The impact of email on the doctor-patient relationship has...
Nicolson, Moira; Huebner, Gesche M.; Shipworth, David; Elam, Simon
The carbon intensity of the electricity used to charge an electric vehicle (EV) is dependent on when in the day charging occurs. However, persuading EV owners to adopt incentives to charge during off-peak hours is challenging. Here we show that governments could exploit the 'window of opportunity' created when people purchase their first EV to promote time-of-use tariffs. Email recipients (n = 7,038 EV owners) were more likely to click-through to an information webpage when the email emphasized specific reductions in home-charging costs versus general bill savings. However, the 'window of opportunity' for maximizing potential adoption is short; email open rates declined from over 70% immediately after purchase to 40% for recipients owning their EV for over three months. These results demonstrate the potential of prompts to change behaviours for which opt-out enrolment (where enrolment is automatic unless people explicitly opt out) would be unethical or less effective.
This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted in which 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two...
Fortes, Nuno; Rita, Paulo
Este artigo, assente exclusivamente em revisão bibliográfica, pretende apresentar as potencialidades do e-mail como uma ferramenta de comunicação de marketing. Em virtude do universo do e-mail marketing estar ensombrado por um crescente fenómeno de spam, são apresentadas duas abordagens alternativas, mas complementares - o marketing de permissão e o marketing viral-, capazes de manterem em níveis elevados os indicadores de eficácia das campanhas.
Mayer, Wilfried; Zauner, Aaron; Schmiedecker, Martin; Huber, Markus
TLS is the most widely used cryptographic protocol on the Internet. While many recent studies focused on its use in HTTPS, none so far analyzed TLS usage in e-mail related protocols, which often carry highly sensitive information. Since end-to-end encryption mechanisms like PGP are seldomly used, today confidentiality in the e-mail ecosystem is mainly based on the encryption of the transport layer. A well-positioned attacker may be able to intercept plaintext passively and at global scale. In...
Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique; Granikov, Vera; Shulha, Michael; Bartlett, Gillian; Marlow, Bernard
A synopsis of new clinical research highlights important aspects of one study in a brief structured format. When delivered as email alerts, synopses enable clinicians to become aware of new developments relevant for practice. Once read, a synopsis can become a known item of clinical information. In time-pressured situations, remembering a known item may facilitate information retrieval by the clinician. However, exactly how synopses first delivered as email alerts influence retrieval at some later time is not known. We examined searches for clinical information in which a synopsis previously read as an email alert was retrieved (defined as a dyad). Our study objectives were to (1) examine whether family physicians retrieved synopses they previously read as email alerts and then to (2) explore whether family physicians purposefully retrieved these synopses. We conducted a mixed-methods study in which a qualitative multiple case study explored the retrieval of email alerts within a prospective longitudinal cohort of practicing family physicians. Reading of research-based synopses was tracked in two contexts: (1) push, meaning to read on email and (2) pull, meaning to read after retrieval from one electronic knowledge resource. Dyads, defined as synopses first read as email alerts and subsequently retrieved in a search of a knowledge resource, were prospectively identified. Participants were interviewed about all of their dyads. Outcomes were the total number of dyads and their type. Over a period of 341 days, 194 unique synopses delivered to 41 participants resulted in 4937 synopsis readings. In all, 1205 synopses were retrieved over an average of 320 days. Of the 1205 retrieved synopses, 21 (1.7%) were dyads made by 17 family physicians. Of the 1205 retrieved synopses, 6 (0.5%) were known item type dyads. However, dyads also occurred serendipitously. In the single knowledge resource we studied, email alerts containing research-based synopses were rarely retrieved
Mazurenko, Olena; Hearld, Larry R; Menachemi, Nir
Physician e-mail communication, with patients and other providers, is one of the cornerstones of effective care coordination but varies significantly across physicians. A physician's external environment may contribute to such variations by enabling or constraining a physician's ability to adopt innovations such as health information technology (HIT) that can be used to support e-mail communication. The aim of the study was to examine whether the relationship of the external environment and physician e-mail communication with patients and other providers is mediated by the practice's HIT availability. The data were obtained from the Health Tracking Physician Survey (2008) and the Area Resource File (2008). Cross-sectional multivariable subgroup path analysis was used to investigate the mediating role of HIT availability across 2,850 U.S. physicians. Solo physicians' perceptions about malpractice were associated with 0.97 lower odds (p communication with patients and other providers, as compared to group and hospital practices, even when mediated by HIT availability. Subgroup analyses indicated that different types of practices are responsive to the different dimensions of the external environment. Specifically, solo practitioners were more responsive to the availability of resources in their environment, with per capita income associated with lower likelihood of physician e-mail communication (OR = 0.99, p information technology availability, which in turn was associated with a greater likelihood of communicating via e-mail with patients (OR = 1.02, p communication and the external environment is mediated by the practice's HIT availability. Efforts to improve physician e-mail communication and HIT adoption may need to reflect the varied perceptions of different types of practices.
Dorstyn, Diana; Roberts, Rachel; Murphy, Gregory; Kneebone, Ian; Migliorini, Christine; Craig, Ashley; Hutchinson, Claire; Field, Deborah
Media-based rehabilitation provides a powerful opportunity to examine vocational behaviors in the disability sector. However, this research is preliminary at best. This paper reports pilot data. Eighteen adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) accessed an email-delivered, resource-based package, Work and MS. Pre- and post-access vocational self-efficacy and identity (Job-Procurement Self Efficacy Scale, My Vocational Situation Scale- primary outcomes), life orientation and depressed mood (Life Orientation Test - revised and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 - secondary outcomes) were assessed. Pre- and post-change scores were examined with Wilcoxon signed ranks tests and Hedges g effect sizes with associated 95% confidence intervals. Reliable change analyses were additionally calculated to determine the clinical significance of individual change scores. Significant and positive effects were reported for vocational self-efficacy, identity, and optimism. Reliable change scores in one or more of these key outcomes were reported by 30% of the sample. Satisfaction with the content and delivery of the email-based intervention was also noted. Preliminary evidence suggests that Work and MS can help to promote vocational goals, interests and strengths among job seekers with a disability by providing a set of tools, information and linkages relating to vocational pursuits and career development. Replication with a randomized control design is indicated. Implications for Rehabilitation Research indicates a high unemployment rate among working-age adults with MS. A combination of disease-specific, psychological, programmatic and societal variables contribute to employment instability in this group. This pilot study demonstrates that an e-mail-based resource package, Work and MS, provides an innovative and feasible option for promoting consumer engagement with vocational services and, potentially, improving vocational outcomes. Work and MS has potential applicability to other
Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team
Have you ever received an e-mail from a friend or someone you know and been surprised or appalled by its contents? Or, worse, have you have received a response to an e-mail that wasn’t written by you? Maybe with similarly surprising or appalling contents? If yes, welcome to the insecurity of the mail protocol, where nothing is as it seems… No, this time we are not talking about “phishing” or malicious attachments but the very basics of the e-mail protocol. “SMTP” aka the “Simple Mail Transfer Protocol” is exactly what it says: very simple! In many respects, e-mails are identical to physical hand-written letters: you cannot deduce from the sender’s address nor from the message text whether it has really been sent by that person. Impersonation has never been as easy as with the SMTP protocol. Due to its simple design, I can pretend to be Mickey Mouse, Harry Potter or anyone else, and send you text messages...
Wendt, Jeremy Daniel.
We present the results of a two year project focused on a common social engineering attack method called "spear phishing". In a spear phishing attack, the user receives an email with information specifically focused on the user. This email contains either a malware-laced attachment or a link to download the malware that has been disguised as a useful program. Spear phishing attacks have been one of the most effective avenues for attackers to gain initial entry into a target network. This project focused on a proactive approach to spear phishing. To create an effective, user-specific spear phishing email, the attacker must research the intended recipient. We believe that much of the information used by the attacker is provided by the target organization's own external website. Thus when researching potential targets, the attacker leaves signs of his research in the webserver's logs. We created tools and visualizations to improve cybersecurity analysts' abilities to quickly understand a visitor's visit patterns and interests. Given these suspicious visitors and log-parsing tools, analysts can more quickly identify truly suspicious visitors, search for potential spear-phishing targeted users, and improve security around those users before the spear phishing email is sent.
When affiliated with CERN, every computing account owner is entitled to have a CERN mail address (e.g. “John.Doe@cern.ch”). However, up to now, this mail address was still valid even after the end of a person's affiliation if the owner declared an external email address (e.g. “John.Doe@gmail.com”) to which all personal CERN emails (i.e. those sent to “John.Doe@cern.ch”) could be forwarded.* As a result, to use our John Doe analogy, John could continue to write and receive emails ostensibly on behalf of CERN despite the fact that he is no longer a member of the personnel or subject to the CERN Staff Rules and Regulations and the Computing Rules. It is doubtful whether this makes sense. Therefore, in agreement with departments and LHC experiments at the last ITSRM meeting, all CERN email addresses of people whose affiliation has been terminated more than six months ago will be deactivated on 15 October 2012. For all others, incl...
Crane, Megan; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Gelino, Dawn; O'Leary, Ellen
The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology, is NASA's multi-mission data center for infrared astrophysics. Some of IPAC's services include administering data analysis funding awards to the astronomical community, organizing conferences and workshops, and soliciting and selecting fellowship and observing proposals. As most of these services are repeated annually or biannually, it becomes necessary to maintain multiple lists of email contacts associated with each service. MABEL is a PHP/MySQL web database application designed to facilitate this process. It serves as an address book containing up-to-date contact information for thousands of recipients. Recipients may be assigned to any number of email lists categorized by IPAC project and team. Lists may be public (viewable by all project members) or private (viewable only by team members). MABEL can also be used to send HTML or plain-text emails to multiple lists at once and prevents duplicate emails to a single recipient. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer
Background. Online consultation is increasingly offered by parenting practitioners, but it is not clear if it is feasible to provide empowerment oriented support in single session email consultation. Method. Based on empowerment theory we developed the Guiding the Empowerment Process model (GEP
Carter, Owen B J; Donovan, Robert; Jalleh, Geoffrey
The authors' objective was to conduct a trial of viral e-mail marketing as a distribution method for tobacco control advertisements. University students (n = 200) in the state of Western Australia were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 2 e-mails with hyperlinks to tobacco control advertisements ("Toilet" and "Rubbish") emphasizing the disgusting nature of smoking. Recipients followed a hyperlink to a Web page playing Toilet or Rubbish on endless loop. Viewers were encouraged to forward the e-mail to their friends and invited to complete an online survey about the advertisement. Unique downloads for each advertisement were identified by internet provider (IP) location and tallied by date and geographical location to assess subsequent dissemination beyond the initial 200 students. There were 826 unique viewings of the advertisements averaging 26.9 viewings per day for the first fortnight, followed by a lower average of 4.1 hits per day for the next 3.5 months. IP addresses identified hits from 3 other Australian states and 7 other countries. Online surveys were completed by 103 respondents (12.5% of total hits) but included few smokers (n = 9). Significantly more respondents rated Toilet as "funny" compared with Rubbish (40% vs. 11%; p e-mail sent but daily hits rapidly deteriorated over time. Entertainment appears to facilitate viral e-mails being forwarded onwards but only exceptionally compelling tobacco control materials are ever likely to become self-perpetuating.
De Coursey, Christina; Dandashly, Nadine
This study reports on the introduction of email feedback, in a private university in Lebanon with marked generational differences and a traditional instructor culture focused on grammar correction. The instructor profile showed insufficient ELT training and a disjuncture between those with low and those with long service. Instructors were trained,…
Rideout, Bruce E.; Hushen, Katherine; McGinty, Dawn; Perkins, Stephanie; Tate, Jennifer
As the initial phase of a longitudinal study of environmental perspective in college students, resident student opinion was sampled using the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale administered through systematic alphabetical sampling. Sampling was also carried out by a blanket e-mail distribution of surveys for voluntary response. Results showed…
Full Text Available Large-scale spam emails cause a serious waste of time and resources. This paper investigates the text features of email documents and the feature noises among multi-field texts, resulting in an observation of a power law distribution of feature strings within each text field. According to the observation, we propose an efficient filtering approach including a compound weight method and a lightweight field text classification algorithm. The compound weight method considers both the historical classifying ability of each field classifier and the classifying contribution of each text field in the current classified email. The lightweight field text classification algorithm straightforwardly calculates the arithmetical average of multiple conditional probabilities predicted from feature strings according to a string-frequency index for labeled emails storing. The string-frequency index structure has a random-sampling-based compressible property owing to the power law distribution and can largely reduce the storage space. The experimental results in the TREC spam track show that the proposed approach can complete the filtering task in low space cost and high speed, whose overall performance 1-ROCA exceeds the best one among the participators at the trec07p evaluation.
AlAfnan, Mohammad Awad
This study explored the influences of relational elements and the background of communicators on the framing structure of email messages that were exchanged in an educational Institute in Malaysia. The investigation revealed that social distance played a more significant role than power relations as Malaysian respondents are, generally, more…
Full Text Available Today the most international written mode of communication within the business world is electronic correspondence. As the introductory section explains, diverse analyses of emails written in different cultures have been carried out revealing interesting differences and similarities in their discourse features and rhetorical strategies. However, a comparative examination of business emails from representative European cultures such as British (Northern Europe, Spanish (Southern Europe and Polish (Eastern Europe has not been undertaken so far. With this aim, a corpus of over 100 emails of response to business requests written in English by companies set up in these three cultures has been compiled and analysed. The main research targets are to observe the main parameters of variation across these cultures, the existent variation regarding the prototypical move structure and how register variation fluctuates depending on each culture. The results will indicate that across these cultures the move structure of this genre is more complex than current templates and existing published materials show. The study also demonstrates that, while there is a tendency to standardize email correspondence at a European level, there are certain parameters of variation that may help language learners and users to conform their messages depending on the recipient’s culture.
Mahmud, Al A.; Martens, J.B.O.S.
In this paper, we describe the iterative design and exploratory evaluation of 'Amail', an email tool designed for persons with aphasia. It is inspired by interviews with persons with aphasia and their partners and has been improved through discussions with experienced speech therapists. Our user
dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer
Background Single session email consultations in web-based parenting support may be used for a variety of reasons. Parents may be looking for information on developmental needs of children, for suggestions to improve their parenting skills, or for referrals to helpful resources. The way the
Nieuwboer, C.C.; Fukkink, R.G.; Hermanns, J.M.A.
Background: Single session email consultations in web-based parenting support may be used for a variety of reasons. Parents may be looking for information on developmental needs of children, for suggestions to improve their parenting skills, or for referrals to helpful resources. The way the
dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer
Background. Single session email consultations in web-based parenting support may be used for a variety of reasons. Parents may be looking for information on developmental needs of children, for suggestions to improve their parenting skills, or for referrals to helpful resources. The way the
Schwartz, David G.
Examines the use of shared semantics information to link concepts in an organizational memory to e-mail communications. Presents a framework for determining shared semantics based on organizational and personal user profiles. Illustrates how shared semantics are used by the HyperMail system to help link organizational memories (OM) content to…
Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Daugherty, Timothy K.; Bartkoski, Timothy J.
Anecdotal reports have arisen regarding gender bias in electronic communication on college campuses. In an experiment designed to test language use in different gender contexts, participants were asked to compose an email to a professor whose gender had been experimentally manipulated. Female students, but not male students, displayed lower…
Al Mahmud, A.; Martens, J.B.O.S.
In this article, we describe the iterative design and field trial of Amail, an email client specifically designed for people with aphasia who have problems expressing themselves verbally. We conducted a 3-month study with eight persons with aphasia to better understand how people with aphasia could
Nieuwboer, Christa C.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.
Background: Single session email consultations in web-based parenting support may be used for a variety of reasons. Parents may be looking for information on developmental needs of children, for suggestions to improve their parenting skills, or for referrals to helpful resources. The way the practitioner meets the needs of parents, choosing a…
Piccolo, Sebastiano; Wilberg, Julian; Lindemann, Udo
" in emails and study its relation to sentiment. We find that sentiment decreases when problems or changes emerge, and increases when changes are implemented successfully. We discuss the implications of our findings for research and project engineering practice, providing avenues for further work....
Maxwell, Sally V.
As new communication technologies enter the classroom, teachers must attend to how digital platforms impact the interpersonal practices of teaching and learning. In this article, I study email exchanges with three of my students--Jorge, Adriana, and Jason--over the course of one year in an 11th-grade English class at River High School, a…
Through the use of a survey questionnaire and descriptive statistics to analyze the collected data, this quantitative research study sought to determine whether there is a relationship between the use of email as a form of communication and the quality of the leader-follower relationship in organizations. Two electronic survey questionnaires were…
Lelong, Peter; Fearnley-Sander, Mary
Describes two projects: the first linked teacher-education students in Australia and Indonesia through e-mail and then grew into a link between primary students; the second project was a prize-winning publication by the primary students on the Internet. Gives a list of different materials and guidelines for teachers. (CMK)
Full Text Available Stray animals with incorrect microchip details are less likely to be reclaimed, and unclaimed strays are at increased risk of euthanasia. A retrospective cohort study was performed using 394,747 cats and 904,909 dogs registered with Australia’s largest microchip database to describe animal characteristics, determine whether annual email reminders increased the frequency that owners updated their information, and to compare frequencies of microchip information updates according to pet and owner characteristics. More than twice as many dogs (70% than cats (30% were registered on the database; the most numerous pure-breeds were Ragdoll cats and Staffordshire Bull Terrier dogs, and the number of registered animals per capita varied by Australian state or territory. Owners were more likely (p < 0.001 to update their details soon after they were sent a reminder email, compared to immediately before that email, and there were significant (p < 0.001 differences in the frequency of owner updates by state or territory of residence, animal species, animal age, and socioeconomic index of the owner’s postcode. This research demonstrates that email reminders increase the probability of owners updating their details on the microchip database, and this could reduce the percentages of stray animals that are unclaimed and subsequently euthanized.
Mildenberger, P.; Kaemmerer, M.; Klos, G.; Schuetze, B.; Engelmann, U.; Ruggiero, S.; Runa, A.; Weisser, G.; Schroeter, A.; Walz, M.
E-mail is ideal for ad-hoc connections in teleradiology. The DICOM standard offers the possibility to append DICOM data types as a MIME attachment to any e-mail, thus ensuring the transmission of the original DICOM data. Nevertheless, there are additional requirements (e.g. protection of data privacy) which must be obeyed. Because of the lack of given standards which would grant interoperability as well as manufacturer independence, teleradiology has not been established in Germany until today. Therefore, the IT-Team (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Informationstechnologie, rate at GIT) of the Radiological Society of Germany (Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, DRG) set up an initiative to standardise telemedicine by using e-mail. Its members agreed that an e-mail-based variant would be the most practicable way to a communication solution - as easy to implement as to use. In their opinion, e-mail represents the smallest common denominator for a safe data interchange that would fulfill the legal advantages for telemedicine in Germany. (orig.)
Full Text Available Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to test the controlled experiment (A/B split methodology in B2C oriented e-mail marketing campaigns. Design/Methodology/Approach – E-mail marketing techniques have been a substantial part of e-marketing methodology since the early Internet days of the mid-1990s. From the very beginning of Internet utilization for business purposes, e-mail was one of the most widely used communication techniques in B2B and B2C markets alike. Due to high volumes of spamming and progression of online communication clutter, some practitioners began to question the usability of e-mail as a marketing communication channel, while others embarked on working on improving the message itself. Efforts were invested into improving message quality, as well as into better understanding user expectations. One of the most commonly used techniques to test specific e-mail message elements is the controlled experiment. Findings and implications – This paper explores several types of controlled experiments in a specific Croatian B2C market. Tests were run to determine subscriber behavior towards several newsletter components, including sending time, sending day, sender’s name, and subject line. Open and click rates for tested campaigns, and several other metrics were investigated using MailChimp software. An N − 1 two-proportion test using an adjusted Wald confidence interval around the difference in the proportions was used for comparing the open-rate measure in the controlled experiments between subjects. Limitation – Controlled experiments (A/B split tests showed a lot of potential as a way of measuring behavior and preferences of subscribers, although several apparent limitations (the data-set scope, comparability issues indicated a clear need for standardization on a managerial and scientific level. Originality – This paper provides an up-to-date e-mail marketing effectiveness literature review, describes and tests the
Full Text Available With the rapid rise of Internet of Things in public domain, people expect fast, reliable and on-demand home security via the Internet. However, existing remote home surveillance systems place a very rigid constraint on authentication and require customized hardware and software. In this paper we have proposed an ingenious and reliable internet based, home access system for smart homes that can be easily deployed on generic hardware. The proposed architecture uses popular email service providers to notify and update the user about the home access. It sends an email to the owner with the attached picture of the person who is at the door. It also incorporates a protected mechanism to give access of the door to a remote user by responding to that email. It essentially means that we can view and give access to the person at our door via sending and receiving an email. Furthermore, an image processing based mechanism has also been incorporated to provide access without email, to few selected personnel who are trusted by the owner. It works by capturing and comparing the visitor's image with the stored images in the database. Perceptual hashing or fingerprint matching algorithm is used for comparison purposes. Similarity percentage based on hamming distance was evaluated, and the similarity threshold for providing access was set. The simulations were performed in rigorous environment. The efficiency of the hashing algorithm was found to be 97% at the similarity threshold of 95%. The results validate that the average latency is only 155 ms with low standard deviation. The CPU utilization remained quite low with a minimum value of 10 MHz and a maximum value of 30 MHz when the payload size of the sent mail was increased to 1500 kB. Thus, the proposed system can be used for developing a larger low power infrastructure.
Full Text Available Erosi gigi merupakan hilangnya lapisan email gigi karena asam. Jenis asam, pH rendah, serta kandungan kalsium, fosfat, dan fluoride pada bir dan tuak diduga merupakan faktor kimiawi penyebab erosi gigi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama perendaman dan jenis minuman beralkohol bir dan tuak terhadap kekerasan email gigi manusia (in vitro. Penelitian ini menggunakan 14 sampel gigi premolar pertama atas. Setiap gigi dibagi menjadi 2 bagian, bukal dan palatal. kemudian dibagi menjadi 7 kelompok perlakuan, yaitu kelompok (A1 perendaman dalam bir (ringan; (A2 kelompok perendaman dalam bir sedang; kelompok (A3 perendaman dalam bir berat, kelompok (B1: perendaman dalam tuak ringan, (B2: perendaman dalam tuak sedang, (B3: perendaman dalam tuak berat dan kelompok kontrol (C. Uji kekerasan email gigi dilakukan menggunakan Micro Vickers Hardness Tester. Pengujian kekerasan awal email gigi dilakukan sebelum perendaman gigi. Perendaman gigi premolar pertama atas pada bir dan tuak dilakukan selama 10 detik, 50 detik, dan 250 detik perhari dengan penyimpanan subjek penelitian pada saliva buatan. Uji kekerasan akhir email gigi dilakukan setelah perlakuan selama 30 hari. Nilai perubahan kekerasan email gigi merupakan selisih nilai kekerasan akhir dan nilai kekerasan awal email gigi. Sebagai tambahan data, pada bir dan tuak juga diukur kandungan pH, kalsium, dan fosfor. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji ANAVA dua jalur dilanjutkan dengan uji LSD. Hasil analisis ANAVA dua jalur menujukkan bahwa jenis minuman dan lama perendaman berpengaruh bermakna terhadap kekerasan email gigi (p<0,05. Hasil uji LSD menunjukkan adanya perbedaan rerata yang signifikan (p<0,05 antar kelompok uji bir dan tuak. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah terdapat pengaruh jenis minuman beralkohol bir dan tuak dan lama perendaman terhadap kekerasan email gigi manusia (in vitro. The Effect Of Contact Time And Alcohol Beverages Beer And Tuak On Human Dental Enamel Hardness (In
Boland, Julie E; Queen, Robin
The increasing prevalence of social media means that we often encounter written language characterized by both stylistic variation and outright errors. How does the personality of the reader modulate reactions to non-standard text? Experimental participants read 'email responses' to an ad for a housemate that either contained no errors or had been altered to include either typos (e.g., teh) or homophonous grammar errors (grammos, e.g., to/too, it's/its). Participants completed a 10-item evaluation scale for each message, which measured their impressions of the writer. In addition participants completed a Big Five personality assessment and answered demographic and language attitude questions. Both typos and grammos had a negative impact on the evaluation scale. This negative impact was not modulated by age, education, electronic communication frequency, or pleasure reading time. In contrast, personality traits did modulate assessments, and did so in distinct ways for grammos and typos.
