WorldWideScience

Sample records for group dynamic development

  1. Dynamic regulation of Polycomb group activity during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Marian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes play important roles in phase transitions and cell fate determination in plants and animals, by epigenetically repressing sets of genes that promote either proliferation or differentiation. The continuous differentiation of new organs in plants, such as leaves or flowers, requires a highly dynamic PcG function, which can be induced, modulated, or repressed when necessary. In this review, we discuss the recent advance in understanding PcG function in plants and focus on the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been described to regulate and counteract PcG activity in Arabidopsis.

  2. Supervision and group dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Jensen, Lars Peter

    2004-01-01

    as well as at Aalborg University. The first visible result has been participating supervisors telling us that the course has inspired them to try supervising group dynamics in the future. This paper will explore some aspects of supervising group dynamics as well as, how to develop the Aalborg model...... An important aspect of the problem based and project organized study at Aalborg University is the supervision of the project groups. At the basic education (first year) it is stated in the curriculum that part of the supervisors' job is to deal with group dynamics. This is due to the experience...... that many students are having difficulties with practical issues such as collaboration, communication, and project management. Most supervisors either ignore this demand, because they do not find it important or they find it frustrating, because they do not know, how to supervise group dynamics...

  3. Context and group dynamics in a CBPR-developed HIV prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Zuniga, Maria Ofelia; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; Navas, Verónica

    2016-03-01

    This paper will explore in detail the effects of context and group dynamics on the development of a multi-level community-based HIV prevention intervention for crack cocaine users in the San Salvador Metropolitan Area, El Salvador. Community partners included residents from marginal communities, service providers from the historic center of San Salvador and research staff from a non-profit organization. The community contexts from which partners came varied considerably and affected structural group dynamics, i.e. who was identified as community partners, their research and organizational capacity, and their ability to represent their communities, with participants from marginal communities most likely to hold community leadership positions and be residents, and those from the center of San Salvador most likely to work in religious organizations dedicated to HIV prevention or feeding indigent drug users. These differences also affected the intervention priorities of different partners. The context of communities changed over time, particularly levels of violence, and affected group dynamics and the intervention developed. Finally, strategies were needed to elicit input from stakeholders under-represented in the community advisory board, in particular active crack users, in order to check the feasibility of the proposed intervention and revise it as necessary. Because El Salvador is a very different context than that in which most CBPR studies have been conducted, our results reveal important contextual factors and their effects on partnerships not often considered in the literature.

  4. Play and Positive Group Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Pam; White, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Play is an important part of a child's life and essential to learning and development (Vygotsky, 1978). It is vital that students participate in play and that play be conducted in a restorative manner. Play allows a variety of group dynamics to emerge. Irvin Yalom (1995) identifies 11 curative factors of the group experience. These factors include…

  5. How Can Social Psychology and Group Dynamics Assist in Curriculum Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey; May, Matthew; Sullivan-Chin, Honora; Woodrick, Kaylyn

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges departments face as they embark on curriculum development. The interpersonal dynamics of a department are often the first and most difficult obstacle to overcome but are often overlooked. The author suggests some strategies for how to address these issues as they arise.

  6. How Can Social Psychology and Group Dynamics Assist in Curriculum Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey; May, Matthew; Sullivan-Chin, Honora; Woodrick, Kaylyn

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges departments face as they embark on curriculum development. The interpersonal dynamics of a department are often the first and most difficult obstacle to overcome but are often overlooked. The author suggests some strategies for how to address these issues as they arise.

  7. Group Dynamic Assessment (G-DA: The Case for the Development of Control over the Past Tense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mehri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of dynamic assessment within sociocultural theory opened a new door toward looking at the relationship between the teaching and assessment. The dialectic relationship between the two processes provides previously unfound information regarding the assessment and the development of the learners. However, the implementation of the interactionist dynamic assessment has carried some difficulties in class in general and the groups in particular. The current study tries to address the effect of group dynamic assessment on the development of the control over the past tense; therefore, it is two-folded in the aim. Not only does it work as a practical sample of group dynamic assessment in class, but also it seeks to analyze its effect on the development of control over the past tense. To this end, three learners at the levels of elementary, low-intermediate, and intermediate general proficiency were asked to read a novel and retell the story. The dynamic intervention provided by the teacher during the story retelling was later evaluated in the transcendence tasks of writing. The Friedman test indicated that the three learners had significant development in their control over the past tense in their writing. Moreover, the qualitative analysis of the interactions suggests that the learners changed their role from the mere receivers of the teacher's mediator into the active providers of mediation to other group members. Also, they developed their understanding of the concept of the past tense through implementing it in transcendence tasks of writing. Keywords: Sociocultural theory; dynamic assessment; group dynamic assessment; zone of proximal development; interaction

  8. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  9. Time Development of Early Social Networks: Link analysis and group dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bruun, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Empirical data on early network history are rare. Students beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offer a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. These networks have also been investigated to elucidate possible effects of gender and students' final course grade. Changes in the weekly number of links are investigated to show that while roughly half of all links change from week to week, students also reestablish a growing number of links as they progress through their first weeks of study. To investigate how students group, Infomap is used to establish groups. Further, student group flow is examined using alluvial diagrams, showing th...

  10. Time development in the early history of social networks: link stabilization, group dynamics, and segregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Bruun

    Full Text Available Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early network formation. Changes in the weekly number of links show that while roughly half of all links change from week to week, students also reestablish a growing number of links as they progress through their first weeks of study. Using the Infomap community detection algorithm, we show that the networks exhibit community structure, and we use non-network student attributes, such as gender and end-of-course grade to characterize communities during their formation. Specifically, we develop a segregation measure and show that students structure themselves according to gender and pre-organized sections (in which students engage in problem solving and laboratory work, but not according to end-of-coure grade. Alluvial diagrams of consecutive weeks' communities show that while student movement between groups are erratic in the beginning of their studies, they stabilize somewhat towards the end of the course. Taken together, the analyses imply that student interaction networks stabilize quickly and that students establish collaborations based on who is

  11. Symbolic dynamics and hyperbolic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Coornaert, Michel

    1993-01-01

    Gromov's theory of hyperbolic groups have had a big impact in combinatorial group theory and has deep connections with many branches of mathematics suchdifferential geometry, representation theory, ergodic theory and dynamical systems. This book is an elaboration on some ideas of Gromov on hyperbolic spaces and hyperbolic groups in relation with symbolic dynamics. Particular attention is paid to the dynamical system defined by the action of a hyperbolic group on its boundary. The boundary is most oftenchaotic both as a topological space and as a dynamical system, and a description of this boundary and the action is given in terms of subshifts of finite type. The book is self-contained and includes two introductory chapters, one on Gromov's hyperbolic geometry and the other one on symbolic dynamics. It is intended for students and researchers in geometry and in dynamical systems, and can be used asthe basis for a graduate course on these subjects.

  12. Organisations’ evolutionary dynamics: a group dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Eduardo Vargas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombian entrepreneurs’ straggling, reactionary and inertial orientation has been inconsistently lustified by the availability of internal and leveraged resources, a concept intensifying deficient technological capacity. Company activity (seen as being a socioeconomic unit has been integrally orientated within an evolutionary framework by company identity and cohesion as well as adaptation and evolutionary mechanisms. The present document uses a group dynamics’ model to illustrate how knowledge-based strategic orientation and integration for innovation have become an imperative for development, from slight leverage, distinguishing between two evolutionary company forms: traditional economic (inertial, as they introduce sporadic incremental improvements and modern companies (dynamic and radical innovators. Revealing conclusions obtained from such model may be used for intervening in and modernising company activity.

  13. Climate change and group dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics and views of people sceptical about climate change have been analysed extensively. A study now confirms that sceptics in the US have some characteristics of a social movement, but shows that the same group dynamics propel believers

  14. Climate change and group dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics and views of people sceptical about climate change have been analysed extensively. A study now confirms that sceptics in the US have some characteristics of a social movement, but shows that the same group dynamics propel believers

  15. Topological dynamics and definable groups

    CERN Document Server

    Pillay, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Following the works of Newelski we continue the study of the relations between abstract topological dynamics and generalized stable group theory. We show that the Ellis theory, applied to the action of G(M) on its type space, for G an fsg group in a NIP theory, and M any model, yields the quotient G/G^00.

  16. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual...... makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias...

  17. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  18. Total Quality Management (TQM): Group Dynamics Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-15

    TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) Group Dynamics Workshop © Copyright 1990 Booz*Allen & Hamilton... QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) GROUP DYNAMICS COURSE -’ Total Quality Management * This course has been designed under the direction and approval of OASD (P...participants’ use of group dynamics skills as leaders and members of OSD TQM groups. Total Quality Management " Examples of such groups include

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of group fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fernando P; Santos, Francisco C; Paiva, Ana; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2015-08-07

    The emergence and impact of fairness is commonly studied in the context of 2-person games, notably the Ultimatum Game. Often, however, humans face problems of collective action involving more than two individuals where fairness is known to play a very important role, and whose dynamics cannot be inferred from what is known from 2-person games. Here, we propose a generalization of the Ultimatum Game for an arbitrary number of players--the Multiplayer Ultimatum Game. Proposals are made to a group of responders who must individually reject or accept the proposal. If the total number of individual acceptances stands below a given threshold, the offer will be rejected; otherwise, the offer will be accepted, and equally shared by all responders. We investigate the evolution of fairness in populations of individuals by means of evolutionary game theory, providing both analytical insights and results from numerical simulations. We show how imposing stringent consensuses significantly increases the value of the proposals, leading to fairer outcomes and more tolerant players. Furthermore, we show how stochastic effects--such as imitation errors and/or errors when assessing the fitness of others--may further enhance the overall success in reaching fair collective action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Veno-occlusive disease nurse management: development of a dynamic monitoring tool by the GITMO nursing group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Stefano; Orlando, Laura; Gargiulo, Gianpaolo; Cecco, Valentina De; Banfi, Marina; Duranti, Lorenzo; Samarani, Emanuela; Netti, Maria Giovanna; Deiana, Marco; Galuppini, Vera; Pignatelli, Adriana Concetta; Ceresoli, Rosanna; Vedovetto, Alessio; Rostagno, Elena; Bambaci, Marilena; Dellaversana, Cristina; Luminari, Stefano; Bonifazi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a complication arising from the toxicity of conditioning regimens that have a significant impact on the survival of patients who undergo stem cell transplantation. There are several known risk factors for developing VOD and their assessment before the start of conditioning regimens could improve the quality of care. Equally important are early identification of signs and symptoms ascribable to VOD, rapid diagnosis, and timely adjustment of support therapy and treatment. Nurses have a fundamental role at the stages of assessment and monitoring for signs and symptoms; therefore, they should have documented skills and training. The literature defines nurses’ areas of competence in managing VOD, but in the actual clinical practice, this is not so clear. Moreover, there is an intrinsic difficulty in managing VOD due to its rapid and often dramatic evolution, together with a lack of care tools to guide nurses. Through a complex evidence-based process, the Gruppo Italiano per il Trapianto di Midollo Osseo (GITMO), cellule staminali emopoietiche e terapia cellulare nursing board has developed an operational flowchart and a dynamic monitoring tool applicable to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients, whether they develop this complication or not. PMID:27594906

  1. Veno-occlusive disease nurse management: development of a dynamic monitoring tool by the GITMO nursing group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Stefano; Orlando, Laura; Gargiulo, Gianpaolo; Cecco, Valentina De; Banfi, Marina; Duranti, Lorenzo; Samarani, Emanuela; Netti, Maria Giovanna; Deiana, Marco; Galuppini, Vera; Pignatelli, Adriana Concetta; Ceresoli, Rosanna; Vedovetto, Alessio; Rostagno, Elena; Bambaci, Marilena; Dellaversana, Cristina; Luminari, Stefano; Bonifazi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a complication arising from the toxicity of conditioning regimens that have a significant impact on the survival of patients who undergo stem cell transplantation. There are several known risk factors for developing VOD and their assessment before the start of conditioning regimens could improve the quality of care. Equally important are early identification of signs and symptoms ascribable to VOD, rapid diagnosis, and timely adjustment of support therapy and treatment. Nurses have a fundamental role at the stages of assessment and monitoring for signs and symptoms; therefore, they should have documented skills and training. The literature defines nurses' areas of competence in managing VOD, but in the actual clinical practice, this is not so clear. Moreover, there is an intrinsic difficulty in managing VOD due to its rapid and often dramatic evolution, together with a lack of care tools to guide nurses. Through a complex evidence-based process, the Gruppo Italiano per il Trapianto di Midollo Osseo (GITMO), cellule staminali emopoietiche e terapia cellulare nursing board has developed an operational flowchart and a dynamic monitoring tool applicable to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients, whether they develop this complication or not.

  2. A New Dynamic Group Signature Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yefeng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new dynamic group signature scheme is proposed. It allows the group manager to increase or delete group members flexibly. Furthermore, the length of group signatures, as well as the computational effort for signing, verifying and opening are very small and independent of the number of group members and deleted group members. So it is efficient.

  3. Group dynamics basics and pragmatics for practitioners

    CERN Document Server

    Haynes, Norris M

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a clear and engaging description of group dynamic processes. Group Dynamics will serve as an important text for students and professors and as a valuable guide for those who facilitate groups in a variety of clinical, counseling, educational, research, and organizational settings.

  4. Decision Dynamics in Group Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Fangqiu; Schlesinger, Kimberly J; Gür, Izzeddin; Carlson, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that affect human decision making and quantifying their influence remain essential and challenging tasks for the design and implementation of social and technological communication systems. We report results of a behavioral experiment involving decision making in the face of an impending natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, we characterize individual and group evacuation decision making influenced by several key factors, including the likelihood of the disaster, available shelter capacity, group size, and group decision protocol. Our results show that success in individual decision making is not a strong predictor of group performance. We use an artificial neural network trained on the collective behavior of subjects to predict individual and group outcomes. Overall model accuracy increases with the inclusion of a subject-specific performance parameter based on laboratory trials that captures individual differences. In parallel, we demonstrate that the social media activit...

  5. Secure Group Communications for Large Dynamic Multicast Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jing; Zhou Mingtian

    2003-01-01

    As the major problem in multicast security, the group key management has been the focus of research But few results are satisfactory. In this paper, the problems of group key management and access control for large dynamic multicast group have been researched and a solution based on SubGroup Secure Controllers (SGSCs) is presented, which solves many problems in IOLUS system and WGL scheme.

  6. Group Development: Extending Tuckman's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Mary F.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a framework for extending the Tuckman model of developmental sequence in small groups. Considers Tuckman's stages of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning lacking in descriptive depth and clear definition. Gathered and organized group dynamics graduate students' assessments of characteristics of stages over five-year…

  7. Narcissistic group dynamics of multiparty systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schruijer, S.G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to introduce and illustrate the notion of narcissistic group dynamics. It is claimed that narcissism does not simply reside within individuals but can be characteristic of groups and social systems. In this case, the focus is on narcissistic dynamics in multiparty systems.

  8. Narcissistic group dynamics of multiparty systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schruijer, S.G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to introduce and illustrate the notion of narcissistic group dynamics. It is claimed that narcissism does not simply reside within individuals but can be characteristic of groups and social systems. In this case, the focus is on narcissistic dynamics in multiparty systems.

  9. Dynamics of the Local Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B.; Frenk, C.

    The authors have analysed in detail the properties of a binary system formed in an N-body simulation of a cold dark matter Universe described by Frenk et al., 1985. The internal structure and orbital parameters of this system resemble those of the Local Group.

  10. Diffusion processes through social groups' dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Apolloni, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Axelrod's model describes the dissemination of a set of cultural traits in a society constituted by individual agents. In a social context, nevertheless, individual choices toward a specific attitude are also at the basis of the formation of communities, groups and parties. The membership in a group changes completely the behavior of single agents who start acting according to a social identity. Groups act and interact among them as single entities, but still conserve an internal dynamics. We show that, under certain conditions of social dynamics, the introduction of group dynamics in a cultural dissemination process avoids the flattening of the culture into a single entity and preserves the multiplicity of cultural attitudes. We also considered diffusion processes on this dynamical background, showing the conditions under which information as well as innovation can spread through the population in a scenario where the groups' choices determine the social structure.

