WorldWideScience

Sample records for group ecog performance

  1. Three-dimensional Brain Current Source Reconstruction from Intra-cranial ECoG Recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingchun; van Drongelen, Wim; Kohrman, Michael; He, Bin

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated 3-dimensional brain current density reconstruction (CDR) from intracranial electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings by means of finite element method (FEM). The brain electrical sources are modeled by a current density distribution and estimated from the ECoG signals with the aid of a weighted minimum norm estimation algorithm. A series of computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of ECoG-CDR by comparing with the scalp EEG based CDR results. The present...

  2. ECOG is as independent predictor of the response to chemotherapy, overall survival and progression-free survival in carcinoma of unknown primary site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales-Álvarez, Rocío; Martin-Aguilar, Ana; Silva, Juan A.; De La Garza-Salazar, Jaime G.; Ruiz-García, Erika; López-Camarillo, César; Marchat, Laurence A.; La Vega, Horacio Astudillo-De

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether age, gender, functional status, histology, tumor location, number of metastases, and levels of the tumor markers, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and albumin, are poor prognostic factors for the response to chemotherapy in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site. A total of 149 patients diagnosed with carcinoma of unknown primary site that was histologically confirmed, and treated with chemotherapy in the Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center, ‘Century XXI’ IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico during the period between January 2002 to December 2009, were carefully selected for the present study. The analysis of 149 patients diagnosed with carcinoma of unknown primary site revealed that the liver was the organ with the highest frequency of metastases (33.5%). The objective response rates to chemotherapy were ~30.2%. Notably, ECOG was an important predictor of response to chemotherapy (P=0.008). The median progression-free survival was 7.1 months. Upon multivariate analysis, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Scale of Performance Status was observed as an independent predictor of progression (P<0.0001). The median overall survival was 14.2 months. The ECOG was also an independent predictor of mortality (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the data from the present study have demonstrated that ECOG is an independent predictor of a poor response to chemotherapy, lower overall survival and progression-free survival in carcinoma of unknown primary site. PMID:28515916

  3. Development of an implantable wireless ECoG 128ch recording device for clinical brain machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kojiro; Hirata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takafumi; Ando, Hiroshi; Ota, Yuki; Sato, Fumihiro; Morris, Shyne; Yoshida, Takeshi; Matsuki, Hidetoshi; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2013-01-01

    Brain Machine Interface (BMI) is a system that assumes user's intention by analyzing user's brain activities and control devices with the assumed intention. It is considered as one of prospective tools to enhance paralyzed patients' quality of life. In our group, we especially focus on ECoG (electro-corti-gram)-BMI, which requires surgery to place electrodes on the cortex. We try to implant all the devices within the patient's head and abdomen and to transmit the data and power wirelessly. Our device consists of 5 parts: (1) High-density multi-electrodes with a 3D shaped sheet fitting to the individual brain surface to effectively record the ECoG signals; (2) A small circuit board with two integrated circuit chips functioning 128 [ch] analogue amplifiers and A/D converters for ECoG signals; (3) A Wifi data communication & control circuit with the target PC; (4) A non-contact power supply transmitting electrical power minimum 400[mW] to the device 20[mm] away. We developed those devices, integrated them, and, investigated the performance.

  4. Simultaneous recording of ECoG and intracortical neuronal activity using a flexible multichannel electrode-mesh in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Haruo; Suzuki, Takafumi; Sawahata, Hirohito; Majima, Kei; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Hasegawa, Isao

    2011-01-01

    Electrocorticogram (ECoG) is a well-balanced methodology for stably mapping brain surface local field potentials (LFPs) over a wide cortical region with high signal fidelity and minimal invasiveness to the brain tissue. To directly compare surface ECoG signals with intracortical neuronal activity immediately underneath, we fabricated a flexible multichannel electrode array with mesh-form structure using micro-electro-mechanical systems. A Parylene-C-based "electrode-mesh" for rats contained a 6×6 gold electrode array with 1-mm interval. Specifically, the probe had 800×800 μm(2) fenestrae in interelectrode spaces, through which simultaneous penetration of microelectrode was capable. This electrode-mesh was placed acutely or chronically on the dural/pial surface of the visual cortex of Long-Evans rats for up to 2 weeks. We obtained reliable trial-wise profiles of visually evoked ECoG signals through individual eye stimulation. Visually evoked ECoG signals from the electrode-mesh exhibited as well or larger signal amplitudes as intracortical LFPs and less across-trial variability than conventional silver-ball ECoG. Ocular selectivity of ECoG responses was correlated with that of intracortical spike/LFP activities. Moreover, single-trial ECoG signals carried sufficient information for predicting the stimulated eye with a correct performance approaching 90%, and the decoding was significantly generalized across sessions over 6 hours. Electrode impedance or signal quality did not obviously deteriorate for 2 weeks following implantation. These findings open up a methodology to directly explore ECoG signals with reference to intracortical neuronal sources and would provide a key to developing minimally invasive next-generation brain-machine interfaces.

  5. Three-dimensional brain current source reconstruction from intra-cranial ECoG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingchun; van Drongelen, Wim; Kohrman, Michael; He, Bin

    2008-08-15

    We have investigated 3-dimensional brain current density reconstruction (CDR) from intracranial electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings by means of finite element method (FEM). The brain electrical sources are modeled by a current density distribution and estimated from the ECoG signals with the aid of a weighted minimum norm estimation algorithm. A series of computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of ECoG-CDR by comparing with the scalp EEG based CDR results. The present computer simulation results indicate that the ECoG-CDR provides enhanced performance in localizing single dipole sources which are located in regions underneath the implanted subdural ECoG grids, and in distinguishing and imaging multiple separate dipole sources, in comparison to the CDR results as obtained from the scalp EEG under the same conditions. We have also demonstrated the applicability of the present ECoG-CDR method to estimate 3-dimensional current density distribution from the subdural ECoG recordings in a human epilepsy patient. Eleven interictal epileptiform spikes (seven from the frontal region and four from parietal region) in an epilepsy patient undergoing surgical evaluation were analyzed. The present promising results indicate the feasibility and applicability of the developed ECoG-CDR method of estimating brain sources from intracranial electrical recordings, with detailed forward modeling using FEM.

  6. Group performance and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Norbert L; Tindale, R Scott

    2004-01-01

    Theory and research on small group performance and decision making is reviewed. Recent trends in group performance research have found that process gains as well as losses are possible, and both are frequently explained by situational and procedural contexts that differentially affect motivation and resource coordination. Research has continued on classic topics (e.g., brainstorming, group goal setting, stress, and group performance) and relatively new areas (e.g., collective induction). Group decision making research has focused on preference combination for continuous response distributions and group information processing. New approaches (e.g., group-level signal detection) and traditional topics (e.g., groupthink) are discussed. New directions, such as nonlinear dynamic systems, evolutionary adaptation, and technological advances, should keep small group research vigorous well into the future.

  7. Global Interactions Analysis of Epileptic ECoG Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Guillermo J.; Sola, Rafael G.; Pastor, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Localization of the epileptogenic zone is an important issue in epileptology, even though there is not a unique definition of the epileptic focus. The objective of the present study is to test ultrametric analysis to uncover cortical interactions in human epileptic data. Correlation analysis has been carried out over intraoperative Electro-Corticography (ECoG) data in 2 patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recordings were obtained using a grid of 20 electrodes (5×4) covering the lateral temporal lobe and a strip of either 4 or 8 electrodes at the mesial temporal lobe. Ultrametric analysis was performed in the averaged final correlation matrices. By using the matrix of linear correlation coefficients and the appropriate metric distance between pairs of electrodes time series, we were able to construct Minimum Spanning Trees (MST). The topological connectivity displayed by these trees gives useful and valuable information regarding physiological and pathological information in the temporal lobe of epileptic patients.

  8. Strategic Groups and Banks’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorz Halaj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of strategic groups predicts the existence of stable groups of companies that adopt similar business strategies. The theory also predicts that groups will differ in performance and in their reaction to external shocks. We use cluster analysis to identify strategic groups in the Polish banking sector. We find stable groups in the Polish banking sector constituted after the year 2000 following the major privatisation and ownership changes connected with transition to the mostly-privately-owned banking sector in the late 90s. Using panel regression methods we show that the allocation of banks to groups is statistically significant in explaining the profitability of banks. Thus, breaking down the banks into strategic groups and allowing for the different reaction of the groups to external shocks helps in a more accurate explanation of profits of the banking sector as a whole.Therefore, a more precise ex ante assessment of the loss absorption capabilities of banks is possible, which is crucial for an analysis of banking sector stability. However, we did not find evidence of the usefulness of strategic groups in explaining the quality of bank portfolios as measured by irregular loans over total loans, which is a more direct way to assess risks to financial stability.

  9. Feature combination for classifying single-trial ECoG during motor imagery of different sessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Qingguo; Meng Fei; Wang Yijun; Gao Xiaorong; Gao Shangkai

    2007-01-01

    The input signals of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) may be either scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) or electrocorticogram (ECoG) recorded from subdural electrodes. To make BCIs practical, the classifiers for discriminating different brain states must have the ability of session-to-session transfer. This paper proposes an algorithm for classifying single-trial ECoG during motor imagery of different sessions. Three features, derived from two physiological phenomena, movement-related potentials (MRP) and event-related desynchronization (ERD), and extracted by common spatial subspace decomposition (CSSD) and waveform mean, are combined to perform classification tasks. The specific signal processing methods utilized are described in detail. The algorithm was successfully applied to Data Set I of BCI Competition Ⅲ, and achieved a classification accuracy of 91% on test set.

  10. Joint spatial-spectral feature space clustering for speech activity detection from ECoG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Vasileios G; Mporas, Iosif; Benz, Heather L; Sgarbas, Kyriakos N; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Crone, Nathan E

    2014-04-01

    Brain-machine interfaces for speech restoration have been extensively studied for more than two decades. The success of such a system will depend in part on selecting the best brain recording sites and signal features corresponding to speech production. The purpose of this study was to detect speech activity automatically from electrocorticographic signals based on joint spatial-frequency clustering of the ECoG feature space. For this study, the ECoG signals were recorded while a subject performed two different syllable repetition tasks. We found that the optimal frequency resolution to detect speech activity from ECoG signals was 8 Hz, achieving 98.8% accuracy by employing support vector machines as a classifier. We also defined the cortical areas that held the most information about the discrimination of speech and nonspeech time intervals. Additionally, the results shed light on the distinct cortical areas associated with the two syllables repetition tasks and may contribute to the development of portable ECoG-based communication.

  11. Phase and magnitude spatiotemporal dynamics of β oscillation in electrocorticography (ECoG) in the monkey motor cortex at the onset of 3D reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hidenori; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Nishimura, Yukio; Isa, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    β oscillations in local field potentials, electro-corticography (ECoG), and electroencephalograms (EEG) are ubiquitous in the motor cortex of monkeys and humans. However due to their lack of contributions, compared to other frequency ranges, to decode effector kinematics especially in ECoG signals, spatiotemporal dynamics of ECoG β oscillations has not been examined despite the larger areas that ECoG arrays can cover than standard intracortical multielectrode arrays. Here, we used ECoG grids to cover large areas of motor cortex and some somatosensory cortex in monkeys while they performed an unconstrained reaching and a lever pulling task at two force levels in three dimensional space. We showed that under the pulling task β power increased around movement onset. However, the β phases were locked around the movement onsets and their peak timings were spatially aligned in the motor cortex. These results may indicate that spatiotemporal dynamics of β oscillation conveys task relevant information and that ECoG arrays will be useful to study larger spatiotemporal patterns in the motor cortex, or any cortical areas in general, than intracortical multielectrode arrays.

  12. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    The commissioning effort is presently addressing two main areas: the commissioning of the hardware components at the pit and the coordination of the activities of the newly constituted Detector Performance groups (DPGs). At point 5, a plan regarding the service cavern and the commissioning of the connections of the off-detector electronics (for the data collection line and trigger primitive generation) to the central DAQ and the central Trigger has been defined. This activity was started early February and will continue until May. It began with Tracker electronics followed so far by HCAL and CSC. The goal is to have by May every detector commission, as much as possible, their data transfer paths from FED to Central DAQ as well as their trigger setups between TPGs and Global Level 1 trigger. The next focus is on connections of front-ends to the service cavern. This depends strongly on the installations of services. Presently the only detector which has its link fibers connected to the off-detector electr...

  13. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    The global commissioning campaign begins this year with a series of weekly two-day global runs of limited participation until mid-March. The aim of these runs varies week-to-week, but includes the commissioning the calorimeter triggers, the muon track-finder triggers in the DT/CSC overlap, the PLL locking ranges, and generally accumulating data either for HCAL noise characterization or detector studies with cosmic muons. In mid-March a full Global Run is scheduled with all components participating, followed in April by a Cosmic Run with the aim of collecting statistics over a couple weeks with the installed Tracker and other subsystems. The ultimate milestone is the Cosmic Run At Four Tesla (CRAFT), with a completed CMS closed and the solenoid energized for data-taking during June. The Detector Performance Groups start the year with the focus to prepare for LHC collisions, and the associated challenges (CSA08) and global commissioning exercises (CRAFT) along the way. New this year is the addition of the Tri...

  14. Emergent Power Hierarchies and Group Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendorfer, Denise; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Sanchez-Cortes, Dairazalia; Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    In newly formed groups, informal hierarchies emerge automatically and readily. In this study, we argue that emergent group hierarchies enhance group performance (Hypothesis 1) and we assume that the more the power hierarchy within a group corresponds to the task-competence differences of the individual group members, the better the group performs (Hypothesis 2). Twelve three-person groups and 28 four-person groups were investigated while solving the Winter Survival Task. Results show that emerging power hierarchies positively impact group performance but the alignment between task-competence and power hierarchy did not affect group performance. Thus, emergent power hierarchies are beneficial for group performance and although they were on average created around individual group members' competence, this correspondence was not a prerequisite for better group performance.

  15. GROUP LAZINESS: THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL LOAFING ON GROUP PERFORMANCE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiangyu Ying; Huanhuan Li; Shan Jiang; Fei Peng; Zhongxin Lin

    2014-01-01

      Social loafing has been defined as a phenomenon in which people exhibit a sizable decrease in individual effort when performing in groups as compared to when they perform alone, and has been regarded...

  16. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS

    CERN Multimedia

    T. Camporesi

    P5 Commissioning activities The commissioning effort at the pit has made major progress since the last CMS week concerning the installation and operation of the off-detector electronics in USC. The progress has been much slower in the experi¬mental cavern due to the delay in the deployment of the infrastructure which should eventually allow safe powering-up of the front ends. Nevertheless, temporary power connections have allowed operation of slices of subdetectors at any given time. HF, HE, ECAL, DTs, RPCs and CSCs have carried out local commissioning tests with these temporary services. The status of hardware deployment in USC and on the towers/balconies is represented in the detailed table below.   Table 1: Status of installation of off-detector electronics. FEDs are detector dependent hardware modules which perform the first ‘colla¬tion’ of front-end data and send it to Central-data for event building. Tracker, ECAL, HCAL have their front end electronics mo...

  17. Decoding finger movements from ECoG signals using switching linear models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi eFlamary

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting challenges in ECoG-based Brain-Machine Interface is movement prediction. Being able to perform such a prediction paves the way to high-degree precision command for a machine such as a robotic arm or robotic hands. As a witness of the BCI community increasing interest towards such a problem, the fourth BCI Competition provides a dataset which aim is to predict individual finger movements from ECog signals. The difficulty of the problem relies on the fact that there is no simple relation between ECoG signals and finger movements. We propose in this paper, to estimate and decode these finger flexions using switching models controlled by an hidden state. Switching models can integrate prior knowledge about the decoding problem and helps in predicting fine and precise movements. Our model is thus based on a first block which estimates which finger is moving and anotherblock which, knowing which finger is moving, predicts the movements of allother fingers. Numerical results that have been submitted to the Competition show that the model yields high decoding performances when the hidden state is well estimated. This approach achieved the second place in the BCI competition with a correlation measure between real and predictedmovements of 0.42.

  18. Characterization of flexible ECoG electrode arrays for chronic recording in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, John D; Phillips, Derrick J; Rector, David M; Bahr, David F

    2008-08-30

    We developed a 64-channel flexible polyimide ECoG electrode array and characterized its performance for long-term implantation, chronic cortical recording and high resolution mapping of surface-evoked potentials in awake rats. To achieve the longest possible recording periods, the flexibility of the electrode array, adhesion between the metals and carrier substrate, and biocompatibility were critical for maintaining the signal integrity. Experimental testing of thin film adhesion was applied to a gold-polyimide system in order to characterize relative interfacial fracture energies for several different adhesion layers, yielding an increase in overall device reliability. We tested several different adhesion techniques including the following: gold alone without an adhesion layer, titanium-tungsten, tantalum and chromium. We found titanium-tungsten to be a suitable adhesion layer considering the biocompatibility requirements as well as stability and delamination resistance. While chromium and tantalum produced stronger gold adhesion, concerns over biocompatibility of these materials require further testing. We implanted the polyimide ECoG electrode arrays through a slit made in the skull of rats and recorded cortical surface evoked responses. The arrays performed reliably over a period of at least 100 days and signals compared well with traditional screw electrodes, with better high frequency response characteristics. Since the ultimate goal of chronically implanted electrode arrays is for neural prosthetic devices that need to last many decades, other adhesion layers that would prove safe for implantation may be tested in the same way in order to improve the device reliability.

  19. Brain-Machine Interface to Control a Prosthetic Arm with Monkey ECoGs during Periodic Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro eMorishita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Machine Interfaces (BMIs are promising technologies to rehabilitate the function of upper limbs in severely paralyzed patients. We succeeded in developing a BMI prosthetic arm for a monkey implanted with electrocorticogram (ECoG electrodes and trained in a reaching task. It had stability in preventing the misclassification of ECoG patterns. However, the latency was about 200 ms as a trade-off for the stability. To improve the response of this BMI prosthetic arm, the generation of a trigger event by decoding muscle activity was adopted. It was performed to predict integrated electromyograms (iEMGs from the ECoGs. Experiments were conducted to verify the availability of this method, and the results confirmed that the proposed method was superior to the conventional one. In addition, a performance test of the proposed method with actually achieved iEMGs instead of predicted iEMGs was performed, and we found that the motor intention is finely expressed through estimated muscle activity from brain activity rather than actual muscle activity.

  20. Interteaching: Discussion Group Size and Course Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Jacob C.; Saville, Bryan K.; Van Patten, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have yet to examine whether discussion group size affects student performance in an interteaching-based course. In the current study, we addressed this question by manipulating discussion group size (smaller groups of 2 students vs. larger groups of 4 students) across 2 sections of an undergraduate psychology course. We found no…

  1. Prognostic Value of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple-Negative Breast Cancers From Two Phase III Randomized Adjuvant Breast Cancer Trials: ECOG 2197 and ECOG 1199

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sylvia; Gray, Robert J.; Demaria, Sandra; Goldstein, Lori; Perez, Edith A.; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Martino, Silvana; Wang, Molin; Jones, Vicky E.; Saphner, Thomas J.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Wood, William C.; Davidson, Nancy E.; Sledge, George W.; Sparano, Joseph A.; Badve, Sunil S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies suggest that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are associated with disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in operable triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We seek to validate the prognostic impact of TILs in primary TNBCs in two adjuvant phase III trials conducted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG). Patients and Methods Full-face hematoxylin and eosin–stained sections of 506 tumors from ECOG trials E2197 and E1199 were evaluated for density of TILs in intraepithelial (iTILs) and stromal compartments (sTILs). Patient cases of TNBC from E2197 and E1199 were randomly selected based on availability of sections. For the primary end point of DFS, association with TIL scores was determined by fitting proportional hazards models stratified on study. Secondary end points were OS and distant recurrence–free interval (DRFI). Reporting recommendations for tumor marker prognostic studies criteria were followed, and all analyses were prespecified. Results The majority of 481 evaluable cancers had TILs (sTILs, 80%; iTILs, 15%). With a median follow-up of 10.6 years, higher sTIL scores were associated with better prognosis; for every 10% increase in sTILs, a 14% reduction of risk of recurrence or death (P = .02), 18% reduction of risk of distant recurrence (P = .04), and 19% reduction of risk of death (P = .01) were observed. Multivariable analysis confirmed sTILs to be an independent prognostic marker of DFS, DRFI, and OS. Conclusion In two national randomized clinical trials using contemporary adjuvant chemotherapy, we confirm that stromal lymphocytic infiltration constitutes a robust prognostic factor in TNBCs. Studies assessing outcomes and therapeutic efficacies should consider stratification for this parameter. PMID:25071121

  2. Decoding Onset and Direction of Movements Using Electrocorticographic (ECoG Signals in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoguan eWang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Communication of intent usually requires motor function. This requirement can be limiting when a person is engaged in a task, or prohibitive for some people suffering from neuromuscular disorders. Determining a person's intent, e.g., where and when to move, from brain signals rather than from muscles would have important applications in clinical or other domains. For example, detection of the onset and direction of intended movements may provide the basis for restoration of simple grasping function in people with chronic stroke, or could be used to optimize a user's interaction with the surrounding environment. Detecting the onset and direction of actual movements are a first step in this direction. In this study, we demonstrate that we can detect the onset of intended movements and their direction using electrocorticographic (ECoG signals recorded from the surface of the cortex in humans. We also demonstrate in a simulation that the information encoded in ECoG about these movements may improve performance in a targeting task. In summary, the results in this paper suggest that detection of intended movement is possible, and may serve useful functions.

  3. Group interaction and flight crew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The application of human-factors analysis to the performance of aircraft-operation tasks by the crew as a group is discussed in an introductory review and illustrated with anecdotal material. Topics addressed include the function of a group in the operational environment, the classification of group performance factors (input, process, and output parameters), input variables and the flight crew process, and the effect of process variables on performance. Consideration is given to aviation safety issues, techniques for altering group norms, ways of increasing crew effort and coordination, and the optimization of group composition.

  4. Peer Grouping: The Refinement of Performance Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Willard

    2008-01-01

    Community colleges operate under much scrutiny these days, and these institutions have experienced a growing emphasis on performance indicators as paths to institutional accountability. California's system of 109 community colleges recently developed and implemented an innovative accountability program that used peer group comparison as one of its…

  5. Reports from the Combined Performance Working Groups

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Haywood

    The main goal of the Combined Performance Groups is to study the detector performance for physics, as well as to monitor the effect of changes to the detector layout and the evolution of the software. The groups combine the expertise available in several different subdetectors. In addition, they are responsible for developing combined reconstruction algorithms and are involved in the calibration of energy scales and optimising resolutions. For the Workshop, the four groups made a real effort to compare the reconstruction in Athena (the "New" C++ software framework) and Atrecon (the "Old" software used for the TDR studies). b-tagging Working Group: Over the last few months, the description of the Inner Detector in the simulation has become more realistic, following the evolution of the detector design. This has caused the amount of material in the simulation to increase and the Pixel B-layer has been moved to a larger radius to allow for a wider beam-pipe. Nevertheless, the good performance of the b-tagging (...

  6. Determinants of individual and group performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1986-01-01

    A broad exploration of individual and group/organizational factors that influence performance in demanding environments such as space and air transport was undertaken. Primary efforts were directed toward defining critical issues, developing new methodologies for the assessment of performance in such environments, and developing new measures of personality and attitudes as predictors of performance. Substantial clarification of relevant issues for research and validation was achieved. A reliable instrument to assess crewmembers' attitudes regarding crew coordination and flightdeck management was validated. Major efforts in data collection to validate concepts were initiated. The results suggest that substantial improvements can be made in the prediction of performance and in the selection of crewmembers for aviation and space.

  7. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)

    CERN Document Server

    Darin Acosta

    The pace of activity is high for the Detector Performance Groups now that the CMS experiment is complete for 2008 and LHC beams are imminent. This includes refinement of the data quality monitoring tools (including prompt offline analyses), triggers, reconstruction code, and calibration and alignment conditions. Notable since the last CMS Week has been the inclusion of the strip tracker into the global running in July and the inclusion of the pixel systems and ECAL endcaps in August. The following describes the highlights from each group. During the CRUZET3 global run in July (the third installment of the Cosmic Run at Zero Tesla exercise) the Silicon Strip tracker recorded data with all barrel detectors and one side of the end-cap wheels. The week-long data-taking period delivered about 300k tracks good for detector alignment and was an extremely valuable experience to test the reconstruction, calibration and alignment workflows in their final configuration. Events with tracks were selected in real-time at ...

  8. Recording human electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals for neuroscientific research and real-time functional cortical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N Jeremy; Gupta, Disha; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Adamo, Matthew A; Ritaccio, Anthony; Schalk, Gerwin

    2012-06-26

    nearby critical brain areas (i.e., eloquent cortex) where resection could result in long-term functional deficits. To implant electrodes, a craniotomy is performed to open the skull. Then, electrode grids and/or strips are placed on the cortex, usually beneath the dura. A typical grid has a set of 8 x 8 platinum-iridium electrodes of 4 mm diameter (2.3 mm exposed surface) embedded in silicon with an inter-electrode distance of 1cm. A strip typically contains 4 or 6 such electrodes in a single line. The locations for these grids/strips are planned by a team of neurologists and neurosurgeons, and are based on previous EEG monitoring, on a structural MRI of the patient's brain, and on relevant factors of the patient's history. Continuous recording over a period of 5-12 days serves to localize epileptic foci, and electrical stimulation via the implanted electrodes allows clinicians to map eloquent cortex. At the end of the monitoring period, explantation of the electrodes and therapeutic resection are performed together in one procedure. In addition to its primary clinical purpose, invasive monitoring also provides a unique opportunity to acquire human ECoG data for neuroscientific research. The decision to include a prospective patient in the research is based on the planned location of their electrodes, on the patient's performance scores on neuropsychological assessments, and on their informed consent, which is predicated on their understanding that participation in research is optional and is not related to their treatment. As with all research involving human subjects, the research protocol must be approved by the hospital's institutional review board. The decision to perform individual experimental tasks is made day-by-day, and is contingent on the patient's endurance and willingness to participate. Some or all of the experiments may be prevented by problems with the clinical state of the patient, such as post-operative facial swelling, temporary aphasia, frequent

  9. Dynamical criticality during induction of anesthesia in human ECoG recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro M. Alonso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyze electro-corticography (ECoG recordings in human sub- jects as they are anesthetized. We hypothesize that the decrease in responsiveness that defines anesthesia induction is concomitant with the stabilization of neuronal dynamics. To test this hypothesis, we performed a moving vector autoregressive analysis and quantified stability of neuronal dynamics using eigenmode decompo- sition of the autoregressive matrices, independently fitted to short sliding temporal windows. Consistent with the hypothesis we show that while the subject is awake, many modes of oscillations of neuronal activity are found at the edge of instabil- ity, but as the subject becomes anesthetized the fitted dynamics becomes more damped. Analysis of eigenmode distributions in the awake and anesthetized brain revealed statistically significant stabilization not present in surrogate data. Sta- bility analysis thus offer a novel way of quantifying changes in neuronal activity that characterize loss of consciousness induced by general anesthetics. Specifically, our analysis suggests that the effect of the anesthetic procedure is to damp out high frequency activity while still allowing for low frequency modes to perform a function.

  10. A Dynamic Directional Model for Effective Brain Connectivity using Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wu, Jingwei; Li, Fan; Caffo, Brian; Boatman-Reich, Dana

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a dynamic directional model (DDM) for studying brain effective connectivity based on intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) time series. The DDM consists of two parts: a set of differential equations describing neuronal activity of brain components (state equations), and observation equations linking the underlying neuronal states to observed data. When applied to functional MRI or EEG data, DDMs usually have complex formulations and thus can accommodate only a few regions, due to limitations in spatial resolution and/or temporal resolution of these imaging modalities. In contrast, we formulate our model in the context of ECoG data. The combined high temporal and spatial resolution of ECoG data result in a much simpler DDM, allowing investigation of complex connections between many regions. To identify functionally segregated sub-networks, a form of biologically economical brain networks, we propose the Potts model for the DDM parameters. The neuronal states of brain components are represented by cubic spline bases and the parameters are estimated by minimizing a log-likelihood criterion that combines the state and observation equations. The Potts model is converted to the Potts penalty in the penalized regression approach to achieve sparsity in parameter estimation, for which a fast iterative algorithm is developed. The methods are applied to an auditory ECoG dataset.

  11. KDI: A wireless ECoG recording platform with impedance spectroscopy, electrical stimulation and real-time, lossless data compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, M; Burdin, F; Safont, F; Bernert, M; Dehaene, D; Lambert, A; Charvet, G

    2015-08-01

    A power-efficient modular wireless platform has been designed for prototyping and pre-clinical evaluations of neural recording implants. This Kit for Designing Implants (KDI) is separated in function specific modules of 34×34mm which can be assembled as needed. This paper presents the design of new modules for this existing wireless KDI platform. These modules cover the functionalities of electrical stimulation for BCI neurofeedback, impedance spectroscopy for monitoring tissue reaction around implanted electrodes and a real-time lossless data compression algorithm for ECoG signals. This algorithm has been implemented using two different hardware solutions and its performances compared. The design and evaluation of these modules are a first step towards the inclusion of these functionalities into the next generation of WIMAGINE(®) implants.

  12. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    Run coordination and DPG The activities of the DPGs in the last six months have included the completion of publications (and many internal notes) on the data collected during CRAFT08 exercise, continuation of these studies with CRAFT09 data, and finally the first workflows and prompt feedback on 2009 LHC beam data. The level of readiness of the DPG prompt feedback groups is quite high, as first results from the early November “beam splash” data were shown to CMS within 24 hours of the first LHC beam. Moreover, results from the first collisions at 900 GeV were presented publicly three days afterward on November 26th. The CRAFT09 cosmic data taking period provided an opportunity to commission the calibration and alignment workflows on large data samples using the same software release series intended for the first LHC data, and to demonstrate routine operation of alignment and calibration workflows under production conditions. Significantly, the "prompt calibration loop" wa...

  13. Effects of Perceived Social Loafing, Social Interdependence, and Group Affective Tone on Students’ Group Learning Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Luo, Yu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how students perceived social loafing and social interdependence influence group learning performance through group affective tone in undergraduate hospitality and tourism curricula...

  14. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    Point 5 commissioning activities Since the last CMS week there has been little global commissioning activities: the first mid week global run aiming to assess the status of the hardware and DAQ software after the winter maintenance and developments has taken place two weeks ago involving all subdetectors but tracker and pixel whose hardware is still being actively worked on. The local commissioning restarted once the cooling became available again the third week of January. Below are detailed the main activities which have taken place so far. DAQ The activity of the central DAQ group during pause of global runs was focused on various items. The commissioning of the 900 new PCs which will be used to run the HLT processes has been almost completed. It is planned to use these PCs in the first global run at the start of March. In addition the location of various server PCs which host essential functionalities to get the private ".cms" network going, has been re-organized to allow to implemen...

  15. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Malgeri

    2010-01-01

    The last six months have been very intense for run coordination as this period corresponds to the time most of the LHC luminosity has been delivered. The pace imposed by the LHC has marked the operation of the CMS detector and data logging: the luminosity has on average doubled every 10 days. Sometimes, this has strained our activities: the trigger teams, both Level-1 and HLT, have been in the trenches to cope with the spectacular LHC performance in order to keep the thresholds as low as possible for e/γs and jet triggers in order to make the physics community profit as much as possible from the data delivered. The constant effort to stay at the edge of our possibilities (essentially stay at or below 70 kHz for the first level trigger rates and below 600 Hz logging rates) has paid off in the end. Examples are the beautiful di-muon and di-electron invariant mass distributions where we are able, for instance, to detect low mass resonance like the h in the di-muon decay channel which has branching rat...

  16. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    The period since the last CMS week has witnessed the start of the LHC as a 'physics' machine. The excitement of the first collisions at 7 TeV on March 30 will be remembered for a long time! The preparation for the event was meticulous. The LHC was pushed to deliver non-colliding stable beams prior to the real collisions, which allowed CMS teams to use the few beam gas interactions within the length of the pixel detector to verify that the beams would indeed collide once both beams were circulating and the separation bump was collapsed. In passing, this exercise allowed us to catch some last minute features of the system, which could have affected our performance on the day! The first collisions were detected practically simultaneously around the ring. Within tens of minutes not only event displays, but also some physics distributions were delivered to the audience of the press conference. A plan of work had been carefully defined on how to use the first collisions following the first hour of excitement. I...

  17. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Malgeri

    2011-01-01

    As the technical interventions were finishing up and services restored at P5 we started central operations again in 2011. We started operations with a reduced shift crew, Shift leader and DCS shifter, on 24th January. We had a first mid-week global run on 2nd and 3rd February followed by cosmic data-taking between 10th and 20th February. Due to delays with cooling for the strip tracker the useful cosmic data-taking with the strip tracker was reduced to about four days. On 20th February, the LHC started beam commissioning, and cosmic data-taking with the full CMS detector was stopped. The machine availability has been much higher during the 2011 beam commissioning than during the comparable time period in 2010. This has given us few opportunities to turn on the tracker for further cosmic data-taking. Many changes and upgrades were performed during the winter shutdown. Among them was an upgrade to running the central DAQ on 64 bit. All of these upgrades have now b...

  18. ECoG high gamma activity reveals distinct cortical representations of lyrics passages, harmonic and timbre-related changes in a rock song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Irene; Blankertz, Benjamin; Potes, Cristhian; Schalk, Gerwin; Curio, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Listening to music moves our minds and moods, stirring interest in its neural underpinnings. A multitude of compositional features drives the appeal of natural music. How such original music, where a composer's opus is not manipulated for experimental purposes, engages a listener's brain has not been studied until recently. Here, we report an in-depth analysis of two electrocorticographic (ECoG) data sets obtained over the left hemisphere in ten patients during presentation of either a rock song or a read-out narrative. First, the time courses of five acoustic features (intensity, presence/absence of vocals with lyrics, spectral centroid, harmonic change, and pulse clarity) were extracted from the audio tracks and found to be correlated with each other to varying degrees. In a second step, we uncovered the specific impact of each musical feature on ECoG high-gamma power (70-170 Hz) by calculating partial correlations to remove the influence of the other four features. In the music condition, the onset and offset of vocal lyrics in ongoing instrumental music was consistently identified within the group as the dominant driver for ECoG high-gamma power changes over temporal auditory areas, while concurrently subject-individual activation spots were identified for sound intensity, timbral, and harmonic features. The distinct cortical activations to vocal speech-related content embedded in instrumental music directly demonstrate that song integrated in instrumental music represents a distinct dimension in complex music. In contrast, in the speech condition, the full sound envelope was reflected in the high gamma response rather than the onset or offset of the vocal lyrics. This demonstrates how the contributions of stimulus features that modulate the brain response differ across the two examples of a full-length natural stimulus, which suggests a context-dependent feature selection in the processing of complex auditory stimuli.

  19. ECoG high gamma activity reveals distinct cortical representations of lyrics passages, harmonic and timbre-related changes in a rock song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eSturm

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Listening to music moves our minds and moods, stirring interest in its neural underpinnings. A multitude of compositional features drives the appeal of natural music. How such original music, where a composer's opus is not manipulated for experimental purposes, engages a listener's brain has not been studied until recently. Here, we report an in-depth analysis of two electrocorticographic (ECoG data sets obtained over the left hemisphere in ten patients during presentation of either a rock song or a read-out narrative. First, the time courses of five acoustic features (intensity, presence/absence of vocals with lyrics, spectral centroid, harmonic change, and pulse clarity were extracted from the audio tracks and found to be correlated with each other to varying degrees. In a second step, we uncovered the specific impact of each musical feature on ECoG high-gamma power (70-170 Hz by calculating partial correlations to remove the influence of the other four features. In the music condition, the onset and offset of vocal lyrics in ongoing instrumental music was consistently within the subject group identified as the dominant driver for ECoG high-gamma power changes over temporal auditory areas, while concurrently subject-individual activation spots were identified for sound intensity, timbral and harmonic features. The distinct cortical activations to vocal speech-related content embedded in instrumental music directly demonstrate that song overlaid on instrumental music represents a distinct dimension in complex music. In contrast, in the speech condition, the full sound envelope was reflected in the high gamma response rather than the onset or offset of the vocal lyrics. This demonstrates how the contributions of stimulus features that modulate the brain response differ across the two examples of a full-length natural stimulus, which suggests a context-dependent feature selection in the processing of complex auditory stimuli.

  20. Dynamics of Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Activity in Human Temporal and Frontal Cortical Areas During Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-14

    REPORT Dynamics of electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...information about the sound intensity of music . ECoG activity in the high gamma band recorded from the posterior part of the superior temporal 1. REPORT...ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening Report Title ABSTRACT Previous studies demonstrated that brain

  1. Decoding Finger Flexion From Band-specific ECoG Signals in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying eLiang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the method that won the BCI competition IV addressed to the pre- diction of the finger flexion from ECoG signals. ECoG-based BCIs have recently drawn the attention from the community. Indeed, ECoG can provide a higher spatial resolution, a higher signal quality and is more suitable for long-term use than classical EEG recordings. These characteristics allow to decode precise brain activities and to realize efficient ECoG-based neu- roprostheses. Signal processing is a very important task in BCIs research for translating brain signals into commands. Here, we present a linear regression method based on the amplitude modulation of band-specific ECoG including a short term memory for individual finger flexion prediction. The effectiveness of the method was proven by achieving the highest value of corre- lation coefficient between the predicted and recorded finger flexion values on data set 4 during the BCI competition IV.

  2. Mapping ECoG channel contributions to trajectory and muscle activity prediction in human sensorimotor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Yasuhiko; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Shin, Duk; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Natsue; Tanaka, Masataka; Fukuma, Ryohei; Kishima, Haruhiko; Hirata, Masayuki; Koike, Yasuharu

    2017-01-01

    Studies on brain-machine interface techniques have shown that electrocorticography (ECoG) is an effective modality for predicting limb trajectories and muscle activity in humans. Motor control studies have also identified distributions of “extrinsic-like” and “intrinsic-like” neurons in the premotor (PM) and primary motor (M1) cortices. Here, we investigated whether trajectories and muscle activity predicted from ECoG were obtained based on signals derived from extrinsic-like or intrinsic-like neurons. Three participants carried objects of three different masses along the same counterclockwise path on a table. Trajectories of the object and upper arm muscle activity were predicted using a sparse linear regression. Weight matrices for the predictors were then compared to determine if the ECoG channels contributed more information about trajectory or muscle activity. We found that channels over both PM and M1 contributed highly to trajectory prediction, while a channel over M1 was the highest contributor for muscle activity prediction. PMID:28361947

  3. Introduction of the UNIX International Performance Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Henry

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we presented the planned direction of the UNIX International Performance Management Work Group. This group consists of concerned system developers and users who have organized to synthesize recommendations for standard UNIX performance management subsystem interfaces and architectures. The purpose of these recommendations is to provide a core set of performance management functions and these functions can be used to build tools by hardware system developers, vertical application software developers, and performance application software developers.

  4. Group Motivation and Group Task Performance: The Expectancy-Valence Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    Investigated effects of group motivation on group task performance. Created two levels of valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence variable reflected on group productivity on unstructured and task persistence measures. Expectancy variable's effect was on task persistence measure. Instrumentality affected group productivity on structured…

  5. Collective Talent : A Study of Improvisational Group Performance in Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Jacqueline B.

    2006-01-01

    Improvised music performance offers remarkable and dramatic examples of the talented ways in which group members can interact and inspire each other. Such musical sessions can serve as examples of improvised performance of groups in general. This thesis reports on ways of initiating and supporting t

  6. Collective Talent : A Study of Improvisational Group Performance in Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Jacqueline B.

    2006-01-01

    Improvised music performance offers remarkable and dramatic examples of the talented ways in which group members can interact and inspire each other. Such musical sessions can serve as examples of improvised performance of groups in general. This thesis reports on ways of initiating and supporting

  7. Collective Talent : A Study of Improvisational Group Performance in Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Jacqueline B.

    2006-01-01

    Improvised music performance offers remarkable and dramatic examples of the talented ways in which group members can interact and inspire each other. Such musical sessions can serve as examples of improvised performance of groups in general. This thesis reports on ways of initiating and supporting t

  8. Sex Differences in Group Interaction and Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; And Others

    Research on gender differences in group performance suggests that males excel at brainstorming while females excel at human relations and integration. To investigate the relations among gender, interaction style, and task performance, 264 college students (130 female, 134 male) worked in three person same sex groups on a production task which…

  9. A FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF GROUP AND NON-GROUP FIRMS IN TEXTILE SECTOR OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishtiaq AHMAD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a developing economy and business groups are key players of the Pakistan’s economy. Previous research evidence shows that in the emerging economies group affiliation creates value for the firms. This study is intended to empirically investigate to know that whether group affiliated (GA firms perform financially better than non-group affiliated firms or not? GA firms in emerging economies can have better financial performance by sharing tangible and intangible resources at group level. The financial ratio is used to compare performance of affiliated and non-group affiliated firms by using the data of 70 textile firms listed at Karachi Stock Exchange(now Pakistan Stock Exchange covering a period from 2008 to 2012. Based on mean values of return on assets (ROA, results of the study show that GA firms have higher financial performance than non-group affiliated firms in each year and over all five years.

  10. Collective Talent : A Study of Improvisational Group Performance in Music

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, de, F.

    2006-01-01

    Improvised music performance offers remarkable and dramatic examples of the talented ways in which group members can interact and inspire each other. Such musical sessions can serve as examples of improvised performance of groups in general. This thesis reports on ways of initiating and supporting talented group improvisation. It addresses the question which interface is needed to generate collectives with collective talent. Inspired by Pask's Conversation Theory, the author has developed a t...

  11. Group Performance Under Experienced and Inexperienced Leaders; A Validation Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Fred E.; Chemers, Martin M.

    This study investigated the effect of experience and training on the performance of Belgian naval officers in an experimental leadership situation. As in a previous study conducted with Belgian naval personnel, group performance under trained and experienced officers was not significantly better than performance under untrained recruits. Moreover,…

  12. Prediction of three-dimensional arm trajectories based on ECoG signals recorded from human sensorimotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Yasuhiko; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Shin, Duk; Fukuma, Ryohei; Chen, Chao; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Natsue; Hirata, Masayuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Koike, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Brain-machine interface techniques have been applied in a number of studies to control neuromotor prostheses and for neurorehabilitation in the hopes of providing a means to restore lost motor function. Electrocorticography (ECoG) has seen recent use in this regard because it offers a higher spatiotemporal resolution than non-invasive EEG and is less invasive than intracortical microelectrodes. Although several studies have already succeeded in the inference of computer cursor trajectories and finger flexions using human ECoG signals, precise three-dimensional (3D) trajectory reconstruction for a human limb from ECoG has not yet been achieved. In this study, we predicted 3D arm trajectories in time series from ECoG signals in humans using a novel preprocessing method and a sparse linear regression. Average Pearson's correlation coefficients and normalized root-mean-square errors between predicted and actual trajectories were 0.44~0.73 and 0.18~0.42, respectively, confirming the feasibility of predicting 3D arm trajectories from ECoG. We foresee this method contributing to future advancements in neuroprosthesis and neurorehabilitation technology.

  13. Prediction of three-dimensional arm trajectories based on ECoG signals recorded from human sensorimotor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Nakanishi

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interface techniques have been applied in a number of studies to control neuromotor prostheses and for neurorehabilitation in the hopes of providing a means to restore lost motor function. Electrocorticography (ECoG has seen recent use in this regard because it offers a higher spatiotemporal resolution than non-invasive EEG and is less invasive than intracortical microelectrodes. Although several studies have already succeeded in the inference of computer cursor trajectories and finger flexions using human ECoG signals, precise three-dimensional (3D trajectory reconstruction for a human limb from ECoG has not yet been achieved. In this study, we predicted 3D arm trajectories in time series from ECoG signals in humans using a novel preprocessing method and a sparse linear regression. Average Pearson's correlation coefficients and normalized root-mean-square errors between predicted and actual trajectories were 0.44~0.73 and 0.18~0.42, respectively, confirming the feasibility of predicting 3D arm trajectories from ECoG. We foresee this method contributing to future advancements in neuroprosthesis and neurorehabilitation technology.

  14. Verbal and Performance IQ for Discrimination Among Psychiatric Diagnostic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loro, Bert; Woodward, J. Arthur

    1976-01-01

    In view of the practical and theoretical importance of the issues involved, the current research was undertaken to investigate the diagnostic relevance of WAIS Verbal and Performance IQ in a large sample of psychiatric patients that included a variety of functional diagnostic groups as well as groups of mentally deficient and organic brain…

  15. Business group performance, context, and strategy: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Carney (Michael); E.R. Gedajlovic (Eric); P.P.M.A.R. Heugens (Pursey); M. van Essen (Marc); J. van Oosterhout (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractResearch on business groups ?legally independent firms tied together in a variety of formal and informal ways ?is accelerating, but four questions still lack a definitive answer: Does business group membership enhance or diminish firm performance? Are members comparatively better off in

  16. Dynamic Task Performance, Cohesion, and Communications in Human Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Luis Felipe; Passino, Kevin M

    2016-10-01

    In the study of the behavior of human groups, it has been observed that there is a strong interaction between the cohesiveness of the group, its performance when the group has to solve a task, and the patterns of communication between the members of the group. Developing mathematical and computational tools for the analysis and design of task-solving groups that are not only cohesive but also perform well is of importance in social sciences, organizational management, and engineering. In this paper, we model a human group as a dynamical system whose behavior is driven by a task optimization process and the interaction between subsystems that represent the members of the group interconnected according to a given communication network. These interactions are described as attractions and repulsions among members. We show that the dynamics characterized by the proposed mathematical model are qualitatively consistent with those observed in real-human groups, where the key aspect is that the attraction patterns in the group and the commitment to solve the task are not static but change over time. Through a theoretical analysis of the system we provide conditions on the parameters that allow the group to have cohesive behaviors, and Monte Carlo simulations are used to study group dynamics for different sets of parameters, communication topologies, and tasks to solve.

  17. When does power disparity help or hurt group performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakci, Murat; Greer, Lindred L; Groenen, Patrick J F

    2016-03-01

    Power differences are ubiquitous in social settings. However, the question of whether groups with higher or lower power disparity achieve better performance has thus far received conflicting answers. To address this issue, we identify 3 underlying assumptions in the literature that may have led to these divergent findings, including a myopic focus on static hierarchies, an assumption that those at the top of hierarchies are competent at group tasks, and an assumption that equality is not possible. We employ a multimethod set of studies to examine these assumptions and to understand when power disparity will help or harm group performance. First, our agent-based simulation analyses show that by unpacking these common implicit assumptions in power research, we can explain earlier disparate findings--power disparity benefits group performance when it is dynamically aligned with the power holder's task competence, and harms group performance when held constant and/or is not aligned with task competence. Second, our empirical findings in both a field study of fraud investigation groups and a multiround laboratory study corroborate the simulation results. We thereby contribute to research on power by highlighting a dynamic understanding of power in groups and explaining how current implicit assumptions may lead to opposing findings.

  18. Management behavior, group climate and performance appraisal at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderlink, G.; Clark, L. P.; Bernstein, W. M.; Burke, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The relationships among manager behavior, group climate and managerial effectiveness are examined. Survey data were collected from 435 GM14-15 managers and their subordinates at NASA concerning management practices and perceptions of the group environment. Performance ratings of managers were obtained from their superiors. The results strongly supported a causal model in which subordinates' climate perceptions mediate the effects of manager behavior on performance. That is, the development of group climate provides the process through which the effects of manager practices may be understood. Analyses also revealed that the function performed by a manager and his group (e.g., research) influenced the specific nature of the causal dynamics. Some implications of the results for management training and development are discussed.

  19. China Folk Shadow Play Performing Group in Austria and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Sent by the CPAFFC,the Daoqing Shadow Play Performing Group(alias Shi Family Troupe) of Huanxian County,Gansu Province made a performance tour in Austria and Germany from October 22 to November 5,2007,during which it attended the International Puppet Theatre Festival in Mistelbach of Austria and gave performance at the opening ceremony of the International Puppet Art Festival in Bad Kreuznach of Germany.The performance tour was made at the invitation of the Austrian Association for Promotion of Friendship and Cultural Relations with China(AAPFCRC).

  20. The Impact of Perceived Loafing and Collective Efficacy on Group Goal Processes and Group Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey; Klein

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents two studies investigating the influence of social perceptions (perceived loafing, collective efficacy, and cohesion) on group goal processes (difficulty and commitment) and group performance. The role of group goal processes as mediators of the relationships between social perception variables and group performance was also tested. The first study involved a sample of 247 college students in 59 groups working on a team interdependent, divisible academic task. Results supported all but one hypothesis. The mediation hypothesis was not supported as both group goal and social perception variables related similarly to group performance. The second study employed a different design to address some limitations of the first study and to extend those findings. Results from the second study, using 383 college students in 101 groups, were consistent with Study 1 with two exceptions. First, the mediation hypothesis was supported in Study 2, replicating the findings of Klein and Mulvey (1995). Second, anticipated lower effort and the sucker effect, additional intervening variables examined in Study 2, partially mediated the relationship between perceived loafing and collective goal difficulty as hypothesized. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  1. Performance and consistency of indicator groups in two biodiversity hotspots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Trindade-Filho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a world limited by data availability and limited funds for conservation, scientists and practitioners must use indicator groups to define spatial conservation priorities. Several studies have evaluated the effectiveness of indicator groups, but still little is known about the consistency in performance of these groups in different regions, which would allow their a priori selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically examined the effectiveness and the consistency of nine indicator groups in representing mammal species in two top-ranked Biodiversity Hotspots (BH: the Brazilian Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest. To test for group effectiveness we first found the best sets of sites able to maximize the representation of each indicator group in the BH and then calculated the average representation of different target species by the indicator groups in the BH. We considered consistent indicator groups whose representation of target species was not statistically different between BH. We called effective those groups that outperformed the target-species representation achieved by random sets of species. Effective indicator groups required the selection of less than 2% of the BH area for representing target species. Restricted-range species were the most effective indicators for the representation of all mammal diversity as well as target species. It was also the only group with high consistency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that several indicator groups could be applied as shortcuts for representing mammal species in the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest to develop conservation plans, however, only restricted-range species consistently held as the most effective indicator group for such a task. This group is of particular importance in conservation planning as it captures high diversity of endemic and endangered species.

  2. Group performance is maximized by hierarchical competence distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Zafeiris, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Groups of people or even robots often face problems they need to solve together. Examples include collectively searching for resources, choosing when and where to invest time and effort, and many more. Although a hierarchical ordering of the relevance of the group members' inputs during collective decision making is abundant, a quantitative demonstration of its origin and advantages using a generic approach has not been described yet. Here we introduce a family of models based on the most general features of group decision making to show that the optimal distribution of competences is a highly skewed function with a structured fat tail. Our results have been obtained by optimizing the groups' compositions through identifying the best performing distributions for both the competences and for the members' flexibilities/pliancies. Potential applications include choosing the best composition for a group intended to solve a given task.