Carli, Vladimir; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Wasserman, Camilla; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Wasserman, Danuta
Respecting and protecting the confidentiality of data and the privacy of individuals regarding the information that they have given as participants in a research project is a cornerstone of complying with accepted research standards. However, in longitudinal studies, establishing and maintaining privacy is often challenging because of the necessity of repeated contact with participants. A novel internet-based solution is introduced here, which maintains privacy while at the same time ensures linkage of data to individual participants in a repeated measures design. With the use of the anonymous repeated measurements via email (ARME) procedure, two separate one-way communication systems are established through ad hoc email accounts and a secure study website. Strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed.
Full Text Available Sistem pemantauan suhu secara langsung dengan mencatat setiap perubahan suhu secara manual, terlebih pada kondisi suhu yang ekstrim, memiliki resiko yang dapat berakibat fatal. Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan sebuah sistem yang dapat melakukannya secara otomatis. Penelitian ini bertujuan merancang sebuah sistem mandiri yang dapat melakukan pemantauan dan pencatatan perubahan suhu secara near real time (NRT dan mengirimkan laporan secara otomatis melalui email dan SMS. Sistem terdiri dari Sensor suhu LM35 yang berfungsi merubah besaran fisis suhu ke besaran listrik tegangan, Microcontroller Atmega8535 yang memegang peranan untuk mengkonversi tegangan keluaran LM35 kedalam bentuk digital, serta mengirimkan data hasil konversi melalui komunikasi serial ke computer. Program Java yang dijalankan di computer berfungsi memproses data yang dikirim mikrokontroler ATmega8535, menyimpannya ke basis data MySQL, menampilkannya dalam bentuk tabel dan grafik, dan mengirimkan laporan melalui email dan SMS bila data suhu yang diterima melebihi ambang batas yang telah ditentukan.
Full Text Available Based on count data obtained with a value of zero may be greater than anticipated. These types of data sets should be used to analyze by regression methods taking into account zero values. Zero- Inflated Poisson (ZIP, Zero-Inflated negative binomial (ZINB, Poisson Hurdle (PH, negative binomial Hurdle (NBH are more common approaches in modeling more zero value possessing dependent variables than expected. In the present study, the e-mail traffic of Yüzüncü Yıl University in 2009 spring semester was investigated. ZIP and ZINB, PH and NBH regression methods were applied on the data set because more zeros counting (78.9% were found in data set than expected. ZINB and NBH regression considered zero dispersion and overdispersion were found to be more accurate results due to overdispersion and zero dispersion in sending e-mail. ZINB is determined to be best model accordingto Vuong statistics and information criteria.
Carvalho, Ana Teresa Neves de
With the evolution of digital technologies, new ways of carrying out marketing communication activities have emerged. For most businesses today, the Internet is the cheapest and most effective means of reaching broader audiences, target specific market segments and guide individual consumers to the last stages of their decision making journey. Meanwhile, the development of online advertising activities such as promotional emails, display ads and social networks brought about...
Wang, Xiao-lei; Eberhard, Dominique; Voron, Mike; Bernas, Ronan
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of email modeling and scaffolding on the social writing quality of students with cognitive disabilities. Ten students from a university-affiliated lab school (mean age = 19.3; SD = 1.2) with an average of IQ of 55.30 (SD = 5.98) and 10 teacher candidates in a university teacher education…
church. Users had the ability to read the church’s ministry goals and standpoint on religion . The site also contained podcasts of recent church...Cost vs. Time Table for Phone and Email The formula used in this model is: Y =CX The Decision Variables are listed below: X1= Phone Leads X2... Millennial Consumers. Consumer Behavior. United States. Molenaar, C. (2002). The Future of Marketing. Great Britain: Pearson Education
Julio C. Gimenez
Full Text Available The language of business email has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade. Research studies on the language, style and register of business email have been published in many journals, books and other publications. However, many of these discussions have been theoretical in nature, failing to make a connection between theory and practice. It is then the task of the ESP teacher to make such a connection. This article argues that business communication lends itself well to bringing theory and practice closer together. To this end, the article first identifies relevant features which have started to emerge from main studies in the language of business email, a vital component in business communication. It then explores different possible pedagogical applications of these findings in the BE class. The article discusses the SAE (Selecting, Applying and Evaluating model which can be used to design and evaluate classroom activities. The article finally presents four activities which have been created following the main findings emerging from the research reviewed.
Hawkins, Spencer D; Barilla, Steven; Williford, Phillip Williford M; Feldman, Steven R; Pearce, Daniel J
We developed dermatology patient education videos and a post-operative text message service that could be accessed universally via web based applications. A secondary outcome of the study was to assess patient opinions of text-messages, email, and video in the health care setting which is reported here. An investigator-blinded, randomized, controlled intervention was evaluated in 90 nonmelanoma MMS patients at Wake Forest Baptist Dermatology. Patients were randomized 1:1:1:1 for exposure to: 1) videos with text messages, 2) videos only, 3) text messages-only, or 4) standard of care. Assessment measures were obtained by the use of REDCap survey questions during the follow up visit. 1) 67% would like to receive an email with information about the procedure beforehand 2) 98% of patients reported they would like other doctors to use educational videos as a form of patient education 3) 88% of our patients think it is appropriate for physicians to communicate to patients via text message in certain situations. Nearly all patients desired physicians to use text-messages and video in their practice and the majority of patients preferred to receive an email with information about their procedure beforehand.
Full Text Available Email is one of common communication methods between people on the Internet. However, the increase of email misuse/abuse has resulted in an increasing volume of spam emails over recent years. An experimental system has been designed and implemented with the hypothesis that this method would outperform existing techniques, and the experimental results showed that indeed the proposed ontology-based approach improves spam filtering accuracy significantly. In this paper, two levels of ontology spam filters were implemented: a first level global ontology filter and a second level user-customized ontology filter. The use of the global ontology filter showed about 91% of spam filtered, which is comparable with other methods. The user-customized ontology filter was created based on the specific user’s background as well as the filtering mechanism used in the global ontology filter creation. The main contributions of the paper are (1 to introduce an ontology-based multilevel filtering technique that uses both a global ontology and an individual filter for each user to increase spam filtering accuracy and (2 to create a spam filter in the form of ontology, which is user-customized, scalable, and modularized, so that it can be embedded to many other systems for better performance.
Bachegowda, Lohith S; Timm, Brad; Dasgupta, Pinaki; Hillyer, Christopher D; Kessler, Debra; Rebosa, Mark; France, Christopher R; Shaz, Beth H
Expanding the African American (AA) donor pool is critical to sustain transfusion support for sickle cell disease patients. The aims were to: 1) apply cognitive computing on donation related metrics to develop a predictive model that effectively identifies repeat AA donors, 2) determine whether a single e-mail communication could improve AA donor retention and compare retention results on higher versus lower predictive score donors, and 3) evaluate the effect of e-mail marketing on AA donor retention with culturally versus nonculturally tailored message. Between 2011 and 2012, 30,786 AA donors donated blood at least once on whom predictive repeat donor scores (PRDSs) was generated from donor-related metrics (frequency of donations, duration between donations, age, blood type, and sex). In 2013, 28% (8657/30,786) of 2011 to 2012 donors returned to donate on whom PRDS was validated. Returning blood donors had a higher mean PRDS compared to nonreturning donors (0.649 vs. 0.268; p e-mail pilot, high PRDS (≥0.6) compared to low PRDS (e-mail opening rate (p e-mail, 159% higher presentation rate (p e-mail communication has the potential to increase the efficiency of donor marketing. © 2017 AABB.
Oakley, Marnie; Horvath, Zsuzsa; Weinberg, Seth M; Bhatt, Jaya; Spallek, Heiko
As e-mail and other forms of electronic communication increase in popularity, it is important for dental schools to consider a curriculum that prepares their graduates to understand and apply effective electronic communication strategies to their patients. Reflecting this shift in communication behavior, the American Medical Association has developed specific e-mail communication guidelines. Some behavioral examples in these guidelines include protecting patients' protected health information (PHI), ensuring proper record keeping, and using professional, courteous, and understandable language. In this study, a sample of first- and fourth-year dental students (n=160) at the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine participated in an assignment assessing their patient-provider e-mail communication skills. A rubric was used to evaluate and compare the data between dental student classes. The results reveal a generalized lack of compliance with several of these guidelines by both classes (e.g., failure to protect PHI), despite efforts to expose students to these concepts in the curriculum. In an effort to train emerging dentists to function in a rapidly changing technological environment, these findings suggest a need for growth and development of curricula and perhaps guidelines/recommendations for behavioral competencies regarding dental students' use of electronic communication in the patient care environment.
Email is one of common communication methods between people on the Internet. However, the increase of email misuse/abuse has resulted in an increasing volume of spam emails over recent years. An experimental system has been designed and implemented with the hypothesis that this method would outperform existing techniques, and the experimental results showed that indeed the proposed ontology-based approach improves spam filtering accuracy significantly. In this paper, two levels of ontology spam filters were implemented: a first level global ontology filter and a second level user-customized ontology filter. The use of the global ontology filter showed about 91% of spam filtered, which is comparable with other methods. The user-customized ontology filter was created based on the specific user's background as well as the filtering mechanism used in the global ontology filter creation. The main contributions of the paper are (1) to introduce an ontology-based multilevel filtering technique that uses both a global ontology and an individual filter for each user to increase spam filtering accuracy and (2) to create a spam filter in the form of ontology, which is user-customized, scalable, and modularized, so that it can be embedded to many other systems for better performance.
This announcement is intended only for administrators of a mail server (sendmail, postfix, etc.). It concerns e-mails sent from the Internet to addresses of the following type: email@example.com. Mail server managers are requested to register their servers so that they can accept e-mail from outside CERN. In future the CERN mail infrastructure will relay messages from outside CERN only to officially registered mail servers. This rule applies only to messages sent from the Internet. There will be NO change with respect to messages sent from inside CERN. If you are responsible for a mail server that accepts e-mails from outside CERN, please read the following page: http://cern.ch/mail/Help/?kbid=191090, where you can find information about the new rule and check if your host is already registered in the system. If you wish to register a mail server please send a message to: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org. This rule will be gradually enforced from 20 February 2008 onwards. Thank you for your cooperation...
Email is one of common communication methods between people on the Internet. However, the increase of email misuse/abuse has resulted in an increasing volume of spam emails over recent years. An experimental system has been designed and implemented with the hypothesis that this method would outperform existing techniques, and the experimental results showed that indeed the proposed ontology-based approach improves spam filtering accuracy significantly. In this paper, two levels of ontology spam filters were implemented: a first level global ontology filter and a second level user-customized ontology filter. The use of the global ontology filter showed about 91% of spam filtered, which is comparable with other methods. The user-customized ontology filter was created based on the specific user's background as well as the filtering mechanism used in the global ontology filter creation. The main contributions of the paper are (1) to introduce an ontology-based multilevel filtering technique that uses both a global ontology and an individual filter for each user to increase spam filtering accuracy and (2) to create a spam filter in the form of ontology, which is user-customized, scalable, and modularized, so that it can be embedded to many other systems for better performance. PMID:25254240
Full Text Available We evaluated the effectiveness of text messaging versus email, as a delivery method to enhance knowledge retention of emergency medicine (EM content in EM residents. We performed a multi-centered, prospective, randomized study consisting of postgraduate year (PGY 1 to PGY 3 & 4 residents in three United States EM residency programs in 2014. Fifty eight residents were randomized into one delivery group: text message or email. Participants completed a 40 question pre- and post-intervention exam. Primary outcomes were the means of pre- and post-intervention exam score differences. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test, and multiple linear regressions. No significant difference was found between the primary outcomes of the two groups (P=0.51. PGY 2 status had a significant negative effect (P=0.01 on predicted exam score difference. Neither delivery method enhanced resident knowledge retention. Further research on implementation of mobile technology in residency education is required.
Hoonpongsimanont, Wirachin; Kulkarni, Miriam; Tomas-Domingo, Pedro; Anderson, Craig; McCormack, Denise; Tu, Khoa; Chakravarthy, Bharath; Lotfipour, Shahram
We evaluated the effectiveness of text messaging versus email, as a delivery method to enhance knowledge retention of emergency medicine (EM) content in EM residents. We performed a multi-centered, prospective, randomized study consisting of postgraduate year (PGY) 1 to PGY 3 & 4 residents in three United States EM residency programs in 2014. Fifty eight residents were randomized into one delivery group: text message or email. Participants completed a 40 question pre- and post-intervention exam. Primary outcomes were the means of pre- and post-intervention exam score differences. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test, and multiple linear regressions. No significant difference was found between the primary outcomes of the two groups (P=0.51). PGY 2 status had a significant negative effect (P=0.01) on predicted exam score difference. Neither delivery method enhanced resident knowledge retention. Further research on implementation of mobile technology in residency education is required.
Tanna, Gemini V; Sood, Manish M; Schiff, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Daniel; Naimark, David M
As the volume of medical literature increases exponentially, maintaining current clinical practice is becoming more difficult. Multiple, Internet-based journal clubs and alert services have recently emerged. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the use of the e-mail alert service, Nephrology Now, increases knowledge translation regarding current nephrology literature. Nephrology Now is a nonprofit, monthly e-mail alert service that highlights clinically relevant articles in nephrology. In 2007-2008, the authors randomized 1,683 subscribers into two different groups receiving select intervention articles, and then they used an online survey to assess both groups on their familiarity with the articles and their acquisition of knowledge. Of the randomized subscribers, 803 (47.7%) completed surveys, and the two groups had a similar number of responses (401 and 402, respectively). The authors noted no differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Familiarity increased as a result of the Nephrology Now alerts (0.23 ± 0.087 units on a familiarity scale; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.41; P = .007) especially in physicians (multivariate odds ratio 1.83; P = .0002). No detectable improvement in knowledge occurred (0.03 ± 0.083 units on a knowledge scale; 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.20; P = .687). An e-mail alert service of new literature improved a component of knowledge translation--familiarity--but not knowledge acquisition in a large, randomized, international population.
Ogata, Yasuko; Izumi, Yukiko; Kitaike, Tadashi
The purposes of this study were to assess the loneliness of Japanese high school students who own and use a mobile phone, to clarify the relationships between students' loneliness and their social network and frequency of use of e-mail feature, and to demonstrate relationships with a student's social network and recognition of the benefits and drawbacks of mobile phone use. The participants were 227 students from two classes in each grade of a high school in the Kanto region of Japan. Participants answered a questionnaire covering the UCLA Loneliness Scale as well as questions pertaining to the circumstances of use of their mobile phones, their social networks (e.g., number of friends), and their perceptions of the benefits and drawbacks of mobile phone use. The questionnaires of students owning a mobile phone were analyzed. Total scores for the UCLA Loneliness Scale were calculated, and factor analysis was performed for the benefits and drawbacks. A total of 220 questionnaires were returned, for which 94.1 percent of respondents owned a mobile phone. The percentages of male and female respondents were 58% and 42%. Chronbach's alpha for the UCLA Loneliness Scale (total score) was 0.87, a result similar to previous studies with high school and university students. Factor analysis revealed five factors associated with the benefits and drawbacks of mobile phone use. Multiple-regression analysis showed that 42.9% of the variance in "frequency of e-mail use" was explained by grade level, frequency of mobile phone use, and two of the five factors from the benefits and drawbacks ("difficulty of communication," and "possible sleep loss due to nighttime e-mailing"). Stepwise multiple-regression analysis revealed that 24.4% of the variance in UCLA Loneliness Score was explained by gender, the frequency of e-mail use, the number of friends and the presence/absence of a girlfriend or boyfriend. Presence of an active social network and frequent e-mailing by mobile phone reduced
Huygens, Martine W J; Swinkels, Ilse C S; Verheij, Robert A; Friele, Roland D; van Schayck, Onno C P; de Witte, Luc P
Objectives It is unclear why the use of email consultation is not more widespread in Dutch general practice, particularly because, since 2006, its costs can be reimbursed. To encourage further implementation, it is needed to understand the current use of email consultations. This study aims to understand the use of email consultation by different patient groups, compared with other general practice (GP) consultations. Setting For this retrospective observational study, we used Dutch routine electronic health record data obtained from NIVEL Primary Care Database for the years 2010 and 2014. Participants 200 general practices were included in 2010 (734 122 registered patients) and 434 in 2014 (1 630 386 registered patients). Primary outcome measures The number and percentage of email consultations and patient characteristics (age, gender, neighbourhood socioeconomic status and diagnoses) of email consultation users were investigated and compared with those who had a telephone or face-to-face consultation. General practice characteristics were also taken into account. Results 32.0% of the Dutch general practices had at least one email consultation in 2010, rising to 52.8% in 2014. In 2014, only 0.7% of the GP consultations were by email (the others comprised home visits, telephone and face-to-face consultations). Its use highly varied among general practices. Most email consultations were done for psychological (14.7%); endocrine, metabolic and nutritional (10.9%); and circulatory (10.7%) problems. These diagnosis categories appeared less frequently in telephone and face-to-face consultations. Patients who had an email consultation were older than patients who had a telephone or face-to-face consultation. In contrast, patients with diabetes who had an email consultation were younger. Conclusion Even though email consultation was done in half the general practices in the Netherlands in 2014, the actual use of it is extremely low. Patients who had an email consultation
Hansen, Miriam; Jucks, Regina
A significant amount of communication between lecturers and students takes place via e-mail. This study provides evidence that two types of cultural cues contained in the e-mail impacts lecturers' linguistic adaptation to, and appraisal of, the student. A total of 186 psychology lecturers from universities in Germany answered a fictitious…
Lightfoot, Jay M.
Electronic mail (e-mail) is an extremely important medium for Internet-based education. Due to its unique characteristics, there is reason to be concerned that students do not put appropriate care into writing messages that are sent via e-mail. This has significant implications for the effectiveness of online learning environments. This paper…
Jared P. Schprechman
Full Text Available Background. The internet offers a potential for improving patient knowledge, and e-mail may be used in patient communication with providers. However, barriers to internet and e-mail use, such as low health literacy and cognitive impairment, may prevent patients from using technological resources. Purpose. We investigated whether health literacy, heart failure knowledge, and cognitive function were related to internet and e-mail use in older adults with heart failure (HF. Methods. Older adults (N=119 with heart failure (69.84±9.09 years completed measures of health literacy, heart failure knowledge, cognitive functioning, and internet use in a cross-sectional study. Results. Internet and e-mail use were reported in 78.2% and 71.4% of this sample of patients with HF, respectively. Controlling for age and education, logistic regression analyses indicated that higher health literacy predicted e-mail (P<.05 but not internet use. Global cognitive function predicted e-mail (P<.05 but not internet use. Only 45% used the Internet to obtain information on HF and internet use was not associated with greater HF knowledge. Conclusions. The majority of HF patients use the internet and e-mail, but poor health literacy and cognitive impairment may prevent some patients from accessing these resources. Future studies that examine specific internet and email interventions to increase HF knowledge are needed.
address to anything they want. Another form of email forgery is to create a bogus hotmail , yahoo or some other commercial source email account with...from a commercial source such as yahoo, hotmail , att.net or some other commercial resource and disguised to look as if it originated from the AFIT
Shadinger, David A.
This quantitative study investigated e-mail responsiveness by community colleges in the nine mega-states to an inquiry from a prospective student. Noel-Levitz (2006b) reported that prospective students want to receive an e-mail with information about an institution prior to applying for admission. Specifically, high school juniors and seniors want…
Mahfouz, Safi Mahmoud
English foreign language learners generally tend to consider email exchanges with native speakers (NSs) as an effective tool for improving their foreign language proficiency. This study investigated Jordanian university students' perceptions of using email exchanges with native English keypals (NEKs) for improving their writing competency. A…
This paper examines student-faculty communication by email and the lack of clear guidelines that leads to misuse of email in student-faculty interaction, whereby status-incongruent pragmatic markers are employed, resulting in impoliteness and inappropriateness. The main objective is to bridge the gap in research on other than requestive speech…
Email has revolutionised the way in which professionals work and companies operate, and yet has received surprisingly little scholarly attention in English for Specific Purposes and has an unexpectedly muted presence in many Business English textbooks. The dearth of research into email use in globalised business settings may be one of the factors…
Aguilar-Roca, Nancy; Williams, Adrienne; Warrior, Rahul; O'Dowd, Diane K.
Many university faculty value email as an important tool for communicating with colleagues, but express frustration with a high incidence of unprofessional email correspondence from students. The goals of this study were to document the frequency of specific formatting mistakes that contribute to faculty's unfavorable perception of student emails…
DeKay, Sam H.
Within the last 12 years, email has emerged as the most commonly used form of written communication in the corporate workplace. Several factors have contributed to the widespread use of email. This form of communication is generally rapid, is more economical than distributing or mailing printed documents, and permits simultaneous communication…
Johansson, Kristina; Olsson, Sten; Hellman, Björn; Meyboom, Ronald H B
The Internet provides novel ways for communication and data exchange between national regulators. One innovation was the introduction of Vigimed, an e-mail discussion forum for national pharmacovigilance centres (NPCs). We reviewed a sample of Vigimed messages to learn more about this new tool and about the problems encountered in everyday pharmacovigilance and how these are handled. We analysed the contents of 100 subsequent questions and the corresponding responses as stored in the Vigimed datafile. To the 100 questions circulated through Vigimed, 575 answers were received; mean number of answers per question 6, range 0-20. Fifty-five (77%) of the 71 collaborating countries and 88 (43%) of the 204 individuals who had access in the study period had submitted at least one question or answer. These countries were in all parts of the world and in various phases of development. A total of 38% of the questions concerned the regulatory status of a drug; 30% safety issues; 13% regulatory actions under consideration; and 10% drug use-related problems (more than one category possible). Of the questions, 89% concerned established drugs; 11% were classified as new. A total of 90% of the questions concerned specific active substances or drug groups. Of the drugs, 73% were classified as 'orthodox' and 9% as herbal; 4% were vaccines and 4% excipients. Emerging drug groups (anatomical therapeutic chemical codes) were NSAIDs and analgesics (M01, N02), antibacterials (J01), antiobesity drugs (A08), psychotropic drugs (N05) and antihistamines (R06). NPCs operate in a restricted environment and there is little published information about the daily practices and experiences at NPCs. Our study concerned a sample in a limited period in time. In the meantime, the use of Vigimed has greatly expanded. The data in the Vigimed records are subjected to confidentiality in regard to the identities of countries, staff members, drug products and pharmaceutical companies, which limits the
Klinar, Ivana; Balazin, Ana; Basić, Martina; Plantas, Igor; Biskupić, Kresimir
The aim of the study was to explore characteristics of the users of the Interactive Service "Your Questions" that is based on E-mail health consultations. We wanted to find out what motivated users to use it, were they satisfied with it and what were its impacts on their health behavior. Therefore, we developed a Web survey and invited 2,747 users to take part in it. 919 (33.5%) of users responded. Results showed that the majority of respondents were women (79.1%) and that most hold at least a college degree (52.4%). The Service was mostly used for obtaining information about certain medical symptoms or medical conditions (50.1%), for a second opinion on a diagnosis (18.6%) and for more information about medical treatment (14.4%). In terms of Service features, it was used because of its convenience with regard to time (38.7%) and a sense of privacy (25.7%). Before posting a question to the Service, 93.2% of the respondents searched for health articles on the PLIVAzdravlje portal while 90% of them read the Questions and Answers database. Over half of them (61.8%) posted their question after they already visited their physicians on that particular issue. Nevertheless, 48% of them were encouraged to visit their physicians after they received the answer. The results show an important trend of increased demand for e-mail health consultation and the need for reliable medical information, with one thousand questions submitted to the Service in the observed period of 40 days. If the source of medical information is reliable, as in case of our Service as well as other forms of e-mail health consultations, it can have positive impact on valuable physician-patient communication based on knowledge and mutual understanding.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a user authentication using personal history of each user. Here, authentication is done by giving answers to questions about the history of user's daily life. Users do not have to memorize any password, since the passwords are what users already know by experience. In addition, everyday-life experience increases day by day, and thus the question could change on every authentication trial. In this paper, a user authentication system using user's e-mail history is shown as a prototype of our proposal, and some basic experiments to evaluate the availability of the system are carried out.