  11. Dynamics of the indicators of physical development, physical and technical fitness of young 12 - 15 year old weightlifters of the different groups of weight categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovinov Iu.A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Here is the dynamics of indicators of physical development, physical and technical preparedness of young 12 - 15 year old weightlifters who are training for the Championship of Ukraine. 50 sportsman's has taken part in investigation. Age of sportsman - 12 - 15 years old. The indicators of physical development and preparedness of sportsmen were researched. The indicators of physical preparedness in control snatch, clean and jerk exercises were analyzed. The interconnection among the indicators of physical development as well as general and special physical preparedness of young weightlifters was shown. It was analyzed that the body length indicators of sportsmen are tend to grow by 15.2 % with an increase of weight category groups. It was estimated that the index of active mass of sportsman body grows by 14.2% with an increase of weight category groups. It was analyzed that the length indicators of upper and low extremities of young weightlifters grow on average by 14.6% and 15.1% with an increase of weight category groups. It was estimated that the indicators of general and special physical preparedness of young weightlifters grow on average by 18.2% and 40.8%.

  12. Creating A Group Harmonious And Dynamic Atmosphere In Jefc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志俐

    2001-01-01

    With the rapid development of foreign language teaching, a group harmonious and dynamic atmosphere shows its importance in JEFC. It helps the students to learn English lieasantly and effectively and help the teachers to teach English easily and happily. It also helps to improve the teachers'teaching efficiently. However. the problem of the harmonious and dynamic atmosphere in class may result in anxiety among students. This paper aims at discussing the anxiety and the harmonious, dynamic atmosphere. It falls into three parts. The first part provides the analys is of the negative effects of anxiety in JEFC. The second introduces the positive effects of group harmonious,dynamic atmosphere in JEFC and the third discusses how to create the group harmonious, dynamic classroom atmosphere. This paper stresses the importance of the harmonious, dynamic atmosphere and introduce to use flexibly 5steps teaching way to create the harmonious and dynamic atmosphere.

  13. Study Abroad: The Reality of Building Dynamic Group Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransbury, Molly K.; Harris, Sandra A.

    1994-01-01

    The collaborative effort of a professor of human development with expertise in group process and a general education professor with expertise in Greek mythology and culture uses a case study format to apply theoretical models of group dynamics to the travel and learning experience of study abroad. Implications for course design and group process…

  14. Individual and Group Dynamics in Purchasing Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Lei; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2010-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is of constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behaviors of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchasing orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plot. It's found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and t...

  15. The dynamics of group formation among leeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eBisson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Leeches exploring a new environment continuously meet each other and merge in temporary groups. After 2-3 hours, leeches become attracted to each other eventually forming a large and stable group. When their number is reduced, leeches remain solitary, behaving independently. Group formation is facilitated by body injection of serotonin (5-HT and the level of endogenous 5-HT is elevated in leeches forming a large group. In contrast, intravenous injection of 5-HT antagonists prevented injected leeches from joining a large group of conspecifics. When sensilla near the head were ablated or the supraesophageal ganglion disconnected, leeches remained solitary, but explored the environment swimming and crawling. These results suggest that group formation is initiated by a release of 5-HT triggered by sensilla stimulation and its dynamics can be explained by the establishment of a reinforcement dynamics, as observed during human group formation. As 5-HT affects social interactions also in humans, group formation in leeches and humans share a similar dynamics and hormonal control.

  16. Kibel groups and their dynamic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Torben

    2010-01-01

    -therapists. Jack Nathan and Wil Pennycook-Graves Applying the Kanas Method on an acute ward. Ronan McIvor and Wil Pennycook-Graves Kibel groups and their dynamic perspective. Torben Heinskou Psychodynamic discussion groups on acute wards. Jonathan Radcliffe and Debora Diamond Using groups to provide containment...... and structure on an adolescent acute ward. Dylan Griffiths Moving groupwork into the day hospital setting. Isaura Manso Neto ABOUT THE EDITORS Jonathan Radcliffe, Katja Hajek, and Jerome Carson are Consultant Clinical Psychologists with the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust All have run groups...

  17. GROUP DYNAMICS AND TEAM FUNCTIONING IN ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ZOLTAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In all kind of organization many activities are done by groups and teams. But how are they formed? What factors influence their existence and development? How members of groups and teams are selected? Which are the consequences in organizational context? In order to answer these questions, in the present paper we describe and analyze the main approaches regarding the formation of work groups and work teams (sociometric approach and group dynamics approach, the main factors that affects group dynamics and the FIRO model for evaluation the team members’ needs.

  18. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  19. A conciliation mechanism for self-organizing dynamic small groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Minglun; Hu, Zhongfeng; Jain, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    A group of individuals, organizations or things in internet of things (IoT) often dynamically self-organizes in small groups to accomplish certain tasks. This is common in virtual organization, social networks and the evolving field of IoT. These small groups have different behavioral characteristics than large groups. Members individually have some requirements and contribute some resources to the group. The organization and operation of such a group requires dynamic identification of group requirements that can be fulfilled by available resources and is approved by the group. We apply design science methods to develop an artifact that helps in conciliation of collective requirements and resources of small groups while maintaining each member's satisfaction. The mechanism also supports dynamic conciliation as members leave and new members join the group. Each member's requirement is specified as an explicit/implicit objective that is feasible/not feasible based on resources available to the group and whether the requirement is in alignment with other members' objectives. We validate the artifact by using it for a manufacturing service group and simulating the change in collective group requirements and resources as group membership changes dynamically.

  20. How opinion dynamics generates group hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Gargiulo, F

    2010-01-01

    We recently proposed a model coupling the evolution of the opinions of the individual with the local network topology. The opinion dynamics is based on the Bounded Confidence model. The social networks is based on a group concept where each individual is totally connected to the members of its group and is linked to the individuals of the other groups with a given probability. During a time step, the individual has to decide between discussing with a member of its own network and applying the opinion dynamics, or moving groups because it has an opinion far from the average opinion of its own group. One of the main results we obtained is that the group sizes, starting from an homogeneous situation can be strongly heterogeneous at the equilibrium state. This kind of heterogeneity can be identified in many real networks. In this paper we present the complete set of behaviours that this complex model can exhibit, at group level. In particular we will focus on the mechanisms that lead to the stability of the group...

  1. Complex dynamics in supervised work groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Forno, Arianna; Merlone, Ugo

    2013-07-01

    In supervised work groups many factors concur to determine productivity. Some of them may be economical and some psychological. According to the literature, the heterogeneity in terms of individual capacity seems to be one of the principal causes for chaotic dynamics in a work group. May sorting groups of people with same capacity for effort be a solution? In the organizational psychology literature an important factor is the engagement in the task, while expectations are central in the economics literature. Therefore, we propose a dynamical model which takes into account both engagement in the task and expectations. An important lesson emerges. The intolerance deriving from the exposure to inequity may not be only caused by differences in individual capacities, but also by these factors combined. Consequently, solutions have to be found in this new direction.

  2. Computational social dynamic modeling of group recruitment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Nina M.; Lee, Marinna; Pickett, Marc; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-01-01

    The Seldon software toolkit combines concepts from agent-based modeling and social science to create a computationally social dynamic model for group recruitment. The underlying recruitment model is based on a unique three-level hybrid agent-based architecture that contains simple agents (level one), abstract agents (level two), and cognitive agents (level three). This uniqueness of this architecture begins with abstract agents that permit the model to include social concepts (gang) or institutional concepts (school) into a typical software simulation environment. The future addition of cognitive agents to the recruitment model will provide a unique entity that does not exist in any agent-based modeling toolkits to date. We use social networks to provide an integrated mesh within and between the different levels. This Java based toolkit is used to analyze different social concepts based on initialization input from the user. The input alters a set of parameters used to influence the values associated with the simple agents, abstract agents, and the interactions (simple agent-simple agent or simple agent-abstract agent) between these entities. The results of phase-1 Seldon toolkit provide insight into how certain social concepts apply to different scenario development for inner city gang recruitment.

  3. VYGOTSKIAN DYNAMICS OF DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANGEERT, P

    1994-01-01

    The main thesis of this article is that Vygotsky's 'zone of proximal development' (ZPD) can be redefined in the form of a nonlinear dynamic model. Following a short introduction to the conceptual components of the model, a mathematical reformulation is presented. The mathematical form is shown to ge

  4. Effect of social group dynamics on contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Calderón, J. P.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Guannan; Fenn, Dan; Sornette, Didier; Crane, Riley; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-05-01

    Despite the many works on contagion phenomena in both well-mixed systems and heterogeneous networks, there is still a lack of understanding of the intermediate regime where social group structures evolve on a similar time scale to individual-level transmission. We address this question by considering the process of transmission through a model population comprising social groups which follow simple dynamical rules for growth and breakup. Despite the simplicity of our model, the profiles produced bear a striking resemblance to a wide variety of real-world examples—in particular, empirical data that we have obtained for social (i.e., YouTube), financial (i.e., currency markets), and biological (i.e., colds in schools) systems. The observation of multiple resurgent peaks and abnormal decay times is qualitatively reproduced within the model simply by varying the time scales for group coalescence and fragmentation. We provide an approximate analytic treatment of the system and highlight a novel transition which arises as a result of the social group dynamics.

  5. Continuous Time Group Discovery in Dynamic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2010-11-04

    With the rise in availability and importance of graphs and networks, it has become increasingly important to have good models to describe their behavior. While much work has focused on modeling static graphs, we focus on group discovery in dynamic graphs. We adapt a dynamic extension of Latent Dirichlet Allocation to this task and demonstrate good performance on two datasets. Modeling relational data has become increasingly important in recent years. Much work has focused on static graphs - that is fixed graphs at a single point in time. Here we focus on the problem of modeling dynamic (i.e. time-evolving) graphs. We propose a scalable Bayesian approach for community discovery in dynamic graphs. Our approach is based on extensions of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). LDA is a latent variable model for topic modeling in text corpora. It was extended to deal with topic changes in discrete time and later in continuous time. These models were referred to as the discrete Dynamic Topic Model (dDTM) and the continuous Dynamic Topic Model (cDTM), respectively. When adapting these models to graphs, we take our inspiration from LDA-G and SSN-LDA, applications of LDA to static graphs that have been shown to effectively factor out community structure to explain link patterns in graphs. In this paper, we demonstrate how to adapt and apply the cDTM to the task of finding communities in dynamic networks. We use link prediction to measure the quality of the discovered community structure and apply it to two different relational datasets - DBLP author-keyword and CAIDA autonomous systems relationships. We also discuss a parallel implementation of this approach using Hadoop. In Section 2, we review LDA and LDA-G. In Section 3, we review the cDTM and introduce cDTMG, its adaptation to modeling dynamic graphs. We discuss inference for the cDTM-G and details of our parallel implementation in Section 4 and present its performance on two datasets in Section 5 before concluding in

  6. Dynamic Task Performance, Cohesion, and Communications in Human Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Luis Felipe; Passino, Kevin M

    2016-10-01

    In the study of the behavior of human groups, it has been observed that there is a strong interaction between the cohesiveness of the group, its performance when the group has to solve a task, and the patterns of communication between the members of the group. Developing mathematical and computational tools for the analysis and design of task-solving groups that are not only cohesive but also perform well is of importance in social sciences, organizational management, and engineering. In this paper, we model a human group as a dynamical system whose behavior is driven by a task optimization process and the interaction between subsystems that represent the members of the group interconnected according to a given communication network. These interactions are described as attractions and repulsions among members. We show that the dynamics characterized by the proposed mathematical model are qualitatively consistent with those observed in real-human groups, where the key aspect is that the attraction patterns in the group and the commitment to solve the task are not static but change over time. Through a theoretical analysis of the system we provide conditions on the parameters that allow the group to have cohesive behaviors, and Monte Carlo simulations are used to study group dynamics for different sets of parameters, communication topologies, and tasks to solve.

  7. Re-Examining Group Development in Adventure Therapy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraaf, Don; Ashby, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Small-group development is an important aspect of adventure therapy. Supplementing knowledge of sequential stages of group development with knowledge concerning within-stage nonsequential development yields a richer understanding of groups. Integrating elements of the individual counseling relationship (working alliance, transference, and real…

  8. Sustainable agriculture development through effective farmer groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable agriculture development through effective farmer groups. ... group is influenced by the skills of the group promoter and the adherence to certain ... through the different stages of group development and social capital formation.

  9. Group dynamics challenges: Insights from Biosphere 2 experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Gray, Kathelin; Allen, John P

    2015-07-01

    Successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups is vital for long duration space exploration/habitation and for terrestrial CELSS (Controlled Environmental Life Support System) facilities with human participants. Biosphere 2 had important differences and shares some key commonalities with both Antarctic and space environments. There were a multitude of stress factors during the first two year closure experiment as well as mitigating factors. A helpful tool used at Biosphere 2 was the work of W.R. Bion who identified two competing modalities of behavior in small groups. Task-oriented groups are governed by conscious acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time and resources, and intelligent management of challenges. The opposing unconscious mode, the "basic-assumption" ("group animal") group, manifests through Dependency/Kill the Leader, Fight/Flight and Pairing. These unconscious dynamics undermine and can defeat the task group's goal. The biospherians experienced some dynamics seen in other isolated teams: factions developing reflecting personal chemistry and disagreements on overall mission procedures. These conflicts were exacerbated by external power struggles which enlisted support of those inside. Nevertheless, the crew evolved a coherent, creative life style to deal with some of the deprivations of isolation. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 vividly illustrates both vicissitudes and management of group dynamics. The crew overrode inevitable frictions to creatively manage both operational and research demands and opportunities of the facility, thus staying 'on task' in Bion's group dynamics terminology. The understanding that Biosphere 2 was their life support system may also have helped the mission to succeed. Insights from the Biosphere 2 experience can help space and remote missions cope successfully with the inherent challenges of small, isolated crews.

  10. Group dynamics challenges: Insights from Biosphere 2 experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Gray, Kathelin; Allen, John P.

    2015-07-01

    Successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups is vital for long duration space exploration/habitation and for terrestrial CELSS (Controlled Environmental Life Support System) facilities with human participants. Biosphere 2 had important differences and shares some key commonalities with both Antarctic and space environments. There were a multitude of stress factors during the first two year closure experiment as well as mitigating factors. A helpful tool used at Biosphere 2 was the work of W.R. Bion who identified two competing modalities of behavior in small groups. Task-oriented groups are governed by conscious acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time and resources, and intelligent management of challenges. The opposing unconscious mode, the "basic-assumption" ("group animal") group, manifests through Dependency/Kill the Leader, Fight/Flight and Pairing. These unconscious dynamics undermine and can defeat the task group's goal. The biospherians experienced some dynamics seen in other isolated teams: factions developing reflecting personal chemistry and disagreements on overall mission procedures. These conflicts were exacerbated by external power struggles which enlisted support of those inside. Nevertheless, the crew evolved a coherent, creative life style to deal with some of the deprivations of isolation. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 vividly illustrates both vicissitudes and management of group dynamics. The crew overrode inevitable frictions to creatively manage both operational and research demands and opportunities of the facility, thus staying 'on task' in Bion's group dynamics terminology. The understanding that Biosphere 2 was their life support system may also have helped the mission to succeed. Insights from the Biosphere 2 experience can help space and remote missions cope successfully with the inherent challenges of small, isolated crews.

  11. Report of the working group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzani, A.; Bongini, L.; Corbett, J.; Dome, G.; Fedorova, A.; Freguglia, P.; Ng, K.; Ohmi, K.; Owen, H.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Robin, D.; Safranek, J.; Scandale, W.; Terebilo, A.; Turchetti, G.; Todesco, E.; Warnock, R.; Zeitlin, M. (Office of Energy Research, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences Division, U.S. Department of Energy (United States))

    1999-04-01

    The Working Group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics has developed a set of tools to study nonlinear dynamics in a particle accelerator. The design of rings with large dynamic apertures is still far from automatic. The Working Group has concluded that nonlinear single-particle dynamics limits the performance of acclerators. (AIP) [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital American Institute of Physics

  12. Report of the working group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzani, A.; Bongini, L.; Corbett, J.; Dome, G.; Fedorova, A.; Freguglia, P.; Ng, K.; Ohmi, K.; Owen, H.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Robin, D.; Safranek, J.; Scandale, W.; Terebilo, A.; Turchetti, G.; Todesco, E.; Warnock, R.; Zeitlin, M.