  3. Piano Performance: Group Classes for the Lifelong Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative research presents data relating to eight amateur pianists who completed a 10-week Piano Performance course for lifelong learners at the University of York, UK. This article discusses the development of learning through the impact of group participation, challenges faced by learners and pedagogical strategies used by the leader to…

  4. 美國著名癌症機構ASCO、ECOG和MSKCC簡介%Introduction for ASCO,ECOG,MSKCC in USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吳懷申

    2004-01-01

    @@ 中國抗癌協會臨床腫瘤學協作中心(Chinese Societyof Clinical Oncology,CSCO)應美國臨床腫瘤學會(American Society of Clinical Oncology, ASCO)邀請,在吳孟超院士、孫燕院士和儲大同教授的共同率領下,CSCO高層代表團一行10人於2003年12月7日-14日專程赴美國,對ASCO、美國東部腫瘤協作組(Eastern Cooperative Oncologv Group,ECOG)和紐約斯隆-凱特林紀念癌症中心(Memorial Sloan-KetteringCancer Center,MSKCC)進行了友好訪問.

  5. Decoding Finger Flexion using amplitude modulation from band-specific ECoG

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Nanying

    2009-01-01

    EEG-BCIs have been well studied in the past decades and implemented into several famous applications, like P300 speller and wheelchair controller. However, these interfaces are indirect due to low spatial resolution of EEG. Recently, direct ECoG-BCIs attract intensive attention because ECoG provides a higher spatial resolution and signal quality. This makes possible localization of the source of neural signals with respect to certain brain functions. In this article, we present a realization of ECoG-BCIs for finger flexion prediction provided by BCI competition IV. Methods for finger flexion prediction including feature extraction and selection are provided in this article. Results show that the predicted finger movement is highly correlated with the true movement when we use band-specific amplitude modulation.

  6. Prevalence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms and their influence on nutritional state and performance status in patients with different primary tumors receiving palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovio, Giacomo; Fonte, Maria Luisa; Baiardi, Paola

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms, nutritional balance, and performance status in patients receiving palliative care for advanced cancers originating in different sites. We studied a total of 105 patients. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status score (ECOG-PS), dietary intakes, anthropometric measures, and some serum proteins were determined. Unintentional weight loss, alterations in anthropometric measures, and highest number of symptoms were greater in patients with lung and stomach cancer. No differences were found in ECOG-PS according to cancer site. Patients with gastric or lung cancer have most evidence of protein-calorie malnutrition and a higher prevalence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The performance status is not affected by tumor site. Early nutritional support should be planned for all patients with cancer, especially for patients with gastric or lung cancer.

  7. Guidelines for Performing Dermatologic Ultrasound Examinations by the DERMUS Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortsman, Ximena; Alfageme, Fernando; Roustan, Gaston; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Martorell, Antonio; Catalano, Orlando; Scotto di Santolo, Maria; Zarchi, Kian; Bouer, Marcio; Gonzalez, Claudia; Bard, Robert; Mandava, Anitha; Gaitini, Diana

    2016-03-01

    To support standardization for performing dermatologic ultrasound examinations. An international working group, called DERMUS (Dermatologic Ultrasound), was formed, composed of physicians who have been working on a regular basis and publishing in peer-reviewed articles on dermatologic ultrasound. A questionnaire on 5 critical issues about performance of the examinations was prepared and distributed by e-mail. The areas of discussion included technical aspects, main areas of application, minimum number of examinations per year required for assessing competence, qualifications of the personnel in charge of the examination, and organization of courses. Final recommendations were approved on the basis of the agreement of more than 50% of the members. The minimum frequency recommended for performing dermatologic examinations was 15 MHz. Routine use of color Doppler ultrasound and the performance of spectral curve analysis for assessing the main vascularity of lesions were suggested. Three-dimensional reconstructions were considered optional. The main dermatologic applications were benign tumors, skin cancer, vascular anomalies, cosmetic field, nail disorders, and inflammatory diseases. The minimum number of examinations per year suggested by the group for assessing competence was 300. A physician and not a sonographer was recommended to be the person in charge of performing the examination. On course organization, a minimum of 2 levels of complexity (basic and advanced) was suggested. There is a need to standardize the performance and quality of dermatologic ultrasound examinations. The present guidelines written by an international group of specialists in the field may support this objective. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Communication as group process media of aircrew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, B. G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    This study of group process was motivated by a high-fidelity flight simulator project in which aircrew performance was found to be better when the crew had recently flown together. Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (Captain and First Officer), were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech act typology adapted for the flightdeck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel with respect to information exchange and validation and greater First Officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews while NFT crews engaged in more non-task discourse, a speech mode less structured by roles and probably serving a more interpersonal function. Relationships between the speech categories themselves, representing linguistic, and role-related interdependencies provide guidelines for interpreting the primary findings.

  9. Communication as group process media of aircrew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, B. G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    This study of group process was motivated by a high-fidelity flight simulator project in which aircrew performance was found to be better when the crew had recently flown together. Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (Captain and First Officer), were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech act typology adapted for the flightdeck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel with respect to information exchange and validation and greater First Officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews while NFT crews engaged in more non-task discourse, a speech mode less structured by roles and probably serving a more interpersonal function. Relationships between the speech categories themselves, representing linguistic, and role-related interdependencies provide guidelines for interpreting the primary findings.

  10. Malaysian Students' Scientific Argumentation: Do groups perform better than individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Lee Ling; Surif, Johari; Hau Seng, Cher

    2015-02-01

    The practices of argumentation have recently been upheld as an important need to develop students' understanding of scientific concepts. However, the present education system in Malaysia is still largely examination-based and teacher-oriented. Thus, this study aims to examine the mastery level of scientific argumentation and its scheme among Malaysian secondary-level science students. A total of 120 students were randomly assigned to answer a Scientific Argumentation Test (SAT), either individually or in a group. Based on the answers, two groups of students, one who have answered with valid scientific concepts and another who have answered with invalid concepts, were identified and interviewed. Quantitative analysis was performed on the SAT results to determine students' mastery of scientific argumentation, and their argumentation schemes were assessed using content analysis performed on the interview transcripts. The results showed that students were weak in the construction of scientific arguments with valid concepts. Moreover, most of the constructed arguments consisted of misconceptions. The results also showed that students who were involved in group argumentation tended to have a more complex argumentation scheme, compared to individual students. As a group, students were able to argue with more scientific elements and showed their understanding of macro and submicro concepts. Hence, science teachers need to emphasize on the construction of scientific argumentation in their teaching, especially at the macro, submicro, and symbolic levels of representations, to ensure students' understanding of the concepts. This will therefore enhance their mastery of scientific argumentation and improve their content knowledge.

  11. What makes a 'good group'? Exploring the characteristics and performance of undergraduate student groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, S B; Davis, R C; Goode, N T; May, S A

    2017-03-01

    Group work forms the foundation for much of student learning within higher education, and has many educational, social and professional benefits. This study aimed to explore the determinants of success or failure for undergraduate student teams and to define a 'good group' through considering three aspects of group success: the task, the individuals, and the team. We employed a mixed methodology, combining demographic data with qualitative observations and task and peer evaluation scores. We determined associations between group dynamic and behaviour, demographic composition, member personalities and attitudes towards one another, and task success. We also employed a cluster analysis to create a model outlining the attributes of a good small group learning team in veterinary education. This model highlights that student groups differ in measures of their effectiveness as teams, independent of their task performance. On the basis of this, we suggest that groups who achieve high marks in tasks cannot be assumed to have acquired team working skills, and therefore if these are important as a learning outcome, they must be assessed directly alongside the task output.

  12. Switching Markov decoders for asynchronous trajectory reconstruction from ECoG signals in monkeys for BCI applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Marie-Caroline; Aksenova, Tetiana

    2017-03-10

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are systems which translate brain neural activity into commands for external devices. BCI users generally alternate between No-Control (NC) and Intentional Control (IC) periods. NC/IC discrimination is crucial for clinical BCIs, particularly when they provide neural control over complex effectors such as exoskeletons. Numerous BCI decoders focus on the estimation of continuously-valued limb trajectories from neural signals. The integration of NC support into continuous decoders is investigated in the present article. Most discrete/continuous BCI hybrid decoders rely on static state models which don't exploit the dynamic of NC/IC state succession. A hybrid decoder, referred to as Markov Switching Linear Model (MSLM), is proposed in the present article. The MSLM assumes that the NC/IC state sequence is generated by a first-order Markov chain, and performs dynamic NC/IC state detection. Linear continuous movement models are probabilistically combined using the NC and IC state posterior probabilities yielded by the state decoder. The proposed decoder is evaluated for the task of asynchronous wrist position decoding from high dimensional space-time-frequency ElectroCorticoGraphic (ECoG) features in monkeys. The MSLM is compared with another dynamic hybrid decoder proposed in the literature, namely a Switching Kalman Filter (SKF). A comparison is additionally drawn with a Wiener filter decoder which infers NC states by thresholding trajectory estimates. The MSLM decoder is found to outperform both the SKF and the thresholded Wiener filter decoder in terms of False Positive Ratio and NC/IC state detection error. It additionally surpasses the SKF with respect to the Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Root Mean Squared Error between true and estimated continuous trajectories.

  13. Work group diversity and group performance: an integrative model and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Daan; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Homan, Astrid C

    2004-12-01

    Research on the relationship between work group diversity and performance has yielded inconsistent results. To address this problem, the authors propose the categorization-elaboration model (CEM), which reconceptualizes and integrates information/decision making and social categorization perspectives on work-group diversity and performance. The CEM incorporates mediator and moderator variables that typically have been ignored in diversity research and incorporates the view that information/decision making and social categorization processes interact such that intergroup biases flowing from social categorization disrupt the elaboration (in-depth processing) of task-relevant information and perspectives. In addition, the authors propose that attempts to link the positive and negative effects of diversity to specific types of diversity should be abandoned in favor of the assumption that all dimensions of diversity may have positive as well as negative effects. The ways in which these propositions may set the agenda for future research in diversity are discussed.

  14. Communication as group process mediator of aircrew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton

    1989-01-01

    Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (captain and first officer) were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech-act typology adapted for the flight-deck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel and greater first officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews, while NFT crews engaged in more nontask discourse.

  15. Communication as group process mediator of aircrew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton

    1989-01-01

    Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (captain and first officer) were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech-act typology adapted for the flight-deck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel and greater first officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews, while NFT crews engaged in more nontask discourse.

  16. Clinical features and treatment outcome of very elderly patients over 80 years old with multiple myeloma: comparison with patients in different age groups in the era of novel agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsue, Kosei; Matsue, Yuya; Fujisawa, Manabu; Fukumoto, Kota; Suehara, Yasuhito; Sugihara, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Masami

    2016-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 175 consecutive patients admitted to our hospital between April 2004 and June 2014, and identified 42 (24%), 80 (46%), and 53 (30%) patients ≥ 80, 66-79, and ≤ 65 years old, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of the ≥ 80, 66-79, and ≤ 65 years old groups were 19.1, 26.3, and 54.3 months, and 31.9, 54.8, and 83.8 months, respectively. Patients ≥ 80 but not ≤ 79 years old with ECOG performance score (PS) ≥ 3 and/or Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) ≥ 5 showed significantly shorter survival. ECOG PS and CCI predicted the treatment outcome of patients ≥ 80 but did not predict ≤ 79 years old.

  17. Effect of group organization on the performance of cooperative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Reia, Sandro M

    2016-01-01

    Problem-solving competence at group level is influenced by the structure of the social networks and so it may shed light on the organization patterns of gregarious animals. Here we use an agent-based model to investigate whether the ubiquity of hierarchical networks in nature could be explained as the result of a selection pressure favoring problem-solving efficiency. The task of the agents is to find the global maxima of NK fitness landscapes and the agents cooperate by broadcasting messages informing on their fitness to the group. This information is then used to imitate, with a certain probability, the fittest agent in their influence networks. For rugged landscapes, we find that the modular organization of the hierarchical network with its high degree of clustering eases the escape from the local maxima, resulting in a superior performance as compared with the scale-free and the random networks. The optimal performance in a rugged landscape is achieved by letting the main hub to be only slightly more prop...

  18. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Vijayakumar, M.

    2014-07-03

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interface between graphene and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BMIM OTf) were carried out to gain molecular-level insights into the performance of graphene-based supercapacitors and, in particular, determine the effects of the presence of oxygen-containing defects at the graphene surface on their integral capacitance. The MD simulations predict that increasing the surface coverage of hydroxyl groups negatively affects the integral capacitance, whereas the effect of the presence of epoxy groups is much less significant. The calculated variations in capacitance are found to be directly correlated to the interfacial structure. Indeed, hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups and SO3 anion moieties prevents BMIM+ and OTf- molecules from interacting favorably in the dense interfacial layer and restrains the orientation and mobility of OTf- ions, thereby reducing the permittivity of the ionic liquid at the interface. The results of the molecular simulations can facilitate the rational design of electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  19. BOLD Consistently Matches Electrophysiology in Human Sensorimotor Cortex at Increasing Movement Rates: A Combined 7T fMRI and ECoG Study on Neurovascular Coupling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siero, Jeroen CW; Hermes, Dora; Hoogduin, Hans; Luijten, Peter R; Petridou, Natalia; Ramsey, Nick F

    2013-01-01

    .... We combined BOLD fMRI at 7T and intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) to assess the relationship between BOLD and neuronal population activity in human sensorimotor cortex using a motor task with increasing movement rates...

  20. Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG and Hospital Business Performance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szynkiewicz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present the possibility of using Diagnosis- Related Groups (DRG in the hospital management process and to analyse the need for business performance management on the part of hospital management staff. The following research methods were used: literature analysis, case studies, and poll analysis. It is not possible to increase the effectiveness of operation of healthcare entities without increasing the importance of IT systems and using DRG more effectively in the management process. Training users in IT and the use of DRGs is important to achieving hospital effectiveness. The increased importance of analyses and planning in a hospital should be reflected in the organisational structure of service providers. Hospital controllers should have a similar role to those present in most companies in other industries.

  1. Online control of a humanoid robot through hand movement imagination using CSP and ECoG based features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapeller, C; Gergondet, P; Kamada, K; Ogawa, H; Takeuchi, F; Ortner, R; Pruckl, R; Kheddar, A; Scharinger, J; Guger, C

    2015-08-01

    Intention recognition through decoding brain activity could lead to a powerful and independent Brain-Computer-Interface (BCI) allowing for intuitive control of devices like robots. A common strategy for realizing such a system is the motor imagery (MI) BCI using electroencephalography (EEG). Changing to invasive recordings like electrocorticography (ECoG) allows extracting very robust features and easy introduction of an idle state, which might simplify the mental task and allow the subject to focus on the environment. Especially for multi-channel recordings like ECoG, common spatial patterns (CSP) provide a powerful tool for feature optimization and dimensionality reduction. This work focuses on an invasive and independent MI BCI that allows triggering from an idle state, and therefore facilitates tele-operation of a humanoid robot. The task was to lift a can with the robot's hand. One subject participated and reached 95.4 % mean online accuracy after six runs of 40 trials. To our knowledge, this is the first online experiment with a MI BCI using CSPs from ECoG signals.

  2. Autotransfusion performed on a patient with cis AB blood group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, S; Kitahata, H; Kimura, H; Tanaka, K; Oshita, S

    1999-09-01

    Cis AB blood group is a rare variant of the AB blood group resulting from inheritance of both A and B genes on one chromosome. It may lead to misclassification in ABO grouping and clinical misdiagnosis as a result of its divergence from the laws of Landsteiner and Mendel. We encountered a case of cis AB blood group, and we found that autotransfusion was useful during surgery in this patient with a rare blood group.

  3. Physician group cultural dimensions and quality performance indicators: not all is equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalarz, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A group practice culture survey measured the cultural dimensions of physician groups, and their relationship to group quality performance was explored. Cultural dimensions were statistically significant in explaining variance of quality performance among the physician groups studied. However, different cultural dimensions contributed to each of the quality performance indicators measured. Thus, cultural dimensions are important factors influencing physician groups' quality performance.

  4. Group Creativity: Musical Performance and Collaboration Psychology of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, R. Keith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three defining characteristics of group creativity: improvisation, collaboration and emergence. To demonstrate these three characteristics, I present several examples of group creativity in both music and theater. Then I explore how structure and improvisation are always both present in group creativity. Improvisations…

  5. A New Group Signature Scheme and Its Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jianfeng; YANG Bo; Chiam Tee Chye; Kot Chichung Alex

    2001-01-01

    Group signatures allow every memberof a group to sign some given messages on behalf of thegroup anonymously. Only a designated group man-ager can open a signature to reveal the identity of thesigner. To the best of our knowledge, all known groupsignature solutions have some undesirable properties.In this paper, we propose a new group signaturescheme combining linear codes and known digital sig-nature methods. This scheme possesses all group sig-nature properties including coalition-resistance, andcan be implemented easily. The security of this signa-ture scheme is determined by the difficulty of discretelogarithm problem over finite fields.

  6. The Impact of Group Diversity on Class Performance: Evidence from College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Zeynep; Owan, Hideo; Pan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We combine class performance data from an undergraduate management course with students' personal records to examine how group diversity affects group work performance and individual learning. Students are exogenously assigned to groups. We find that, on average, male-dominant groups performed worse in their group work and learned less (based…

  7. The Impact of Group Diversity on Class Performance: Evidence from College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Zeynep; Owan, Hideo; Pan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We combine class performance data from an undergraduate management course with students' personal records to examine how group diversity affects group work performance and individual learning. Students are exogenously assigned to groups. We find that, on average, male-dominant groups performed worse in their group work and learned less (based…

  8. What Makes a "Good Group"? Exploring the Characteristics and Performance of Undergraduate Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, S. B.; Davis, R. C.; Goode, N. T.; May, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Group work forms the foundation for much of student learning within higher education, and has many educational, social and professional benefits. This study aimed to explore the determinants of success or failure for undergraduate student teams and to define a "good group" through considering three aspects of group success: the task, the…

  9. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.

    2000-01-01

    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of pro

  10. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.

    2000-01-01

    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of

  11. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.

    2000-01-01

    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of pro

  12. On the comparison of group performance with categorical data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Herrero

    Full Text Available There are many different evaluation problems that involve several groups (societies, firms or institutions whose members can be classified into ordered categories, pursuant to their characteristics or their achievements. This paper addresses these types of problems and provides an evaluation criterion based on the distribution of the agents across categories. The starting point is that of dominance relations in pair-wise comparisons. We say that group i dominates group j when the expected category of a member of i is higher than the expected category of a member of j. We introduce the notion of relative advantage of a group to extend this principle to multi-group comparisons and show that there is a unique evaluation function that ranks all groups consistently in terms of this criterion. This function associates to each evaluation problem the (unique dominant eigenvector of a matrix whose entries describe the dominance relations between groups in pair-wise comparisons. The working of the model is illustrated by means of three different applications.

  13. Performance study on Gossip-based group key distribution protocal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Yan; Ma Jiaqing; Zhong Yiping; Zhang Shiyong

    2006-01-01

    Group key distribution is faced with two important problems, i.e. reliability and scalability, to support security multicast for large and dynamic groups. With group member increasing, traditional reliable multicast protocol can not deal with them fully. Gossip-based group key distribution idea for wide-area dissemination was provided. It is based on an gossip-based loss recovery control mechanism. It can provide a probabilistic reliable guarantee for a information dissemination to reach every group member, which can achieve scalability and reliability. To achieve full reliability, three layers protocol model in group key distribution was provided. One is best effect layer, which provides unreliable dissemination. Other is gossip-based loss recovery layer, which provides probabilistic reliable guarantee. Last is vsync-based layer, which provide deterministic loss recovery. We integrate probabilistic loss recovery method with deterministic one. The model possess scalability that probabilistic method has and full reliability prosthesis by vsync-based. To evaluate the effectiveness of gossip technique in scalable and reliable multicast protocols. We have compared gossip protocol with other reliable multicast protocols. Experimental result shows that gossip protocol has better scalability than other.

  14. Distributed communication and psychosocial performance in simulated space dwelling groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, R. D.; Brady, J. V.; Hursh, S. R.; Ragusa, L. C.; Rouse, C. O.; Gasior, E. D.

    2005-05-01

    The present report describes the development and application of a distributed interactive multi-person simulation in a computer-generated planetary environment as an experimental test bed for modeling the human performance effects of variations in the types of communication modes available, and in the types of stress and incentive conditions underlying the completion of mission goals. The results demonstrated a high degree of interchangeability between communication modes (audio, text) when one mode was not available. Additionally, the addition of time pressure stress to complete tasks resulted in a reduction in performance effectiveness, and these performance reductions were ameliorated via the introduction of positive incentives contingent upon improved performances. The results obtained confirmed that cooperative and productive psychosocial interactions can be maintained between individually isolated and dispersed members of simulated spaceflight crews communicating and problem-solving effectively over extended time intervals without the benefit of one another's physical presence.

  15. Detailed Performance Calculations: Georgia Institute of Technology Group, Appendix E

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Conditions for system intercomparison; signal strength evaluation; background total source strength; signal-to-noise ratio; performance of present Georgia Tech system; and special comments on current Georgia Tech system are discussed.

  16. Influence of Group Formation Choices on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethamraju, Ravi; Borman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    With its multidisciplinary and applied foci, team-working skills are seen as especially critical in business courses in general and in business information systems courses in particular, and are specifically incorporated into desired graduate attributes by many universities. Past research has focused on the benefits of group working but little…

  17. Group cohesion, task performance, and the experimenter expectancy effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Studied the effects of cohesion on task fulfillment and explored the influence of task fulfillment on the initial level of cohesion. Within 4-person groups of undergraduates, cohesion was manipulated successfully by a triple procedure. The level of cohesion was ascertained directly after the inducti

  18. Reality at odds with perceptions: narcissistic leaders and group performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nevicka, B.; ten Velden, F.S.; de Hoogh, A.H.B.; van Vianen, A.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Although narcissistic individuals are generally perceived as arrogant and overly dominant, they are particularly skilled at radiating an image of a prototypically effective leader. As a result, they tend to emerge as leaders in group settings. Despite people’s positive perceptions of narcissists as

  19. Reality at odds with perceptions: narcissistic leaders and group performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nevicka, B.; ten Velden, F.S.; de Hoogh, A.H.B.; van Vianen, A.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Although narcissistic individuals are generally perceived as arrogant and overly dominant, they are particularly skilled at radiating an image of a prototypically effective leader. As a result, they tend to emerge as leaders in group settings. Despite people’s positive perceptions of narcissists as

  20. Software engineering group work - Personality, patterns and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David G.; Hall, Tracy; Hannay, Jo Erskine; Pfahl, Dietmar; Acuña, Silvia T.

    2010-01-01

    This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive Version of Record was published in SIGMIS-CPR '10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1796900.1796921 Proceedings of the 2010 Special Interest Group on Management Information System's 48th annual conference on Computer personnel research on Computer personnel research (Vancouver, BC, Canada) Software Engineering has been a fundamental part of many computing undergraduate cour...

  1. Fuzzy Logic Based Group Maturity Rating for Software Performance Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Driven by market requirements, software services organizations have adopted various software engineering process models (such as capability maturity model (CMM), capability maturity model integration (CMMI), ISO 9001:2000, etc.) and practice of the project management concepts defined in the project management body of knowledge. While this has definitely helped organizations to bring some methods into the software development madness, there always exists a demand for comparing various groups within the organization in terms of the practice of these defined process models. Even though there exist many metrics for comparison, considering the variety of projects in terms of technology, life cycle, etc., finding a single metric that caters to this is a difficult task. This paper proposes a model for arriving at a rating on group maturity within the organization. Considering the linguistic or imprecise and uncertain nature of software measurements, fuzzy logic approach is used for the proposed model. Without the barriers like technology or life cycle difference, the proposed model helps the organization to compare different groups within it with reasonable precision.

  2. Culture and Work-Groups. 1: Effect on Information Presentation on Group Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and as such ought to realize nis „eeds, and goa,s of the (i„)group; ,b) socia , no™ an, du.y defined by the g.oup ^ ,Ka„ measure Seeking; (e) „efiefs...Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Johnston, W. (1991). Global work force 2000: The new world labor market . Harvard Business Review. March-April 115 - 127. WorkGroups...geometric shapes or a combination of numerals and shapes or numerals and colors. Regardless of the media ’used to convey this information about the city

  3. Famers’ satisfaction with group market arrangements as a measure of group market performance: A transaction cost analysis of Non Timber Forest Products’ producer groups in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foundjem Tita, D.; Haese, D' M.; Degrande, A.; Tchoundjeu, Z.; Damme, Van P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of Non Timber Forest Product (NTFP) group market initiatives by examining whether these groups meet the objectives for which they were created. Group marketing has often been cited as one way through which farmers can increase their access to markets by improving

  4. Interactive affective sharing versus non-interactive affective sharing in work groups : Comparative effects of group affect on work group performance and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klep, Annefloor; Wisse, Barbara; Van Der Flier, Henk

    2011-01-01

    This study explores whether the dynamic path to group affect, which is characterized by interactive affective sharing processes, yields different effects on task performance and group dynamics than the static path to group affect, which arises from non-interactive affective sharing. The results of o

  5. Heart cycle-related effects on event-related potentials, spectral power changes, and connectivity patterns in the human ECoG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Markus; Aertsen, Ad; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Ball, Tonio

    2013-11-01

    The perception of one's own heartbeat is a fundamental interoceptive process that involves cortical and subcortical structures. Yet, the precise spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns underlying the cortical information processing have remained largely elusive. Although the high temporal and spatial resolution of electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings is increasingly being exploited in functional neuroimaging, it has not been used to study heart cycle-related effects. Here, we addressed the capacity of ECoG to characterize neuronal signals within the cardiac cycle, as well as to disentangle them from heart cycle-related artifacts. Based on topographical distribution and latency, we identified a biphasic potential within the primary somatosensory cortex, which likely constitutes a heartbeat-evoked potential (HEP) of neuronal origin. We also found two different types of artifacts: i) oscillatory potential changes with a frequency identical to the heart pulse rate, which probably represent pulsatility artifacts and ii) sharp potentials synchronized to the R-peak, corresponding to the onset of ventricular contraction and the cardiac field artifact (CFA) in EEG. Finally, we show that heart cycle-related effects induce pronounced phase-synchrony patterns in the ECoG and that this kind of correlation patterns, which may confound ECoG connectivity studies, can be reduced by a suitable correction algorithm. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first one to show a focally localized cortical HEP that could be clearly and consistently observed over subjects, suggesting a basic role of primary sensory cortex in processing of heart-related sensory inputs. We also conclude that taking into account and reducing heart cycle-related effects may be advantageous for many ECoG studies, and are of crucial importance, particularly for ECoG-based connectivity studies. Thus, in summary, although ECoG poses new challenges, it opens up new possibilities for the investigation of

  6. Porter's generic strategies, strategic groups and firm performance in the construction industry : a complementary test

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Azorín, José Francisco; Quer Ramón, Diego

    2003-01-01

    A central theme in the strategic groups literature is that there is a theoretical relationship between groups and firm performance. However, the empirical evidence is conflicting. The aim of this research is to study this linkage through two analysis. Thus, the analysis that has been traditionally used (performance differences between groups) is complemented with an analysis of performance differences within each group. In order to set up strategic groups, we carry out an analysis about the...

  7. High-performance functional Renormalization Group calculations for interacting fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, J.; Sánchez de la Peña, D.; Rohe, D.; Di Napoli, E.; Honerkamp, C.; Maier, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    We derive a novel computational scheme for functional Renormalization Group (fRG) calculations for interacting fermions on 2D lattices. The scheme is based on the exchange parametrization fRG for the two-fermion interaction, with additional insertions of truncated partitions of unity. These insertions decouple the fermionic propagators from the exchange propagators and lead to a separation of the underlying equations. We demonstrate that this separation is numerically advantageous and may pave the way for refined, large-scale computational investigations even in the case of complex multiband systems. Furthermore, on the basis of speedup data gained from our implementation, it is shown that this new variant facilitates efficient calculations on a large number of multi-core CPUs. We apply the scheme to the t ,t‧ Hubbard model on a square lattice to analyze the convergence of the results with the bond length of the truncation of the partition of unity. In most parameter areas, a fast convergence can be observed. Finally, we compare to previous results in order to relate our approach to other fRG studies.

  8. Heterogeneity in business groups and the corporate diversification firm performance relationship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.; Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how heterogeneous features among business groups influence the corporate diversification–firm performance relationship. The study classifies heterogeneity along three dimensions: group size, group diversity, and share ownership. Using a sample of firms from India, the study

  9. [Job performance in work organizations: the effects of management by group goals and job interdependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Hisataka

    2015-04-01

    cThis study examined the interactive effect of management by group goals and job interdependence on employee's activities in terms of task and contextual performance. A survey was conducted among 140 Japanese employees. Results indicated that management by group goals was related only to contextual performance. Job interdependence, however, had a direct effect on both task and contextual performance. Moreover, moderated regression analyses revealed that for work groups requiring higher interdependence among employees, management by group goals had a positive relation to contextual performance but not to task performance. When interdependence was not necessarily required, however, management by group goals had no relation to contextual performance and even negatively impacted task performance, respectively. These results show that management by group goals affects task and contextual performance, and that this effect is moderated by job interdependence. This provides a theoretical extension as well as a practical application to the setting and management of group goals.

  10. Presurgical language localization with visual naming associated ECoG high- gamma modulation in pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Ravindra; Wilson, J Adam; Fujiwara, Hisako; Rozhkov, Leonid; Leach, James L; Byars, Anna W; Greiner, Hansel M; Vannest, Jennifer; Buroker, Jason; Milsap, Griffin; Ervin, Brian; Minai, Ali; Horn, Paul S; Holland, Katherine D; Mangano, Francesco T; Crone, Nathan E; Rose, Douglas F

    2017-04-01

    This prospective study compared presurgical language localization with visual naming-associated high-γ modulation (HGM) and conventional electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) in children with intracranial electrodes. Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who were undergoing intracranial monitoring were included if able to name pictures. Electrocorticography (ECoG) signals were recorded during picture naming (overt and covert) and quiet baseline. For each electrode the likelihood of high-γ (70-116 Hz) power modulation during naming task relative to the baseline was estimated. Electrodes with significant HGM were plotted on a three-dimensional (3D) cortical surface model. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated compared to clinical ECS. Seventeen patients with mean age of 11.3 years (range 4-19) were included. In patients with left hemisphere electrodes (n = 10), HGM during overt naming showed high specificity (0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.85), and accuracy (0.71, 95% CI 0.66-0.75, p oral motor function was regarded as the gold standard. Similar results were reproduced by comparing covert naming-associated HGM with ECS naming sites. With right hemisphere electrodes (n = 7), no ECS-naming deficits were seen without interference with oral-motor function. HGM mapping showed a high specificity (0.81, 95% CI 0.78-0.84), and accuracy (0.76, 95% CI 0.71-0.81, p = 0.006), but modest sensitivity (0.44) compared to ECS interference with oral-motor function. Naming-associated ECoG HGM was consistently observed over Broca's area (left posterior inferior-frontal gyrus), bilateral oral/facial motor cortex, and sometimes over the temporal pole. This study supports the use of ECoG HGM mapping in children in whom adverse events preclude ECS, or as a screening method to prioritize electrodes for ECS testing. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Relation between functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and single neuron, local field potential (LFP) and electrocorticography (ECoG) activity in human cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojemann, George A.; Ojemann, Jeffrey; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2013-01-01

    The relation between changes in the blood oxygen dependent metabolic changes imaged by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neural events directly recorded from human cortex from single neurons, local field potentials (LFPs) and electrocorticogram (ECoG) is critically reviewed, based on

  12. Towards elucidating the neuronal basis of cognitive units in non-experimental, real-life communication using ECoG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eDerix

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of thoughts by means of expressive speech is fundamental to human communication. However, the neuronal basis of real-life communication in general, and of verbal exchange of ideas in particular, has rarely been studied until now. Here, our aim was to establish an approach for exploring the neuronal processes related to cognitive idea units (IUs in conditions of non-experimental speech production. We investigated whether such units corresponding to single, coherent chunks of speech with syntactically-defined borders, are useful to unravel the neuronal mechanisms underlying real-world human cognition. To this aim, we employed simultaneous electrocorticography (ECoG and video recordings obtained in pre-neurosurgical diagnostics of epilepsy patients. We transcribed non-experimental, daily hospital conversations, identified IUs in transcriptions of the patients’ speech, classified the obtained IUs according to a previously-proposed taxonomy focusing on memory content, and investigated the underlying neuronal activity. In each of our three subjects, we were able to collect a large number of IUs which could be assigned to different functional IU subclasses with a high inter-rater agreement. IU-related responses of brain activity showed significant modulations of the spectral magnitude in high gamma frequencies (70-150 Hz in mouth motor, language, and higher-order association areas. Neuronal responses specific to different IU subclasses were observed in the inferior parietal and prefrontal cortex. Thus, IU-based analysis of ECoG recordings during non-experimental communication elicited topographically- and functionally-specific effects. We conclude that segmentation of spontaneous real-world speech in linguistically-motivated units is a promising strategy for elucidating the neuronal basis of mental processing during non-experimental communication.

  13. Team performance in cross-national groups: the moderated mediation role of group diversity faultlines and trust

    OpenAIRE

    Mach, Merce; Baruch, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test the conditional effect of team composition on team performance; specifically, how collective team orientation, group consensus, faultline configurations and trust among team members explain the objective performance of project teams in cross-cultural contexts.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – Employing path analytical framework and bootstrap methods, the authors analyze data from a sample of 73 cross cultural project teams. Relying on ordinar...

  14. Ambiguity and Communication Effects on Small Group Decision-Making Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Abran J.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that the literature of group studies is controversial and confusing on the effect of communicative variables on small-group decision making. Postulates that two classes of variables (homogeneity and task) moderate the relationship between group communication and group performance. Advances the ambiguity model to reconcile the contradictory…

  15. Predicting Group Performance Using Cohesion and Social Network Density: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    group performance. Researchers since the 1950’s (Bavelas, 1950; Festinger , 1950) have examined the relationship between small groups and performance by...was first defined by Festinger (1950) who referred to group cohesiveness as “the result of all forces acting on members to remain in the group” (p...1950, Leon Festinger published a pivotal piece of literature that added greatly to the group cohesion construct. In this work he defined cohesion as

  16. Bridging faultlines by valuing diversity: diversity beliefs, information elaboration, and performance in diverse work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Astrid C; van Knippenberg, Daan; Van Kleef, Gerben A; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2007-09-01

    Although there are numerous potential benefits to diversity in work groups, converging dimensions of diversity often prevent groups from exploiting this potential. In a study of heterogeneous decision-making groups, the authors examined whether the disruptive effects of diversity faultlines can be overcome by convincing groups of the value of diversity. Groups were persuaded either of the value of diversity or the value of similarity for group performance, and they were provided with either homogeneous or heterogeneous information. As expected, informationally diverse groups performed better when they held pro-diversity rather than pro-similarity beliefs, whereas the performance of informationally homogeneous groups was unaffected by diversity beliefs. This effect was mediated by group-level information elaboration. Implications for diversity management in organizations are discussed. (c) 2007 APA.

  17. Performance Evaluation Analysis of Group Mobility in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Ehtsham; Noshairwan, Wajahat; Shafiq, Muhammad; Khurram, Shahzada; Irshad, Azeem; Usman, Muhammad

    Mobility of nodes is an important issue in mobile adhoc networks (MANET). Nodes in MANET move from one network to another individually and in the form of group. In single node mobility scheme every node performs registration individually in new MANET whereas in group mobility scheme only one node in a group i.e group representative (GR) performs registration on behalf of all other nodes in the group and is assigned Care of Address (CoA). Internet protocol (IP) of all other nodes in the group remains same. Our simulated results prove that group mobility scheme reduces number of messages and consumes less time for registration of nodes as compared to single node mobility scheme. Thus network load is reduced in group mobility scheme. This research paper evaluates the performance of group mobility with single node mobility scheme. Test bed for this evaluation is based on Network Simulator 2 (NS-2) environment.

  18. Working after a metastatic cancer diagnosis: Factors affecting employment in the metastatic setting from ECOG-ACRIN's Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaarwerk, Amye J; Lee, Ju-Whei; Terhaar, Abigail; Sesto, Mary E; Smith, Mary Lou; Cleeland, Charles S; Fisch, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Improved survival for individuals with metastatic cancer accentuates the importance of employment for cancer survivors. A better understanding of how metastatic cancer affects employment is a necessary step toward the development of tools for assisting survivors in this important realm. The ECOG-ACRIN Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study was analyzed to investigate what factors were associated with the employment of 680 metastatic cancer patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare patients stably working with patients no longer working. There were 668 metastatic working-age participants in the analysis: 236 (35%) worked full- or part-time, whereas 302 (45%) had stopped working because of illness. Overall, 58% reported some change in employment due to illness. A better performance status and non-Hispanic white ethnicity/race were significantly associated with continuing to work despite a metastatic cancer diagnosis in the multivariate analysis. The disease type, time since metastatic diagnosis, number of metastatic sites, location of metastatic disease, and treatment status had no significant impact. Among the potentially modifiable factors, receiving hormonal treatment (if a viable option) and decreasing symptom interference were associated with continuing to work. A significant percentage of the metastatic patients remained employed; increased symptom burden was associated with a change to no longer working. Modifiable factors resulting in work interference should be minimized so that patients with metastatic disease may continue working if this is desired. Improvements in symptom control and strategies developed to help address workplace difficulties have promise for improving this aspect of survivorship. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  19. Work-group characteristics and performance in collectivistic and individualistic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosik, John J; Jung, Dong I

    2002-02-01

    The authors conducted a cross-cultural longitudinal investigation of the effects of culture (individualism-collectivism dichotomy) on group characteristics (functional heterogeneity, preference for teamwork, group potency, outcome expectation) and on performance of 83 work groups performing 2 decision-making tasks over a 15-week period. The individualists (U.S. students) reported higher levels of functional heterogeneity and group potency and attained higher levels of group performance than did the collectivists (Korean students). In addition, culture and time interacted to influence ratings of group potency and outcome expectation. The difference in ratings of group potency between individualists and collectivists increased over time. Outcome expectation was greater among the collectivists in Time 1 and among the individualists in Time 2. The authors discuss implications for future cross-cultural group research and international management.

  20. The Effect of Goal Setting on Group Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleingeld, Ad; van Mierlo, Heleen; Arends, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    Updating and extending the work of O'Leary-Kelly, Martocchio, and Frink (1994), with this meta-analysis on goal setting and group performance we show that specific difficult goals yield considerably higher group performance compared with nonspecific goals (d = 0.80 plus or minus 0.35, k = 23 effect sizes). Moderately difficult and easy goals were…

  1. Motivational Effects of Feedback and Goal-Setting on Group Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Carol

    In studies examining the impact of performance information on motivation, both feedback and goal setting have been found to improve performance. To explore the generalizability of E. A. Locke's (1968) theory of task motivation to groups, 180 male masters of business administration (MBA) students were randomly organized into 60 three-person groups.…

  2. Team Satisfaction and Student Group Performance: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitun, Rami M.; Abdulqader, Khalid Shams; Alshare, Khaled A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between team satisfaction and students' performance in group projects in two universities, one from the United States and one from Qatar. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between team satisfaction and group performance only for the American students. Demographic factors such…

  3. Collective action control by goals and plans: applying a self-regulation perspective to group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    In celebration of the 125th anniversary of The American Journal of Psychology, this article discusses a seminal publication by Marjorie Shaw (1932) on small group performance in the rational solution of complex problems. We then propose an approach for the effective regulation of group goal striving based on the collective action control perspective. From this perspective, group performance might be hindered by a collective intention-behavior gap: Groups fail to act on their intentions despite being strongly committed to the collective goal, knowing what the necessary actions are, and being capable of performing them. To reduce this gap, we suggest specific if-then plans (implementation intentions) in which groups specify when, where, and how to act toward their collective goal as an easily applicable self-regulation strategy to automate collective action control. Studies in which implementation intentions improved group performance in hidden profile, escalation of commitment, and cooperation task paradigms are reported and discussed.

  4. Victimization of high performers: the roles of envy and work group identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eugene; Glomb, Theresa M

    2014-07-01

    Drawing from victim precipitation, social comparison, and identity theories, this study develops and tests an integrative model of the victimization of high-performing employees. We examine envy as an explanatory mechanism of the victimization of high performers from fellow group members and propose work group identification as a moderator of this envy mechanism. Study 1, in a sample of 4,874 university staff employees in 339 work groups, supports the proposition that high performers are more likely to be targets of victimization. In Study 2, multisource data collected at 2 time points (217 employees in 67 work groups in 3 organizations), supports the proposition that high performers are more likely to be targets of victimization because of fellow group members' envy, and work group identification mitigates the mediated relationship.

  5. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Effects of Group Composition on High-Achieving Students' Science Assessment Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high-ability students completing science assessments. Results for 83 high ability students show the quality of group functioning serves as the strongest predictor of high-ability students' performance and explained much of the…

  6. Comparison of Group Cohesion, Class Participation, and Exam Performance in Live and Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyon, Charles E.; Heaton, Eleanore C. T.; Best, Tiffany L.; Williams, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Though class participation and group cohesion have shown some potential to promote student performance in conventional classrooms, their efficacy has not yet been demonstrated in an online-class setting. Group cohesion, defined as member attraction to and self-identification with a group, is thought to promote positive interdependence and the…

  7. How milk-fed dairy calves perform in stable versus dynamic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rikke Engelbrecht; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Skjøth, F;

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present field trial was to compare calf performance among pre-weaned calves in two different group housing systems, stable groups ("all in-all out") and dynamic groups (continuous introduction). Performance data was collected from 484 calves randomly assigned to the two systems...... at six large (230-450 cows) commercial Danish dairy herds. All six farms had both systems simultaneously in the same stall, and under identical management and feeding regimes. Calves in stable groups had significantly higher daily live weight gain than calves in dynamic groups (870 vs. 810 g...

  8. Psychological collectivism: a measurement validation and linkage to group member performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christine L; Colquitt, Jason A; Wesson, Michael J; Zapata-Phelan, Cindy P

    2006-07-01

    The 3 studies presented here introduce a new measure of the individual-difference form of collectivism. Psychological collectivism is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct with the following 5 facets: preference for in-groups, reliance on in-groups, concern for in-groups, acceptance of in-group norms, and prioritization of in-group goals. Study 1 developed and tested the new measure in a sample of consultants. Study 2 cross-validated the measure using an alumni sample of a Southeastern university, assessing its convergent validity with other collectivism measures. Study 3 linked scores on the measure to 4 dimensions of group member performance (task performance, citizenship behavior, counterproductive behavior, and withdrawal behavior) in a computer software firm and assessed discriminant validity using the Big Five. The results of the studies support the construct validity of the measure and illustrate the potential value of collectivism as a predictor of group member performance.

  9. Relationship of biomedical science content acquisition performance to students' level of PBL group interaction: are students learning during PBL group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Laura M; Eckert, George J

    2011-05-01

    This study assessed biomedical science content acquisition from problem-based learning (PBL) and its relationship to students' level of group interaction. We hypothesized that learning in preparation for exams results primarily from individual study of post-case learning objectives and that outcomes would be unrelated to students' group involvement. During dental curricular years 1 and 2, student-generated biomedical learning issues (LIs) were identified from six randomly chosen PBL cases. Knowledge and application of case concepts were assessed with quizzes based on the identified LIs prior to dissemination of the learning objectives. Students and facilitators were surveyed on students' level of group involvement for the assessed LI topics. Year 1 students had significantly higher assessment scores (p=0.0001). For both student classes, means were significantly higher for the recall item (Q1) than for the application item (Q2). Q1 scores increased along with the student's reported role for Year 1 (p=0.04). However, there was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q1 for Year 2 (p=0.20). There was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q2 for Year 1 (p=0.09) or Year 2 (p=0.19). This suggests that students' level of group involvement on the biomedical learning issues did not significantly impact students' assessment performance.

  10. Using technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning for student comprehension and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-05-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly divided into two groups, participated in this study and provided data through questionnaires issued before and after the experiment. The results, obtained through analyses of variance and structural equation modelling, reveal that technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning improves students' comprehension and academic performance.

  11. The style of group working and its influence on team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Luiz Montanari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study aims to evaluate the influence of the style of group working in the teams’ performance in a midsize services company in Parana State. For this purpose an exploratory interview was originally performed. Then the questionnaires were applied: Working Group Style, proposed by Parker (1994 and Evaluation of a Success Team, proposed by Chang (1999. Besides the questionnaires, non-participant observations were made that intended to register items which interest the research objectives. Finally, the data analysis was carried out, making intersection with the interviews and the non-participant observations. The results identified some influences of the group working styles in the performance of teams. The different behaviors determined the degree of influence which help or not the performance of teams in this study. Two result matrices were found. The first with a relatively uniform distribution of styles, but presenting lower performance; the second showed a predominant contributor style and a higher performance of teams.

  12. The effect of a group approach on the performance of high school mathematics learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Dhlamini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of a group approach versus a non-group approach on the mathematics performance of learners. A group approach refers to an arrangement in which learners sit together to discuss and solve mathematics tasks. We studied a convenience sample of low-performing Grade 10 mathematics learners using a quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent control group. The experimental group was taught using a group approach and the control group using non-group approach instruction. To measure the effects of teaching approaches, we administered a Financial Mathematics Achievement Test (FMAT before and after the experiment. Using a one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA the study found that learners in a group approach learning environment performed significantly better than learners taught through a non-group teaching mode (p < 0.05. The theory of cognitive load was used to interpret the results. The results suggest that a group approach may be effective when teaching certain mathematics topics in Grade 10 classrooms.

  13. Vertical interlocks of executives and performance of affiliated firms in state owned Chinese business groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin; Na, Chaohong

    Using a dataset of Chinese listed firms affiliated with state-controlled business groups, we examine how vertical interlocks of executives affect firm performance. We find that vertical interlocks of affiliated firm chairmen are positively associated with performance of the affiliated firms...... of interlocks and adds to a small body of literature on the dynamics of state owned business groups in emerging markets generally and China particularly....

  14. Peer groups and operational cycle enhancements to the performance indicator report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, H.M.; DeHaan, M.S.; Gentillon, C.D.; Wilson, G.E. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Vanden Heuvel, L.N. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Accurate performance evaluation and plant trending by the performance indicator program are integral parts of monitoring the operation of commercial nuclear power plants. The presentations of the NRC/AEOD performance indicator program have undergone a number of enhancements. The diversity of the commercial nuclear plants, coupled with continued improvements in the performance indicator program, has resulted in the evaluation of plants in logical peer groups and highlighted the need to evaluate the impact of plant operational conditions on the performance indicators. These enhancements allow a more-meaningful evaluation of operating commercial nuclear power plant performance. This report proposes methods to enhance the presentation of the performance indicator data by analyzing the data in logical peer groups and displaying the performance indicator data based on the operational status of the plants. Previously, preliminary development of the operational cycle displays of the performance indicator data was documented. This report extends the earlier findings and presents the continued development of the peer groups and operational cycle trend and deviation data and displays. This report describes the peer groups and enhanced PI data presentations by considering the operational cycle phase breakdowns, calculation methods, and presentation methods.

  15. Vocal turn-taking patterns in groups of children performing collaborative tasks: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jaebok; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Charisi, Vasiliki; Zaga, Cristina; Lohse, M.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Evers, Vanessa

    Since children (5-9 years old) are still developing their emotional and social skills, their social interactional behaviors in small groups might differ from adults' interactional behaviors. In order to develop a robot that is able to support children performing collaborative tasks in small groups,

  16. Using Technology-Enhanced, Cooperative, Group-Project Learning for Student Comprehension and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly…

  17. Performance Evaluation of Enterprise Knowledge Management based on Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-chi; GUO Hong-wei

    2009-01-01

    Given that the classical performance evaluation models can not deal with the group decision making problems since they simply average the index, we propose an enterprise knowledge management evaluation model based on multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM). Find the differences between Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) and meth- ods for uncertain decision making. Also, analyze the multiple attribute group decision making process and implement the al. gorithm. Finally, apply the method on performance evaluation of four enterprises and make sensitivity analysis towards the evaluation results.

  18. The influence of group discussion on performance judgments: rating accuracy, contrast effects, and halo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jerry K; Loveland, James M

    2008-03-01

    The authors investigated the effect of group discussion, such as may occur formally in panel interview scenarios, assessment centers, or 360-degree feedback situations, on judgments of performance. Research on group polarization suggests that the effect of group discussion combined with raters' preexisting impressions of ratees or interviewees should result in an extremitization of impressions. Thus, the authors hypothesized that group discussion would (a) make ratings less accurate, (b) polarize impressions that were already good or poor as reflected by greater contrast effects, and (c) increase positive halo. Results indicated that group discussion resulted in less accurate ratings and greater contrast effects. Additional analyses suggested that group discussion increased positive halo. The authors discuss implications for research on group or panel judgments.

  19. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Transcultural group performance in extreme environment: Issues, concepts and emerging theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Judith; Bouchard, Stéphane; Martin, Thibault; Perreault, Michel

    2009-06-01

    A simulation for flight of international crew on space station took place in Moscow from July 1999 to April 2000 (SFINCS) at the State Biomedical Institute of Russia (IBMP) isolation chambers. Objectives of this study were to identify concepts of psychosocial adaptation and of social interactions to develop an explanation of the transcultural group performance. Method: constructivist epistemology with grounded theory research and fourth generation evaluation were used. Data on processes and interactions were gathered during 110 days of confinement as a subject and extended to 240 days as an outside scientist. Results indicate that coping is influenced by usual coping strategies and coping behaviors inside. Several stresses and human factor issues were identified altering well being and performance inside the chambers. Enabling and limiting forces are discussed. A theory on transcultural group performance is proposed. Issues are raised that appear critical to selection, training and group performance.

  1. Performance anxiety at English PBL groups among Taiwanese medical students: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lu, Peih-Ying; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, In-Ting; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2008-03-01

    Students' performance anxiety can impact negatively on the effectiveness of medical education reform, including performance in problem-based learning (PBL) and in using English in discussion. This study aimed to investigate the nature of performance anxiety among Taiwanese medical students in an English-language PBL group. Eighteen Taiwanese, one American and four Asian medical students who were attending an international PBL workshop were enrolled. A questionnaire seeking demographic data and experience in use of PBL and eight questions evaluating performance anxiety were administered. The performance anxiety of Taiwanese medical students was compared to that of the Asians and the one American. Frequencies of each performance anxiety were calculated. The results suggested that the Taiwanese students showed more anxiety than the one student from the United States, but less than other Asian students. The acts of giving a report, being the center of attention, and talking in the PBL group were the most common situations related to anxiety in PBL groups. Using English and working in a new PBL environment are possible sources of anxiety. The presence of anxiety among the Taiwanese medical students in English PBL groups implies the necessity for developing an effective strategy to deal with students' performance anxiety.

  2. Large-scale information flow in conscious and unconscious states: an ECoG study in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Yanagawa

    Full Text Available Consciousness is an emergent property of the complex brain network. In order to understand how consciousness is constructed, neural interactions within this network must be elucidated. Previous studies have shown that specific neural interactions between the thalamus and frontoparietal cortices; frontal and parietal cortices; and parietal and temporal cortices are correlated with levels of consciousness. However, due to technical limitations, the network underlying consciousness has not been investigated in terms of large-scale interactions with high temporal and spectral resolution. In this study, we recorded neural activity with dense electrocorticogram (ECoG arrays and used the spectral Granger causality to generate a more comprehensive network that relates to consciousness in monkeys. We found that neural interactions were significantly different between conscious and unconscious states in all combinations of cortical region pairs. Furthermore, the difference in neural interactions between conscious and unconscious states could be represented in 4 frequency-specific large-scale networks with unique interaction patterns: 2 networks were related to consciousness and showed peaks in alpha and beta bands, while the other 2 networks were related to unconsciousness and showed peaks in theta and gamma bands. Moreover, networks in the unconscious state were shared amongst 3 different unconscious conditions, which were induced either by ketamine and medetomidine, propofol, or sleep. Our results provide a novel picture that the difference between conscious and unconscious states is characterized by a switch in frequency-specific modes of large-scale communications across the entire cortex, rather than the cessation of interactions between specific cortical regions.