The use of email utilizes the power of Web 1.0 to enable users to access their email from any computer and mobile devices that is connected to the Internet making email valuable in acquiring and transferring knowledge. But the advent of Web 2.0 and social networking seems to indicate certain limitations of email. The use of social networking seems…
Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland M; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique; Bambrick, Tara; Burnand, Bernard; Mercer, Jay; Marlow, Bernard; Campbell, Craig
The information assessment method (IAM) permits health professionals to systematically document the relevance, cognitive impact, use and health outcomes of information objects delivered by or retrieved from electronic knowledge resources. The companion review paper (Part 1) critically examined the literature, and proposed a 'Push-Pull-Acquisition-Cognition-Application' evaluation framework, which is operationalized by IAM. The purpose of the present paper (Part 2) is to examine the content validity of the IAM cognitive checklist when linked to email alerts. A qualitative component of a mixed methods study was conducted with 46 doctors reading and rating research-based synopses sent on email. The unit of analysis was a doctor's explanation of a rating of one item regarding one synopsis. Interviews with participants provided 253 units that were analysed to assess concordance with item definitions. The content relevance of seven items was supported. For three items, revisions were needed. Interviews suggested one new item. This study has yielded a 2008 version of IAM. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Miller, Brian J; Stewart, Adriana; Schrimsher, John; Peeples, Dale; Buckley, Peter F
Technologies such as Internet based social media network (SMN) websites are becoming an important part of many adult lives; however, less is known about their use in patients with schizophrenia. We need to determine (1) how "connected" are patients with schizophrenia?, (2) do these technologies interfere with the patient׳s illness?, and (3) do patients envision these technologies being involved in their treatment? We recruited 80 inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with schizophrenia to complete a brief survey on the prevalence and frequency of cell phone, text messaging, computer, email, and SMN use, and associated attitudes. 56% of subjects use text messaging, 48% have an email account, and 27% of subjects use SMN sites daily, with Facebook being the most popular. Many current users agreed that these technologies help them interact/socialize more, expressed interest in receiving text messages from their doctors, and disagreed that these technologies make symptoms worse. These preliminary findings should be investigated in larger samples, but suggest that these technologies afford a unique opportunity to engage and improve treatment for some patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Tahap dini karies telah lama dikenal dengan istilah bercak putih. Untuk mengetahui terjadinya lesi karies di bawah permukaan email in vivo, maka dilakukan penelitian secara in vitro dengan merendam gigi Premolar dengan dan tanpa aplikasi fluor dalam perbenihan kuman Streptococcus mutans FA-1 (ATCC 16495. Enam puluh empat gigi Preolar tanpa karies dibagi dalam 2 kelompok. Pada kelompok perlakuan, gigi diaplikasi dengan fluor sedang pada kelompok kontrol gigi tanpa aplikasi fluor. Semua gigi dimasukkan dalam perbenihan tioglikolat air yang ke dalamnya telah ditanam Streptococcus mutans FA-4 (ATCC 16495 selama 4 dan 8 minggu. Pembentukan bercah putih diamati dengan mikroskop 'zoom-stereo'. Sedang besarnya porusitas di bawah permukaan email diaamti dengan mikroskop polarisasi. Pada akhir minggu ke-4 dan ke-8 pada kedua kelompok ditemukan peningkatan jumlah gigi dengan pembentukan bercak putih dan peningkatan nilai rata-rata kedalaman lapisan badan lesi. Uji statistik dengan chi-square test menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna pada p<0.05. Berdasarkan penelitian tersebut di atas disimpulkan bahwa (1 aplikasi NaF hanya menghambat sebagian pembentukan lesi karies dan (2 sistem perbenihan kuman yang digunakan tidak dapat mencerminkan keadaan mulut yang sebenarnya.
Bader, Brett William; Harshman, Richard A. (University of Western Ontario London, Ontario, Canada); Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Labs, Livermore, CA)
DEDICOM is a linear algebra model for analyzing intrinsically asymmetric relationships, such as trade among nations or the exchange of emails among individuals. DEDICOM decomposes a complex pattern of observed relations among objects into a sum of simpler patterns of inferred relations among latent components of the objects. Three-way DEDICOM is a higher-order extension of the model that incorporates a third mode of the data, such as time, giving it stronger uniqueness properties and consequently enhancing interpretability of solutions. In this paper, we present algorithms for computing these decompositions on large, sparse data as well as a variant for computing an asymmetric nonnegative factorization. When we apply these techniques to adjacency arrays arising from directed graphs with edges labeled by time, we obtain a smaller graph on latent semantic dimensions and gain additional information about their changing relationships over time. We demonstrate these techniques on the Enron email corpus to learn about the social networks and their transient behavior. The mixture of roles assigned to individuals by DEDICOM showed strong correspondence with known job classifications and revealed the patterns of communication between these roles. Changes in the communication pattern over time, e.g., between top executives and the legal department, were also apparent in the solutions.
Hatchett, Andrew; Hallam, Jeffrey S; Ford, M Allison
The aim of this study is to evaluate a 12-week social cognitive theory (SCT)-based email intervention designed to influence the physical activity of survivors of breast cancer. Seventy-four volunteers (intervention group, n = 36; control group, n = 38) were recruited by mass email and written letter solicitation. Participants completed a series of online questionnaires measuring demographic characteristics, physical activity readiness, level of physical activity and selected SCT variables at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. The intervention group received email messages based on SCT designed specifically for breast cancer survivors and targeting physical activity. For the first 6 weeks of the intervention, participants assigned to the intervention group received messages weekly, from weeks 7 to 12, participants received messages every other week and had access to an e-counselor. The control group did not receive email messages, nor did they have access to an e-counselor. Significant differences in levels of self-reported vigorous physical activity were found between groups at 6 and 12 weeks. Significant differences were also found for self-reported moderate physical activity at 12 weeks. Email-based interventions based on SCT can significantly influence levels of self-reported physical activity of breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Many patients and health care professionals in the developed world are uncomfortable about doing nothing in the face of the glaring inequities in health care between their own environment and that of Africa. In an effort to 'think global, act local' a Scottish GP practice used personal contacts to build a twinning link with a clinic serving a township in Malawi. This article describes the experience of establishing e-mail and internet services for Malawian health care staff to afford them the same level of access as developed world staff enjoy in accessing educational materials and professional supports. Using our twin link as an exemplar we are now matching other Scottish General Practices to Malawian Clinics around a common theme of modern communication media.
Ko, Heeae; Seo, Changwoo; Lim, Yonghwan
As the computing power of the mobile devices is improving rapidly, many kinds of web services are also available in mobile devices just as Email service. Mobile Mail Service began early, but this service is mostly limited in some specified mobile devices such as Smart Phone. That is a limitation that users have to purchase specified phone to be benefited from Mobile Mail Service. In this paper, it uses DIDL (digital item declaration language) markup type defined in MPEG-21 and MobileGate Server, and solved this problem. DIDL could be converted to other markup types which are displayed by mobile devices. By transforming PC Web Mail contents including attachment document to DIDL markup through MobileGate Server, the Mobile Mail Service could be available for all kinds of mobile devices.
Chua, Michael E; Saunders, Megan A; Bowlin, Paul R; Ming, Jessica M; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Farhat, Walid A; Dos Santos, Joana
Advances in communication technology are shaping our medical practice. To date, there is no clear evidence that this mode of communication will have any effect on unnecessary postoperative emergency room (ER) visits. We aim to evaluate the effect of email and media communication with application of smartphone digital photography on post-hypospadias repair ER visit rates. This prospective cohort study included all patients who underwent hypospadias repair performed by a single surgeon from October 2014 to November 2015. Patients were categorized into two groups: Group A consented for smartphone photography and email communication and Group B declined. Reason for ER visits within 30 days postoperatively was assessed by another physician, who was blinded of patient group assignment. The reasons were categorized as: unnecessary ER visit, indicated ER visit, or visit unrelated to hypospadias surgery. Chi-square test and T-test were used for statistical analysis. Relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were also calculated. Statistical significance was set at pcommunication with the use of smartphone digital photography significantly reduced the number of unnecessary ER visits for post-hypospadias wound checks.
Hoomod, Haider K.; Radi, A. M.
The E-mail messages exchanged between sender’s Mailbox and recipient’s Mailbox over the open systems and insecure Networks. These messages may be vulnerable to eavesdropping and itself poses a real threat to the privacy and data integrity from unauthorized persons. The E-mail Security includes the following properties (Confidentiality, Authentication, Message integrity). We need a safe encryption algorithm to encrypt Email messages such as the algorithm Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) or Data Encryption Standard DES, as well as biometric recognition and chaotic system. The proposed E-mail system security uses modified AES algorithm and uses secret key-bio-chaos that consist of biometric (Fingerprint) and chaotic system (Lu and Lorenz). This modification makes the proposed system more sensitive and random. The execution time for both encryption and decryption of the proposed system is much less from original AES, in addition to being compatible with all Mail Servers.
Jarvis, Tina; Hargreaves, Linda; Comber, Chris
This project evaluated the effect of collaboration via email links on the quality of 10-11 year old students’ science investigative skills in six primary rural schools. After a joint planning meeting, sixty children collected, identified and shared information via email about moths in their area, in order to produce a joint booklet. All email traffic was monitored throughout the project. Indepth structured observations and interviews were carried out at the schools. Children completed daily diaries. The children demonstrated a variety of science skills, particularly observation and recording. Their competence and confidence in using computers, handling email and in manipulating a data base developed during the project. The project identified a number of important issues relating to teacher inservice training requirements, the importance of a suitable progression of IT experiences throughout the school, development in cooperative groupwork for children, and software design.
Full Text Available Today e-mail communication information is widely used in organizations to distribute information. The increasing volume of received e-mails hinders an efficient work. It becomes more and more difficult to identify relevant e-mails inside this enormous volume of information. This work presents a solution in a multi-user environment by improving an established e-mail client extension based on information demand pattern with a recommendation system. The contributions of this work are (1 the concept and implementation of the solution for a single-user environment using information demand pattern, (2 the concept and architecture to use the solution in a multi-user environment (3 a detailed technical description about the proposed solutions.
The e-mail utilization rate at mobile communication terminals is increasing at a remarkable rate, as if to grow above the rate of communication by voice. Under the circumstances, a PHS (Personal Handyphone System) terminal 'TEGACKY' (type name: PM-T101) has been developed, designed exclusively for use for e-mailing. 'TEGACKY' is characterized in that its icons may be activated with pen, that input may be made by handwriting, and that its large screen allows a 48-character message consisting of 4 lines of 12 characters to be displayed at one time despite its compact size. It can also perform communication directly with other terminals or e-mail via center, and is provided with an information service function. 'TEGACKY' having such distinguished features has created a new category of terminals which are at once e-mailing tools. (translated by NEDO)
This research describes the results of a field experiment which examines the effects of warnings on system trust and individual awareness in government computer systems through the use of email forgery...
Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Codagnone, Cristiano; Atherton, Helen
Background The use of the Internet for health purposes is growing steadily, yet the use of asynchronous communication tools for health care purposes remains undeveloped. The introduction of email as a method of communication in health care has the potential to impact on both patients and health care professionals. Objective This study aims to describe the characteristics of people who have sent or received an email to or from their doctor, nurse, or health care organization, by country and in relation to demographics, health care resource use, and health status factors. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data (N=14,000) collected from the online Citizens and Information Communication Technology for Health survey, a project undertaken in 2011 by the Institute for Prospective Technology Studies of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre. The survey was developed to understand and characterize European citizens’ use of information communication technologies for health. Descriptive and statistical analyses of association were used to interpret the data. Results Denmark reported the highest level of emails sent/received (507/1000, 50.70%). The lowest level reported was by participants in France (187/1000, 18.70%). Men used email communication for health care more than women, as did respondents in the 16-24 age group and those educated to tertiary level or still within the education system. As self-reported health state worsens, the proportion of people reporting having sent or received an email within the context of health care increases. Email use, poor health, multimorbidity, and number of visits to a physician are positively correlated. Conclusions The use of email communication within the context of European health care is extremely varied. The relationship between high email use, poor health, doctor visits, and multimorbidity is especially pertinent: provision of asynchronous communication for such groups is favored by policymakers. Low
Newhouse, Nikki; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Codagnone, Cristiano; Atherton, Helen
The use of the Internet for health purposes is growing steadily, yet the use of asynchronous communication tools for health care purposes remains undeveloped. The introduction of email as a method of communication in health care has the potential to impact on both patients and health care professionals. This study aims to describe the characteristics of people who have sent or received an email to or from their doctor, nurse, or health care organization, by country and in relation to demographics, health care resource use, and health status factors. We conducted a secondary analysis of data (N=14,000) collected from the online Citizens and Information Communication Technology for Health survey, a project undertaken in 2011 by the Institute for Prospective Technology Studies of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The survey was developed to understand and characterize European citizens' use of information communication technologies for health. Descriptive and statistical analyses of association were used to interpret the data. Denmark reported the highest level of emails sent/received (507/1000, 50.70%). The lowest level reported was by participants in France (187/1000, 18.70%). Men used email communication for health care more than women, as did respondents in the 16-24 age group and those educated to tertiary level or still within the education system. As self-reported health state worsens, the proportion of people reporting having sent or received an email within the context of health care increases. Email use, poor health, multimorbidity, and number of visits to a physician are positively correlated. The use of email communication within the context of European health care is extremely varied. The relationship between high email use, poor health, doctor visits, and multimorbidity is especially pertinent: provision of asynchronous communication for such groups is favored by policymakers. Low reported email use by country may not necessarily reflect
Meng, Di; Palen, Ted E; Tsai, Joanne; McLeod, Melanie; Garrido, Terhilda; Qian, Heather
To assess associations between secure patient-clinician email use and clinical services utilisation over time. Retrospective cohort study between July 2010 and December 2013. Controlling for a utilisation surge around first secure email use, we analysed difference of differences between propensity score-matched groups of secure patient-clinician email users and non-users for utilisation 1-12 months before and 7-18 months after first email (users) or a randomly assigned index date (non-users). US integrated healthcare delivery system. 9345 adults with first secure email use between July 2011 and July 2012 and continuous enrolment for ≥30 months and 9345 adults without secure email use between July 2010 and July 2012 matched to users on demographics, health status, and baseline utilisation. Rates of office visits, patient-initiated phone calls, scheduled telephone visits, after-hours clinic visits, emergency department visits, and hospitalisations. After controlling for multiple factors, no statistically significant differences in utilisation between secure email users and non-users occurred. Utilisation transiently increased by 88-237% around first email use. Annual rates of patient-initiated phone calls decreased among secure email users, 0.2 fewer calls per person (95% CI -0.3 to -0.1), from a mean of 4.1 calls per person 1-12 months before first use to a mean of 3.8 calls per person 7-18 months after first use. Rates of patient-initiated phone calls also decreased among non-users, 0.1 fewer calls per person (95% CI -0.2 to 0.0), from a mean of 4.2 calls per person 1-12 months before the index date to mean of 4.1 calls per person 7-18 months after the index date. Compared with non-users, patient use of secure email with clinicians was not associated with statistically significant differences in clinical services utilisation 7-18 months after first use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted
Townsend, Anne; Amarsi, Zubin; Backman, Catherine L; Cox, Susan M; Li, Linda C
While use of the Internet is increasingly widespread in research, little is known about the role of routine electronic mail (email) correspondence during recruitment and early volunteer-researcher interactions. To gain insight into the standpoint of volunteers we analyzed email communications in an early rheumatoid arthritis qualitative interview study. The objectives of our study were (1) to understand the perspectives and motivations of individuals who volunteered for an interview study about the experiences of early rheumatoid arthritis, and (2) to investigate the role of emails in volunteer-researcher interactions during recruitment. Between December 2007 and December 2008 we recruited 38 individuals with early rheumatoid arthritis through rheumatologist and family physician offices, arthritis Internet sites, and the Arthritis Research Centre of Canada for a (face-to-face) qualitative interview study. Interested individuals were invited to contact us via email or telephone. In this paper, we report on email communications from 12 of 29 volunteers who used email as their primary communication mode. Emails offered insights into the perspective of study volunteers. They provided evidence prospectively about recruitment and informed consent in the context of early rheumatoid arthritis. First, some individuals anticipated that participating would have mutual benefits, for themselves and the research, suggesting a reciprocal quality to volunteering. Second, volunteering for the study was strongly motivated by a need to access health services and was both a help-seeking and self-managing strategy. Third, volunteers expressed ambivalence around participation, such as how far participating would benefit them, versus more general benefits for research. Fourth, practical difficulties of negotiating symptom impact, medical appointments, and research tasks were revealed. We also reflect on how emails documented volunteer-researcher interactions, illustrating typically
Townsend, Anne; Amarsi, Zubin; Backman, Catherine L; Cox, Susan M; Li, Linda C
Background While use of the Internet is increasingly widespread in research, little is known about the role of routine electronic mail (email) correspondence during recruitment and early volunteer?researcher interactions. To gain insight into the standpoint of volunteers we analyzed email communications in an early rheumatoid arthritis qualitative interview study. Objectives The objectives of our study were (1) to understand the perspectives and motivations of individuals who volunteered for ...
Magista, Malida; Nuryanti, Archadian; Wahyudi, Ivan Arie
Erosi gigi merupakan hilangnya lapisan email gigi karena asam. Jenis asam, pH rendah, serta kandungan kalsium, fosfat, dan fluoride pada bir dan tuak diduga merupakan faktor kimiawi penyebab erosi gigi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama perendaman dan jenis minuman beralkohol bir dan tuak terhadap kekerasan email gigi manusia (in vitro). Penelitian ini menggunakan 14 sampel gigi premolar pertama atas. Setiap gigi dibagi menjadi 2 bagian, bukal dan palatal. kemudian dibagi m...
Magista, Malida; Nuryanti, Archadian; Wahyudi, Ivan Arie
Erosi gigi merupakan hilangnya lapisan email gigi karena asam. Jenis asam, pH rendah, serta kandungan kalsium, fosfat, dan fluoride pada bir dan tuak diduga merupakan faktor kimiawi penyebab erosi gigi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama perendaman dan jenis minuman beralkohol bir dan tuak terhadap kekerasan email gigi manusia (in vitro). Penelitian ini menggunakan 14 sampel gigi premolar pertama atas. Setiap gigi dibagi menjadi 2 bagian, bukal dan palatal. kemudian dibagi m...
Thiel, L; Sage, K; Conroy, P
Background: Improving email writing in people with aphasia could enhance their ability to communicate, promote interaction and reduce isolation. Spelling therapies have been effective in improving single word writing. However, there has been limited evidence on how to achieve changes to everyday writing tasks such as email writing in people with aphasia. One potential area that has been largely unexplored in the literature is the potential use of assistive writing technologies, despite some i...
Thiel, Lindsey; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul
Improving email writing in people with aphasia could enhance their ability to communicate, promote interaction and reduce isolation. Spelling therapies have been effective in improving single-word writing. However, there has been limited evidence on how to achieve changes to everyday writing tasks such as email writing in people with aphasia. One potential area that has been largely unexplored in the literature is the potential use of assistive writing technologies, despite some initial evidence that assistive writing software use can lead to qualitative and quantitative improvements to spontaneous writing. This within-participants case series design study aimed to investigate the effects of using assistive writing software to improve email writing in participants with dysgraphia related to aphasia. Eight participants worked through a hierarchy of writing tasks of increasing complexity within broad topic areas that incorporate the spheres of writing need of the participants: writing for domestic needs, writing for social needs and writing for business/administrative needs. Through completing these tasks, participants had the opportunity to use the various functions of the software, such as predictive writing, word banks and text to speech. Therapy also included training and practice in basic computer and email skills to encourage increased independence. Outcome measures included email skills, keyboard skills, email writing and written picture description tasks, and a perception of disability assessment. Four of the eight participants showed statistically significant improvements to spelling accuracy within emails when using the software. At a group level there was a significant increase in word length with the software; while four participants showed noteworthy changes to the range of word classes used. Enhanced independence in email use and improvements in participants' perceptions of their writing skills were also noted. This study provided some initial evidence
Kirkby, Helen M; Wilson, Sue; Calvert, Melanie; Draper, Heather
Sample size calculations require effect size estimations. Sometimes, effect size estimations and standard deviation may not be readily available, particularly if efficacy is unknown because the intervention is new or developing, or the trial targets a new population. In such cases, one way to estimate the effect size is to gather expert opinion. This paper reports the use of a simple strategy to gather expert opinion to estimate a suitable effect size to use in a sample size calculation. Researchers involved in the design and analysis of clinical trials were identified at the University of Birmingham and via the MRC Hubs for Trials Methodology Research. An email invited them to participate.An online questionnaire was developed using the free online tool 'Survey Monkey©'. The questionnaire described an intervention, an electronic participant information sheet (e-PIS), which may increase recruitment rates to a trial. Respondents were asked how much they would need to see recruitment rates increased by, based on 90%. 70%, 50% and 30% baseline rates, (in a hypothetical study) before they would consider using an e-PIS in their research.Analyses comprised simple descriptive statistics. The invitation to participate was sent to 122 people; 7 responded to say they were not involved in trial design and could not complete the questionnaire, 64 attempted it, 26 failed to complete it. Thirty-eight people completed the questionnaire and were included in the analysis (response rate 33%; 38/115). Of those who completed the questionnaire 44.7% (17/38) were at the academic grade of research fellow 26.3% (10/38) senior research fellow, and 28.9% (11/38) professor. Dependent upon the baseline recruitment rates presented in the questionnaire, participants wanted recruitment rate to increase from 6.9% to 28.9% before they would consider using the intervention. This paper has shown that in situations where effect size estimations cannot be collected from previous research, opinions
Full Text Available Dewasa ini peran internet bukan hanya sebagai sarana mencari informasi, tapi juga mempunyai potensi besar sebagai media pemasaran dan perdagangan, khususnya periklanan. Bagi usaha mikro kecil dan menengah (UMKM, media periklanan melalui internet di Indonesia belum dimanfaatkan secara maksimal bahkan masih relatif kecil dan cenderung jauh dari sentuhan teknologi informasi yang mendukung kegiatan dan operasional perusahaan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dan verifikatif. Konsep model penelitian ini adalah menguji kebenaran daru suatu hipotesis. Dalam penelitian ini telah dilakukan tiga tahapan selama tiga tahun berturut-turut, tahun pertama menguji manfaat penggunaan internet untuk periklanan bagi UMKM, tahun kedua membangun dan mengembangkan portal situs web untuk periklanan produk UMKM, dan tahun ketiga mengukur pengaruh periklanan melalui internet bagi UMKM. Hasil penetilian dan kajian ini adalah produk teknologi infomasi yang dapat dimanfaatkan dalam pengelolaan usaha kecil, baik dari sisi kepentingan pelaku usaha maupun pihak terkait dalam pemberdayaan usaha kecil, dalam bentuk portal E-marketing yang dikelola oleh instansi pemerintah dan pihak asosiasi usaha kecil di wilayah kota Depok. Portal yang telah dibangun dapat diakses melalui http://www.gunadarma.ukmdepok.com Kata kunci : periklanan, e-commerce dan e-marketing, pemasaran melalui e-mail Abstract Today the role of the Internet not only as a means of finding information, but it also has great potential as a medium of marketing and trade, particularly advertising. For micro small and medium enterprises (MSMEs, media advertising over the internet in Indonesia is not fully utilized even still relatively small and likely to be far from the touch of the information technology that supports the activities and operations of the company. The research method used is descriptive and verification. The concept model of this study was to test the truth of a hypothesis
Lillevoll, Kjersti R; Vangberg, Hans Christian B; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin R
Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) is a promising approach to the prevention and reduction of depressive symptoms among adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of disseminating a self-directed internet-based mental health intervention (MoodGYM) in senior high schools. It also sought to investigate possible effects of tailored and weekly e-mail reminders on initial uptake and adherence to the intervention. A baseline survey was conducted in four senior high schools in two Norwegian municipalities (n = 1337). 52.8% (707/1337) of the students consented to further participation in the trial and were randomly allocated to one of three MoodGYM intervention groups (tailored weekly e-mail reminder (n = 175), standardized weekly e-mail reminder (n = 176 ) or no e-mail reminder (n = 175)) or a waitlist control group (n = 180). We tested for effects of the intervention on depression and self-esteem using multivariate analysis of variance, effects of tailored e-mail and self-reported current need of help on initial uptake of the intervention using logistic regression and the effect of weekly e-mails on adherence using ordinal regression. There was substantial non-participation from the intervention, with only 8.5% (45/527) participants logging on to MoodGYM, and few proceeding beyond the first part of the programme. No significant effect on depression or self-esteem was found among the sample as a whole or among participants with elevated depression scores at baseline. Having a higher average grade in senior high school predicted initial uptake of the intervention, but tailored e-mail and self-reported current need of help did not. Weekly e-mail prompts did not predict adherence. The main reasons for non-use reported were lack of time/forgetting about it and doubt about the usefulness of the program. Overall, disseminating a self-directed internet-based intervention to a school population proved difficult despite steps taken to
Godoy-Lorite, Antonia; Guimerà, Roger; Sales-Pardo, Marta
In social networks, individuals constantly drop ties and replace them by new ones in a highly unpredictable fashion. This highly dynamical nature of social ties has important implications for processes such as the spread of information or of epidemics. Several studies have demonstrated the influence of a number of factors on the intricate microscopic process of tie replacement, but the macroscopic long-term effects of such changes remain largely unexplored. Here we investigate whether, despite the inherent randomness at the microscopic level, there are macroscopic statistical regularities in the long-term evolution of social networks. In particular, we analyze the email network of a large organization with over 1,000 individuals throughout four consecutive years. We find that, although the evolution of individual ties is highly unpredictable, the macro-evolution of social communication networks follows well-defined statistical patterns, characterized by exponentially decaying log-variations of the weight of social ties and of individuals' social strength. At the same time, we find that individuals have social signatures and communication strategies that are remarkably stable over the scale of several years.