    1999-04-01

    The Working Group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics has developed a set of tools to study nonlinear dynamics in a particle accelerator. The design of rings with large dynamic apertures is still far from automatic. The Working Group has concluded that nonlinear single-particle dynamics limits the performance of acclerators. (AIP)

  13. An Exploration of Group and Member Development in Experiential Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Prochenko, Yulia; Stulmaker, Hayley; Huffman, David; Fernando, Delini; Swan, Karrie

    2014-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, we explored 52 group members' development in experiential groups. Specifically, participants completed 10 weekly journal reflections about their experiences as members and also reflected on the group's overall development. Four overall themes--exploration, transition, working, closure--as well as multiple subthemes…

  14. Dynamic Development of Hydrofracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Irfan; Koehn, Daniel; Toussaint, Renaud; Passchier, Cees Willem

    2013-11-01

    Many natural examples of complex joint and vein networks in layered sedimentary rocks are hydrofractures that form by a combination of pore fluid overpressure and tectonic stresses. In this paper, a two-dimensional hybrid hydro-mechanical formulation is proposed to model the dynamic development of natural hydrofractures. The numerical scheme combines a discrete element model (DEM) framework that represents a porous solid medium with a supplementary Darcy based pore-pressure diffusion as continuum description for the fluid. This combination yields a porosity controlled coupling between an evolving fracture network and the associated hydraulic field. The model is tested on some basic cases of hydro-driven fracturing commonly found in nature, e.g., fracturing due to local fluid overpressure in rocks subjected to hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic tectonic loadings. In our models we find that seepage forces created by hydraulic pressure gradients together with poroelastic feedback upon discrete fracturing play a significant role in subsurface rock deformation. These forces manipulate the growth and geometry of hydrofractures in addition to tectonic stresses and the mechanical properties of the porous rocks. Our results show characteristic failure patterns that reflect different tectonic and lithological conditions and are qualitatively consistent with existing analogue and numerical studies as well as field observations. The applied scheme is numerically efficient, can be applied at various scales and is computational cost effective with the least involvement of sophisticated mathematical computation of hydrodynamic flow between the solid grains.

  15. Approximate group context tree: applications to dynamic programming and dynamic choice models

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers a variable length Markov chain model associated with a group of stationary processes that share the same context tree but potentially different conditional probabilities. We propose a new model selection and estimation method, develop oracle inequalities and model selection properties for the estimator. These results also provide conditions under which the use of the group structure can lead to improvements in the overall estimation. Our work is also motivated by two methodological applications: discrete stochastic dynamic programming and dynamic discrete choice models. We analyze the uniform estimation of the value function for dynamic programming and the uniform estimation of average dynamic marginal effects for dynamic discrete choice models accounting for possible imperfect model selection. We also derive the typical behavior of our estimator when applied to polynomially $\\beta$-mixing stochastic processes. For parametric models, we derive uniform rate of convergence for the estimation...

  16. Group Journaling: A Tool for Reflection, Fun and Group Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfeldt, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Personal journaling is common practice in outdoor programs and is an important means of reflection and meaning-making. For over 20 years the author has used group journals to promote reflection and understanding, raise important questions, explore difficult issues, develop writing and speaking skills, and enhance group development. In this…

  17. Development of a group contribution method for estimating free energy of peptides in a dodecane-water system via molecular dynamic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Osorio, Camilo Andrés; González Barrios, Andrés Fernando

    2016-12-07

    Calculation of the Gibbs free energy changes of biological molecules at the oil-water interface is commonly performed with Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD). It is a process that could be performed repeatedly in order to find some molecules of high stability in this medium. Here, an alternative method of calculation has been proposed: a group contribution method (GCM) for peptides based on MD of the twenty classic amino acids to obtain free energy change during the insertion of any peptide chain in water-dodecane interfaces. Multiple MD of the twenty classic amino acids located at the interface of rectangular simulation boxes with a dodecane-water medium were performed. A GCM to calculate the free energy of entire peptides is then proposed. The method uses the summation of the Gibbs free energy of each amino acid adjusted in function of its presence or absence in the chain as well as its hydrophobic characteristics. Validation of the equation was performed with twenty-one peptides all simulated using MD in dodecane-water rectangular boxes in previous work, obtaining an average relative error of 16%.

  18. System Development Working Group report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L.; Bifano, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The critical need is the need for funding and testing as bridging support for highly leveraged technology of Spacecraft 2000 to promote flight development introduction and acceptance. Critical needs are foreseen to augment these capabilities to satisfy specific enabling technology validation and to flight qualify selected technologies. Recommendations are summarized. This presentation is represented by figures.

  19. Development of renormalization group analysis of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The renormalization group (RG) procedure for nonlinear, dissipative systems is now quite standard, and its applications to the problem of hydrodynamic turbulence are becoming well known. In summary, the RG method isolates self similar behavior and provides a systematic procedure to describe scale invariant dynamics in terms of large scale variables only. The parameterization of the small scales in a self consistent manner has important implications for sub-grid modeling. This paper develops the homogeneous, isotropic turbulence and addresses the meaning and consequence of epsilon-expansion. The theory is then extended to include a weak mean flow and application of the RG method to a sequence of models is shown to converge to the Navier-Stokes equations.

  20. Development of renormalization group analysis of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The renormalization group (RG) procedure for nonlinear, dissipative systems is now quite standard, and its applications to the problem of hydrodynamic turbulence are becoming well known. In summary, the RG method isolates self similar behavior and provides a systematic procedure to describe scale invariant dynamics in terms of large scale variables only. The parameterization of the small scales in a self consistent manner has important implications for sub-grid modeling. This paper develops the homogeneous, isotropic turbulence and addresses the meaning and consequence of epsilon-expansion. The theory is then extended to include a weak mean flow and application of the RG method to a sequence of models is shown to converge to the Navier-Stokes equations.

  1. Fractal groups: Emergent dynamics in on-line learning communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia de Carvalho Fidelis Braga

    Full Text Available Drawing on complexity theory, this work discusses the complex dynamics and emergent patterns of on-line learning communities based on a doctoral study in the area of Applied Linguistics. The analysis will center on the interlocutions of fifty students who interacted in small groups without the teacher's direct intervention, in an undergraduate course offered by the School of Languages and Literature at the Federal University of Minas Gerais. By analyzing the data, I demonstrate that out of the interactions among the peers of autonomous on-line learning communities arise opportunities for the construction of shared meaning, distributed leadership, as well as other dynamics. I also demonstrate the fractal nature of these communities. Moreover, I discuss how these findings shed light on the creation and development of course designs for large groups.

  2. Aquatic Invertebrate Development Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, D.

    1985-01-01

    Little definitive evidence exists to show that gravity plays a major role in embyrogenesis of aquatic invertebrates. Two reasons for this may be: (1) few studies have been done that emphasize the role of gravity; and (2) there simply may not be any gravity effect. The buoyant nature of the aquatic environment could have obscured any evolutionary effect of gravity. The small size of most eggs and their apparent lack of orientation suggests reduced gravitational influence. Therefore, it is recommended that the term development, as applied to aquatic invertebrates, be loosely defined to encompass behavioral and morphological parameters for which baseline data already exist.

  3. Energy Innovation. IVO Group`s Research and Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; Hinkkanen, S. [eds.

    1996-11-01

    This annual booklet of the IVO Group`s research and development activities presents a number of articles, written by experts from IVO. The products described are examples of the environmentally-oriented selection made available by the IVO Group. In fact, the entire energy technology developed in Finland is environmentally oriented, if seen from the international perspective. The new business potential of environmental technology is great, and it is believed that in the year 2000, exportation of Finnish know-how in the field of energy-saving and efficiency will exceed the value of out energy imports

  4. Energy Innovation. IVO group`s research and development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; Hinkkanen, S.; Fletcher, R. [eds.

    1997-11-01

    This annual booklet of the IVO Group`s research and development activities presents a number of articles, written by experts from IVO. The products described are examples of the environmentally-oriented selection made available by the IVO Group. In fact, the entire energy technology developed in Finland is environmentally oriented, if seen from the international perspective. The new business potential of environmental technology is great, and it is believed that in the year 2000, exportation of Finnish know-how in the field of energy-saving and efficiency will exceed the value of out energy imports

  5. Energy Innovation. IVO Group`s Research and Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; Hinkkanen, S. [eds.

    1996-11-01

    This annual booklet of the IVO Group`s research and development activities presents a number of articles, written by experts from IVO. The products described are examples of the environmentally-oriented selection made available by the IVO Group. In fact, the entire energy technology developed in Finland is environmentally oriented, if seen from the international perspective. The new business potential of environmental technology is great, and it is believed that in the year 2000, exportation of Finnish know-how in the field of energy-saving and efficiency will exceed the value of out energy imports

  6. An Intergroup Perspective on Group Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    University Press, 1927. TaJfel , H. Experiments in Intergroup Discrimination . Scientific American, 1970, 223, 96-102. Te Selle, S. (Ed.). The Rediscovery...groups (Sherif & Sherif, 1969; Blake, Shepard, 6 Mouton, 1964; Tajfel , 1971; Billig, 1976). E. Leadership behavior. The behavior of group leaders and...are called institutional discrimination . (Thought question: how k 4 Page 53a La 0 (I0 00 z< 00 L4𔃻 I. -- C>. Pace 54 many 30 year old (age group too

  7. The positive group affect spiral : a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, F.; Bruch, H.

    2008-01-01

    This conceptual paper seeks to clarify the process of the emergence of positive collective affect. Specifically, it develops a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups. It is suggested that positive group affective similarity and within-group relationship qualit

  8. The positive group affect spiral : a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, F.; Bruch, H.

    This conceptual paper seeks to clarify the process of the emergence of positive collective affect. Specifically, it develops a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups. It is suggested that positive group affective similarity and within-group relationship

  9. Group dynamics for the acquisition of competences in Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, E. V.; Aguilar, M. C.; Castillo, C.; Polo, M. J.; Pérez, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Bologna Process promotes European citizens' employability from teaching fields in the University which implies the design of activities addressed to the development of skills for the labor market and engagement of employers. This work has been conceived for improving the formation of Engineering Project Management through group dynamics focused on: 1) the use of the creativity for solving problems; 2) promoting leadership capacities and social skills in multidisciplinary/multicultural work groups; 3) the ethical, social and environmental compromise; 4) the continuous learning. Different types of activities were designed: short activities of 15-30 minutes where fragments of books or songs are presented and discussed and long activities (2 h) where groups of students take different roles for solving common problems and situations within the Engineering Projects context. An electronic book with the content of the dynamics and the material for the students has been carried out. A sample of 20 students of Electronic Engineering degree which had participated at least in two dynamics, evaluated the utility for improving their formation in Engineering Project Management with a mark of 8.2 (scale 0-10, standard deviation equal to 0.9). On the other hand, the teachers observed how this type of work, promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of social skills, usually not-included in the objectives of the subjects.

  10. A dynamic policy for grouping maintenance activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Wildeman (Ralph); R. Dekker (Rommert); A.C.J.M. Smit

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA maintenance activity carried out on a technical system often involves a system-dependent set-up cost that is the same for all maintenance activities carried out on that system. Grouping activities thus saves costs since execution of a group of activities requires only one set-up. Many

  11. Fluid dynamics of heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Miller, Laura A

    2011-09-01

    The morphology, muscle mechanics, fluid dynamics, conduction properties, and molecular biology of the developing embryonic heart have received much attention in recent years due to the importance of both fluid and elastic forces in shaping the heart as well as the striking relationship between the heart's evolution and development. Although few studies have directly addressed the connection between fluid dynamics and heart development, a number of studies suggest that fluids may play a key role in morphogenic signaling. For example, fluid shear stress may trigger biochemical cascades within the endothelial cells of the developing heart that regulate chamber and valve morphogenesis. Myocardial activity generates forces on the intracardiac blood, creating pressure gradients across the cardiac wall. These pressures may also serve as epigenetic signals. In this article, the fluid dynamics of the early stages of heart development is reviewed. The relevant work in cardiac morphology, muscle mechanics, regulatory networks, and electrophysiology is also reviewed in the context of intracardial fluid dynamics.

  12. Hierarchical group dynamics in pigeon flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Máté; Akos, Zsuzsa; Biro, Dora; Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-04-08

    Animals that travel together in groups display a variety of fascinating motion patterns thought to be the result of delicate local interactions among group members. Although the most informative way of investigating and interpreting collective movement phenomena would be afforded by the collection of high-resolution spatiotemporal data from moving individuals, such data are scarce and are virtually non-existent for long-distance group motion within a natural setting because of the associated technological difficulties. Here we present results of experiments in which track logs of homing pigeons flying in flocks of up to 10 individuals have been obtained by high-resolution lightweight GPS devices and analysed using a variety of correlation functions inspired by approaches common in statistical physics. We find a well-defined hierarchy among flock members from data concerning leading roles in pairwise interactions, defined on the basis of characteristic delay times between birds' directional choices. The average spatial position of a pigeon within the flock strongly correlates with its place in the hierarchy, and birds respond more quickly to conspecifics perceived primarily through the left eye-both results revealing differential roles for birds that assume different positions with respect to flock-mates. From an evolutionary perspective, our results suggest that hierarchical organization of group flight may be more efficient than an egalitarian one, at least for those flock sizes that permit regular pairwise interactions among group members, during which leader-follower relationships are consistently manifested.

  13. Hierarchical group dynamics in pigeon flocks

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Mate; Biro, Dora; Vicsek, Tamas; 10.1038/nature08891

    2010-01-01

    Animals that travel together in groups display a variety of fascinating motion patterns thought to be the result of delicate local interactions among group members. Although the most informative way of investigating and interpreting collective movement phenomena would be afforded by the collection of high-resolution spatiotemporal data from moving individuals, such data are scarce and are virtually non-existent for long-distance group motion within a natural setting because of the associated technological difficulties. Here we present results of experiments in which track logs of homing pigeons flying in flocks of up to 10 individuals have been obtained by high-resolution lightweight GPS devices and analyzed using a variety of correlation functions inspired by approaches common in statistical physics. We find a well-defined hierarchy among flock members from data concerning leading roles in pairwise interactions, defined on the basis of characteristic delay times between birds' directional choices. The averag...

  14. Supervision is also about Addressing the Group Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter; Hansen, S.

    2003-01-01

    that many students are having difficulties with practical issues such as collaboration, communication, and project management. Most supervisors either ignore this demand, because they do not find it important or they find it frustrating, because they do not know, how to supervise group dynamics....... This problem is not only found at Aalborg University but also at the engineering colleges in Denmark. For that reason a course was developed with the aim of addressing the problem and showing, how it can be dealt with. So far the course has been offered several times to supervisors at the engineering colleges...

  15. 基于动态博弈的网络联保贷款模式发展策略研究%Research on Network Group Lending Development Strategy based on Dynamic Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The network group lending has a good foundation to service for SME, through constructing network group lending model of dynamic game analysis framework in the small and micro enterprises and contrasting group lending with network group lending, the paper found the advantage of developing network group lending is to establish effective incen-tive and punishment mechanism in market closed environment;the key of developing the network group lending is how to combine financial institutions and e-commerce platform, and provide quality credit services.%网络联保贷款具有服务小微企业的良好基础,通过构建面向小微企业网络联保贷款模式的动态博弈分析框架,本文对联保贷款与网络联保贷款进行博弈分析,发现在市场封闭的环境下发展网络联保贷款的优势在于建立有效的激励与惩罚机制,网络联保贷款发展的关键在于金融机构与电子商务平台如何有机结合,并为服务对象提供优质的信贷服务。

  16. Kibel groups and their dynamic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Torben

    2010-01-01

    wards into therapeutic communities? Leonard Fagin The relevance of the entire team to practicing groupwork on the ward. Bob Harris Acute wards: Context, pressures and satisfactions. Frank Holloway Reflections on the psychodynamics of an acute ward: Bion’s work in practice. Richard Duggins Containing...... the uncontainable: A role for staff support groups. Ian Simpson Groupwork: The evidence base. Chris Evans et al The working alliance in groupwork on acute psychiatric wards. Oded Manor Part 2: Specific Therapeutic Applications Specific Therapeutic Applications. Inpatient group therapy based on the Yalom......, the issues raised have a wider interest for those working to achieve excellent acute inpatient psychiatric settings in other countries. CONTENTS Part 1: Background and Principles What actually happens on acute wards? An observational study. Jonathan Radcliffe and Roger Smith Is it possible to make acute...

  17. Overlay Share Mesh for Interactive Group Communication with High Dynamic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan-hua; CAI Yun-ze; XU Xiao-ming

    2007-01-01

    An overlay share mesh infrastructure is presented for high dynamic group communication systems, such as distributed interactive simulation (DIS) and distributed virtual environments (DVE). Overlay share mesh infrastructure can own better adapting ability for high dynamic group than tradition multi-tree multicast infrastructure by sharing links among different groups. The mechanism of overlay share mesh based on area of interest (AOI) was discussed in detail in this paper. A large number of simulation experiments were done and the permance of mesh infrastructure was studied. Experiments results proved that overlay mesh infrastructure owns better adaptability than traditional multi-tree infrastructure for high dynamic group communication systems.