  3. Do Dental Students' Personality Types and Group Dynamics Affect Their Performance in Problem-Based Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Jung-Joon; An, So-Youn; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the personality types of dental students and their group dynamics were linked to their problem-based learning (PBL) performance. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) instrument was used with 263 dental students enrolled in Seoul National University School of Dentistry from 2011 to 2013; the students had participated in PBL in their first year. A four-session PBL setting was designed to analyze how individual personality types and the diversity of their small groups were associated with PBL performance. Overall, the results showed that the personality type of PBL performance that was the most prominent was Judging. As a group became more diverse with its different constituent personality characteristics, there was a tendency for the group to be higher ranked in terms of PBL performance. In particular, the overperforming group was clustered around three major profiles: Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Judging (ENTJ), Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ISTJ), and Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ESTJ). Personality analysis would be beneficial for dental faculty members in order for them to understand the extent to which cooperative learning would work smoothly, especially when considering group personalities.

  4. Performance of human groups in social foraging: the role of communication in consensus decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Narraway, Claire; Hodgson, Lindsay; Weatherill, Aidan; Sommer, Volker; Sumner, Seirian

    2011-04-23

    Early hominids searched for dispersed food sources in a patchy, uncertain environment, and modern humans encounter equivalent spatial-temporal coordination problems on a daily basis. A fundamental, but untested assumption is that our evolved capacity for communication is integral to our success in such tasks, allowing information exchange and consensus decisions based on mutual consideration of pooled information. Here we examine whether communication enhances group performance in humans, and test the prediction that consensus decision-making underlies group success. We used bespoke radio-tagging methodology to monitor the incremental performance of communicating and non-communicating human groups (small group sizes of two to seven individuals), during a social foraging experiment. We found that communicating groups (n = 22) foraged more effectively than non-communicating groups (n = 21) and were able to reach consensus decisions (an 'agreement' on the most profitable foraging resource) significantly more often than non-communicating groups. Our data additionally suggest that gesticulations among group members played a vital role in the achievement of consensus decisions, and therefore highlight the importance of non-verbal signalling of intentions and desires for successful human cooperative behaviour.

  5. Performance Comparison of Gender and Age Group Recognition for Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on performance comparison of gender and age group recognition to perform robot’s application services for Human-Robot Interaction (HRI. HRI is a core technology that can naturally interact between human and robot. Among various HRI components, we concentrate audio-based techniques such as gender and age group recognition from multichannel microphones and sound board equipped withrobots. For comparative purposes, we perform the performancecomparison of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC andLinear Prediction Coding Coefficients (LPCC in the feature extraction step, Support Vector Machine (SVM and C4.5 Decision Tree (DT in the classification step. Finally, we deal with the usefulness of gender and age group recognition for humanrobot interaction in home service robot environments.

  6. Seizure detection using the phase-slope index and multichannel ECoG

    KAUST Repository

    Rana, Puneet

    2012-04-01

    Detection and analysis of epileptic seizures is of clinical and research interest. We propose a novel seizure detection and analysis scheme based on the phase-slope index (PSI) of directed influence applied to multichannel electrocorticogram data. The PSI metric identifies increases in the spatio-temporal interactions between channels that clearly distinguish seizure from interictal activity. We form a global metric of interaction between channels and compare this metric to a threshold to detect the presence of seizures. The threshold is chosen based on a moving average of recent activity to accommodate differences between patients and slow changes within each patient over time. We evaluate detection performance over a challenging population of five patients with different types of epilepsy using a total of 47 seizures in nearly 258 h of recorded data. Using a common threshold procedure, we show that our approach detects all of the seizures in four of the five patients with a false detection rate less than two per hour. A variation on the global metric is proposed to identify which channels are strong drivers of activity in each patient. These metrics are computationally efficient and suitable for real-time application. © 2006 IEEE.

  7. Cohesion and performance in groups: a meta-analytic clarification of construct relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Daniel J; Cohen, Robin R; Burke, Michael J; McLendon, Christy L

    2003-12-01

    Previous meta-analytic examinations of group cohesion and performance have focused primarily on contextual factors. This study examined issues relevant to applied researchers by providing a more detailed analysis of the criterion domain. In addition, the authors reinvestigated the role of components of cohesion using more modern meta-analytic methods and in light of different types of performance criteria. The results of the authors' meta-analyses revealed stronger correlations between cohesion and performance when performance was defined as behavior (as opposed to outcome), when it was assessed with efficiency measures (as opposed to effectiveness measures), and as patterns of team workflow became more intensive. In addition, and in contrast to B. Mullen and C. Copper's (1994) meta-analysis, the 3 main components of cohesion were independently related to the various performance domains. Implications for organizations and future research on cohesion and performance are discussed.

  8. Management of IT Costs and Performance in Business Groups: Analysis of Unaddressed Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Hamel, Florian; Herz, Thomas Philipp; Uebernickel, Falk; Brenner, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) management is a multifaceted and sophisticated mission, particularly inthe context of multinational corporations. Loosely coupled heterogeneous IT systems and almostindependent IT departments within business groups around the globe do not facilitate transparency ofIT costs and performance. The management of costs and performance of IT, also known as ITcontrolling, describes the discipline of ensuring the effective and efficient usage of IT resources. Thebasis of th...

  9. Time from prior chemotherapy enhances prognostic risk grouping in the second-line setting of advanced urothelial carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of pooled, prospective phase 2 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonpavde, Guru; Pond, Gregory R; Fougeray, Ronan; Choueiri, Toni K; Qu, Angela Q; Vaughn, David J; Niegisch, Guenter; Albers, Peter; James, Nicholas D; Wong, Yu-Ning; Ko, Yoo-Joung; Sridhar, Srikala S; Galsky, Matthew D; Petrylak, Daniel P; Vaishampayan, Ulka N; Khan, Awais; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Beer, Tomasz M; Stadler, Walter M; O'Donnell, Peter H; Sternberg, Cora N; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Bellmunt, Joaquim

    2013-04-01

    Outcomes for patients in the second-line setting of advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) are dismal. The recognized prognostic factors in this context are Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) >0, hemoglobin level (Hb) value of time from prior chemotherapy (TFPC) independent of known prognostic factors. Data from patients from seven prospective trials with available baseline TFPC, Hb, PS, and LM values were used for retrospective analysis (n=570). External validation was conducted in a second-line phase 3 trial comparing best supportive care (BSC) versus vinflunine plus BSC (n=352). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the association of factors, with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) being the respective primary and secondary outcome measures. ECOG-PS >0, LM, Hb 0, Hb <10 g/dl, and LM in the setting of second-line therapy for advanced UC. These data may facilitate drug development and interpretation of trials. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-Performance Bioinstrumentation for Real-Time Neuroelectrochemical Traumatic Brain Injury Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos I.; Wang, Chu; Rogers, Michelle L.; Gowers, Sally A. N.; Leong, Chi L.; Boutelle, Martyn G.; Drakakis, Emmanuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been identified as an important cause of death and severe disability in all age groups and particularly in children and young adults. Central to TBIs devastation is a delayed secondary injury that occurs in 30–40% of TBI patients each year, while they are in the hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Secondary injuries reduce survival rate after TBI and usually occur within 7 days post-injury. State-of-art monitoring of secondary brain injuries benefits from the acquisition of high-quality and time-aligned electrical data i.e., ElectroCorticoGraphy (ECoG) recorded by means of strip electrodes placed on the brains surface, and neurochemical data obtained via rapid sampling microdialysis and microfluidics-based biosensors measuring brain tissue levels of glucose, lactate and potassium. This article progresses the field of multi-modal monitoring of the injured human brain by presenting the design and realization of a new, compact, medical-grade amperometry, potentiometry and ECoG recording bioinstrumentation. Our combined TBI instrument enables the high-precision, real-time neuroelectrochemical monitoring of TBI patients, who have undergone craniotomy neurosurgery and are treated sedated in the ICU. Electrical and neurochemical test measurements are presented, confirming the high-performance of the reported TBI bioinstrumentation. PMID:27242477

  11. Learning in the Laboratory: How Group Assignments Affect Motivation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Team projects can optimize educational resources in a laboratory, but also create the potential for social loafing. Allowing students to choose their own groups could increase their motivation to learn and improve academic performance. To test this hypothesis, final grades and feedback from students were compared for the same course in two…

  12. Lerdahl and Jackendoff's grouping structure rules in the performance of a Hindemith sonata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñana, Jose A; Laucirica, Ana

    2010-05-01

    In the last decades, musical cognitive psychology has intervened to build a bridge towards the comprehension of musical structures. The present paper studies the behavior of several students and music professionals in relation to grouping structure and it does so through the performance analysis of the first movement of Hindemith's sonata for flute and piano, according to the rules formulated by Lerdahl and Jackendoff, movement chosen because of its tonal ambiguity. The participants of this experiment are three medium level female Conservatory students. They performed the aforementioned piece after studying it for a whole trimester. The performance of the same piece by three professional musicians was also analyzed, using the appropriate commercial recordings for this purpose. This analysis includes the choice of group limits used in performance by both professionals and students and the comparison of both groups' results. Differences were observed in the placement of said limits by the different groups but all of them respected the set of rules formulated by Lerdahl and Jackendoff.

  13. Investigating the Effects of Group Practice Performed Using Psychodrama Techniques on Adolescents' Conflict Resolution Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of group practice which is performed using psychodrama techniques on adolescents' conflict resolution skills. The subjects, for this study, were selected among the high school students who have high aggression levels and low problem solving levels attending Haci Zekiye Arslan High School, in Nigde.…

  14. An Examination into How Group Performance is influenced by Various Communication Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    effect on communication quality and team performance (Adelman, Christian, Gualtieri , & Bresnick, 1998). An additional limitation is that groups only...option for each issue. 2) Indicate rationale for choosing each option. 33 Bibliography Adelman, L., Christian, M., Gualtieri , J., & Bresnick, T

  15. Effects of sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance in group-housed weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Schlegel, P.; Mul, A.J.; Ubbink-Blanksma, M.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of 2 high intensity sodium saccharine based sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 198 26-d-old weanling pigs were given ad libitum access to 3 dietary treatments: containing no additional sweetener (Control), 150 mg sw

  16. Effects of sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance in group-housed weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Schlegel, P.; Mul, A.J.; Ubbink-Blanksma, M.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of 2 high intensity sodium saccharine based sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 198 26-d-old weanling pigs were given ad libitum access to 3 dietary treatments: containing no additional sweetener (Control), 150 mg

  17. Effects of Applying STR for Group Learning Activities on Learning Performance in a Synchronous Cyber Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tony C. T.; Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to apply Speech to Text Recognition (STR) for individual oral presentations and group discussions of students in a synchronous cyber classroom. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of applying STR on learning performance. Students' perceptions and behavioral intentions toward using STR were also investigated.…

  18. Social genetic effects influence reproductive performance of group-housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunter, K L; Lewis, C R G; Newman, S

    2015-08-01

    Group housing of gestating sows has implications for reproductive performance due to detrimental interactions between sows within groups. Reproductive records ( = 10,748) were obtained for 8,444 pedigreed nucleus sows housed in a single facility, formed into 1,827 static groups during gestation. Only data from complete groups were used to estimate genetic parameters for total born (TB), number born alive (NBA), and gestation length (GL) and to compare models extended to account for group effects. Censored data for sows which did not farrow (0.8% of records) were augmented with biologically meaningful values. Group sizes ranged from 2 to 10, in pens designed to hold 4, 8, or 10 sows per pen. Sows were grouped by parity, line, and mating date after d 35 of pregnancy. Heritability estimates were generally constant across all model alternatives at 0.11 ± 0.02 for TB and NBA and 0.32 ± 0.03 for GL. However, models for all traits were significantly ( < 0.05) improved through inclusion of terms for nongenetic group and social genetic effects (SGE). Group effects were no longer significant in models containing both terms. The proportional contributions of SGE () to phenotypic variances were very low (≤0.002 across traits), but their contributions to calculated total genetic variance (T) were significant. The differences between h and T ranged between 3 and 5% under simple models, increasing to 8 to 14% in models accounting for both covariances between additive direct (A) and SGE and the effects of varying group size on the magnitude of estimates for SGE. Estimates of covariance between A and SGE were sensitive to the modeling of dilution factors for group size. The models of best fit for litter size traits used a customized dilution based on sows/pen relative to the maximum sows/pen. The best model supported a reduction in SGE with increased space per sow, independent of maximum group size, and no significant correlation between A and SGE. The latter is expected if A

  19. Effects of communication strategy training on EFL students’ performance in small-group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Benson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted with regard to communication strategy training and performance on communicative tasks (Lam, 2009; Nakatani, 2010; Naughton, 2006. This study aims to add to the literature by examining how two strategies, clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation, and two methods of teaching the strategies, affected the interactional sequences and overall group discussion performance of EFL students at a university in Japan. Pre and posttreatment small-group discussions were recorded for assessment, and a stimulated recall interview was administered to determine the participants’ perceptions of their learning and language use. Posttest results reveal that the experimental groups that were taught predetermined phrases aimed at clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation employed such phrases more frequently than the control group. However, this employment of phrases did not lead to higher gains in group discussion skills as the control group enjoyed the largest gains from pre to posttest. The researchers consider the findings in light of previous research, and conclude with recommendations for future research on the topic with special regard to research design.

  20. Tropolone as a High-Performance Robust Anchoring Group for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Tomohiro; Fujimori, Yamato; Sugiura, Kenichi; Tsuji, Yukihiro; Ito, Seigo; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2015-07-27

    A tropolone group has been employed for the first time as an anchoring group for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSC based on a porphyrin, YD2-o-C8T, with a tropolone moiety exhibited a power-conversion efficiency of 7.7 %, which is only slightly lower than that observed for a reference porphyrin, YD2-o-C8, with a conventional carboxylic group. More importantly, YD2-o-C8T was found to be superior to YD2-o-C8 with respect to DSSC durability and binding ability to TiO2 . These results unambiguously demonstrate that tropolone is a highly promising dye-anchoring group for DSSCs in terms of device durability as well as photovoltaic performance.

  1. SMA carrier testing: a meta-analysis of differences in test performance by ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, William Kim; Hamilton, David; Kuhle, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe autosomal recessive genetic disease that occurs in about one in every 10 000 births. Prenatal carrier testing is available for SMA, and the utility of universal screening is actively debated. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of SMA genotype frequency, carrier frequency, and carrier test performance in different ethnic groups. We performed a systematic review of the literature for studies on SMA carrier screening test performance. Ethnicity-specific allele frequencies, carrier rates, and screening test performance were determined from data of 169 000 individuals in 14 published studies. Pooled estimates were calculated for each ethnic group using a random effects meta-analysis. The detection rate of SMA screening in the non-Black population was 87-95%; however, detection rates fell to 71% among the Black population. These results highlight that although SMA carrier testing generally performs well and could be considered as a routine prenatal screen, SMA testing should be used cautiously in the Black population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  3. Informal Peer-Assisted Learning Groups Did Not Lead to Better Performance of Saudi Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelSalam, Maha; El Tantawi, Maha; Al-Ansari, Asim; AlAgl, Adel; Al-Harbi, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    To describe peer-assisted learning (PAL) groups formed by dental undergraduate students in a biomedical course and to investigate the association of individual and group characteristics with academic performance. In 2015, 92 fourth-year students (43 males and 49 females) in the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were invited to form PAL groups to study a unit of a biomedical course. An examination was used to assess their knowledge after 2 weeks. In addition, a questionnaire and social network analysis were used to investigate (1) individual student attributes: gender, role, subject matter knowledge, grade in previous year, teaming with friends, previous communication with teammates, and content discussion, and (2) group attributes: group teacher's previous grade, number of colleagues with whom a student connected, teaming with friends, similarity of teammates' previous grades, and teacher having higher previous grades than other teammates. Regression analysis was used to assess the association of examination scores with individual and group attributes. The response rate was 80.4% (74 students: 36 males and 38 females). Students who previously scored grades A and B had higher examination scores than students with grades C/less (regression coefficient = 18.50 and 13.39) within the groups. Higher scores were not associated with working in groups including friends only (regression coefficient = 1.17) or when all students had similar previous grades (regression coefficient = 0.85). Students with previous high grades benefited to a greater extent from working in PAL groups. Similarity of teammates in PAL groups was not associated with better scores. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Validating a work group climate assessment tool for improving the performance of public health organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Allison

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes the validation of an instrument to measure work group climate in public health organizations in developing countries. The instrument, the Work Group Climate Assessment Tool (WCA, was applied in Brazil, Mozambique, and Guinea to assess the intermediate outcomes of a program to develop leadership for performance improvement. Data were collected from 305 individuals in 42 work groups, who completed a self-administered questionnaire. Methods The WCA was initially validated using Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient and exploratory factor analysis. This article presents the results of a second validation study to refine the initial analyses to account for nested data, to provide item-level psychometrics, and to establish construct validity. Analyses included eigenvalue decomposition analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and validity and reliability analyses. Results This study confirmed the validity and reliability of the WCA across work groups with different demographic characteristics (gender, education, management level, and geographical location. The study showed that there is agreement between the theoretical construct of work climate and the items in the WCA tool across different populations. The WCA captures a single perception of climate rather than individual sub-scales of clarity, support, and challenge. Conclusion The WCA is useful for comparing the climates of different work groups, tracking the changes in climate in a single work group over time, or examining differences among individuals' perceptions of their work group climate. Application of the WCA before and after a leadership development process can help work groups hold a discussion about current climate and select a target for improvement. The WCA provides work groups with a tool to take ownership of their own group climate through a process that is simple and objective and that protects individual confidentiality.

  5. Structural equation models of memory performance across noise conditions and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enmarker, Ingela; Boman, Eva; Hygge, Staffan

    2006-12-01

    Competing models of declarative memory were tested with structural equation models to analyze whether a second-order latent variable structure for episodic and semantic memory was invariant across age groups and across noise exposure conditions. Data were taken from three previous experimental noise studies that were performed with the same design, procedure, and dependent measures, and with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45, and 55-65 years). Two noise conditions, road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech, were compared to a quiet control group. The structural models put to the test were taken from Nyberg et al. (2003), which employed several memory tests that were the same as ours and studied age-groups that partly overlapped with our groups. In addition we also varied noise exposure conditions. Our analyses replicated and supported the second-order semantic-episodic memory models in Nyberg et al. (2003). The latent variable structures were invariant across age groups, with the exception of our youngest group, which by itself showed a less clear latent structure. The obtained structures were also invariant across noise exposure conditions. We also noted that our text memory items, which did not have a counterpart in the study by Nyberg et al. (2003), tend to form a separate latent variable loading on episodic memory.

  6. Social status and housing factors affect reproductive performance of pregnant sows in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salak-Johnson, Janeen L

    2017-08-01

    Group-housing systems for pregnant sows are considered a welfare-promoting alternative to the individual stall. A major concern associated with pregnant sows housed in group pens is increased aggression at mixing and at feeding, which may cause chronic stress among some of the sows in the group due to low feed intake and social stress. Prolonged activation of the stress axis, based on elevated cortisol levels, may inhibit or impair reproductive success via disruption of the reproductive axis. Mixing sows into groups shortly after insemination evokes a stress response, which may affect fertilization and implantation due to sustained, elevated cortisol levels that disrupt reproductive processes. Yet, most studies reported minimal effects of group housing sows during pregnancy on reproduction or cortisol-related stress response. Differences between housing systems-in terms of group size, floor-space allowance, feeding system, and genetics-could account for these unexpected results. Indeed, interrupted feed intake, especially in early pregnancy, and sustained aggression in late pregnancy are two unfavorable social stresses that deserve special attention in order to achieve good reproductive performance. Unfortunately, most studies do not consider other factors, such as social rank and parity, which may interactively affect reproductive success and aggressive behavior of sows, especially in group-pen systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. PERFORMANCE OF K-MEANS CLUSTERING AND BIRD FLOCKING ALGORITHM FOR GROUPING THE WEB LOG FILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SUGUNA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the process of analyzing the interesting pattern and knowledge in different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information from the large amount of data. Technically, data mining is the process of finding correlations or patterns among dozens of fields in large relational databases. The unlabled vast amount of data can be grouped using clustering or classification algorithms. Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of assigning a set of objects into groups called clusters. So, the objects in the same cluster are more similar to each other than to those in other clusters. Many of the researchers evaluated the performance of thefamiliar K-means clustering algorithm and attempt to improve the efficiency of the algorithm. This paper will analyze the performance of the K-means clustering algorithm with the biological based algorithm called Bird flocking algorithm for grouping the web logs. Web logs are unformatted text files which contains the information regarding the user’s browser detail. The proposed system takes the input as web log files and groups the web sites based on the interesting rate of the users. The performance is evaluated in terms of no of clusters, CPU utilization time and accuracy.

  8. Social learning strategies modify the effect of network structure on group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoczi, Daniel; Galesic, Mirta

    2016-10-07

    The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members. We show that efficient networks outperform inefficient networks when individuals rely on conformity by copying the most frequent solution among their contacts. However, inefficient networks are superior when individuals follow the best member by copying the group member with the highest payoff. In addition, groups relying on conformity based on a small sample of others excel at complex tasks, while groups following the best member achieve greatest performance for simple tasks. Our findings reconcile contradictory results in the literature and have broad implications for the study of social learning across disciplines.

  9. Social learning strategies modify the effect of network structure on group performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoczi, Daniel; Galesic, Mirta

    2016-10-01

    The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members. We show that efficient networks outperform inefficient networks when individuals rely on conformity by copying the most frequent solution among their contacts. However, inefficient networks are superior when individuals follow the best member by copying the group member with the highest payoff. In addition, groups relying on conformity based on a small sample of others excel at complex tasks, while groups following the best member achieve greatest performance for simple tasks. Our findings reconcile contradictory results in the literature and have broad implications for the study of social learning across disciplines.

  10. When sad groups expect to meet again : Interactive affective sharing and future interaction expectation as determinants of work groups' analytical and creative task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klep, Annefloor H. M.; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the moderating role of future interaction expectation in the relationship between affective sharing and work groups' task performance. We argue that group affect, a group defining characteristic, becomes more salient to its members when it is interactively shared, and that

  11. Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet: Factors affecting group process and aircrew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1987-01-01

    The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.

  12. Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet - Factors affecting group process and aircrew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Two Reactive Routing Protocols of MANET using Group Mobility Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harminder S. Bindra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any stand-alone infrastructure or centralized administration. Mobile ad-hoc network have the attributes such as wireless connection, continuously changing topology, distributed operation and ease of deployment. In this paper we have compared the performance of two reactive MANET routing protocol AODV and DSR by using Group mobility model. Both share similar On-Demand behavior, but the protocol's internal mechanism leads to significant performance difference. We have analyzed the performance of protocols by varying network load, mobility and type of traffic (CBR and TCP. Group Mobility model has been generated by IMPORTANT (Impact of Mobility Patterns on Routing in Ad-hoc NeTwork tool. A detailed simulation has been carried out in NS2. The metrics used for performance analysis are Packet Delivery Fraction, Average end-to-end Delay, Routing Overhead and Normalized Routing Load. It has been observed that AODV gives better performance in CBR traffic and real time delivery of packet. Where as DSR gives better results in TCP traffic and under restricted bandwidth condition.

  14. Morphological, Physiological and Skating Performance Profiles of Male Age-Group Elite Ice Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allisse Maxime

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of morphological, physiological and skating performance profiles of elite age-group ice hockey players based on repeated measures spread over one season. In addition, the results of fitness tests and training programs performed in off-ice conditions and their relationship with skating performance were analyzed. Eighteen high level age-group ice hockey players (13.1 ± 0.6 years were assessed off and on-ice at the beginning and at the end of the hockey season. A third evaluation was also conducted at the beginning of the following hockey season. The players were taller, heavier, and showed bone breadths and muscle girths above the reference population of the same age. Muscular variables improved significantly during and between the two hockey seasons (p < 0.05. However, maximal aerobic power improved only during the off-season. All skating performance tests exhibited significant enhancements during the hockey season, but not during the off-season where some degradation was observed. Finally, weak observed variances (generally <20% of the explained variance between physiological variables measured off-ice and on-ice skating performance tests indicated important gaps, both in the choice of the off-ice assessment tools as well as in training methods conventionally used. The reflection on the best way to assess and train hockey players certainly deserves to be continued.

  15. Simulating the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Ronald; Thöns, Sebastian; Rogge, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    and risk. We intend to adopt this approach to optimize inspection, monitoring and repair activities for offshore wind park support structures. As a first step, we simulate – in analogy to an offshore wind park – the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type frames. The performance...... failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories, and evaluates the associated costs and risk. The expected total service life costs and risk for a strategy are finally determined using Monte Carlo simulation. The optimal strategy minimizes the expected total service life costs...

  16. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Gomes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20; the 60-64 age group (n=20; the 65-69 age group (n=20; and the 70-74 age group (n=20. The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05; however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05 as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  17. Synthesis of modified polyacrylamide with high content of hydroxamate groups and settling performance of red mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锦伟; 胡慧萍; 王梦; 陈湘攀; 陈启元; 丁治英

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxamated polyacrylamide (HPAM) was synthesized from polyacrylamide (PAM) with high relative molecular mass under the optimum reaction conditions (pH 12 and a molar ratio of hydroxylamine to amide groups of 1.5 at 50 °C for 12 h). The hydroxamate groups of HPAM were verified by Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR). 46% (molar fration) hydroxamate groups and 23% (molar fraction) carbonyl groups on HPAM were determined by conductometric titration combined with Kjeldahl’s microanalysis method. The settling performance achieved at different flocculant dosages was investigated with high goethite-containing red mud slurry of simulated Bayer process synthesized in laboratory. It turns out that the settling performance of high goethite-containing red mud was better with HPAM. The average settling rate of red mud in the first 5 min and the turbidity of supernatant after settling for 30 min are 2.36 m/h and 507 NTU, respectively, at a flocculant dosage of 120 g/t, which is similar to that achieved with Hx-600.

  18. Finisher and performance trends in female and male mountain ultramarathoners by age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Evelyn Eichenberger,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3French Institute of Health and Medical Research, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: This study examined changes according to age group in the number of finishers and running times for athletes in female and male mountain ultramarathoners competing in the 78 km Swiss Alpine Marathon, the largest mountain ultramarathon in Europe and held in high alpine terrain.Methods: The association between age and performance was investigated using analysis of variance and both single and multilevel regression analyses.Results: Between 1998 and 2011, a total of 1,781 women and 12,198 men finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon. The number of female finishers increased (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.001, whereas the number of male finishers (r2 = 0.18, P = 0.15 showed no change. The annual top ten men became older and slower, whereas the annual top ten women became older but not slower. Regarding the number of finishers in the age groups, the number of female finishers decreased in the age group 18–24 years, whereas the number of finishers increased in the age groups 30–34, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, and 70–74 years. In the age groups 25–29 and 35–39 years, the number of finishers showed no changes across the years. In the age group 70–74 years, the increase in number of finishers was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. For men, the number of finishers decreased in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35–39 years. In the age groups 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 70–74, and 75–79 years, the number of finishers increased. In the age group 40–44 years, the increase was linear. For all other age groups, the

  19. When sad groups expect to meet again: interactive affective sharing and future interaction expectation as determinants of work groups' analytical and creative task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klep, Annefloor H M; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

    2013-12-01

    The present study examines the moderating role of future interaction expectation in the relationship between affective sharing and work groups' task performance. We argue that group affect, a group defining characteristic, becomes more salient to its members when it is interactively shared, and that the anticipation of future interaction may strengthen the effects of group defining characteristics on subsequent group member behaviour. As a consequence, interactive sharing (vs. non-interactive sharing) of negative affect is more likely to influence work group outcomes when group members expect to meet again. Results from a laboratory experiment with 66 three-person work groups indeed show that interactively shared (vs. non-interactively shared) negative affect facilitated work groups' analytical task performance, whereas it inhibited performance on a creative fluency task when groups have expectations of future interaction and not when they do not have such expectations. The discussion focuses on how these results add to theory on group affect and contribute to insights in the effects of future interaction expectation.

  20. The Effects of Group Size, Memory Instruction, and Session Length on the Creative Performance in Electronic Brainstorming Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Hamit

    2011-01-01

    In the literature, there has been a focus on the effectiveness of larger sized electronic brainstorming groups; however, mechanisms for its effectiveness still remain open to question and some methodological concerns (e.g., the evaluation of ideas and the typing speed, and the use of different formats) continue to be important problems. To…

  1. DIVERSIFICATION AND FAMILY CONTROL AS DETERMINANTS OF PERFORMANCE: A STUDY OF LISTED BUSINESS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Trasobares, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the individual and joint impact of family control and diversification on the perfor-mance of major Spanish corporations, considering the nature of the ltimate owner of non-family groups.The study uses a sample of ninety-nine Spanish corporations, each comprising a parent company listed onthe stock exchange and a set of subsidiaries. Heckman’s two-step correction is used to eliminate selectionbias and the endogeneity of family ownership. Different models are contemplated in which we alysethe impact of both diversification and the family nature of a business on performance, established asTobin’s q-value. The results show how family control has a egative impact on Tobin’s q-value, and thatdifferences are greater between family groups and non-family groups controlled by banks and/or foreignagents. They also show ow diversification does not affect the creation of value either individually orconsidering the possible moderating effect of family ownership.

  2. Preserving Subject Variability in Group fMRI Analysis: Performance Evaluation of GICA versus IVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eMichael

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA is a widely applied technique to derive functionally connected brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA (GICA and Independent Vector Analysis (IVA are extensions of ICA that enable users to perform group fMRI analyses; however a full comparison of the performance limits of GICA and IVA has not been investigated. Recent interest in resting state fMRI data with potentially higher degree of subject variability makes the evaluation of the above techniques important. In this paper we compare component estimation accuracies of GICA and an improved version of IVA using simulated fMRI datasets. We systematically change the degree of component spatial variability and evaluate estimation accuracy over all spatial maps (SMs and time courses (TCs of the decomposition. Our results indicate the following: (1 at low levels of SM variability or when just one SM is varied, both GICA and IVA perform well, (2 at higher levels of SM variability or when more than one SMs are varied, IVA continues to perform well but GICA yields SM estimates that are composites of other SMs with errors in TCs, (3 both GICA and IVA remove spatial correlations of overlapping SMs and introduce artificial correlations in their TCs, (4 if number of SMs is over estimated, IVA continues to perform well but GICA introduces artifacts in the varying and extra SMs with artificial correlations in the TCs of extra components, and (5 in the absence or presence of SMs unique to one subject, GICA produces errors in TCs and IVA estimates are accurate. In summary, our simulation experiments (both simplistic and realistic and our holistic analyses approach indicate that IVA produces results that are closer to ground truth and thereby better preserves subject variability. The improved version of IVA is now packaged into the GIFT toolbox (http://mialab.mrn.org/software/gift.

  3. Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle R Leonard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.

  4. Preserving subject variability in group fMRI analysis: performance evaluation of GICA vs. IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Andrew M; Anderson, Mathew; Miller, Robyn L; Adalı, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a widely applied technique to derive functionally connected brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA (GICA) and Independent Vector Analysis (IVA) are extensions of ICA that enable users to perform group fMRI analyses; however a full comparison of the performance limits of GICA and IVA has not been investigated. Recent interest in resting state fMRI data with potentially higher degree of subject variability makes the evaluation of the above techniques important. In this paper we compare component estimation accuracies of GICA and an improved version of IVA using simulated fMRI datasets. We systematically change the degree of inter-subject spatial variability of components and evaluate estimation accuracy over all spatial maps (SMs) and time courses (TCs) of the decomposition. Our results indicate the following: (1) at low levels of SM variability or when just one SM is varied, both GICA and IVA perform well, (2) at higher levels of SM variability or when more than one SMs are varied, IVA continues to perform well but GICA yields SM estimates that are composites of other SMs with errors in TCs, (3) both GICA and IVA remove spatial correlations of overlapping SMs and introduce artificial correlations in their TCs, (4) if number of SMs is over estimated, IVA continues to perform well but GICA introduces artifacts in the varying and extra SMs with artificial correlations in the TCs of extra components, and (5) in the absence or presence of SMs unique to one subject, GICA produces errors in TCs and IVA estimates are accurate. In summary, our simulation experiments (both simplistic and realistic) and our holistic analyses approach indicate that IVA produces results that are closer to ground truth and thereby better preserves subject variability. The improved version of IVA is now packaged into the GIFT toolbox (http://mialab.mrn.org/software/gift).

  5. Occupational performance characteristics of a group of adults with HIV-AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica María Monsalve Robayo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human immunodeficiency virus affects the lives of people especially regarding self-care, work and leisure time, factors that compromise the exercise of social participation. Objective: To describe the occupational performance of 29 patients living with HIV and AIDS assisted by the B24 program in a hospital in Bogotá-Colombia. Method: Descriptive and exploratory study on patterns of performance, occupational roles and independence in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL. An interview was conducted and an occupational questionnaire, the Lawton and Brody index, was used. Data were processed in SPSS and frequency analysis was performed. Results: Participants were 53 years old in average, 82.8% were men and 48.3% had higher education. They work an average of 2 hours a day and spend 11 hours a day with daily activities, and almost 5 or 6 hours with leisure and rest. The most significant roles are friend and family member, and the least significant, member of religious groups. Among participants, 65.5% are independent to develop IADL, 31% need help for some activities and 3.4% is dependent. Signs and symptoms of HIV and opportunistic infections make it difficult to assume roles, including work activities. Conclusion: Cobra value demonstrates the meaning of occupational transition for this group and its future perspective to implement programs that may foster the importance of their social and family participation.

  6. Do racial and ethnic group differences in performance on the MCAT exam reflect test bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dwight; Dorsey, J Kevin; Franks, Ronald D; Sackett, Paul R; Searcy, Cynthia A; Zhao, Xiaohui

    2013-05-01

    The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a standardized examination that assesses fundamental knowledge of scientific concepts, critical reasoning ability, and written communication skills. Medical school admission officers use MCAT scores, along with other measures of academic preparation and personal attributes, to select the applicants they consider the most likely to succeed in medical school. In 2008-2011, the committee charged with conducting a comprehensive review of the MCAT exam examined four issues: (1) whether racial and ethnic groups differ in mean MCAT scores, (2) whether any score differences are due to test bias, (3) how group differences may be explained, and (4) whether the MCAT exam is a barrier to medical school admission for black or Latino applicants. This analysis showed that black and Latino examinees' mean MCAT scores are lower than white examinees', mirroring differences on other standardized admission tests and in the average undergraduate grades of medical school applicants. However, there was no evidence that the MCAT exam is biased against black and Latino applicants as determined by their subsequent performance on selected medical school performance indicators. Among other factors which could contribute to mean differences in MCAT performance, whites, blacks, and Latinos interested in medicine differ with respect to parents' education and income. Admission data indicate that admission committees accept majority and minority applicants at similar rates, which suggests that medical students are selected on the basis of a combination of attributes and competencies rather than on MCAT scores alone.

  7. Somatic, Endurance Performance and Heart Rate Variability Profiles of Professional Soccer Players Grouped According to Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botek Michal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study compared somatic, endurance performance determinants and heart rate variability (HRV profiles of professional soccer players divided into different age groups: GI (17–19.9 years; n = 23, GII (20–24.9 years; n = 45, GIII (25–29.9 years; n = 30, and GIV (30–39 years; n = 26. Players underwent somatic and HRV assessment and maximal exercise testing. HRV was analyzed by spectral analysis of HRV, and high (HF and low (LF frequency power was transformed by a natural logarithm (Ln. Players in GIV (83 ± 7 kg were heavier (p 25 years showed negligible differences in Pmax unlike the age group differences demonstrated in VO2max. A shift towards relative sympathetic dominance, particularly due to reduced vagal activity, was apparent after approximately 8 years of competing at the professional level.

  8. Fluid forces enhance the performance of an aspirant leader in self-organized living groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro De Rosis

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of an individual aiming at guiding a self-organized group is numerically investigated. A collective behavioural model is adopted, accounting for the mutual repulsion, attraction and orientation experienced by the individuals. Moreover, these represent a set of solid particles which are supposed to be immersed in a fictitious viscous fluid. In particular, the lattice Boltzmann and Immersed boundary methods are used to predict the fluid dynamics, whereas the effect of the hydrodynamic forces on particles is accounted for by solving the equation of the solid motion through the time discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Numerical simulations are carried out by involving the individuals in a dichotomous process. On the one hand, an aspirant leader (AL additional individual is added to the system. AL is forced to move along a prescribed direction which intersects the group. On the other hand, these tend to depart from an obstacle represented by a rotating lamina which is placed in the fluid domain. A numerical campaign is carried out by varying the fluid viscosity and, as a consequence, the hydrodynamic field. Moreover, scenarios characterized by different values of the size of the group are investigated. In order to estimate the AL's performance, a proper parameter is introduced, depending on the number of individuals following AL. Present findings show that the sole collective behavioural equations are insufficient to predict the AL's performance, since the motion is drastically affected by the presence of the surrounding fluid. With respect to the existing literature, the proposed numerical model is enriched by accounting for the presence of the encompassing fluid, thus computing the hydrodynamic forces arising when the individuals move.

  9. [The study of establishment of the " Chinese provincial Blindness prevention technical guidance group performance evaluation system"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L N; He, X G; Zhu, J F; Xu, X; Zhang, R; Hu, X; Zou, H D

    2016-11-11

    Objective: To establish an assessment system, including indexes and scoring methods, that can be used for performance evaluation of the provincial blindness prevention technical guidance group properly and effectively . Methods: The indexes and scoring methods were set based on the core content of The " National Plan of Prevention and Treatment of Blindness (2012-2015)" , the specific requirement and target of the World Health Organization (WHO) "For the General Eye Health: Global plan of Action (2014-2019)" , and the current situation of the China's provinces and autonomous regions. These indexes should be of effectiveness, feasibility, comparability, guidance and advancing. Formed by a literature review of candidate indicators, the framework of the system is built by qualitative assessment. With the Delphi method, the system was further revised and improved. Empirical pilot study was then used to prove the feasibility, followed by the final qualitative analysis that establish the " Chinese provincial Blindness prevention technical guidance group performance evaluation system" . Results: Through the literature review and qualitative assessment, a six dimensional system framework was built, including 6 first-level indicators, 16 second-level indicators, and 29 third-level indicators through Delphi method evaluation. With the variation coefficient method, the coeffiences of the first-level index weight were calculated as: Organization and management 0.15, Development and implementation of blindness prevention plans 0.15, Implementation of blindness prevention projects 0.14, Training 0.17, Health education 0.18, and Cooperation and exchanges 0.21. The specific scoring method for this system is confirmed as: data and files check, field interview, and record interview, sampling investigation. Empirical pilot study was conducted in the Jilin, Guizhou and Gansu provinces, and the self-assessment results from local experts were consistent with the scores from the systems

  10. Sulfonic Groups Originated Dual-Functional Interlayer for High Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Gu, Sui; Guo, Jing; Rui, Kun; Chen, Chunhua; Zhang, Sanpei; Jin, Jun; Yang, Jianhua; Wen, Zhaoyin

    2017-05-03

    The lithium-sulfur battery is one of the most prospective chemistries in secondary energy storage field due to its high energy density and high theoretical capacity. However, the dissolution of polysulfides in liquid electrolytes causes the shuttle effect, and the rapid decay of lithium sulfur battery has greatly hindered its practical application. Herein, combination of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) interlayer on the separator is adopted to suppress the shuttle effect. We speculate that this SRGO layer plays two roles: physically blocking the migration of polysulfide as ion selective layer and anchoring lithium polysulfide by the electronegative sulfonic group. Lewis acid-base theory and density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that sulfonic groups have a strong tendency to interact with lithium ions in the lithium polysulfide. Hence, the synergic effect involved by the sulfonic group contributes to the enhancement of the battery performance. Furthermore, the uniformly distributed sulfonic groups working as active sites which could induce the uniform distribution of sulfur, alleviating the excessive growth of sulfur and enhancing the utilization of active sulfur. With this interlayer, the prototype battery exhibits a high reversible discharge capacity of more than 1300 mAh g(-1) and good capacity retention of 802 mAh g(-1) after 250 cycles at 0.5 C rate. After 60 cycles at different rates from 0.2 to 4 C, the cell with this functional separator still recovered a high specific capacity of 1100 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C. The results demonstrate a promising interlayer design toward high performance lithium-sulfur battery with longer cycling life, high specific capacity, and rate capability.

  11. Parallel adaptive integration in high-performance functional Renormalization Group computations

    CERN Document Server

    Lichtenstein, Julian; de la Peña, David Sánchez; Vidović, Toni; Di Napoli, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual framework provided by the functional Renormalization Group (fRG) has become a formidable tool to study correlated electron systems on lattices which, in turn, provided great insights to our understanding of complex many-body phenomena, such as high- temperature superconductivity or topological states of matter. In this work we present one of the latest realizations of fRG which makes use of an adaptive numerical quadrature scheme specifically tailored to the described fRG scheme. The final result is an increase in performance thanks to improved parallelism and scalability.

  12. Effective grouping for energy and performance: Construction of adaptive, sustainable, and maintainable data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essary, David S.

    The performance gap between processors and storage systems has been increasingly critical over the years. Yet the performance disparity remains, and further, storage energy consumption is rapidly becoming a new critical problem. While smarter caching and predictive techniques do much to alleviate this disparity, the problem persists, and data storage remains a growing contributor to latency and energy consumption. Attempts have been made at data layout maintenance, or intelligent physical placement of data, yet in practice, basic heuristics remain predominant. Problems that early studies sought to solve via layout strategies were proven to be NP-Hard, and data layout maintenance today remains more art than science. With unknown potential and a domain inherently full of uncertainty, layout maintenance persists as an area largely untapped by modern systems. But uncertainty in workloads does not imply randomness; access patterns have exhibited repeatable, stable behavior. Predictive information can be gathered, analyzed, and exploited to improve data layouts. Our goal is a dynamic, robust, sustainable predictive engine, aimed at improving existing layouts by replicating data at the storage device level. We present a comprehensive discussion of the design and construction of such a predictive engine, including workload evaluation, where we present and evaluate classical workloads as well as our own highly detailed traces collected over an extended period. We demonstrate significant gains through an initial static grouping mechanism, and compare against an optimal grouping method of our own construction, and further show significant improvement over competing techniques. We also explore and illustrate the challenges faced when moving from static to dynamic (i.e. online) grouping, and provide motivation and solutions for addressing these challenges. These challenges include metadata storage, appropriate predictive collocation, online performance, and physical placement

  13. Performance analysis of a concatenated erbium-doped fiber amplifier supporting four mode groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zujun; Fan, Di; Zhang, Wentao; Xiong, Xianming

    2016-05-01

    An erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) supporting four mode groups has been theoretically designed by concatenating two sections of erbium-doped fibers (EDFs). Each EDF has a simple erbium doping profile for the purpose of reducing its fabrication complexity. We propose a modified genetic algorithm (GA) to provide detailed investigations on the concatenated amplifier. Both the optimal fiber length and erbium doping radius in each EDF have been found to minimize the gain difference between signal modes. Results show that the parameters of the central-doped EDF have a greater impact on the amplifier performance compared to those of the annular-doped one. We then investigate the influence of the small deviations of the erbium fiber length, doping radius and doping concentration of each EDF from their optimal values upon the amplifier performance, and discuss their design tolerances in obtaining a desirable amplification characteristics.

  14. Teamwork skills, shared mental models, and performance in simulated trauma teams: an independent group design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westli Heidi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-technical skills are seen as an important contributor to reducing adverse events and improving medical management in healthcare teams. Previous research on the effectiveness of teams has suggested that shared mental models facilitate coordination and team performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether demonstrated teamwork skills and behaviour indicating shared mental models would be associated with observed improved medical management in trauma team simulations. Methods Revised versions of the 'Anesthetists' Non-Technical Skills Behavioural marker system' and 'Anti-Air Teamwork Observation Measure' were field tested in moment-to-moment observation of 27 trauma team simulations in Norwegian hospitals. Independent subject matter experts rated medical management in the teams. An independent group design was used to explore differences in teamwork skills between higher-performing and lower-performing teams. Results Specific teamwork skills and behavioural markers were associated with indicators of good team performance. Higher and lower-performing teams differed in information exchange, supporting behaviour and communication, with higher performing teams showing more effective information exchange and communication, and less supporting behaviours. Behavioural markers of shared mental models predicted effective medical management better than teamwork skills. Conclusions The present study replicates and extends previous research by providing new empirical evidence of the significance of specific teamwork skills and a shared mental model for the effective medical management of trauma teams. In addition, the study underlines the generic nature of teamwork skills by demonstrating their transferability from different clinical simulations like the anaesthesia environment to trauma care, as well as the potential usefulness of behavioural frequency analysis in future research on non-technical skills.

  15. WMS-III performance in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: group differences and individual classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, N; Strauss, E; Chelune, G J; Loring, D W; Martin, R C; Hermann, B P; Sherman, E; Hunter, M

    2001-11-01

    The utility of the WMS-III in detecting lateralized impairment was examined in a large sample of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods of analysis included evaluation of group means on the various indexes and subtest scores, the use of ROC curves, and an examination of Auditory-Visual Index discrepancy scores. In addition, performance on immediate and delayed indexes in the auditory and the visual modality was compared within each group. Of the WMS-III scores, the Auditory-Visual Delayed Index difference score appeared most sensitive to side of temporal dysfunction, although patient classification rates were not within an acceptable range to have clinical utility. The ability to predict laterality based on statistically significant index score differences was particularly weak for those with left temporal dysfunction. The use of unusually large discrepancies led to improved prediction, however, the rarity of such scores in this population limits their usefulness. Although the utility of the WMS-III in detecting laterality may be limited in preoperative cases, the WMS-III may still hold considerable promise as a measure of memory in documenting baseline performance and in detecting those that may be at risk following surgery.

  16. Growth performance of three pejerrey genetic groups in intensive culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Aldrighi Tavares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the growth performance of Odontesthes bonariensis, O. humensis and hybrid (O. bonariensis X O. humensis in intensive culture system for a period of 180 days, using the body weight (W, total length (Lt, condition factor (CF, allometric coefficient (b, specific growth rate (SGR and estimates of body weight and maximum total length (Wmax, Ltmax as indicators. Fish were randomly selected from three genetic groups (Bonariensis, Humensis and Hybrid, divided into water recirculation system consisting of 12 tanks (50 L. 12 measurements of body weight and total length (0, 2, 7, 14, 21, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 180 days were taken by means of a random sample of 10 subjects per replicate. All genetic groups grew in weight and length over the period analyzed, being influenced by the genetics of each species. O. bonariensis showed the best performance in growth and hybrid fish showed intermediate growth and estimated maximum body weight exceeding the pure species. Based on these results, it would be helpful the selective breeding and formation of domesticated strains.

  17. Report of the Snowmass T7 working group on high performance computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ko; R. Ryne; P. Spentzouris

    2002-12-05

    The T7 Working Group on High Performance Computing (HPC) had more than 30 participants. During the three weeks at Snowmass there were about 30 presentations. This working group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), M1 (Muon Based Systems), M6 (High Intensity Proton Sources), T4 (Particle sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), and T8 (Advanced Accelerators). The topics that were discussed fall naturally into three areas: (1) HPC requirements for next-generation accelerator design, (2) state-of-the-art in HPC simulation of accelerator systems, and (3) applied mathematics and computer science activities related to the development of HPC tools that will be of use to the accelerator community (as well as other communities). This document summarizes the material mentioned above and includes recommendations for future HPC activities in the accelerator community. The relationship of those activities to the HENP/SciDAC project on 21st century accelerator simulation is also discussed.

  18. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS T7 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kwok

    2002-08-30

    The T7 Working Group on High Performance Computing (HPC) had more than 30 participants (listed in Section 6). During the three weeks at Snowmass there were about 30 presentations (listed in Section 7). This working group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), M1 (Muon Based Systems), M6 (High Intensity Proton Sources), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), and T8 (Advanced Accelerators). The topics that were discussed fall naturally into three areas: (1) HPC requirements for next-generation accelerator design, (2) state-of-the-art in HPC simulation of accelerator systems, and (3) applied mathematics and computer science activities related to the development of HPC tools that will be of use to the accelerator community (as well as other communities). This document summarizes the material mentioned above and includes recommendations for future HPC activities in the accelerator community. The relationship of those activities to the HENP/SciDAC project on 21st century accelerator simulation is also discussed.

  19. Improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells' performance through introducing suitable heterocyclic groups to triarylamine dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Dao; Pan, Hao; Ju, Xue-Hai; Ji, Ya-Jun; Qin, Ling; Zheng, He-Gen; Zhou, Xing-Fu

    2012-02-28

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are currently under intense academic and industrial investigation, owing to their great potential to serve as a low-cost alternative to existing photovoltaic technologies. This paper puts forward a method, which adopts heterocyclic substituted triarylamine units as electronic donor moieties, to design triarylamine dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Three novel triarylamine dyes named TTC101, TTC102 and TTC103, were synthesized economically through modification of the structure of a simple triarylamine dye (TC105) using three kinds of heterocyclic groups (4-pyridyl, 2-thienyl and 1-pyrazolyl). The crystal structure of TTC103 indicates that the heterocyclic groups would partly delocalize the positive charge after photooxidation. The overall solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies (η) of TTC102 and TTC103 are 4.92% and 5.21% respectively under AM1.5G irradiation, reaching ∼82.3% and ∼77.7% of a N719-based reference cell under the same conditions. Besides, the energy conversion efficiencies (η) of TTC102 and TTC103 are 1.29 and 1.37 times the efficiency of TC105 respectively. All of the results above demonstrate that photovoltaic performance can be improved by introducing suitable heterocyclic groups to triarylamine dyes. A series of properties were investigated to explain the results, with a special emphasis on the geometric structures, energetics, and charge transfer processes at the dye/titania/electrolyte interface.

  20. 'Doctor' or 'darling'? Decoding the communication partner from ECoG of the anterior temporal lobe during non-experimental, real-life social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eDerix

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Human brain processes underlying real-life social interaction in everyday situations have been difficult to study and have, until now, remained largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether electrocorticography (ECoG recorded for pre-neurosurgical diagnostics during the daily hospital life of epilepsy patients could provide a way to elucidate the neural correlates of non-experimental social interaction. We identified time periods in which patients were involved in conversations with either their respective life partners (Condition 1; C1 or attending physicians (Condition 2; C2. These two conditions can be expected to differentially involve subfunctions of social interaction which have been associated with activity in the anterior temporal lobe (ATL, including the temporal poles (TP. Therefore, we specifically focused on ECoG recordings from this brain region and investigated spectral power modulations in the alpha (8-12 Hz and theta (3-5 Hz frequency ranges, which have been previously assumed to play an important role in the processing of social interaction. We hypothesized that brain activity in this region might be sensitive to differences in the two interaction situations and tested whether these differences can be detected by single-trial decoding. Condition-specific effects in both theta and alpha bands were observed: the left and right TP exclusively showed increased power in C1 compared to C2, whereas more posterior parts of the ATL exhibited similar (C1 > C2 and also contrary (C2 > C1 effects. Single-trial decoding accuracies for classification of these effects were highly above chance. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to study the neural correlates of human social interaction in non-experimental conditions. Decoding the identity of the communication partner and adjusting the speech output accordingly may be useful in the emerging field of brain- machine interfacing for restoration of expressive speech.