Bunt, Stephanie M.; Grumbling, Gary B.; Field, Helen I.; Marygold, Steven J.; Brown, Nicholas H.; Millburn, Gillian H.
Much of the data within Model Organism Databases (MODs) comes from manual curation of the primary research literature. Given limited funding and an increasing density of published material, a significant challenge facing all MODs is how to efficiently and effectively prioritize the most relevant research papers for detailed curation. Here, we report recent improvements to the triaging process used by FlyBase. We describe an automated method to directly e-mail corresponding authors of new papers, requesting that they list the genes studied and indicate (‘flag’) the types of data described in the paper using an online tool. Based on the author-assigned flags, papers are then prioritized for detailed curation and channelled to appropriate curator teams for full data extraction. The overall response rate has been 44% and the flagging of data types by authors is sufficiently accurate for effective prioritization of papers. In summary, we have established a sustainable community curation program, with the result that FlyBase curators now spend less time triaging and can devote more effort to the specialized task of detailed data extraction. Database URL: http://flybase.org/ PMID:22554788
Ney, Muriel; Gonçalves, Celso; Blacheff, Nicolas; Schwartz, Claudine; Bosson, Jean-Luc
A key concern in game-based learning is the level of authenticity that the game requires in order to have an accurate match of what the learners can expect in the real world with what they need to learn. In this paper, we show how four challenges to the designer of authentic games have been addressed in a game for an undergraduate course in a medical school. We focus in particular on the system of interaction with different characters of the game, namely, the patients and a number of professionals. Students use their personal phone and email application, as well as various web sites. First, we analyze the authenticity of the game through four attributes, authenticity of the character, of the content of the feedback, of the mode and channel of communication and of the constraints. Second, the perceived authenticity (by students) is analyzed. The later is threefold and defined by an external authenticity (perceived likeness with a real life reference), an internal authenticity (perceived internal coherence of the proposed situations) and a didactical authenticity (perceived relevance with respect to learning goals).
Full Text Available Computer-mediated communication (CMC offers us a chance to understand how social relationships are built and maintained in an environment in which interlocutors not only lack the paralinguistic features that are vital to face-to- face conversation, but are participating in a medium which has had little time to develop rules of conduct. The present study was an attempt to determine politeness accommodation in e-mail messages among Iranian postgraduate students of EFL. One hundred EFL learners, aged 22-26, participated in this study. Four different message types were constructed and sent to the participants, i.e. messages with verbal politeness markers; messages with structural politeness elements (e. g., salutation and closing remarks; messages with both verbal and structural politeness indicators; finally messages with neither verbal nor structural politeness indicators. Further, the messages varied in their degree of politeness; however, their content was the same. Results showed that the participants accommodated significantly to verbal politeness indicators in the body of a message, and to structural politeness indicators of greeting/salutation. When such indicators were included in messages, the participants responded with significantly more polite messages (greeting and body than when the indicators were absent. The results boost our understanding of CMC with reference to politeness markers, and how they are used by Iranian EFL learners.
Full Text Available Researchers have pursued interest in how the mimetic practice types of convention and ritual influence the ways in which people build up and maintain interpersonal relationships. Arguably, mimetic interactional acts that animate conventional and ritual practices are key to capturing fundamental aspects of interpersonal phenomena such as politeness, impoliteness, and humour, since language users tend to produce and interpret interpersonal behaviour through normative and repetitive moves, which may develop into routines. Despite the importance of mimetic acts in language use, little research has been done on mimesis itself in the realm of interpersonal pragmatics even though memes themselves have received attention. In this paper, we consider how mimetic chunks of interaction may develop into localised convention and possibly ritual by examining a corpus of 955 business emails between a British sole trader and her international clients, specifically focussing on mimetic practices present in greeting, signing-off and conversation topic. In particular, we attempt to show that by looking into habitual and everyday communication, the origins of conventional and ritual practices may be uncovered. A marked convergence towards using the same greeting or sign- off convention is noticeable in our quantitative data analysis and when examining the data qualitatively. The data also show that participants occasionally engage in relational practices that involve repeated and consistent responses to the same stimuli. The results indicate a tendency for accommodative communicative practices to be used, although there is no point at which mimesis can be interpreted as permanently “switched on”.
Scholl, Annika; Sassenberg, Kai
E-mail allows individuals to deliberate on their communication before sending it off. For instance, communication partners can easily take their time to ponder how best to frame a request before they actually send a message. Individuals at times strategically exploit this opportunity to deliberate in order to tailor messages to their communication partner, such as when communicating with a relatively more powerful person. As social power reduces concerns about impression management, we predicted that individuals deliberate more while composing e-mail messages under low (vs. high) power. This assumption was tested with well-established power priming. As such, we expected that experienced power in one context would diminish deliberation times during a subsequent e-mail communication. An experiment manipulating the experience of (low vs. high) power and measuring deliberation times during e-mail composition supported this hypothesis. The findings thus indicate how social power alters deliberation times. More importantly, the results show that individuals not only strategically deliberate during e-mail communication in line with their current situation, but also in line with their social standing in a previous situation (here, their experience of power).
Full Text Available Digital communication data has created opportunities to advance the knowledge of human dynamics in many areas, including national security, behavioral health, and consumerism. While digital data uniquely captures the totality of a person's communication, past research consistently shows that a subset of contacts makes up a person's "social network" of unique resource providers. To address this gap, we analyzed the correspondence between self-reported social network data and email communication data with the objective of identifying the dynamics in e-communication that correlate with a person's perception of a significant network tie. First, we examined the predictive utility of three popular methods to derive social network data from email data based on volume and reciprocity of bilateral email exchanges. Second, we observed differences in the response dynamics along self-reported ties, allowing us to introduce and test a new method that incorporates time-resolved exchange data. Using a range of robustness checks for measurement and misreporting errors in self-report and email data, we find that the methods have similar predictive utility. Although e-communication has lowered communication costs with large numbers of persons, and potentially extended our number of, and reach to contacts, our case results suggest that underlying behavioral patterns indicative of friendship or professional contacts continue to operate in a classical fashion in email interactions.
Wuchty, Stefan; Uzzi, Brian
Digital communication data has created opportunities to advance the knowledge of human dynamics in many areas, including national security, behavioral health, and consumerism. While digital data uniquely captures the totality of a person's communication, past research consistently shows that a subset of contacts makes up a person's "social network" of unique resource providers. To address this gap, we analyzed the correspondence between self-reported social network data and email communication data with the objective of identifying the dynamics in e-communication that correlate with a person's perception of a significant network tie. First, we examined the predictive utility of three popular methods to derive social network data from email data based on volume and reciprocity of bilateral email exchanges. Second, we observed differences in the response dynamics along self-reported ties, allowing us to introduce and test a new method that incorporates time-resolved exchange data. Using a range of robustness checks for measurement and misreporting errors in self-report and email data, we find that the methods have similar predictive utility. Although e-communication has lowered communication costs with large numbers of persons, and potentially extended our number of, and reach to contacts, our case results suggest that underlying behavioral patterns indicative of friendship or professional contacts continue to operate in a classical fashion in email interactions.
Wuchty, Stefan; Uzzi, Brian
Digital communication data has created opportunities to advance the knowledge of human dynamics in many areas, including national security, behavioral health, and consumerism. While digital data uniquely captures the totality of a person's communication, past research consistently shows that a subset of contacts makes up a person's “social network” of unique resource providers. To address this gap, we analyzed the correspondence between self-reported social network data and email communication data with the objective of identifying the dynamics in e-communication that correlate with a person's perception of a significant network tie. First, we examined the predictive utility of three popular methods to derive social network data from email data based on volume and reciprocity of bilateral email exchanges. Second, we observed differences in the response dynamics along self-reported ties, allowing us to introduce and test a new method that incorporates time-resolved exchange data. Using a range of robustness checks for measurement and misreporting errors in self-report and email data, we find that the methods have similar predictive utility. Although e-communication has lowered communication costs with large numbers of persons, and potentially extended our number of, and reach to contacts, our case results suggest that underlying behavioral patterns indicative of friendship or professional contacts continue to operate in a classical fashion in email interactions. PMID:22114665
Yasser S. Wahab
Full Text Available This research aims to know how the contante justitie principle may be applied into the enforced legislation in Indonesia, and to investigate the synergy of proceedings by means of e-mail in realizing contante justitie. The research employed in this paper is normative research, using both primary and secondary legal sources. Primary sources obtained from compiling relevant rules on the research concerned, in addition to secondary sources taken from books, court decisions, newspapers, internet materials and others relevant with the issue; that is to oversee the contradictions of humanist and mechanical processes when utilizing the internet e-mail for the court proceedings. The use of internet media e-mail in the correspondence process is expected to cut down the time, cost and potential instability. Thus strongly supports the realization of the principle of contante justitie in court proceedings more effectively and efficiently.
Strickler, Jeffery C; Lopiano, Kenneth K
This study profiles an innovative approach to capture patient satisfaction data from emergency department (ED) patients by implementing an electronic survey method. This study compares responders to nonresponders. Our hypothesis is that the cohort of survey respondents will be similar to nonresponders in terms of the key characteristics of age, gender, race, ethnicity, ED disposition, and payor status. This study is a cross-sectional design using secondary data from the database and provides an opportunity for univariate analysis of the key characteristics for each group. The data elements will be abstracted from the database and compared with the same key characteristics from a similar sample from the database on nonresponders to the ED satisfaction survey. Age showed a statistically significant difference between responders and nonresponders. Comparison by disposition status showed no substantial difference between responders and nonresponders. Gender distribution showed a greater number of female than male responders. Race distribution showed a greater number and response by white and Asian patients as compared with African Americans. A review of ethnicity showed fewer Hispanics responded. An evaluation by payor classification showed greater number and response rate by those with a commercial or Workers Comp payor source. The response rate by Medicare recipients was stronger than expected; however, the response rate by Medicaid recipients and self-pay could be a concern for underrepresentation by lower socioeconomic groups. Finally, the evaluation of the method of notification showed that notification by both e-mail and text substantially improved response rates. The evaluation of key characteristics showed no difference related to disposition, but differences related to age, gender, race, ethnicity, and payor classification. These results point to a potential concern for underrepresentation by lower socioeconomic groups. The results showed that notification by
- Шанталь Клодель
Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which politeness is used in French and Japanese personal emails (i.e. from one person to another. The data for the study consist of 411 emails from both communities and regrouped by criteria such as the correspondents’ gender, age and relationship (close vs distant; hierarchical vs equal. Two widely studied acts, very present in the French and Japanese data, namely thanking and apologising, are analysed. First of all, the notion of politeness is examined as it is understood in French and Japanese cultures, followed by a discussion of the positioning adopted by the various established approaches to this notion. This leads us to reconsider the concept of face as it is understood in Europe and Asia, the notion of discernment (Ide and the theory of the territory of information (Kamio, as well as to re-examine the approach of politeness in the light of recent research findings. Following this overview, the paper proposes a framework where a distinction between politeness and civility is advocated. In this perspective, the means used to express politeness ( politeness in its broader meaning are based on personal choices: either due to politeness (in a specific meaning or according to social obligations ascribable to civility. More specifically, politeness (in it specific meaning in one side is linked to personal choice. In French for instance, this can result from language used: formal language vs common language ( convier vs inviter ; verbal choices (conditional verbs instead of indicative tenses: je voudrais vs je veux ; syntax (inversion of the subject or not in questions, etc. In Japanese, politeness can be detected through the choice to use of the suffix desu ( kawaii desu ( it is cute when neutral or common language could be suitable ( kawaii ( it is cute . In the other side, civility refers to the obligation to respect social norms. In French, the speaker may have to use the pronoun of address vous (vs tu as
Morgan, Amy J; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Jorm, Anthony F
To evaluate whether automated e-mails promoting effective self-help strategies for depressive symptoms were effective in changing self-help behavior, and whether this improved depression outcomes. 568 adults with sub-threshold depression participated in a randomized controlled trial and provided complete data. A series of 12 e-mails promoting the use of evidence-based self-help strategies was compared with e-mails providing non-directive depression information. Depression symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) and use of self-help strategies was assessed at baseline and post-intervention. We hypothesized that those receiving the self-help e-mails would increase their use of evidence-based self-help and this would be associated with improvements in depression. Mediation analyses were conducted using a non-parametric bootstrapping procedure. Total use of the self-help strategies promoted in the e-mails significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on depressive symptoms (B = -0.75, SE = 0.16, 95% CI: -1.06 to -0.48). The direct effect of the intervention on depressive symptoms was much smaller and not significant when the mediation path was included. The majority of the individual strategies also had a significant indirect effect on depressive symptoms. In adults with sub-threshold depression, automated e-mails based on behavior change principles can successfully increase use of self-help strategies, leading to a reduction in depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bradley, Sandra L; Tieman, Jennifer J; Woodman, Richard J; Phillips, Paddy A
Completion of Advance Directives (ADs), being financial and healthcare proxy or instructional documents, is relatively uncommon in Australia. Efforts to increase completion rates include online education and prompting which past literature suggests may be effective. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess computer-based online AD information and email prompting for facilitating completion of ADs by Australian Baby Boomers (b.1946-1965) as well as factors which may impede or assist completion of these documents by this generation when using the online environment. Two hundred eighty-two men and women aged 49-68 years at the time of the trial were randomly assigned to one of 3 intervention groups: education module only; email prompt only; email prompt and education module; and a control group with no education module and no email prompt. The randomized controlled trial was undertaken in participants' location of choice. Randomization and allocation to trial group were carried out by a central computer system. The primary analysis was based on a final total of 189 participants who completed the trial (n = 52 education module only; n = 44 email prompt only; n = 46 email prompt and education module; and n = 47 control). The primary outcome was the number of individuals in any group completing any of the 4 legal ADs in South Australia within 12 months or less from entry into the trial. Frequency analysis was conducted on secondary outcomes such as reasons for non-completion. Mean follow-up post-intervention at 12 months showed that 7% of overall participants completed one or more of the 4 legal ADs but without significant difference between groups (delta = 1%, p = .48 Prompt/Non-Prompt groups, delta = 5%, p = .44 education/non-education groups). Reasons offered for non-completion were too busy (26%) and/or it wasn't the right time (21%). Our results suggest that neither email prompting nor provision of additional educational material
Cutrona, Sarah L; Roblin, Douglas W; Wagner, Joann L; Gaglio, Bridget; Williams, Andrew E; Torres Stone, Rosalie; Field, Terry S; Mazor, Kathleen M
Adults over age 40 are increasing their use of email and social media, raising interest in use of peer-to-peer Internet-based messaging to promote cancer screening. The objective of our study was to assess current practices and attitudes toward use of email and other e-communication for peer-to-peer dialogues on cancer screening. We conducted in-person interviews with 438 insured adults ages 42-73 in Georgia, Hawaii, and Massachusetts. Participants reported on use of email and other e-communication including social media to discuss with peers routine health topics including breast and colorectal cancer (CRC). We ascertained willingness to share personal CRC screening experiences via conversation, postcard, email, or other e-communication. Health literacy scores were measured. Email had been used by one-third (33.8%, 148/438) to discuss routine health topics, by 14.6% (64/438) to discuss breast cancer screening, and by 12.6% (55/438) to discuss CRC screening. Other e-communication was used to discuss routine health topics (11.6%, 51/438), screening for breast cancer (3.9%, 17/438), and CRC (2.3%, 10/438). In the preceding week, 84.5% (370/438) of participants had used email, 55.9% (245/438) had used e-communication of some type; 44.3% (194/438) text, 32.9% (144/438) Facebook, 12.3% (54/438) instant message, 7.1% (31/438) video chat, and 4.8% (21/438) Twitter. Many participants were willing to share their CRC screening experiences via email (32.4%, 142/438 might be willing; 36.3%, 159/438 very willing) and via other e-communication (15.8%, 69/438 might be willing; 14.4%, 63/438 very willing). Individuals willing to send CRC screening emails scored significantly higher on tests of health literacy compared to those willing to send only postcards (Pcommunication to promote cancer screening to peers. Optimal approaches for encouraging peer-to-peer transmission of accurate and appropriate cancer screening messages must be studied.
Mouro, Ana Catarina Ruas
Mestrado em Comunicação Cultura e Tecnologias da Informação Esta dissertação recai sobre o tema do E-mail Marketing e sobretudo sobre o impacto que tem junto do consumidor final. Nesta dissertação abordou-se primeiramente o impacto que a internet e o mundo digital teve no marketing. Esta perceção é fundamental para que possamos entender a importância que tem o E-mail Marketing nos dias de hoje e a utilidade que esta ferramenta pode vir a ter se bem utilizada. Foi realizado um estudo ...
Background Today patients can consult with their treating physician by cell phone or e-mail. These means of communication enhance the quality of medical care and increase patient satisfaction, but they can also impinge on physicians’ free time and their patient schedule while at work. The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes and practice of patients on obtaining the cell phone number or e-mail address of their physician for the purpose of medical consultation. Methods Personal interviews with patients, 18 years of age or above, selected by random sampling from the roster of adults insured by Clalit Health Services, Southern Division. The total response rate was 41%. The questionnaire included questions on the attitude and practice of patients towards obtaining their physician’s cell phone number or e-mail address. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square tests to analyze statistically significant differences of categorical variables. Two-tailed p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, with a power of 0.8. Results The study sample included 200 patients with a mean age of 46.6 ± 17.1, of whom 110 were women (55%). Ninety-three (46.5%) responded that they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s cell phone number, and an additional 83 (41.5%) would not object to obtaining it. Of the 171 patients (85.5%) who had e-mail addresses, 25 (14.6%) said they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s e-mail address, 85 (49.7%) said they would not object to getting it, and 61 (35.7%) were not interested. In practice only one patient had requested the physician’s e-mail address and none actually had it. Conclusions Patients favored cell phones over e-mail for consulting with their treating physicians. With new technologies such as cell phones and e-mail in common use, it is important to determine how they can be best used and how they should be integrated into the flow of clinical practice
Full Text Available Abstract Background Today patients can consult with their treating physician by cell phone or e-mail. These means of communication enhance the quality of medical care and increase patient satisfaction, but they can also impinge on physicians’ free time and their patient schedule while at work. The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes and practice of patients on obtaining the cell phone number or e-mail address of their physician for the purpose of medical consultation. Methods Personal interviews with patients, 18 years of age or above, selected by random sampling from the roster of adults insured by Clalit Health Services, Southern Division. The total response rate was 41%. The questionnaire included questions on the attitude and practice of patients towards obtaining their physician’s cell phone number or e-mail address. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square tests to analyze statistically significant differences of categorical variables. Two-tailed p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, with a power of 0.8. Results The study sample included 200 patients with a mean age of 46.6 ± 17.1, of whom 110 were women (55%. Ninety-three (46.5% responded that they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s cell phone number, and an additional 83 (41.5% would not object to obtaining it. Of the 171 patients (85.5% who had e-mail addresses, 25 (14.6% said they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s e-mail address, 85 (49.7% said they would not object to getting it, and 61 (35.7% were not interested. In practice only one patient had requested the physician’s e-mail address and none actually had it. Conclusions Patients favored cell phones over e-mail for consulting with their treating physicians. With new technologies such as cell phones and e-mail in common use, it is important to determine how they can be best used and how they should be integrated into the flow
Sheaves, Bryony; Jones, Ray B; Williamson, Graham R; Chauhan, Rohan
Use of the Internet for people with Long Term Conditions (LTCs) can have a positive effect on knowledge, social support, behavioural and clinical outcomes, yet there is concern that a 'digital divide' prevents some patients from benefitting. While some patients do not have access to the Internet, others that do may still lack expertise or the confidence to make full use of it. The aim of this pilot study was to develop an intervention and test methods for a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) of anonymous personal online email support for patients in this latter group. Recruitment success was evaluated by the number and appropriateness of participants recruited. A personalised e-health support intervention was developed. The provisional primary outcome was the extent to which the Internet affected the participants' confidence in dealing with their LTC. Primary outcome, seven process measures and two secondary outcomes measures were evaluated for completeness of data and sensitivity to detect changes. Thirty nine participants were recruited, 29 after personally receiving a leaflet, seven via email advertising, and three via leaflets left in waiting areas. Most participants (61%) were aged over 60. The majority (21/38) rated themselves as experienced Internet users although only 5/38 had used discussion forums for their LTC. Piloting the intervention identified support needed as: (i) technical help with some websites, (ii) advice about issues such as anonymity, (iii) help in judging information quality, (iv) identification of relevant information (via 'Information Prescriptions'), (v) motivational support to try new sites. Attrition was fairly high: 20/39 completed follow up questionnaires. Three process measures showed ceiling effects and two had too many missing values to be useable. E-health support is a promising way of addressing the problems faced by older generation e-health seekers. Face-to-face leaflet distribution recruited sufficient numbers but
Williamson Graham R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of the Internet for people with Long Term Conditions (LTCs can have a positive effect on knowledge, social support, behavioural and clinical outcomes, yet there is concern that a 'digital divide' prevents some patients from benefitting. While some patients do not have access to the Internet, others that do may still lack expertise or the confidence to make full use of it. The aim of this pilot study was to develop an intervention and test methods for a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT of anonymous personal online email support for patients in this latter group. Methods Recruitment success was evaluated by the number and appropriateness of participants recruited. A personalised e-health support intervention was developed. The provisional primary outcome was the extent to which the Internet affected the participants' confidence in dealing with their LTC. Primary outcome, seven process measures and two secondary outcomes measures were evaluated for completeness of data and sensitivity to detect changes. Results Thirty nine participants were recruited, 29 after personally receiving a leaflet, seven via email advertising, and three via leaflets left in waiting areas. Most participants (61% were aged over 60. The majority (21/38 rated themselves as experienced Internet users although only 5/38 had used discussion forums for their LTC. Piloting the intervention identified support needed as: (i technical help with some websites, (ii advice about issues such as anonymity, (iii help in judging information quality, (iv identification of relevant information (via 'Information Prescriptions', (v motivational support to try new sites. Attrition was fairly high: 20/39 completed follow up questionnaires. Three process measures showed ceiling effects and two had too many missing values to be useable. Conclusion E-health support is a promising way of addressing the problems faced by older generation e-health seekers. Face
Yasenchock, David A.