  18. Assessing Group Dynamics in a Mars Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S. L.

    2007-10-01

    International interest in psychosocial functioning generally and issues of group and inter-group function for space crews has increased as focus has shifted towards longer duration spaceflight and, particularly, the issues involved in sending a human crew to Mars (Kanas, et al., 2001; Dawson, 2002). Planning documents for a human mission to Mars such as the NASA Design Reference Mission (DRM 1.0) emphasize the need for adaptability of crewmembers and autonomy in the crew as a whole (Hoffman and Kaplan, 1997). Similarly a major study by the International Space University (ISU, 1991) emphasized the need for autonomy and initiative for a Mars crew given that many of the scenarios that will be encountered on Mars cannot be rehearsed on earth and given the lack of any realistic possibility for rescue of the crew. This research project was only one subset of data collected during the larger AustroMars Expedition at the Mars Desert Research Facility (MDRS) in 2006. The participating crew comprises part of a multi-year investigation on teams utilizing the MDRS facility. The program of research has included numerous researchers since 2002 with a progressive evolution of key foci addressing stress, personality, coping, adaptation, cognitive functioning, and group identity assessed across the duration period of the individual missions.

  19. Teacher’s action zone in facilitating group dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Gałajda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As believed by many researchers (Dörnyei & Murphey 2003, Hadfield 1992, classroom climate is strongly determined by the dynamics of the learning group and its development over time. For this reason, the role of the teacher in facilitating group processes seems to be of primary importance since it is the teacher who has long been regarded as the group leader in both teacher-centred and learner-centred classrooms.The presentation focuses not only on positive but also on negative forms of classroom dynamics together with management techniques for dealing with conflicts, educational alienation and psychological defensiveness. This, in turn, leads to the concept of facilitator style based on Heron’s (2006 model of facilitation, which consists of six dimensions and three modes. In the paper particular emphasis is placed on the presentation and comparison of various theories of leadership, namely Heron’s system of facilitation, Hersey and Blanchard’s situational-leadership theory (1982 and Bass and Avolio’s transactional versus transformational leadership theory (1984.

  20. Group Development of Effective Governance Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Deborah Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the behaviors of effective governance teams as they move through stages of group development during regular school board meetings, utilizing the task and process behaviors identified in the Group Development Assessment (Jones & Bearley, 1994). Methodology. This mixed-methods…

  1. Group Dynamics and Willingness to Communicate in EFL Classrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAI Xiao-ping

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how group dynamics (such as group cohesiveness and group norms) influence learners ’willingness to communicate (WTC) in an EFL classroom. The results from the 236 questionnaires showed that there was a significant correla-tion between group dynamics and WTC in an EFL classroom. A dozen students who participated in this study were interviewed for more in-depth information and the data revealed that most interviewees acknowledged the importance of the class group. The qualitative data also showed the importance of their own determination to learn in establishing their WTC.

  2. Group Dynamics in Janis's Theory of Groupthink: Backward and Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley

    1998-02-01

    Janis's groupthink theory is an appealing explanation of how group process can get in the way of optimal decision making. Unfortunately, Janis was selective and not always consistent in his application of research in group dynamics. This paper traces groupthink to its theoretical roots in order to suggest how a broader and more consistent use of research in group dynamics can advance understanding of decision-making problems. In particular, the paper explores and reinterprets the groupthink prediction that poor decision making is most likely when group cohesion is based on the personal attractiveness of group members. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  3. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological s...

  4. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological st...

  5. How experienced tutors facilitate tutorial dynamics in PBL groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gin-Hong; Lin, Chaou-Shune; Lin, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial are conducted in small groups, and successful learning in such groups requires good group facilitating skills. There is a lack of research on actual skills employed by tutors in facilitating the group dynamics. To explore the process of PBL tutorial small groups, focusing on the tutors' actual behavior in facilitating group dynamics. Eight experienced tutors from various departments in medical colleges participated in this research. Forty tutorial group sessions were videotaped. Among the 636 tutorial intervention episodes, 142 of them were associated with facilitating group dynamics. Tutors interventions as well as their recalls were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative research methods were utilized to analyze the data. There were 10 tutorial group dynamic situations and 48 tutorial skills. Analysis of the tutors' intentions employing these skills in the 10 situations showed that tutors were trying to achieve the following aims: (1) iteration of PBL principles, (2) delegation of responsibility to the students, (3) creation of a good discussion forum, and (4) the generation of a good learning atmosphere. Results from this study provide PBL tutors with a practical frame of reference on group dynamic facilitating skills and stimulate further research on this topic.

  6. Mean field theory for U(n) dynamical groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, G, E-mail: george.rosensteel@tulane.edu [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2011-04-22

    Algebraic mean field theory (AMFT) is a many-body physics modeling tool which firstly, is a generalization of Hartree-Fock mean field theory, and secondly, an application of the orbit method from Lie representation theory. The AMFT ansatz is that the physical system enjoys a dynamical group, which may be either a strong or a weak dynamical Lie group G. When G is a strong dynamical group, the quantum states are, by definition, vectors in one irreducible unitary representation (irrep) space, and AMFT is equivalent to the Kirillov orbit method for deducing properties of a representation from a direct geometrical analysis of the associated integral co-adjoint orbit. AMFT can be the only tractable method for analyzing some complex many-body systems when the dimension of the irrep space of the strong dynamical group is very large or infinite. When G is a weak dynamical group, the quantum states are not vectors in one irrep space, but AMFT applies if the densities of the states lie on one non-integral co-adjoint orbit. The computational simplicity of AMFT is the same for both strong and weak dynamical groups. This paper formulates AMFT explicitly for unitary Lie algebras, and applies the general method to the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick su(2) model and the Elliott su(3) model. When the energy in the su(3) theory is a rotational scalar function, Marsden-Weinstein reduction simplifies AMFT dynamics to a two-dimensional phase space.

  7. A Group Creativity Support System for Dynamic Idea Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Idea evaluation is necessary in most modern organizations to identify the level of novelty and usefulness of new ideas. However, current idea evaluation research hinders creativity by primarily supporting convergent thinking (narrowing down ideas to a few tangible solutions), while divergent...... thinking (the development of wildly creative and novel thoughts patterns) is discounted. In this paper, this current view of idea evaluation is challenged through the development of a prototype that supports dynamic idea evaluation. The prototype uses knowledge created during evaluative processes...... to facilitate divergent thinking in a Group Creativity Support System (GCSS) designed from state-of-the-art research. The prototype is interpretively explored through a field experiment in a Danish IS research department. Consequently, the prototype demonstrates the ability to including divergent thinking...

  8. Basic developments in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Basic Developments in Fluid Dynamics, Volume 2 focuses on the developments, approaches, methodologies, reactions, and processes involved in fluid dynamics, including sea motion, wave interactions, and motion of spheres in a viscous fluid.The selection first offers information on inviscid cavity and wake flows and weak-interaction theory of ocean waves. Discussions focus on steady and unsteady cavity flows, radiation balance, theory of weak interactions in random fields, interactions between gravity waves and the atmosphere, and interactions within the ocean. The text then examines low Reynolds

  9. Three applications of functional analysis with group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharwächter, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Case illustrations from group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy are presented to demonstrate three applications of functional analysis and the resulting cognitive behavioral interventions. The principles of group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy are explained. A functional analysis is applied first to the problem behavior of an individual group member. A clinical case illustrates how the group members help to change this individual group member's behavior from a learning theory perspective. Next, the circular interactional problem behavior between two group members is reduced to the individual functional analysis of each of the two member's problem behaviors. It is then illustrated how the two group member's problem behaviors, as well as feedback from others, contribute toward helping to change each others behavior. The paper concludes that functional analysis and ensuing behavioral interventions can be also applied to group as a whole behavior.

  10. Development of new group members' in-group and out-group stereotypes: changes in perceived group variability and ethnocentrism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C S; Bogart, L M

    1997-10-01

    Changes in new members' in-group and out-group stereotypes were examined, distinguishing among three stereotype components: stereotypicality, dispersion, and ethnocentrism. Pledges in 4 sororities judged their in-group and out-groups 4 times during their 8-month induction. Overall, out-groups were judged more stereotypically than in-groups at every wave. Although out-groups were initially perceived as more dispersed than in-groups, decreased out-group dispersion resulted in a shift toward out-group homogeneity. Ethnocentrism was present at every wave but decreased because of decreased in-group positivity. The authors discuss implications of these results for existing explanations of stereotype development. It is suggested that other aspects of group socialization (R.L. Moreland & J.M. Levine, 1982) are needed to explain fully the development of intergroup perceptions for new group members.

  11. The Intrinsic Dynamics of Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geert, Paul; van Dijk, Marijn; Scott, Robert. A.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we discuss an emergent developmental science. It provides an approach to development that redefines its theoretical and methodological basis in the general theory of complex dynamic systems. Its methodological research choices are in line with a focus on actual developmental processes

  12. Skupinska dinamika negovalnega tima: Group dynamics of nursing team:

    OpenAIRE

    Škerbinek, Ladi

    1998-01-01

    The article defines the most important psychodynamic elements of the group respectively nursing team. The satisfaction of nurses and nursing technicians with their work does not depend solely onthe work itself but to a grat extent also on the team he/she belongs to. The article describes the group and interpersonal relations in it, group dynamics and devlopmental process of the group, respectively team, basic characteristics of team behaviour and leadership. V prispevku so opredeljeni najp...

  13. Stages of Small-Group Development Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Jensen, Mary Ann C.

    1977-01-01

    This review examines published research on small-group development done in the last ten years that would constitute an empirical test of Tuckman's hypothesis that groups go through the stages of "forming,""storming,""norming," and "performing." A fifth stage, "adjourning," was added to the…

  14. Multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongwei [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Ma, Haiqiang, E-mail: hqma@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Wei, Kejin [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Yang, Xiuqing [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Qu, Wenxiu; Dou, Tianqi; Chen, Yitian; Li, Ruixue; Zhu, Wu [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2016-07-15

    In this letter, we propose a novel scheme for the realization of single-photon dynamic quantum secret sharing between a boss and three dynamic agent groups. In our system, the boss can not only choose one of these three groups to share the secret with, but also can share two sets of independent keys with two groups without redistribution. Furthermore, the security of communication is enhanced by using a control mode. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more flexible and will contribute to a practical application. - Highlights: • A multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons scheme is proposed. • Any one of the groups can be chosen to share secret through controlling the polarization of photons. • Two sets of keys can be shared simultaneously without redistribution.

  15. Opinion dynamics within a virtual small group: the stubbornness effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzini, Andrea; Cini, Alessandro; Bagnoli, Franco; Ramasco, José

    2015-09-01

    The modeling of opinion dynamics is social systems has attracted a good deal of attention in the last decade. Even though based on intuition and observation, the mechanisms behind many of these models need solid empirical grounding. In this work, we investigate the relation among subjective variables (such as the personality), the dynamics of the affinity network dynamics, the communication patterns emerging throughout the social interactions and the opinions dynamics in a series of experiments with five small groups of ten people each. In order to ignite the discussion, the polemic topic of animal experimentation was proposed. The groups essentially polarized in two factions with a set of stubborn individuals (those not changing their opinions in time) playing the role of anchors. Our results suggest that the different layers present in the group dynamics (i.e., individual level, group dynamics and meso-communication) are deeply intermingled, specifically the stubbornness effect appears to be related to the dynamical features of the network topologies, and only in an undirected way to the personality of the participants.

  16. Opinion dynamics within a virtual small group: the stubbornness effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGuazzini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of opinion dynamics is social systems has attracted a good deal of attention in the last decade. Even though based on intuition and observation, the mechanisms behind many of these models need solid empirical grounding. In this work, we investigate the relation among subjective variables (such as the personality, the dynamics of the affinity network dynamics, the communication patterns emerging throughout the social interactions and the opinions dynamics in a series of experiments with five small groups of ten people each. In order to ignite the discussion, the polemic topic of animal experimentation was proposed. The groups essentially polarized in two factions with a set of stubborn individuals (those not changing their opinions in time playing the role of anchors. Our results suggest that the different layers present in the group dynamics (i.e., individual level, group dynamics and meso-communication are deeply intermingled, specifically the stubbornness effect appears to be related to the dynamical features of the network topologies, and only in an undirected way to the personality of the participants.

  17. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan.

  18. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro Grotto, Rosapia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: (1) they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious) emotions to combine into structured group patterns; (2) they have a certain degree of stability in time; (3) they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; (4) they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical "leadership" pattern, and in "cognitive" terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e., the group behaves "as if" it was assuming that). Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: (1) are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? (2) can these states be differentiated in structural terms? (3) to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical setting.

  19. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosapia eLauro Grotto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: 1 they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious emotions to combine into structured group patterns; 2 they have a certain degree of stability in time; 3 they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; 4 they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical 'leadership’ pattern, and in 'cognitive’ terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e. the group behaves 'as if’ it was assuming that…. Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: 1 are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? 3 can these states be differentiated in structural terms? 3 to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical

  20. Group Dynamics in the Interior Design Studio: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study measuring the classroom climates in collegiate interior design studios and considers these findings within the group dynamics theory framework. Three groups of students completed the College Classroom Environment Scales (CCES) questionnaire. Five of the six CCES subscale F ratios were statistically…

  1. Group Dynamics in the Interior Design Studio: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study measuring the classroom climates in collegiate interior design studios and considers these findings within the group dynamics theory framework. Three groups of students completed the College Classroom Environment Scales (CCES) questionnaire. Five of the six CCES subscale F ratios were statistically…

  2. The Dynamics of Access to Groups in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon; Lelievre, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The finding that participants leave a pause between groups when attempting serial recall of temporally grouped lists has been taken to indicate access to a hierarchical representation of the list in working memory. An alternative explanation is that the dynamics of serial recall solely reflect output (rather than memorial) processes, with the…

  3. Multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Ma, Haiqiang; Wei, Kejin; Yang, Xiuqing; Qu, Wenxiu; Dou, Tianqi; Chen, Yitian; Li, Ruixue; Zhu, Wu

    2016-07-01

    In this letter, we propose a novel scheme for the realization of single-photon dynamic quantum secret sharing between a boss and three dynamic agent groups. In our system, the boss can not only choose one of these three groups to share the secret with, but also can share two sets of independent keys with two groups without redistribution. Furthermore, the security of communication is enhanced by using a control mode. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more flexible and will contribute to a practical application.

  4. Group Leader Development: Effects of Personal Growth and Psychoeducational Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Robinson, E. H., III; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effects of personal growth groups and psychoeducational groups on counselor education students' (n = 74) empathy and group leader self-efficacy. Additionally, we compared the degree to which participants in each group valued: (a) cohesion, (b) catharsis, and (c) insight. There were no…

  5. Dynamics of social positioning patterns in group-robot interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Vroon, Jered; Joosse, Michiel; Lohse, Manja; Kolkmeier, Jan; Kim, Jaebok; Truong, Khiet; Englebienne, Gwenn; Heylen, Dirk; Evers, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    When a mobile robot interacts with a group of people, it has to consider its position and orientation. We introduce a novel study aimed at generating hypotheses on suitable behavior for such social positioning, explicitly focusing on interaction with small groups of users and allowing for the temporal and social dynamics inherent in most interactions. In particular, the interactions we look at are approach, converse and retreat. In this study, groups of three participants and a telepresence r...

  6. Mean field theory for U(n) dynamical groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosensteel, G.

    2011-04-01

    Algebraic mean field theory (AMFT) is a many-body physics modeling tool which firstly, is a generalization of Hartree-Fock mean field theory, and secondly, an application of the orbit method from Lie representation theory. The AMFT ansatz is that the physical system enjoys a dynamical group, which may be either a strong or a weak dynamical Lie group G. When G is a strong dynamical group, the quantum states are, by definition, vectors in one irreducible unitary representation (irrep) space, and AMFT is equivalent to the Kirillov orbit method for deducing properties of a representation from a direct geometrical analysis of the associated integral co-adjoint orbit. AMFT can be the only tractable method for analyzing some complex many-body systems when the dimension of the irrep space of the strong dynamical group is very large or infinite. When G is a weak dynamical group, the quantum states are not vectors in one irrep space, but AMFT applies if the densities of the states lie on one non-integral co-adjoint orbit. The computational simplicity of AMFT is the same for both strong and weak dynamical groups. This paper formulates AMFT explicitly for unitary Lie algebras, and applies the general method to the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick {\\mathfrak s}{\\mathfrak u} (2) model and the Elliott {\\mathfrak s}{\\mathfrak u} (3) model. When the energy in the {\\mathfrak s}{\\mathfrak u} (3) theory is a rotational scalar function, Marsden-Weinstein reduction simplifies AMFT dynamics to a two-dimensional phase space.