  1. Relation between functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and single neuron, local field potential (LFP and electrocorticography (ECoG activity in human cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Ojemann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relation between changes in the blood oxygen dependent metabolic changes imaged by fMRI and neural events directly recorded from human cortex from single neurons, LFPs and ECoG is critically reviewed, based on the published literature including findings from the authors’ laboratories. All these data are from special populations, usually patients with medically refractory epilepsy, as this provides the major opportunity for direct cortical neuronal recording in humans. For LFP and ECoG changes are often sought in different frequency bands, for single neurons in frequency of action potentials. Most fMRI studies address issues of functional localization. The relation of those findings to localized changes in neuronal recordings in humans has been established in several ways. Only a few studies have directly compared changes in activity from the same sites in the same individual, using the same behavioral measure. More often the comparison has been between fMRI and electrophysiologic changes in populations recorded from the same functional anatomic system as defined by lesion effects; in a few studies those systems have been defined by fMRI changes such as the default network. The fMRI-electrophysiologic relationships have been evaluated empirically by colocalization of significant changes, and by quantitative analyses, often multiple linear regression. There is some evidence that the fMRI-electrophysiology relationships differ in different cortical areas, particularly primary motor and sensory cortices compared to association cortex, but also within areas of association cortex. Although crucial for interpretation of fMRI changes as reflecting neural activity in human cortex, controversy remains as to these relationships.Supported by: Dutch Technology Foundation and University of Utrecht Grant UGT7685, ERC-Advanced grant 320708 (NR and NIH grant NS065186 (JO

  2. Relation between functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and single neuron, local field potential (LFP) and electrocorticography (ECoG) activity in human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojemann, George A; Ojemann, Jeffrey; Ramsey, Nick F

    2013-01-01

    The relation between changes in the blood oxygen dependent metabolic changes imaged by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neural events directly recorded from human cortex from single neurons, local field potentials (LFPs) and electrocorticogram (ECoG) is critically reviewed, based on the published literature including findings from the authors' laboratories. All these data are from special populations, usually patients with medically refractory epilepsy, as this provides the major opportunity for direct cortical neuronal recording in humans. For LFP and ECoG changes are often sought in different frequency bands, for single neurons in frequency of action potentials. Most fMRI studies address issues of functional localization. The relation of those findings to localized changes in neuronal recordings in humans has been established in several ways. Only a few studies have directly compared changes in activity from the same sites in the same individual, using the same behavioral measure. More often the comparison has been between fMRI and electrophysiologic changes in populations recorded from the same functional anatomic system as defined by lesion effects; in a few studies those systems have been defined by fMRI changes such as the "default" network. The fMRI-electrophysiologic relationships have been evaluated empirically by colocalization of significant changes, and by quantitative analyses, often multiple linear regression. There is some evidence that the fMRI-electrophysiology relationships differ in different cortical areas, particularly primary motor and sensory cortices compared to association cortex, but also within areas of association cortex. Although crucial for interpretation of fMRI changes as reflecting neural activity in human cortex, controversy remains as to these relationships. Supported by: Dutch Technology Foundation and University of Utrecht Grant UGT7685, ERC-Advanced grant 320708 (NR) and NIH grant NS065186 (JO).

  3. Motivation gains in performance groups: paradigmatic and theoretical developments on the Köhler effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, G; Kerr, N L; Messé, L A

    2000-10-01

    In contrast to many demonstrations of social loafing, relatively few studies have documented group motivation gains. One such exception was O. Köhler's (1926, 1927) finding that team members working together did better at a taxing persistence task than would be expected from their individual performances, particularly when there was a moderate discrepancy in coworkers' capabilities. In Experiment 1, we developed a paradigm within which Köhler's overall motivation gain effect could be replicated, although the discrepancy in coworkers' capabilities did not moderate these motivation gains (after statistical artifacts were taken into account). Experiment 2 indicated that this motivation gain occurred under conjunctive but not under additive task demands, suggesting that the instrumentality of one's contribution to valued outcomes is a more likely explanation of the Köhler effect than social comparison processes.

  4. Hydrocarbon group type determination in jet fuels by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Results are given for the analysis of some jet and diesel fuel samples which were prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes. Thirty-two samples of varying chemical composition and physical properties were obtained. Hydrocarbon types in these samples were determined by fluorescent indicator adsorption (FIA) analysis, and the results from three laboratories are presented and compared. Recently, rapid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been proposed for hydrocarbon group type analysis, with some suggestion for their use as a replacement of the FIA technique. Two of these methods were used to analyze some of the samples, and these results are also presented and compared. Two samples of petroleum-based Jet A fuel are similarly analyzed.

  5. Assessing patient care: summary of the breakout group on assessment of observable learner performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayesu, James Kimo; Kulstad, Christine; Wallenstein, Joshua; Gallahue, Fiona; Gordon, David; Leone, Katrina; Kessler, Chad

    2012-12-01

    There is an established expectation that physicians in training demonstrate competence in all aspects of clinical care prior to entering professional practice. Multiple methods have been used to assess competence in patient care, including direct observation, simulation-based assessments, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), global faculty evaluations, 360-degree evaluations, portfolios, self-reflection, clinical performance metrics, and procedure logs. A thorough assessment of competence in patient care requires a mixture of methods, taking into account each method's costs, benefits, and current level of evidence. At the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference on educational research, one breakout group reviewed and discussed the evidence supporting various methods of assessing patient care and defined a research agenda for the continued development of specific assessment methods based on current best practices. In this article, the authors review each method's supporting reliability and validity evidence and make specific recommendations for future educational research.

  6. A Mechanism That Bounds Execution Performance for Process Group for Mitigating CPU Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiro; Hara, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Hideo

    Secure OS has been the focus of several studies. However, CPU resources, which are important resources for executing a program, are not the object of access control. For preventing the abuse of CPU resources, we had earlier proposed a new type of execution resource that controls the maximum CPU usage [5,6] The previously proposed mechanism can control only one process at a time. Because most services involve multiple processes, the mechanism should control all the processes in each service. In this paper, we propose an improved mechanism that helps to achieve a bound on the execution performance of a process group, in order to limit unnecessary processor usage. We report the results of an evaluation of our proposed mechanism.

  7. Performance estimation and design of group demodulator for satellite FDMA/TDM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Chun; Umehira, Masahiro

    The authors describe a Monte Carlo simulation of QPSK (quadrature phase shift keying) and offset QPSK group modems which take into account the effect of the nonlinearity of each ground terminal HPA. The effect of uplink fading due to rain, as encountered in satellite links operated in the Ka and Ku bands, is included. Results show that a normalized channel spacing with respect to a symbol rate of 2.5 or greater is required to reduce the effect of adjacent channel interference. At this spacing the performance of the modem will still incur a Eb/N0 (energy per bit/noise density) degradation of about 1.0 dB. In addition, design criteria for major components such as digital subfilter, rate conversion filter, carrier recovery circuits, and quantization are given.

  8. Effects of single sex lab groups on physics self-efficacy, behavior, and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gary L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the gender composition of a laboratory group and student behaviors, self-efficacy, and quiz performance, within the college physics laboratory. A student population was chosen and subdivided into two groups, which were assigned either same-sex or coed laboratory teams while executing identical laboratory activities and instruction. Assessments were carried out prior to instruction, during the course, and at the end of one semester worth of instruction and laboratory activities. Students were assessed in three areas: behaviors exhibited during laboratory activities, self-efficacy, and scores on laboratory quizzes. Analyses considered the differences in outcomes after a single semester of physics laboratories that differed only in team gender organization. The results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in behavior variable, self-efficacy or laboratory quiz scores between same sex teams and coed teams. There were also no statistically significant differences between genders, and no interaction effect present. In a post-hoc analysis of the individual behaviors data, it was noted that there is present a practical difference in the individual behaviors exhibited by males and females. This difference implies a difference in how males and females successfully engage in the laboratory activities.

  9. The comparison between carboxyl, amido and hydroxy group in influencing electrorheological performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huo; Li, Jun-Ran; Liao, Fu-Hui

    2011-03-01

    Three kinds of electrorheological (ER) materials with carboxyl, amido and hydroxyl group, respectively, were synthesized by a simple adsorption method. The powder of silicon dioxide as a substrate of the materials, as well as terephthalic acid [ p-C6H4(COOH)2, abbr.: phen-COOH], p-phenylenediamine [ p-C6H4(NH2)2, abbr.: phen-NH2] and hydroquinone [ p-C6H4(OH)2, abbr.: phen-OH] were chosen as starting materials. The ER properties of suspensions of the materials in silicon oil were studied. The suspension of the material adsorbing phen-COOH reveals the highest ER activity, the relative shear stress of the suspension (25 wt%), τr(=τE/τ0, τE and τ0 are the shear stresses at electric field strengths of E=4.2 and 0 kV/mm, respectively), reaches 220 under a DC electric field at a shear rate of 14.5 s-1. The shear stress of the suspension of the material adsorbing phen-NH2 is the largest at an high electric field strength. The ER activity of the material adsorbing phen-OH is the lowest among the three materials. The molecule structure is an importance factor in influencing ER performance of the materials for similar compounds with different polar function groups. The relationship between the ER activity and dielectric property of the materials was discussed.

  10. The development of a competency-based group health teaching performance examination model for BSN graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Chun-Yi; Chung, Ue-Lin

    2008-12-01

    Under the current nursing education system in Taiwan, a fair and objective evaluation of group health teaching competency has been lacking for a long time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish a competency-based group health teaching performance examination model for baccalaureate graduates. Action research was the main research methodology used in this study. The research consisted of two phases. In the first phase, a development committee was established. Based on routine discussions, literature reviews and realistic cases, a draft examination model with quasi-clinical situation model content and procedure was developed. Examination Facility Preparations, Simulated Scenarios and Client Recruitments, Examination Result Evaluation (evaluated by teachers) and Learning Guidelines were also prepared. This draft was reviewed twice for expert opinion, a pilot test was done and both the draft and pilot testing were reviewed again before the draft was finalized. The second phase involved refining the examination model by actually practicing the completed draft examination model in a simulated group-teaching setting in order to examine the model's reliability and validity. Fifteen people were involved in this experiment: three nursing personnel each having at least two years' clinical and teaching experience; three nursing students who did not have actual clinical experience and had not taken the course of teaching principles; three senior teachers; and six virtual patients. The responses from the nursing personnel, nursing students, teachers, and virtual patients who participated in the testing were gathered and integrated to refine the model. The model has content, expert and discriminative validity. The reliability of the model was proven by the high consistency in administration and scoring of the model by clinical examiners. This examination model is not only applicable for the proof of students' credit point exemption, but also as an alternative

  11. Agricultural producers’ groups in the Czech Republic: introductory review and discussion of the problem area economic performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vavřina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Each company is surrounded by the micro- and macro-environment affecting also its economic performance. These factors are not only individual accounting entries, but also analytical inputs as the internal company processes, management of costs or short-term financial decisions and specifically in the case of agriculture within the EU also the public subsidy schemes implemented through the EU Common Agricultural Policy. Groups of agricultural producers are created as a response to current market dynamics and the opportunity for each agricultural enterprise regardless the size. In this paper, the basis for agricultural cooperation is provided, traditional economic performance measures are presented and their applicability on the sample of agricultural producers’ groups and wholesale entities is empirically verified. Wholesale entities are analysed by its business activity and performance features to consider whether they are suitable peer group for comparing economic performance of examined agricultural producers’ group. Since the economic performance of agricultural producers’ groups directly affects the economic performance of all participating entities, and vice versa, their economic performance measurement may involve specific constraints. According to the structure and characteristics of agricultural producers’ groups may be inferred that whilst the common performance measurement techniques are applicable on the majority of companies, agricultural producers’ groups represent specific entities and therefore need adjusted performance measurement approach.

  12. Performance of some supervised and unsupervised multivariate techniques for grouping authentic and unauthentic Viagra and Cialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel J. Anzanello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A typical application of multivariate techniques in forensic analysis consists of discriminating between authentic and unauthentic samples of seized drugs, in addition to finding similar properties in the unauthentic samples. In this paper, the performance of several methods belonging to two different classes of multivariate techniques–supervised and unsupervised techniques–were compared. The supervised techniques (ST are the k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM, Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA; the unsupervised techniques are the k-Means CA and the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM. The methods are applied to Infrared Spectroscopy by Fourier Transform (FTIR from authentic and unauthentic Cialis and Viagra. The FTIR data are also transformed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA and kernel functions aimed at improving the grouping performance. ST proved to be a more reasonable choice when the analysis is conducted on the original data, while the UT led to better results when applied to transformed data.

  13. Dynamics of safety performance and culture: a group model building approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Love, Peter E D; Stagbouer, Greg; Annesley, Chris

    2012-09-01

    The management of occupational health and safety (OHS) including safety culture interventions is comprised of complex problems that are often hard to scope and define. Due to the dynamic nature and complexity of OHS management, the concept of system dynamics (SD) is used to analyze accident prevention. In this paper, a system dynamics group model building (GMB) approach is used to create a causal loop diagram of the underlying factors influencing the OHS performance of a major drilling and mining contractor in Australia. While the organization has invested considerable resources into OHS their disabling injury frequency rate (DIFR) has not been decreasing. With this in mind, rich individualistic knowledge about the dynamics influencing the DIFR was acquired from experienced employees with operations, health and safety and training background using a GMB workshop. Findings derived from the workshop were used to develop a series of causal loop diagrams that includes a wide range of dynamics that can assist in better understanding the causal influences OHS performance. The causal loop diagram provides a tool for organizations to hypothesize the dynamics influencing effectiveness of OHS management, particularly the impact on DIFR. In addition the paper demonstrates that the SD GMB approach has significant potential in understanding and improving OHS management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 67243 - In the Matter of Accesspoint Corp., Aero Performance Products, Inc., Apex Resources Group, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Accesspoint Corp., Aero Performance Products, Inc., Apex Resources Group, Inc., Aradyme Corp., Bancroft Uranium, Inc., Fightersoft Multimedia Corp., Fortress Financial Group, Inc., and... Resources Group, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended March 31,...

  15. The effects of group size and group economic factors on collaboration: a study of the financial performance of rural hospitals in consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, B; Feldman, R; Manning, W G

    1999-04-01

    To determine factors that distinguish effective rural hospital consortia from ineffective ones in terms of their ability to improve members' financial performance. Two questions in particular were addressed: (1) Do large consortia have a greater collective impact on their members? (2) Does a consortium's economic environment determine the degree of collective impact on members? Based on the hospital survey conducted during February 1992 by the Robert Wood Johnson Hospital-Based Rural Health Care project of rural hospital consortia. The survey data were augmented with data from Medicare Cost Reports (1985-1991), AHA Annual Surveys (1985-1991), and other secondary data. Dependent variables were total operating profit, cost per adjusted admission, and revenue per adjusted admission. Control variables included degree of group formalization, degree of inequality of resources among members (group asymmetry), affiliation with other consortium group(s), individual economic environment, common hospital characteristics (bed size, ownership type, system affiliation, case mix, etc.), year (1985-1991), and census region dummies. All dependent variables have a curvilinear association with group size. The optimum group size is somewhere in the neighborhood of 45. This reveals the benefits of collective action (i.e., scale economies and/or synergy effects) and the issue of complexity as group size increases. Across analyses, no strong evidence exists of group economic environment impacts, and the environmental influences come mainly from the local economy rather than from the group economy. There may be some success stories of collaboration among hospitals in consortia, and consortium effects vary across different collaborations. When studying consortia, it makes sense to develop a typology of groups based on some performance indicators. The results of this study imply that government, rural communities, and consortium staff and steering committees should forge the consortium

  16. Can Confidence Come Too Soon? Collective Efficacy, Conflict and Group Performance over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalo, Jack A.; Polman, Evan; Maslach, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Groups with a strong sense of collective efficacy set more challenging goals, persist in the face of difficulty, and are ultimately more likely to succeed than groups who do not share this belief. Given the many advantages that may accrue to groups who are confident, it would be logical to advise groups to build a high level of collective efficacy…

  17. Can Confidence Come Too Soon? Collective Efficacy, Conflict and Group Performance over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalo, Jack A.; Polman, Evan; Maslach, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Groups with a strong sense of collective efficacy set more challenging goals, persist in the face of difficulty, and are ultimately more likely to succeed than groups who do not share this belief. Given the many advantages that may accrue to groups who are confident, it would be logical to advise groups to build a high level of collective efficacy…

  18. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ark Gerrit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research. For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre. The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector. For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity. These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance, after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles. Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms

  19. The effects of different gender groupings on middle school students' performance in science lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Deborah D.

    Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.

  20. Amide group anchored glucose oxidase based anodic catalysts for high performance enzymatic biofuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yongjin; Ahn, Yeonjoo; Kim, Do-Heyoung; Kwon, Yongchai

    2017-01-01

    A new enzyme catalyst is formed by fabricating gold nano particle (GNP)-glucose oxidase (GOx) clusters that are then attached to polyethyleneimine (PEI) and carbon nanotube (CNT) with cross-linkable terephthalaldehyde (TPA) (TPA/[CNT/PEI/GOx-GNP]). Especially, amide bonds belonging to TPA play an anchor role for incorporating rigid bonding among GNP, GOx and CNT/PEI, while middle size GNP is well bonded with thiol group of GOx to form strong GNP-GOx cluster. Those bonds are identified by chemical and electrochemical characterizations like XPS and cyclic voltammogram. The anchording effect of amide bonds induces fast electron transfer and strong chemical bonding, resulting in enhancements in (i) catalytic activity, (ii) amount of immobilized GOx and (ii) performance of enzymatic biofuel cell (EBC) including the catalyst. Regarding the catalytic activity, the TPA/[CNT/PEI/GOx-GNP] produces high electron transfer rate constant (6 s-1), high glucose sensitivity (68 μA mM-1 cm-2), high maximum current density (113 μA cm-2), low charge transfer resistance (17.0 Ω cm2) and long-lasting durability while its chemical structure is characterized by XPS confirming large portion of amide bond. In EBC measurement, it has high maximum power density (0.94 mW cm-2) compatible with catalytic acitivity measurements.

  1. When none of us perform better than all of us together: the role of analogical decision rules in groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Meslec

    Full Text Available During social interactions, groups develop collective competencies that (ideally should assist groups to outperform average standalone individual members (weak cognitive synergy or the best performing member in the group (strong cognitive synergy. In two experimental studies we manipulate the type of decision rule used in group decision-making (identify the best vs. collaborative, and the way in which the decision rules are induced (direct vs. analogical and we test the effect of these two manipulations on the emergence of strong and weak cognitive synergy. Our most important results indicate that an analogically induced decision rule (imitate-the-successful heuristic in which groups have to identify the best member and build on his/her performance (take-the-best heuristic is the most conducive for strong cognitive synergy. Our studies bring evidence for the role of analogy-making in groups as well as the role of fast-and-frugal heuristics for group decision-making.

  2. The Influence of Learner Strategies on Oral Presentations: A Comparison between Group and Individual Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning has frequently been used in language classrooms, from in-class task-based group work to group presentations. Research suggests that cooperative learning provides mutual support, as well as successful and effective learning outcomes of tasks. The present research addressed a number of problems discovered in group oral…

  3. Bridging Faultlines by Valuing Diversity: Diversity Beliefs, Information Elaboration, and Performance in Diverse Work Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Homan (Astrid); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); G.A. van Kleef (Gerben); C.K.W. de Dreu (Carsten)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAlthough there are numerous potential benefits to diversity in work groups, converging dimensions of diversity often prevent groups from exploiting this potential. In a study of heterogeneous decision-making groups, we examined whether the disruptive effects of diversity faultlines can b

  4. Formal and Informal Work Group Relationships With Performance: A Moderation Model Using Social

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    the absence of the established group dynamic (Trist & Bamforth, 1951). A third classic study, by Coch and French (1948), showed that individual...nature of group cohesiveness. In D. Cartwright & A. Zander (Eds.), Group Dynamics (3rd ed., pp.91-109). New York: Harper & Row. Coch , L

  5. Quantitative Approach to Collaborative Learning: Performance Prediction, Individual Assessment, and Group Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Ling; Ruta, Dymitr; Powell, Leigh; Hirsch, Benjamin; Ng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning, although widely reported, lack the quantitative rigor and detailed insight into the dynamics of interactions within the group, while individual contributions and their impacts on group members and their collaborative work remain hidden behind joint group assessment. To bridge this gap we intend to address…

  6. Quantitative Approach to Collaborative Learning: Performance Prediction, Individual Assessment, and Group Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Ling; Ruta, Dymitr; Powell, Leigh; Hirsch, Benjamin; Ng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning, although widely reported, lack the quantitative rigor and detailed insight into the dynamics of interactions within the group, while individual contributions and their impacts on group members and their collaborative work remain hidden behind joint group assessment. To bridge this gap we intend to address…

  7. Can DSS Technology Improve Group Decision Performance for End Users?: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, David E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the benefits of Decision Support Systems (DSS) for end-user group decision making. An experiment was conducted which required groups to reach a consensus on human resource-related decisions. The results of the experiment provide implications for the use of group DDS in organizations and for future study. (Author/AEF)

  8. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements. This section specifies the performance standards for treating Group 1 wastewater streams. The... wastewater stream or residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream has been treated in accordance with... the point at which the treated wastewater stream exits the last treatment process, or the vented...

  9. Performance and behaviour of rabbit does in a group-housing system with natural mating or artificial insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Boiti, C.; Jong, de I.C.; Brecchia, G.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared reproductive performance and behaviour of does raised in a group-housing system and in a regular cage system. The group-housing pen was divided into different functional areas for suckling, resting, and eating and special hiding areas for kits when they had left the nest-boxes

  10. Learning Performance Enhancement Using Computer-Assisted Language Learning by Collaborative Learning Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-huei Wang; Hung-Chang Liao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to test whether the use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and innovative collaborative learning could be more effective than the use of traditional collaborative learning in improving students’ English proficiencies. A true experimental design was used in the study. Four randomly-assigned groups participated in the study: a traditional collaborative learning group (TCLG, 34 students), an innovative collaborative learning group (ICLG, 31 students), a CALL tradi...

  11. How Do Politicians Attribute Bureaucratic Responsibility for Performance? Negativity Bias and Interest Group Advocacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul A.; Moynihan, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    of accountability, even as politicians are increasingly provided with performance data to hold bureaucrats accountable. We shed light on this issue using a survey experiment of elected officials featuring actual performance data. We find that the provision of performance data makes elected officials more willing...

  12. How Do Politicians Attribute Bureaucratic Responsibility for Performance? Negativity Bias and Interest Group Advocacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul A.; Moynihan, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    of accountability, even as politicians are increasingly provided with performance data to hold bureaucrats accountable. We shed light on this issue using a survey experiment of elected officials featuring actual performance data. We find that the provision of performance data makes elected officials more willing...

  13. The Relationship between Substance Abuse Performance Measures and Mutual Help Group Participation after Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Gail K; Reif, Sharon; Horgan, Constance M; Acevedo, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between treatment quality, using during-treatment process measures, and mutual help group (e.g., Alcoholics Anonymous) attendance after outpatient substance use disorder (SUD) treatment for 739 clients in the Alcohol and Drug Services Study. Logistic regression models estimated any and regular mutual help attendance after treatment. Clients referred to mutual help groups were significantly more likely to attend any mutual help after treatment. Results were mixed for facility offered mutual help groups; treatment engagement and retention were not significant. These findings offer treatment providers further evidence of the importance of referring clients to post-treatment mutual help groups, an effective, low-cost option.

  14. The Effects of Different Leadership Styles on Group Performance: A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anthony Joseph, III

    This study tested Fiedler's contingency model of leadership effectiveness on 86 nursing students in a large midwestern hospital. Fourteen individuals representing the task oriented and relationship-oriented leadership styles and two levels of sociometric status were randomly designated as leaders for small groups. The groups worked on five…

  15. Employing Cognitive Chunking Techniques to Enhance Sight-Reading Performance of Undergraduate Group-Piano Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Pamela D.; Carter, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of cognitive chunking techniques among first-semester group-piano music majors. The ability to group discrete pieces of information into larger, more meaningful chunks is essential for efficient cognitive processing. Since reading keyboard music and playing the piano is a cognitively complex…

  16. Employing Cognitive Chunking Techniques to Enhance Sight-Reading Performance of Undergraduate Group-Piano Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Pamela D.; Carter, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of cognitive chunking techniques among first-semester group-piano music majors. The ability to group discrete pieces of information into larger, more meaningful chunks is essential for efficient cognitive processing. Since reading keyboard music and playing the piano is a cognitively complex…

  17. Improving the performance of indicator groups for the identification of important areas for species conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper; Rahbek, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    -Saharan birds and mammals, we assessed factors that influence the effectiveness of indicator groups. We assessed the influence of threatened, endemic, range-restricted, widespread, and large-bodied species by systematically varying their number in indicator groups. We also assessed the influence of taxonomic...

  18. Group In-Course Assessment Promotes Cooperative Learning and Increases Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratten, Margaret K.; Merrick, Deborah; Burr, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe and evaluate a method to motivate medical students to maximize the effectiveness of dissection opportunities by using In-Course-Assessments (ICAs) to encourage teamwork. A student's final mark was derived by combining the group dissection mark, group mark for questions, and their individual question mark. An analysis of the…

  19. Among friends: the role of academic-preparedness diversity in individual performance within a small-group STEM learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micari, Marina; Van Winkle, Zachary; Pazos, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between academic-preparedness diversity within small learning groups and individual academic performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) university courses. We further examine whether academic-preparedness diversity impacts academically more- and less-prepared students differently. We use data from 5367 university students nested within 1141 science, engineering, and mathematics learning groups and use a regression analysis to estimate the effect of group diversity, measured in two ways, on course performance. Our results indicate that academic-preparedness diversity is generally associated with positive learning outcomes, that academically less-prepared students derive greater benefit, and that less-prepared students fare best when they are not alone in a group of highly prepared students. Implications for teaching and small-group facilitation are addressed.

  20. Performance of an export group from the cosmetic sector: evaluating results on the companiess' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Rezende

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the results of structuring, management and sales promotion of those groups of company. Starting from a case study of the cosmetics sector, the article analyzes the initial expectation of the companies on the creation of the group, its relationship with the market and the companies’ interaction as a means of obtaining results, taking into consideration that the Brazilian external trade promotion policy has adopted the model of export groups as a strategy to boost companies’ productive capacity and to reduce promotion costs. In conclusion, the low level of confidence in the inter-firm relationship and the lack of competitiveness present themselves as determining factors for the few results achieved. The research underlines the need for working models of business cooperation in export groups and for establishing a way to measure the results expected by the companies in their internationalization process.

  1. Vertical interlocks of executives and performance of affiliated firms in state owned Chinese business groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin; Na, Chaohong

    increases. Our findings are consistent with the hypotheses that vertically interlocking executives can increase firm value by providing better protection against political interference and expropriation by the ultimate controllers of business groups. Our study sheds new light in the role and function...... of interlocks and adds to a small body of literature on the dynamics of state owned business groups in emerging markets generally and China particularly....

  2. Reliability of medical group and physician performance measurement in the primary care setting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sequist, T.D.; Schneider, E.C.; Li, A.; Rogers, W.H.; Safran, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Performance reporting is increasingly focused on physician practice sites and individual physicians. OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of performance measurement for practice sites and individual physicians. RESEARCH DESIGN: We used data collected across multiple payers as part of a s

  3. University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. Final performance report, June 1, 1989--January 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy Contracts for 1989 covered the initial year of the University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. The first proposal was submitted in the fall of 1988 and the first allocation of funding was received in June 1989. This first contract which covered the time period June 1, 1989--January 31, 1990 was in the amount of $186,000 and covered UVa HEP group operations and equipment during that period. At that point, a regular contract year was established and two subsequent contracts were issued for February 1, 1990--January 31, 1991 and February 1, 1991--January 31, 992 with awards of $280,000 and $580,000, respectively. The funding between June, 1989 and January, 1992 covered the activities of both the UVa Theory Group (Task A) and the UVa HEP Experimental Group (Task B). Expenditures of all above funds was completed by January 31, 1994. In this time period, certain initial things were accomplished using the operating funds provided by DOE and the seed funds ($2.2 million over the period). There were three main areas of activities, the building of the University of Virginia HEP infrastructure (construction of lab space, computer facilities, electronic shop, machine shop and office space), the hiring of personnel (faculty, post docs, and students) and the physics activities of the group. Much of the physics program of the experimental group revolved around the study of production and decay of heavy flavor. A list of technical papers generated by their work is provided.

  4. Health behaviors and participation in health promotion activities among hospital staff: which occupational group performs better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2014-10-22

    Staff health behaviors affect not only their own health but also their provision of health promotion services to their patients. Although different occupational groups work in hospitals, few studies have compared health behaviors among them. The objectives of this study were to examine health behaviors, including physical activity, eating 5 portions of fruits and vegetables per day (5 a day), and stress adaptation, and participation in hospital-based health promotion activities by occupational groups in hospitals. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among full-time employees in 100 hospitals across Taiwan. This analysis included 4202 physicians, 31639 nurses, 2315 pharmacists, 8161 other health professionals, and 13079 administrative personnel. Administrative personnel attended more health promotion lectures and clubs/groups than other health professionals, pharmacists and physicians, and those workers participated more than nurses. Participation in health promotion activities provided by hospitals was associated with better practice of health behaviors. After adjustment for socio-demographics and participation in health promotion activities, physicians, pharmacists, and other health professionals reported more 5 a day than administrative staff. Other health professionals reported more physical activity than administrative staff, and they reported more than physicians. Nurses reported the lowest level of physical activity, 5 a day, and stress adaptation of all occupational groups. Nurses had worse health behaviors and less participation in health promotion activities than other groups. Workplace health promotion program for health professionals is needed, with special emphasis on nurses. Hospital-based health promotion programs could take the differences of occupational groups into consideration to tailor programs to the needs of different occupational groups.

  5. Swarm intelligence in animal groups: when can a collective out-perform an expert?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos V Katsikopoulos

    Full Text Available An important potential advantage of group-living that has been mostly neglected by life scientists is that individuals in animal groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations. Social interaction can provide a solution to a cognitive problem that is not available to single individuals via two potential mechanisms: (i individuals can aggregate information, thus augmenting their 'collective cognition', or (ii interaction with conspecifics can allow individuals to follow specific 'leaders', those experts with information particularly relevant to the decision at hand. However, a-priori, theory-based expectations about which of these decision rules should be preferred are lacking. Using a set of simple models, we present theoretical conditions (involving group size, and diversity of individual information under which groups should aggregate information, or follow an expert, when faced with a binary choice. We found that, in single-shot decisions, experts are almost always more accurate than the collective across a range of conditions. However, for repeated decisions - where individuals are able to consider the success of previous decision outcomes - the collective's aggregated information is almost always superior. The results improve our understanding of how social animals may process information and make decisions when accuracy is a key component of individual fitness, and provide a solid theoretical framework for future experimental tests where group size, diversity of individual information, and the repeatability of decisions can be measured and manipulated.

  6. Swarm intelligence in animal groups: when can a collective out-perform an expert?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V; King, Andrew J

    2010-11-24

    An important potential advantage of group-living that has been mostly neglected by life scientists is that individuals in animal groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations. Social interaction can provide a solution to a cognitive problem that is not available to single individuals via two potential mechanisms: (i) individuals can aggregate information, thus augmenting their 'collective cognition', or (ii) interaction with conspecifics can allow individuals to follow specific 'leaders', those experts with information particularly relevant to the decision at hand. However, a-priori, theory-based expectations about which of these decision rules should be preferred are lacking. Using a set of simple models, we present theoretical conditions (involving group size, and diversity of individual information) under which groups should aggregate information, or follow an expert, when faced with a binary choice. We found that, in single-shot decisions, experts are almost always more accurate than the collective across a range of conditions. However, for repeated decisions - where individuals are able to consider the success of previous decision outcomes - the collective's aggregated information is almost always superior. The results improve our understanding of how social animals may process information and make decisions when accuracy is a key component of individual fitness, and provide a solid theoretical framework for future experimental tests where group size, diversity of individual information, and the repeatability of decisions can be measured and manipulated.

  7. Influences on Peer Evaluation in a Group Project: An Exploration of Leadership, Demographics and Course Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingel, Molly; Wei, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative learning strategies are widely used in higher education to deepen learning, promote team-building skills and achieve course learning objectives. Using peer evaluation is an important strategy to ensure that engaged and active students are rewarded for their efforts, and to discourage loafing within groups. However, less is known…

  8. The Importance of Trust for Satisfaction, Motivation, and Academic Performance in Student Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Nicole L.; Stark, Emily; Lassiter, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Educators are continuing to investigate ways to improve student learning through collaboration. This study examined one avenue of increasing student group effectiveness: trust. A model of trust in student workgroups was proposed, where trust mediates the relationships between perceived similarity and individual outcomes (grades and satisfaction).…

  9. Foster Youth Evaluate the Performance of Group Home Services in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rex S.; Ellis, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 foster youth employed by a foster youth advocacy organization suggested that an evaluation of group home services to foster youth be conducted in Alameda County, California. This report presents the development and conduct of this evaluation study; how funding was obtained; and how foster youth were hired, trained, and employed to produce…

  10. Coping style and performance status in a group of oncological inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Chau Pérez-Aranibar

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The associations between coping styles, measured by COPE Test, dispositional version (Carver,Scheier and Weintraub, 1989, and Health Status inferred through a performance status, measured by Karnofsky's Index of Behavioral Performance are examined. The study focuses upon 28 oncological in patients. Positive moderate Pearson's correlations were found between these two variables in this correlational-descriptive study. These were interpreted in the following sense: the larger use of the style, the less health status among the scales suppression of competent activities, procrastination of coping, instrumental social support, focusing and releasing of emotions and behavioral disengagement. The active coping scale presented a negative correlationwith regard to Performance Status as a health measure.

  11. Diversification and Performance of Group-Affiliated Firms during Institutional Transitions: The Case of the Chinese Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Business groups play significant roles and evolve with the changing institutional environments in many emerging Asian economies. A study of how the institutional transition and the resultant ‘institutionally rooted evolution’ of business groups affect the diversification outcomes of affiliated firms will therefore help to deepen our understanding of this unique organizational form. Approach: This study uses the 2001-2005 data on listed firms from the Chinese textile industry and estimates the diversification effects of all firms in the sample and the differences in the diversification effects between group-affiliated firms and their stand-alone counterparts. Results: A positive relationship is found between the listed textile firms’ unrelated diversification and their firm value during the period 2001-2005. Furthermore, the results indicate that group affiliation has complicated impacts on the diversification-performance relationship of the listed firms. Although group-affiliated firms are more successful in pursuing unrelated diversification when compared with stand-alone firms, such a difference in performance outcomes is statistically weak (as measured by Tobin’s Q. Furthermore, it is found that group-affiliated firms perform related diversification worse than their stand-alone counterparts (as measured by both ROA and Tobin’s Q. Conclusion: At late stages of the institutional transition, as in China at present, the dominant influence of institutional environments on the diversification-performance link of firms still works and motivates business groups to evolve organizationally. Such an organizational evolution has complex implications for group-affiliated firms’ diversification: the weak performance advantage from unrelated diversification suggests that business groups’ organizational evolution may contribute to the persistence of the comparative strength of business groups’ internal markets

  12. HOW TO IMPROVE EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND GROUP PERFORMANCE THROUGH LEADERSHIP – CONCEPTUAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebeian Adriana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We live times of intense change, due to fast technological development, when information and knowledge are certain factors of power. Organizations today must not underestimate the importance of capable employees, owners of these great factors like information and knowledge. The key to success, as many organizations have shown, is, of course a mix of attributes, but one of much importance stands in the quality of employees and their performance. How to motivate and keep such employees is a real challenge in the actual business world. Employee fluctuation is a big risk, because it brings many losses: loss of expertise, of know-how, of time, it breaks relationships and teams. One solution to this problem is creating a good and attractive environment, so that employees are motivated enough to bring up the best in them and rise their performance to a high level. The main objective of this study is to present a new approach in motivating employees and raising their performance. In this approach, the leader is the main pawn, the generator and sustainer of a healthy environment. By reviewing the literature and the most recent works in this domain, two styles of leadership come into focus: transformational and servant leadership. Both are relatively new concepts, with common but also different attributes, and both having the same final goal: performance, but through a different approach. Based on a vast literature research, the conceptual model was built, considering the main attributes of the two leadership styles, their impact on motivational factors, their influence on job satisfaction and ultimately on team performance. The intermediary results of the research sustain the conceptual framework and main hypothesis of the study. One important contribution of this research is introducing elements of servant leadership together with transformational leadership in the empirical research and also creating an overall conceptual framework which can be applied

  13. Performance of Renormalization Group Algebraic Turbulence Model on Boundary Layer Transition Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyung H.

    1994-01-01

    The RNG-based algebraic turbulence model, with a new method of solving the cubic equation and applying new length scales, is introduced. An analysis is made of the RNG length scale which was previously reported and the resulting eddy viscosity is compared with those from other algebraic turbulence models. Subsequently, a new length scale is introduced which actually uses the two previous RNG length scales in a systematic way to improve the model performance. The performance of the present RNG model is demonstrated by simulating the boundary layer flow over a flat plate and the flow over an airfoil.

  14. Strategy to improve photovoltaic performance of DSSC sensitized by zinc prophyrin using salicylic acid as a tridentate anchoring group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Faliang; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Ran; Jing, Huanwang; Zhu, Zhenping

    2014-05-14

    Three new zinc porphyrin dyes attached to ethynyl benzoic acid as an electron transmission and anchoring group have been designed, synthesized, and well-characterized. The performances of their sensitized solar cells have been investigated by optical, photovoltaic, and electrochemical methods. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cells sensitized by the dye with salicylic acid as an anchoring group demonstrated obvious enhancement when compared with that sensitized by the dye with carboxylic acid as an anchoring group. The density functional theory calculations and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopies revealed that tridentate binding modes could increase the efficiency of electron injection from dyes to the TiO2 nanoparticles by more electron pathways.

  15. Chinese Traditional Instruments Group of PLA Art Academy Performs in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Villa Musica Foundation (VMF) of Rheinland-Pfalz State, Germany, a group of 7 musicians of the China Red Star Traditional Instruments Orchestra of the People’s Liberation Army Art Academy, organized and sent by the CPAFFC and led by the well-known tenor Li Shuangjiang, visited the state from August 22 to September 3, 2008, during which they held 12 concerts.

  16. Descriptive analysis of the performance of two English proficiency groups on inferential and literal questions

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tamaoka, Katsuo

    1992-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between English language proficiency (including reading comprehension) and inferential ability. Inferential ability was measured by the Inferential Ability Test which consisted of two types of questions. One type involved literal questions which required only a surface level understanding of texts. The other type, inferential questions, demanded a deeper level understanding of the texts. The subjects were divided into two groups (15 each of skil...

  17. Sulfur Groups Improve the Performance of Triazole- and Triazolium-Based Interaction Units in Anion Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Mónica; Velado, Marina; García-Puentes, Diego; Sáez, Elena; Vicent, Cristina; Fernández de la Pradilla, Roberto; Viso, Alma; de la Torre, María C; Sierra, Miguel A

    2017-03-17

    An NMR comparative study of 1,2,3-triazole and triazolium anion recognition units containing sulfoxide, sulfone, and sulfoximine groups at C4 unveils an enhancement in binding ability up to ≈1 kcal/mol in acetone-d6 correlated with a theoretical increase of H5 acidity. DFT calculations provide insight into binding modes in line with experimental data for these receptors.

  18. Assessing English Language Learners' Oral Performance: A Comparison of Monologue, Interview, and Group Oral Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Sadeghi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of test format on oral performance in terms of test scores and discourse features (accuracy, fluency, and complexity). Moreover, we explored how the scores obtained on different test formats relate to such features. To this end, 23 Iranian EFL learners participated in three test formats of monologue,…

  19. Analysis of Employee Engagement to Improve the Performance of Retail Risk Group PT Bank Mandiri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseto, Artody; Hubeis, Aida Vitayala; Sukandar, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, every company requires their employees have a bound sense to their company. It's called engagement. Also have that expectation, PT Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk, Bank with the largest assets in Indonesia. PT Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk expect which employee engagement can improve the performance such as financial, service, and production…

  20. Performance Variables and Professional Experience in Simulated Laparoscopy: A Two-Group Learning Curve Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Groenier, Marleen; van Goor, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Objective Virtual reality simulators are increasingly used in laparoscopy training. Such simulators allow objective assessment of performance. However, both low-level variables and overall scores generated by the simulator can be hard to interpret. We present a method to generate intermediate

  1. Effects of Communication Strategy Training on EFL Students' Performance in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Stuart; Fischer, Danielle; Geluso, Joe; Von Joo, Lucius

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted with regard to communication strategy training and performance on communicative tasks (Lam, 2009; Nakatani, 2010; Naughton, 2006). This study aims to add to the literature by examining how two strategies, clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation, and two methods of teaching the…

  2. Performance variables and professional experience in simulated laparoscopy: a two-group learning curve study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Rovers, M.M.; Groenier, M.; Goor, H. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Virtual reality simulators are increasingly used in laparoscopy training. Such simulators allow objective assessment of performance. However, both low-level variables and overall scores generated by the simulator can be hard to interpret. We present a method to generate intermediate perfo

  3. 40 CFR 63.845 - Incorporation of new source performance standards for potroom groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants § 63.845 Incorporation of new source performance standards for potroom... commenced and must include the following information: (A) Name and address of the owner or operator; (B) The...) Alternative opacity limit. An alternative opacity limit may be established in place of the opacity limit in...

  4. Teamwork skills, shared mental models, and performance in simulated trauma teams: an independent group design

    OpenAIRE

    Westli Heidi; Johnsen Bjørn; Eid Jarle; Rasten Ingvil; Brattebø Guttorm

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-technical skills are seen as an important contributor to reducing adverse events and improving medical management in healthcare teams. Previous research on the effectiveness of teams has suggested that shared mental models facilitate coordination and team performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether demonstrated teamwork skills and behaviour indicating shared mental models would be associated with observed improved medical management in trauma team ...

  5. Mystery Shopping in Improving Salesperson Performance - Case Group and Conference Business

    OpenAIRE

    Pehkonen, Taija

    2014-01-01

    Managers in the service industry are interested in using cost-effective ways for evaluating and observing the customer experience, and the overall quality of the service. Mystery shopping has become a popular tool in evaluating the quality of service. Yet, only little research has been conducted to ensure that a true measure of service performance is obtained. This master’s thesis explores the sales agents’ perceptions of the functionality of mystery shopping as a tool in improving salesp...

  6. [Preparation, characterization and adsorption performance of mesoporous activated carbon with acidic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Quan; Li, Ye; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Yu-Xuan

    2013-06-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons containing acidic groups were prepared with cotton stalk based fiber as raw materials and H3PO4 as activating agent by one step carbonization method. Effects of impregnation ratio, carbonization temperature and heat preservation time on the yield, elemental composition, oxygen-containing acid functional groups and adsorptive capacity of activated carbon were studied. The adsorption capacity of the prepared activated carbon AC-01 for p-nitroaniline and Pb(II) was studied, and the adsorption mechanism was also suggested according to the equilibrium experimental results. The maximum yield of activated carbons prepared from cotton stalk fiber reached 35.5% when the maximum mesoporous volume and BET surface area were 1.39 cm3 x g(-1) and 1 731 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The activated carbon AC-01 prepared under a H3 PO4/precursor ratio of 3:2 and activated at 900 degrees C for 90 min had a total pore volume of 1.02 cm3 x g(-1), a micoporous ratio of 31%, and a mesoporous ratio of 65%. The pore diameter of the mesoporous activated carbon was mainly distributed in the range of 2-5 nm. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(II) and p-nitroaniline on cotton stalk fiber activated carbon were 123 mg x g(-1) and 427 mg x g(-1), respectively, which were both higher than those for commercial activated carbon fiber ACF-CK. The equilibrium adsorption experimental data showed that mesopore and oxygen-containing acid functional groups played an important role in the adsorption.

  7. Operating Performance of the Low Group Delay Woofer Channel in PEP-II

    CERN Document Server

    Teytelman, Dmitry; Van Winkle, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    In PEP-II collider a dedicated low group-delay processing channel has been developed in order to provide high damping rates necessary to control the fast-growing longitudinal eigenmodes driven by the fundamental impedances of the RF cavities. A description of the digital processing channel operating at 9.81 MHz and capable of supporting finite impulse response (FIR) controllers with up to 32 taps will be presented. A prototype system has been successfully commissioned in the High-Energy Ring (HER) in May 2004. Operating experiences with the prototype and the newly determined limits on achievable longitudinal damping will be discussed and illustrated with experimental data.

  8. Student-Chosen Criteria for Peer Assessment of Tertiary Rock Groups in Rehearsal and Performance: What's Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Diana; Encarnacao, John

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates criteria chosen by music students for peer and self assessment of both the rehearsal process and performance outcome of their rock groups. The student-chosen criteria and their explanations of these criteria were analysed in relation to Birkett's skills taxonomy of "soft" and "hard" skills. In the rehearsal process, students…

  9. A Learning Style-Based Grouping Collaborative Learning Approach to Improve EFL Students' Performance in English Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Chen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Huang, Chi-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Learning English is an important and challenging task for English as Foreign Language (EFL) students. Educators had indicated that, without proper learning support, most EFL students might feel frustrated while learning English, which could significantly affect their learning performance. In the past research, learning usually utilized grouping,…

  10. Group awareness of social and cognitive performance in a CSCL environment: Effects of a peer feedback and reflection tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phielix, Chris; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.; Erkens, Gijsbert; Jaspers, Jos

    2010-01-01

    Phielix, C., Prins, F. J., Kirschner, P. A., Erkens, G., & Jaspers, J. (2011). Group awareness of social and cognitive performance in a CSCL environment: Effects of a peer feedback and reflection tool. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(3), 1087-1102. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.06.024

  11. Among Friends: The Role of Academic-Preparedness Diversity in Individual Performance within a Small-Group STEM Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micari, Marina; Van Winkle, Zachary; Pazos, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between academic-preparedness diversity within small learning groups and individual academic performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) university courses. We further examine whether academic-preparedness diversity impacts academically more- and less-prepared students…

  12. A Learning Style-Based Grouping Collaborative Learning Approach to Improve EFL Students' Performance in English Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Chen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Huang, Chi-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Learning English is an important and challenging task for English as Foreign Language (EFL) students. Educators had indicated that, without proper learning support, most EFL students might feel frustrated while learning English, which could significantly affect their learning performance. In the past research, learning usually utilized grouping,…

  13. Consequences for Piglet Performance of Group Housing Lactating Sows at One, Two, or Three Weeks Post-Farrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsson, Ola; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Magnusson, Ulf; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Wallenbeck, Anna; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi

    2016-01-01

    Housing lactating sows with piglets in a multi-suckling pen from around 14 days post-farrowing is common practice in Swedish organic piglet production. However, nursing-suckling interaction is less frequent in multi-suckling pens than in individual farrowing pens, thus affecting piglet performance, e.g., piglet growth. Moreover, piglet mortality is higher in systems using multi-suckling pens. Three management routines whereby lactating sows with piglets were moved from individual farrowing pens to multi-suckling pens at one, two, or three weeks post-farrowing were compared in terms of nursing-suckling interaction and piglet performance. Correlations between nursing-suckling interaction, piglet performance, and piglet mortality were also examined. In total, 43 Yorkshire sows with piglets were included in the study. Nursing-suckling interaction and all piglet performance parameters except piglet mortality did not differ between management routines. Piglet mortality in the individual farrowing pens did not differ between management routines, but piglet mortality in the multi-suckling pen was lower (Ppiglets were group housed at three weeks compared with one week post-farrowing. Overall piglet mortality was positively correlated with mortality in the multi-suckling pen for piglets group housed at one week (r = 0.61: Ppiglets group housed at three weeks post-farrowing. In conclusion, overall piglet mortality could be reduced if sows and piglets are group housed at three weeks post-farrowing and piglet survival the first week post-farrowing is improved.

  14. Enhanced-Group Moore Method: Effects on van Hiele Levels of Geometric Understanding, Proof-Construction Performance and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the van Hiele levels of geometric understanding, proof-construction performance and beliefs about proofs of the research respondents: future mathematics teachers exposed to the traditional (instructor-based) method and the enhanced-group Moore method. By using the quasi-experimental method of research, the study…

  15. Asynchronous decoding of finger movements from ECoG signals using long-range dependencies conditional random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Saa, Jaime F.; de Pesters, Adriana; Cetin, Mujdat

    2016-06-01

    Objective. In this work we propose the use of conditional random fields with long-range dependencies for the classification of finger movements from electrocorticographic recordings. Approach. The proposed method uses long-range dependencies taking into consideration time-lags between the brain activity and the execution of the motor task. In addition, the proposed method models the dynamics of the task executed by the subject and uses information about these dynamics as prior information during the classification stage. Main results. The results show that incorporating temporal information about the executed task as well as incorporating long-range dependencies between the brain signals and the labels effectively increases the system’s classification performance compared to methods in the state of art. Significance. The method proposed in this work makes use of probabilistic graphical models to incorporate temporal information in the classification of finger movements from electrocorticographic recordings. The proposed method highlights the importance of including prior information about the task that the subjects execute. As the results show, the combination of these two features effectively produce a significant improvement of the system’s classification performance.

  16. Quantitative Performances of Recently Developed OS-Soybean Elite Lines in Maturity Group I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the agronomic and breeding values of recently developed soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. lines maturity group (MG I within soybean breeding program at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Thirty two soybean genotypes (30 elite breeding lines and two control cultivars were studied in a field experiment conducted on the experimental field of the Institute during period from 2002 to 2004 to determine the grain yield and grain quality (protein and oil content potential as well as stability and adaptability of these lines. The obtained results of statistical analysis (ANOVA, LSD-test, stability parameters: S2 GxE and bi indicated significant differences in level and stability of grain yield and grain quality as well as adaptability of genotypes. Higher average grain yield was obtained for the lines in comparison with average grain yield of control cultivars. According to analysis of stability and adaptability of genotypes, tested genotypes were classified in three groups. There were: stable genotypes with wide-general adaptability, unstable genotypes adapted to low-yielding environments and unstable genotypes adapted to high-yielding environments. Among 32 tested genotypes, 22 genotypes are stable in grain yield, 20 genotypes are stable in protein content and 17 genotypes are stable in oil content in grain. The best elite lines in level and stability of grain yield, protein content and oil content in grain as well as in adaptability are: OS-L-36/01, OS-L-18/01, OS-L-12/01, OS-L-10/01 and OS-L-39/00. These results suggest on achieved genetic advance in yield potential of new elite soybean lines. Thereby, the best recently developed soybean elite breeding lines into MG I represent good genetic background for further improving soybean production in Croatia. At the same time, these genotypes may be utilized as a source of better yields potential in breeding programs.