Eighty to ninety percent of e-mail is considered unsolicited commercial communication, or spam. Not only does spam violate the privacy of users, but it also incurs societal costs associated with time-related losses, serves as a vehicle for cyber-crime, and threatens the success of e-commerce by lowering consumer confidence. This quantitative…
Yue, Siwei; Wang, Xuefei
Based on a corpus of 296 authentic business emails produced in computer-mediated business communication from 7 Chinese international trade enterprises, this paper addresses the language strategy applied in CMC (Computer-mediated Communication) by examining the use of hedges. With the emergence of internet, a wider range of hedges are applied…
Baptist, Alan P; Thompson, Michael; Grossman, Karla Stoermer; Mohammed, Layla; Sy, Annie; Sanders, Georgiana M
Electronic media such as social media (Facebook, Twitter, MySpace), email, and text messaging could be useful in the management of asthma. However, patient use and preferences for electronic media in asthma management is currently unknown. A survey was sent to asthma patients between 12-40 years of age. The survey collected demographic information, use of electronic media, interest in using electronic media to receive asthma information, and interest in using electronic media to communicate with a health care provider about asthma. Free text entries were encouraged. 145 completed surveys were returned. Text messaging, email, and Facebook were used at least weekly by a majority of respondents (82%, 77%, and 65%, respectively). Email was clearly the most preferred method to receive asthma information and to communicate with a physician. There was some interest in using Facebook or text messaging, whereas Myspace and Twitter had minimal interest. On logistic regression analysis, female and Black or Hispanic participants were more likely to have an interest in the use of electronic media for asthma care. Frequent users (>1X/week) of each electronic media type had greater enthusiasm for their incorporation into asthma care. Free text entries revealed that many participants felt social media sites were for connecting with friends rather than for health care, and privacy concerns were also raised. Electronic media offers a novel way to improve asthma care. Email was the most preferred method, though text messaging and social media sites like Facebook may be appropriate for certain patients.
Gallego, M.J.; Modesto, M.; Muñoz, M.A.; Almajano, M.J.; Modolell, E.; Peris, C.P.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
This work presents preliminary data on the clinical utility and outcome predictors of The San Francisco Stop Smoking Internet Site (SFSSIS) (Lenert et al., 2003) used with weekly e-mail contacts and the usual pharmacological treatment. Fifty smokers participated in the current series of cases, 24
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to measure the responsiveness, timeliness and relevance of companies’ responses to e-mail requests, and to test for the determinants (size, market-to-book ratio, profitability, leverage and liquidity thereof. Method: The mystery investor approach and a content analysis were used to study the e-mail handling performance of companies. The associations between company-specific characteristics were statistically tested. Results: It was found that the e-mail handling performance of companies in this study was poor compared with previous studies. Significant relationships between company size and responsiveness and relevance, and between market-to-book ratio and relevance were reported, as well as between the contact method used to request information and relevance and the use of social media and timeliness. Conclusion: Specific areas where companies could improve their investor communications were identified. The need for further research was discussed to explain some of the relationships found, as well as those not found, in contrast to what was expected. Future research is warranted to examine the relationship between the e-mail handling performance of companies and information asymmetry and the cost of equity of companies.
This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has…
The paper explores how computer-mediated communication offers space for academics to think and make sense of their experiences in the qualitative research encounter. It draws on a research study that used email interviewing to generate online narratives to understand academic lives and identities through research encounters in virtual space. The…
Boshrabadi, Abbas Mehrabi; Sarabi, Sepideh Bataghva
Purpose: Research has shown that the discursive patterns students use in their email interactions with their teachers are not linguistically and socio-culturally appropriate. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to try to explore how socio-cultural conventions influence the Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' choices of…
This paper investigates native speaker (NS) and non-native speaker (NNS) interaction in the workplace in computer-mediated communication (CMC). Based on empirical data from a 10-month email exchange between a medium-sized British company and a small-sized Italian company, the general aim of this study is to explore the nature of the intercultural…
Cuschieri, Sarah; Grech, Victor
The increasing demand on academics and researchers to publish has led to the development of fake journals (also known as predatory journals). Such journals lack peer review and precipitate unfair criticism toward legitimate open access journals. Predatory journals tend to bombard a researcher's mailbox on a daily basis, inviting authors to submit a review/manuscript/opinion/short case to their journal while promising expedited publication - against a fee. This study assessed the unsolicited emails received over the period of November 2017 by a young and by a senior researcher. The young researcher received a substantially higher amount of emails (n = 101) compared to the senior researcher (n = 23). The article processing costs for solicited journals received, ranged between $49 and $3019. These journals are almost all only indexed in Google Scholar and do not display any meaningful journal metrics. Furthermore, the majority of the unsolicited emails were not relevant to the researcher's field of study. Therefore authors and readers alike should evaluate emails received with regard to journal legitimacy prior to submission of work to possibly predatory journals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article discusses and compares how Chinese and English postgraduate students manage a harmonious relationship with university instructors by managing rapport and doing relational work in their academic request emails. The rapport-management strategies were explored and then further evaluated in relation to the taxonomies of relational work…
Saeedi, Osamah J; Luzuriaga, Christine; Ellish, Nancy; Robin, Alan
To determine how receptive patients are to the use of e-mail and text message reminders for appointments and medications. We conducted a consecutive cross-sectional survey of eligible patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension at a private glaucoma subspecialty practice with 3 locations from February 2011 to January 2012. Main outcome measures were answers to survey questions regarding how receptive patients are to e-mail and text messaging reminders for appointments and medications. Of 989 patients, 404 (40.8%) patients reported that e-mail reminders would help remember appointments and 185 (18.7%) reported that they would help for medications. Among those with access to text messaging, 280 (68.9%) reported text messaging would help them remember appointments and 193 (47.5%) reported it would help with medications. Patients who reported e-mail would help them remember medications were more likely to live in an urban location [P=0.05, odds ratio (OR)=1.84], check the internet at least daily (P≤0.001, OR=1.04), check e-mail when not at home or the office (P=0.02, OR=1.62), and know how to open attachments (P=0.03, OR=1.87). Patients who reported that text messaging would help them remember their medications were more likely to be 40 or less (P≤0.001, OR=8.54) and African American (Ptext messaging reminders currently may have a limited utility in improving adherence in the general glaucoma population but may be useful in younger patients with glaucoma.
Full Text Available This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has claimed the opposite. However, email technology also allows writers to plan and revise messages before sending them, thus affording the opportunity to edit not only for grammar and mechanics, but also for pragmatic clarity and politeness.The study examines email requests sent by native and non-native English speaking graduate students to faculty at a major American university over a period of several semesters and applies Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper’s (1989 speech act analysis framework – quantitatively to distinguish levels of directness, i.e. pragmatic clarity; and qualitatively to compare syntactic and lexical politeness devices, the request perspectives, and the specific linguistic request realization patterns preferred by native and non-native speakers. Results show that far more requests are realized through direct strategies as well as hints than conventionally indirect strategies typically found in comparative speech act studies. Politeness conventions in email, a text-only medium with little guidance in the academic institutional hierarchy, appear to be a work in progress, and native speakers demonstrate greater resources in creating e-polite messages to their professors than non-native speakers. A possible avenue for pedagogical intervention with regard to instruction in and acquisition of politeness routines in hierarchically upward email communication is presented.
Piening, Sigrid; de Graeff, Pieter A; Straus, Sabine M J M; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Mol, Peter G M
The usefulness and the impact of Direct Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs, or 'Dear Doctor letters') in changing the clinical behaviour of physicians have been debated. Changes in the current risk communication methods should preferably be based on the preferences of the healthcare professionals, to optimize the uptake of the message. The aim of this study was to assess whether safety issues are communicated more effectively with an additional e-mail sent by the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB) than with the DHPC only. A randomized controlled trial was conducted amongst ophthalmologists and hospital pharmacists in the Netherlands, who were the target group of a DHPC that was issued for pegaptanib, a drug that is administered intra-ocularly in patients with macular degeneration. The intervention group (N = 110) received the pegaptanib DHPC, as well as the MEB e-mail. The control group (N = 105) received the traditional paper-based DHPC only. Two weeks later, the study population received an invitation to fill out an online questionnaire. Questions were asked about the respondents' knowledge and attitude regarding the pegaptanib issue, and any action they had consequently taken. Additional questions were asked about their satisfaction with the DHPC and the e-mail, and their preferred source of such information. Forty respondents (18.6%) completed the questionnaire. Eighty-one percent of the respondents in the intervention group (N = 21) and 47% of the control group (N = 19) correctly indicated that a serious increase in intra-ocular pressure could be caused by pegaptanib injections (Fishers' exact test, p = 0.046). Nine respondents in the intervention group versus none of the control group respondents indicated that they had taken action in response to the pegaptanib safety issue (Fishers' exact test, p = 0.01). The majority of both the intervention group and the control group confirmed that they would like to receive an MEB e-mail with safety
Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Swol, Lyn Van; Braun, Michael T; Epstein, Richard H
For many problems in operating room and anesthesia group management, there are tasks with optimal decisions, and yet experienced personnel tend to make decisions that are worse or no better than random chance. Such decisions include staff scheduling, case scheduling, moving cases among operating rooms, and choosing patient arrival times. In such settings, operating room management leadership decision-making should typically be autocratic rather than participative. Autocratic-style decision-making calls for managers to solicit and consider feedback from stakeholders in the decision outcome but to make the decision themselves using their expert knowledge and the facts received. For this to be effective, often the manager will obtain expert advice from outside the organization (e.g., health system). In this narrative review, we evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using prompt asynchronous written communication (i.e., e-mail) as a communication channel for such interaction between a decision-maker (manager) and advisor. A detailed Appendix (Supplemental Digital Content, http://links.lww.com/AA/B72) lists each observational and experimental result. We find that the current ubiquitous role of e-mail for such communication is appropriate. Its benefits include improved time management via asynchronicity, low cognitive load (e.g., relative to Web conferencing), the ability to hide undesirable and irrelevant cues (e.g., physical appearance), the appropriateness of adding desirable cues (e.g., titles and degrees), the opportunity to provide written expression of confidence, and the ability for the advisor to demonstrate the answer for the decision-maker. Given that the manager is e-mailing an advisor whose competence the manager trusts, it is unnecessary to use a richer communication channel to develop trust. Finally, many of the limitations of e-mail can be rectified through training. We expect that decades from now, e-mail (i.e., asynchronous writing) between an
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate a 6-month intervention to promote office-employees’ walking with pedometers and e-mail messages. Methods Participants were recruited by 10 occupational health care units (OHC from 20 worksites with 2,230 employees. Voluntary and insufficiently physically active employees (N = 241 were randomized to a pedometer (STEP, N = 123 and a comparison group (COMP, N = 118. STEP included one group meeting, log-monitored pedometer-use and six e-mail messages from OHC. COMP participated in data collection. Reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance (RE-AIM and costs were assessed with questionnaires (0, 2, 6, 12 months, process evaluation and interviews (12 months. Results The intervention reached 29% (N = 646 of employees in terms of participation willingness. Logistic regression showed that the proportion of walkers tended to increase more in STEP than in COMP at 2 months in “walking for transportation” (Odds ratio 2.12, 95%CI 0.94 to 4.81 and at 6 months in “walking for leisure” (1.86, 95%CI 0.94 to 3.69. Linear model revealed a modest increase in the mean duration of “walking stairs” at 2 and 6 months (Geometric mean ratio 1.26, 95%CI 0.98 to 1.61; 1.27, 0.98 to 1.64. Adoption and implementation succeeded as intended. At 12 months, some traces of the intervention were sustained in 15 worksites, and a slightly higher number of walkers in STEP in comparison with COMP was observed in “walking stairs” (OR 2.24, 95%CI 0.94 to 5.31 and in “walking for leisure” (2.07, 95%CI 0.99 to 4.34. The direct costs of the intervention were 43 Euros per participant. Conclusions The findings indicate only modest impact on some indicators of walking. Future studies should invest in reaching the employees, minimizing attrition rate and using objective walking assessment. Trial registeration ISRCTN79432107
ten Bruggencate, J
"PreciseMail Anti-Spam Gateway uses a combination of proven heuristic (rules-based) and artificial intelligence technologies that eliminates unwanted spam e-mail at an Internet gateway without filtering critical e-mail messages. Its highly effective filtering engine identifies spam and allows multiple levels of tuning and customization to meet each user's personal e-mail spam filtering requirements" (1 page).
Muin, Michael; Fontelo, Paul; Ackerman, Michael
Summary PubMed Informer is a Web-based monitoring tool for topics of interest from MEDLINE/PubMed primarily designed for healthcare professionals. Five tracking methods are available: Web access, e-mail, Short Message Service (SMS), PDA downloads and RSS feeds. PubMed Informer delivers focused search updates and specific information to users with varying information-seeking practices. PMID:16779344
Plant, Mathew A; Fish, Joel S
The use of smartphones, e-mail, and the Internet has affected virtually all areas of patient care. Current university and hospital policies concerning the use of devices may be incongruent with day-to-day patient care. The goal was to assess the current usage patterns of the Internet, e-mail, and personal electronics for clinical purposes by surgical residents as well as their communication habits and preferences. Also assessed was residents' knowledge regarding the institutional policies surrounding these issues. Surgical residents (n = 294) at a large teaching institution were surveyed regarding their knowledge of university policies as well as daily use of various communication technologies. Communication preferences were determined using theoretical clinical scenarios. Our survey with a response rate of 54.7% (n = 161) revealed that 93.8% of participants indicated daily Internet use for clinical duties. Most respondents (72%) were either completely unaware of the existence of guidelines for its use or aware but had no familiarity with their content. Use of e-mail for clinical duties was common (85%), and 74% of the respondents rated e-mail as "very important" or "extremely important" for patient care. Everyone who responded had a mobile phone with 98.7% being "smartphones," which the majority (82.9%) stated was "very important" or "extremely important" for patient care. Text messaging was the primary communication method for 57.8% of respondents. The traditional paging system was the primary communication method for only 1.3% of respondents and the preferred method for none. Daily use of technology is the norm among residents; however, knowledge of university guidelines was exceedingly low. Residents need better education regarding current guidelines. Current guidelines do not reflect current clinical practice. Hospitals should consider abandoning the traditional paging system and consider facilitating better use of residents' mobile phones.
Robinson, Paul; Serfaty, Marc
One hundred and ten people in an university population responded to emailed eating disorder questionnaires. Ninty-seven fulfilling criteria for eating disorders (bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), EDNOS) were randomised to therapist administered email bulimia therapy (eBT), unsupported Self directed writing (SDW) or Waiting list control (WLC). Measures were repeated at 3 months. Diagnosis, Beck depression inventory (BDI) and Bulimia investigatory test (BITE) scores were recorded. Follow-up rate was 63% and results must be interpreted cautiously. However significantly fewer participants who had received eBT or SDW fulfilled criteria for eating disorders at follow up compared to WLC. There was no significant difference between eBT and SDW in the analysis of variance (ANOVA), although in separate analyses, eBT was significantly superior to WLC (p < 0.02) and the difference for SDW approached significance (p = 0.06). BDI and BITE scores showed no significant change. For eBT participants there was a significant positive correlation between words written and improvement in BITE severity score. BN, BED and EDNOS can be treated via email. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association
Pattison, Natalie; O'Gara, Geraldine; Rattray, Janice
To explore experiences and needs over time, of patients discharged from ICU using the Intensive Care Experience (ICE-q) questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and EuroQoL (EQ-5D), associated clinical predictors (APACHE II, TISS, Length of stay, RIKER scores) and in-depth email interviewing. A mixed-method, longitudinal study of patients with >48hour ICU stays at 2 weeks, 6 months, 12 months using the ICE-q, HADS, EQ-5D triangulated with clinical predictors, including age, gender, length of stay (ICU and hospital), APACHE II and TISS. In-depth qualitative email interviews were completed at 1 month and 6 months. Grounded Theory analysis was applied to interview data and data were triangulated with questionnaire and clinical data. Data was collected from January 2010 to March 2012 from 77 participants. Both mean EQ-5D visual analogue scale, utility scores and HADS scores improved from 2 weeks to 6 months, (p=Email interviews offer a convenient method of gaining in-depth interview data and could be used as part of ICU follow-up. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schweier, R; Romppel, M; Richter, C; Grande, G
The Internet offers the potential to efficaciously deliver health interventions at a low cost and with a low threshold across any distance. However, since many web-based interventions are confronted with low use and adherence, proactive dissemination strategies are needed. We, therefore, tested the efficacy of a 1-h patient education session as part of a rehabilitation program and an email reminder 4 weeks later on the publicity and use of a web-based intervention aimed at lifestyle changes in patients with either coronary heart disease or chronic back pain (CBP) and examined adherence predictors. The website www.lebensstil-aendern.de is a cost-free, German-language website providing more than 1000 patient narratives about successful lifestyle changes. To test the efficacy of the dissemination strategies and to examine adherence predictors, we conducted a sequential controlled trial with heart and CBP patients recruited from German inpatient rehabilitation centers. The dissemination strategies were found to be efficient. Use rates, however, remained low. The email reminder and internal health locus of control emerged as notable factors in motivating patients to participate in the web-based intervention. Other factors that have been suggested to be related to nonuse, e.g. sociodemographic characteristics and medical condition, did not predict use or adherence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Joinson, Adam N
The media choices made by high and low self-esteem Internet users were studied using web-based methodology (n = 265). Participants were asked to rank four media (face-to-face, e-mail, letter, and telephone) in order of preference across four different communication scenarios designed to pose an interpersonal risk. The level of interpersonal risk posed by two of the scenarios (asking for a pay rise and asking for a date) were also experimentally manipulated by randomly allocating participants to a 25%, 50%, or 75% chance of rejection. Low self-esteem users (LSE) showed a significant preference toward e-mail communication compared to high self-esteem users (HSE). This pattern was reversed for face-to-face preferences. Similarly, a greater chance of rejection in a scenario led to e-mail being preferred to face-to-face communication. The results are discussed in light of both the strategic use of different media and the motivated Internet user.
Lee, Joy L; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Wu, Albert W; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A; Shrank, William H
Patient-physician communication often occurs outside the clinic setting; many institutions discourage electronic communication outside of established electronic health record systems. Little empirical data are available on patient interest in electronic communication and Web-based health tools that are technically feasible but not widely available. To explore patient behavior and interest in using the Internet to contact physicians. National cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 4,510 CVS customers with at least one chronic condition in the household was used to target patients with chronic conditions and their caregivers. Subjects were identified from a national panel of over 100,000 retail pharmacy customers. Of those sampled, 2,252 responded (50.0 % response rate). Survey measures included demographic and health information, patient use of email and Facebook to contact physicians, and patient interest in and use of Web-based tools for health. A total of 37 % of patients reported contacting their physicians via email within the last six months, and 18 % via Facebook. Older age was negatively associated with contacting physicians using email (OR 0.57 [95 % CI 0.41-0.78]) or Facebook (OR 0.28 [0.17-0.45]). Non-white race (OR 1.61 [1.18-2.18] and OR 1.82 [1.24-2.67]) and caregiver status (OR 1.58 [1.27-1.96] and OR 1.71 [1.31- 2.23]) were positively associated with using email and Facebook, respectively. Patients were interested in using Web-based tools to fill prescriptions, track their own health, and access health information (37-57 %), but few were currently doing so (4-8 %). In this population of retail pharmacy users, there is strong interest among patients in the use of email and Facebook to communicate with their physicians. The findings highlight the gap between patient interest for online communication and what physicians may currently provide. Improving and accelerating the adoption of secure Web messaging systems is a possible solution that
Amy J Morgan
Full Text Available Self-help or self-management strategies are commonly used to deal with depression, but not all are thought to be helpful. A previous study found that sub-threshold depression symptoms were improved by an e-mail intervention that encouraged the use of evidence-based self-help strategies.To investigate whether these e-mails were effective for adults with a range of depression symptomatology including major depression.The study was a parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Adult participants with any level of depressive symptoms were recruited over the internet from the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand and the United States. Participants were randomised to receive a series of e-mails either promoting the use of evidence-based self-help strategies or containing depression information as a control. E-mails were sent automatically twice a week for six weeks. Depression symptoms were assessed with the self-rated Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9.1736 participants with a wide range of symptom severity were recruited and assigned to active (n = 862 and control (n = 874 groups. However, there was a significant attrition rate, with 66.9% lost to follow-up at post-intervention. Both groups showed large improvements in depression symptoms overall, with no significant difference in improvement at the end of the study (mean difference in improvement 0.35 points, 95% CI: -0.57 to 1.28, d = 0.11, 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.27, although there was a small effect at the study mid-point. Results were similar for the sub-group of participants with major depression. The active group showed small to moderate improvements in self-help behaviour (d = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.56.These results suggest that the e-mails were able to increase participants' use of evidence-based self-help, but that this did not improve depression more than an attention control.NCT01399502.
Cernat, Alexandru; Lynn, Peter
This article is concerned with the extent to which the propensity to participate in a web face-to-face sequential mixed-mode survey is influenced by the ability to communicate with sample members by e-mail in addition to mail. Researchers may be able to collect e-mail addresses for sample members and to use them subsequently to send survey…
Wurdak, M.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Wolstein, J.
Aims: Developing and evaluating an email-based intervention (EBI) to enhance alcohol-related parenting skills and reduce alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Over four weeks, participating parents received a weekly email containing scientific findings, practical advice and exercises in
Thiel, Lindsey; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul
Background: Improving email writing in people with aphasia could enhance their ability to communicate, promote interaction and reduce isolation. Spelling therapies have been effective in improving single-word writing. However, there has been limited evidence on how to achieve changes to everyday writing tasks such as email writing in people with…
Huygens, M.W.J.; Swinkels, I.C.S.; Verheij, R.A.; Friele, R.; Schayck, O.C.P. van; Witte, L.P. de
Objectives It is unclear why the use of email consultation is not more widespread in Dutch general practice, particularly because, since 2006, its costs can be reimbursed. To encourage further implementation, it is needed to understand the current use of email consultations. This study aims to
Unsolicited commercial emails, also referred to as junk-mail or spam, is considered a rude and irritating form of marketing. The sending of unsolicited commercial emails has appeared on the European political agenda more then once. The discussion on this issue evolves around the question whether an
To determine whether it is possible to contact authors of previously published papers via email. A cross sectional study of the Emergency Medicine Journal for 2001. 118 articles were included in the study. The response rate from those with valid email addresses was 73%. There was no statistical difference between the type of email address used and the address being invalid (p=0.392) or between the type of article and the likelihood of a reply (p=0.197). More responses were obtained from work addresses when compared with Hotmail addresses (86% v 57%, p=0.02). Email is a valid means of contacting authors of previously published articles, particularly within the emergency medicine specialty. A work based email address may be a more valid means of contact than a Hotmail address.
.... This qualitative study employed a descriptive research design. Data were gathered through three separate focus group interviews with a total of 17 nurses representing three different nurse populations...