  7. The dynamic development of gender variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausto-Sterling, Anne

    2012-01-01

    We diagram and discuss theories of gender identity development espoused by the clinical groups represented in this special issue. We contend that theories of origin relate importantly to clinical practice, and argue that the existing clinical theories are under-developed. Therefore, we develop a dynamic systems framework for gender identity development. Specifically, we suggest that critical aspects of presymbolic gender embodiment occur during infancy as part of the synchronous interplay of caregiver-infant dyads. By 18 months, a transition to symbolic representation and the beginning of an internalization of a sense of gender can be detected and consolidation is quite evident by 3 years of age. We conclude by suggesting empirical studies that could expand and test this framework. With the belief that better, more explicit developmental theory can improve clinical practice, we urge that clinicians take a dynamic developmental view of gender identity formation into account.

  8. Evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on structured populations: A review

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz; Szolnoki, Attila; Floría, Luis M; Moreno, Yamir; 10.1098/rsif.2012.0997

    2013-01-01

    Interactions among living organisms, from bacteria colonies to human societies, are inherently more complex than interactions among particles and nonliving matter. Group interactions are a particularly important and widespread class, representative of which is the public goods game. In addition, methods of statistical physics have proven valuable for studying pattern formation, equilibrium selection, and self-organisation in evolutionary games. Here we review recent advances in the study of evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on structured populations, including lattices, complex networks and coevolutionary models. We also compare these results with those obtained on well-mixed populations. The review particularly highlights that the study of the dynamics of group interactions, like several other important equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamical processes in biological, economical and social sciences, benefits from the synergy between statistical physics, network science and evolutionary game theory...

  9. Sunspot Group Development in High Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Muraközy, J; Ludmány, A

    2014-01-01

    The Solar and Heliospheric Obseratory/Michelson Doppler Imager--Debrecen Data (SDD) sunspot catalogue provides an opportunity to study the details and development of sunspot groups on a large statistical sample. The SDD data allow, in particular, the differential study of the leading and following parts with a temporal resolution of 1.5 hours. In this study, we analyse the equilibrium distance of sunspot groups as well as the evolution of this distance over the lifetime of the groups and the shifts in longitude associated with these groups. We also study the asymmetry between the compactness of the leading and following parts, as well as the time-profiles for the development of the area of sunspot groups. A logarithmic relationship has been found between the total area and the distance of leading-following parts of active regions (ARs) at the time of their maximum area. In the developing phase the leading part moves forward; this is more noticeable in larger ARs. The leading part has a higher growth rate than...

  10. Dynamical real space renormalization group applied to sandpile models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashkevich, E V; Povolotsky, A M; Vespignani, A; Zapperi, S

    1999-08-01

    A general framework for the renormalization group analysis of self-organized critical sandpile models is formulated. The usual real space renormalization scheme for lattice models when applied to nonequilibrium dynamical models must be supplemented by feedback relations coming from the stationarity conditions. On the basis of these ideas the dynamically driven renormalization group is applied to describe the boundary and bulk critical behavior of sandpile models. A detailed description of the branching nature of sandpile avalanches is given in terms of the generating functions of the underlying branching process.

  11. Deriving a group psychic apparatus and a typology of group mental states from Bion's group dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    There is abundant psychoanalytically-oriented literature which apply Freud's concepts related to his psychic apparatus theory. For instance, many researchers often describe group phenomena in terms of "conscious", "unconscious", "ego", and "superego". However, with the exception of Rene Kas's pioneer work, l'appareil psychic groupal, there is, to the author's knowledge, no study which has discussed explicitly and systematically the group's psychic apparatus. In the present paper the author ha...

  12. Grouping of Tasks for Cooperative Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Murayama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of members from various disciplines are involved in the development of complex products, and this brings about large-scale, complicated cooperation among them. Such cooperation causes the following problems: • the time consumption for achieving a consensus among them increases; and • the management of product development becomes difficult. In order to develop the products efficiently, this paper proposes a method for dividing the product development activity into several work groups on an appropriate scale, in each of which some of the members can cooperate with each other without the problems mentioned above. In this method, the product development activity is represented by a directed graph, each of which nodes expresses a task and each of which arcs expresses the flow of data/information between the tasks. ISM (Interpretive Structural Modeling identifies strongly connected sub-graphs, in each of which the members should cooperate with each other. However, if a strongly connected sub-graph is large, the problems mentioned above still exist. In this case, we use Bottleneck Method to divide the sub-graph into several smaller sub-graphs, each of which corresponds to a work group. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by showing an example of constructing the work groups.

  13. New insights in particle dynamics from group cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Aldaya, V; Guerrero, J

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of a particle moving in background electromagnetic and gravitational fields is revisited from a Lie group cohomological perspective. Physical constants characterizing the particle appear as central extension parameters of a group which is obtained from a centrally extended kinematical group (Poincare or Galilei) by making some subgroup local. The corresponding dynamics is generated by a vector field inside the kernel of a pre-symplectic form which is derived from the canonical left-invariant 1-form on the extended group. A non-relativistic limit is derived from the geodesic motion via an Inoenue-Wigner contraction. A deeper analysis of the cohomological structure reveals the possibility of a new force associated with a non-trivial mixing of gravity and electromagnetism leading to, in principle, testable predictions. (letter to the editor)

  14. The dynamical state of galaxy groups and their luminosity content

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Hector J

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the dependence of the luminosity function of galaxies in groups (LF) on group dynamical state. We use the Gaussianity of the velocity distribution of galaxy members as a measurement of the dynamical equilibrium of groups identified in the SDSS Data Release 7 by Zandivarez & Martinez. We apply the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit test to distinguish between groups according to whether they have Gaussian or Non-Gaussian velocity distributions, i.e., whether they are relaxed or not. For these two subsamples, we compute the $^{0.1}r-$band LF as a function of group virial mass and group total luminosity. For massive groups, ${\\mathcal M}>5 \\times 10^{13} \\ M_{\\odot} \\ h^{-1}$, we find statistically significant differences between the LF of the two subsamples: the LF of groups that have Gaussian velocity distributions have a brighter characteristic absolute magnitude ($\\sim0.3$ mag) and a steeper faint end slope ($\\sim0.25$). We detect a similar effect when comparing the LF of bright ($M^{group}_{^{0...

  15. Multi-modal analysis of small-group conversational dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, op den Rieks; Gatica-Perez, Daniel; Heylen, Dirk; Renals, Steve; Bourlard, Hervé; Carletta, Jean; Popescu-Belis, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the basic problems realted to automatic understanding of conversational group dynamics. It provides an overview of current research in automatic detection of the addressee(s) of the speaker in multiparty conversations, the visual focus of attention of participant

  16. Space Station concept development group studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA study activities in preparation for a Space Station began in the early 1970's. The early studies included many in-house NASA and contracted studies. A group of representatives from all the NASA Centers, titled the Space Station Concept Development Group (CDG) was involved in the studies which led to the initiation of the Space Station Program. The CDG studies were performed over a period of approximately one year and consisted of four phases. The initial phase had the objective to determine the functions required of the station as opposed to a configuration. The activities of the second phase were primarily concerned with a sizing of the facilities required for payloads and the resources necessary to support these mission payloads. The third phase of studies was designed to develop a philosophical approach to a number of areas related to autonomy, maintainability, operations and logistics, and verification. The fourth phase of the study was to be concerned with configuration assessment activities.

  17. Coherent States, Dynamics and Semiclassical Limit on Quantum Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Aref'eva, I Ya; Viswanathan, K S; Volovich, I V

    1994-01-01

    Coherent states on the quantum group $SU_q(2)$ are defined by using harmonic analysis and representation theory of the algebra of functions on the quantum group. Semiclassical limit $q\\rightarrow 1$ is discussed and the crucial role of special states on the quantum algebra in an investigation of the semiclassical limit is emphasized. An approach to $q$-deformation as a $q$-Weyl quantization and a relavence of contact geometry in this context is pointed out. Dynamics on the quantum group parametrized by a real time variable and corresponding to classical rotations is considered.

  18. HSTPROMO and the Dynamics of the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besla, Gurtina

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of the dynamics of our Local Group of galaxies has changed dramatically over the past few years owing to significant advancements in astrometry and our theoretical understanding of galaxy structure. I will provide an overview of key contributions by the Hubble Space Telescope to this evolving picture. In particular, I will highlight the HSTPROMO team’s proper motion measurements of key players in the Local Group, such as the fastest (Leo I) and most massive (LMC and SMC) satellites of the Milky Way and the first ever direct proper motion measurement of M31. These results have met with controversy, challenging preconceived notions of the orbital dynamics of key components of the Local Group. I will further highlight the importance of HST’s continued role in this field in the era of Gaia.

  19. A dynamic new group within Human Resources Division

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Since 1st May CERN's training and development and personnel management teams have been fused into a new group called Personnel Management and Development. The new Personnel Management and Development Group is responsible for career advancement and management, recruitment, remuneration and for language, communication, management, academic and technical training, keys to a sense of greater well-being and to career progression. The new group was born on 1st May out of the fusion of the "Personnel Management" and "Training and Development" Groups within CERN's Human Resources Division. Its aim is to offer a practical and easily accessible service to assist the members of the personnel and supervisors to manage careers more harmoniously, to make progress and to continue to learn on the job. With Sue Foffano as its Group Leader, the Group comprises four sections: Academic and Technical Training under the guiding hand of Mick Storr; Management, Communication and Language Training headed by Sudeshna Datta-Cockeril...

  20. Group Dynamics and Individual Roles: A Differentiated Approach to Social-Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Daryl

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a set of strategies to help teachers meet each child where he or she is in order to improve students' engagement, lead them to do their best work, and maximize their success. This article describes a differentiated classroom management approach based in group dynamics which focuses on the development of group norms…

  1. Group Dynamics and Individual Roles: A Differentiated Approach to Social-Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Daryl

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a set of strategies to help teachers meet each child where he or she is in order to improve students' engagement, lead them to do their best work, and maximize their success. This article describes a differentiated classroom management approach based in group dynamics which focuses on the development of group norms…

  2. Group-size-mediated habitat selection and group fusion-fission dynamics of bison under predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Daniel; Fortin, Marie-Eve; Beyer, Hawthorne L; Duchesne, Thierry; Courant, Sabrina; Dancose, Karine

    2009-09-01

    For gregarious animals the cost-benefit trade-offs that drive habitat selection may vary dynamically with group size, which plays an important role in foraging and predator avoidance strategies. We examined how habitat selection by bison (Bison bison) varied as a function of group size and interpreted these patterns by testing whether habitat selection was more strongly driven by the competing demands of forage intake vs. predator avoidance behavior. We developed an analytical framework that integrated group size into resource selection functions (RSFs). These group-size-dependent RSFs were based on a matched case-control design and were estimated using conditional logistic regression (mixed and population-averaged models). Fitting RSF models to bison revealed that bison groups responded to multiple aspects of landscape heterogeneity and that selection varied seasonally and as a function of group size. For example, roads were selected in summer, but not in winter. Bison groups avoided areas of high snow water equivalent in winter. They selected areas composed of a large proportion of meadow area within a 700-m radius, and within those areas, bison selected meadows. Importantly, the strength of selection for meadows varied as a function of group size, with stronger selection being observed in larger groups. Hence the bison-habitat relationship depended in part on the dynamics of group formation and division. Group formation was most likely in meadows. In contrast, risk of group fission increased when bison moved into the forest and was higher during the time of day when movements are generally longer and more variable among individuals. We also found that stronger selection for meadows by large rather than small bison groups was caused by longer residence time in individual meadows by larger groups and that departure from meadows appears unlikely to result from a depression in food intake rate. These group-size-dependent patterns were consistent with the hypothesis

  3. Structure and Dynamics of Humpback Whales Competitive Groups in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Félix

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the social structure and behavior of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae competitive groups off Ecuador between July and August 2010. During this time we followed 185 whales in 22 competitive groups for 41.45 hr. The average group size was 8.4 animals (SD = 2.85. The average sighting time was 113.05 min/group (SD = 47.1. We used photographs of dorsal fins and video to record interactions and estimate an association index (AI between each pair of whales within the groups. Sightings were divided into periods, which were defined by changes in group membership. On average, group composition changed every 30.2 min, which confirms that the structure of competitive groups is highly dynamic. Interactions between escorts characterized by low level of aggression. At least 60% of escorts joined or left together the group in small subunits between two and five animals, suggesting some type of cooperative association. Although singletons, as well as pairs or trios were able to join competitive groups at any moment, escorts that joined together were able to stay longer with the group and displace dominant escorts. Genetic analysis showed that in three occasions more than one female was present within a competitive group, suggesting either males are herding females or large competitive groups are formed by subunits. Males and females performed similar surface displays. We propose that competition and cooperation are interrelated in humpback whales’ competitive groups and that male cooperation would be an adaptive strategy either to displace dominant escorts or to fend off challengers.

  4. Modelling animal group fission using social network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Maire, Anaïs

    2014-01-01

    Group life involves both advantages and disadvantages, meaning that individuals have to compromise between their nutritional needs and their social links. When a compromise is impossible, the group splits in order to reduce conflict of interests and favour positive social interactions between its members. In this study we built a dynamic model of social networks to represent a succession of temporary fissions involving a change in social relations that could potentially lead to irreversible group fission (i.e. no more group fusion). This is the first study that assesses how a social network changes according to group fission-fusion dynamics. We built a model that was based on different parameters: the group size, the influence of nutritional needs compared to social needs, and the changes in the social network after a temporary fission. The results obtained from this theoretical data indicate how the percentage of social relation transfer, the number of individuals and the relative importance of nutritional requirements and social links influence the average number of days before irreversible fission occurs. The greater the nutritional needs and the higher the transfer of social relations during temporary fission, the fewer days will be observed before an irreversible fission. It is crucial to bridge the gap between the individual and the population level if we hope to understand how simple, local interactions may drive ecological systems.

  5. Dynamical renormalization group resummation of finite temperature infrared divergences

    CERN Document Server

    Boyanovsky, D; Holman, R; Simionato, M

    1999-01-01

    We introduce the method of dynamical renormalization group to study relaxation and damping out of equilibrium directly in real time and applied it to the study of infrared divergences in scalar QED. This method allows a consistent resummation of infrared effects associated with the exchange of quasistatic transverse photons and leads to anomalous logarithmic relaxation of the form $e^{-\\alpha T t \\ln[t/t_0]}$ which prevents a quasiparticle interpretation of charged collective excitations at finite temperature. The hard thermal loop resummation program is incorporated consistently into the dynamical renormalization group yielding a picture of relaxation and damping phenomena in a plasma in real time that trascends the conceptual limitations of the quasiparticle picture and other type of resummation schemes. We derive a simple criterion for establishing the validity of the quasiparticle picture to lowest order.

  6. A dynamic,secure,and efficient group key agreement protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shihui; WANG Shaohui; ZHANG Guoyan

    2007-01-01

    The key challenge of dynamic peer communication is how to realize secure and efficient group key management.A two rounds key agreement protocol for dynamic peer group (DPG) is proposed in this paper.The protocol,which was obtained by combining the E1Gamal encryption scheme with the E1Gamal signature scheme,is efficient and simple.The protocol is proven secure against passive attack by using indistinguishable method.Moreover,both perfect forward secrecy (PFS) and key independence (KI) were achieved.Because the protocol is based on the broadcast channel,it is also suitable for key agreement in wireless communications,especially in ad-hoc networks.

  7. Collective Attention and the Dynamics of Group Deals

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Mao; Aperjis, Christina; Huberman, Bernardo A; Sandholm, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the group purchasing behavior of daily deal customers. Our goal is to understand the dynamics of purchases to ultimately be able to predict how successful a deal will be. We propose a general dynamic model of collective attention for group buying behavior. In our model, the aggregate number of purchases at a given time comprises two types of processes: random discovery and social propagation. We find that these processes are very clearly separated by an inflection point, which in Groupon typically coincides with the tipping time, the time after which there are enough purchases to guarantee deal transactions. Using data from Groupon we empirically verify our theoretically inferred purchase growth models.

  8. Group impressions as dynamic configurations: the tensor product model of group impression formation and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Y; Woolcock, J; Kashima, E S

    2000-10-01

    Group impressions are dynamic configurations. The tensor product model (TPM), a connectionist model of memory and learning, is used to describe the process of group impression formation and change, emphasizing the structured and contextualized nature of group impressions and the dynamic evolution of group impressions over time. TPM is first shown to be consistent with algebraic models of social judgment (the weighted averaging model; N. Anderson, 1981) and exemplar-based social category learning (the context model; E. R. Smith & M. A. Zárate, 1992), providing a theoretical reduction of the algebraic models to the present connectionist framework. TPM is then shown to describe a common process that underlies both formation and change of group impressions despite the often-made assumption that they constitute different psychological processes. In particular, various time-dependent properties of both group impression formation (e.g., time variability, response dependency, and order effects in impression judgments) and change (e.g., stereotype change and group accentuation) are explained, demonstrating a hidden unity beneath the diverse array of empirical findings. Implications of the model for conceptualizing stereotype formation and change are discussed.