  17. Effect of mental imagery on performance elite athletes’ in youth and adult age groups: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohid Seif-Barghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Athletes are usually skilled in physical aspects of sports; they are widely involved in physical conditioning, technical and tactical training. However they usually ignore the psychological and cognitive skills linked to their performance. Sport imagery is a well known fundamental skill that has a critical role in how a player performs and shows his/her competency during a real world game. On the other hand football as a complex team sport includes several skills linked to physical and psychological properties. We aimed to study the effect of cognitive imagery on elite football players through league competitions in two separate studies.Methods: Twenty two youth players and Twenty two adult players randomly assigned to imagery and control groups. Players in intervention group received 12 weeks training program for specific cognitive imagery and general cognitive imagery. Imagery training program focused on an important component of football performance as “successful passing”. Players in control group were assigned to a waiting list with no intervention. In order to evaluate outcome variable we assessed successful passing in real compete-tions as player performance in both pre and post test occasions.Results: Findings of study in youth participants showed that young players in interven-tion group improved the performance of passing compared to control players (OR=1.41, P0.05, CI 95%: 0.82, 1.4(.Conclusion: These results showed that cognitive imagery intervention can affect elite soccer players’ performance. This effect is more prominent in youth age football players.

  18. WMS-III Logical Memory performance after a two-week delay in temporal lobe epilepsy and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brian D

    2006-11-01

    Conventional memory assessment may fail to identify memory dysfunction that is characterized by intact recall for a relatively brief period but rapid forgetting thereafter. This study assessed immediate memory and retention after 30-minute and two-week delays in a control group (n = 25) and a group of individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n = 25). For raw free recall, thematic unit, and recognition memory scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-3rd ed. (WMS-III) Logical Memory (LM) subtest, there were no group x trial interactions and the TLE group performed significantly worse than the controls on all trials. At the individual level, none of the patients (0%) demonstrated isolated free recall impairment at the two-week delay when raw scores were analyzed, and one patient (4%) but also five controls (20%) did so when percent retention scores were examined. In summary, TLE patients did not demonstrate disproportionate forgetting over two weeks on a widely used story memory test.

  19. Performance of Savings Groups in Mountainous Laos under Shifting Cultivation Stabilization Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Koichi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The shifting cultivation stabilization policy after the mid-1990s in northern Laos had a fundamental impact on rural lives, including an accelerated migration of non-Lao ethnic people. Based on household-level detailed data collected in 2010–11 from eight villages in Luang Prabang Province, we analyze first the differential impacts of such a policy on different types of villages in terms of location (access to urban centers, land endowments, ethnic composition, etc. Then we examine the role and limitations of village-level savings groups (SGs introduced by an NGO (supported by the Lao Women’s Union from the middle of the first decade of the twenty-first century. It is found that most of the SGs faced difficulties in accumulating savings, which resulted in a shortage of funds that could be credited to needy members. Money borrowed from SGs is used mainly for medical treatment and consumption. It is suggested that income stabilization and diversification is one of the key factors that facilitate villagers’ participation in SGs.

  20. Differences in social skills performance between institutionalized juvenile male offenders and a comparable group of boys without offence records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S H

    1981-09-01

    Eighteen institutionalized young male offenders and 18 boys without criminal records, comparable in terms of age, academic performance and social background, were videotaped during a five-minute standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. The videotapes were then subjected to a behavioural analysis of 13 responses which had previously been suggested to be important social skill components. The tapes were also shown to six independent judges who rated each tape in terms of social skills performance, social anxiety, friendliness, and employability. The offender group was found to differ significantly from the non-offender group in terms of the level of eye-contact, head movements, amount spoken, fiddling movements, and gross body movements. The offender group was also rated in significantly less favourably terms on the scales of social skills performance, social anxiety, and employability, compared to the non-offender groups. No significant difference was found in terms of friendliness ratings. Correlation analyses between the specific behavioural measures and the subjective rating scales revealed statistically significant associations between six of the 13 behavioural measures and one or more of the subjective rating scales. The provides some indication of the type of responses important in determining the impression made by adolescent male in an interview situation.

  1. Nutritional status is superior to the ECOG performance status in predicting the dose-intensity of the GEMOX chemotherapy regimen in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessot, Anatole; Coriat, Romain; Mir, Oliver; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Giroux, Julie; Durand, Jean-Philippe; Alexandre, Jérôme; Goldwasser, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of unfit patients calls for better risk assessment prior to initiating anti-tumor treatment. This is a major concern in the prevention and reduction of treatment-related complications. The aim of our study was to evaluate the nutritional status for the risk assessment of patients qualifying to receive the gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) regimen. This single-center, retrospective study examined baseline clinical and biological characteristics in a cohort of 165 unselected, consecutive cancer patients receiving GEMOX. Malnutrition was defined as either body mass index (BMI) 10% over 3 mo, or albuminemia 0.05). Median relative dose-intensity was 0.90 (0.17-1.04). GEMOX dose-intensity correlated negatively with loss of baseline weight (r = -0.24, P chemotherapy, median PS (P nutritional status, including albuminemia and BMI, is recommended.

  2. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Performance in Subelite Gaelic Football Players From Under Thirteen to Senior Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane

    2016-11-01

    Roe, M and Malone, S. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance in subelite Gaelic football players from under thirteen to senior age groups. J Strength Cond Res 30 (11): 3187-3193, 2016-Gaelic football is indigenous to Ireland and has similar locomotion profiles to soccer and Australian Football. Given the increasing attention on long-term player development, investigations on age-related variation in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) performance may provide useful information in talent identification, program design, and player monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Yo-YoIR1 performance across Gaelic football age groups. Male participants (n = 355) were recruited from division one, Gaelic football teams. Participants were allocated to one of the 7 groups according to respective age groups from under 13 (U13), under 14, under 15 (U15), under 16 (U16), minor, under 21 (U21), to senior age groups. Total Yo-YoIR1 distance (m) increased progressively from U13 (885 ± 347 m) to U16 (1,595 ± 380 m) equating to a rate of change of 180.2%. In comparison to U13, total distance at minor (1,206 ± 327 m) increased by 136.4%. Subsequent increases were observed in U21 (1,585 ± 445 m) and senior players (2,365 ± 489). Minimum (800-880 m) and maximum (2,240-2,280 m) total distances were comparable for U15, U16, and U21 players. Differences in total distance (m) for all age groups were statistically significant when compared to U13 players (p 0.8). Similar trends were observed for maximum velocity and estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The evolution of Yo-YoIR1 performance in Gaelic football players from adolescents to adulthood highlights how maturation may influence sport-related running ability. Changes in Yo-YoIR1 performance should be closely monitored to optimize interventions for individuals transitioning across age groups.

  3. Probability friends-of-friends (PFOF) group finder: Performance study and observational data applications on photometric surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, Hung-Yu; Chiueh, Tzihong [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 106, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Chen, Chin-Wei; Foucaud, Sebastien [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 106, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Merson, Alex [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Baugh, Carlton; Cole, Shaun [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Huang, Jia-Sheng [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Murphy, David N. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Burgett, William; Kaiser, Nick, E-mail: hyj@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    In tandem with observational data sets, we utilize realistic mock catalogs, based on a semi-analytic galaxy formation model, constructed specifically for Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Surveys to assess the performance of the Probability Friends-of-Friends (PFOF) group finder, and aim to develop a grouping optimization method applicable to surveys like Pan-STARRS1. Producing mock PFOF group catalogs under a variety of photometric redshift accuracies (σ{sub Δz/(1+z{sub s)}}), we find that catalog purities and completenesses from 'good' (σ{sub Δz/(1+z{sub s)}}∼ 0.01) to 'poor' (σ{sub Δz/(1+z{sub s)}}∼ 0.07) photo-zs gradually degrade from 77% and 70% to 52% and 47%, respectively. A 'subset optimization' approach is developed by using spectroscopic-redshift group data from the target field to train the group finder for application to that field and demonstrated using zCOSMOS groups for PFOF searches within PS1 Medium Deep Field04 (PS1MD04) and DEEP2 EGS groups in PS1MD07. With four data sets spanning the photo-z accuracy range from 0.01 to 0.06, we find purities and completenesses agree with their mock analogs. Further tests are performed via matches to X-ray clusters. We find PFOF groups match ∼85% of X-ray clusters identified in COSMOS and PS1MD04, lending additional support to the reliability of the detection algorithm. In the end, we demonstrate, by separating red and blue group galaxies in the EGS and PS1MD07 group catalogs, that the algorithm is not biased with respect to specifically recovering galaxies by color. The analyses suggest the PFOF algorithm shows great promise as a reliable group finder for photometric galaxy surveys of varying depth and coverage.

  4. Group Differences in Student Performance in the Selection to Higher Education: Tests vs Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Wikström

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Student selection in the Swedish admission to higher education system is based on two fundamentally different performance measures: their criterion-referenced upper secondary grade point average (GPA and their score on a norm-referenced and multiple-choice admissions test [Swedish admissions test (SweSAT]. Several student characteristics are known to affect rankings in such assessments. The objectives of this study are to assess main and interactive effects of several variables that influence rankings obtained from these measures in greater detail than previously attempted and assess the findings from a fairness perspective. The data consist of test scores, upper secondary grades, and background information for SweSAT participants aged 19–25 years, who took the test in the autumn of 2011 (N = 23,214 or spring of 2012 (N = 27,075. The data were analyzed through correlation and regression analyses. The results support previous findings that gender, parents’ education, and immigration status are all influential. Males obtain better SweSAT scores than females, while females obtain better GPAs, in accordance with previous findings regarding gender-related variations in rankings provided by similar instruments. Moreover, we found the same pattern in scores for specific components of the test and grades in specific subjects, suggesting that the test and GPA measure different, gender-related, things. In addition, students with an immigrant background seem to be more highly ranked by grades than by the SweSAT, largely due to differences in assessments of their verbal skills.

  5. Multi-criteria group decision making for evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Santoso; Deng, Hepu

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria group decision making approach for effectively evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs under uncertainty in an organization. Intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are used for adequately representing the subjective and imprecise assessments of the decision makers in evaluating the relative importance of evaluation criteria and the performance of individual e-waste recycling programs with respect to individual criteria in a given situation. An interactive fuzzy multi-criteria decision making algorithm is developed for facilitating consensus building in a group decision making environment to ensure that all the interest of individual decision makers have been appropriately considered in evaluating alternative e-waste recycling programs with respect to their corporate sustainability performance. The developed algorithm is then incorporated into a multi-criteria decision support system for making the overall performance evaluation process effectively and simple to use. Such a multi-criteria decision making system adequately provides organizations with a proactive mechanism for incorporating the concept of corporate sustainability into their regular planning decisions and business practices. An example is presented for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed approach in evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs in organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 基于卡尔曼滤波的ECoG信号去噪方法研究%Research on ECoG de-noising method based on Kalman filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金甲; 侯亚培

    2012-01-01

    The ECoG signals reflect brain activity of organisms. Several noise are interfused into the signals during the recording process, such as eyeblink, eyemovements, cardiac electric activity and myoelectric activity, which brings great difficulties to analysis and process the ECoG signal. In this paper, a new method of kalman filter modeling and model parameter estimation is put forward. And it is applied to the de-noising preprocessing of ECoG. The open brain Computer Interface Competition experimental data (BCI Competition III dataset I) is used in the experiment. Classification accuracy is 92%. The experimental results show that classification accuracy of the method is higher than the first of the competition, and better than the de-noising method of wavelet or spectral subtraction.%脑电信号反映了生物体的大脑活动,在采集和处理过程中极易受到各种噪声的干扰,如眨眼、快速眼动、心电、肌电等,这些噪声给脑电信号的分析处理带来了很大的困难.本文提出了卡尔曼滤波模型和模型参数估计的方法,将其应用于脑电ECoG信号去噪预处理.实验所用的数据是公开的脑机接口竞赛实验数据(BCICompetition Ⅲ datasetⅠ),分类正确率为92%.实验结果表明通过本方法去噪预处理后,分类正确率比竞赛第一名高,并且优于小波去噪与谱减法等预处理方法.

  7. Spatial-sequential working memory in younger and older adults: age predicts backward recall performance within both age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise A. Brown

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years and older (64-85 years adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998. Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial, and recall type (forward and backward, were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward. Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age

  8. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  9. THE EFFECT OF PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES ON WORK GROUP PERFORMANCE: A RESEARCH ON JEWELLERY INDUSTRY IN ISTANBUL

    OpenAIRE

    Erenel, Fahri

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who embraces one of the leadership styles of Path-Goal Leadership Theory which is one of the leadership theories, can be succesful at making the work group effective, for these leadership styles enables leaders to assess needs and clarify goals.Looking at studies in Turkish literature, it is noticed that leadership behaviours were examined in the terms of Path-Goal Leadership Theory however the relationship between leadership styles in this theory and work performance were not exa...

  10. A study on effect of market orientation and Michael Porter's Five Competitive Forces on performance of Bahman Group

    OpenAIRE

    ahra Mohebi Ashtiani; Sharif karimi

    2016-01-01

    Concept of competitive advantage has a direct linkage with the considered values of the customer, such that the more the supplied values of an organization approach to the considered values of the customer in a comparative range, it can say that the organization outperforms the competitors in one or several competitive criteria. The present research is an applied survey which examines effect of market orientation and Michael Porter's Five Competitive Forces on performance of Bahman Group. ...

  11. Co-operative groups in their environments : a population-ecological model for co-operative membership and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lasowski, Ophir

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an alternative evolutionary approach to assessing the performance of co-operative organizations. The focus of investigation is turned to the co-operative organization as a group of members in a market environment containing non-members. Significant unique features of the co-operative organization is illustrated at first. After reviewing historical aspects of evolution theories and their positioning in biology, economic and social sciences, alternative notion...

  12. THE EFFECT OF PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES ON WORK GROUP PERFORMANCE: A RESEARCH ON JEWELLERY INDUSTRY IN ISTANBUL

    OpenAIRE

    ERENEL, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who embraces one of the leadership styles of Path-Goal Leadership Theory which is one of the leadership theories, can be succesful at making the work group effective, for these leadership styles enables leaders to assess needs and clarify goals.Looking at studies in Turkish literature, it is noticed that leadership behaviours were examined in the terms of Path-Goal Leadership Theory however the relationship between leadership styles in this theory and work performance were not exa...

  13. A comparison of participation and performance in age group finishers competing in and qualifying for Ironman Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiefel M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael Stiefel,1 Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Beat Knechtle2 1Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland Background: Athletes intending to compete in Ironman Hawaii need to qualify in an age-group based qualification system. We compared participation and top ten performances of athletes in various age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races.Methods: Finishes in Ironman Hawaii and in its qualifier races in 2010 were analyzed in terms of performance, age, and sex. Athletes were categorized into age groups from 18–24 to 75–79 years and split and race times were determined for the top ten athletes in each age group.Results: A higher proportion of athletes aged 25–49 years finished in the qualifier races than in Ironman Hawaii. In athletes aged 18–24 and 50–79 years, the percentage of finishes was higher in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. For women, the fastest race times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for those aged 18–24 (P < 0.001, 25–29 (P < 0.05, and 60–64 (P < 0.05 years. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P < 0.05. Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for 18–24, 25–29, 40–44, 50–54, and 60–64 years (P < 0.05 in age groups. For men, finishers aged 18–24 (P < 0.001, 40–44 (P < 0.001, 50–54 (P < 0.01, 55–59 (P < 0.001, 60–64 (P < 0.01, and 65–69 (P < 0.001 years were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P < 0.05. Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for those aged 18–24 and those aged 40 years and older (P < 0.05.Conclusion: There are differences in terms of participation and performance for athletes in different age groups between Ironman Hawaii and

  14. Effect of group size on performance and egg quality of laying hens during 20 to 36 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Bovera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve knowledge on the effect of group size on productive performance and egg quality of hens raised in furnished cages equally designed. A total of 520, 15-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens were divided into 2 groups to have a similar initial body weight (average 1392±16.3 g. The cages of S25 group (240 L x 78 W x 50 H cm, 749 cm2/hen hosted a total of 200 hens, while those of S40 group (462 L x 65 W x 50 H, 751 cm2/hen included 320 birds. Experimental data were recorded after an adaptation period of 5 weeks (20 to 36 weeks of age. Hens were submitted to 15 h of light/d. The average temperature inside the building was 24.6±2.5°C over the entire experimental period with higher values at 24, 26, 28 and 30 weeks of age. The relative humidity recorded inside the building was 55% at week 20 and 60% all through the experimental period. Hens raised from S40 group had lower percentage of egg production (84.91 vs 88.90%, P<0.01 and higher feed conversion ratio (2.70 vs 2.25, P<0.0001 than S25 group. The percentage of eggs laid out of the nest was higher in S25 than S40 group (0.26 vs 0.19%, P<0.01. As expected, the week of age affected almost all the parameters (feed intake, body weight, laying percentage, egg weight, yolk, shell and albumen indexes, shell thickness, Haugh unit. However, the effect of group size was particularly evident during the hot period.

  15. Substituent effect on the molecular stability, group interaction, detonation performance, and thermolysis mechanism of nitroamino-substituted cyclopentanes and cyclohexanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Ling; GONG XueDong; JU XueHai; XIAO HeMing

    2008-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) method has been employed to study the effect of nitroamino group as a substituent in cyclopentane and cyclohexane, which usually construct the polycyclic or caged nitra-mines. Molecular structures were investigated at the B3LYP/6-31G** level, and isodesmic reactions were designed for calculating the group interactions. The results show that the group interactions ac-cord with the group additivity, increasing with the increasing number of nitroamino groups. The distance between substituents influences the interactions. Detonation performances were evaluated by the Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the predicted densities and heats of formation, while thermal stability and pyrolysis mechanism were studied by the computations of bond dissociation energy (BDE). It is found that the contributions of nitroamino groups to the detonation heat, detonation velocity, detonation pressure, and stability all deviate from the group additivity. Only 3a, 3b, and 9a-9c may be novel potential candidates of high energy density materials (HEDMs) according to the quantitative cri-teria of HEDM (ρ≈1.9 g/cm3, D≈9.0 km/s, P≈40.0 GPa). Stability decreases with the increasing number of N-NO2 groups, and homolysis of N-NO2 bond is the initial step in the thermolysis of the title com-pounds. Coupled with the demand of thermal stability (BDE > 20 kcal/mol), only 1,2,4-trinitrotriazacy-clohexane and 1,2,4,5-tetranitrotetraazacyclohexane are suggested as feasible energetic materials.These results may provide basic information for the molecular design of HEDMs.

  16. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice.For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  17. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice. For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  18. At odds with the group: changes in lateralization and escape performance reveal conformity and conflict in fish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Douglas P; McCormick, Mark I; Allan, Bridie J M; Mitchell, Matthew D; Gonçalves, Emanuel J; Bryshun, Reid; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2016-10-26

    Many vertebrates are known to show behavioural lateralization, whereby they differentially use one side of their body or either of their bilateral organs or limbs. Behavioural lateralization often manifests in a turning bias in fishes, with some individuals showing a left bias and others a right bias. Such biases could be the source of considerable conflict in fish schools given that there may be considerable social pressure to conform to the group to maintain effective group evasion. Here, we show that predation pressure is a major determinant of the degree of lateralization, both in a relative and absolute sense, in yellow-and-blueback fusiliers (Caesio teres), a schooling fish common on coral reefs. Wild-caught fish showed a bias for right turning. When predation pressure was experimentally elevated or relaxed, the strength of lateralization changed. Higher predation pressure resulted in an increase in the strength of lateralization. Individuals that exhibited the same turning bias as the majority of individuals in their group had improved escape performance compared with individuals that were at odds with the group. Moreover, individuals that were right-biased had improved escape performance, compared with left-biased ones. Plasticity in lateralization might be an important evolutionary consequence of the way gregarious species respond to predators owing to the probable costs associated with this behaviour.

  19. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, Germantown, MD (United States); Phifer, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-03-01

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns.

  20. Social problem solving and social performance after a group social skills intervention for childhood brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Identifying and Ranking of Performance Indicators of Entering Foreign Markets With a Case Study in Iran Khodro Industrial Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Malekakhlagh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As trade is being more competitive and complicated at international level, necessity of managers’ attention to the strategies for entering the global markets has become a competitive advantage for companies; meanwhile, performance evaluation plays a critical role in organizations’ success. One of the performance evaluation models is Balanced Score Card (BSC which has many advantages compared to similar approaches. In this study, different techniques have been used to determine the degree of parameters' priority to each other including Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, Eigenvector technique and SMART method and the strategies performance of Iran Khodro Industrial Group for entering foreign markets during 2009 and 2010 has been evaluated using BSC. Findings imply that the BSC aspects with order of success degree include innovation and development (61%, customer (52%, business processes (47% and financial (24%, respectively.

  2. Identifying and Ranking of Performance Indicators of Entering Foreign Markets With a Case Study in Iran Khodro Industrial Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail malekakhlagh

    2011-09-01

    As trade is being more competitive and complicated at international level, necessity of managers’ attention to the strategies for entering the global markets has become a competitive advantage for companies meanwhile, performance evaluation plays a critical role in organizations’ success. One of the performance evaluation models is Balanced Score Card (BSC which has many advantages compared to similar approaches. In this study, different techniques have been used to determine the degree of parameters' priority to each other including Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, Eigenvector technique and SMART method and the strategies performance of Iran Khodro Industrial Group for entering foreign markets during 2009 and 2010 has been evaluated using BSC. Findings imply that the BSC aspects with order of success degree include innovation and development (61%, customer (52%, business processes (47% and financial (24%, respectively.

  3. Analysis of participation and performance in athletes by age group in ultramarathons of more than 200 km in length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zingg MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Zingg,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph A Rüst,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers3 1Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France Background: Participation and performance trends for athletes by age group have been investigated for marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races up to 161 km, but not for longer distances of more than 200 km. Methods: Participation and performance trends in athletes by age group in the Badwater (217 km and Spartathlon (246 km races were compared from 2000 to 2012. Results: The number of female and male finishers increased in both races across years (P 0.05. In Spartathlon, the age of the annual five fastest finishers was unchanged at 39.7 ± 2.4 years for men and 44.6 ± 3.2 years for women (P > 0.05. In Badwater, running speed increased in men from 7.9 ± 0.7 km/hour to 8.7 ± 0.6 km/hour (r2 = 0.51, P 0.05. In Badwater, the number of men in age groups 30–34 years (r2 = 0.37, P = 0.03 and 40–44 years (r2 = 0.75, P < 0.01 increased. In Spartathlon, the number of men increased in the age group 40–44 years (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04. Men in age groups 30–34 (r2 = 0.64, P < 0.01, 35–39 (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04, 40–44 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.04, and 55–59 years (r2 = 0.40, P = 0.02 improved running speed in Badwater. In Spartathlon, no change in running speed was observed. Conclusion: The fastest finishers in ultramarathons more than 200 km in distance were 40–45 years old and have to be classified as “master runners” by definition. In contrast to reports of marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races of 161 km in distance, the increase in participation and the improvement in performance by age group were less pronounced in ultramarathoners competing in races of more than 200 km. Keywords: ultra

  4. A quantum chemistry study on the performance of porphyrin-based solar cell sensitisers; Zinc and anchor group position effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkan, Foroogh; Izadyar, Mohammad; Nakhaeipour, Ali

    2015-12-01

    In this work, ten porphyrin derivatives, including free-base zinc-metalised compounds were studied by varying the position of the carboxyl anchoring group and the alkyl substituents length on the remaining three phenyl rings with the aim of the cell efficiency investigation. Theoretical performances of the sensitisers in the dye-sensitised solar cell systems have been discussed by analysis of the optical absorption, the oxidised potential of ground and excited states, light-harvesting efficiency and electron injection efficiency. Due to lower symmetry of free-based porphyrins, they showed broader bands than zinc porphyrins. The second group sensitisers are better than the first one due to the smaller oxidation potential energy, higher open-circuit voltage and light-harvesting efficiency. The influence of long alkyl substituents on the photovoltaic parameters is not perceptible but ortho and meta positions of anchoring group modify the solar cell performance. Finally, some correlations between the quantum reactivity indices and photovoltaic parameters have obtained and discussed.

  5. Adjusting the Proportion of Electron-Withdrawing Groups in a Graft Functional Polymer for Multilevel Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linxin; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Chunyu; He, Jinghui; Chen, Dongyun; Jun, Jiang; Xu, Qingfeng; Lu, Jianmei

    2016-01-01

    A polymer containing aldehyde active groups (PVB) was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), acting as a polymer precursor to graft a functional moiety via nucleophilic addition reaction. DHI (2-(1,5-dimethyl-hexyl)-6-hydrazino-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione) and NPH (nitrophenyl hydrazine) groups, which contain naphthalimides that act as narrow traps and nitro groups that act as deep traps, were anchored onto the PVB at different ratios. A series of graft polymers were obtained and named PVB-DHI, PVB-DHI4 -NPH, PVB-DHI-NPH4 , and PVB-NPH. The chemical composition of the polymers was analyzed by (1) H-NMR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Memory devices were prepared from the polymers, and I-V characteristics were measured to determine the performance. By adjusting the ratio of different electron acceptors (DHI and NPH) to 4:1, ternary memory behavior was achieved. The relationship between memory behavior of PVB-DHIx NPHy and acceptor groups as well as their conduction mechanism were studied in detail.

  6. High-fidelity simulation enhances pediatric residents' retention, knowledge, procedural proficiency, group resuscitation performance, and experience in pediatric resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, David M; Wu, Chang L; Williams, Daniel C; King, Lydia; Dobson, Joseph V

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) pediatric resuscitation training on resident performance and self-reported experience compared with historical controls. In this case-control study, pediatric residents at a tertiary academic children's hospital participated in a 16-hour HFS resuscitation curriculum. Primary outcome measures included cognitive knowledge, procedural proficiency, retention, and self-reported comfort and procedural experience. The intervention group was compared with matched-pair historical controls. Forty-one residents participated in HFS training with 32 matched controls. The HFS group displayed significant initial and overall improvement in knowledge (P historical controls but also reported increased real-life resuscitation experiences and related procedures.

  7. Relationship among nutritional status, pro/antioxidant balance and cognitive performance in a group of free-living healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, M; Trotti, R; Opizzi, A; Solerte, S B

    2007-12-01

    Nutrition plays a role in health promotion and well-being, but there is still a lack of knowledge about nutrition-related risk factors in aging cognitive impairment. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the link between nutritional status, cognitive performance and pro/antioxidant balance in healthy elderly subjects residing in a small metropolitan community. The subjects were 69 free-living urban healthy elderly people (41 females and 28 males aged 84+/-7 years, mean +/- standard deviation SD, range 70-89). In this group of elderly subjects an analysis of the diet over the 3 days before the study entry was performed. The nutrients intake for individuals were compared with the Italian Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). We also collected residents' background information, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA), and data on daily nursing routines in institutions, including nutritional care. Plasma malondialdehyde and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity were evaluated in elderly people as compared to a group of healthy young people (control group) as indices of the oxidative balance. The mean vitamin and mineral intake for participants met the RDAs except for calcium and vitamin D. No difference was observed as regards plasma malondialdehyde between young and elderly subjects: 4.5 (3-6.2) mmol/L vs 4.45 (2.4-5.8) mmol/L respectively, median with range, whereas the latter exhibited higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity: 16.0 (9.3-48) U/g hemoglobin (Hb) vs 15 (10-35) U/g Hb, respectively, median with range (Pnutritional factors on cognitive performance in older adults.

  8. High-performance composite membrane with enriched CO2-philic groups and improved adhesion at the interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifan; Wang, Shaofei; Wu, Hong; Guo, Ruili; Liu, Ye; Jiang, Zhongyi; Tian, Zhizhang; Zhang, Peng; Cao, Xingzhong; Wang, Baoyi

    2014-05-14

    A novel strategy to design a high-performance composite membrane for CO2 capture via coating a thin layer of water-swellable polymers (WSPs) onto a porous support with enriched CO2-philic groups is demonstrated in this study. First, by employing a versatile platform technique combining non-solvent-induced phase separation and surface segregation, porous support membranes with abundant CO2-philic ethylene oxide (EO) groups at the surface are successfully prepared. Second, a thin selective layer composed of Pebax MH 1657 is deposited onto the support membranes via dip coating. Because of the water-swellable characteristic of Pebax and the enriched EO groups at the interface, the composite membranes exhibit high CO2 permeance above 1000 GPU with CO2/N2 selectivity above 40 at a humidified state (25 °C and 3 bar). By tuning the content of the PEO segment at the interface, the composite membranes can show either high CO2 permeance up to 2420 GPU with moderate selectivity of 46.0 or high selectivity up to 109.6 with fairly good CO2 permeance of 1275 GPU. Moreover, enrichment of the PEO segment at the interface significantly improves interfacial adhesion, as revealed by the T-peel test and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurement. In this way, the feasibility of designing WSP-based composite membranes by enriching CO2-philic groups at the interface is validated. We hope our findings may pave a generic way to fabricate high-performance composite membranes for CO2 capture using cost-effective materials and facile methods.

  9. Management of severe lower abdominal or inguinal pain in high-performance athletes. PAIN (Performing Athletes with Abdominal or Inguinal Neuromuscular Pain Study Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, W C; Foley, D P; Garrett, W E; Lohnes, J H; Mandlebaum, B R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the pathophysiologic processes of severe lower-abdominal or inguinal pain in high-performance athletes. We evaluated 276 patients; 175 underwent pelvic floor repairs. Of the 157 athletes who had not undergone previous surgery, 124 (79%) participated at a professional or other highly competitive level, and 138 patients (88%) had adductor pain that accompanied the lower-abdominal or inguinal pain. More patients underwent related adductor releases during the later operative period in the series. Evaluation revealed 38 other abnormalities, including severe hip problems and malignancies. There were 152 athletes (97%) who returned to previous levels of performance. The syndrome was uncommon in women and the results were less predictable in nonathletes. A distinct syndrome of lower-abdominal/adductor pain in male athletes appears correctable by a procedure designed to strengthen the anterior pelvic floor. The location and pattern of pain and the operative success suggest the cause to be a combination of abdominal hyperextension and thigh hyperabduction, with the pivot point being the pubic symphysis. Diagnosis of "athletic pubalgia" and surgery should be limited to a select group of high-performance athletes. The consideration of other causes of groin pain in the patient is critical.

  10. The effects of walking on golf drive performance in two groups of golfers with different skill levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Green

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although walking is a fundamental part of the game of golf, the effects of walking on the golf shots outcome are largely overlooked. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a hole-to-hole distance walk on the golf drive performance as well as possible physiological contributory factors were evaluated. Twenty-one volunteer golfers were recruited and divided into two groups based on their average round scores: More competitive Golfer (McG ≤88 (n=13 and Irregular Social Golfer (ISG ≥89 (n=8. Drive distance was directly measured. Balance and hand-eye coordination were assessed using a modified stork test and a customized three dimension- al maze. Participants hit 10 golf balls and then walked 500m before repeating the tests. Heart rates of golfers before driving weren’t different between groups, but were elevated within the groups following walking. The McG had longer drives following the walk (p=0.018. The change in the distance was correlated to the change in right leg balance with eyes closed (r=- 0.619 p=0.003. Biomechanical changes were correlated to the change in drive distance (r=0.867 p=0.025. This study shows that an aerobic warm-up prior to a round or small amounts of walking early in a round may be beneficial to golfers of better ability.

  11. Managing the Impact of Smoke Haze Disaster: Response of Civil Society Groups Towards Jambi Provincial Government Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smoke haze from forest and land fires in Jambi in 2015 had led to various reactions. The low response from the provincial government led by an Acting Governor received various criticism and protests from civil society groups. This study examines the impact of 2015’ haze in Jambi and describes civil society groups’ responses toward the government “transition” of Jambi province performances regarding 2015 smoke haze. Through observation of the relation and activities of the two sides: government and civil society, and open-ended interview with a representative of civil society groups, the results showed that the barrier is the absence of a national disaster status. Acting Governor and Regional Working Unit (SKPD have a limitation in funding, equipment, and human resources to conduct fire fighting and are unresponsive in treating the haze victims. The persistence of civil society groups which work independently to helpvictims and encourage the government to be more responsive led to the issuance of Local Regulation on Forest and Land Fires. Finally, this study recommends the government of the Republic of Indonesia to formulate task and function certainty of the central government and Acting Governor in the handling of smoke haze under the condition without national disaster status.

  12. Adaptive actuator failure compensation control based on MMST grouping for a class of MIMO nonlinear systems with guaranteed transient performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Jie; Qiu, Xiang-Wei; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Chun-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive compensation control approach for a class of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems with actuator failures. In order to enlarge the set of compensable actuator failures, an actuators grouping scheme based on multiple model switching and tuning (MMST) is proposed for the nonlinear MIMO minimum-phase systems with multiple actuator failures. Then, an adaptive compensation scheme based on prescribed performance bound (PPB) which characterises the convergence rate and maximum overshoot of the tracking error is designed for the systems to ensure closed-loop signal boundedness and asymptotic output tracking despite unknown actuator failures. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the control design.

  13. Small-group learning in an upper-level university biology class enhances academic performance and student attitudes toward group work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Andrew D; Ramer, Leanne M; Nakonechny, Joanne; Cragg, Jacquelyn J; Ramer, Matt S

    2010-12-29

    To improve science learning, science educators' teaching tools need to address two major criteria: teaching practice should mirror our current understanding of the learning process; and science teaching should reflect scientific practice. We designed a small-group learning (SGL) model for a fourth year university neurobiology course using these criteria and studied student achievement and attitude in five course sections encompassing the transition from individual work-based to SGL course design. All students completed daily quizzes/assignments involving analysis of scientific data and the development of scientific models. Students in individual work-based (Individualistic) sections usually worked independently on these assignments, whereas SGL students completed assignments in permanent groups of six. SGL students had significantly higher final exam grades than Individualistic students. The transition to the SGL model was marked by a notable increase in 10th percentile exam grade (Individualistic: 47.5%; Initial SGL: 60%; Refined SGL: 65%), suggesting SGL enhanced achievement among the least prepared students. We also studied student achievement on paired quizzes: quizzes were first completed individually and submitted, and then completed as a group and submitted. The group quiz grade was higher than the individual quiz grade of the highest achiever in each group over the term. All students--even term high achievers--could benefit from the SGL environment. Additionally, entrance and exit surveys demonstrated student attitudes toward SGL were more positive at the end of the Refined SGL course. We assert that SGL is uniquely-positioned to promote effective learning in the science classroom.

  14. Small-Group Learning in an Upper-Level University Biology Class Enhances Academic Performance and Student Attitudes Toward Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonechny, Joanne; Cragg, Jacquelyn J.; Ramer, Matt S.

    2010-01-01

    To improve science learning, science educators' teaching tools need to address two major criteria: teaching practice should mirror our current understanding of the learning process; and science teaching should reflect scientific practice. We designed a small-group learning (SGL) model for a fourth year university neurobiology course using these criteria and studied student achievement and attitude in five course sections encompassing the transition from individual work-based to SGL course design. All students completed daily quizzes/assignments involving analysis of scientific data and the development of scientific models. Students in individual work-based (Individualistic) sections usually worked independently on these assignments, whereas SGL students completed assignments in permanent groups of six. SGL students had significantly higher final exam grades than Individualistic students. The transition to the SGL model was marked by a notable increase in 10th percentile exam grade (Individualistic: 47.5%; Initial SGL: 60%; Refined SGL: 65%), suggesting SGL enhanced achievement among the least prepared students. We also studied student achievement on paired quizzes: quizzes were first completed individually and submitted, and then completed as a group and submitted. The group quiz grade was higher than the individual quiz grade of the highest achiever in each group over the term. All students – even term high achievers –could benefit from the SGL environment. Additionally, entrance and exit surveys demonstrated student attitudes toward SGL were more positive at the end of the Refined SGL course. We assert that SGL is uniquely-positioned to promote effective learning in the science classroom. PMID:21209910

  15. Small-group learning in an upper-level university biology class enhances academic performance and student attitudes toward group work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Gaudet

    Full Text Available To improve science learning, science educators' teaching tools need to address two major criteria: teaching practice should mirror our current understanding of the learning process; and science teaching should reflect scientific practice. We designed a small-group learning (SGL model for a fourth year university neurobiology course using these criteria and studied student achievement and attitude in five course sections encompassing the transition from individual work-based to SGL course design. All students completed daily quizzes/assignments involving analysis of scientific data and the development of scientific models. Students in individual work-based (Individualistic sections usually worked independently on these assignments, whereas SGL students completed assignments in permanent groups of six. SGL students had significantly higher final exam grades than Individualistic students. The transition to the SGL model was marked by a notable increase in 10th percentile exam grade (Individualistic: 47.5%; Initial SGL: 60%; Refined SGL: 65%, suggesting SGL enhanced achievement among the least prepared students. We also studied student achievement on paired quizzes: quizzes were first completed individually and submitted, and then completed as a group and submitted. The group quiz grade was higher than the individual quiz grade of the highest achiever in each group over the term. All students--even term high achievers--could benefit from the SGL environment. Additionally, entrance and exit surveys demonstrated student attitudes toward SGL were more positive at the end of the Refined SGL course. We assert that SGL is uniquely-positioned to promote effective learning in the science classroom.

  16. The effects of teachers' homework follow-up practices on students' EFL performance: a randomized-group design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José C; Vallejo, Guillermo; Cunha, Jennifer; Nunes, Tânia; Suárez, Natalia; Fuentes, Sonia; Moreira, Tânia

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of five types of homework follow-up practices (i.e., checking homework completion; answering questions about homework; checking homework orally; checking homework on the board; and collecting and grading homework) used in class by 26 teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) using a randomized-group design. Once a week, for 6 weeks, the EFL teachers used a particular type of homework follow-up practice they had previously been assigned to. At the end of the 6 weeks students completed an EFL exam as an outcome measure. The results showed that three types of homework follow-up practices (i.e., checking homework orally; checking homework on the board; and collecting and grading homework) had a positive impact on students' performance, thus highlighting the role of EFL teachers in the homework process. The effect of EFL teachers' homework follow-up practices on students' performance was affected by students' prior knowledge, but not by the number of homework follow-up sessions.

  17. Synthesis of High Performance Cyclic Olefin Polymers (COPs with Ester Group via Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel ester group functionalized cyclic olefin polymers (COPs with high glass transition temperature, high transparency, good mechanical performance and excellent film forming ability have been achieved in this work via efficient ring-opening metathesis copolymerization of exo-1,4,4a,9,9a,10-hexahydro-9,10(1′,2′-benzeno-l,4-methanoanthracene (HBM and comonomers (5-norbornene-2-yl methylacetate (NMA, 5-norbornene-2-yl methyl 2-ethylhexanoate (NME or 5-norbornene-2-yl methyldodecanoate (NMD utilizing the Grubbs first generation catalyst, Ru(CHPh(Cl2(PCy32 (Cy = cyclohexyl, G1, followed by hydrogenation of double bonds in the main chain. The fully hydrogenated copolymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, FT-IR spectroscopy analysis, gel permeation chromatography, and thermo gravimetric analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry curves showed that the glass transition temperatures (Tg linearly decreased with the increasing of comonomers content, which was easily controlled by changing feed ratios of HBM and comonomers. Static water contact angles tests indicate that hydrophilicity of copolymers can also be modulated by changing the comonomers incorporation. Additionally, the mechanical performances of copolymers were also investigated.

  18. When do we confuse self and other in action memory? Reduced false memories of self-performance after observing actions by an out-group versus in-group actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel eLindner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Observing another person performing an action can lead to a false memory of having performed the action oneself—the observation-inflation effect. In the experimental paradigm, participants first perform or do not perform simple actions, and then observe another person perform some of these actions. The observation-inflation effect is found when participants later remember performing actions that they have merely observed. In this case, self and other are confused in action memory.We examined social conditions of this self-other confusion when remembering actions, specifically whether the effect depends on the observed actor’s group membership. In our experiment, we manipulated group membership based on physical appearance, specifically complexion of the hands. Fair-skinned participants observed either an in-group (i.e., fair-skinned or an out-group (i.e., dark-skinned actor. Our results revealed that the observed actor’s group membership moderated the observation-inflation effect: False memories were significantly reduced when the actor was from the out-group (vs. in-group. We found no difference to a control condition in which the actor wore black gloves, suggesting that distinctiveness of perceptual or sensory features alone (due to the out-group member’s dark skin is not critical. We discuss these findings in light of social-neuroscience studies demonstrating the impact of an observed person's group membership on motor simulation. Overall, our findings suggest that action memory can be affected by a ubiquitous feature of people’s social perception, that is, group-based social categorization of others.

  19. How Does Group Affiliation Affect The Diversification Performance Of Family-Controlled Firms In Malaysia? – A Governance Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ng Sin Huei

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the roles of business group affiliations and whether the size and ownership structure of business groups influence the performance outcomes of diversification among family-controlled firms in Malaysia. It presents evidence that agency-driven and thus performance-diminishing firm diversification is more likely to take place in firms affiliated with a family-controlled business group than in independent firms. The findings support the hypothesis that if the benefits of diver...

  20. How Does Group Affiliation Affect The Diversification Performance Of Family-Controlled Firms In Malaysia? – A Governance Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ng Sin Huei

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the roles of business group affiliations and whether the size and ownership structure of business groups influence the performance outcomes of diversification among family-controlled firms in Malaysia. It presents evidence that agency-driven and thus performance-diminishing firm diversification is more likely to take place in firms affiliated with a family-controlled business group than in independent firms. The findings support the hypothesis that if the benefits of diver...

  1. Rheotaxis performance increases with group size in a coupled phase model with sensory noise. The effects of noise and group size on rheotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicoli, A.; Bak-Coleman, J.; Coombs, S.; Paley, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Many fish exhibit rheotaxis, a behavior in which fish orient themselves relative to flow. Rheotaxis confers many benefits, including energetic cost savings and interception of drifting prey. Despite the fact that most species of fish school during at least some portion of their life, little is known about the importance of rheotactic behavior to schooling fish and, conversely, how the presence of nearby conspecifics affects rheotactic behavior. Understanding how rheotaxis is modified by social factors is thus of ecological importance. Here we present a mathematical model in the form of an all-to-all, coupled-oscillator framework over the non-Euclidean space of fish orientations to model group rheotactic behavior. Individuals in the model measure the orientation of their neighbors and the flow direction relative to their own orientation. These measures are corrupted by sensory noise. We study the effect of sensory noise and group size on internal (i.e., within the school) and external (i.e., with the flow) disagreement in orientation. We find that under noisy environmental conditions, increased group size improves rheotaxis. Results of this study have implications for understanding animal behavior, as well as for potential applications in bio-inspired engineering.

  2. Age and gender diversity as determinants of performance and health in a public organization: the role of task complexity and group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegge, Jürgen; Roth, Carla; Neubach, Barbara; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut; Kanfer, Ruth

    2008-11-01

    The influence of age and gender composition on group performance and self-reported health disorders was examined with data from 4,538 federal tax employees working in 222 natural work unit groups. As hypothesized, age diversity correlated positively with performance only in groups solving complex decision-making tasks, and this finding was replicated when analyzing performance data collected 1 year later. Age diversity was also positively correlated with health disorders--but only in groups working on routine decision-making tasks. Gender composition also had a significant effect on group performance, such that groups with a high proportion of female employees performed worse and reported more health disorders than did gender-diverse teams. As expected, effects of gender composition were most pronounced in large groups. Effects of age diversity were found when controlling for gender diversity and vice versa. Thus, age and gender diversity seem to play a unique role in performance and well-being. The moderating role of task complexity for both effects of age diversity and the moderating role of group size for both effects of gender diversity further suggest that the impact of these 2 variables depends on different group processes (e.g., knowledge exchange, variation in gender salience).

  3. Communication Effects on Small Group Decision-Making: Homogeneity and Task as Moderators of the Communication-Performance Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Abran J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates circumstances under which communication variables contribute significantly to the constitution of group decisions. Postulates two variables, homogeneity of task-relevant information possessed by group members and task demonstrability, to moderate the impact of communication and group member ability on quality of group outcomes.…

  4. Blooming Again The China Oriental Performing Arts Group is a model for the reform of China's cultural system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YUAN

    2011-01-01

    While Chinese cultural performances are world renowned for their high standards,the difficulties local troupes face in generating adequate revenues from these performances has long stifled the development of China's best performance artists.

  5. A study on effect of market orientation and Michael Porter's Five Competitive Forces on performance of Bahman Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahra Mohebi Ashtiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Concept of competitive advantage has a direct linkage with the considered values of the customer, such that the more the supplied values of an organization approach to the considered values of the customer in a comparative range, it can say that the organization outperforms the competitors in one or several competitive criteria. The present research is an applied survey which examines effect of market orientation and Michael Porter's Five Competitive Forces on performance of Bahman Group. The present research is an applied survey in which the questionnaire was used as the data collection instrument. In this research, the indices were detected after studying the books and articles and interviewing with the experts. The research hypotheses were designed based on these criteria. Ultimately, all the hypotheses were confirmed using statistical techniques. After inferential analysis of data which includes significant study on the items of the questionnaire regarding the factors, the study on the relationship between latent and patent variables was considered. The research hypotheses and the modeling for the relationship between dependent and independent variables were confirmed using structural equation method and ultimately all the proposed hypotheses were confirmed.

  6. Holey graphene nanosheets with surface functional groups as high-performance supercapacitors in ionic-liquid electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hsien; Huang, Po-Ling; Luo, Xu-Feng; Wang, Chueh-Han; Li, Chi; Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Jeng-Kuei

    2015-05-22

    Pores and surface functional groups are created on graphene nanosheets (GNSs) to improve supercapacitor properties in a butylmethylpyrrolidinium-dicyanamide (BMP-DCA) ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte. The GNS electrode exhibits an optimal capacitance of 330 F g(-1) and a satisfactory rate capability within a wide potential range of 3.3 V at 25 °C. Pseudocapacitive effects are confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under the same conditions, carbon nanotube and activated carbon electrodes show capacitances of 80 and 81 F g(-1) , respectively. Increasing the operation temperature increases the conductivity and decreases the viscosity of the IL electrolyte, further improving cell performance. At 60 °C, a symmetric-electrode GNS supercapacitor with the IL electrolyte is able to deliver maximum energy and power densities of 140 Wh kg(-1) and 52.5 kW kg(-1) (based on the active material on both electrodes), respectively, which are much higher than the 20 Wh kg(-1) and 17.8 kW kg(-1) obtained for a control cell with a conventional organic electrolyte.

  7. Catalyzing healthcare transformation with digital health: Performance indicators and lessons learned from a Digital Health Innovation Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jocelyn; Samagh, Sonia; Fraser, Donna; Landman, Adam B

    2017-09-25

    Despite considerable investment in digital health (DH) companies and a growing DH ecosystem, there are multiple challenges to testing and implementing innovative solutions. Health systems have recognized the potential of DH and have formed DH innovation centers. However, limited information is available on DH innovation center processes, best practices, or outcomes. This case report describes a DH innovation center process that can be replicated across health systems and defines and benchmarks process indicators to assess DH innovation center performance. The Brigham and Women's Hospital's Digital Health Innovation Group (DHIG) accelerates DH innovations from idea to pilot safely and efficiently using a structured process. Fifty-four DH innovations were accelerated by the DHIG process between July 2014 and December 2016. In order to measure effectiveness of the DHIG process, key process indicators were defined as 1) number of solutions that completed each DHIG phase and 2) length of time to complete each phase. Twenty-three DH innovations progressed to pilot stage and 13 innovations were terminated after barriers to pilot implementation were identified by the DHIG process. For 4 DH solutions that executed a pilot, the average time for innovations to proceed from DHIG intake to pilot initiation was 9 months. Overall, the DHIG is a reproducible process that addresses key roadblocks in DH innovation within health systems. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe DH innovation process indicators and results within an academic health system. Therefore, there is no published data to compare our results with the results of other DH innovation centers. Standardized data collection and indicator reporting could allow benchmark comparisons across institutions. Additional opportunities exist for the validation of DH solution effectiveness and for translational support from pilot to implementation. These are critical steps to advance DH technologies and

  8. Finding Team Mates who are not prone to Sucker and Free-Rider effects: The Protestant Work Ethic as a Moderator of Motivation Losses in Group Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Abele (Susanne); M. Diehl (Michael)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the contribution of a personality variable in motivation losses in group performance. Differences in the endorsement of the ‘Protestant Work Ethic’ can account for variance in motivation losses in group work. Male student scores on the Mirels- Garrett Protestant Work

  9. Predictive Value of the School-leaving Grade and Prognosis of Different Admission Groups for Academic Performance and Continuity in the Medical Course – a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadmon, Guni; Resch, Franz; Duelli, Roman; Kadmon, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school-leaving GPA and the time since completion of secondary education are the major criteria for admission to German medical schools. However, the predictive value of the school-leaving grade and the admission delay have not been thoroughly examined since the amendment of the Medical Licensing Regulations and the introduction of reformed curricula in 2002. Detailed information on the prognosis of the different admission groups is also missing. Aim: To examine the predictive values of the school-leaving grade and the age at enrolment for academic performance and continuity throughout the reformed medical course. Methods: The study includes the central admission groups “GPA-best” and “delayed admission” as well as the primary and secondary local admission groups of three consecutive cohorts. The relationship between the criteria academic performance and continuity and the predictors school-leaving GPA, enrolment age, and admission group affiliation were examined up to the beginning of the final clerkship year. Results: The academic performance and the prolongation of the pre-clinical part of undergraduate training were significantly related to the school-leaving GPA. Conversely, the dropout rate was related to age at enrolment. The students of the GPA-best group and the primary local admission group performed best and had the lowest dropout rates. The students of the delayed admission group and secondary local admission group performed significantly worse. More than 20% of these students dropped out within the pre-clinical course, half of them due to poor academic performance. However, the academic performance of all of the admission groups was highly variable and only about 35% of the students of each group reached the final clerkship year within the regular time. Discussion: The school-leaving grade and age appear to have different prognostic implications for academic performance and continuity. Both factors have consequences for the

  10. We're All in This Together Now: Group Performance Feedback to Increase Classroom Team Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E.; Eisenhart, Donald; Kane, Meghan; Schoener, Christine; Turkel, Kimberly; Riley, Megan; Mandell, David S.

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary goal was to evaluate the use of performance feedback procedures delivered to a classroom team to increase daily data collection. Performance feedback (PFB) was delivered to four classroom teams responsible for the daily collection of data representing student performance during prescribed instructional activities. Using a…

  11. We're All in This Together Now: Group Performance Feedback to Increase Classroom Team Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E.; Eisenhart, Donald; Kane, Meghan; Schoener, Christine; Turkel, Kimberly; Riley, Megan; Mandell, David S.

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary goal was to evaluate the use of performance feedback procedures delivered to a classroom team to increase daily data collection. Performance feedback (PFB) was delivered to four classroom teams responsible for the daily collection of data representing student performance during prescribed instructional activities. Using a…

  12. Postoperative Ambulatory Performance Status Significantly Affects Implant Failure Rate Among Surgical Treatment Strategies in Patients With Proximal Femur Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Wen; Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Chang, Ming-Chau; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2016-11-08

    Surgical treatment strategies for proximal femur metastasis have been reported with mixed results. Little is known about risk factor for implant failure except for longer patient survival. Therefore, we determined whether implant survivorship differed among treatment strategies, as well as risk factors for implant failure. We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive 106 patients with proximal femur metastasis treated with prosthesis replacement (n = 38), intramedullary nail (n = 32), and dynamic hip screw (DHS) (n = 36). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scale and Karnofsky index were used to evaluate functional outcome. Patient characteristics and postoperative ambulatory performance status were assessed for their values in determining implant failure. Overall implant failure rate was 11.3% (12 of 106). Prosthesis replacement was related to better implant survivorship (P = 0.041), without mechanical failures. On the contrary, 7 of the 10 implant failures in the fixation group were considered mechanical failures. Better postoperative ambulatory status (ECOG ≤ 2) was a risk factor for implant failure (P = 0.03). Notably, for patients with poor ambulatory status (ECOG ≥ 3), implant survivorship was not different among choice of implants. In conclusion, prosthesis replacement would be a more durable option in the treatment of proximal femur metastasis. Postoperative ambulatory status could be an additional consideration. For patients with poor expected ambulatory performance status, fixation with intramedullary nail or DHS might be considered for a less technical demanding procedure.