Harun Asyiq Gunawan
Full Text Available Background: Topical fluoridation recently is still the main caries prevention method. Fluoride application on enamel surface is aimed to convert the hydroxyapatite (HA crystal to fluoroapatite (FA or hydroxyfluoroapatite (HFA form. Fluoride retention and intrusion onto enamel after fluoride application, therefore, are the most important factors to ensure the formation of FA and HFA crystals. Natural fluoride sources can be obtained from sea fishes, like teri (anchovy fish. Teri medan (S baganesis and teri jengki (S insularis are the most popular teri fishes in Indonesia, and they are known to have high fluoride content, 17-34 ppm. This research objectives are to measure fluoride retention and intrusion on enamel surface after application using teri medan and teri jengki substrate. Material and Method : 8 extracted third impacted molars were used. During the research, those teeth are immersed in ono-ionic aquadest (aquadem. Each tooth were cut bucco-lingually and mesio-distally, to obtain 4 enamel specimens. The specimens (totally 32 the divided into 3 major groups. 12 each for EDS group, and intrusion groups, and 8 for control. The EDS group divided into 2 sub-groups for application with teri medan and teri jengki. Similar procedure were done for intrusion and control groups. All EDS and intrusion specimens, then, immersed in the 5% teri substrate for 5 minutes, flushed with aquadem, then stored in aquadem for 3 hours. Procedure above then repeated 26 times. Control specimens were immersed in saline for 5 minutes, before flush and stored in the aquadem solution. All the EDS specimens, examinated using LEø Scanning and micro analysis electron microscope. Intrusion groups evaluated with Olypus BX41TF fluorescence microscope. Results : Fluoride retention for teri jengki groups is 5,28% and for teri medan group is 3,26%, while for control group is 1,94%. Fluoride intrusion for teri jengki group is 11,48 µm, teri medan 8,74 µm, and for control
Alexandre Reis Graeml
Full Text Available As people start incorporating the Internet in their daily routine, using its resources to carry out their usual activities, it becomes easier to use the Web's environment also to collect data by means of electronic surveys. This paper reports the use of a quantitative research survey, which used an "intelligent" MS Word form, which was sent through e-mail to industrial manufacturers in the state of Sao Paulo - Brazil. The response speed was much better than usually achieved using the conventional procedure of sending the survey through regular mail. The return rate was satisfactory and the cost was much lower than usually incurred, due to the virtualization of the contact with the respondent. The initiative was so successful that the authors decided to share their experience with the academic community, contributing to the maturing of the e-mail survey methodology. Although the focus of this study was strictly academic, the authors believe that the adopted procedures are also suitable for market research, feedback gathering and other entrepreneurial needs.
Niswati Fathmah Rosyida
Full Text Available An effort to improve the bonding between bracket and tooth surface is required. Objective: The aim of this studywas to evaluate the effect of papain gel on tensile bond strength (TBS and adhesive remnant index (ARI of the orthodontic brackets. Methods: A total of 42 healthy human premolars were randomly divided into six groups. 1 Resin-modifed glass ionomer cement (RMGIC without papain, 2 RMGIC with papain 8%, 3 RMGIC with papain 10%, 4 Composite resin (CR without papain, 5 CR with papain 8%, 6 CR with papain 10%. The TBS was determined using a universal testing machine. Bond failure was classifed according to the ARI. The TBS data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mean Whitney tests with 5% of signifcance level. Results: The mean of TBS(MPa values of RMGIC groups are without papain (5.03 ± 1.52, papain 8% (4.79 ± 2.61, papain 10 (7.75 ± 1, 48. CR groups without papain (5.45 ± 1.23, papain 8% (2.30 ± 0.73, and papain 10% (4.84 ± 1.72 Bond failure was mainly classifed as score 1. The TBS values were statistically inﬂuenced by the application of papain and adhesive. Conclusion: The application of papain 10% before RMGIC cementation improves the tensile bond strength and could decrease the bond failure of the orthodontic bracket.
Jaime, Patricia Constante; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Sarno, Flávio
To evaluate the impact of a worksite intervention to prevent weight gain among adult workers. A controlled community trial was performed by dividing the workers into two groups: intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). The theoretical framework applied was Intervention Mapping Protocol and the intervention was implemented through interactive software for weight self-monitoring. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, the differences in weight, BMI and waist circumference between the IG and CG were assessed before and 6 months after the intervention by regression models. Additionally, the sustainability of the intervention was evaluated at 12 months after the intervention. Settings São Paulo, Brazil. Four companies; 281 workers for the analysis of effectiveness and 427 for the analysis of sustainability. The intervention resulted in significant reductions in weight, BMI and waist circumference in the IG compared with the CG. The impact of the intervention on IG individuals' body weight was -0·73 kg, while the weight of CG individuals increased. IG individuals with adequate initial weights did not show significant variations, while those who were overweight demonstrated a significant reduction in body weight. The intervention resulted in a reduction of 0·26 kg/m2 in BMI and 0·99 cm in waist circumference, and the sustainability analysis after 12 months showed a continued reduction in body weight (-0·72 kg). The behavioural intervention was effective, resulting in weight maintenance among participants with adequate initial weight and in significant reductions among those who were overweight. More research on longer-term weight maintenance is needed.
Dash, Jonathan; Haller, Dagmar M; Sommer, Johanna; Junod Perron, Noelle
Physicians' daily work is increasingly affected by the use of emails, text messages and cell phone calls with their patients. The aim of this study was to describe their use between primary-care physicians and patients in a French-speaking part of Switzerland. A cross-sectional mail survey was conducted among all primary-care physicians of Geneva canton (n = 636). The questionnaire focused on the frequency of giving access to, type of use, advantages and disadvantages of email, cell phone calls and text messages communication between physicians and patients. Six hundred thirty-six questionnaires were mailed, 412 (65 %) were returned and 372 (58 %) could be analysed (37 refusals and three blanks). Seventy-two percent physicians gave their email-address and 74 % their cell phone number to their patients. Emails were used to respond to patients' questions (82 %) and change appointments (72 %) while cell phone calls and text messages were used to follow patients' health conditions. Sixty-four percent of those who used email communication never discussed the rules for email exchanges, and 54 % did not address confidentiality issues with their patients. Most commonly identified advantages of emails, cell phone calls and text messages were improved relationship with the patient, saving time (for emails) and improving the follow-up (for cell phone and text messages). The main disadvantages included misuse by the patient, interference with private life and lack of reimbursement. These tools are widely used by primary-care physicians with their patients. More attention should be paid to confidentiality, documentation and reimbursement when using email communication in order to optimize its use.
Schneider, Francine; de Vries, Hein; Candel, Math; van de Kar, Angelique; van Osch, Liesbeth
Adherence to Internet-delivered lifestyle interventions using multiple tailoring is suboptimal. Therefore, it is essential to invest in proactive strategies, such as periodic email prompts, to boost re-use of the intervention. This study investigated the influence of content and timing of a single email prompt on re-use of an Internet-delivered computer-tailored (CT) lifestyle program. A sample of municipality employees was invited to participate in the program. All participants who decided to use the program received an email prompting them to revisit the program. A 2×3 (content × timing) design was used to test manipulations of prompt content and timing. Depending on the study group participants were randomly assigned to, they received either a prompt containing standard content (an invitation to revisit the program), or standard content plus a preview of new content placed on the program website. Participants received this prompt after 2, 4, or 6 weeks. In addition to these 6 experimental conditions, a control condition was included consisting of participants who did not receive an additional email prompt. Clicks on the uniform resource locator (URL) provided in the prompt and log-ins to the CT program were objectively monitored. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether prompt content and/or prompt timing predicted clicking on the URL and logging in to the CT program. Of all program users (N=240), 206 participants received a subsequent email prompting them to revisit the program. A total of 53 participants (25.7%) who received a prompt reacted to this prompt by clicking on the URL, and 25 participants (12.1%) actually logged in to the program. There was a main effect of prompt timing; participants receiving an email prompt 2 weeks after their first visit clicked on the URL significantly more often compared with participants that received the prompt after 4 weeks (odds ratio [OR] 3.069, 95% CI 1.392-6.765, P=.005) and after 6 weeks (OR 4
Ang, Y K; Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S
The use of email and website as channels for workplace health information delivery is not fully explored. This study aims to describe the rationale, design, and baseline findings of an email-linked website intervention to improve modifiable cancer risk factors. Employees of a Malaysian public university were recruited by systematic random sampling and randomised into an intervention (n = 174) or control group (n = 165). A website was developed for the intervention and educational modules were uploaded onto the website. The intervention group received ten consecutive weekly emails with hypertext links to the website for downloading the modules and two individual phone calls as motivational support whilst the control group received none. Diet, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, psychosocial factors and stages of change related to dietary fat, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity were assessed. Participants were predominantly female and in non-academic positions. Obesity was prevalent in 15% and 37% were at risk of co-morbidities. Mean intake of fats was 31%, fruit was -1 serving/day and vegetable was < 1 serving/day. Less than 20% smoked and drank alcohol and about 40% were physically inactive. The majority of the participants fell into the Preparation stage for decreasing fat intake, eating more fruit and vegetables, and increasing physical activity. Self-efficacy and perceived benefits were lowest among participants in the Precontemplation/Contemplation stage compared to the Preparation and Action/Maintenance stages. Baseline data show that dietary and lifestyle practices among the employees did not meet the international guidelines for cancer prevention. Hence the findings warrant the intervention planned.
Menachemi, Nir; Prickett, Charles T; Brooks, Robert G
Improved communication from physician- patient emailing is an important element of patient centeredness. Physician-patient email use has been low; and previous data from Florida suggest that physicians who email with patients rarely implement best-practice guidelines designed to protect physicians and patients. Our objective was to examine whether email use with patients has changed over time (2005-2008) by using two surveys of Florida physicians, and to determine whether physicians have more readily embraced the best-practice guidelines in 2008 versus 2005. Lastly, we explored the 2008 factors associated with email use with patients and determined whether these factors changed relative to 2005. Our pooled time-series design used results from a 2005 survey (targeting 14,921 physicians) and a separate 2008 survey (targeting 7003 different physicians). In both years, physicians practicing in the outpatient setting were targeted with proportionally identical sampling strategies. Combined data from questions focusing on email use were analyzed using chi-square analysis, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression. A combined 6260 responses were available for analyses, representing a participation rate of 28.2% (4203/14,921) in 2005 and 29.4% (2057/7003) in 2008. Relative to 2005, respondents in 2008 were more likely to indicate that they personally used email with patients (690/4148, 16.6% vs 408/2001, 20.4%, c(2) (1) = 13.0, P email with patients did not change from 2005 to 2008 (2.9% vs 59/2001, 2.9%). Interest among physicians in future email use with patients was lower in 2008 (58.4% vs 52.8%, c(2) (2) = 16.6, P email best practices remained low in 2008. When comparing 2005 and 2008 adherences with each of the individual guidelines, rates decreased over time in each category and were significantly lower for 4 of the 13 guidelines. Physician characteristics in 2008 that predicted email use with patients were different from 2005. Specifically, in multivariate analysis
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Full Text Available The article analyzes the Avaaz (an organization that uses the internet intensively, their practices and operating flows in light of the actor-network theory developed by Bruno Latour. To do this, the paper begins by presenting this theoretical model that seeks to insert material objects in sociological analysis in order to characterize the organization of campaigns as a heterogeneous group composed of human and non-human that are configured to each campaign launched. The article focuses on the characterization of Avaaz members, their distribution around the world, e-mail alerts that are sent to members, the participation opportunities offered, the different themes and targets built each campaign.
Wynn, L L; Foster, Angel M; Trussell, James
The words and metaphors that people use to describe sexuality and reproductive health reflect experiences with peers, sexual partners, health service providers and public health campaigns. In this paper we analyse 1134 emails sent to an emergency contraception website in the USA over the course of one year. Through an examination of the terminology used by authors to describe contraceptive methods, sexual intercourse and other sexual acts, we analyse what those terms signify within their textual context. We find that the kinds of risk concerns used in assessing sexual activity - whether evaluating pregnancy risk, disease transmission risk or moral risk - influence the definitions people give to terms that are multiply defined or whose definitions are culturally contested. This finding emerged clearly in the meanings given to terms for 'sex' and 'unprotected sex', which varied widely. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this finding for research, clinical care and health education activities.
Witteman, Holly O; Bouck, Zachary; Bravo, Caroline A; Desveaux, Laura; Llovet, Diego; Presseau, Justin; Saragosa, Marianne; Taljaard, Monica; Umar, Shama; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Tinmouth, Jill; Ivers, Noah M
Background Cancer Care Ontario’s Screening Activity Report (SAR) is an online audit and feedback tool designed to help primary care physicians in Ontario, Canada, identify patients who are overdue for cancer screening or have abnormal results requiring follow-up. Use of the SAR is associated with increased screening rates. To encourage SAR use, Cancer Care Ontario sends monthly emails to registered primary care physicians announcing that updated data are available. However, analytics reveal that 50% of email recipients do not open the email and less than 7% click the embedded link to log in to their report. Objective The goal of the study is to determine whether rewritten emails result in increased log-ins. This manuscript describes how different user- and theory-informed messages intended to improve the impact of the monthly emails will be experimentally tested and how a process evaluation will explore why and how any effects observed were (or were not) achieved. Methods A user-centered approach was used to rewrite the content of the monthly email, including messages operationalizing 3 behavior change techniques: anticipated regret, material incentive (behavior), and problem solving. A pragmatic, 2x2x2 factorial experiment within a multiphase optimization strategy will test the redesigned emails with an embedded qualitative process evaluation to understand how and why the emails may or may not have worked. Trial outcomes will be ascertained using routinely collected administrative data. Physicians will be recruited for semistructured interviews using convenience and snowball sampling. Results As of April 2017, 5576 primary care physicians across the province of Ontario, Canada, had voluntarily registered for the SAR, and in so doing, signed up to receive the monthly email updates. From May to August 2017 participants received the redesigned monthly emails with content specific to their allocated experimental condition prompting use of the SAR. We have not yet
Vaisson, Gratianne; Witteman, Holly O; Bouck, Zachary; Bravo, Caroline A; Desveaux, Laura; Llovet, Diego; Presseau, Justin; Saragosa, Marianne; Taljaard, Monica; Umar, Shama; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Tinmouth, Jill; Ivers, Noah M
Cancer Care Ontario's Screening Activity Report (SAR) is an online audit and feedback tool designed to help primary care physicians in Ontario, Canada, identify patients who are overdue for cancer screening or have abnormal results requiring follow-up. Use of the SAR is associated with increased screening rates. To encourage SAR use, Cancer Care Ontario sends monthly emails to registered primary care physicians announcing that updated data are available. However, analytics reveal that 50% of email recipients do not open the email and less than 7% click the embedded link to log in to their report. The goal of the study is to determine whether rewritten emails result in increased log-ins. This manuscript describes how different user- and theory-informed messages intended to improve the impact of the monthly emails will be experimentally tested and how a process evaluation will explore why and how any effects observed were (or were not) achieved. A user-centered approach was used to rewrite the content of the monthly email, including messages operationalizing 3 behavior change techniques: anticipated regret, material incentive (behavior), and problem solving. A pragmatic, 2x2x2 factorial experiment within a multiphase optimization strategy will test the redesigned emails with an embedded qualitative process evaluation to understand how and why the emails may or may not have worked. Trial outcomes will be ascertained using routinely collected administrative data. Physicians will be recruited for semistructured interviews using convenience and snowball sampling. As of April 2017, 5576 primary care physicians across the province of Ontario, Canada, had voluntarily registered for the SAR, and in so doing, signed up to receive the monthly email updates. From May to August 2017 participants received the redesigned monthly emails with content specific to their allocated experimental condition prompting use of the SAR. We have not yet begun analyses. This study will inform
Murtaugh, Christopher M; Pezzin, Liliana E; McDonald, Margaret V; Feldman, Penny H; Peng, Timothy R
Objective To test the effectiveness of two interventions designed to improve the adoption of evidence-based practices by home health nurses caring for heart failure (HF) patients. Data Sources/Study Setting Information on nurse practices was abstracted from the clinical records of patients admitted between June 2000 and November 2001 to the care of 354 study nurses at a large, urban, nonprofit home care agency. Study Design The study employed a randomized design with nurses assigned to usual care or one of two intervention groups upon identification of an eligible patient. The basic intervention was a one-time e-mail reminder highlighting six HF-specific clinical recommendations. The augmented intervention consisted of the initial e-mail reminder supplemented by provider prompts, patient education material, and clinical nurse specialist outreach. Data Collection At each home health visit provided by a study nurse to an eligible HF patient during the 45-day follow-up period, a structured chart abstraction tool was used to collect information on whether the nurse provided the care practices highlighted in the e-mail reminder. Principal Findings Both the basic and the augmented interventions greatly increased the practice of evidence-based care, according to patient records, in the areas of patient assessment and instructions about HF disease management. While not all results were statistically significant at conventional levels, intervention effects were positive in virtually all cases and effect magnitudes frequently were large. Conclusions The results of this randomized trial strongly support the efficacy of just-in-time evidence-based reminders as a means of changing clinical practice among home health nurses who are geographically dispersed and spend much of their time in the field. PMID:15960694
Zúñiga Vargas Juan Pablo
Full Text Available Resumen:El presente artículo reporta las conclusiones obtenidas en un proyecto de investigación cuyo objetivo fue determinar la eficacia de responder a los escritos de los estudiantes por medio de la conferencia vía correo electrónico. Dicho proyecto de investigación se realizó con nueve profesores de la facultad de ingeniería y un estudiante avanzado de ingeniería de una universidad pública de Costa Rica durante el segundo semestre del año 2008. Para reunir información para tal proyecto se utilizaron dos cuestionarios, formularios para conferencia, reflexiones del instructor y reflexiones de los estudiantes. Un número reducido de los estudiantes completó los instrumentos y participó en la interacción por medio de conferencias que se esperaba de ellos. Aún así, los estudiantes encuestados y el instructor consideraron que el método de la conferencia fue eficaz. No obstante, es necesario realizar más investigación con el fin de obtener resultados concluyentes sobre la efectividad de la conferencia vía correo electrónico para responder a los escritos de los estudiantes. Se ofrecen sugerencias para investigaciones futuras.Abstract:This article reports the findings obtained in a research project that aimed at determining the efficiency of responding to student writing by means of conferencing via e-mail. Such research project was carried out with nine professors from the faculty of engineering and one advanced engineering student at a public university in Costa Rica during the second semester in the year 2008. To collect information for this project, two questionnaires, conferencing forms, instructors’ reflections, and student reflections were used. A reduced number of the students completed the instruments and took part in the conferencing exchanges expected of them, yet both the surveyed students and the instructor found conferencing efficient. Still, more research is needed in order obtain conclusive results about the
Maruani, Annabel; Boutron, Isabelle; Baron, Gabriel; Ravaud, Philippe
To evaluate the impact of sending an email to responsible parties of completed trials that do not comply with the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act 801 legislation, to remind them of the legal requirement to post results. Cohort embedded pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. 190 out of 379 trials randomly selected by computer generated randomization list to receive the intervention (personalized emails structured as a survey and sent by one of us to responsible parties of the trials, indirectly reminding them of the legal requirement and potential penalties for non-compliance). The primary outcome was the proportion of results posted on ClinicalTrials.gov at three months. The secondary outcome was the proportion posted at six months. In a second step, two assessors blinded to the intervention group collected the date of the first results being received on ClinicalTrials.gov. A post hoc sensitivity analysis excluding trials wrongly included was performed. Among 379 trials included, 190 were randomized to receive the email intervention. The rate of posting of results did not differ at three months between trials with or without the intervention: 36/190 (19%) v 24/189 (13%), respectively (relative risk 1.5, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 2.4, P=0.096) but did at six months: 46/190 (24%) v 27/189 (14%), 1.7, 1.1 to 2.6, P=0.014. In the sensitivity analysis, which excluded 48/379 trials (13%), 26/190 (14%) and 22/189 (12%), respectively, results were significant at three months (relative risk 5.1, 1.1 to 22.9, P=0.02) and at six months (4.1, 1.3 to 10.6, P=0.001). Sending email reminders about the FDA's legal requirement to post results at ClinicalTrials.gov improved significantly the posting rate at six months but not at three months.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01658254. © Maruani et al 2014.
Lee, Lesley R.; Mason, Sara S.; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Ray, Stacie L.; Van Baalen, Mary
Since the 2010 NASA authorization to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for data has greatly increased. Correspondingly, both the number and scope of requests have increased, from 142 requests fulfilled in 2011 to 224 in 2014, and with some datasets comprising up to 1 million data points. To meet the demand, the LSAH and LSDA Repositories project was launched, which allows active and retired astronauts to authorize full, partial, or no access to their data for research without individual, study-specific informed consent. A one-on-one personal informed consent briefing is required to fully communicate the implications of the several tiers of consent. Due to the need for personal contact to conduct Repositories consent meetings, the rate of consenting has not kept up with demand for individualized, possibly attributable data. As a result, other methods had to be implemented to allow the release of large datasets, such as release of only de-identified data. However the compilation of large, de-identified data sets places a significant resource burden on LSAH and LSDA and may result in diminished scientific usefulness of the dataset. As a result, LSAH and LSDA worked with the JSC Institutional Review Board Chair, Astronaut Office physicians, and NASA Office of General Counsel personnel to develop a "Remote Consenting" process for retrospective data mining studies. This is particularly useful since the majority of the astronaut cohort is retired from the agency and living outside the Houston area. Originally planned as a method to send informed consent briefing slides and consent forms only by mail, Remote Consenting has evolved into a means to accept crewmember decisions on individual studies via their method of choice: email or paper copy by mail. To date, 100 emails have been sent to request participation in eight HRP
Palmen, Leonieke N; Schrier, Joost C M; Scholten, Ruben; Jansen, Justus H W; Koëter, Sander
Patient reported outcome measures (PROM's) after hallux valgus surgery are used to rate the effectiveness as perceived by the patient. The interpretability of these PROM's is highly dependent on participation rate. Data capture method may be an important factor contributing to the response rate. We investigated the effect on response rate of traditional paper mail, telephone and e-mail PROM's after hallux valgus surgery. All consecutive patients operated between January and September 2013, were identified. Included patients were randomized by envelope in three groups: traditional pen and paper mail, e-mail and telephone. They were asked to fill in a FFI and EQ-5D. Two weeks later non-responders were sent a reminder. Of the 73 included patients, 25 were approached by mail, 24 by e-mail and 24 patients by telephone. The response rate on traditional mail was highest (88%), while response on e-mail was lowest (33%). Response rate on telephone was also high (79%). Response rate on traditional mail and telephone was significantly higher (pmail. Though electronic data collection has enormous potential, this study shows that e-mail yields unacceptable low response rates. It is too early to replace traditional pen-and-paper PROM's by electronic questionnaires. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a analisar o aumento crescente da demanda do serviço de orientação psicológica via e-mail, desenvolvido pelo Núcleo de Pesquisa de Psicologia e Informática da Clínica Psicológica Ana Maria Poppovic, da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo. Partindo de uma breve retrospectiva dos serviços do núcleo, do perfil dos usuários, dos tipos de pedidos e dos temas centrais das mensagens nos anos 2003 e 2004, este texto apresenta novas reflexões sobre uma área de pesquisa muito proeminente dentro da Psicologia, incluindo elementos atuais às hipóteses anteriormente formuladas. As recentes transformações e atualizações tecnológicas pedem constantes análises, que são necessárias à promoção de qualidade e ética no exercício da profissão mediado pelo computador.
Eichhorn, G; Grant, C S; Kurtz, M J; Murray, S S
The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides access to the astronomical literature through the World Wide Web. It is a NASA funded project and access to all the ADS services is free to everybody world-wide.The ADS Abstract Service allows the searching of four databases with abstracts in Astronomy, Instrumentation, Physics/Geophysics, and the LANL Preprints with a total of over 2.2 million references. The system also provides access to reference and citation information, links to on-line data, electronic journal articles, and other on-line information. The ADS Article Service contains the articles for most of the astronomical literature back to volume 1. It contains the scanned pages of all the major journals (Astrophysical Journal, Astronomical Journal, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, and Solar Physics), as well as most smaller journals back to volume 1. The ADS can be accessed through any web browser without signup or login. Alternatively an email interface is ...