  9. Lie group analysis for multi-scale plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalev, Vladimir F

    2011-01-01

    An application of approximate transformation groups to study dynamics of a system with distinct time scales is discussed. The utilization of the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky method of averaging to find solutions of the Lie equations is considered. Physical illustrations from the plasma kinetic theory demonstrate the potentialities of the suggested approach. Several examples of invariant solutions for the system of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the two-component (electron-ion) plasma are presented.

  10. Internal character dictates transition dynamics between isolation and cohesive grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pedro D.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2015-12-01

    We show that accounting for internal character among interacting heterogeneous entities generates rich transition behavior between isolation and cohesive dynamical grouping. Our analytical and numerical calculations reveal different critical points arising for different character-dependent grouping mechanisms. These critical points move in opposite directions as the population's diversity decreases. Our analytical theory may help explain why a particular class of universality is so common in the real world, despite the fundamental differences in the underlying entities. It also correctly predicts the nonmonotonic temporal variation in connectivity observed recently in one such system.

  11. Collective Attention and the Dynamics of Group Deals

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Mao; Wang, Chunyan; Aperjis, Christina; Huberman, Bernardo A.; Sandholm, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the group purchasing behavior of daily deals in Groupon and LivingSocial and introduce a predictive dynamic model of collective attention for group buying behavior. In our model, the aggregate number of purchases at a given time comprises two types of processes: random discovery and social propagation. We find that these processes are very clearly separated by an inflection point. Using large data sets from both Groupon and LivingSocial we show how the model is able to p...

  12. Strategy selection in evolutionary game dynamics on group interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shaolin; Feng, Shasha; Wang, Pei; Chen, Yao

    2014-11-01

    Evolutionary game theory provides an appropriate tool for investigating the competition and diffusion of behavioral traits in biological or social populations. A core challenge in evolutionary game theory is the strategy selection problem: Given two strategies, which one is favored by the population? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends not only on the payoff functions of strategies but also on the interaction structure of the population. Group interactions are one of the fundamental interactive modes within populations. This work aims to investigate the strategy selection problem in evolutionary game dynamics on group interaction networks. In detail, the strategy selection conditions are obtained for some typical networks with group interactions. Furthermore, the obtained conditions are applied to investigate selection between cooperation and defection in populations. The conditions for evolution of cooperation are derived for both the public goods game and volunteer's dilemma game. Numerical experiments validate the above analytical results.

  13. Social Group Dynamics and Patterns of Latin American Integration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Dubé

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to incorporate social psychology elements with mainstream political science and international relations theories to help understand the contradictions related to the integration processes in Latin America. Through a theoretical analysis, it contributes to the challenge proposed by Dabène (2009 to explain the “resilience” of the Latin American regional integration process in spite of its “instability and crises.” Our main proposition calls for considering Latin America as a community and its regional organizations as “social groups.” In conclusion, three phenomena from the field of social psychology and particularly social group dynamics shed light on these contradictory patterns: the value of the group and the emotional bond, groupthink, and cognitive dissonance.

  14. Opinion dynamics on a group structured adaptive network

    CERN Document Server

    Gargiulo, F

    2009-01-01

    Many models have been proposed to analyze the evolution of opinion structure due to the interaction of individuals in their social environment. Such models analyze the spreading of ideas both in completely interacting backgrounds and on social networks, where each person has a finite set of interlocutors.Moreover also the investigation on the topological structure of social networks has been object of several analysis, both from the theoretical and the empirical point of view. In this framework a particularly important area of study regards the community structure inside social networks.In this paper we analyze the reciprocal feedback between the opinions of the individuals and the structure of the interpersonal relationships at the level of community structures. For this purpose we define a group based random network and we study how this structure co-evolve with opinion dynamics processes. We observe that the adaptive network structure affects the opinion dynamics process helping the consensus formation. Th...

  15. Dynamics of Microbial Functional Groups in Rhizosphere of Spring Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Stoian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant rhizosphere is the portion of soil which is in direct contact with the plant roots. From the microbiological point of view, this area is characterized by strong dynamic of functional groups with high specificity towards the substrate available. Spring barley is a crop with high requirements to the composition of the microflora in the rhizosphere, disturbances produced by agronomic inputs affecting the stability of rhizospheric contact interfaces and ultimately the plant growth. Analysis of changes within the microbial community was carried out with the purpose of defining the disruptive impact of mineral inputs and potential of zeolite to reduce these disruptions. Microbial functional groups were analyzed on the basis of the CO2 export under the specific conditions of soil inoculation on specific substrates over a time period of incubation. Microresp detection plates allow evaluation of a large number of samples under identical conditions of inoculation and the establishment of dynamics of the entire microbial community. The dynamics of the entire microbial communities (basal respiration is stimulated to increase in case of unilateral application of zeolite and zeolite as a buffer for urea fertilization. General growth trend of microbial communities follows proportional the associated application of zeolite with urea, the most powerful non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation processes being stimulated by this combination of fertilizers. Simultaneously, an increase in the dynamics of denitrifiers was observed, also the decomposition of lignin and cellulose and biological crust formation due to the proliferation of cyanobacteria. Rhizosphere of barley plants is characterized by the presence of actinomycetes as dominant in functional microbial community of all experimental variants analyzed with a high capacity for biological degradation and raised mineralization of organic matter.

  16. Dynamics Analysis of Wind Energy Production Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, V. I.; Zakirzakov, A. G.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the introduction experience and dynamics development of the world wind energy production. Calculated the amount of wind energy sources investments and the production capacity growth dynamics of the wind turbines. The studies have shown that the introduction dynamics of new wind energy sources is higher than any other energy source.

  17. Robustness and Vulnerability of Networks with Dynamical Dependency Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ya-Nan; Huang, Ning; Wang, Lei; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2016-11-01

    The dependency property and self-recovery of failure nodes both have great effects on the robustness of networks during the cascading process. Existing investigations focused mainly on the failure mechanism of static dependency groups without considering the time-dependency of interdependent nodes and the recovery mechanism in reality. In this study, we present an evolving network model consisting of failure mechanisms and a recovery mechanism to explore network robustness, where the dependency relations among nodes vary over time. Based on generating function techniques, we provide an analytical framework for random networks with arbitrary degree distribution. In particular, we theoretically find that an abrupt percolation transition exists corresponding to the dynamical dependency groups for a wide range of topologies after initial random removal. Moreover, when the abrupt transition point is above the failure threshold of dependency groups, the evolving network with the larger dependency groups is more vulnerable; when below it, the larger dependency groups make the network more robust. Numerical simulations employing the Erdős-Rényi network and Barabási-Albert scale free network are performed to validate our theoretical results.

  18. Far from random: dynamical groupings among the NEO population

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2016-03-01

    Among the near-Earth object (NEO) population, there are comets and active asteroids which are sources of fragments that initially move together; in addition, some NEOs follow orbits temporarily trapped in a web of secular resonances. These facts contribute to increasing the risk of meteoroid strikes on Earth, making its proper quantification difficult. The identification and subsequent study of groups of small NEOs that appear to move in similar trajectories are necessary steps in improving our understanding of the impact risk associated with meteoroids. Here, we present results of a search for statistically significant dynamical groupings among the NEO population. Our Monte Carlo-based methodology recovers well-documented groupings like the Taurid Complex or the one resulting from the split comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, and new ones that may have been the source of past impacts. Among the most conspicuous are the Mjolnir and Ptah groups, perhaps the source of recent impact events like Almahata Sitta and Chelyabinsk, respectively. Meteoroid 2014 AA, that hit the Earth on 2014 January 2, could have its origin in a marginally significant grouping associated with Bennu. We find that most of the substructure present within the orbital domain of the NEOs is of resonant nature, probably induced by secular resonances and the Kozai mechanism that confine these objects into specific paths with well-defined perihelia.

  19. Dynamic Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange under standard assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2002-02-14

    Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals communicating over a public network, and each holding public-private keys, to agree on a shared secret value. In this paper we study the natural extension of this cryptographic problem to a group of principals. We begin from existing formal security models and refine them to incorporate major missing details (e.g., strong-corruption and concurrent sessions). Within this model we define the execution of a protocol for authenticated dynamic group Diffie-Hellman and show that it is provably secure under the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Our security result holds in the standard model and thus provides better security guarantees than previously published results in the random oracle model.

  20. Dynamics of group knowledge production in facilitated modelling workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Franco, L. Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘facilitated modelling’ is used in the literature to characterise an approach to structuring problems, developing options and evaluating decisions by groups working in a model-supported workshop environment, and assisted by a facilitator. The approach involves an interactive process...... by which models are jointly developed with group members interacting face-to-face, with or without computer support. The models produced are used to inform negotiations about the nature of the issues faced by the group, and how to address them. While the facilitated modelling literature is impressive...... the form of three distinct group knowledge production patterns: generative, collaborative and assertive. Further, each pattern is characterised by a particular mix of communicative behaviours and model-supported interactions that has implications for the creation of new knowledge within the workshop. Our...

  1. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarowsky, Christina; Haddad, Slim; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnerability: the initial level of wellbeing, the degree of exposure to risk, and the capacity to manage risk effectively. We stress the dynamic interactions linking material and social deprivation, poverty, powerlessness and ill health: risks or shocks and their health impacts are intimately interconnected and reinforce each other in a cycle which in the absence of effective interventions, increases vulnerability. An inductive process which does not begin with an a priori definition or measurement of 'vulnerability' and which does not assume the existence of fixed 'vulnerable groups' allowed us both to re-affirm core aspects of existing conceptual frameworks, and to engage in new ways with literature specifically addressing vulnerability and resilience at the population level as well as with literature - for example in ecology, and on the concept of frailty in research on aging - with which researchers on health and poverty in Africa may not be familiar. We invite conceptual and empirical work on vulnerability in complex systems frameworks. These perspectives emphasize contexts and nonlinear causality thus supporting analyses of vulnerability and resilience as both markers and emergent properties of dynamic interactions. We accept a working definition of vulnerability, and recognize that some definable groups of people are more likely than others to suffer harm from exposure to health risks. But we suggest that the real work - at both intellectual and policy/political levels - lies in understanding and responding to the dynamics, meanings and power relations underlying actual instances and processes of vulnerability and harm.

  2. Far from random: dynamical groupings among the NEO population

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, C de la Fuente

    2016-01-01

    Among the near-Earth object (NEO) population there are comets and active asteroids which are sources of fragments that initially move together; in addition, some NEOs follow orbits temporarily trapped in a web of secular resonances. These facts contribute to increasing the risk of meteoroid strikes on Earth, making its proper quantification difficult. The identification and subsequent study of groups of small NEOs that appear to move in similar trajectories are necessary steps in improving our understanding of the impact risk associated with meteoroids. Here, we present results of a search for statistically significant dynamical groupings among the NEO population. Our Monte Carlo-based methodology recovers well-documented groupings like the Taurid Complex or the one resulting from the split comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, and new ones that may have been the source of past impacts. Among the most conspicuous are the Mjolnir and Ptah groups, perhaps the source of recent impact events like Almahata Sitta and C...

  3. Recent developments in dynamic testing of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilat Amos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New techniques for dynamic characterization of materials that have been developed in the last three years (since the last DYMAT conference in 2012, and results from recent dynamic testing of Inconel 718 are presented. The first development is a dynamic punch test in which three dimensional Digital Image Correlation (DIC is used to measure the deformation of the rear surface of a specimen as it being penetrated. The second experimental technique that is under development is a dynamic tension experiment in which full-field strain measurement with DIC and full-field temperature measurement are done simultaneously during the test.

  4. The dynamic landscape of exceptional language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer-Karpf, Annemarie

    2012-06-01

    Developmental neurocognitive studies have shown that the brain systems supporting the emergence of sensory and cognitive abilities display different profiles of neuroplasticity. The research question posed here is to what extent sensory deprivation influences the dynamics of language development. The findings reported are grounded in studies with vision-impaired children with sighted peers featured as controls (age range 18 months to 3 years). Their data are matched against findings on advanced language development in blind children (age range: from 6 to 10 years; N = 12) and hearing-impaired and deaf children (age range: from 5 to 11 years; N = 20). The data give evidence that language acquisition in sensory-impaired children follows the same overall developmental path with respect to macrostructural changes and the succession of phase-shifts. System-specific temporal discrepancies expressed in protracted phase-shifts and delayed increases of variability are most evident in the early phases. Self-organizing maps (SOMs) help to visualize individual and group-specific variation. The dynamic framework used (1) shows a higher sensibility to system-specific changes, (2) enhances the informative value of the data assessed, and (3) facilitates reliable prognoses concerning the child's cognitive and linguistic future.

  5. Random Group Problem-Based Learning in Engineering Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischfresser, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics problem solving is highly specific to the problem at hand and to develop the general mind framework to become an effective problem solver requires ingenuity and creativity on top of a solid grounding on theoretical and conceptual knowledge. A blended approach with prototype demo, problem-based learning, and an opinion questionnaire was used during first semester of 2013. Students working in randomly selected teams had to interact with classmates while solving a randomly selected problem. The approach helps improve awareness of what is important to learn in this class while reducing grading load. It also provides a more rewarding contact time for both pupils and instructor.

  6. Dynamical segregation of galaxies in groups and clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lares, M; Sánchez, A G

    2004-01-01

    We have performed a systematic analysis of the dynamics of different galaxy populations in galaxy groups from the 2dFGRS. For this purpose we have combined all the groups into a single system, where velocities v and radius r are expressed adimensionally. We have used several methods to compare the distributions of relative velocities of galaxies with respect to the group centre for samples selected according to their spectral type (as defined by Madgwick et al., 2002), bj band luminosity and B-R colour index. We have found strong segregation effects: spectral type I objects show a statistically narrower velocity distribution than that of galaxies with a substantial star formation activity (type II-IV). Similarly, the same behavior is observed for galaxies with colour index B-R>1 compared to galaxies with B-R-19) galaxies show the same segregation. It is not important once the sample is restricted to a given spectral type. These effects are particularly important in the central region (Rp

  7. Interactive affective sharing versus non-interactive affective sharing in work groups : Comparative effects of group affect on work group performance and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klep, Annefloor; Wisse, Barbara; Van Der Flier, Henk

    2011-01-01

    This study explores whether the dynamic path to group affect, which is characterized by interactive affective sharing processes, yields different effects on task performance and group dynamics than the static path to group affect, which arises from non-interactive affective sharing. The results of o

  8. Group dynamic behavior and psychometric profiles as substantial driver for pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Michael; Fricke, Hartmut; Schlag, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Our current research lays emphasis on the extended pedestrian perception and copes with both the dynamic group behavior and the individual evaluation of situations, and hence, rather focuses on the tactical level of movement behavior. Whereas common movement models primary consider operational aspects (spatial exclusion or distance and direction related repulsion), the consideration of psychophysical concepts and intra-group coordination overcomes the idea of directed repulsion forces and derives specific movement decision with respect to the individual evaluation of situations. To provide a solid basis we analyze both data recorded at a mass event and data from a double-staged evacuation test to derive essential group dynamic behaviors and psychological related decision principles, respectively.

  9. Suspending group debate and developing concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, D.; de Vet, A.; Barkema, H.G.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of new product development (NPD) teams to generate ideas and develop high-quality concepts for new products is a crucial determinant of NPD success. Although prior research in this area has developed various interventions to enhance the ability of teams to generate ideas, such interventi

  10. Report of the Insect Development Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    Drosophila metanogaster was chosen as the insect species of choice, in regard to gravity response experiments involving normal reproduction and develop different strains. The specific gravity responses which might be affected by microgravity and are exhibited in normal reproduction and development include normal flight for courtship, mating and oviposition, tropisms for pupating or emergency of the adult, and crawling for gettering food by the larval instars at the organismic level. At the suborganismic elevel, it is believed that maturation of developing eggs in the virgin female and embryonic development of the developing egg could be affected by microgravity and warrant study.