  13. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  14. Probing Interaction Between Platinum Group Metal (PGM) and Non-PGM Support Through Surface Characterization and Device Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shibely

    High cost and limited abundance of Platinum (Pt) have hindered effective commercialization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer. Efforts have been undertaken to reduce precious group metal (PGM) requirement for these devices without compromising the activity of the catalyst by using transition metal carbides (TMC) as non-PGM support thanks to their similar electronic and geometric structures as Pt. In this work Mo2C was selected as non-PGM support and Pt was used as the PGM of interest. We hypothesize that the hollow nanotube morphology of Mo2C support combined with Pt nano particles deposited on it via atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique would allow increased interaction between them which may increase the activity of Pt and Mo2C as well as maximize the Pt active surface area. Specifically, a rotary ALD equipment was used to grow Pt particles from atomic level to 2--3 nanometers by simply adjusting number of ALD cycles in order to probe the interaction between the deposited Pt nanoparticles and Mo2C nanotube support. Interaction between the Pt and Mo2 C was analyzed via surface characterization and electrochemical characterization. Interaction between Pt and Mo2C arises due to the lattice mismatch between Pt and Mo2C as well as electron migration between them. Lattice spacing analysis using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, combined with Pt binding energy shift in XPS results, clearly showed strong bonding between Pt nanoparticles and the Mo2C nanotube support in all the resultant Pt/Mo2C samples. We postulate that this strong interaction is responsible for the significantly enhanced durability observed in our constant potential electrolysis (CPE) and accelerated degradation testing (ADT). Of the three samples from different ALD cycles (15, 50 and 100), Mo2C nanotubes modified by 50 (1.07 wt% Pt loading) and 100 cycles (4.4 wt% Pt) of Pt deposition, showed higher HER and HOR activity per Pt mass than commercial

  15. Ventilation performance of a mixed group of operators using a new rescue breathing device-the glossopalatinal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissmann, Hajo; Birkholz, Sven; Ohnesorge, Henning; Jensen, Kai; Eckert, Stefan; Nierhaus, Axel; Schulte am Esch, Jochen

    2003-11-01

    We studied how effectively a mixed group of helpers could ventilate a manikin with a new rescue breathing device after a short period of instruction. The device consists of a mouthcap, a "glossopalatinal tube" (GPT) reaching between tongue and palate and a connector for a bag, ventilator or the rescuers mouth. Rather than reaching behind the tongue like an oropharyngeal airway (OP), it is able to scoop the tongue off the posterior pharyngeal wall when tilted by the rescuer. It was compared with a conventional face mask with an OP. The study made use of an anaesthesia simulator (MedSim Ltd., Israel) and a manikin. 46 subjects with different professional backgrounds (anaesthesia nurses, medical students, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), physicians training for anaesthesiology) underwent a standard introduction to the GPT and OP (lecture with demonstration on an intubation trainer, illustrated brochure). They ventilated the manikin for 5 min each using the bag plus GPT and the OP plus face mask, respectively, in random order after the simulator had been made apnoeic and the simulated arterial oxygen saturation (S(aO(2))) had dropped to 80%. The actions and the results (tidal volumes (V(t)), S(aO(2))) were recorded on video. The subjects graded difficulty of operation and fatigue on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Mean V(t) with the OP plus mask amounted to 463 (230-688 ml), with GPT to 426 (243-610 ml) (median [10-90% percentiles]) (P=0.047). No differences were observed with respect to the time a S(aO(2))> or =90% was maintained (OP plus mask: 255 (139-266 s), GPT: 255 (90-269 s)) or the grades for fatigue (OP plus mask: 58% of VAS, GPT: 48% of VAS, median) and difficulty (OP plus mask: 16% of VAS, GPT: 21% of VAS). Performance and grades were scattered over a wide range. Success with the two devices was correlated, but the subjects judgement tended to diverge. The GPT is an easy to learn alternative to conventional devices and might be helpful in clinical

  16. License to Fail? How Leader Group Prototypicality Moderates the Effects of Leader Performance on Perceptions of Leadership Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Giessner (Steffen); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); E. Sleebos (Ed)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractLeadership often serves as an explanatory category for performance outcomes (i.e., failure and success). This process can strengthen or weaken leadership effectiveness, because contingent on their performance leaders may gain or lose follower endorsement – the basis of leadership.

  17. Getting Groups to Develop Good Strategies: Effects of Reflexivity Interventions on Team Process, Team Performance, and Shared Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtner, Andrea; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K.; Nagele, Christof

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effect of guided reflection on team processes and performance, based on West's (1996, 2000) concept of reflexivity. Communicating via e-mail, 49 hierarchically structured teams (one commander and two specialists) performed seven 15 min shifts of a simulated team-based military air-surveillance task (TAST) in two meetings, a…

  18. Getting Groups to Develop Good Strategies: Effects of Reflexivity Interventions on Team Process, Team Performance, and Shared Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtner, Andrea; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K.; Nagele, Christof

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effect of guided reflection on team processes and performance, based on West's (1996, 2000) concept of reflexivity. Communicating via e-mail, 49 hierarchically structured teams (one commander and two specialists) performed seven 15 min shifts of a simulated team-based military air-surveillance task (TAST) in two meetings, a…

  19. License to fail? How leader group prototypicality moderates the effects of leader performance on perceptions of leadership effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Giessner (Steffen); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); E. Sleebos (Ed)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractLeadership often serves as an explanatory category for performance outcomes (i.e., failure and success). This process can strengthen or weaken leadership effectiveness, because contingent on their performance leaders may gain or lose follower endorsement - the basis of leadership. Drawin

  20. Interface between L2 learners’ pragmatic performance, language proficiency, and individual/group ZPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Tayebipour

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the theories accounting for pragmatic development of L2 learners is Vygotsky’s (1978 sociocultural theory. This study investigated the development of EFL learners' pragmatic competence through the lens of an important concept of Vygotsky’s theory, i.e. the zone of proximal development. The study was conducted to answer two questions. The first question was whether the amount of scaffolding provided to EFL learners would have any relationship with their proficiency level. The second question was focused on the investigation of the relationship between learners’ individual ZPDs and the group ZPD. To this end, 20 EFL learners at low vs. high proficiency levels were selected and assigned randomly into two groups. Both groups received ZPD-sensitive instruction to produce the two speech acts of request and apology. The findings indicated no significant relationship between the proficiency level of the participants and the amount of scaffolding given for the production of the two speech acts. However, the findings revealed certain relationship between participants' individual ZPDs and their group ZPD. This study suggests that EFL learners' general language proficiency has little impact on the development of their pragmatic competence. Besides, based on the findings, scaffolding seems to have learner-specific effects, meaning that each learner may need a specific amount of scaffolding for his/her ZPD to grow despite being in the same group ZPD.

  1. Evidence-based care: 3. Measuring performance: how are we managing this problem? Evidence-Based Care Resource Group.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The authors have frequently been surprised by discrepancies between what they perceived they were doing and what they found when they audited their medical records. Because these discrepancies are common it is important to measure physician performance to ensure that effective care is being provided. To measure clinical performance physicians must decide what to measure, whether the needed information is available, how to select an appropriate sample of patients, how to collect the informatio...

  2. How does a servant leader fuel the service fire? A multilevel model of servant leadership, individual self identity, group competition climate, and customer service performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Zhu, Jing; Zhou, Mingjian

    2015-03-01

    Building on a social identity framework, our cross-level process model explains how a manager's servant leadership affects frontline employees' service performance, measured as service quality, customer-focused citizenship behavior, and customer-oriented prosocial behavior. Among a sample of 238 hairstylists in 30 salons and 470 of their customers, we found that hair stylists' self-identity embedded in the group, namely, self-efficacy and group identification, partially mediated the positive effect of salon managers' servant leadership on stylists' service performance as rated by the customers, after taking into account the positive influence of transformational leadership. Moreover, group competition climate strengthened the positive relationship between self-efficacy and service performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Defining a roadmap for harmonizing quality indicators in Laboratory Medicine: a consensus statement on behalf of the IFCC Working Group "Laboratory Error and Patient Safety" and EFLM Task and Finish Group "Performance specifications for the extra-analytical phases".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacovelli, Laura; Panteghini, Mauro; Lippi, Giuseppe; Sumarac, Zorica; Cadamuro, Janne; Galoro, César Alex De Olivera; Pino Castro, Isabel Garcia Del; Shcolnik, Wilson; Plebani, Mario

    2017-08-28

    The improving quality of laboratory testing requires a deep understanding of the many vulnerable steps involved in the total examination process (TEP), along with the identification of a hierarchy of risks and challenges that need to be addressed. From this perspective, the Working Group "Laboratory Errors and Patient Safety" (WG-LEPS) of International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) is focusing its activity on implementation of an efficient tool for obtaining meaningful information on the risk of errors developing throughout the TEP, and for establishing reliable information about error frequencies and their distribution. More recently, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) has created the Task and Finish Group "Performance specifications for the extra-analytical phases" (TFG-PSEP) for defining performance specifications for extra-analytical phases. Both the IFCC and EFLM groups are working to provide laboratories with a system to evaluate their performances and recognize the critical aspects where improvement actions are needed. A Consensus Conference was organized in Padova, Italy, in 2016 in order to bring together all the experts and interested parties to achieve a consensus for effective harmonization of quality indicators (QIs). A general agreement was achieved and the main outcomes have been the release of a new version of model of quality indicators (MQI), the approval of a criterion for establishing performance specifications and the definition of the type of information that should be provided within the report to the clinical laboratories participating to the QIs project.

  4. Performance of Cooperative Learning Groups in a Postgraduate Education Research Methodology Course: The Role of Social Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree that social interdependence predicted the achievement of 26 cooperative learning groups. Social interdependence was assessed in terms of postgraduate students' individual orientation (that is, cooperative, competitive, and individualistic). Participants were 84 postgraduate students enrolled in an…

  5. Association between quality management and performance indicators in Dutch diabetes care groups : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J E; Baan, Caroline A.; Lemmens, Lidwien C.; Klomp, Maarten L H; Romeijnders, Arnold C M; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To enhance the quality of diabetes care in the Netherlands, so-called care groups with three to 250 general practitioners emerged to organise and coordinate diabetes care. This introduced a new quality management level in addition to the quality management of separate general practices.

  6. Performance of Cooperative Learning Groups in a Postgraduate Education Research Methodology Course: The Role of Social Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree that social interdependence predicted the achievement of 26 cooperative learning groups. Social interdependence was assessed in terms of postgraduate students' individual orientation (that is, cooperative, competitive, and individualistic). Participants were 84 postgraduate students enrolled in an…

  7. The Dimensions of health system performance evaluation with emphasis on the coverage of the vulnerable groups in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahri S ,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation is an integral part of any executive job and activity using of information measurable improvement is followed in administrative activities as a main aim . This study was conducted with aim of determine factors evaluating the performance of health systems based on structural equation modeling. In this descriptive analytical and practical. This study was conducted during 2015. 419 experts participated in this study. Data collection was conducted through researcher made questionnaire. Validity of the questionnaire in the way of their content validity and reliability by using Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.94 was confirmed. Data were analyzed using the software SPSS 22 and LISREL 8.8. Findings revealed that variable healthcare service delivery with impact factor 0.79 is the most important factor affecting the assessment of health system performance and variable equitable access to health services was in second place with impact factor of 0.72 after variable of health care delivery. Variables stewardship, financial resources, protection against financial risks and resource generation respectively with impact factor of 0.69, 0.58, 0.58 and 0.54 in evaluating the performance of the health system was in third place to sixth. Considering the dimensions of health system performance can be pay evaluating the performance tailored to conditions in the country in order to the objectives of the health system

  8. Profitability recent open stock funds in Brazil: analysis of the performance of a management Funds Group active in relation to management fees charged for resource managers

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Ricardo Mendes Vasconcelos; Silvana Festa Sabes; Alexandre Gonzales

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to evaluate the performance of a specific group of active management equity investments funds relating it to the management fees charged by managers in order to answer the following research problem: open equity funds with active management, that charge higher management fees, are those that provide the best returns for the investor? The objective was to test the hypothesis under which it is evident that the funds that charged the highest rates are those with the best perform...

  9. Corporate ethical values, group creativity, job commitment and performance: The effect of work response on work context

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Nadia; Waheed Akbar BHATTI; Zaheer, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    A business culture supported by positive practices and strong ethical values will produce productive employee work response. Positive work environment encourages ethical decision making and employees feel comfortable in an environment where they have freedom to make ethical decisions. It becomes difficult for employees to make ethical decisions in an unethical work environment. This research studied the relationship between group creativity, corporate ethical values, job commitment and perfor...

  10. Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Group Key Management Integrated with Adaptive Intrusion Detection in Mobile ad hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    applications in wireless networks such as military battlefields, emergency response, mobile commerce , online gaming, and collaborative work are based on the...represents that important data are compromised. The second condition represents that the mobile group is unable to function correctly and is compromised as a...include mobile computing, wireless systems, dependable and secure computing, multimedia, sensor networks, data and service management, trust management

  11. Being Well vs. Doing Well: Self-Esteem and School Performance among Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Racial and Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, Carl L., III; Zhou, Min

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to study the relationship between self-esteem and school performance among immigrant and minority adolescents. Data suggest that, despite an apparent inconsistency between self-esteem and grade-point-average, the two have a positive relationship, and that parent immigrant status…

  12. PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cilli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic changes when resistance is applied in horizontal and vertical directions, produced by using different percentages of body weight, caused by jumping movements during a dynamic warm-up. The group of subjects consisted of 35 voluntary male athletes (19 basketball and 16 volleyball players; age: 23.4 ± 1.4 years, training experience: 9.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 177.2 ± 5.7 cm, body weight: 69.9 ± 6.9 kg studying Physical Education, who had a jump training background and who were training for 2 hours, on 4 days in a week. A dynamic warm-up protocol containing seven specific resistance movements with specific resistance corresponding to different percentages of body weight (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% was applied randomly on non consecutive days. Effects of different warm-up protocols were assessed by pre-/post- exercise changes in jump height in the countermovement jump (CMJ and the squat jump (SJ measured using a force platform and changes in hip and knee joint angles at the end of the eccentric phase measured using a video camera. A significant increase in jump height was observed in the dynamic resistance warm-up conducted with different percentages of body weight (p 0.05. In jump movements before and after the warm-up, while no significant difference between the vertical ground reaction forces applied by athletes was observed (p>0.05, in some cases of resistance, a significant reduction was observed in hip and knee joint angles (p<0.05. The dynamic resistance warm-up method was found to cause changes in the kinematics of jumping movements, as well as an increase in jump height values. As a result, dynamic warm-up exercises could be applicable in cases of resistance corresponding to 6-10% of body weight applied in horizontal and vertical directions in order to increase the jump performance acutely.

  13. Optimizing the fMRI data-processing pipeline using prediction and reproducibility performance metrics: I. A preliminary group analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strother, Stephen C.; Conte, Stephen La; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of baseline scans have constant, equal means, and this assumption was assessed with prediction metrics. Higher-order polynomial warps compared to affine alignment had only a minor impact on the performance metrics. We found that both prediction and reproducibility metrics were required for optimizing......We argue that published results demonstrate that new insights into human brain function may be obscured by poor and/or limited choices in the data-processing pipeline, and review the work on performance metrics for optimizing pipelines: prediction, reproducibility, and related empirical Receiver...... Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve metrics. Using the NPAIRS split-half resampling framework for estimating prediction/reproducibility metrics (Strother et al., 2002), we illustrate its use by testing the relative importance of selected pipeline components (interpolation, in-plane spatial smoothing...

  14. Impact of negative stereotypes about boys and influences on performance, motivation and group processes in the classroom.

    OpenAIRE

    Latsch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, the academic performance of boys has not only increasingly become the focus of research but has also been widely discussed in the mass media (Weaver-Hightower, 2003). The key content of this discourse, which has attracted considerable public attention, is that boys have fallen behind academically, compared to girls. In contrast to the situation in pre-vious cohorts, they are therefore currently gaining school leaving certificates of a lower level than those gained by ...

  15. Multidisciplinary group performance – measuring integration intensity in the context of the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Harris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multidisciplinary Group meeting (MDGs are seen as key facilitators of integration, moving from individual to multi-disciplinary decision making, and from a focus on individual patients to a focus on patient groups.  We have developed a method for coding MDG transcripts to identify whether they are or are not vehicles for delivering the anticipated efficiency improvements across various providers and apply it to a test case in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot.  Methods:  We defined 'integrating' as the process within the MDG meeting that enables or promotes an improved collaboration, improved understanding, and improved awareness of self and others within the local healthcare economy such that efficiency improvements could be identified and action taken.  Utterances within the MDGs are coded according to three distinct domains grounded in concepts from communication, group decision-making, and integrated care literatures - the Valence, the Focus, and the Level.  Standardized weighted integrative intensity scores are calculated across ten time deciles in the Case Discussion providing a graphical representation of its integrative intensity. Results: Intra- and Inter-rater reliability of the coding scheme was very good as measured by the Prevalence and Bias-adjusted Kappa Score.  Standardized Weighted Integrative Intensity graph mirrored closely the verbatim transcript and is a convenient representation of complex communication dynamics. Trend in integrative intensity can be calculated and the characteristics of the MDG can be pragmatically described. Conclusion: This is a novel and potentially useful method for researchers, managers and practitioners to better understand MDG dynamics and to identify whether participants are integrating.  The degree to which participants use MDG meetings to develop an integrated way of working is likely to require management, leadership and shared values.

  16. Multidisciplinary group performance – measuring integration intensity in the context of the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Harris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multidisciplinary Group meeting (MDGs are seen as key facilitators of integration, moving from individual to multi-disciplinary decision making, and from a focus on individual patients to a focus on patient groups.  We have developed a method for coding MDG transcripts to identify whether they are or are not vehicles for delivering the anticipated efficiency improvements across various providers and apply it to a test case in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot. Methods:  We defined 'integrating' as the process within the MDG meeting that enables or promotes an improved collaboration, improved understanding, and improved awareness of self and others within the local healthcare economy such that efficiency improvements could be identified and action taken.  Utterances within the MDGs are coded according to three distinct domains grounded in concepts from communication, group decision-making, and integrated care literatures - the Valence, the Focus, and the Level.  Standardized weighted integrative intensity scores are calculated across ten time deciles in the Case Discussion providing a graphical representation of its integrative intensity.Results: Intra- and Inter-rater reliability of the coding scheme was very good as measured by the Prevalence and Bias-adjusted Kappa Score.  Standardized Weighted Integrative Intensity graph mirrored closely the verbatim transcript and is a convenient representation of complex communication dynamics. Trend in integrative intensity can be calculated and the characteristics of the MDG can be pragmatically described.Conclusion: This is a novel and potentially useful method for researchers, managers and practitioners to better understand MDG dynamics and to identify whether participants are integrating.  The degree to which participants use MDG meetings to develop an integrated way of working is likely to require management, leadership and shared values.

  17. Performance of first-trimester combined test for Down syndrome in different maternal age groups: reason for adjustments in screening policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Martin; Heijboer, A.C.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Vugt, J.M.G. van

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the first-trimester combined test (FCT) in different maternal age groups and to discuss whether adjustments in screening policies should be made. METHODS: In this retrospective study data (n = 26 274) from a fetal medicine center on FCT (maternal age, fetal

  18. Mothers' and Teachers' Estimations of First Graders' Literacy Level and Their Relation to the Children's Actual Performance in Different SES Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between mothers' and teachers' estimations of 60 children's literacy level and their actual performance were investigated in two different socio-economic status (SES) groups: low (LSES) and high (HSES). The children's reading (fluency, accuracy and comprehension) and spelling levels were measured. The mothers evaluated their own…

  19. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Organizational Culture and the Performance of Staff Work Groups in Schools and the Development of an Explanatory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Chris; Connolly, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the concept of organizational culture and the relationship between the organizational culture and the performance of staff work groups in schools. The article draws upon a study of 12 schools in Wales, UK, which despite being in disadvantaged settings have high levels of pupil attainment. A model is developed linking the…

  20. High Performance Small-Molecule Cathode Interlayer Materials with D-A-D Conjugated Central Skeletons and Side Flexible Alcohol/Water-Soluble Groups for Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianxiong; Chen, Youchun; Chen, Weiping; Yu, Chengzhuo; Song, Xiaoxian; Li, Fenghong; Wang, Yue

    2016-12-07

    A new class of organic cathode interfacial layer (CIL) materials based on isoindigo derivatives (IID) substituted with pyridinium or sulfonate zwitterion groups were designed, synthesized, and applied in polymer solar cells (PSCs) with PTB7:PC71BM (PTB7: polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene and PC71BM: [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acidmethyl ester) as an active layer. Compared with the control device, PSCs with an IID-based CIL show simultaneous enhancement of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and fill factor (FF). Systematic optimizations of the central conjugated core and side flexible alcohol-soluble groups demonstrated that isoindigo-based CIL material with thiophene and sulfonate zwitterion substituent groups can efficiently enhance the PSC performance. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.12%, which is 1.75 times that of the control device without CIL, was achieved for the PSC having an isoindigo-based CIL. For the PSCs with an isoindigo-based CIL, the molecule-dependent performance property studies revealed that the central conjugated core with D-A-D characteristics and the side chains with sulfonate zwitterions groups represents an efficient strategy for constructing high performance CILs. Our study results may open a new avenue toward high performance PSCs.

  1. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Organizational Culture and the Performance of Staff Work Groups in Schools and the Development of an Explanatory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Chris; Connolly, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the concept of organizational culture and the relationship between the organizational culture and the performance of staff work groups in schools. The article draws upon a study of 12 schools in Wales, UK, which despite being in disadvantaged settings have high levels of pupil attainment. A model is developed linking the…

  2. The Effectiveness of Writing Conferences and Peer Response Groups Strategies on the EFL Secondary Students' Writing Performance and Their Self Efficacy (A Comparative Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohamed Abdel Hadi; Al Ashri, Ismail Ibrahim El shirbini Abdel fattah

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at identifying the necessary writing performance skills for the first year secondary stage students. These skills are necessary for writing the compositions. In this study, the writing conferences and peer response groups strategies were used to develop the students' writing skills, improve their achievement and performance…

  3. Surface-binding through polyfunction groups of Rhodamine B on composite surface and its high performance photodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yiqun; Wang, Xiaofen; Gu, Yun; Guo, Lan; Xu, Zhaodi

    2016-03-01

    A kind of novel composite ZnS/In(OH)3/In2S3 is synthesized using zinc oxide nanoplates as zinc raw material during hydrothermal process. Although the obtained samples are composited of ZnS and In(OH)3 and In2S3 phase, the samples possess different structure, morphology and optical absorption property depending on molar ratio of raw materials. Zeta potential analysis indicates different surface electrical property since various content and particle size of the phases. The equilibrium adsorption study confirms the composite ZnS/In(OH)3/In2S3 with surface negative charge is good adsorbent for Rhodamine B (Rh B) dye. In addition, the degradation of Rh B over the samples with surface negative charge under visible light (λ ≥ 420 nm) is more effective than the samples with surface positive charge. The samples before and after adsorbing Rh B molecule are examined by FTIR spectra and Zetasizer. It is found that the three function groups of Rh B molecule, especially carboxyl group anchors to surface of the sample through electrostatic adsorption, coordination and hydrogen-bond. It contributes to rapid transformation of photogenerated electron to conduction band of In(OH)3 and suppresses the recombination of photogenerated carrier. The possible adsorption modes of Rh B are discussed on the basis of the experiment results.

  4. High alcohol consumption in middle aged adults is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group. Results from the GAZEL cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Séverine; Guéguen, Alice; Berr, Claudine; Berkman, Lisa; Ankri, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of alcohol consumption over 10 years with cognitive performance in different socioeconomic groups. Design Prospective cohort study, the French GAZEL study. Setting France. Participants Employees of France’s national electricity and gas company. Measurements Alcohol intake was assessed annually, beginning in 1992, using questions on frequency and quantity of alcoholic beverages consumed in a week; used to define mean consumption and trajectory of alcohol intake over 10 years. Cognitive performance among participants aged ≥55 years (N=4073) was assessed in 2002–2004 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a measure of psychomotor speed, attention and reasoning. Occupational position at age 35 and education were used as the markers of socioeconomic position. Findings All analyses were stratified by socioeconomic position. In the low occupational group, participants consuming a mean of more than 21 drinks per week had 2.1 points lower (95% CI: −3.9, −0.3) DSST score compared to those consuming 4–14 drinks per week. In participants with primary school education, the corresponding difference was 3.6 points (95% CI: −7.1,−0.0). No association between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance was observed in the intermediate and high socioeconomic groups, defined using either occupation or education. Analysis of trajectories of alcohol consumption showed that in the low socioeconomic groups large increase or decrease in alcohol consumption was associated with lower cognitive scores compared to stable consumption. Conclusions Our results suggest that high alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group, possibly due to greater cognitive reserve in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:20840170

  5. The Old Ladies of the Seed Harvester ant Pogonomyrmex Rugosus: Foraging Performed by Two Groups of Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettler, Jan; Johnson, Robert A

    2009-05-01

    We examined temporal polyethism in Pogonomyrmex rugosus, predicting a pattern of decreasing age from foragers to nest maintenance workers to individuals that were recruited to harvest a temporary food source. Nest maintenance workers were younger than foragers, as indicated by their heavier mass and lower mandibular wear. In contrast, recruited foragers were similar in mass to foragers but they displayed higher mandibular wear, suggesting that they were at least as old as foragers. Longevity estimates for marked individuals of these two latter task groups showed mixed results. Higher mandibular wear of recruited foragers suggests that they did not follow the normal sequence for temporal polyethism, but rather that they functioned as seed-millers, which should more quickly abrade their dentition. This would be the first demonstration of specialist milling individuals in a monomorphic seed-harvester ant.

  6. The FTO A/T polymorphism and elite athletic performance: a study involving three groups of European athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Eynon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609 is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609 and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285 as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level. The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level. RESULTS: There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants. These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level. CONCLUSION: The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics.

  7. The FTO A/T Polymorphism and Elite Athletic Performance: A Study Involving Three Groups of European Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Nir; Nasibulina, Emiliya S.; Banting, Lauren K.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Bondareva, Elvira A.; Shagimardanova, Roza R.; Raz, Maytal; Sharon, Yael; Williams, Alun G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism. Subjects and Methods A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285) as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level. Results There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants). These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). Conclusion The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics. PMID:23573268

  8. Impact of personality temperaments and characters on academic performance and specialty selection among a group of Egyptian medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sheikh, Mona M; Shaker, Nermin M; Hussein, Hanan; Ramy, Hisham A

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between personality temperaments, academic achievement and specialty interest is important because of its implications in career counseling. To assess the effect of personality on academic performance and career selection and to study the impact of some sociodemographic factors on academic achievement and career choice of medical graduates. A total of 436 medical graduates of Ain Shams medical school were approached, out of which 331 participated. They were given a sociodemographic questionnaire, and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R; 240) for personality construct; they had to answer questions about academic achievement, ranking, scores and choice of medical specialty. Novelty seeking (NS1, NS2 and NS3) and self-transcendence (ST1 and ST2) were correlated with graduation ranking, (r = .2, p = .00; r = .15, p = .009; r = .16, p = .005; r = .12, p = .003; r = .14, p = .02; r = .17, p = .004; r = .13, p = .03, respectively), that is, lower NS and ST had better academic outcome. Only high school score was associated with better achievement (p = .00). In specialty selection, females were significantly overrepresented in pediatrics and clinical pathology, whereas males were significantly predominating surgical specialties except for obstetrics and gynecology (p = .00). Students choosing patient-centered specialties had higher reward dependence (RD), persistence (PS) and cooperativeness (C); those choosing clinical pathology had highest harm avoidance (HA), whereas those choosing radiology had lowest HA and those choosing surgery had significantly higher self-directedness (SD3). Personality impacts academic achievement and specialty choice with other factors as gender and previous scholastic performance. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. High frequency oscillations in the intra-operative ECoG to guide epilepsy surgery ("The HFO Trial") : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Klooster, Maryse A; Leijten, Frans S S; Huiskamp, Geertjan; Ronner, Hanneke E; Baayen, Johannes C; van Rijen, Peter C; Eijkemans, Martinus J C; Braun, Kees P J; Zijlmans, Maeike

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intra-operative electrocorticography, based on interictal spikes and spike patterns, is performed to optimize delineation of the epileptogenic tissue during epilepsy surgery. High frequency oscillations (HFOs, 80-500 Hz) have been identified as more precise biomarkers for epileptogenic

  10. High frequency oscillations in the intra-operative ECoG to guide epilepsy surgery ("The HFO Trial") : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Klooster, Maryse A; Leijten, Frans S S; Huiskamp, Geertjan; Ronner, Hanneke E; Baayen, Johannes C; van Rijen, Peter C; Eijkemans, Martinus J C; Braun, Kees P J; Zijlmans, Maeike

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intra-operative electrocorticography, based on interictal spikes and spike patterns, is performed to optimize delineation of the epileptogenic tissue during epilepsy surgery. High frequency oscillations (HFOs, 80-500 Hz) have been identified as more precise biomarkers for epileptogenic t

  11. A phase II randomized trial comparing standard and low dose rituximab combined with alemtuzumab as initial treatment of progressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia in older patients: a trial of the ECOG-ACRIN cancer research group (E1908).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Clive S; Victoria Wang, Xin; Ketterling, Rhett P; Hanson, Curtis A; Libby, Edward N; Barrientos, Jacqueline C; Call, Timothy G; Chang, Julie E; Liu, Jane J; Calvo, Alejandro R; Lazarus, Hillard M; Rowe, Jacob M; Luger, Selina M; Litzow, Mark R; Tallman, Martin S

    2016-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) patients requiring initial therapy are often older and frailer and unsuitable candidates for standard chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Shorter duration combination monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy using alemtuzumab and rituximab has been shown to be effective and tolerable treatment for CLL. Standard dose anti-CD20 mAb therapy causes loss of CD20 expression by surviving CLL cells, which can be minimized by decreasing the mAb dose. We report a randomized phase II clinical trial enrolling older (≥ 65 years) patients (median age 76 years, n = 31) with treatment naïve progressive CLL. Patients received 8-12 weeks of standard subcutaneous alemtuzumab with either intravenous standard (375 mg/m(2) weekly)(n = 16) or low dose (20 mg/m(2) 3x week)(n = 15) rituximab. This study was closed before full accrual because the manufacturer withdrew alemtuzumab for treatment of CLL. The overall response rate was 90% with an 45% complete response rate, median progression-free survival of 17.9 months and no significant differences in outcome between the low and standard dose rituximab arms. The major toxicities were cytopenia and infection with one treatment fatality caused by progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy but no other opportunistic infections. Combination mAb therapy was effective and tolerable treatment for older and frailer patients with progressive CLL, achieving a high rate of complete remissions. These data support the role of mAb in therapy for less fit CLL patients and the further study of low dose higher frequency anti-CD20 mAb therapy as a potentially more effective use of anti-CD20 mAb in the treatment of CLL.

  12. Control Grouped Pedagogical Experiment to Test the Performance of Second-generation Web Maps and the Traditional Maps at the University of Debrecen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Balla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost every component of the information society is influenced by elements built on communication technology. Learning also tends to be related to the dynamic usage of computers. Nowadays, a number of applications (online or offline are also available that engage large groups of potential users and simultaneously provide a virtual environment to facilitate learning. This study introduces the self-developed interactive blind map teaching-examining e-learning system of the University of Debrecen. Results of testing the system with a control group are also presented.Both experimental and control groups of students were required to sita test of topographic knowledge following a semester of study. The pass mark for the test was 80%. The experimental group used the new digital environment to study, while the control group prepared for their exam using paper maps in the traditional way. The key research questions addressed by the study were to determine whether exam results obtained by the group using the ‘digital’ method better than those of the control's; and if there were a difference between the exam performances of the two groups, was this statistically significant and, therefore, likely to occur in other similar scenarios?

  13. High-performance ab initio density matrix renormalization group method: Applicability to large-scale multireference problems for metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi

    2009-06-01

    This article presents an efficient and parallelized implementation of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm for quantum chemistry calculations. The DMRG method as a large-scale multireference electronic structure model is by nature particularly efficient for one-dimensionally correlated systems, while the present development is oriented toward applications for polynuclear transition metal compounds, in which the macroscopic one-dimensional structure of electron correlation is absent. A straightforward extension of the DMRG algorithm is proposed with further improvements and aggressive optimizations to allow its application with large multireference active space, which is often demanded for metal compound calculations. Special efficiency is achieved by making better use of sparsity and symmetry in the operator and wave function representations. By accomplishing computationally intensive DMRG calculations, the authors have found that a large number of renormalized basis states are required to represent high entanglement of the electron correlation for metal compound applications, and it is crucial to adopt auxiliary perturbative correction to the projected density matrix during the DMRG sweep optimization in order to attain proper convergence to the solution. Potential energy curve calculations for the Cr2 molecule near the known equilibrium precisely predicted the full configuration interaction energies with a correlation space of 24 electrons in 30 orbitals [denoted by (24e,30o)]. The energies are demonstrated to be accurate to 0.6mEh (the error from the extrapolated best value) when as many as 10 000 renormalized basis states are employed for the left and right DMRG block representations. The relative energy curves for [Cu2O2]2+ along the isomerization coordinate were obtained from DMRG and other correlated calculations, for which a fairly large orbital space (32e,62o) is modeled as a full correlation space. The DMRG prediction nearly overlaps

  14. The clinical characteristics, therapy and outcome of 85 adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and t(4;11)(q21;q23)/MLL-AFF1 prospectively treated in the UKALLXII/ECOG2993 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David I.; Moorman, Anthony V.; Chilton, Lucy; Paietta, Elisabeth; Enshaie, Amir; DeWald, Gordon; Harrison, Christine J.; Fielding, Adele K.; Foroni, Letizia; Goldstone, Anthony H.; Litzow, Mark R.; Luger, Selina M.; McMillan, Andrew K.; Racevskis, Janis; Rowe, Jacob M.; Tallman, Martin S.; Wiernik, Peter; Lazarus, Hillard M.

    2013-01-01

    The biology and outcome of adult t(4;11)(q21;q23)/MLL-AFF1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia are poorly understood. We describe the outcome and delineate prognostic factors and optimal post-remission therapy in 85 consecutive patients (median age 38 years) treated uniformly in the prospective trial UKALLXII/ECOG2993. The immunophenotype of this leukemia was pro-B (CD10NEG). Immaturity was further suggested by high expression of the stem-cell antigens, CD133 and CD135, although CD34 expression was significantly lower than in t(4;11)-negative patients. Complete remission was achieved in 77 (93%) patients but only 35% survived 5 years (95% CI: 25–45%); the relapse rate was 45% (95% CI: 33–58%). Thirty-one patients underwent allogeneic transplantation in first remission (15 sibling donors and 16 unrelated donors): with 5-year survival rates of 56% and 67% respectively, only 2/31 patients relapsed. This compares with a 24% survival rate and 59% relapse rate in 46 patients who received post-remission chemotherapy. A major determinant of outcome was age with 71% of patients aged <25 years surviving. Younger patients had lower relapse rates (19%) but most received allografts in first complete remission. In conclusion, multivariate analysis did not demonstrate an advantage of allografting over chemotherapy but only five younger patients received chemotherapy. Prospective trials are required to determine whether poor outcomes in older patients can be improved by reduced-intensity conditioning allografts. NCT00002514 www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:23349309

  15. A national multicenter phase 2 study of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) pox virus vaccine with sequential androgen ablation therapy in patients with PSA progression: ECOG 9802.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Robert S; Chen, Yu-Hui; Bubley, Glenn J; Stein, Mark N; Hahn, Noah M; Carducci, Michael A; Lattime, Edmund C; Gulley, James L; Arlen, Philip M; Butterfield, Lisa H; Wilding, George

    2015-09-01

    E9802 was a phase 2 multi-institution study conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of vaccinia and fowlpox prostate-specific antigen (PSA) vaccine (step 1) followed by combination with androgen ablation therapy (step 2) in patients with PSA progression without visible metastasis. To test the hypothesis that vaccine therapy in this early disease setting will be safe and have a biochemical effect that would support future studies of immunotherapy in patients with minimal disease burden. Patients who had PSA progression following local therapy were treated with PROSTVAC-V (vaccinia)/TRICOM on cycle 1 followed by PROSTVAC-F (fowlpox)/TRICOM for subsequent cycles in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (step 1). Androgen ablation was added on progression (step 2). Step 1 primary end points included progression at 6 mo and characterization of change in PSA velocity pretreatment to post-treatment. Step 2 end points included PSA response with combined vaccine and androgen ablation. In step 1, 25 of 40 eligible patients (63%) were progression free at 6 mo after registration (90% confidence interval [CI], 48-75). The median pretreatment PSA velocity was 0.13 log(PSA)/mo, in contrast to median postregistration velocity of 0.09 log(PSA)/mo (p=0.02), which is an increase in median PSA doubling time from 5.3 mo to 7.7 mo. No grade ≥4 treatment-related toxicity was observed. In the 27 patients eligible and treated for step 2, 20 patients achieved a complete response (CR) at 7 mo (CR rate: 74%; 90% CI, 57-87). Although supportive of larger studies in the cooperative group setting, this study is limited by the small number of patients and the absence of a control group as in a phase 3 study. A viral PSA vaccine can be administered safely in the multi-institutional cooperative group setting to patients with minimal disease volume alone and combined with androgen ablation, supporting the feasibility of future phase 3 studies in this

  16. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    Group-housing of non-lactating sows is becomming increasingly widespread in commercial sow herds in European countries as a result of changed legislation. Group-housing may lead to individual variation in feed intake, stress and fear, which may impair the reproduction ferformance. However, whether...... the individual variation in feed intake and the level of stress and fear under commercial conditions is severe enough to impair the reproduction performance is not known. In a detailed farm study including 14 herds with different layouts the relations between various indicators of feed intake, stress and fear...... and reproduction performance were studied based on 553 focal sows. Twelve percent of all mated sows were re-mated and average litter size was 14.8 born piglets per litter. Chance of pregnancy and sitter size correlated positive with back fat fain from weaning to 3 weeks after mating. Sows eating in less than 20...

  17. Effects of a 6-Month Conditioning Program on Motor and Sport Performance in The Group of Children’s Fitness Competitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlsnová Gabriela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine changes in sport and motor performance of competitors in the category of children’s fitness as a result of conditioning training intervention. We conducted a two-group simultaneous experiment. Experimental group (EG and control group (CG consisted of 18 girls competing in the 12 to 15 years old age categories. EG performed supervised conditioning program over a period of 25 weeks with training frequency 3 times per week. Based on the results of physical tests, competitive and expert assessments of sport performance in the children’s fitness category we found significant effect of our conditioning program to increase sport and motor performance in the experimental group. Subsequently, these improvements could lead to success in domestic and international competitions where they occupied the leading positions. Significant relationships (EG = 19; CG = 10 were found between competitive and expert assessments as well as physical tests results, between expert and competitive assessments of physiques and routines. These changes manifested positively not only in the competitive assessment of the physique but also in the expert “blind“ assessment in the competitive discipline of the physique presentation in quarter turns where we observed significant improvements in the EG. Based on the obtained results we recommend to increase the ratio of conditioning training to gymnastic-dance training to 50 %, inclusion of strengthening and plyometric exercises into the training process and monitor regularly the level of general and specific abilities of the competitors in the individual mezocycles of the annual training cycle.

  18. Automated recording of individual performance and hand preference during joystick-task acquisition in group-living bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M W; Rosenblum, L A

    1994-12-01

    A microchip that provided a unique identification number was injected into each forearm of all 8 members of a bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) social group. The group was then given computer-controlled joystick tasks of increasing difficulty. The identification number of the arm used on each trial was input into the computer and used to determine individual performance and hand preference in more than 23,000 trials. Three subjects reversed hand preference as task difficulty was increased over time. All subjects exhibited nearly exclusive use of a single hand on the most difficult task; 6 used the right hand, and 2 used the left. Daily patterns of joystick activity for the group members differed somewhat from that of our individually housed monkeys.

  19. Substituent effect on the molecular stability,group interaction,detonation performance,and thermolysis mechanism of nitroamino-substituted cyclopentanes and cyclohexanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) method has been employed to study the effect of nitroamino group as a substituent in cyclopentane and cyclohexane, which usually construct the polycyclic or caged nitra-mines. Molecular structures were investigated at the B3LYP/6-31G** level, and isodesmic reactions were designed for calculating the group interactions. The results show that the group interactions ac-cord with the group additivity, increasing with the increasing number of nitroamino groups. The dis-tance between substituents influences the interactions. Detonation performances were evaluated by the Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the predicted densities and heats of formation, while thermal stability and pyrolysis mechanism were studied by the computations of bond dissociation energy (BDE). It is found that the contributions of nitroamino groups to the detonation heat, detonation velocity, detonation pressure, and stability all deviate from the group additivity. Only 3a, 3b, and 9a-9c may be novel potential candidates of high energy density materials (HEDMs) according to the quantitative cri-teria of HEDM (ρ≈ 1.9 g/cm3, D ≈ 9.0 km/s, P ≈ 40.0 GPa). Stability decreases with the increasing number of N-NO2 groups, and homolysis of N-NO2 bond is the initial step in the thermolysis of the title com-pounds. Coupled with the demand of thermal stability (BDE > 20 kcal/mol), only 1,2,4-trinitrotriazacy-clohexane and 1,2,4,5-tetranitrotetraazacyclohexane are suggested as feasible energetic materials. These results may provide basic information for the molecular design of HEDMs.

  20. Performance of a solid phase enzyme immunoassay for detection of group A streptococci in a pediatric office laboratory as refereed by a hospital laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuckienuz, S A; Thorne, G M; Macone, A B; Goldmann, D A; St Pierre, J; Marcus, E P

    1988-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of a new rapid solid phase enzyme immunoassay, SUDS Group A Strep (MUREX Corp., Norcross, GA) for the detection of Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci in a pediatric office practice. Duplicate throat swabs were obtained from 341 children with pharyngitis. One swab was used in the SUDS test and the other was cultured in the office laboratory. Office SUDS and culture (sheep blood agar plate, aerobic 24-hour incubation) were compared with culture using reference techniques (sheep blood agar plate, anaerobic 48-hour incubation) in a hospital laboratory. Compared with hospital laboratory culture, the sensitivity of office SUDS (73.8%) was superior to that of office culture (66.6%) at P = 0.05. Specificities were 93.1 and 98.6%, respectively; positive predictive values were 86.1 and 96.6%; and negative predictive values were 85.9 and 83.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of SUDS compared with office culture were 88.5 and 87.8%, respectively, but would have been 93 and 94% had hemolyzed media not been used on several occasions in the office culture procedure. We conclude that SUDS Group A Strep was significantly more sensitive than throat cultures as performed in a typical pediatric practice although the performance of office cultures could have been improved by standard quality control techniques.

  1. The Influence of Self-fertilization performance and Copulation Behaviour in Reproduction by Cross-fertilization in Groups of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Mollusca, Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas June Springer de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The following hypotheses were tested for groups of simultaneous hermaphrodites Biomphalaria tenagophila: (a snails that have low reproductive success during the process of self-fertilization do not increase their reproductive success after the end of grouping; (b the copulation behaviour and the presence of one snail whose eggs have a low viability rate influence the partner's reproductive success by cross-fertilization. Groups were constituted by a homozygous pigmented snail and two albinos: one with a viability rate higher than 70% ("good reproducers" and the other less than 10% ("bad reproducers". All pigmented snails had viability rates higher than 70%. The "good" and "bad" reproducer albino snails had similar copulation behaviour. However, after the end of grouping, the "bad reproducers" continued to have viability rates less than 10% over 30 days. In 100% of the cases that pigmented snails copulated (performing either a male role or simultaneously male and female roles exclusively with "good" reproducer albinos, they presented high reproductive success (producing, on average of 8.4 pigmented embryos/egg-mass. However, in 100% of the cases that pigmented snails copulated with both partners, the "good" reproducer albino snails produced none or very few embryos (the highest average was 2.2 pigmented embryos/egg-mass. Therefore, the production of viable embryos by cross-fertilization was more influenced by self-fertilization performance than by copulation behaviour. The presence of a snail whose eggs have a low viability rate could decrease their partners reproductive success

  2. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance.

  3. Effects of number and position of meta and para carboxyphenyl groups of zinc porphyrins in dye-sensitized solar cells: structure-performance relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambre, Ram B; Mane, Sandeep B; Chang, Gao-Fong; Hung, Chen-Hsiung

    2015-01-28

    Porphyrin sensitizers containing meta- and para-carboxyphenyl groups in their meso positions have been synthesized and investigated for their performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The superior performance of para-derivative compared to meta-derivative porphyrins was revealed by optical spectroscopy, electrochemical property measurements, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and stability performance. Absorption spectra of para-carboxyphenyl-substituted porphyrins on TiO2 show a broader Soret band compared to meta-carboxyphenyl-substituted porphyrins. ATR-FTIR spectra of the studied porphyrins on TiO2 were applied to investigate the number and mode of carboxyl groups attached to TiO2. The VOC, JSC, and IPCE values of para-series porphyrins were distinctly superior to those of meta-series porphyrins. The Nyquist plots of the studied porphyrins show that charge injection in para-series porphyrins is superior to that in meta-series porphyrins. The orthogonally positioned para derivatives have more efficient charge injection and charge transfer over charge recombination, whereas the efficiencies of flat-oriented meta derivatives are retarded by rapid charge recombination. Photovoltaic measurements of the studied meta- and para-carboxyphenyl-functionalized porphyrins show that the number and position of carboxyphenyl groups play a crucial role in the performance of the DSSC. Our results indicate that para-carboxyphenyl derivatives outperform meta-carboxyphenyl derivatives to give better device performance. This study will serve as a guideline for the design and development of organic, porphyrin, and ruthenium dyes in DSSCs.

  4. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Chemoprevention Trial of Selenium Supplementation in Patients With Resected Stage I Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: ECOG 5597

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Daniel D.; Lee, Sandra J.; Keller, Steven M.; Wright, Gail Shaw; Aisner, Seena; Belinsky, Steven Alan; Johnson, David H.; Johnston, Michael R.; Goodman, Gary; Clamon, Gerald; Okawara, Gordon; Marks, Randolph; Frechette, Eric; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Lippman, Scott M.; Ruckdeschel, John; Khuri, Fadlo R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Selenium has been reported to have chemopreventive benefits in lung cancer. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with resected non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving selenium supplementation. Patients and Methods Patients with completely resected stage I NSCLC were randomly assigned to take selenized yeast 200 μg versus placebo daily for 48 months. Participation was 6 to 36 months postoperatively and required a negative mediastinal node biopsy, no excessive vitamin intake, normal liver function, negative chest x-ray, and no other evidence of recurrence. Results The first interim analysis in October 2009, with 46% of the projected end points accumulated, showed a trend in favor of the placebo group with a low likelihood that the trial would become positive; thus, the study was stopped. One thousand seven hundred seventy-two participants were enrolled, with 1,561 patients randomly assigned. Analysis was updated in June 2011 with the maturation of 54% of the planned end points. Two hundred fifty-two SPTs (from 224 patients) developed, of which 98 (from 97 patients) were lung cancer (38.9%). Lung and overall SPT incidence were 1.62 and 3.54 per 100 person-years, respectively, for selenium versus 1.30 and 3.39 per 100 person-years, respectively, for placebo (P = .294). Five-year disease-free survival was 74.4% for selenium recipients versus 79.6% for placebo recipients. Grade 1 to 2 toxicity occurred in 31% of selenium recipients and 26% of placebo recipients, and grade ≥ 3 toxicity occurred in less than 2% of selenium recipients versus 3% of placebo recipients. Compliance was excellent. No increase in diabetes mellitus or skin cancer was detected. Conclusion Selenium was safe but conferred no benefit over placebo in the prevention of SPT in patients with resected NSCLC. PMID:24002495

  5. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III chemoprevention trial of selenium supplementation in patients with resected stage I non-small-cell lung cancer: ECOG 5597.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Daniel D; Lee, Sandra J; Keller, Steven M; Wright, Gail Shaw; Aisner, Seena; Belinsky, Steven Alan; Johnson, David H; Johnston, Michael R; Goodman, Gary; Clamon, Gerald; Okawara, Gordon; Marks, Randolph; Frechette, Eric; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Lippman, Scott M; Ruckdeschel, John; Khuri, Fadlo R

    2013-11-20

    Selenium has been reported to have chemopreventive benefits in lung cancer. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving selenium supplementation. Patients with completely resected stage I NSCLC were randomly assigned to take selenized yeast 200 μg versus placebo daily for 48 months. Participation was 6 to 36 months postoperatively and required a negative mediastinal node biopsy, no excessive vitamin intake, normal liver function, negative chest x-ray, and no other evidence of recurrence. The first interim analysis in October 2009, with 46% of the projected end points accumulated, showed a trend in favor of the placebo group with a low likelihood that the trial would become positive; thus, the study was stopped. One thousand seven hundred seventy-two participants were enrolled, with 1,561 patients randomly assigned. Analysis was updated in June 2011 with the maturation of 54% of the planned end points. Two hundred fifty-two SPTs (from 224 patients) developed, of which 98 (from 97 patients) were lung cancer (38.9%). Lung and overall SPT incidence were 1.62 and 3.54 per 100 person-years, respectively, for selenium versus 1.30 and 3.39 per 100 person-years, respectively, for placebo (P = .294). Five-year disease-free survival was 74.4% for selenium recipients versus 79.6% for placebo recipients. Grade 1 to 2 toxicity occurred in 31% of selenium recipients and 26% of placebo recipients, and grade ≥ 3 toxicity occurred in less than 2% of selenium recipients versus 3% of placebo recipients. Compliance was excellent. No increase in diabetes mellitus or skin cancer was detected. Selenium was safe but conferred no benefit over placebo in the prevention of SPT in patients with resected NSCLC.