Jiwa, Moyez; Halkett, Georgia; Meng, Xingqiong; Pillai, Vinita; Berg, Melissa; Shaw, Tim
Men who have been treated for prostate cancer in Australia can consult their general practitioner (GP) for advice about symptoms or side effects at any time following treatment. However, there is no evidence that such men are consistently advised by GPs and patients experience substantial unmet need for reassurance and advice. The intent of the study was to evaluate a brief, email-based educational program for GPs to manage standardized patients presenting with symptoms or side effects months or years after prostate cancer treatment. GPs viewed six pairs of video vignettes of actor-patients depicting men who had been treated for prostate cancer. The actor-patients presented problems that were attributable to the treatment of cancer. In Phase 1, GPs indicated their diagnosis and stated if they would prescribe, refer, or order tests based on that diagnosis. These responses were compared to the management decisions for those vignettes as recommended by a team of experts in prostate cancer. After Phase 1, all the GPs were invited to participate in an email-based education program (Spaced Education) focused on prostate cancer. Participants received feedback and could compare their progress and their performance with other participants in the study. In Phase 2, all GPs, regardless of whether they had completed the program, were invited to view another set of six video vignettes with men presenting similar problems to Phase 1. They again offered a diagnosis and stated if they would prescribe, refer, or order tests based on that diagnosis. In total, 64 general practitioners participated in the project, 57 GPs participated in Phase 1, and 45 in Phase 2. The Phase 1 education program was completed by 38 of the 57 (59%) participants. There were no significant differences in demographics between those who completed the program and those who did not. Factors determining whether management of cases was consistent with expert opinion were number of sessions worked per week (OR 0
Dalal, Anuj K; Roy, Christopher L; Poon, Eric G; Williams, Deborah H; Nolido, Nyryan; Yoon, Cathy; Budris, Jonas; Gandhi, Tejal; Bates, David W; Schnipper, Jeffrey L
Physician awareness of the results of tests pending at discharge (TPADs) is poor. We developed an automated system that notifies responsible physicians of TPAD results via secure, network email. We sought to evaluate the impact of this system on self-reported awareness of TPAD results by responsible physicians, a necessary intermediary step to improve management of TPAD results. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial at a major hospital affiliated with an integrated healthcare delivery network in Boston, Massachusetts. Adult patients with TPADs who were discharged from inpatient general medicine and cardiology services were assigned to the intervention or usual care arm if their inpatient attending physician and primary care physician (PCP) were both randomized to the same study arm. Patients of physicians randomized to discordant study arms were excluded. We surveyed these physicians 72 h after all TPAD results were finalized. The primary outcome was awareness of TPAD results by attending physicians. Secondary outcomes included awareness of TPAD results by PCPs, awareness of actionable TPAD results, and provider satisfaction. We analyzed data on 441 patients. We sent 441 surveys to attending physicians and 353 surveys to PCPs and received 275 and 152 responses from 83 different attending physicians and 112 different PCPs, respectively (attending physician survey response rate of 63%). Intervention attending physicians and PCPs were significantly more aware of TPAD results (76% vs 38%, adjusted/clustered OR 6.30 (95% CI 3.02 to 13.16), pemail notification represents a promising strategy for managing TPAD results, potentially mitigating an unresolved patient safety concern. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01153451).
McCambridge, Jim; Bendtsen, Marcus; Karlsson, Nadine; White, Ian R; Bendtsen, Preben
Alcohol is responsible for a large and growing proportion of the global burden of disease, as well as being the cause of social problems. Brief interventions are one component of comprehensive policy measures necessary to reduce these harms. Brief interventions increasingly take advantage of the Internet to reach large numbers of high risk groups such as students. The research literature on the efficacy and effectiveness of online interventions is developing rapidly. Although many studies show benefits in the form of reduced consumption, other intervention studies show no effects, for reasons that are unclear. Sweden became the first country in the world to implement a national system in which all university students are offered a brief online intervention via an e-mail. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the effectiveness of this national system comprising a brief online intervention among university students who are hazardous and harmful drinkers. This study employs a conventional RCT design in which screening to determine eligibility precedes random allocation to immediate or delayed access to online intervention. The online intervention evaluated comprises three main components; assessment, normative feedback and advice on reducing drinking. Screening is confined to a single question in order to minimise assessment reactivity and to prevent contamination. Outcomes will be evaluated after 2 months, with total weekly alcohol consumption being the primary outcome measure. Invitations to participate are provided by e-mail to approximately 55,000 students in 9 Swedish universities. This RCT evaluates routine service provision in Swedish universities via a delay in offer of intervention to the control group. It evaluates effects in the key population for whom this intervention has been designed. Study findings will inform the further development of the national service provision. ISRCTN02335307.
Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Walburg, Jan A.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.
The efficacy of several multicomponent positive psychology interventions (PPIs) have been demonstrated, but little is known about its possible mechanisms of change. We examined (1) the efficacy of an email guided self-help PPI on six core well-being processes (positive emotion, use of strengths,
van Dongen, J.M.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; Milder, I.E.J.; van Oers, H.A.M.; Brug, J.
Background: In 2006, the Dutch government initiated Hello World, an email-based program promoting healthy lifestyles among pregnant women through quizzes with pregnancy-related questions. In 2008, an updated version was released. The present study aimed to (1) examine the reach of Hello World and
Clouse, Kate; Schwartz, Sheree R.; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Vermund, Sten H.; Pettifor, Audrey E.
Summary We investigated mobile phone usage amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal services in a primary care clinic in Johannesburg (n=50). We conducted a semi-structured interview and asked them about their mobile phone, Internet and email use. The median age of the women was 28 years, 36% had moved one or more times in the past year, and most were employed or recently employed, albeit earning low wages. Nearly all women (94%) reported that they did not share their phone and 76% of the SIM cards were registered to the woman herself. The median time with the current phone was one year (range 1 month–6 years) and the median time with the current phone number was three years (range 1 month–13 years). Even though 42% of the participants were from outside South Africa, they all had mobile phone numbers local to South Africa. About one-third of respondents reported Internet use (30%) and about one-fifth reported using email (18%). Overall, 20% accessed the Internet and 10% accessed email on their mobile phone. Mobile phone interventions are feasible amongst HIV-positive pregnant women and may be useful in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Email and Internet-based interventions may not yet be appropriate. PMID:25586808
Dubis, Snaa; Bernadowski, Carianne
The purpose of this study, by Snaa Dubis from Salman Bin Abdu Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, and Robert Morris University, USA, and Carianne Bernadowski from Robert Morris University, was to investigate parents' and special education teachers' perceptions of using email as a component of parental involvement in the academic and/or behavioural…
Botvin, Judith D
Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU), Portland, Ore., posts a web site which generously covers the various aspects of this complex organization. Visitors to www.osuhealth.com, can find a midwife, send an email to a child in the hospital, and learn about the benefits of living in Oregon.
Email and chat/IM reference services have become a convenient and easily accessible option for the online community and libraries, particularly with increasing amounts of library resources now available electronically. This article gives an overview of Jing, which can be used to produce videos and screenshots on-the-fly, and demonstrates how to…
Li, Zhi; Volkov, Alex
Lexical bundles are worthy of attention in both teaching and testing writing as they function as basic building blocks of discourse. This corpus-based study focuses on the rated writing responses to the email tasks in the Canadian English Language Proficiency Index Program® General test (CELPIP-General) and explores the extent to which lexical…
Clouse, Kate; Schwartz, Sheree R; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Vermund, Sten H; Pettifor, Audrey E
We investigated mobile phone usage amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal services in a primary care clinic in Johannesburg (n = 50). We conducted a semi-structured interview and asked them about their mobile phone, Internet and email use. The median age of the women was 28 years, 36% had moved one or more times in the past year, and most were employed or recently employed, albeit earning low wages. Nearly all women (94%) reported that they did not share their phone and 76% of the SIM cards were registered to the woman herself. The median time with the current phone was one year (range 1 month-6 years) and the median time with the current phone number was three years (range 1 month-13 years). Even though 42% of the participants were from outside South Africa, they all had mobile phone numbers local to South Africa. About one-third of respondents reported Internet use (30%) and about one-fifth reported using email (18%). Overall, 20% accessed the Internet and 10% accessed email on their mobile phone. Mobile phone interventions are feasible amongst HIV-positive pregnant women and may be useful in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Email and Internet-based interventions may not yet be appropriate. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Barasa, Sandra Nekesa
This book examines the use of language in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) genres in Kenya. It focuses on Short Messaging Service (SMS), Email, Instant Messages (IM) and Social Network Sites (SNS) genres. It presents an overview of the use and characteristics of Kenyan languages in CMC texts
Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Hye Eun; Song, Jeong An
A series of studies investigating cultural differences in apology usage in unsolicited email advertising messages (i.e., SPAM) are reported. Study 1 documented that in comparison to American SPAM, a greater percentage of Korean SPAM included apologies. The next five studies ("Ns" = 516, 3132, 662, 524, 536) tested various explanations…
Ledbetter, Andrew M.; Finn, Amber N.
In this study, we extend previous work on instructors' use of technology by examining how students' perceptions of teacher credibility and affective experience differ depending on how frequently instructors use two common forms of instructional technology: PowerPoint, which is typically used "inside" the classroom; and email, which is…
Sílvia Mônica Moura Lima
Full Text Available Resumo: As interações sociais vêm proporcionando novas formas de comunicação impulsionadas pelas novas tecnologias. Gêneros como o e-mail tem nos proporcionados variações criativas na língua, sobretudo em sua escrita (CRYSTAL, 2006. Considerando o livro didático (LD como um gênero do discurso, e refletindo sobre essa conjuntura digital que incidem em nossas interações, objetivamos nesse trabalho analisar as atividades de escrita de e-mails em duas coleções didáticas de inglês para o ensino médio, no intuito de verificar nesses gêneros evidências sobre a relação de seus elementos regularizadores como propósitos, estilos, temas, papeis sociais, estrutura composicional e evento deflagrador, ou seja, propõe-se, em linhas gerais, verificar o comportamento do gênero e-mail nas atividades propostas pelos livros, refletindo sobre suas influências. Para dar sustentação a essa pesquisa, fundamentamo-nos nas leituras de Bakhtin (1997, Miller (2012, Swales (2004, Bazerman(2009, Devitt (2004, Bunzen (2008, dentre outros. Os resultados das analises evidenciaram que as atividades de escrita do e-mail são influenciadas pelos propósitos comunicativos do livro didático, os quais se regularizam em aspectos linguísticos e temáticos, refletindo sobremaneira nos demais elementos como estilos, papeis sociais, estrutura composicional e outros, dessa maneira, pouco espelhando a natureza sociorretórica do e-mail na vida social.
Rangelov, Natalie; Della Bella, Sara; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Suggs, L Suzanne
The FAN Social Marketing program was developed to improve dietary and physical activity habits of families with children in Ticino, Switzerland. The aim of this study was to examine if the effects of the program on children's food intake differed by intervention group. Effects of the FAN program were tested through a Randomized Controlled Trial. The program lasted 8 weeks, during which participants received tailored communication about nutrition and physical activity. Families were randomly allocated to one of three groups, where the parent received the intervention by the Web (G1), Web + e-mail (G2) or Web + SMS (G3). Children in all groups received tailored print letters by post. Children's food consumption was assessed at baseline and immediate post intervention using a 7-day food diary. Generalized linear mixed models with child as a random effect and with time, treatment group, and the time by treatment interaction as fixed effects were used to test the impact of the intervention. Analyses were conducted with a sample of 608 children. After participating in FAN the marginal means of daily consumption of fruit changed from 0.95 to 1.12 in G1, from 0.82 to 0.94 in G2, and from 0.93 to 1.18 in G3. The margins of the daily consumption of sweets decreased in each group (1.67 to 1.56 in G1, 1.71 to 1.49 in G2, and 1.72 to 1.62 in G3). The change in vegetable consumption observed from pre to post intervention in G3 (from 1.13 to 1.21) was significantly different from that observed in G1 (from 1.21 to 1.17). A well-designed Web-based Social Marketing intervention complemented with print letters can help improve children's consumption of water, fruit, soft drinks, and sweets. The use of SMS to support greater behavior change, in addition to Web-based communication, resulted only in a small significant positive change for vegetables, while the use of e-mail in addition to Web did not result in any significant difference. The trial was retrospectively registered in the
The advantages of usage of cloud technologies, particularly, of Gmail service Google Apps in work of organizational-educational units of higher educational institutions are analyzed in this work. The main accents are put concerning usage of corporate e-mail Gmail service Google Apps, with the help of which informational-analytical support of activity of organizational-educational units of the University is provided. The author of the publication underlines key advantages of Gmail and analyses...
In today's "I-gotta-know-now" society, many patients turn to e-mail to contact doctors on matters, as opposed to waiting for an in-person office visit. Now, some insurers are actually reimbursing doctors for their electronic time, which is also known as a "virtual visit." Internist Paul Tang, left, doesn't consider the practice mainstream yet. "No one is reimbursing us," he says.
van Dongen Johanna M
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Dutch government initiated Hello World, an email-based program promoting healthy lifestyles among pregnant women through quizzes with pregnancy-related questions. In 2008, an updated version was released. The present study aimed to (1 examine the reach of Hello World and the representativeness of its users for all pregnant women in the Netherlands, (2 explore the relationship between program engagement and lifestyle characteristics, and (3 explore the relationship between the program content participants accessed (content on smoking, physical activity, and nutrition and their lifestyle characteristics. Methods Data from 4,363 pregnant women were included. After registration, women received an online questionnaire with demographic and lifestyle questions. To evaluate their representativeness, their demographic characteristics were compared with existing data for Dutch (pregnant women. Women were classified on the following lifestyle characteristics: smoking, nutrition, physical activity, and pre-pregnancy weight status. Program use was tracked and the relationships between lifestyle characteristics, program engagement, and the percentage of smoking, physical activity, and nutrition questions accessed after opening a quiz were explored using Mann–Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Hello World reached ±4% of its target population. Ten percent of participants were low educated and 22% immigrants. On average, women received 6.1 (SD:2.8 quiz emails and opened 32% of the associated quizzes (2.0, SD:2.1. A significant positive association was found between the number of quizzes opened and the number of healthy lifestyle characteristics. After opening a quiz, women accessed most smoking, nutrition, and physical activity questions. Significant relationships were found between several lifestyle characteristics and the percentage of smoking, physical activity, and nutrition questions accessed. However
van Dongen, Johanna M; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Milder, Ivon E J; van Oers, Hans A M; Brug, Johannes
In 2006, the Dutch government initiated Hello World, an email-based program promoting healthy lifestyles among pregnant women through quizzes with pregnancy-related questions. In 2008, an updated version was released.The present study aimed to (1) examine the reach of Hello World and the representativeness of its users for all pregnant women in the Netherlands, (2) explore the relationship between program engagement and lifestyle characteristics, and (3) explore the relationship between the program content participants accessed (content on smoking, physical activity, and nutrition) and their lifestyle characteristics. Data from 4,363 pregnant women were included. After registration, women received an online questionnaire with demographic and lifestyle questions. To evaluate their representativeness, their demographic characteristics were compared with existing data for Dutch (pregnant) women. Women were classified on the following lifestyle characteristics: smoking, nutrition, physical activity, and pre-pregnancy weight status. Program use was tracked and the relationships between lifestyle characteristics, program engagement, and the percentage of smoking, physical activity, and nutrition questions accessed after opening a quiz were explored using Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Hello World reached ±4% of its target population. Ten percent of participants were low educated and 22% immigrants. On average, women received 6.1 (SD:2.8) quiz emails and opened 32% of the associated quizzes (2.0, SD:2.1). A significant positive association was found between the number of quizzes opened and the number of healthy lifestyle characteristics. After opening a quiz, women accessed most smoking, nutrition, and physical activity questions. Significant relationships were found between several lifestyle characteristics and the percentage of smoking, physical activity, and nutrition questions accessed. However, between-group differences were small, quiz topics were
Full Text Available The advantages of usage of cloud technologies, particularly, of Gmail service Google Apps in work of organizational-educational units of higher educational institutions are analyzed in this work. The main accents are put concerning usage of corporate e-mail Gmail service Google Apps, with the help of which informational-analytical support of activity of organizational-educational units of the University is provided. The author of the publication underlines key advantages of Gmail and analyses its opportunities. Main characteristics of corporate e-mail Gmail service Google Apps are described. It is identified that implementation of corporate e-mail Gmail service Google Apps is a part of creation of certain information system, that will ensure united information space of a modern higher educational institution. Effective organization of educational process, that was used by methodist of organizational-educational units (Scientific-methodological centre of research, scientific projects and programs of Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University in the work of corporate mail Gmail service Google Aps is analyzed and presented. It is identified, that creation and improvement of mechanisms of building corporate content with the help of Gmail service Google Apps will allow the collaborators of organizational-educational units of the higher educational institution to plan and organize educational process. Such organization of educational process optimizes the activity of organizational-educational units of higher educational institutions.
Skonnord, Trygve; Steen, Finn; Skjeie, Holgeir; Fetveit, Arne; Brekke, Mette; Klovning, Atle
Electronic questionnaires can ease data collection in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in clinical practice. We found no existing software that could automate the sending of emails to participants enrolled into an RCT at different study participant inclusion time points. Our aim was to develop suitable software to facilitate data collection in an ongoing multicenter RCT of low back pain (the Acuback study). For the Acuback study, we determined that we would need to send a total of 5130 emails to 270 patients recruited at different centers and at 19 different time points. The first version of the software was tested in a pilot study in November 2013 but was unable to deliver multiuser or Web-based access. We resolved these shortcomings in the next version, which we tested on the Web in February 2014. Our new version was able to schedule and send the required emails in the full-scale Acuback trial that started in March 2014. The system architecture evolved through an iterative, inductive process between the project study leader and the software programmer. The program was tested and updated when errors occurred. To evaluate the development of the software, we used a logbook, a research assistant dialogue, and Acuback trial participant queries. We have developed a Web-based app, Survey Email Scheduling and Monitoring in eRCTs (SESAMe), that monitors responses in electronic surveys and sends reminders by emails or text messages (short message service, SMS) to participants. The overall response rate for the 19 surveys in the Acuback study increased from 76.4% (655/857) before we introduced reminders to 93.11% (1149/1234) after the new function (P<.001). Further development will aim at securing encryption and data storage. The SESAMe software facilitates consecutive patient data collection in RCTs and can be used to increase response rates and quality of research, both in general practice and in other clinical trial settings. ©Trygve Skonnord, Finn Steen, Holgeir
Pendergrass, Anna; Weiß, Saskia; Gräßel, Elmar
Since 15 years, the Alzheimer 's Telephone of the German Alzheimer Society (Deutsche Alzheimer Gesellschaft e.V.; DAlzG), a nationwide psychosocial counseling service, has been offering support for people with dementia (PwD) and their families. The aim of this study was to evaluate: a) why informal PwD caregivers seek telephone counseling, b) whether these telephone calls are one-time counseling or long-term support, and c) whether the telephone inquiries differ from the email-based inquiries with regard to the addressed issues. The data are based on the inquiries of 3,744 informal caregivers, which consulted the DAlzG in 2015. Sociodemographic data on the informal caregivers and the PwD, the characteristics of the telephone call, and the topics addressed in the email inquiries were collected. 70.3% of the callers were female. Most of them (59.9%) were the children (in-law) of and half of them (49.7%) lived with PwD. More than two-thirds of the callers (70%) were seeking help in dealing with the person with dementia (e. g. challenging behavior) and 36.5% of the relatives needed recommendations for further local help and assistance. In the third place, the calls were related to financial and legal topics (23.5%). 92.2% of the calls were one-time consultations. The addressed issues in the email inquiries did not significantly differ from the topics discussed over the telephone. On many topics there is a need for further "on site" consultation. Doctors and other health professionals should therefore be actively involved in counseling relatives of PwD. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Steinpreis, Rhea E.; Anders, Katie A.; Riley, Monica G.; Ritzke, Dawn M.; McDonald, Theodore W.
The purpose of this study was to determine if gender plays a role in the quality and quantity of the advice given to undergraduates about applying to graduate school. Four hundred male and female psychologists who listed a university address and e-mail address in the 1997 Directory of the American Psychological Association were sent an e-mail inquiry from a pseudostudent (either Theresa or Brian Miller). In the first e-mail, the pseudostudent asked if the subjects would be willing to look at his or her GRE scores and grade point average (GPA) for the purpose of providing advice about his or her chances of getting into the graduate program at the subject's school. Two hundred forty subjects consented to examine the figures, nearly equally split between males and females. Subjects were then sent the GPA and scores of an outstanding, average, or poor applicant. The results indicated that female faculty were significantly more likely to consent to examine the data of a female pseudostudent and male faculty were significantly more likely to consent to examine the data of a male pseudostudent. However, once the faculty member agreed to offer advice, gender had no impact on the length or quality of advice given to the pseudostudent, and advice became a function of the pseudostudent's academic credentials. Furthermore, while male and female subjects were equally likely to encourage, discourage, or recant on their offer to give feedback, male subjects were more likely to refuse to review the data and female subjects were more likely to offer a neutral response to the data. The results are discussed in terms of the difficulty students face in finding adequate information about pursuing a graduate education. These problems may be magnified for female students because there are fewer female faculty available to serve as mentors.
Full Text Available Çalışmada, e-posta kullanımı ve yönetimine ilişkin uluslararası koşullar incelenmekte, bu çerçevede Türkiye’de 28 kurum örneğinde gerçekleştirilen anket verileri değerlendirilmektedir. Betimleme yönteminin kullanıldığı çalışmada literatür incelemesi ve anket tekniklerine dayanarak gerekli veriler elde edilmiştir. Araştırmada e-posta kullanımına ilişkin elde edilen verilerin, ilgili alanda sistemler geliştirmeye çalışan araştırmacılara yardımcı olması beklenmektedir. Kurumsal e-posta yönetimine ilişkin temel sorunlar arasında mesajların üretimi, düzenlenmesi, ayıklanması ve uzun süre korunmasını içeren e-posta yönetim sistemlerinin geliştirilmesi yer almaktadır. Ayrıca insan kaynakları, mali ve idari konuların yönetimi ile belge ve arşiv yönetimi çalışmalarını kapsamına alan, içerisine e-posta yönetiminin de dâhil olduğu sistemlerin bütünleştirilmesi güncel araştırma konuları arasındadır. / This study examines the universal usage and management of e-mail communication and compares with the data, gathered from 28 Turkish institutions. This is a descriptive research in nature and the quantitative data were collected through surveys. It is expected that the results one-mail communication and its usage styles will shed a ligth into researcher who are working on system development. One of the basic problems of organizational e-mail management systems are lack of e-mail systems including message creation, maintenance, disposition, and long term preservation. Furthermore, the results indicate that integration of human resources management, financial and administrative management systems and archival management systems with e-mail managment system is another major problem.
Zabrina, S.; Puspitawati, R.; Gunawan, H. A.
Usage of anchovies (Stolephorus insularis), which contain a high fluoride concentration in a CaF2 compound, needs to be examined as a topical fluoridative agent. Aim: To study the effects of an anchovy substrate application, either by chewing or smearing, in increasing fluoride retention of enamel. Fourteen Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: baseline, experimental (feeding and smearing), and negative controls. After 15 days, lower incisor teeth were extracted and fluoride retention on the enamel surface was measured using EDX. Data were analyzed by the independent samples t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. There was a significant increase in fluoride retention on enamel from the experimental groups compared to the negative control group (p < 0.05). Fluoride retention levels of the experimental feeding group (6.823%) were slightly higher than those of the experimental smearing group (6.783%), though the difference was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Anchovy substrate application, either by chewing or smearing, increases fluoride retention on tooth enamel.
Campbell, Heidi A.
This thesis investigates Christian online communities, with special emphasis on studying the nature of community and cyberspace. The purpose is to identify characteristics of community that individuals are seeking to cultivate in the online setting, showing possible implications for individuals in the "real world" church and offline communities. The key research question is: "What does online communication offer individual Christians and groups of Christians? How is the Interne...