  11. Prospective Teachers' Experiences in Developing Lessons with Dynamic Mathematics Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Bu, Lingguo; Schoen, Robert C.; Hohenwarter, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to examine the development of prospective secondary mathematics teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge as they worked individually and in small groups to develop and present lessons with dynamic mathematics software. In a three-semester long study, data were collected from 68 prospective secondary mathematics…

  12. Peer Group Learning in Roche Pharma Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulden, George P.; De Laat, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Pharma Development has used action learning to help participants in their 360[degrees] feedback programme develop their leadership competencies. The article describes how the programme was designed, supported and run across four sites over a period of 2 years. The programme was systematically evaluated and found to be successful in meeting its…

  13. Gunn and Heid: Teaching Small Group Development with Reality TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaczewski, Shana

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Small group communication or any courses with units on group/team work. Objective: In this single-class activity, students will use reality TV to identify Tuckman's five phases of group development: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Students analyze how phases of group development manifest through group interaction…

  14. Gunn and Heid: Teaching Small Group Development with Reality TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaczewski, Shana

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Small group communication or any courses with units on group/team work. Objective: In this single-class activity, students will use reality TV to identify Tuckman's five phases of group development: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Students analyze how phases of group development manifest through group interaction…

  15. Experimental study on small group behavior and crowd dynamics in a tall office building evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaping; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    It is well known that a large percentage of occupants in a building are evacuated together with their friends, families, and officemates, especially in China. Small group behaviors are therefore critical for crowd movement. This paper aims to study the crowd dynamic considering different social relations and the impacts of small groups on crowd dynamics in emergency evacuation. Three experiments are conducted in an 11-storey office building. In the first two experiments, all participants are classmates and know each other well. They are evacuated as individuals or pairs. In the third experiment, social relations among the participants are complex. Participants consist of 8 families, 6 lovers and several individuals. Space-time features, speed characteristics and density-speed relations for each experiment are analyzed and compared. Results conclude that small group behaviors can make positive impacts on crowd dynamics when evacuees know each other and are cooperative. This conclusion is also testified by four verified experiments. In the third experiment, speeds of evacuees are lowest. Small groups form automatically with the presence of intimate social relations. Small groups in this experiment slow down the average speed of the crowd and make disturbance on the crowd flow. Small groups in this case make negative impacts on the movement of the crowd. It is because that evacuees do not know each other and they are competitive to each other. Characteristics of different types of small groups are also investigated. Experimental data can provide foundational parameters for evacuation model development and are helpful for building designers.

  16. Citing Dynamic Data - Research Data Alliance working group recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi, Ari; Rauber, Andreas; Pröll, Stefan; van Uytvanck, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Geosciences research data sets are typically dynamic: changing over time as new records are added, errors are corrected and obsolete records are deleted from the data sets. Researchers often use only parts of the data sets or data stream, creating specific subsets tailored to their experiments. In order to keep such experiments reproducible and to share and cite the particular data used in a study, researchers need means of identifying the exact version of a subset as it was used during a specific execution of a workflow, even if the data source is continuously evolving. Some geosciences data services have tried to approach this problem by creating static versions of their data sets, and some have simply ignored this issue. The RDA Working Group on Dynamic Data Citation (WGDC) has instead approached the issue with a set of recommendations based upon versioned data, timestamping and a query based subsetting mechanism. The 14 RDA WGDC recommendations on how to adapt a data source for providing identifiable subsets for the long term are: Preparing the Data and the Query Store R1 - Data Versioning R2 - Timestamping R3 - Query Store Facilities Persistently Identifying Specific Data Sets R4 - Query Uniqueness R5 - Stable Sorting R6 - Result Set Verification R7 - Query Timestamping R8 - Query PID R9 - Store the Query R10 - Automated Citation Texts Resolving PIDs and Retrieving the Data - R11 - Landing Page R12 - Machine Actionability Upon modifications to the Data Infrastructure R13 - Technology Migration R14 - Migration Verification We present a detailed discussion of the recommendations, the rationale behind them, and give examples of how to implement them.

  17. Funding and future diagnosis related group development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertrees, J C

    2001-07-01

    Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) are widely used for a variety of purposes including quality improvement, hospital output measurement and funding. DRGs are a patient classification scheme which provides a means of relating the type of patients a hospital treats (i.e., its casemix) to the costs incurred by the hospital. This is done by classifying patients into mutually exclusive groups based on the patient's principal diagnosis and other information. The original Health Care Financing Administration DRGs (HCFA DRGs) have been in use since 1982. This document provides an overview of future directions for the newer DRG systems and it provides a framework for understanding the use of DRGs for funding. Newer DRG systems incorporate explicit adjustment for severity of illness, include separate measures for the likelihood of mortality, and are more independent of the underlying coding systems (e.g., ICD-10 for diagnoses, ICD-9-CM for procedures). The framework for a casemix-based budgeting system consists of five basic aspects. They are: 1) Categories--which kind of DRG will be the basis for the casemix system; 2) Relative Weights--relative weights reflect the expected cost of a case in one DRG relative to the expected cost of the average patient; 3) Base Rates/Pricing--the base rate converts the relative values to prices or budgets; 4) Adjustments--adjustments account for exogenous factors; 5) Transition Policy--this provides time so hospital administrators can learn to respond to the incentives contained in the DRG system.

  18. Studies on the Development of Interest Group Populations in Corporative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Helene Marie

    This dissertation investigates how the Danish population of interest groups develops over time and whether population mechanisms, societal factors, and corporative institutions can explain this development. How interest group populations develop and which factors explain this development...... are important questions with implications for the quality of democracy. The answers can indicate the degree of bias and diversity in interest group populations. Earlier studies have especially focused on snapshots of the composition of interest group populations and not on the dynamics and development...... of populations. The dissertation attempts to fill this gap in the literature by investigating the development of a total interest group population. The central claim of the dissertation is that societal factors and population dynamics can explain how a population develops and that corporative institutions...

  19. Developing SSRS reports for dynamics AX

    CERN Document Server

    Hirwani, Mukesh

    2013-01-01

    Written as a step-by-step tutorial, covering all technical aspects of AX 2012 reporting to enable you to quickly learn to and develop reports.This book is ideal for developers and administrators, who deal with Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012 reporting in day-to-day scenarios. No prior exposure to Dynamics AX 2012 reporting is assumed. Readers must know about AX architecture, about the AOT, basic X++ skills, and the basics of SSRS.

  20. Report of the Avian Development Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The anteroposterior axis of the avian embryo is established before it is laid. Baer's rule states that the cephalic end of the avian embryo will be away from the observer when the pointed end of the shell is on the observer's right. There are experimental data available which indicate gravity has a role in the establishment of the anteroposterior axis while the egg is in the uterus; this results in Baer's rule. The influence of gravity on egg development is studied.

  1. Report of the Microbial Development Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G.

    1985-01-01

    In formulating ideas on the relationship of gravity to the development, growth, and reproduction of microorganisms, a rather liberal definition of microorganisms is used which includes bacteria, yeasts, protists, filamentous fungi, and single cells in culture. A principal advantage of microorganisms as experimental subjects is the rigor with which they can be defined and controlled. As single cells, each cell may be regarded as identical to the others in the population. This property applies to the morphology, physiology, and genetic parameters of the cells. The growth and development of the population is subject to precise manipulation as the nutritional requirements are known and minimal media formulations have been developed. Growth and differentiation can be manipulated in a variety of ways, such as alteration of the culture temperature and food supply, or by use of mutants. Finally, the short generation times of microorganisms provide the opportunity to conduct multigenerational studies within practical time limits and, in a similar vein, cellular responses to various stimuli or stresses are conveniently monitored because of the rapid response times of single cells.

  2. Development of radioactive platinum group metal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.E. [and others

    1999-03-01

    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solutions was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400m{sup 2}/g.The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 1 to 10 wt. %. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of more than 93% to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its activity is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 86 refs., 44 tabs., 88 figs.

  3. Development of radioactive platinum group metal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.E. [and others

    1999-03-01

    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solutions was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400m{sup 2}/g.The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 1 to 10 wt. %. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of more than 93% to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its activity is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 86 refs., 44 tabs., 88 figs.

  4. Conceptual Development and Dynamic Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Andersen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Thomas S. Kuhn's work on taxonomic concepts and how it relates to empirical work from the cognitive sciences on categorization and conceptual development. I shall first review the basic features of Kuhn's family resemblance account and compare to work from the cognitive sciences. I shall then show how Kuhn's account can be extended to cover the development of new taxonomies in science, and I shall illustrate by a detailed case study that Kuhn himself mentioned only briefly in his own work, namely the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity.

  5. Dynamic analysis and assessment for sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of sustainable development is crucial for constituting sustainable development strategies. Assessment methods that exist so far usually only use an indicator system for making sustainable judgement. These indicators rarely reflect dynamic characteristics. However, sustainable development is influenced by changes in the social-economic system and in the eco-environmental system at different times. Besides the spatial character, sustainable development has a temporal character that can not be neglected; therefore the research system should also be dynamic. This paper focuses on this dynamic trait, so that the assessment results obtained provide more information for judgements in decision-making processes. Firstly the dynamic characteristics of sustainable development are analyzed, which point to a track of sustainable development that is an upward undulating curve. According to the dynamic character and the development rules of a social, economic and ecological system, a flexible assessment approach that is based on tendency analysis, restrictive conditions and a feedback system is then proposed for sustainable development.

  6. The EDF group and the sustainable development; Le groupe EDF et le developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document deals with the management policy of the EDF Group, concerning the sustainable development. The program is presented showing the Group will to contribute to an environmental quality: a control of the activities impact on the environment, the development of the renewable energies, the solidarity and the electric power access development in developing countries. (A.L.B.)

  7. Educator Study Groups: A Professional Development Tool to Enhance Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herner-Patnode, Leah

    2009-01-01

    Professional development can take many forms. The most effective development includes individual educators in the formation and planning process. Educator study groups are one form of professional development that allows major stakeholders in the education process the autonomy to develop individual and group goals. This often translates into an…

  8. Dynamics of safety performance and culture: a group model building approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Love, Peter E D; Stagbouer, Greg; Annesley, Chris

    2012-09-01

    The management of occupational health and safety (OHS) including safety culture interventions is comprised of complex problems that are often hard to scope and define. Due to the dynamic nature and complexity of OHS management, the concept of system dynamics (SD) is used to analyze accident prevention. In this paper, a system dynamics group model building (GMB) approach is used to create a causal loop diagram of the underlying factors influencing the OHS performance of a major drilling and mining contractor in Australia. While the organization has invested considerable resources into OHS their disabling injury frequency rate (DIFR) has not been decreasing. With this in mind, rich individualistic knowledge about the dynamics influencing the DIFR was acquired from experienced employees with operations, health and safety and training background using a GMB workshop. Findings derived from the workshop were used to develop a series of causal loop diagrams that includes a wide range of dynamics that can assist in better understanding the causal influences OHS performance. The causal loop diagram provides a tool for organizations to hypothesize the dynamics influencing effectiveness of OHS management, particularly the impact on DIFR. In addition the paper demonstrates that the SD GMB approach has significant potential in understanding and improving OHS management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Professional Development within Collaborative Teacher Study Groups: Pitfalls and Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Teacher study groups are often thought to be effective professional development structures. Such teacher communities may foster teacher learning through a collaborative culture and the codification of group members' collective knowledge. However, not all study groups are effective professional development. This article is a discussion of factors…

  10. Group living accelerates bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2014-01-01

    For many insect species, group living provides physiological and behavioral benefits, including faster development. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) live in aggregations composed of eggs, nymphs, and adults of various ages. Our aim was to determine whether bed bug nymphs reared in groups develop faster than solitary nymphs. We reared first instars either in isolation or in groups from hatching to adult emergence and recorded their development time. In addition, we investigated the effects of group housing on same-age nymphs versus nymphs reared with adults. Nymphal development was 2.2 d faster in grouped nymphs than in solitary-housed nymphs, representing 7.3% faster overall development. However, this grouping effect did not appear to be influenced by group composition. Thus, similar to other gregarious insect species, nymph development in bed bugs is faster in aggregations than in isolation.

  11. Product development projects dynamics and emergent complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Schlick, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This book primarily explores two topics: the representation of simultaneous, cooperative work processes in product development projects with the help of statistical models, and the assessment of their emergent complexity using a metric from theoretical physics (Effective Measure Complexity, EMC). It is intended to promote more effective management of development projects by shifting the focus from the structural complexity of the product being developed to the dynamic complexity of the development processes involved. The book is divided into four main parts, the first of which provides an introduction to vector autoregression models, periodic vector autoregression models and linear dynamical systems for modeling cooperative work in product development projects. The second part presents theoretical approaches for assessing complexity in the product development environment, while the third highlights and explains closed-form solutions for the complexity metric EMC for vector autoregression models and linear dyn...

  12. Challenging gender stereotypes: Theory of mind and peer group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Rizzo, Michael T; Killen, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the social cognitive skills related to challenging gender stereotypes, children (N = 61, 3-6 years) evaluated a peer who challenged gender stereotypic norms held by the peer's group. Participants with false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to expect a peer to challenge the group's stereotypes and propose that the group engage in a non-stereotypic activity. Further, participants with FB ToM rated challenging the peer group more positively. Participants without FB ToM did not differentiate between their own and the group's evaluation of challenges to the group's stereotypic norms, but those with ToM competence asserted that they would be more supportive of challenging the group norm than would the peer group. Results reveal the importance of social-cognitive competencies for recognizing the legitimacy of challenging stereotypes, and for understanding one's own and other group perspectives.

  13. Reducing Deviance Through Youths' Mutual Aid Group Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2016-01-01

    The mutual aid group, as supported by the social worker, emerges to play a vital role in helping group members reduce their deviance or behavioral problem. However, how the collaboration of the group and social worker accomplishes the reduction has remained uncharted. Based on social capital theory, mutual aid and cohesion within the group and social workers' specific aid for the group are likely responsible for the reduction. The test of such hypotheses relies on a two-wave panel survey of the members of 60 mutual aid groups who had deviant behavioral problems, located in Hong Kong, China. These groups had 241 youths completing both initial and 1-year follow-up surveys. Results manifested the direct or unconditional contributions of mutual aid, group cohesion, and social workers' specific aid to reducing deviance. Hence, social workers can enhance the effectiveness of the mutual aid group in reducing youths' deviance.

  14. Dynamics of two-group conflicts: A statistical physics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, H. T.; Kaufman, Miron; Kaufman, Sanda

    2017-03-01

    We propose a "social physics" model for two-group conflict. We consider two disputing groups. Each individual i in each of the two groups has a preference si regarding the way in which the conflict should be resolved. The individual preferences span a range between + M (prone to protracted conflict) and - M (prone to settle the conflict). The noise in this system is quantified by a "social temperature". Individuals interact within their group and with individuals of the other group. A pair of individuals (i , j) within a group contributes -si ∗sj to the energy. The inter-group energy of individual i is taken to be proportional to the product between si and the mean value of the preferences from the other group's members. We consider an equivalent-neighbor Renyi-Erdos network where everyone interacts with everyone. We present some examples of conflicts that may be described with this model.

  15. The Punctuated-Tuckman: Towards a New Group Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Andrew C.; Trombley, Sarah M.

    2007-01-01

    Two commonly accepted theories of group development are the Tuckman model (Tuckman & Jensen, 1977) and the Punctuated-Equilibrium model (Gersick, 1988). Critiques of both are that they assume linear development and that they fail to account for outside influences. In contrast, Tubbs (2004) suggests that group development should be viewed from a…

  16. Measuring Group Work Dynamics and Its Relation with L2 Learners' Task Motivation and Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupore, Glen

    2016-01-01

    While learners of a second language (L2) are increasingly interacting in small groups as part of a communicative methodological paradigm, very few studies have investigated the social dynamics that occur in such groups. The aim of this study is to introduce a group work dynamic measuring instrument and to investigate the relationship between group…

  17. The Development of Group Interaction Patterns: How Groups become Adaptive, Generative, and Transformative Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Manuel; Sessa, Valerie I.

    2007-01-01

    This article integrates the literature on group interaction process analysis and group learning, providing a framework for understanding how patterns of interaction develop. The model proposes how adaptive, generative, and transformative learning processes evolve and vary in their functionality. Environmental triggers for learning, the group's…

  18. Verbal Synchrony and Action Dynamics in Large Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zimmermann, Jorina; Richardson, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    While synchronized movement has been shown to increase liking and feelings of togetherness between people, we investigated whether collective speaking in time would change the way that larger groups played a video game together. Anthropologists have speculated that the function of interpersonal coordination in dance, chants, and singing is not just to produce warm, affiliative feelings, but also to improve group action. The group that chants and dances together hunts well together. Direct evidence for this is sparse, as research so far has mainly studied pairs, the effects of coordinated physical movement, and measured cooperation and affiliative decisions. In our experiment, large groups of people were given response handsets to play a computer game together, in which only joint coordinative efforts lead to success. Before playing, the synchrony of their verbal behavior was manipulated. After the game, we measured group members' affiliation toward their group, their performance on a memory task, and the way in which they played the group action task. We found that verbal synchrony in large groups produced affiliation, enhanced memory performance, and increased group members' coordinative efforts. Our evidence suggests that the effects of synchrony are stable across modalities, can be generalized to larger groups and have consequences for action coordination.