  6. Application of DRGs in the Performance Assessment on the Attending Groups%DRGs在主诊组绩效考核中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李渝; 马云波

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨将DRGs相关指标作为主诊组的绩效考核指标对主诊医师进行考核的可行性。方法通过调取2014年某医院泌尿科599例出院患者病案首页信息,通过BJ-DRGs分组方法提取泌尿科5个主诊组的DRGs的病例组合指数、时间消耗指数、费用消耗指数、DRGs组数四项指标进行比对,用以分析5个主诊组在临床工作效率上的差别,并对主诊组工作不足做出追踪分析。结果根据各主诊组DRGs相关指标结果,主诊4组的病例组合指数(CMI)、DRGs组数表现最佳;泌尿科主诊4组在住院费用上控制不佳,尤其是在前列腺肿瘤病例上费用过高。时间消耗指数表明全科各主诊组均达到北京市标准,主诊1、2、3、5组在各方面表现均较可。各组费用消耗指数均高于北京市平均水平,泌尿科在整体住院费用上需努力控制。结论将DRGs的相关指标作为主诊组工作效率的绩效评价指标,可以细致分析每个主诊组的优劣,鼓励主诊医师收治疑难危重患者,从而达到合理控制医疗费用、提高工作效率的目的。%Objective To investigate the feasibility of taking DRGs related indicators as the performance assessment indexes for attending physicians. Methods The information in the home pages of 599 patients who discharged from the urology department of a hospital in 2014 were selected, to get 5 attending group data of urology department through the BJ-DRGs packet extraction method,including Case Mix Index(CMI), Time consumption index, Cost index and the number of DRGs groups, so as to analyze efficiency differences of the 5 attending groups in the clinical work, and make the tracking analysis of insufficient from the attending group work. Results According to the results of DRGs, the attending groups 4 performed best at CMI and the number of DRGs groups, while was poor in the control of average hospitalization expenses,especially high cost in

  7. Surgical Excision Without Radiation for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast: 12-Year Results From the ECOG-ACRIN E5194 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solin, Lawrence J.; Gray, Robert; Hughes, Lorie L.; Wood, William C.; Lowen, Mary Ann; Badve, Sunil S.; Baehner, Frederick L.; Ingle, James N.; Perez, Edith A.; Recht, Abram; Sparano, Joseph A.; Davidson, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the 12-year risk of developing an ipsilateral breast event (IBE) for women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast treated with surgical excision (lumpectomy) without radiation. Patients and Methods A prospective clinical trial was performed for women with DCIS who were selected for low-risk clinical and pathologic characteristics. Patients were enrolled onto one of two study cohorts (not randomly assigned): cohort 1: low- or intermediate-grade DCIS, tumor size 2.5 cm or smaller (n = 561); or cohort 2: high-grade DCIS, tumor size 1 cm or smaller (n = 104). Protocol specifications included excision of the DCIS tumor with a minimum negative margin width of at least 3 mm. Tamoxifen (not randomly assigned) was given to 30% of the patients. An IBE was defined as local recurrence of DCIS or invasive carcinoma in the treated breast. Median follow-up time was 12.3 years. Results There were 99 IBEs, of which 51 (52%) were invasive. The IBE and invasive IBE rates increased over time in both cohorts. The 12-year rates of developing an IBE were 14.4% for cohort 1 and 24.6% for cohort 2 (P = .003). The 12-year rates of developing an invasive IBE were 7.5% and 13.4%, respectively (P = .08). On multivariable analysis, study cohort and tumor size were both significantly associated with developing an IBE (P = .009 and P = .03, respectively). Conclusion For patients with DCIS selected for favorable clinical and pathologic characteristics and treated with excision without radiation, the risks of developing an IBE and an invasive IBE increased through 12 years of follow-up, without plateau. These data help inform the treatment decision-making process for patients and their physicians. PMID:26371148

  8. Genetic diversity for RFLPs in European maize inbreds : II. Relation to performance of hybrids within versus between heterotic groups for forage traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchinger, A E; Boppenmaier, J; Dhillon, B S; Pollmer, W G; Herrmann, R G

    1992-08-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been proposed for the prediction of the yield potential of hybrids and the assignment of inbreds to heterotic groups. Such use was investigated in 66 diallel crosses among 6 flint and 6 dent inbreds from European maize (Zea mays L.) germ plasm. Inbreds and hybrids were evaluated for seven forage traits in four environments in the Federal Republic of Germany. Midparent heterosis (MPH) and specific combining ability (SCA) were calculated. Genetic distances (GD) between lines were calculated from RFLP data of 194 clone-enzyme combinations. GDs were greater for flint x dent than for flint x flint and dent x dent line combinations. Cluster analysis based on GDs showed separate groupings of flint and dent lines and agreed with pedigree information, except for 1 inbred. GDs of all line combinations in the diallel were partitioned into general (GGD) and specific (SGD) genetic distances; GGD explained approximately 20% of the variation among GD values. For the 62 diallel crosses (excluding 4 crosses of highly related lines), correlations of GD with F1 performance, MPH, and SCA for dry matter yield (DMY) of stover, ear, and forage were positive but mostly of moderate size (0.09≤r≤0.60) compared with the higher correlations (0.39≤r≤0.77) of SGD with these traits. When separate calculations were performed for various subsets, correlations of GD and SGD with DMY traits were generally small (rforage yield of (1) crosses between lines from the same germ plasm group or (2) crosses including line combinations from the same as well as different heterotic groups. However, they are not indicative of the hybrid forage yield of crosses between unrelated lines from genetically divergent heterotic groups.

  9. Fatigue and performance in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema-van Orden, C.

    2000-01-01

    Uit het gegeven dat de aanwezigheid van ander gunstig is voor de taakprestatie mag niet zonder meer zonder meer geconcludeerd worden dat het beter is om mensen in groepsverband te laten werken. De neiging om in een groep 'de kantjes er van af te lopen' ('social loafing') wordt namelijk sterker

  10. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS

    CERN Multimedia

    T. Camporesi

    The central commissioning activities have concentrated mostly in the Service cavern. Since early February the central DAQ has been ready to accept connections from FEDs from the various partitions. This has triggered a campaign from all subdetectors to install their readout crates in USC55. Systematic tests of the connections between FEDs and Central DAQ have been scheduled and to date more than 70% of all FED connections have been successfully tested from almost all subdetectors. In March the Level 1 trigger team started deployment of their hardware followed by a campaign of testing the connections between Trigger primitive generators and the corresponding LV1 hardware (Regional Calorimeter Trigger and Global Muon Trigger). The functionality tests are continuing to date by pattern tests of increasing complexity. In April the central DAQ was ready to start FED system tests, which amounts to testing the data reading and trans¬fer-ability from the FEDs to the Filter Units (with or without an actual ...

  11. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS

    CERN Multimedia

    T. Camporesi

    The major progress made during the last months has been in the consolidation of services for the +endcaps and three barrel wheels (YB+2, YB+1 and YB0): all subdetectors have now final power connections (including Detector Safety protection), the gas systems have been commissioned for all gas detectors (the recirculation is not yet activated for the RPC though) and detector cooling has also been commissioned. Their integration with final services is the necessary condition for being able to operate larger fractions the detector. Recent weeks have seen full HCAL, more than 50% of EB and full wheels of DTs and CSC being operated using final services. This has not yet translated into major progress of global integration due to major interruptions of central services, which have not allowed the necessary debugging and commissioning time to all the subdetec¬tors and central activities like DAQ and trigger. Moreover the running in of the final central services has introduced instabilities related to the co...

  12. Municipal sludge-derived carbon anode with nitrogen- and oxygen-containing functional groups for high-performance microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoxiao; Feng, Chunhua; Zhou, Weijia; Yu, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The demand for efficient and cost-effective anode materials in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) provides the impetus to use carbon derived from solid waste to support bacterial growth and proliferation. Here we show that the municipal sludge-derived carbon (SC) with a porous structure and abundant surface functional groups is effective in improving performance of MFCs. The SC is coated on the 3-D graphite felt (GF) surface by pyrrole electropolymerization in order to increase the surface cites that are interacted with bacteria, resulting in the formation of PPy/SC-modified GF anode. The scanning electron microscopy analysis indicates that the PPy/SC-modified GF can substantially increase anode surface area. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results suggest that the PPy/SC-modified GF anode possesses higher surface N/C ratio and higher relative contents of Odbnd C-NH2 and Odbnd C-O functional groups than other counterpart anodes. These characteristics are essential for increasing bacterial attachment to the anode surface, electron-transfer rate and thus anode performance and power performance. The maximum power density resulting from the PPy/SC-modified GF anode was 568.5 mW m-2 (13.6 W m-3) increased by 1.9, 2.7 and 3.5 times as compared to the PPy/AC-modified GF anode, the PPy alone-modified GF anode and the unmodified GF anode, respectively.

  13. Reprint of 'A Comprehensive review of group level model performance in the presence of heteroscedasticity: Can a single model control Type I errors in the presence of outliers?'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Jeanette A

    2017-07-01

    Even after thorough preprocessing and a careful time series analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, artifact and other issues can lead to violations of the assumption that the variance is constant across subjects in the group level model. This is especially concerning when modeling a continuous covariate at the group level, as the slope is easily biased by outliers. Various models have been proposed to deal with outliers including models that use the first level variance or that use the group level residual magnitude to differentially weight subjects. The most typically used robust regression, implementing a robust estimator of the regression slope, has been previously studied in the context of fMRI studies and was found to perform well in some scenarios, but a loss of Type I error control can occur for some outlier settings. A second type of robust regression using a heteroscedastic autocorrelation consistent (HAC) estimator, which produces robust slope and variance estimates has been shown to perform well, with better Type I error control, but with large sample sizes (500-1000 subjects). The Type I error control with smaller sample sizes has not been studied in this model and has not been compared to other modeling approaches that handle outliers such as FSL's Flame 1 and FSL's outlier de-weighting. Focusing on group level inference with a continuous covariate over a range of sample sizes and degree of heteroscedasticity, which can be driven either by the within- or between-subject variability, both styles of robust regression are compared to ordinary least squares (OLS), FSL's Flame 1, Flame 1 with outlier de-weighting algorithm and Kendall's Tau. Additionally, subject omission using the Cook's Distance measure with OLS and nonparametric inference with the OLS statistic are studied. Pros and cons of these models as well as general strategies for detecting outliers in data and taking precaution to avoid inflated Type I error rates are

  14. A comprehensive review of group level model performance in the presence of heteroscedasticity: Can a single model control Type I errors in the presence of outliers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Jeanette A

    2017-02-15

    Even after thorough preprocessing and a careful time series analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, artifact and other issues can lead to violations of the assumption that the variance is constant across subjects in the group level model. This is especially concerning when modeling a continuous covariate at the group level, as the slope is easily biased by outliers. Various models have been proposed to deal with outliers including models that use the first level variance or that use the group level residual magnitude to differentially weight subjects. The most typically used robust regression, implementing a robust estimator of the regression slope, has been previously studied in the context of fMRI studies and was found to perform well in some scenarios, but a loss of Type I error control can occur for some outlier settings. A second type of robust regression using a heteroscedastic autocorrelation consistent (HAC) estimator, which produces robust slope and variance estimates has been shown to perform well, with better Type I error control, but with large sample sizes (500-1000 subjects). The Type I error control with smaller sample sizes has not been studied in this model and has not been compared to other modeling approaches that handle outliers such as FSL's Flame 1 and FSL's outlier de-weighting. Focusing on group level inference with a continuous covariate over a range of sample sizes and degree of heteroscedasticity, which can be driven either by the within- or between-subject variability, both styles of robust regression are compared to ordinary least squares (OLS), FSL's Flame 1, Flame 1 with outlier de-weighting algorithm and Kendall's Tau. Additionally, subject omission using the Cook's Distance measure with OLS and nonparametric inference with the OLS statistic are studied. Pros and cons of these models as well as general strategies for detecting outliers in data and taking precaution to avoid inflated Type I error rates are

  15. Synthesis, photophysics, electrochemistry, thermal stability and electroluminescent performances of a new europium complex with bis(β-diketone) ligand containing carbazole group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Liang, Quan-Bin; Wu, Hong-Bin

    2016-09-07

    We synthesized a new europium complex [Eu(ecbpd)3 (Phen)] with bis(β-diketone) ligand containing a carbazole group, in which ecbpd and Phen are dehydro-3,3'-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazole-3,6-diyl)bis(1-phenylpropane-1,3-dione) and 1,10-phenanthroline, respectively. Its UV/vis and photoluminescent spectra, quantum yield, luminescence lifetime, electrochemistry, thermal stability and electroluminescent performances were studied. This europium complex showed low efficiency luminescence, which is probably due to the mismatching energy levels of its ligand and Eu(3)(+) , as well as the double Eu(3)(+) core resonance.

  16. Platinum group metal-free electrocatalysts: Effects of synthesis on structure and performance in proton-exchange membrane fuel cell cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Michael J.; Dzara, Michael; Ngo, Chilan; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Serov, Alexey; McKinney, Sam; Gordon, Jonathan; Atanassov, Plamen; Artyushkova, Kateryna

    2017-04-01

    Development of platinum group metal free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) requires understanding of the interactions between surface chemistry and performance, both of which are strongly dependent on synthesis conditions. To elucidate these complex relationships, a set of Fe-N-C catalysts derived from the same set of precursor materials is fabricated by varying several key synthetic parameters under controlled conditions. The results of physicochemical characterization are presented and compared with the results of rotating disk electrode (RDE) analysis and fuel cell testing. We find that electrochemical performance is strongly correlated with three key properties related to catalyst composition: concentrations of 1) atomically dispersed Fe species, 2) species in which N is bound to Fe, and 3) surface oxides. Not only are these factors related to performance, these types of chemical species are shown to correlate with each other. This study provides evidence supporting the role of iron coordinated with nitrogen as an active species for the ORR, and offers synthetic pathways to increase the density of atomically dispersed iron species and surface oxides for optimum performance.

  17. Performance of the TPSS Functional on Predicting Core Level Binding Energies of Main Group Elements Containing Molecules: A Good Choice for Molecules Adsorbed on Metal Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo Bellafont, Noèlia; Viñes, Francesc; Illas, Francesc

    2016-01-12

    Here we explored the performance of Hartree-Fock (HF), Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), and Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) functionals in predicting core level 1s binding energies (BEs) and BE shifts (ΔBEs) for a large set of 68 molecules containing a wide variety of functional groups for main group elements B → F and considering up to 185 core levels. A statistical analysis comparing with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments shows that BEs estimations are very accurate, TPSS exhibiting the best performance. Considering ΔBEs, the three methods yield very similar and excellent results, with mean absolute deviations of ∼0.25 eV. When considering relativistic effects, BEs deviations drop approaching experimental values. So, the largest mean percentage deviation is of 0.25% only. Linear trends among experimental and estimated values have been found, gaining offsets with respect to ideality. By adding relativistic effects to offsets, HF and TPSS methods underestimate experimental values by solely 0.11 and 0.05 eV, respectively, well within XPS chemical precision. TPSS is posed as an excellent choice for the characterization, by XPS, of molecules on metal solid substrates, given its suitability in describing metal substrates bonds and atomic and/or molecular orbitals.

  18. THE EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL FITNESS OF THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS IN 8-12 AGE GROUP RELATED TO THE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Purpose of this study is the determination and evaluation of physical fitness related to performance of primary and secondary school students who are 8-12 years old according to gender and age. Method: Students (n=118 who were from primary and secondary schools in Gaziantep participated in this study. Body mass index calculated from height and weight, body fat percentage calculated from skinfold measure. Measurements about of performance related physical fitness parameters were applied such as sit and reach, 20m shuttle run, hand grip strength, back strength, vertical jump. SPSS 16.0 program used for statistical analysis. Independent Samples T test was used for binary groups, One Way ANOVA and Scheffe tests used for multiple groups. Results: According to gender variable, significance was found in height, weight, body mass index, MaxVO2, right and left hand grip strength, back strength parameters (p<0.05. According to age variable, significance was found in height, weight, MaxVO2, vertical jump and anaerobic power (p<0.05. Conclusion: As a result, it can be said that physical fitness parameters have shown parallel development with age; and female students had higher results than male students because of female students have faster growth and development in this development period.

  19. Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) Working Group: Best Practices in PV System Installation; Version 1.0, March 2015; Period of Performance, October 2014 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, C. [IBTS and Dividend Solar, Austin, TX (United States). Dividend Solar; Truitt, A. [Acuity Power Group, Denver, CO (United States); Inda, D. [Clean Power Finance, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lawrence, R. [North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners, Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lockhart, R. [Acuity Power Group, Wellesley Hills, MA (United States); Golden, M. [Efficiency.org and IBTS, Sausalito, CA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The following Photovoltaics Installation Best Practices Guide is one of several work products developed by the Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) working group, which works to open capital market investment. SAPC membership includes over 450 leading solar developers, financiers and capital managers, law firms, rating agencies, accounting and engineering firms, and other stakeholders engaged in solar asset deployment. SAPC activities are directed toward foundational elements necessary to pool project cash flows into tradable securities: standardization of power purchase and lease contracts for residential and commercial end customers; development of performance and credit data sets to facilitate investor due diligence activities; comprehension of risk perceived by rating agencies; and the development of best practice guides for PV system installation and operations and maintenance (O&M) in order to encourage high-quality system deployment and operation that may improve lifetime project performance and energy production. This PV Installation Best Practices Guide was developed through the SAPC Installation Best Practices subcommittee, a subgroup of SAPC comprised of a wide array of solar industry leaders in numerous fields of practice. The guide was developed over roughly one year and eight months of direct engagement by the subcommittee and two working group comment periods.

  20. Improved P300 speller performance using electrocorticography, spectral features, and natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speier, William; Fried, Itzhak; Pouratian, Nader

    2013-07-01

    The P300 speller is a system designed to restore communication to patients with advanced neuromuscular disorders. This study was designed to explore the potential improvement from using electrocorticography (ECoG) compared to the more traditional usage of electroencephalography (EEG). We tested the P300 speller on two epilepsy patients with temporary subdural electrode arrays over the occipital and temporal lobes respectively. We then performed offline analysis to determine the accuracy and bit rate of the system and integrated spectral features into the classifier and used a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm to further improve the results. The subject with the occipital grid achieved an accuracy of 82.77% and a bit rate of 41.02, which improved to 96.31% and 49.47 respectively using a language model and spectral features. The temporal grid patient achieved an accuracy of 59.03% and a bit rate of 18.26 with an improvement to 75.81% and 27.05 respectively using a language model and spectral features. Spatial analysis of the individual electrodes showed best performance using signals generated and recorded near the occipital pole. Using ECoG and integrating language information and spectral features can improve the bit rate of a P300 speller system. This improvement is sensitive to the electrode placement and likely depends on visually evoked potentials. This study shows that there can be an improvement in BCI performance when using ECoG, but that it is sensitive to the electrode location. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and results of a new methodology to perform focus group with preschool children on their beliefs and attitudes on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammisa, Maria; Montrone, Rosa; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test a method to perform focus groups (FGs) and to elicit the subjective views of preschool-age children on physical activity and perceived kindergarten barriers to practice it. FGs have been held in three different kindergarten classes with 49 children who were 4-5 years old. Children were asked to draw themselves in their preferred way of playing and were asked few questions about their drawings to understand their behaviours and ideas. In class A and B, 67% and 75% of the children, respectively, drew sedentary plays (table and impersonation games). Children referred that the main obstacle to perform active games outside home/kindergarten was the parents' and teachers' perceived risk that they could be hurt or catch a cold. The children would like to have more table games in the kindergarten. 81% of children in class C drew active group games. All these children were well satisfied with their kindergarten environment and did not refer to any adults' fear regarding active play. This class teacher spent a lot of time to develop children's motor abilities through active games and often used the garden to let the children to play freely. The use of drawings to understand children's habits on physical activity has turned out to be a reliable and easy tool in preschool children. The different results obtained in the two children groups show the need to change the beliefs and the behaviours of teachers and parents who seem to be non-architectural "invisible" barriers to be knocked down. This protocol has been developed by ASL Brindisi within the framework of PERISCOPE's objective to develop new methodologies.

  2. 基于EVA视角下的报业集团绩效评价%Discussion on the Performance Evaluation of Press Group Based on EVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新星

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, China’s press industry is developing rapidly. At the same time of developing the traditional business, some press groups explore the cross-regional, cross-industrial, multi-faceted and multi-level development on the basis of their own resources. Their development level is being affected by mar⁃ket factors more and more obviously.But the traditional financial performance evaluation system based on the income, profit, net assets yield and others can not meet the needs of the modern press group ’s multi level gover⁃nance structure and diversification management . Taking the Economic Value Added (EVA) as the break⁃through point, this paper has done a preliminary discussion on the method and system of performance evaluation of press groups .%近年来,我国报业发展迅猛,一些报业集团在坚持发展传统主业的同时,依托自身资源优势进行了跨地区、跨行业、多方位、多层次的发展探索,其发展程度、发展水平受市场因素的影响也越来越明显。而传统的收入、利润、净资产收益率等财务绩效评价体系已满足不了现代报业集团多层级结构治理和多元化经营需要。本文以经济增加值(EVA)为切入点,对报业集团的绩效评价方法、体系进行了初步探讨。

  3. Profitability recent open stock funds in Brazil: analysis of the performance of a management Funds Group active in relation to management fees charged for resource managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ricardo Mendes Vasconcelos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the performance of a specific group of active management equity investments funds relating it to the management fees charged by managers in order to answer the following research problem: open equity funds with active management, that charge higher management fees, are those that provide the best returns for the investor? The objective was to test the hypothesis under which it is evident that the funds that charged the highest rates are those with the best performances evaluated according to the average yield of the last five years. To achieve this objective, a study of descriptive nature was carried out with a quantitative approach having as object of study the profitability of Brazilian Equity Fund ranked by the Brazilian Association of Financial and Capital Markets (Anbima as IBX Active Equity Funds in the period 2010 to 2014. The analyzed returns were calculated from the Information ratio index, which measures the risk-adjusted return of the asset class. The study found no correlation between the performance of the funds and charged management fees.

  4. [Diagnostic performance of T-SPOT.TB on peripheral blood in combination with adenosine deaminase on pleural fluid for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy within different age group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H Y; Zhang, D Q; Ye, J R; Su, S S; Xie, Y P; Chen, C S; Li, Y P

    2017-06-27

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of T cell enzyme-linked immuno-spot assay (T-SPOT) on peripheral blood in combination with adenosine deaminase (ADA) on pleural fluid for diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) pleurisy within different age groups. Methods: The data of patients with pleural effusion from the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from April 2012 to November 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, and the diagnoses of these patients were histopathologically confirmed through medical thoracoscopy. The cases who had confirmed diagnosis, in the same time, received peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB were enrolled. The performance of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB in combination with pleural fluid ADA on diagnosing TB pleurisy in the younger patients (16-59 years old) and elderly patients (≥60 years old) were analyzed respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were adopted for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 448 cases were finally enrolled, 341(76.1%) confirmed with TB pleurisy, 224 males, 117 females, (47±19) years old; and 107 (23.9%) classified as non-TB pleurisy, 65 males, 42 females, (61±14) years old. There were 285 cases who were classified as younger group, and the other 163 cases were classified as elderly group. The sensitivity and specificity of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB were 85.4% (204/239) and 71.7% (33/46) in the younger patients, 76.5% (78/102) and 59.0% (36/61) respectively in the elderly patients. The sensitivity of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB in the younger patients was significantly higher than that in the elderly patients (P=0.047). The sensitivity and specificity were 99.2% and 95.7% in combination with peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB and pleural fluid ADA respectively in the younger patients. The area under ROC curve (AUC) of T-SPOT.TB in the younger patients was 0.833, AUC of T-SPOT.TB combined with ADA was 0

  5. Comparison of diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for abdominal staging of pediatric renal tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servaes, Sabah [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Khanna, Geetika [Washington University School of Medicine, Pediatric Radiology, St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute for Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131-MIR, St. Louis, MO (United States); Naranjo, Arlene [University of Florida, Department of Biostatistics, Gainesville, FL (United States); Geller, James I. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Oncology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ehrlich, Peter F. [University of Michigan, Department of Surgery, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gow, Kenneth W. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Surgery, Seattle, WA (United States); Perlman, Elizabeth J. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pathology, Chicago, IL (United States); Dome, Jeffrey S. [Children' s National Medical Center, Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Washington, DC (United States); Gratias, Eric; Mullen, Elizabeth A. [Harvard University, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-08-19

    CT and MRI are both used for abdominal staging of pediatric renal tumors. The diagnostic performance of the two modalities for local and regional staging of renal tumors has not been systematically evaluated. To compare the diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for local staging of pediatric renal tumors. The study population was derived from the AREN03B2 study of the Children's Oncology Group. Baseline abdominal imaging performed with both CT and MRI within 30 days of nephrectomy was available for retrospective review in 82 renal tumor cases. Each case was evaluated for capsular penetration, lymph node metastasis, tumor thrombus, preoperative tumor rupture, and synchronous contralateral lesions. The surgical and pathological findings at central review were the reference standard. The sensitivity of CT and MRI for detecting capsular penetration was 68.6% and 62.9%, respectively (P = 0.73), while specificity was 86.5% and 83.8% (P = 1.0). The sensitivity of CT and MRI for detecting lymph node metastasis was 76.5% and 52.9% (P = 0.22), and specificity was 90.4% and 92.3% (P = 1.0). Synchronous contralateral lesions were identified by CT in 4/9 cases and by MRI in 7/9 cases. CT and MRI have similar diagnostic performance for detection of lymph node metastasis and capsular penetration. MR detected more contralateral synchronous lesions; however these were present in a very small number of cases. Either modality can be used for initial loco-regional staging of pediatric renal tumors. (orig.)

  6. Does the mask govern the mind?: effects of arbitrary gender representation on quantitative task performance in avatar-represented virtual groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn; Nass, Clifford I; Bailenson, Jeremy N

    2014-04-01

    Virtual environments employing avatars for self-representation-including the opportunity to represent or misrepresent social categories-raise interesting and intriguing questions as to how one's avatar-based social category shapes social identity dynamics, particularly when stereotypes prevalent in the offline world apply to the social categories visually represented by avatars. The present experiment investigated how social category representation via avatars (i.e., graphical representations of people in computer-mediated environments) affects stereotype-relevant task performance. In particular, building on and extending the Proteus effect model, we explored whether and how stereotype lift (i.e., a performance boost caused by the awareness of a domain-specific negative stereotype associated with outgroup members) occurred in virtual group settings in which avatar-based gender representation was arbitrary. Female and male participants (N=120) were randomly assigned either a female avatar or a male avatar through a process masked as a random drawing. They were then placed in a numerical minority status with respect to virtual gender-as the only virtual female (male) in a computer-mediated triad with two opposite-gendered avatars-and performed a mental arithmetic task either competitively or cooperatively. The data revealed that participants who were arbitrarily represented by a male avatar and competed against two ostensible female avatars showed strongest performance compared to others on the arithmetic task. This pattern occurred regardless of participants' actual gender, pointing to a virtual stereotype lift effect. Additional mediation tests showed that task motivation partially mediated the effect. Theoretical and practical implications for social identity dynamics in avatar-based virtual environments are discussed.

  7. Performance analysis of electric power group of 50 kVA with MWM engine adapted to Otto cycle, using natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízio L. Figueiredo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the data of tests with an internal combustion engine MWM adapted to Otto cycle, coupled to an electric generator with a capacity of 50 kVA, using natural gas . It is presented the characteristics and efficiency of the set for the purpose of comparison with its future operation using synthesis gas produced by a gasifier (biomass gas, to evaluate the feasibility of applying the system in remote locations, where biomass is available and system for transmitting electricity from other generation systems hampered by distance. The performance of the assembly was monitored at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of its power capacity presented in increasing order of load voltages 220, 220, 221, 221 and 222 volts and currents 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 amperes respectively for the load of 0, 9,5, 19, 27,5 and 38 kW the latter being the maximum output developed by the group.

  8. H{sub 2}/air alkaline membrane fuel cell performance and durability, using novel ionomer and non-platinum group metal cathode catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piana, Michele; Boccia, Massimiliano; Filpi, Antonio; Flammia, Elisa; Miller, Hamish A.; Orsini, Marco; Salusti, Francesca; Santiccioli, Serena [Acta S.p.A., Fuel cell Technology, via di Lavoria 56/G, I-56042 Crespina (PI) (Italy); Ciardelli, Francesco; Pucci, Andrea [Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Via, Risorgimento 35, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    The development of H{sub 2}/air alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) enables the use of non-platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts which are intrinsically stable and have an activity similar to platinum in alkaline media for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). As opposed to PEMFCs, the research and development of these types of catalysts for AMFC has had little attention and even less has been given to the development of alkaline membranes and ionomers. Acta S.p.A. has developed recently new non-PGM ORR catalysts with activity higher than Pt in alkaline media. More importantly, a new anionic ionomer derived from cheap starting materials with optimum performance has been produced. In this paper we demonstrate the use of this new ionomer in H{sub 2}/air AMFCs showing the first polarization and durability data, with current densities higher than those recently reported in the literature. Furthermore, we report the effect of CO{sub 2} on AMFC performance, showing the possibility of use of such alkaline devices not only in outer-space applications, but also with atmospheric air for large scale devices. (author)

  9. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  10. Research on Performance Evaluation of Group A Based on the Balanced Scorecard%基于平衡计分卡的A集团绩效评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永娟

    2012-01-01

    文章通过对A集团绩效评价现状,分析了A集团的经营现状及现行的绩效评价体系提出了A集团绩效评价改进,构建了新的绩效评价体系.%This paper evaluates the current state of performance of Group A, analyzes the current situation of the business performance and the performance evaluation system, measures are raised to improve the performance of Group A and a new performance evaluation system is constructed.

  11. Quantitative Metabolite Profiling of an Amino Group Containing Pharmaceutical in Human Plasma via Precolumn Derivatization and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sanwang; Klencsár, Balázs; Balcaen, Lieve; Cuyckens, Filip; Lynen, Frederic; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2017-02-07

    Quantitative determination of the candidate drug molecule and its metabolites in biofluids and tissues is an inevitable step in the development of new pharmaceuticals. Because of the time-consuming and expensive nature of the current standard technique for quantitative metabolite profiling, i.e., radiolabeling followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with radiodetection, the development of alternative methodologies is of great interest. In this work, a simple, fast, sensitive, and accurate method for the quantitative metabolite profiling of an amino group containing drug (levothyroxine) and its metabolites in human plasma, based on precolumn derivatization followed by HPLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), was developed and validated. To introduce a suitable "heteroelement" (defined here as an element that is detectable with ICPMS), an inexpensive and commercially available reagent, tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TBPA) was used for the derivatization of free NH2-groups. The presence of a known number of I atoms in both the drug molecule and its metabolites enabled a cross-validation of the newly developed derivatization procedure and quantification based on monitoring of the introduced Br. The formation of the derivatives was quantitative, providing a 4:1 stoichiometric Br/NH2 ratio. The derivatives were separated via reversed-phase HPLC with gradient elution. Bromine was determined via ICPMS at a mass-to-charge ratio of 79 using H2 as a reaction gas to ensure interference-free detection, and iodine was determined at a mass-to-charge ratio of 127 for cross-validation purposes. The method developed shows a fit-for-purpose accuracy (recovery between 85% and 115%) and precision (repeatability <15% RSD). The limit of quantification (LoQ) for Br was approximately 100 μg/L.

  12. "We've Got to Keep Meeting Like This": A Pilot Study Comparing Academic Performance in Shifting-Membership Cooperative Groups versus Stable-Membership Cooperative Groups in an Introductory-Level Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia; Bush, Amy; Sanchagrin, Ken; Holland, Jonathon

    2017-01-01

    This study examined possible ways to increase student engagement in small sections of a large, introductory-level, required university course. Research shows that cooperative group learning boosts achievement through fostering better interpersonal relationships between students. Cooperative group learning is an evidence-based instructional…

  13. "We've Got to Keep Meeting Like This": A Pilot Study Comparing Academic Performance in Shifting-Membership Cooperative Groups versus Stable-Membership Cooperative Groups in an Introductory-Level Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia; Bush, Amy; Sanchagrin, Ken; Holland, Jonathon

    2017-01-01

    This study examined possible ways to increase student engagement in small sections of a large, introductory-level, required university course. Research shows that cooperative group learning boosts achievement through fostering better interpersonal relationships between students. Cooperative group learning is an evidence-based instructional…

  14. Tarefa N-back auditiva: desempenho entre diferentes grupos etários Auditory N-back task: different age groups performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana De Nardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos instrumentos mais utilizados internacionalmente para avaliação da Memória de Trabalho (MT é a Tarefa N-back Auditiva. Recursos para avaliação desse sistema são escassos no Brasil. O presente estudo objetiva observar o desempenho da Tarefa N-back Auditiva em indivíduos de diferentes faixas etárias: 27 crianças, 22 pré-adolescentes, 26 adultos e 27 idosos. Os resultados mostram que o grupo etário influencia no desempenho da Tarefa N-back Auditiva. A acurácia foi aumentando na transição da infância para a pré-adolescência e seguiu em crescimento até a adultez. Observou-se um declínio no desempenho de idosos. Os dados da Tarefa N-back Auditiva corrobora a trajetória desenvolvimental, sugerindo que essa tarefa possa ser utilizada no contexto experimental. Pesquisas de normatização contribuirão para melhor compreensão dessa tarefa.One of the most internationally used instruments for evaluation of Working Memory (WM is the Auditory N-Back Task. In Brazil, resources to evaluate this system are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of different age subjects in auditory n-back tasks. We divided the 102 subjects in four groups: 27 children, 22 adolescents, 26 young adults and 27 older adults. The results demonstrate an age-related difference in the n-back task performance. The accuracy increased in the transition from childhood to adolescence and kept growing from adolescence to adulthood. We also found a decrease in the performance of aged subjects. The Auditory N-Back Task results are in agreement with WM development trajectory, and so, it demonstrates to be an adjusted instrument to evaluate this system in experimental setting.

  15. [Simultaneous determination of five groups of components in qingkailing injection by high performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array detector and evaporative light scattering detector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shikai; Xin, Wenfeng; Luo, Guoan; Wang, Yiming; Cheng, Yiyu

    2005-09-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous quantification of nine components of five different structural types in Qingkailing injection. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photo diode array detector and an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) was employed in the determination. Four monitoring wavelengths of 240, 254, 280 and 330 nm were set to determine nucleosides (uridine and adenosine), iridoid glucoside (geniposide), flavone glycoside (baicalin) and organic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid) respectively, and a combined evaporative light scattering detector was used to detect three steroid compounds (cholic acid, ursodesoxycholic acid and hyodeoxycholic acid). The proposed method permitted the simultaneous separation and determination of five groups of compounds in Qingkailing injection, and acceptable validation results of the precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy tests were achieved. The method was applied to the analysis of 19 Qingkailing injection samples from three different plants, and the results indicated that the method could be used as a convenient and reliable method in the multi-component determination and quality control of traditional Chinese medicines.

  16. The Group Decision Support System to Evaluate the ICT Project Performance Using the Hybrid Method of AHP, TOPSIS and Copeland Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herri Setiawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a concept of the Group Decision Support System (GDSS to evaluate the performance of Information and Communications Technology (ICT Projects in Indonesian regional government agencies to overcome any possible inconsistencies which may occur in a decision-making process. By considering the aspect of the applicable legislation, decision makers involved to provide an assessment and evaluation of the ICT project implementation in regional government agencies consisted of Executing Parties of Government Institutions, ICT Management Work Units, Business Process Owner Units, and Society, represented by DPRD (Regional People’s Representative Assembly. The contributions of those decision makers in the said model were in the form of preferences to evaluate the ICT project-related alternatives based on the predetermined criteria for the method of Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM. This research presented a GDSS framework integrating the Methods of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and Copeland Score. The AHP method was used to generate values for the criteria used as input in the calculation process of the TOPSIS method. Results of the TOPSIS calculation generated a project rank indicated by each decision maker, and to combine the different preferences of these decision makers, the Copeland Score method was used as one of the voting methods to determine the best project rank of all the ranks indicated by the desicion makers.

  17. Are balanced groups better? : Belbin roles in collaborative learning groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meslec, M.N.; Curseu, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    In a sample of 459 students organized in 84 groups this study tests the impact of group role balance on teamwork quality and three performance indicators in collaborative learning groups (group cognitive complexity, perceived performance and objective performance). The results show that group role

  18. Prediction of hand trajectory from electrocorticography signals in primary motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    Full Text Available Due to their potential as a control modality in brain-machine interfaces, electrocorticography (ECoG has received much focus in recent years. Studies using ECoG have come out with success in such endeavors as classification of arm movements and natural grasp types, regression of arm trajectories in two and three dimensions, estimation of muscle activity time series and so on. However, there still remains considerable work to be done before a high performance ECoG-based neural prosthetic can be realized. In this study, we proposed an algorithm to decode hand trajectory from 15 and 32 channel ECoG signals recorded from primary motor cortex (M1 in two primates. To determine the most effective areas for prediction, we applied two electrode selection methods, one based on position relative to the central sulcus (CS and another based on the electrodes' individual prediction performance. The best coefficients of determination for decoding hand trajectory in the two monkeys were 0.4815 ± 0.0167 and 0.7780 ± 0.0164. Performance results from individual ECoG electrodes showed that those with higher performance were concentrated at the lateral areas and areas close to the CS. The results of prediction according with different numbers of electrodes based on proposed methods were also shown and discussed. These results also suggest that superior decoding performance can be achieved from a group of effective ECoG signals rather than an entire ECoG array.

  19. The Assessment of Eating Behaviour in Children Who Are Obese: A Psychological Approach. A Position Paper from the European Childhood Obesity Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Braet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Methods: Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Results: Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. Conclusions: This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research.

  20. A comparison of the performance and compatibility of protocols used by seven monitoring groups to measure stream habitat in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett B. Roper; John M. Buffington; Stephen Bennett; Steven H. Lanigan; Eric Archer; Scott T. Downie; John Faustini; Tracy W. Hillman; Shannon Hubler; Kim Jones; Chris Jordan; Philip R. Kaufmann; Glenn Merritt; Chris Moyer; Allen Pleus

    2010-01-01

    To comply with legal mandates, meet local management objectives, or both, many federal, state, and tribal organizations have monitoring groups that assess stream habitat at different scales. This myriad of groups has difficulty sharing data and scaling up stream habitat assessments to regional or national levels because of differences in their goals and data collection...

  1. Desempenho em confinamento de machos bovinos superjovens de diferentes grupos genéticos Feedlot performance of young steers of different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Nunes Vaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho em confinamento de machos não-castrados superjovens, das raças Hereford, 3/4 Hereford 1/4 Nelore, 5/8 Hereford 3/8 Nelore e 3/4 Charolês 1/4 Nelore, confinados dos sete aos quatorze meses de idade. Os tratamentos foram os quatro genótipos e o delineamento estatístico foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos genéticos para peso final e ganho de peso médio diário. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior nos animais com Hereford no genótipo em relação aos 3/4 Charolês, mas em relação a 100 kg de peso vivo, este foi maior nos 3/4 Hereford em relação aos 5/8 Hereford e 3/4 Charolês. O consumo diário ajustado para tamanho metabólico foi superior nos 3/4 Hereford em relação aos 5/8 Hereford e 3/4 Charolês. Machos 3/4 Charolês apresentaram menor consumo de energia digestível que os demais. Ajustado para 100 kg de peso vivo, o consumo de energia digestível foi superior nos Hereford e 3/4 Hereford em relação aos 5/8 Hereford, os quais mostraram maior consumo que os 3/4 Charolês. O desempenho em confinamento de machos superjovens Hereford, 3/4 Hereford e 5/8 Hereford é similar e permite o abate desses genótipos para produção de carne aos quatorze meses, com peso de abate adequado à demanda de mercado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the feedlot performance of young non-castrated Hereford, 3/4 Hereford 1/4 Nellore, 5/8 Hereford 3/8 Nellore and 3/4 Charolais 1/4 Nellore steers, when confined from seven to fourteen months of age. The treatments were the genotypes, and the statistical design was completely randomized, with four treatments and eight replications. There was no statistical difference between the genetic groups for final weight and average daily weight gain. The dry-matter intake was higher in animals with Hereford in the genotype in relation to the 3/4 Charolais, but per

  2. Desempenho de diferentes grupos genéticos de bovinos de corte em confinamento Performance evaluation of different beef cattle genetic groups under feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepler Euclides Filho

    2003-10-01

    de MS ingerida/kg de ganho de peso versus 6,66 kg de MS ingerida/kg de ganho de peso.It was utilized data from 188 animals from ten genetic groups. For the statistical analysis, the animals were grouped into three subgroups according to age, sex and diet. Thus, the subgroups analyzed were: 1 intacted yearling males receiving the "a" ration: 39 Nellore (N, 12 Brangus (BR, 8 1/2 Simmental - 1/2 Nellore (SN, 8 1/2 Caracu - 1/2 Nellore (CCN, 21 1/2 Valdostana - 1/2 Nellore (VAN; 2 intacted weaned males receiving the "b" diet: 12 N, 12 1/2 Canchim - 1/2 1/4 Angus - 1/4 Nellore (CAN, 16 1/2 Canchim - 1/4 Simmental - 1/4 Nellore (CSN, 12 Braford - 1/2 Brangus (BRBD, 12 1/2 Braford - 1/4 Angus - 1/4 Nellore (BDAN, 7 Brahman - 1/4 Angus - 1/4 Nellore (BHAN; 3 weaned females receiving the "b" diet under two formulations, one in which the concentrate represented 30% of total dry matter (DM and the other in which the participation of the concentrate was 50% of total DM. For this subgroup the analysis included 29 females, 15 CAN and 14 CSN. Animals in subgroups 1 and 2, were fed a diet contained 50% of concentrate in the DM. Animals in subgroup 1 had similar performances. The average daily gain was 1.60 kg/day and average feed conversion was 6.41 kg of DM intake/kg of weight gain. The statistical analysis revealed that for average daily gain as well as for feed conversion, it were observed differences only among animals on subgroup 2. The greater average daily gain was recorded on CSN animals (1.69 kg/day and the best feed conversion on CSN and BHAN animals (4.76 kg of DM intake/kg of weight gain and 4.67 kg of DM intake/kg of weight gain. The analyses of subgroup 3 allowed the conclusion that in spite of not having any difference between genetic groups, formulation showed an important effect, mainly on feed conversion. The animals receiving the diet formulation in which the concentrate represented 30% of the total DM showed better feed conversion (5.58 kg of DM intake/kg of

  3. A Comparison of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and Leiter International Performance Scale for a Group of Educationally Handicapped Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Melanie Walton; Ratcliffe, Kevin J.

    1980-01-01

    Compared the WISC-R and Leiter International Performance Scale IQs for a sample of educationally handicapped adolescents. Results indicated positive correlations between WISC-R Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale scores and Leiter scores. Findings suggest the same pattern exists for the WISC-R and Leiter as for the WISC and Leiter. (Author)

  4. A Shift in Task Routines during the Learning of a Motor Skill: Group-Averaged Data May Mask Critical Phases in the Individuals' Acquisition of Skilled Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Karni, Avi; Parnes, Ariel; Loewenschuss, Iris; Vakil, Eli

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a transient phase during training on a movement sequence wherein, after an initial improvement in speed and decrease in variability, individual participants' performance showed a significant increase in variability without change in mean performance speed. Subsequent to this phase, as practice continued, variability again…

  5. Determinants of performance of supplemental immunization activities for polio eradication in Uttar Pradesh, India: social mobilization activities of the Social mobilization Network (SM Net and Core Group Polio Project (CGPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss William M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary strategy to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus in India is to improve supplemental immunization activities (SIAs and routine immunization coverage in priority districts. The CORE Group, part of the Social Mobilization Network (SM Net, has been successful in improving SIA coverage in high-risk areas of Uttar Pradesh (UP. The SM Net works through community level mobilisers (from the CORE Group and UNICEF and covers more than 2 million children under the age of five. In this paper, we examine the reasons the CORE Group had been successful through exploration of which social mobilization activities of the CORE Group predicted better performance of SIAs. Methods We carried out a secondary data analysis of routine monitoring information collected by the CORE Group and the Government of India for SIAs. These data included information about vaccination outcomes of SIAs in CORE Group areas and non-CORE Group areas within the districts where the CORE Group operates, along with information about the number of various social mobilization activities carried out for each SIA. We employed Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model (GLLAMM statistical analysis methods to identify which social mobilization activities predicted SIA performance, and to account for the intra-class correlation (ICC between multiple observations within the same geographic areas over time. Results The number of mosque announcements carried out was the most consistent determinant of improved SIA performance across various performance measures. The number of Bullawa Tollies carried out also appeared to be an important determinant of improved SIA performance. The number of times other social mobilization activities were carried out did not appear to determine better SIA performance. Conclusions Social mobilization activities can improve the performance of mass vaccination campaigns. In the CORE Group areas, the number of mosque announcements and

  6. Group Variables and Gaming Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dwight R.; Niebuhr, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study designed to determine the effects of group cohesiveness on group performance in a management game and, to examine the effects voluntary v assigned group membership has on the cohesiveness of the group. (Author/LLS)

  7. Effect of carboxyl anchoring groups in asymmetric zinc phthalocyanine with large steric hindrance on the dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wenye; Peng, Bosi; Lin, Li; Li, Renjie; Zhang, Jing, E-mail: jzhang03@whu.edu.cn; Peng, Tianyou, E-mail: typeng@whu.edu.cn

    2015-08-01

    Asymmetric zinc phthalocyanines containing tribenzonaphtho-condensed porphyrazine with six bulky diphenylphenoxy and one or two carboxyl groups are used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). It is found that Zn-tri-PcNc-4 having two carboxyl groups shows a slight redshift in the Q-band absorption but a significantly decreased absorbance as compared with Zn-tri-PcNc-8 having one carboxyl group, and Zn-tri-PcNc-4 can be more stably and perpendicularly grafted onto the TiO{sub 2} surface than Zn-tri-PcNc-8, which further leads to the differences in the interfacial charge transfer dynamics and dye-loaded amount. Zn-tri-PcNc-4 with two carboxyl groups grafted onto the TiO{sub 2} electrode surface of DSSC results in a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 3.22%, higher than that (3.01%) of the analog with one carboxyl group (Zn-tri-PcNc-8), which exhibits a lower short-circuit current but much higher open-circuit voltage. The additional carboxyl group in Zn-tri-PcNc-4 leads to the enhanced dye-loaded amount and the molecular orbital energy level shift toward positive direction, causing more efficient electron injection and higher short-circuit current than Zn-tri-PcNc-8; while the two carboxyl groups of Zn-tri-PcNc-4 would cause more protonation of TiO{sub 2} surface, which possibly leads to the downward shift of TiO{sub 2} conduction band edge, and then to the decreased open-circuit voltage. The present results demonstrate the molecular engineering aspect of ZnPc dyes in which the fine tuning of the energy levels and molecular structures is crucial for high conversion efficiency of DSSCs. - Highlights: • ZnPcs with six diphenylphenoxy and one/two carboxyl groups are used as dyes for DSSCs. • Effect of carboxyl group number on the ZnPc-sensitized cell property are scrutinized. • Grafting two carboxyl groups on ZnPc leads to the enhanced photocurrent and efficiency. • ZnPc with one COOH has a higher open-circuit voltage than its analog with two

  8. Diagnostic performance of different methods for detection of group B Streptococcus%不同方法检测B群链球菌效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷蜜; 倪维

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic performance of pigmented broth culture ,gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) and latex agglutination test(LAT) for the detection of group B Streptococcus in pregnant women .Methods Samples from distal vaginal segment and around crissum ,collected among 1 300 pregnant women of 35 -37 weeks ,were screened by the three methods and bacterial culture method simultaneously .Performance of these three methods were evaluated ,taking bacterial culture method as standard .Results The detection rates of pigmented broth culture ,GICA ,LAT and bacterial culture method were 12 .8% ,11 .5% ,12 .1% and 12 .0% respectively ,which were without significant differences(P>0 .05) .The accuracy and sensitivity of pigmented broth culture were 98 .4% and 98 .6% ,which were the highest .The highest specificity was 98 .9% of GICA ,but the rate of missed diagnosis of GICA was 14 .7% .The specificity of LAT was 97 .2% ,and it′s negative predictive value was 97 .3% . Conclusion Compared with bacterial culture method ,the detection rate of the three methods of GBS screening could be similar .Pig‐mented broth culture method might be accurate ,specific ,using independent rapid detection system ,which could be a routine method for clinical screening and diagnosis of GBS colonization in pregnant women .GICA might be with the characteristics of rapid and convenience ,which could be used for large‐scale and routine screening in outpatient clinic .LAT might be with fine specificity and low cost ,which could be suitable for GBS screening in primary hospital .%目的:分析显色肉汤法、金标免疫层析法(简称金标法)、乳胶凝集法在孕妇B群链球菌(GBS )定植筛查中的应用效果。方法同时采用细菌培养法、显色肉汤法、金标法、乳胶凝集法对1300例孕35~37周孕妇阴道下端或肛周拭子进行GBS筛查。以细菌培养法作为金标准方法,评价显色肉汤法、金标法、乳胶凝集

  9. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  10. Teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: conveying empathy to performing a suicide assessment: a primer for individual role-playing and scripted group role-playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shawn Christopher; Barney, Christine

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a useful introduction to the art of role-playing in both the individual format and the group format using scripted group role-playing (SGRP). Role-playing can provide powerful learning opportunities, but to do so it must be done well. This article imparts guidance toward this goal. SGRP may greatly enhance the acquisition of critical complex interviewing skills, such as suicide assessment and uncovering domestic violence, in health care providers across all disciplines, an educational goal that has not been achievable to date. Although research is at an early stage of development, the hope represented by SGRP is tangible.

  11. Control Grouped Pedagogical Experiment to Test the Performance of Second-Generation Web Maps and the Traditional Maps at the University of Debrecen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Dániel; Zichar, Marianna; Boda, Judit; Novák, Tibor József

    2015-01-01

    Almost every component of the information society is influenced by elements built on communication technology. Learning also tends to be related to the dynamic usage of computers. Nowadays, a number of applications (online or offline) are also available that engage large groups of potential users and simultaneously provide a virtual environment to…

  12. Evidence from a Large Sample on the Effects of Group Size and Decision-Making Time on Performance in a Marketing Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treen, Emily; Atanasova, Christina; Pitt, Leyland; Johnson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Marketing instructors using simulation games as a way of inducing some realism into a marketing course are faced with many dilemmas. Two important quandaries are the optimal size of groups and how much of the students' time should ideally be devoted to the game. Using evidence from a very large sample of teams playing a simulation game, the study…

  13. Operation of the power information center: Performance of secretariat functions and information exchange activities in the advanced power field of the interagency advanced power group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of activities conducted during the reporting period to facilitate the exchange of technical information among scientists and engineers both within the federal government and within industry are cited. Interagency Advanced Power Group meetings and special efforts, project briefs, and organization development are considered.

  14. Effects of electron-withdrawing group and electron-donating core combinations on physical properties and photovoltaic performance in D-pi-A star-shaped small molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luponosov, Yuriy N.; Min, Jie; Solodukhin, Alexander N.; Kozlov, Oleg V.; Obrezkova, Marina A.; Peregudova, Svetlana M.; Ameri, Tayebeh; Chvalun, Sergei N.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Brabec, Christoph J.; Ponomarenko, Sergei A.