Modern people use e-mail to connect a majority of life , even busi-ness, including customer and vendor communication , marketing, and filing official documents .The most recent development , mass electronic mailing-known in the computer industry vernacular as “spam”—allows businesses to contact millions of potential customers , large numbers of them can be extremely inconvenient , with al-most no cost per message .When we discover that our most recent e-mails were not delivered to recipients by using a major Internet Service Provider (“ISP”) , be-cause we were recently listed on an automated block list as a sender of unwanted bulk commercial e-mail (“spam”) .The most efficient approach for a sender im-properly included on a block list or a spam filter is to request removal directly from that list or filter .The paper will provide the suggestions of proposed amendments in the future legislature .%因特网的发展与便利形成现代社会中不可或缺的存在，电子邮件的便利跨越时空的限制，使得人与人之间的联系紧密维护，然而垃圾邮件（ Junk E－mails）却同时造成使用人相当的困扰，不但增加层层过滤信件的时间，也引发部分正常信件经过封锁名单（ Block Lists ）及垃圾邮件清除器（ Spam Filters ）的使用，反而被归类到垃圾邮件的分类。本文建议应考虑垃圾邮件发信人查缉不易与变换位置迅速的缺点，参考美国经验并检视美国法规制度与实务判决等方面，再衡量既有法制解决此类问题将面临的困难与障碍，从而提出设立新法的建议与内容，希冀能为垃圾邮件防止法提供省思与依据。
Morton, Emily; McKenzie, Jamie
Includes four articles that discuss issues relating to use of the Internet in classroom settings. Topics include the use of email; curriculum rich strategies that require professional and program development; ranking search engines; and beneficial business partnerships with schools. (LRW)
In the electronic commerce marketing, email list has a strong pertinence,marketing effect is outstanding characteristics are widely used, the mailing list is the user voluntary subscription to the premise, for the user to provide valuable information,at the same time with a number of related business information, to achieve the purpose of network marketing. Good use of mailing lists that business marketing tool, for mailing lists are created ,information publishing and management and mailing list business marketing strategy have in-depth study.%在电子商务营销中，电子邮件列表具有针对性强，营销效果出色的特点得到广泛应用，邮件列表是在用户自愿订阅的前提下，为用户提供有价值的信息，同时附带一定数量与之相关的商业信息，达到网络营销的目的。利用好邮件列表这一商务营销工具，需对邮件列表的创建，信息的发布与管理以及邮件列表商务营销策略有深入的研究。
Full Text Available With the process of globalization, English has been increasingly become the lingua franca for people speaking different languages to communicate with each other, among whom the number of non-native speakers of English far outnumbers those native speakers in traditional sense. Against this background, the principle of taking the rules of native English speakers as the norms is undergoing challenges. The non-native speakers are claiming the ownership and rights of norm-providing to the English language (Crystal, 2003. In business setting, this is especially true (Charles, 2007. This paper intends to explore the use of Chinese English as lingua franca in business setting. Taking a foreign enterprise based in China as the case, this paper investigates over 400 ongoing business e-mails written in English by its Chinese employees, including the management and other staff. Four most salient patterns of Chinese English structures are identified, i.e., punctuations, absence of inflectional markers in number and tense, serial verb construction, and zero articles, which are then analyzed cultural, linguistic and social-linguistic perspectives. The effectiveness of such language patterns are proved according to the principle of “understandability” proposed by Kachru and Nelson (2006 from both intra-cultural and inter-cultural aspects. Based on the afore-said analysis, this paper concludes that Chinese English, during the process of language contact, has become a legitimate English variation, and has been providing new norms for the other countries to follow. It is suggested that business English users in China need to use their Chinese English with a confident stance, while business partners from other countries need to get familiar with this English variation in order for them to communicate effectively with their Chinese partners.
Starr, Kathryn; McPherson, Gladys; Forrest, Mark; Cotton, Seonaidh C
Patient-reported outcomes are vital in informing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and health-care interventions and policies from the patient's perspective. However, participant non-response may introduce bias and can affect the generalisability of the trial. This study evaluates two interventions aimed at increasing response rates to postal questionnaires within a large, UK-wide RCT: pre-notification via short messenger service (SMS) text prior to sending the initial mailing of trial questionnaires versus no pre-notification; for non-responders to the initial mailing of the questionnaires, an e-mail reminder (containing a hyperlink to complete the questionnaire online) versus a postal reminder. This study is a 2 × 2 partial factorial design RCT nested within an RCT of medical expulsive therapy for ureteric stone disease. Participants who supplied a mobile telephone number were randomly assigned to receive an SMS text pre-notification of questionnaire delivery or no pre-notification. Those who supplied an e-mail address were randomly assigned to receive a questionnaire reminder by e-mail or post. Participants could be randomly assigned to the pre-notification comparison or the reminder comparison or both. The primary outcome measure was response rate at each questionnaire time point. Four hundred eighteen participants were randomly assigned to the SMS pre-notification comparison (80% were male, and the mean age was 41 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 11.1). The intervention had no effect on response rate at either questionnaire time point. In subgroup analyses, SMS pre-notification increased response rates in women but only at the first questionnaire time point. One hundred nineteen participants were randomly assigned to the reminder comparison (80% were male, and the mean age was 42 years with an SD of 12.1). There was no difference in response rate in those who received an e-mail reminder compared with those who received a postal reminder. SMS text pre
The use of Visual Studio. NET 2003 technology development business daily e-mail system, to achieve the basic operating conditions of the daily data, key indicators and results of the audit, according tO different business needs analysis produced several reports by email daily sent to business leaders and department heads so that they can be the first time to understand the business situation, according to formulate policy responses to market changes. This principle of the system development, system features and design are introduced.%利用Visual Studio．NET 2003技术开发的经营日报邮件系统，实现了将每目的经营状况基本数据、关键指标和稽核结果，按照不同业务部门各种需求分析制作成多个报表，通过邮件方式每日发送给企业领导及部门负责人，让他们能在第一时间了解企业经营现状，根据市场变化制定应对政策。本文对该系统的开发原理、系统的功能特最和设计方案进行了介绍。
Birney, Amelia J; Gunn, Rebecca; Russell, Jeremy K; Ary, Dennis V
Worldwide, depression is rated as the fourth leading cause of disease burden and is projected to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020. Annual depression-related costs in the United States are estimated at US $210.5 billion, with employers bearing over 50% of these costs in productivity loss, absenteeism, and disability. Because most adults with depression never receive treatment, there is a need to develop effective interventions that can be more widely disseminated through new channels, such as employee assistance programs (EAPs), and directly to individuals who will not seek face-to-face care. This study evaluated a self-guided intervention, using the MoodHacker mobile Web app to activate the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) skills in working adults with mild-to-moderate depression. It was hypothesized that MoodHacker users would experience reduced depression symptoms and negative cognitions, and increased behavioral activation, knowledge of depression, and functioning in the workplace. A parallel two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted with 300 employed adults exhibiting mild-to-moderate depression. Participants were recruited from August 2012 through April 2013 in partnership with an EAP and with outreach through a variety of additional non-EAP organizations. Participants were blocked on race/ethnicity and then randomly assigned within each block to receive, without clinical support, either the MoodHacker intervention (n=150) or alternative care consisting of links to vetted websites on depression (n=150). Participants in both groups completed online self-assessment surveys at baseline, 6 weeks after baseline, and 10 weeks after baseline. Surveys assessed (1) depression symptoms, (2) behavioral activation, (3) negative thoughts, (4) worksite outcomes, (5) depression knowledge, and (6) user satisfaction and usability. After randomization, all interactions with subjects were automated with the exception of safety-related follow
PERSON Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 outlook archived files and stores that data into an SQL - database. Communication...Applications ( VBA ) program was installed on the personal computers (PC) of all participants, in the session window of their Microsoft Outlook. Details of
2009.  J. Kawale, A. Pal, and J. Srivastava, “Churn prediction in mmorpgs : A social influence based approach,” in CSE (4), 2009, pp. 423–428...22] Z. Borbora, K. Hsu, J. Srivastava, and D. Williams, “Churn prediction in mmorpgs using player motivation theories and ensemble approach
while the private secondary school principals had 62% in their performance. ... one teacher to 40 students should be maintained in a classroom, but today the ... utilization of school buildings and other facilities for instruction (Nwadiani, 2000).
.... Correspondingly unique wireless modems were obtained and mated to the PCMCIA slot of notebook computers in the user/evaluation population, consisting of InfoTac and Mobedem wireless modems for use...
2.1% Mime 1.1% Hotmail 1.0% Version 0.9% Return 0.7% SMTP 0.7% Type 0.7% MSN 0.7% Mailer 0.8...September 11 attacks and one on the last days of Enron prior to the bankruptcy. An additional topic that emerges is focused on AOL, Yahoo, and Hotmail ...0.0039039999 thought 0.0026032187 22 23 yahoo 0.0109859817 yahoo 0.0209943801 mime 0.0109363170 tm 0.0069047296 hotmail 0.0097741578 sponsor 0.0065174312
EPA's six research priorities: Air, Climate, Energy; Chemical Safety for Sustainability, Homeland Security, Human Health Risk Assessment, Sustainable and Healthy Communities, Safe and Sustainable Water Resources.
making. ... study, the article hints at possible implications of the co-optation of human ... shortage, health challenges such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and the causes ... appropriate framework for considering such challenges.
Gabriela Guilherme de Almeida
Full Text Available Along with the popularity and ease of access from the internet, there were some problems and spam is one of the most difficult to be solved. Thus, the study of such messages becomes essential for the evolution of control tools. The use of Bayesian statistical methods contributes to the identification and control of receiving spam, however, such filters generate vast amounts of highly complex statistical data to be analyzed. In this way, the work proposed in this article aims to study and the applicability of Bayesian statistical calculations in the recognition of spam in email and display the data generated by this analysis in 3D visual representations organized intuitively and interactively, facilitating the decisionmaking process.
According analyzing the Relation Market Theory, the thesis researches on the characteristics and the development of EDM (E-mail Direct Marketing), and points out the novel application of EDM based on Relation Marketing Theory in China, in order to offer some mesures when enterprises use the EDM.%本文通过分析引入关系营销这一理论,分析电子邮件营销(EDM)的特点以及国内外的发展概况,并通过关系营销的理论提出国内电子邮件营销的新应用,为企业进行电子邮件营销带来新的策略.
Gabrielle Francinne de Souza Carvalho
Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar dois tipos de abordagem – tradicional e alternativa – utilizadas nos estudos de usuário. Para isso, adotou-se os instrumentos de coleta de dados adequados a cada tipo de abordagem: o questionário, na abordagem tradicional, e a entrevista, na abordagem alternativa. Percebeu-se que o primeiro não permite estabelecer um diálogo mais estreito com o usuário, devido à limitação das respostas, uma vez que já estavam definidas. Já a entrevista possibilitou conhecer com mais detalhes as necessidades informacionais de cada usuário e como se efetiva seu processo de busca e uso. Assim, verificou-se através de quais portais eletrônicos os usuários buscam essa informação, procurando entender se esses portais são os mesmos que possuem vinculados os provedores de seus e-mails, visto que esses portais eletrônicos deveriam possibilitar também o suprimento de suas necessidades informacionais. Concluiu-se que a maioria dos sujeitos desta pesquisa não utiliza, por diversos motivos, seus provedores de e-mail principal para buscar informação. A partir dos resultados, observou-se que a primeira abordagem não reconhece as necessidades individuais de cada usuário, limitando-se à objetividade de um tratamento estatístico. Em contrapartida, a segunda abordagem reconhece a subjetividade e as necessidades desses usuários.
E-mailed Evidence Based Summaries Impact Physician Learning More than Practice. A Review of: Grad, Roland M., Pierre Pluye, Jay Mercer, Bernard Marlow, Marie Eve Beauchamp, Michael Shulha, Janique Johnson-Lafleur and Sharon Wood-Dauphinee. “Impact of Research-based Synopses Delivered as Daily E-mail: A Prospective Observational Study.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association (200815.2: 240-5.
Gale G. Hannigan
Full Text Available Objective – To determine the use and construct validity of a method to assess the cognitive impact of information derived from daily e-mail evidence based summaries (InfoPOEMs, and to describe the self-reported impact of these InfoPOEMs.Design – Prospective, observational study over a period of 150 days employing a questionnaire and rating scale.Setting – This study was conducted via the Internet between September 8, 2006 and February 4, 2007.Subjects – Canadian Medical Association (CMA members who received InfoPOEMs via e-mail as of September 2006 were invited to participate. For inclusion in the analyses, a participant was defined as a practising family physician or general practitioner who submitted at least five ratings of InfoPOEMS during the study period (n=1,007.Methods – Volunteers completed a demographic questionnaire and provided informed consent online. Each subsequent InfoPOEM delivered included a link to a “ten-item impact assessment scale” (241. Participants checked “all that apply” of descriptive statements such as: My practice was (will be improved; I learned something new; I think this information is potentially harmful. Each combination of selections made was considered a pattern of cognitive impact. College of Family Physicians of Canada received continuing medical education (CME credit for each InfoPOEM rated. Data were collected by the CMA and forwarded weekly to the investigators who used descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and multilevel factor analysis to analyze the data.Main Results – 1,007 participants rated an average of 61 InfoPOEMs (ranging from five to 111. A total of 61,493 patterns of cognitive impact were submitted. Eighty-five different patterns were observed, i.e., there were 85 different combinations of the scale’s statements used. Ten patterns accounted for 89.4% of the reports. The top five patterns were: I learned something new (35.2%; No impact (17.1%; This
van Kessel, Kirsten; Wouldes, Trecia; Moss-Morris, Rona
To pilot and compare the efficacy of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy self-management programme with (MSInvigor8-Plus) and without (MSInvigor8-Only) the use of email support in reducing fatigue severity and impact (primary outcomes), and depressed and anxious mood (secondary outcomes). Randomized controlled trial using an independent randomization system built into the website and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants were recruited through the local Multiple Sclerosis Society and hospital neurological services in New Zealand. A total of 39 people (aged 31-63 years), experiencing multiple sclerosis fatigue, able to walk with and without walking aids, were randomized to MSInvigor8-Only (n = 20) or to MSInvigor8-Plus (n = 19). MSInvigor8 is an eight-session programme based on cognitive behaviour therapy principles including psycho-education, self-monitoring, and changing unhelpful activity and thought patterns. Outcome measures included fatigue severity (Chalder Fatigue Scale) and impact (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Assessments were performed at baseline and at 10 weeks. The MSInvigor8-Plus condition resulted in significantly greater reductions in fatigue severity (F [1,36] = 9.09, p multiple sclerosis in New Zealand. © The Author(s) 2015.
Stakeholder views on the incorporation of traditional birth attendants into the formal health systems of low-and middle-income countries: a qualitative analysis of the HIFA2015 and CHILD2015 email discussion forums.
Owolabi, Onikepe Oluwadamilola; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Pakenham-Walsh, Neil
Health workforce shortages are key obstacles to the achievement of the health-related Millennium Development Goals. Task shifting is seen as a way to improve access to pregnancy and childbirth care. However, the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) within task shifting initiatives remains contested. The objective of this study was to explore stakeholder views and justifications regarding the incorporation of TBAs into formal health systems. Data were drawn from messages submitted to the HIFA2015 and CHILD2015 email discussion forums. The forums focus on the healthcare information needs of frontline health workers and citizens in low - and middle-income countries, and how these needs can be met, and also include discussion of diverse aspects of health systems. Messages about TBAs submitted between 2007-2011 were analysed thematically. We identified 658 messages about TBAs from a total of 193 participants. Most participants supported the incorporation of trained TBAs into primary care systems to some degree, although their justifications for doing so varied. Participant viewpoints were influenced by the degree to which TBA involvement was seen as a long-term or short-term solution and by the tasks undertaken by TBAs. Many forum members indicated that they were supportive of trained TBAs being involved in the provision of pregnancy care. Members noted that TBAs were already frequently used by women and that alternative options were lacking. However, a substantial minority regarded doing so as a threat to the quality and equity of healthcare. The extent of TBA involvement needs to be context-specific and should be based on evidence on effectiveness as well as evidence on need, acceptability and feasibility.
Evaluation Methodologies for Information Management Systems; Building Digital Tobacco Industry Document Libraries at the University of California, San Francisco Library/Center for Knowledge Management; Experiments with the IFLA Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR); Coming to Term: Designing the Texas Email Repository Model.
Morse, Emile L.; Schmidt, Heidi; Butter, Karen; Rider, Cynthia; Hickey, Thomas B.; O'Neill, Edward T.; Toves, Jenny; Green, Marlan; Soy, Sue; Gunn, Stan; Galloway, Patricia
Includes four articles that discuss evaluation methods for information management systems under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; building digital libraries at the University of California San Francisco's Tobacco Control Archives; IFLA's Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records; and designing the Texas email repository model…
such as LOL, for laughing out loud , should be reserved for personal communication (Mackiewicz, 2003). You need to know and understand who your...typing LOL as a shortcut for “ laughing out loud .” Older participants didn’t always know what the shorthand meant. Younger participants knew
van Reijsen, J.; Helms, R.W.; Jackson, T.W.
There is nothing new about the notion that in today‟s knowledge driven economy, knowledge is the key strategic asset for competitive advantage in an organization. Also, we have learned that knowledge is residing in the organization‟s informal network. Hence, to leverage business performance from a
Smith, Ben O.; White, Dustin R.; Kuzyk, Patricia C.; Tierney, James E.
Information provided at the moment a person makes a decision can influence behavior in predictable ways. The United Kingdom's Behavioural Insights Team have used this idea to help improve the insulation of lofts, collect taxes, and even reduce litter. The authors of this article developed software that appends a personalized message to each…
The job of literary archivist is changing as paper manuscripts yield to laptops, Blackberry's, and Facebook content, and digital preservation lets scholars learn more about authors' creative process than ever before. Personal computers and external storage devices have been around for more than a quarter-century, but only now, as the famous…
The Mail Team
In order to further protect CERN mail users against viruses that spread using malicious files, from 1st March onwards dangerous file types already forbidden as mail attachments will also be forbidden as contents of an archive attachment (.zip and .rar compressed files). More details, including a list of blocked file types, can be found at http://cern.ch/mmmservices/Help/?kbid=171010 The Mail Team
The Mail Team
In order to further protect CERN mail users against viruses that spread using malicious files, from 1st March onwards dangerous file types already forbidden as mail attachments will also be forbidden as contents of an archive attachment (.zip and .rar compressed files). More details, including a list of blocked file types, can be found at http://cern.ch/mmmservices/Help/?kbid=171010. The Mail Team
AUC value will be closer to 1. Figure 2.6 compares 3 different ROC curves. Figure 2.6. ROC curves compared. The dashed black curve at the top has the...main difference was the computation time. For example, on a 1275-node jazz musician network, the fast algorithm ran to completion in about one...königsberg bridges,” Scientific American , vol. 189, no. 1, pp. 66–70, 1953.  N. Biggs, E. K. Lloyd, and R. J. Wilson, Graph Theory, 1736-1936. Great
John C Ruhnka
Full Text Available The article surveys the changing risk environment for corporations from their employees electronic communications. It identifies the types of liabilities thatcorporations can incur from such communications. It presents the objectives of corporate internet use policies and the types of provisions such policies should contain. It suggests an alternative risk-based approach to corporate acceptable use policies instead of atraditional â€œlaundry listâ€ of internet use prohibitions.
density, alcohol, moisture, sucrose, proteins, acetic acid (acidity), thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and elemental constituents. The mean of the bi-weekly results are presented. The PH values were between 6 and 7. The colour of the exudates was white. The moisture content of all the samples was not below 94%.
Christiansen, Ellen Tove; Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Grønhøj, Alice
Feedback Project: 'Dansk Energi, Projekt nr. 338-020', http://feedback.noe.dk, reported in Kibsgaard 2008; Junge 2008). The main finding in this follow-up study is that customers demand knowledge about their electricity consumption independent of their attitude towards electricity conservation. We find...... consumption just for the sake of knowing, monitoring, comparing and competing. Interest in this information seemed unrelated to the actual electricity savings accomplished during the year of feedback, attitude to saving, and priority given to conservation behavior. This finding suggests that electricity......, which in turn may increase awareness among those less aware, and support and ease the awareness of those already aware, in this way supporting conservation behavior....
(2004) “Modeling Pb absorptions to microporous amorphous oxides as discrete particles and coatings”. Journal of Colloid interface science 281: 39 – 48. Foy, C.D; Chaney, R.L and White, M.C. (1978) “The physiology of metal toxicity in plants” Annual Review of Plant Physiology.29:511-566. Geeblen, W. J; Vangronsveld, ...
Akinyelu, Andronicus A.; Adewumi, Aderemi O.
Phishing is one of the major challenges faced by the world of e-commerce today. Thanks to phishing attacks, billions of dollars have been lost by many companies and individuals. In 2012, an online report put the loss due to phishing attack at about $1.5 billion. This global impact of phishing attacks will continue to be on the increase and thus requires more efficient phishing detection techniques to curb the menace. This paper investigates and reports the use of random forest machine learnin...
Hoogendoorn, Mark; Berger, Thomas; Schulz, Ava; Stolz, Timo; Szolovits, Peter
Predicting therapeutic outcome in the mental health domain is of utmost importance to enable therapists to provide the most effective treatment to a patient. Using information from the writings of a patient can potentially be a valuable source of information, especially now that more and more treatments involve computer-based exercises or electronic conversations between patient and therapist. In this paper, we study predictive modeling using writings of patients under treatment for a social anxiety disorder. We extract a wealth of information from the text written by patients including their usage of words, the topics they talk about, the sentiment of the messages, and the style of writing. In addition, we study trends over time with respect to those measures. We then apply machine learning algorithms to generate the predictive models. Based on a dataset of 69 patients, we are able to show that we can predict therapy outcome with an area under the curve of 0.83 halfway through the therapy and with a precision of 0.78 when using the full data (i.e., the entire treatment period). Due to the limited number of participants, it is hard to generalize the results, but they do show great potential in this type of information.
For anyone who wants to communicate effectively in business, this is your complete reference guide for any form of written communication. Packed with over 500 sample documents, over 100 tips for better business writing and useful templates you can apply to your writing immediately, Model Business Letters will help you put the key rules of good business writing into action.
Hoogendoorn, M.; Berger, Thomas; Schulz, Ava; Stolz, Timo; Szolovits, Peter
Predicting therapeutic outcome in the mental health domain is of utmost importance to enable therapists to provide the most effective treatment to a patient. Using information from the writings of a patient can potentially be a valuable source of information, especially now that more and more
Dilys Karen Rees
Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan cuatro de doce mensajes reenviables, es decir, correos elec- trónicos recibidos durante un período de cuatro meses, con el objetivo de compren- der los discursos sobre los docentes y la profesión docente que prevalecen en el espacio cultural de los profesores en Brasil. Para analizar estos mensajes reenviados, combinamos el concepto de ámbito cultu - ral (Spradley, 1980 con los principios me - todológicos del análisis crítico del discurso (Fairclough, 2010. Nuestro análisis mues - tra otro aspecto de la identidad de grupo, además del relacionado con las actividades profesionales, que tiene que ver con la sen - sación de ocupar un lugar de bajo prestigio social. Los mensajes, por tanto, al ser envia - dos de maestro a maestro en una cadena continua se convierten en una forma de cohesión social de este grupo en particular.
Sims, Christy-Dale L.
Employers are struggling to fill jobs with qualified candidates because they find that the majority of college graduates lack "soft skills" such as oral and written communication, interpersonal skills, and professionalism (Carr & Stefaniak, 2012; Fischer, 2013; Tugend, 2013). Students are often more confident in their skill set and…
Deputy administrator Stan Meiburg urged other administrators to review their web transformation progress, and make sure they have requested extensions and planned to temporarily transfer content to the www3 server, before the September 30, 2015 deadline.