    2016-01-01

    The first representatives of star-shaped molecules having 3-alkylrhodanine (alkyl-Rh) electron-withdrawing groups, linked through bithiophene pi-spacer with electron-donating either triphenylamine (TPA) or tris(2-methoxyphenyl)amine (m-TPA) core were synthesized. The physical properties and photovol

  15. Performance and individual feed intake characteristics of group-housed sows fed a nonstarch polysaccharides diet ad libitum during gestation over three parities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Plagge, J.G.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding group-housed gestating sows a diet with a high level of fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; approximately 45% sugar beet pulp as fed) ad libitum on the development in individual feed intake characteristics and reproductive

  16. Comparison of Two Small-Group Learning Methods in 12th-Grade Physics Classes Focusing on Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Roland; Hanze, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Twelfth-grade physics classes with 344 students participated in a quasi-experimental study comparing two small-group learning settings. In the jigsaw classroom, in contrast to the cyclical rotation method, teaching expectancy as well as resource interdependence is established. The study is based on the self-determination theory of motivation,…

  17. Work group diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Daan; Schippers, Michaéla C

    2007-01-01

    Work group diversity, the degree to which there are differences between group members, may affect group process and performance positively as well as negatively. Much is still unclear about the effects of diversity, however. We review the 1997-2005 literature on work group diversity to assess the state of the art and to identify key issues for future research. This review points to the need for more complex conceptualizations of diversity, as well as to the need for more empirical attention to the processes that are assumed to underlie the effects of diversity on group process and performance and to the contingency factors of these processes.

  18. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  19. Psychometric properties and performance of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS® depression short forms in ethnically diverse groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Teresi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Short form measures from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS® are used widely. The present study was among the first to examine differential item functioning (DIF in the PROMIS Depression short form scales in a sample of over 5000 racially/ethnically diverse patients with cancer. DIF analyses were conducted across different racial/ethnic, educational, age, gender and language groups. Methods: DIF hypotheses, generated by content experts, informed the evaluation of the DIF analyses. The graded item response theory (IRT model was used to evaluate the five-level ordinal items. The primary tests of DIF were Wald tests; sensitivity analyses were conducted using the IRT ordinal logistic regression procedure. Magnitude was evaluated using expected item score functions, and the non-compensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF and T1 indexes, both based on group differences in the item curves. Aggregate impact was evaluated with expected scale score (test response functions; individual impact was assessed through examination of differences in DIF adjusted and unadjusted depression estimates. Results: Many items evidenced DIF; however, only a few had slightly elevated magnitude. No items evidenced salient DIF with respect to NCDIF and the scale-level impact was minimal for all group comparisons. The following short form items might be targeted for further study because they were also hypothesized to evidence DIF. One item showed slightly higher magnitude of DIF for age: nothing to look forward to; conditional on depression, this item was more likely to be endorsed in the depressed direction by individuals in older groups as contrasted with the cohort aged 21 to 49. This item was also hypothesized to show age DIF. Only one item (failure showed DIF of slightly higher magnitude (just above threshold for Whites vs. Asians/Pacific Islanders in the direction of higher likelihood of endorsement for Asians

  20. Effect of computer mouse gain and visual demand on mouse clicking performance and muscle activation in a young and elderly group of experienced computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Jensen, Bente R.

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the specific effects of motor demand and visual demands on the ability to control motor output in terms of performance and muscle activation. Young and elderly subjects performed multidirectional pointing tasks with the computer mouse. Three levels of mouse gain...... was only to a minor degree influenced by mouse gain (and target sizes) indicating that stability of the forearm/hand is of significance during computer mouse control. The study has implications for ergonomists, pointing device manufacturers and software developers....

  1. Effects of dietary calcium and phosphorus on reproductive performance and markers of bone turnover in stall- or group-housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, F P Y; Kontulainen, S A; Beaulieu, A D

    2016-10-01

    Increasing productivity and new housing standards necessitate a reevaluation of nutrient requirements for sows, including minerals. The objective of this study was to determine if the recommended levels of dietary Ca and P are adequate for sows housed in groups and that, therefore, have the potential for increased mobility. A total of 180 multiparous sows and gilts were assigned to 1 of 6 treatments. Treatments, arranged as a 3 × 2 factorial, included the main effects of dietary Ca:P-0.70:0.55% Ca:P (as-fed basis; control), 0.60:0.47% Ca:P (as-fed basis; Low CaP), and 0.81:0.63% Ca:P (as-fed basis; High CaP)-and housing-stalls or groups. The trial was initiated when sows were moved from the breeding stalls to the gestation room at wk 4 or 5 after breeding. Sows were initially fed 2.3 kg/d. This allotment was increased to 3.0 kg/d 2 wk prior to farrowing. Group-housed sows, fed in individual stalls, were allowed access to a loafing area after feeding. Serum samples were collected at the start of the trial and on d 100 of gestation, and both serum and milk samples were collected at mid lactation and prior to weaning. Neither diet nor housing had an effect on the total number of piglets born, ADG from birth to weaning, or weaning weight ( > 0.10). The number of live-born piglets and birth weight were unaffected by diet ( > 0.10) but were improved by group housing relative to stalls ( sows fed the Low CaP diet had reduced serum Ca (diet × housing interaction, = 0.02), and the greatest reduction (between d 28 and 100 of gestation) in serum P level was observed in group-housed sows fed the Low CaP diet (diet × housing interaction, = 0.04). Osteocalcin and pyridinoline, markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively, were unaffected by diet or housing ( > 0.10). Results from these studies imply that the level of dietary Ca and P recommended by the NRC is adequate for sows of modern genetics, whether housed in stalls or groups.

  2. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    % of all observations at feeding had significant higher risk of returning to oestrus sompared to sows eating more frequently. Number of skin lesions correlated positively with interval from weaning to first mating. No relations between reproduction performance and lying behaviour, aggressions after mixing...

  3. The Effect of Personnel Stability on Organizational Performance: Do Battalions with Stable Command Groups Achieve Higher Training Proficiency at the National Training Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    As chief, one of Meyer’s first edicts was to declare that the length of command tours would rise from an average of two years to a minimum of...B. Tiggle, and Lynn M. Milan , “The Effects of Battalion Staff Stabilization on Individual and Unit Performance: A Preliminary Investigation”, ARI

  4. Effects of Peer-Assessed Feedback, Goal Setting and a Group Contingency on Performance and Learning by 10-12-Year-Old Academy Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Josh E.; Kinchin, Gary; Clarke, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coaches developing young talent in team sports must maximise practice and learning of essential game skills and accurately and continuously assess the performance and potential of each player. Relative age effects highlight an erroneous process of initial and on-going player assessment, based largely on subjective opinions of game…

  5. A Review of Computerized Team Performance Measures to Identify Military-Relevant, Low-to-Medium Fidelity Tests of Small Group Effectiveness during Shared Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    a dynamic decision making experiment. Genetic Algorithms and Soft Computing. 8: 658-682. Go, E., Bos, J. C., and Lamoureux, T. M. 2006. Team...sustained performance under sleep-deprivation conditions. Chronobiology International. 27: 318-333. Persson, M. and Worm, A. 2002. Information

  6. Performance of generating group diesel fed with different blends of soybean biodiesel; Desempenho de um grupo gerador diesel alimentado com diferentes misturas de biodiesel de oleo de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Elton Fialho dos; Amaral, Paulo Augusto Pedroso; Cunha, Joao Paulo Barreto; Freitas, Sueli Martins; Queiroz, Helio de Souza [Universidade Estadual de Goias (UNUCET/UEG), Anapolis, GO (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Anapolis], E-mail: bcunha_2@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The replacement of diesel with biofuels or blends with diesel that is the most focused today to supply the shortage of petroleum based fuels. In Brazil the trend that biodiesel be used with regular diesel is increasing. As a result feasibility studies are becoming more necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate use of biodiesel in different concentrations with diesel (B3, B5, B10, B20, B50 and B100) in a generating group diesel. Assays for quantification of the hourly consumption of fuel and emission of noise in different variants of the engine had been carried out. This was conducted through the electrical charge, connected to the generating group, and carried out through the analysis of the degree of Bosch blackening of the gases of exhaustion in the different concentrations. The equations of regression had good correlation with the real data. In conclusion the electric charge applied to the group generator increases proportionately with the time consumption and the emission of noise. However Biodiesel (B100) is different in comparison to other mixtures in the Bosch blackening test, presenting a lesser emission in relation to the other mixtures. (author)

  7. Impact of the workers' loyalty on the group performance modeled by a bi-layer cellular automaton with a hysteretic rule

    CERN Document Server

    Malarz, Krzysztof; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The problem `human and work' in a model working group is investigated by means of cellular automata technique. Attitude of members of a group towards work is measured by indicator of loyalty to the group (the number of underloaded agents who carry out their tasks), and lack of loyalty (the number of overloaded agents, who give their tasks to other agents). Initially, all agents realize scheduled tasks one-by-one. Agents with the number of scheduled tasks larger than a given threshold change their strategy to `overloaded' one and start avoiding completing tasks by passing them to their colleagues. Optionally, in some conditions, we allow agents to return to `underloaded' state; hence the rule is hysteretic. Results are presented on an influence of i) the density of tasks, ii) the threshold number of tasks assigned to the agents' forcing him/her for strategy change on the system efficiency. We show that a `black' scenario of the system stacking in a jammed phase (with all agents being in overloaded state and ha...

  8. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order manip

  9. A new tetrathiafulvalene-anthracence dyad fusion with the crown ether group: fluorescence modulation with Na+ and C60, mimicking the performance of an "AND" logic gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanxin; Zhang, Deqing; Zhou, Yucheng; Zhu, Daoben

    2006-05-12

    In this Note, we describe a new TTF-anthracene dyad fusion with the crown ether unit. It is interesting to find that the fluorescence of this new dyad can be modulated with Na+ and C60, and its fluorescence intensity can be largely enhanced only in the presence of both Na+ and C60. Such fluorescence modulation behavior mimics the performance of a two-input "AND" logic gate.

  10. Finely tuning MOFs towards high performance in C2H2 storage: synthesis and properties of a new MOF-505 analogue with an inserted amide functional group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingxing; Li, Bin; Li, Yunzhi; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Wenwei; Chen, Banglin; Li, Shuhua; Pan, Yi; You, Xiaozeng; Bai, Junfeng

    2016-06-07

    Aiming to improve the acetylene (C2H2) storage capability of MOFs, we successfully designed NJU-Bai 17, a new analogue of MOF-505 with an inserted amide functional group which exhibits almost record high C2H2 uptakes of 222.4 cm(3) g(-1) at 296 K and 296 cm(3) g(-1) at 273 K under 1 bar. This result has been further supported by the determination of the heat of C2H2 adsorption and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) and first-principle calculations.

  11. The Effects of an Interdependent Group Oriented Contingency and Performance Feedback on the Praise Statements of Pre-Service Teachers during a Summer Day-Camp for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clinton; Bicard, David F.; Casey, Laura B.; Bicard, Sara C.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher praise is one of the most important elements of teaching and learning. Behavioral consultation with and without performance has been shown to be an effective method for increasing instructional praise. The authors used an ABCBC design to investigate the effects of an interdependent group oriented contingency (GC) and the GC plus…

  12. Modifying the Chemical Structure of a Porphyrin Small Molecule with Benzothiophene Groups for the Reproducible Fabrication of High Performance Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tianxiang; Xiao, Liangang; Gao, Ke; Xu, Wenzhan; Peng, Xiaobin; Cao, Yong

    2017-03-01

    A porphyrin-based molecule DPPEZnP-BzTBO with bulky benzothiophene groups was designed and synthesized as an electron donor material for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The optimized devices under thermal annealing (TA) and then chloroform solvent vapor anneanling (SVA) for 80 s exhibited an outstanding power conversion efficiencie (PCE) of 9.08%. Contrasted with the smaller thienyl substituted analogues we reported previously, DPPEZnP-BzTBO-based BHJ solar cells exhibited a higher open circuit voltage due to the lower highest occupied molecular orbital energy level. The TA post-treatment of the active layers induced the formation of more crystallized components, and the subsequent SVA provided a driving force for the domain growth, resulting in more obvious phase segregation between the donor and the acceptor in nanoscale. Furthermore, the PCEs kept above 95% upon the further SVA treatment within the time range of 60 to 95 s probably because the bulky benzothiophene groups retard the too quick change of crystallinity, providing a wide processing window for the reproducible device fabrication.

  13. Argonne's performance assessment of major facility systems to support semiconductor manufacturing by the National Security Agency/R Group, Ft. Meade, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Miller, G.M.

    1990-12-01

    The National Security Agency (NSA) was authorized in 1983 to construct a semiconductor and circuit-board manufacturing plant at its Ft. Meade, Maryland, facility. This facility was to become known as the Special Process Laboratories (SPL) building. Phase I construction was managed by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District (USACE/BD) and commenced in January 1986. Phase I construction provided the basic building and support systems, such as the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system, the deionized-water and wastewater-treatment systems, and the high-purity-gas piping system. Phase II construction involved fitting the semiconductor manufacturing side of the building with manufacturing tools and enhancing various aspects of the Phase I construction. Phase II construction was managed by NSA and commenced in April 1989. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) was contracted by USACE/BD midway through the Phase I construction period to provide quality-assured performance reviews of major facility systems in the SPL. Following completion of the Phase I construction, ANL continued its performance reviews under NSA sponsorship, focusing its attention on the enhancements to the various manufacturing support systems of interest. The purpose of this document is to provide a guide to the files that were generated by ANL during its term of technical assistance to USACE/BD and NSA and to explain the quality assurance program that was implemented when ANL conducted its performance reviews of the SPL building's systems. One set of the ANL project files is located at NSA, Ft. Meade, and two sets are at Argonne, Illinois. The ANL sets will be maintained until the year 2000, or for the 10-year estimated life of the project. 1 fig.

  14. Argonne's performance assessment of major facility systems to support semiconductor manufacturing by the National Security Agency/R Group, Ft. Meade, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Miller, G.M.

    1990-12-01

    The National Security Agency (NSA) was authorized in 1983 to construct a semiconductor and circuit-board manufacturing plant at its Ft. Meade, Maryland, facility. This facility was to become known as the Special Process Laboratories (SPL) building. Phase I construction was managed by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District (USACE/BD) and commenced in January 1986. Phase I construction provided the basic building and support systems, such as the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system, the deionized-water and wastewater-treatment systems, and the high-purity-gas piping system. Phase II construction involved fitting the semiconductor manufacturing side of the building with manufacturing tools and enhancing various aspects of the Phase I construction. Phase II construction was managed by NSA and commenced in April 1989. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) was contracted by USACE/BD midway through the Phase I construction period to provide quality-assured performance reviews of major facility systems in the SPL. Following completion of the Phase I construction, ANL continued its performance reviews under NSA sponsorship, focusing its attention on the enhancements to the various manufacturing support systems of interest. The purpose of this document is to provide a guide to the files that were generated by ANL during its term of technical assistance to USACE/BD and NSA and to explain the quality assurance program that was implemented when ANL conducted its performance reviews of the SPL building's systems. One set of the ANL project files is located at NSA, Ft. Meade, and two sets are at Argonne, Illinois. The ANL sets will be maintained until the year 2000, or for the 10-year estimated life of the project. 1 fig.

  15. How does the quality of life and the underlying biochemical indicators correlate with the performance in academic examinations in a group of medical students of Sri Lanka?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Hettiarachchi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individual variation of examination performance depends on many modifiable and non-modifiable factors, including pre-examination anxiety. Medical students’ quality of life (QoL and certain biochemical changes occurring while they are preparing for examinations has not been explored. Purpose: We hypothesize that these parameters would determine the examination performance among medical students. Methods: Fourth-year medical students (n=78 from the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka, were invited. Their pre- and post-exam status of QoL, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, and the level of biochemical marker levels (i.e., serum levels of thyroid profile including thyroglobulin, cortisol and ferritin were assessed. Differences between the scores of QoL and serum parameters were compared with their performance at the examination. Results: The mean QoL score was significantly lower at pre-exam (56.19±8.1 when compared with post-exam (61.7±7.1 levels (p<0.001. The median serum TSH level prior to the exam (0.9 mIU/L; interquartile range 0.74–1.4 mIU/L was significantly lower (p=0.001 when compared with the level after the exam (median of 2.7 mIU/L; IQR 1.90–3.60. The mean±SD fT4 level was significantly higher before the exam (19.48±0.4 pmol/L at study entry vs. 17.43±0.3 pmol/L after the exam; p<0.001. Median serum ferritin (SF level prior to the exam (43.15 (23.5–63.3 µg/L was significantly lower (p≤0.001 when compared with after-exam status (72.36 (49.9–94.9 µg/L. However, there was no difference in mean serum cortisol levels (16.51±0.7 at pre-exam and 15.88±0.7 at post-exam, respectively; p=0.41. Conclusions: Students had higher fT4 and low ferritin levels on pre-exam biochemical assessment. It was evident that students who perform better at the examination had significantly higher QoL scores at each domain tested through the questionnaire (Physical health, Psychological

  16. Assessing the implications on performance when aligning customer lifetime value calculations with religious faith groups and afterlifetime values - a Socratic elenchus approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Wilson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) is an established relationship marketing-centric approach to evaluating performance based upon the significance of a customer, and what resources should be allocated towards maintaining relations – beyond short-term transactional views. The conceptual argument...... presented in this paper contributes one very simple, yet significant argument, which is both transactional and relational. Namely, a large portion of humanity believes in a life beyond current existence – the Afterlife. Therefore, death in the psyche of such a person does not terminate benefit seeking......, and there is value in the afterlife. The aim here is to refine value-based calculations, drawing from varying religious perspectives: reincarnation, heaven, and enlightenment, amongst others. A particular focus has been given to Islamic schools of thought and practices, as a test case and in response to market...

  17. Personal goals, group performance and ‘social’ networks: participants’ negotiation of virtual and embodied relationships in the ‘Workplace Challenge’ physical activity programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam Brian; Carter, Alice; Middleton, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    County Sports Partnerships (CSPs) epitomise the growing reliance upon building networks and partnerships in sports delivery. This study investigated how social networks were created and contested in a CSP-led programme entitled the ‘Workplace Challenge’ (WPC). The WPC used a web-platform to encou......County Sports Partnerships (CSPs) epitomise the growing reliance upon building networks and partnerships in sports delivery. This study investigated how social networks were created and contested in a CSP-led programme entitled the ‘Workplace Challenge’ (WPC). The WPC used a web...... in professional I–We identities, whereas virtual networks sometimes highlighted participants’ isolation. Moreover, emphasis upon competition within and between teams caused some participants to question their performance. Often, competition motivated engagement. For less active participants, constant comparison...

  18. Development of Moral Judgment according to Kohlberg as an Academic Performance Determining Factor in Social Sciences for a Group of Secondary Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz-Serrano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at defining the relation between the students’ moral development level and their academic performance in the subject of Social Sciences-Geography, with the participation of twelve students enrolled in the third year of compulsory secondary education in school of Murcia, Spain. Kohlberg theorized the moral judgment development process in which people go through six stages, identifying in each one of them how we react when confronted with a moral dilemma; an instrument designed for this study, based on such theory, will allow us to know the stage of moral development of the participants. The results will reveal a tendency to a direct and positive relation, leading to the conclusion that it is interesting to examine the stage of moral judgment in the classroom. In addition, some educational and research recommendations are provided at the end of this paper.

  19. Tratamento cirúrgico para impacto femoroacetabular em um grupo que realiza agachamento Surgical treatment for femoroacetabular impingement in a group that performs squats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Cavalli Polesello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados do tratamento cirúrgico artroscópico de um grupo de pacientes que desenvolveram sintomas após atividades físicas repetitivas, movimentando o quadril em uma posição de hiperflexão, como leg press e agachamento. MÉTODOS: O grupo do estudo compreendeu 47 indivíduos (48 quadris que desenvolveram o início dos sintomas dolorosos associados a exercícios de hiperflexão de quadril (leg press ou agachamento e submetidos a tratamento artroscópico. Os pacientes foram avaliados radiográfica e clinicamente segundo o Harris Hip Score modificado por Byrd (MHHS, nos períodos pré e pós-operatório, questionados sobre seu retorno às atividades esportivas e os achados cirúrgicos. RESULTADOS: A média do MHHS nos períodos pré e pós-operatório foi, respectivamente, 60 pontos (DP 11,0, faixa 38,5-92,4 e 95,9 pontos (DP 7,7, faixa 63,8-100, aumento de 35,9 pontos (P OBJECTIVE: Describe the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment on a group of patients who developed symptoms after repetitive physical activity of moving their hips in a position of hyperflexion, as in leg presses and squats. METHODS: The study group comprised 47 individuals (48 hips who developed the onset of painful symptoms associated with hip hyperflexion exercises (leg presses or squats and underwent arthroscopic treatment. The patients were evaluated radiographically and clinically according to the "Harris Hip Score", as modified by Byrd (MHHS, pre and postoperatively, and were asked about their return to sports activities and the surgical findings. RESULTS: The mean preoperative and postoperative MHHS, respectively, were 60 points (SD 11.0, range 38.5 to 92.4 and 95.9 points (SD 7.7, range 63.8 to 100, with an increase of 35.9 points (P < 0.001. Regarding physical activity, 30 individuals (71.5% resumed sports activities after surgery, and 25 of them (83.4% at the previous level. Six patients (12.8% did not resume activities because of

  20. A Survey to the Merger and Performance of Shenhuo Group Before and After the Financial Crisis%神火集团并购及绩效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯亚明; 徐慧

    2012-01-01

    以提高企业、产业和区域竞争力为出发点,描述了上市公司神火集团2005年至2008年间的并购事件,通过财务指标的分析对并购以后公司的整体状况进行评估,得出并购对企业发展和企业地位的影响。总结了促进产业链稳步发展的三种机制,即竞争定价机制、利益调节机制和沟通信任机制。%For the purpose of enhancing the competition ability of enterprises, industry and regional economy, this article describes the merger events of Shenhuo Group between 2005 and 2008. Through an analysis of financial index and an overall post - merger evaluation, it indicates the influence of merger on the development and status of industries. The article concludes three mechanisms, that are competitive pricing mechanism, benefit adjusting mechanism and communication and trust mechanism, to stabilise the running of industry chain.

  1. User perspectives on an electronic decision-support tool performing comprehensive medication reviews - a focus group study with physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Tuomas; Sandström, Saana; Mäkinen, Joonas; Liira, Helena

    2016-01-22

    Although a number of studies have evaluated the effectiveness of computerized decision-support systems (CDSS), there is lack of data on user perspectives, barriers, and facilitators to the implementation of CDSSs in real-life surroundings. The aim of this study was to assess individually perceived barriers, facilitators and ideas influencing the CDSS implementation and usability. In this qualitative study, five focus groups were carried out with physicians and nurses separately at the Tampere City Health Center, Finland. The participants were end-users of the EBMeDS computerized decision support system. An explorative data content analysis was applied. The most important barrier to benefitting from CDSS was the lack of structured and coded diagnosis documentation and outdated medication information in the electronic health records. This led to false alerts and distrust towards the system. Among the major facilitators found were e.g. the beneficial reminders that helped practitioners take into account matters otherwise ignored; automatic glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculations; medication safety checks; and the summaries in the single medication review at a glance. Physicians' and nurses' are keen to use the CDSS and it may enhance their inter-professional collaboration. Documenting patient information in a structured, uniform and easy manner is the essential starting point for electronic decision support. When implementing CDSS, managers need to focus on common practices in documenting structured data in their organizations in order to prevent undermining trust in the system.

  2. Algebraic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The workshop continued a series of Oberwolfach meetings on algebraic groups, started in 1971 by Tonny Springer and Jacques Tits who both attended the present conference. This time, the organizers were Michel Brion, Jens Carsten Jantzen, and Raphaël Rouquier. During the last years, the subject...... of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group......-theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology...

  3. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  4. MUYANG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  5. The environmental performance indicators in the sector of tourist services. The case of study about an international hotel group; Indicatori di performance ambientale nel settore dei servizi turistici. Il caso di studio di una catena alberghiera internazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriola, L. [ENEA, Div. Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Seminara, M.V.

    2000-07-01

    The environmental performance indicators in the tourism sector represents the necessary element to quantify and to simplify information about the environmental performance of a particular field in order to make the comprehension of the interactions between tourist activities and environment understood by the customers and decision makers. This indicators will have to be quantified in order to contribute to focus and explain improvements in environmental management. One of the most important elements to pursue a Sustainable Development is the definition of a series of the right indicators. Basically performance indicators can be applied in the environmental analyses effected for defining the politics of management of tourist development and, particularly, in the procedures of Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment disciplined by the European Directives 85/337/CEE, 97/11/CEE, from the proposal of Directive on the SEA and from the relative national normative. This tools should allow to esteem environmental conditions and the impacts caused by the tourist activities to find actions to balance the budget between the economic development and the social and environmental issues i a determined territorial context. [Italian] Gli indicatori di performance ambientale applicati al settore del turismo costituiscono l'elemento necessario per quantificare e semplificare le informazioni sulle prestazioni ambientali del settore preso in considerazione, in modo da agevolare, sia da parte dei responsabili delle decisioni, sia da parte del pubblico e dei clienti, la comprensione delle interazioni tra le attivita' turistiche e l'ambiente e le relative criticita'. Tali indicatori dovranno essere quantificati per contribuire ad individuare e a spiegare i miglioramenti ottenuti nel tempo. La definizione di un quadro di indicatori adeguato costituisce pertanto uno degli elementi essenziali per il raggiungimento di uno Sviluppo Sostenibile

  6. The environmental performance indicators in the sector of tourist services. The case of study about an international hotel group; Indicatori di performance ambientale nel settore dei servizi turistici. Il caso di studio di una catena alberghiera internazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriola, L. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Seminara, M.V.

    2001-07-01

    The environmental performance indicators in the tourism sector represents the necessary element to quantify and to simplify information about the environmental performance of a particular field in order to make the comprehension of the interactions between tourist activities and environment understood by the customers and decision makers. This indicators will have to be quantified in order to contribute to focus and explain improvements in environmental management. One of the most important elements to pursue a Sustainable Development is the definition of a series of the right indicators. Basically performance indicators can be applied in the environmental analyses effected for defining the politics of management of tourist development and, particularly, in the procedures of Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment disciplined by the European Directives 85/337/CEE, 97/11/CE, from the proposal of Directive on the SEA and from the relative national normative. This tools should allow to esteem environment conditions and the impacts caused by the tourist activities to find actions to balance the budget between the economic development and the social and environmental issues in a determined territorial context. [Italian] Gli indicatori di performance ambientale applicati settore del turismo costituiscono l'elemento necessario per quantificare e semplificare le informazioni sulle prestazioni ambientali del settore preso in considerazione, in modo da agevolare, sia da parte dei responsabili delle decisioni, sia da parte del pubblico e dei clienti, la comprensione delle interazioni tra le attivita' turistiche e l'ambiente e le relative criticita'. Tali indicatori dovranno essere quantificati per contribuire ad individuare e a spiegare i miglioramenti ottenuti nel tempo. La definizione di un quadro di indicatori adeguato costituisce pertanto uno degli elementi essenziali per il raggiungimento di uno Sviluppo Sostenibile. In

  7. Investigation of high-resolution absorption spectra of diatomic sulfides of group 14 elements in graphite furnace and the comparison of their performance for sulfur determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Florek, Stefan; Abad, Carlos; Okruss, Michael

    2017-09-01

    For the purpose of finding suitable molecules applicable to sulfur determination and to compare their analytical sensitivity systematically, high-resolution overview molecular absorption spectra of sulfides of group 14 elements produced in a graphite furnace were investigated. To that end a modular simultaneous echelle spectrograph (MOSES) was used, which allows recording sub-ranges of spectra out of a total wavelength range from 190 nm to 735 nm. The combined overview spectra show a complex structure with many vibrational bands, each of them consisting of a multitude of sharp rotational lines. The absorption of rotational lines of SiS (282.910 nm), GeS (295.209 nm), SnS (271.578 nm), and PbS (335.085 nm) has been analyzed for optimizing the particular experimental conditions regarding to the sulfur determination. Using the commercial CS AAS instrument contrAA 600 under optimized conditions such as the temperature program, the modification of the platform with Zr and the use of chemical modifiers, the achieved characteristic masses for sulfur are 12 ng (CS), 15.7 ng (SiS), 9.4 ng (GeS), 20 ng (SnS), and 220 ng (PbS). The first four sulfides provide an analytical sensitivity at roughly the same level, but the GeS molecule seems to be the best one with respect to analytical sensitivity and flexibility in molecular formation control. The PbS molecule provides the lowest analytical sensitivity, and together with its low bond strength it is not recommended for sulfur determination.

  8. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  9. 湘村黑猪世代繁育性能分析%Study on Reproductive Performances of Xiangcun Black Pig Grouped by Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱吉; 刘建; 罗璇; 彭英林; 李静如; 李超群; 杨仕柳

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied on reproduction and nursing performance of Xiangcun Black pig by measured data including 660 litters of primiparous sows during 0~5 generations and 415 litters of multiparous sows during 1~5 generations. The results showed that the main breeding traits' means including the total number born,number born alive,litter size at 21 d,litter weight at 21 d,litter weight at 70 d of primiparous sows and multiparous sows is respec-tively 11.11,10.32,9.86,42.03 kg,172.29 kg and 13.18,12.86,12.14,56.06 kg,232.91 kg;by variance analysis,there were significant or very significant differences in the rearing rate at 70 d,birth weight,body weight at 21 d and 70 d,initial litter weight,litter weight at 21 d and 70 d of primiparous sows and multiparous sows (P<0.05 or P<0.01).There were significant or very significant differencesin the litter size at 70 d and the rearing rate at 21 d of multiparous sows(P<0.05 or P<0.01).That generally reflects Xiangcun Black pig had relatively high farrowing performance.%文章统计分析了湘村黑猪初产0~5世代660窝、经产1~5世代415窝繁殖性能测定数据,以分析其繁殖与哺育性能。结果表明,湘村黑猪总产仔数、产活仔数、21日龄育成仔数、21日龄窝重、70日龄窝重等主要繁育性状,初产和经产分别11.11头、10.32头、9.86头、42.03 kg、172.29 kg和13.18头、12.86头、12.14头、56.06 kg、232.91 kg;经方差分析F检验,70日龄育成率以及初生、21日龄、70日龄仔猪的个体重和窝重等7项性状初产、经产母猪世代间差异显著(P<0.05)或极显著(P<0.01),70日龄育成仔数、21日龄和70日龄育成率等性状经产母猪世代间差异显著(P<0.05)或极显著(P<0.01),总体反映出湘村黑猪是具有较高繁殖性能的培育猪种。

  10. Fast Overlapping Group Lasso

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The group Lasso is an extension of the Lasso for feature selection on (predefined) non-overlapping groups of features. The non-overlapping group structure limits its applicability in practice. There have been several recent attempts to study a more general formulation, where groups of features are given, potentially with overlaps between the groups. The resulting optimization is, however, much more challenging to solve due to the group overlaps. In this paper, we consider the efficient optimization of the overlapping group Lasso penalized problem. We reveal several key properties of the proximal operator associated with the overlapping group Lasso, and compute the proximal operator by solving the smooth and convex dual problem, which allows the use of the gradient descent type of algorithms for the optimization. We have performed empirical evaluations using the breast cancer gene expression data set, which consists of 8,141 genes organized into (overlapping) gene sets. Experimental results demonstrate the eff...

  11. The Relationship between Diversification and Economic Performance of Enterprise Group%企业集团多元化战略与经济绩效关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳

    2001-01-01

    研究多元化战略的多元化经营历史,分析影响多元化企业集团经济绩效的因素,对多元化战略和经济绩效的关系进行实证研究。%Enterprise group is the mainstay of a coun try's economy. Its strategy is important to the national economic development . This article studies the history of diversification, analyzes the factors affecting the enterprise's performance, and studies the relationship between di versification and economic performance by of empirical research.

  12. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  13. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Hostetler, K.A.; Thurman, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    Analytical methods using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) were developed for the analysis of the following chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water: acetochlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA), acetochlor oxanilic acid (OXA), alachlor ESA, alachlor OXA, metolachlor ESA, and metolachlor OXA. Good precision and accuracy were demonstrated for both the HPLC-DAD and HPLC/MS methods in reagent water, surface water, and ground water. The mean HPLC-DAD recoveries of the chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites from water samples spiked at 0.25, 0.50, and 2.0 mg/L (micrograms per liter) ranged from 84 to 112 percent, with relative standard deviations of 18 percent or less. The mean HPLC/MS recoveries of the metabolites from water samples spiked at 0.05, 0.20, and 2.0 mg/L ranged from 81 to 125 percent, with relative standard deviations of 20 percent or less. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for all metabolites using the HPLC-DAD method was 0.20 mg/L, whereas the LOQ using the HPLC/MS method was 0.05 mg/L. These metabolite-determination methods are valuable for acquiring information about water quality and the fate and transport of the parent chloroacetanilide herbicides in water.

  14. Informal groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an Inter

  15. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...... of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would...

  16. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  17. The Effect of Leader Emotional Intelligence on Group Performance and Employee Attitude:Mediating Effect of Justice Climate and Moderating Effect of Group Power Distance%领导情绪智力对团队绩效和员工态度的影响--公平氛围和权力距离的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    容琰; 隋杨; 杨百寅

    2015-01-01

    Recently, increasing numbers of researchers have shown interests in leader emotional intelligence. Even though some of them are optimistic on the relation between leader emotional intelligence and team performance, critics still remain and mixed results are found. What’s more, the mechanisms and constrains that explain the effectiveness of leader emotional intelligence, especially at group level, are relatively unexplored. We address those research gaps by exploring the effect of leader emotional intelligence on leader-member interaction in the perspective of justice climate and group power distance. We also synthesize the performance and attitude at the group level to further examine the influence of leader emotional intelligence in working groups. Justice climate is a suitable reflection of leader-member interaction while emotional intelligence underlines leaders’ social skills. So that, exploring the effectiveness of leader emotional intelligence in the perspective of justice climate grasps the essential characteristic of emotional intelligence. On the other hand, group power distance is a contextual factor that affects the influence of leaders on group outcomes, thus it constrains the extent to which leader emotional intelligence could be effective. The sample for this study consisted of 74 working groups. We used the ability model to define emotional intelligence because it showed better psychometric properties. The questionnaires for leaders included emotional intelligence, group performance, and organizational citizenship behavior, while the questionnaires for group members included procedural justice, interactional justice, satisfaction and organizational commitment. Justice, power distance and four dependent variables were aggregated to group level. Multiple mediator model, moderated mediation and bootstrapping were used in the analysis. The result showed significantly positive relations between leader emotional intelligence and group level outcomes

  18. Group Connections: Whole Group Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    A learner-centered approach to adult group instruction involved learners in investigating 20th-century events. The approach allowed learners to concentrate on different activities according to their abilities and gave them opportunities to develop basic skills and practice teamwork. (SK)

  19. COMMISSIONING AND DIRECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    The main event since the last CMS week has been the long cosmic run with the field at the nominal value of 3.8 Tesla (CRAFT). The goals of the run were to operate continuously the detector for the order of a month in order to gain operational experience and to accumulate cosmic track statistics matching that collected from all previous CRUZET runs (i.e. 300 Million cosmic triggers), or expressed in different terms, to run with an average operational efficiency exceeding 70%. Both goals have been achieved: the 70% average live time is given by a mixture of fairly stable running periods (we have run for up to 24 hours without a single interruption) and periods of high instability due to a multitude of causes which are being analyzed. Several firmware issues have been identified and are being fixed. Problems in the control software robustness are being tackled, and for the unavoidable readout hardware failures (in a system as large and complex as our data acquisition setup), modifications in the DAQ are being ...

  20. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)

    CERN Multimedia

    Tiziano Camporesi

    Pit commissioning activities The last 4 months have seen various major achievements in hardware commissioning, global data taking, readiness of the DPGs to deal with LHC data flows and alignment and calibration workflows. Since February, the global commissioning has been characterized on the one side by more and more of the final CMS detector becoming available for global readout and triggering and on the other side by consolidation of many of the central software infrastructure and of most of the services infrastructure. The reliability of services like cooling, power, gas has markedly improved with respect to what we observed in the second half of 2007.   Of particular note are the delivery of all low voltage power supplies, the commissioning of the final power distribution, the progressive commissioning ( still ongoing)  of the Detector Safety System and of the associated DCS early warning and alarm system. On the detector side, while already we are used to seeing all of HCAL being exe...

  1. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ryd and T. Camporesi

    2010-01-01

    Commissioning and Run Coordination activities After the successful conclusion of the LHC pilot run commissioning in 2009 activities at the experiment restarted only late in January due to the cooling and detector maintenance. As usual we got going with weekly exercises used to deploy, debug, and validate improvements in firmware and software. A debriefing workshop aimed at analyzing the operational aspects of the 2009 pilot run was held on Jan. 15, 2009, to define a list of improvements (and relative priorities) to be planned. In the last month, most of the objectives set in the debriefing workshop have been attained. The major achievements/improvements obtained are the following: - Consolidation of the firmware for both readout and trigger for ECAL - Software implementation of procedures for raising the bias voltage of the silicon tracker and pixel driven by LHC mode changes with automatic propagation of the state changes from the DCS to the DAQ. The improvements in the software and firmware allow suppress...

  2. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    Since the last CMS week we have continued the regular mid week global runs and conducted the first CRUZET this year at the beginning of June. The fact that the tracker was not available yet due to the cooling plant refurbishing has limited the scope of these global runs. The focus has been on verifying the robustness of the various subsystem data acquisition chains under realistic LHC-like trigger conditions. In the last few weeks we have been able to take runs of many hours at a Level-1 trigger rate of 90 kHz with less than 10% deadtime. As usual a lot of issues have been found and dealt with, and the firmware of the various subsystems have all been upgraded/fixed. Worth reporting is the fact that now both endcaps are read-out completely (including the RPC on the negative side) and the local commissioning of the preshower detector has been steadily progressing, with the last firmware fixes in hand to be able to join the global run campaign. The Pixel system has been part of 3 global runs already and has pr...

  3. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Malgeri

    2011-01-01

    General Figure 2: Integrated luminosity delivered by LHC and recorded by CMS in 2010 and 2011. Since the last CMS Bulletin, an enormous amount of progress has been made. The LHC has been increasing the number of bunches stored in the machine to the record of 1236 bunches. On the way there they have achieved a peak instantaneous luminosity of 1.27x1033 cm-2s-1 making the LHC by far the highest luminosity hadron collider. The LHC has now delivered over 1 fb-1 to CMS. Figure 2 shows the delivered and recorded luminosity in the 2010 and 2011 run. In Figure 3 is shown the daily delivered and recorded luminosity during the 2011 run until mid-June. The LHC has now delivered over 50 pb-1 in one day.   Figure 3: The daily delivered and recorded luminosities during the 2011 run. Tracker The data collected by the Tracker is of very good quality, and is being constantly monitored offline by our Offline shift crew and our DQM team. These teams are also certifying the data, and it is seen that 99% of the da...

  4. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Malgeri

    2011-01-01

    Since the last Bulletin, CMS has completed the proton data-taking and transitioned to the ion physics data-taking. The proton run in 2011 has been a great success both for the LHC and CMS. The data delivered by the LHC and recorded by CMS are shown in Figure 3. In the period up to the June/July machine development (MD) and technical stop (TS) the machine completed the ramping to 1380 bunches per beam. In the July and August running period the machine reduced the emittance and increased the bunch charges. In the last proton running period after the August/September MD and TS period the machine reduced b* to 1.0 m from 1.5 m that had been used earlier in the year. This, combined with some further increases in the intensity, lead to the peak instantaneous luminosity of 3.5 x 1033 cm–2s–1 achieved this year. The LHC delivered 5.72 fb–1 and CMS recorded 5.20 fb–1 for an overall efficiency of 91%. The offline certification yielded a 'golden' sample of 4.7 fb...

  5. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  6. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  7. Outcome with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone followed by early autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma on the ECOG-ACRIN E4A03 randomized clinical trial: long-term follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, N; Jacobus, S; Vesole, D H; Callander, N S; Fonseca, R; Williams, M E; Abonour, R; Katz, M S; Rajkumar, S V; Greipp, P R; Siegel, D S

    2016-01-01

    In Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-ACRIN E4A03, on completion of four cycles of therapy, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients had the option of proceeding to autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant (ASCT) or continuing on their assigned therapy lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (Ld) or lenalidomide plus high-dose dexamethasone (LD). This landmark analysis compared the outcome of 431 patients surviving their first four cycles of therapy pursuing early ASCT to those continuing on their assigned therapy. Survival distributions were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared with log-rank test. Ninety patients (21%) opted for early ASCT. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year survival probability estimates were higher for early ASCT versus no early ASCT at 99, 93, 91, 85 and 80% versus 94, 84, 75, 65 and 57%, respectively. The median overall survival (OS) in the early versus no early ASCT group was not reached (NR) versus 5.78 years. In patients confidence interval: (0.50, 0.25). In patients ⩾65 years of age, median OS in the early versus no early ASCT was NR versus 5.11 years. ASCT dropped out of statistical significance (P=0.080). Patients opting for ASCT after induction Ld/LD had a higher survival probability and improvement in OS regardless of dexamethasone dose density. PMID:27588519

  8. Game Analysis of Relationships between Emotion Conflicts and Tasks Perform Conflicts in Project Group%项目团队中情感与履行任务冲突关系博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万涛

    2011-01-01

    针对项目团队中存在冲突影响团队有效构建与和谐发展的问题,在现有的项目团队冲突经济行为研究成果基础上引进非经济行为分析,利用博弈论构建任务履行冲突(经济行为)与情感冲突(非经济行为)的关系理论模型,实例研究表明,该理论研究符合实际运作,为构建和谐的项目团队提供了理论依据.%Conflicts in project group are important factors affecting the effective establishment and harmonious development of project group. Non - economic behavior conflicts were analysed based on the research achievement of economic behavior conflicts in the existing project group. The relationship theoretical models were set up using tasks perform conflicts ( economic behaviors) and emotion conflicts ( non - economic behaviors) by game theory. The case indicates that the result accords with the practical operation;consequently it gives a basis for theory to establish the harmonious project group.

  9. Application of Performance Management in Meter Reading Management of Residential Customers in Hefei Gas Group%绩效管理在合肥燃气集团民用抄表管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚俊; 汪先祥

    2014-01-01

    介绍合肥燃气集团民用抄表管理中存在的问题,分析了出现问题的原因,并就民用抄表管理中引入绩效管理进行经验总结。%The problems in meter reading management of residential customers in Hefei Gas Group are introduced.The reasons of these problems are analyzed.The experience in the introduction of performance management in meter reading management of residential customers is sumed up.

  10. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  11. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  12. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  13. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  14. Diferencias en habilidades y conducta entre grupos de preescolares de alto y bajo rendimiento escolar. [Differences in skills and behaviour between preschool groups of high and low educational performance ].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calero, M. Dolores

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study has been to analyze the relationship between psychological variables and school performance in preschool children. A collection of cognitive and behavioural variables were selected, that according to the most current bibliography are related to student learning, with the goal of identifying the factors that appear to influence educational performance in childhood. The final goal would be to try to prevent future performance problems by means of identifying early these variables in the children that present low performance. The sample is composed of 47 children: 23 children with high performance and 24 with low performance. The instruments used were the Kauffman Brief Intelligence Test, the EHPAP (Spanish version of ACFS de Lidz y Jepsen, 2003 and a questionnaire about metacognition. The results showed significant differences between both groups in the profile of skills, in behavioral variables, and in the use of metacognitive strategies. However, both groups present a similar learning potential. El objetivo ha sido analizar la relación entre variables psicológicas y rendimiento escolar en niños preescolares. Se ha seleccionado un conjunto de variables cognitivas y conductuales, que según la bibliografía más actualizada se relacionan con el aprendizaje escolar, con el fin de identificar los factores que parecen influir en el rendimiento educativo en la etapa infantil. La meta final sería intentar prevenir problemas de rendimiento futuros mediante la identificación temprana de estas variables en los niños que parecen presentar bajo rendimiento. La muestra ha estado compuesta por 47 niños: 23 con alto rendimiento y 24 con bajo rendimiento. Se han utilizado medidas de inteligencia (K-BIT, potencial de aprendizaje (EHPAP y metacognición. Los resultados muestran que los grupos difieren en el perfil de habilidades, en variables conductuales y en la utilización de estrategias metacognitivas. Sin embargo, todos presentan

  15. The influence of gender diversity on group performance and creativity%性别多样性对团队绩效和创造力影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 章振

    2012-01-01

    旨在考察中国文化情境下性别多样性对团队绩效和创造力的直接影响以及团队工作年限的调节作用。本文以制药和电信企业的146个团队为样本,采用验证性因子分析、相关分析和多重线性回归分析等方法进行假设检验。实证研究结果表明:1)性别多样性对团队绩效和创造力有正向的影响,2)随着团队工作年限的增加性别多样性对团队创造力的正向影响减弱,而对团队绩效的影响没有显著变化。本文还通过补充调查233名在职员工和分析6个本科学生团队案例验证了个体由于性别本身的差别而产生性别角色、互动风格方面的互补性差异,以及异性间存在较少的社会比较行为,进一步支持了本文研究假设。研究结论不仅丰富了性别多样性的研究,而且也为组织管理实践提供启示。%The purpose of this study is to examine the main effect of gender diversity on the group performance and creativity and to explore the moderation role of group longevity in Chinese context.By using 146 work groups from pharmaceutical and telecom companies,the hypotheses are tested via factor analysis,correlation analysis,and multiple regression analysis.The results show that(1) gender diversity has a positive effect on group performance and creativity;(2) gender diversity has a less positive effect on group creativity when group longevity is high,however it does not have such effect on the group performance.A survey investigation on 233 workplace employees is also conducted and six undergraduate-team cases are analyzed to demonstrate that individuals generated gender roles and complementary differences on interaction style based on gender itself and the social comparison behaviors across gender is fewer than that within the gender,the fact supports the theorization.The results enrich gender diversity research and provide valuable insights into organizational management practices.

  16. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm.......Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...

  17. Long-Term Follow-Up of a Phase II Trial of High-Dose Radiation With Concurrent 5-Fluorouracil and Cisplatin in Patients With Anal Cancer (ECOG E4292)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi, E-mail: bapsi.chak@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Catalano, Paul J. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Martenson, James A. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Mondschein, Joshua K. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Wagner, Henry [Pennsylvania State Hershey Cancer Institute, Hershey, PA (United States); Mansour, Edward G. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Talamonti, Mark S. [University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Evanston, IL (United States); Benson, Al Bowen [Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Although chemoradiation using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin-C (MMC) is the standard of care in the treatment of anal cancer, many patients are unable to tolerate MMC. This Phase II clinical trial was performed to determine whether cisplatin could replace MMC in the treatment of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients with localized anal cancer were enrolled. One patient registered but never received any assigned therapy and was excluded from all analyses. Between February 1, 1993, and July 21, 1993, 19 patients were accrued to Cohort 1. Radiation consisted of 45 Gy to the primary tumor and pelvic nodes, followed by a boost to the primary and involved nodes to 59.4 Gy. A planned 2-week treatment break was used after 36 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of 5-FU 1,000 mg/m{sup 2}/day on Days 1 to 4 and cisplatin 75 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1. A second course of 5-FU and cisplatin was given after 36 Gy, when the patient resumed radiation therapy. Between April 4, 1996, and September 23, 1996, an additional 13 patients (Cohort 2) were accrued to the study and received the same treatment except without the planned treatment break. Results: Complete response was seen in 78% (90% CI, 63-89) of patients and was higher in patients who did not get a planned treatment break (92% vs. 68%). The overall Grade 4 toxicity rate was 31%. One treatment-related death (Grade 5) occurred in a patient who developed sepsis. The 5-year overall survival was 69%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy, cisplatin, and 5-FU resulted in an overall objective response (complete response + partial response) of 97%. Although the 5-year progression-free survival was only 55%, the overall 5-year survival was 69%. Given the excellent salvage provided by surgery, this study affirms that cisplatin-based regimens may be an alternative for patients who cannot tolerate the severe hematologic toxicities associated with mitomycin-based chemoradiation regimens.

  18. Desempenho e características de carcaça de bovinos de diferentes grupos genéticos Performance and carcass characteristics of different genetic groups of steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de bovinos castrados de três grupos genéticos: Nelore (NN; ½ Guzerá × ½ Nelore (GN; e ½ Brahman × ½ Nelore (BN. Foram utilizados 41 bovinos com 24 meses de idade, mantidos em pastagem de capim-braquiária. Todos os animais eram de mesmo rebanho e foram criados sob as mesmas condições e abatidos aos 3 anos de idade. No início do experimento e no abate, os animais cruzados com Brahman foram mais pesados que os animais dos outros dois grupamentos genéticos. As médias para peso corporal dos grupos Nelore, Guzerá × Nelore e Brahman × Nelore no início do experimento foram: 324, 320 e 343 kg e no abate de: 474, 470 e 499 kg, respectivamente. Os ganhos médios diários, no entanto, foram similares entre os três grupos (0,388; 0,386 e 0,409 kg/dia, respectivamente. Animais do grupo Brahman × Nelore produziram carcaças quentes mais pesadas que as obtidas no grupo Guzerá × Nelore (253 × 238 kg, porém, estes dois grupos não diferiram estatisticamente do grupo Nelore (242 kg. As porcentagens de músculo, gordura e ossos na carcaça foram similares entre os grupos. Outras características da carcaça (rendimento, área de olho-de-lombo, gordura de cobertura e marmoreio e a maciez da carne, avaliada por um painel de avaliadores e por um texturômetro, foram também similares entre os três grupamentos genéticos. O cruzamento de outras raças zebuínas (Brahman ou Guzerá com o Nelore não melhorou as características qualitativas da carcaça e da carne, embora o cruzamento com Brahman tenha resultado em animais mais pesados e com carcaças mais pesadas.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of steers of three genetic groups: Nellore (NN, ½ Guzerat × ½ Nellore (GN and ½ Brahman × ½ Nellore (BN. Forty-one steers, 24 mo old, kept in pasture of Brachiaria grass. All animals were from the same herd and were raised under the same conditions and slaughtered at 3 years old. At the beginning

  19. Group B Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert H. Adriaanse

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae is an important cause of neonatal sepsis. Prevention is possible by intrapartum screening for maternal GBS carriership and antimicrobial treatment of colonized women with risk factors during labor. The conflicting results of diagnostic performance are reported both for the newly developed rapid GBS antigen tests and Gram's stain.

  20. 高性能多媒体SoC分组访存调度算法%A Memory Group Scheduling Algorithm for High-performance Multimedia SoC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广飞; 汪文祥; 蒋毅飞; 苏孟豪

    2011-01-01

    Based on the memory access characteristics of multimedia processing units, a memory group scheduling algorithm for high-performance multimedia SoC is proposed. The algorithm, whose scheduling unit is memory group, groups memory requests and reorders the memory groups in accordance with group ID and page address. To ensure the accuracy of memory access, memory requests with the same memory ID must be scheduled according to the order of arrival. The algorithm considers memory efficiency and quality-of-service together, and provides minimum bandwidth guarantee for every memory requester in each scheduling cycle. The group scheduling algorithm is applied to memory scheduling device and compared with the previous memory scheduling algorithms based on bandwidth allocation in the simulation environment under practical application. Experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm can provide better quality-of-service and achieve average bandwidth utilization improvement by 15%.%根据多媒体处理单元的访存特点,提出一种面向高性能多媒体SoC的分组访存调度算法.该算法将访存请求按照访存ID和页地址分组,以访存组为单位进行乱序调度,并通过维护相同ID访存请求之间的顺序保证访存的正确性:综合考虑访存单元的访存效率和服务质量要求,在每个访存单元独立的调度周期内提供最低带宽保障服务.将该分组访存调度算法应用于访存调度装置,实际应用仿真结果表明,与已有基于带宽分配的访存调度算法相比,文中算法在保障访存单元带宽需求的同时降低了访存延迟,并将平均带宽利用率提高了15%.