  19. Software Development for JSA Dynamic Parameter Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO; Huang-da

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a series of experiment measurement system for Jordan sub-critical assembly.The dynamic parameter measurement system is used for measuring the prompt neutron decaying constant,a physics parameter of reactor character.It mainly consists of a 3He neutron detector in the reactor core,

  20. Dynamics of students’ epistemological framing in group problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai D.; Chari, Deepa N.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have investigated students’ epistemological framing when solving physics problems. Framing supports students’ problem solving as they decide what knowledge to employ and the necessary steps to solve the problem. Students may frame the same problem differently and take alternative paths to a correct solution. When students work in group settings, they share and discuss their framing to decide how to proceed in problem solving as a whole group. In this study, we investigate how groups of students negotiate their framing and frame shifts in group problem solving.

  1. Dynamics of students' epistemological framing in group problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Hai D; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated students' epistemological framing when solving physics problems. Framing supports students' problem solving as they decide what knowledge to employ and the necessary steps to solve the problem. Students may frame the same problem differently and take alternate paths to a correct solution. When students work in group settings, they share and discuss their framing to decide how to proceed in problem solving as a whole group. In this study, we investigate how groups of students negotiate their framing and frame shifts in group problem solving.

  2. Academic and Personal Development through Group Work: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study linked academic and personal development within a group counseling intervention. A pre-test post-test research design compared social skills, learning behaviors, and achievement with a convenience sample and control group of students from three elementary schools. For the treatment group, grade point average in Language Arts…

  3. WORK GROUP DEVELOPMENT MODELS – THE EVOLUTION FROM SIMPLE GROUP TO EFFECTIVE TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ZOLTAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, work teams are increasingly studied by virtue of the advantages they have compared to the work groups. But a true team does not appear overnight but must complete several steps to overcome the initial stage of its existence as a group. The question that arises is at what point a simple group is turning into an effective team. Even though the development process of group into a team is not a linear process, the models found in the literature provides a rich framework for analyzing and identifying the features which group acquires over time till it become a team in the true sense of word. Thus, in this article we propose an analysis of the main models of group development in order to point out, even in a relative manner, the stage when the simple work group becomes an effective work team.

  4. Dynamics in bioprocess development for Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadiut, Oliver; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is a widely used host organism for the recombinant production of proteins. It is attracting increasing interest for the production of biopharmaceuticals, due to its capability of performing posttranslational modifications. Traditionally, production processes with P. pastoris describe fed-batch processes based on feed forward regimes with a constant specific growth rate. However, this strategy does not consider physiological changes of the organism, bearing the risk of overfeeding and thus harming the cells. Recently, we introduced the specific substrate uptake rate as a novel physiological parameter to design fed-batch strategies for P. pastoris. We showed that by doing dynamic batch experiments strain specific parameters, which are needed to set up respective feeding profiles, can be easily determined. Furthermore we proved that dynamics during feeding directly affects productivity and product purity. Here, we sum up our findings regarding dynamics in bioprocess development for P. pastoris.

  5. Hybrid dynamics in a species group of swallowtail butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, J R; Sperling, F A H

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid zones provide unique natural laboratories for studying mechanisms of evolution. But identification and classification of hybrid individuals (F1, F2, backcross, etc.) can be complicated by real population changes over time as well as by use of different marker types, both of which challenge documentation of hybrid dynamics. Here, we use multiple genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA, microsatellites and genomewide single nucleotide polymorphisms) to re-examine population structure in a hybrid zone between two species of swallowtail butterflies in western Canada, Papilio machaon and P. zelicaon. Our aim was to test whether their hybrid dynamics remain the same as found 30 years ago using morphology and allozymes, and we compared different genetic data sets as well as alternative hybrid identification and classification methods. Overall, we found high differentiation between the two parental species, corroborating previous research from the 1980s. We identified fewer hybrid individuals in the main zone of hybridization in recent years, but this finding depended on the genetic markers considered. Comparison of methods with simulated data sets generated from our data showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms were more powerful than microsatellites for both hybrid identification and classification. Moreover, substantial variation among comparisons underlined the value of multiple markers and methods for documenting evolutionarily dynamic systems.

  6. Dwarf galaxies in the dynamically evolved NGC 1407 Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentham, Neil; Tully, R. Brent; Mahdavi, Andisheh

    2006-07-01

    The NGC 1407 Group stands out among nearby structures by its properties that suggest it is massive and evolved. It shares properties with entities that have been called fossil groups: the 1.4m differential between the dominant elliptical galaxy and the second brightest galaxy comes close to satisfying the definition that has been used to define the fossil class. There are few intermediate-luminosity galaxies, but a large number of dwarfs in the group. We estimate there are 250 group members to the depth of our survey. The slope of the faint end of the luminosity function (reaching MR = -12) is α = -1.35. Velocities for 35 galaxies demonstrate that this group with one dominant galaxy has a mass of 7 × 1013Msolar and M/LR = 340Msolar/Lsolar. Two galaxies in close proximity to NGC 1407 have very large blueshifts. The most notable is the second brightest galaxy, NGC 1400, with a velocity of -1072 km s-1 with respect to the group mean. We report the detection of X-ray emission from this galaxy and from the group.

  7. Dwarf galaxies in the Dynamically Evolved NGC 1407 Group

    CERN Document Server

    Trentham, N; Tully, R B; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Trentham, Neil

    2006-01-01

    The NGC 1407 Group stands out among nearby structures by its properties that suggest it is massive and evolved. It shares properties with entities that have been called fossil groups: the 1.4 magnitude differential between the dominant elliptical galaxy and the second brightest galaxy comes close to satisfying the definition that has been used to define the fossil class. There are few intermediate luminosity galaxies, but a large number of dwarfs in the group. We estimate there are 250 group members to the depth of our survey. The slope of the faint end of the luminosity function (reaching M_R = -12) is alpha = -1.35. Velocities for 35 galaxies demonstrate that this group with one dominant galaxy has a mass of 7 X 10^13 M_sun and M/L_R = 340. Two galaxies in close proximity to NGC 1407 have very large blueshifts. The most notable is the second brightest galaxy, NGC 1400, with a velocity of -1072 km/s with respect to the group mean. We report the detection of X-ray emission from this galaxy and from the group.

  8. Uncertainty, innovation, and dynamic sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Newman

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a rich concept that has helped shape the discussion of human society’s interaction with the biosphere. However, the term “sustainable development” is contentious, and some dismiss it outright as an oxymoron. The seemingly contradictory “sustainable” and “development” can be reconciled by accepting that due to two factors, the inherent complexity and uncertainty of human and natural systems, and the ability of human society to innovate, sustainable development must be dynamic. It must be an ongoing process, not a goal. A sustainable society must constantly evaluate its relationship with nature as it adopts new innovations and encounters unexpected events. The role of feedback and suitable application of the precautionary principle are key elements of a dynamic sustainable development process. The example of nuclear waste management in Canada demonstrates the beginning of such a process.

  9. Mountain gorilla ranging patterns: influence of group size and group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, Damien; Ndagijimana, Felix; Giarrusso, Anthony J; Vecellio, Veronica; Stoinski, Tara S

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1980s, the Virunga mountain gorilla population has almost doubled, now reaching 480 individuals living in a 430-km(2) protected area. Analysis of the gorillas' ranging patterns can provide critical information on the extent and possible effects of competition for food and space. We analyzed 12 years of daily ranging data and inter-group encounter data collected on 11 gorilla groups monitored by the Karisoke Research Center in Rwanda. During that period, the study population increased in size by almost 50% and the number of groups tripled. Groups had small yearly home ranges compared to other known gorilla populations, with an average 90% kernel density estimate of 8.07 km2 and large between-group variations (3.17-23.59 km2). Most groups had consistent home range location over the course of the study but for some, we observed gradual range shifts of up to 4 km. Neighboring groups displayed high home range overlap, which increased dramatically after the formation of new groups. On average, each group used only 28.6% of its 90% kernel home range exclusively, and in some areas up to six different groups had overlapping home ranges with little or no exclusive areas. We found a significant intra-group positive relationship between the number of weaned individuals in a group and the home range size, but the fitted models only explained 17.5% and 13.7% of the variance in 50% and 90% kernel home range size estimates, respectively. This suggests that despite the increase in size, the study population is not yet experiencing marked effects of feeding competition. However, the increase in home range overlap resulting from the formation of new groups led to a sixfold increase in the frequency of inter-group encounters, which exposes the population to elevated risks of fight-related injuries and infanticide.

  10. Instrumental Development of Teachers’ Reasoning in Dynamic Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alqahtani, Muteb M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To contribute to understanding how teachers can develop geometrical understanding, we report on the discursive development of teachers’ geometrical reasoning through instrument appropriation while collaborating in an online dynamic geometry environment (DGE. Using the theory of instrument-mediated activity, we analysis the discourse and DGE actions of a group of middle and high school mathematics teachers who participated in a semester-long, professional development course. Working in small teams, they collaborated to solve geometric problems. Our results show that as teachers appropriate DGE artifacts and transform its components into instruments, they develop their geometrical knowledge and reasoning in dynamic geometry. Our study contributes to a broad understanding of how teachers develop mathematical knowledge for teaching.

  11. Dynamical behavior of price forecasting in structures of group correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Kim, Kyungsik

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the prediction of the future prices from the structures and the networks of the companies in special financial groups. After the financial group network has been constructed from the value of the high cross-correlation, each company in a group is simulated and analyzed how it buys or sells stock is anaylzed and how it makes rational investments is forecasted. In the shortmemory behavior rather than the long-memory behavior, each company among a group can make a rational investment decision by using a stochastic evolution rule in the financial network. In particular, we simulate and analyze the investment situation in connection with the empirical data and the simulated result.

  12. The Clean Development Mechanism and Dynamic Capabilities of Implementing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    This study assesses the impact of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) on the dynamic capabilities of implementing firms in India. While doing so, it uses three indicators of firms' dynamic capabilities: R&D expenditures to sales ratio, fuel consumption to sales ratio and total factor productivity...... and non-CDM firms as the control group for the pre- and post-CDM implementation periods. We control for unobserved fixed effects of firms and time periods and observed characteristics of firms and CDM projects. The analysis draws on the balance sheet data of 612 firms from India between 2001 and 2012 from...

  13. Controlling Complex Systems and Developing Dynamic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avizienis, Audrius Victor

    In complex systems, control and understanding become intertwined. Following Ilya Prigogine, we define complex systems as having control parameters which mediate transitions between distinct modes of dynamical behavior. From this perspective, determining the nature of control parameters and demonstrating the associated dynamical phase transitions are practically equivalent and fundamental to engaging with complexity. In the first part of this work, a control parameter is determined for a non-equilibrium electrochemical system by studying a transition in the morphology of structures produced by an electroless deposition reaction. Specifically, changing the size of copper posts used as the substrate for growing metallic silver structures by the reduction of Ag+ from solution under diffusion-limited reaction conditions causes a dynamical phase transition in the crystal growth process. For Cu posts with edge lengths on the order of one micron, local forces promoting anisotropic growth predominate, and the reaction produces interconnected networks of Ag nanowires. As the post size is increased above 10 microns, the local interfacial growth reaction dynamics couple with the macroscopic diffusion field, leading to spatially propagating instabilities in the electrochemical potential which induce periodic branching during crystal growth, producing dendritic deposits. This result is interesting both as an example of control and understanding in a complex system, and as a useful combination of top-down lithography with bottom-up electrochemical self-assembly. The second part of this work focuses on the technological development of devices fabricated using this non-equilibrium electrochemical process, towards a goal of integrating a complex network as a dynamic functional component in a neuromorphic computing device. Self-assembled networks of silver nanowires were reacted with sulfur to produce interfacial "atomic switches": silver-silver sulfide junctions, which exhibit

  14. Substructure in the Most Massive GEEC Groups: Field-like Populations in Dynamically Active Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Annie; Wilman, David J; McGee, Sean L; Harris, William E; Connelly, Jennifer L; Balogh, Michael L; Mulchaey, John S; Bower, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    The presence of substructure in galaxy groups and clusters is believed to be a sign of recent galaxy accretion and can be used not only to probe the assembly history of these structures, but also the evolution of their member galaxies. Using the Dressler-Shectman (DS) Test, we study substructure in a sample of intermediate redshift (z ~ 0.4) galaxy groups from the Group Environment and Evolution Collaboration (GEEC) group catalog. We find that 4 of the 15 rich GEEC groups, with an average velocity dispersion of ~525 km s-1, are identified as having significant substructure. The identified regions of localized substructure lie on the group outskirts and in some cases appear to be infalling. In a comparison of galaxy properties for the members of groups with and without substructure, we find that the groups with substructure have a significantly higher fraction of blue and star-forming galaxies and a parent colour distribution that resembles that of the field population rather than the overall group population....

  15. Theory of galaxy dynamics in clusters and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Mamon, G A

    2000-01-01

    Analytical estimates of the mass and radial dependence of the rates of galaxy mergers and of tidal interactions are derived for clusters and groups of galaxies, taking into account the tides from the system potential that limit the sizes of galaxies. Only high mass galaxies undergo significant major merging before being themselves cannibalized by more massive galaxies. Strong tides from the group/cluster potential severely limit the merger/tide cross-sections in the central regions, and while tides are most efficient at the periphery, one should see merging encounters further inside rich clusters.

  16. Application of Lie group analysis in geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ibragimov, Ranis

    2011-01-01

    This is the first monograph dealing with the applications of the Lie group analysis to the modeling equations governing internal wave propagation in the deep ocean. A new approach to describe the nonlinear interactions of internal waves in the ocean is presented. While the central idea of the book is to investigate oceanic internal waves through the prism of Lie group analysis, it is also shown for the first time that internal wave beams, representing exact solutions to the equation of motion of stratified fluid, can be found by solving the given model as invariant solutions of nonlinear equat

  17. Dynamics of a Counseling Group: The Counselor as Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzer, Shelly

    1973-01-01

    The counselor is important for effective functioning of a group. Many interactions evolve from his presence and the client's subsequent struggles to be dependent and independent. The various phases in this sturggle are explained as is their relation to Freudian theory. (EK)

  18. Group Dynamics and Decision Making: Backcountry Recreationists in Avalanche Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Leslie Shay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of decision-making characteristics of recreational backcountry groups when making a decision of where to travel and ride in avalanche terrain from the perspective of individuals. Decision-making characteristics encompassed communication, decision-making processes, leadership,…

  19. Ecological change, group territoriality, and population dynamics in Serengeti lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Craig; Hilborn, Ray; Mosser, Anna; Kissui, Bernard; Borner, Markus; Hopcraft, Grant; Wilmshurst, John; Mduma, Simon; Sinclair, Anthony R E

    2005-01-21

    Territorial behavior is expected to buffer populations against short-term environmental perturbations, but we have found that group living in African lions causes a complex response to long-term ecological change. Despite numerous gradual changes in prey availability and vegetative cover, regional populations of Serengeti lions remained stable for 10- to 20-year periods and only shifted to new equilibria in sudden leaps. Although gradually improving environmental conditions provided sufficient resources to permit the subdivision of preexisting territories, regional lion populations did not expand until short-term conditions supplied enough prey to generate large cohorts of surviving young. The results of a simulation model show that the observed pattern of "saltatory equilibria" results from the lions' grouping behavior.

  20. Facilitation by exogenous attention for static and dynamic gestalt groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Fahrettin F; Hallal, Hamza; Ogmen, Haluk

    2014-08-01

    Attentional mechanisms allow the brain to selectively allocate its resources to stimuli of interest within the huge amount of information reaching its sensory systems. The voluntary component of attention, endogenous attention, can be allocated in a flexible manner depending on the goals and strategies of the observer. On the other hand, the reflexive component, exogenous attention, is driven by the stimulus. Here, we investigated how exogenous attention is deployed to moving stimuli that form distinct perceptual groups. We showed that exogenous attention is deployed according to a reference frame that moves along with the stimulus. Moreover, in addition to the cued stimulus, exogenous attention is deployed to all elements forming a perceptual group. These properties provide a basis for the efficient deployment of exogenous attention under ecological viewing conditions.

  1. Understanding the group dynamics and success of teams

    OpenAIRE

    Klug, Michael; Bagrow, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Complex problems often require coordinated group effort and can consume significant resources, yet our understanding of how teams form and succeed has been limited by a lack of large-scale, quantitative data. We analyse activity traces and success levels for approximately 150 000 self-organized, online team projects. While larger teams tend to be more successful, workload is highly focused across the team, with only a few members performing most work. We find that highly successful teams are ...

  2. Appreciative Socialization Group. A Model of Personal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona PONEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we want to present o new of form of group, which we consider as being important for the process of personal development. Groups are a form of gathering more people united by a common purpose. We believe that through their group, members can develop new skills and also can obtain the change in the direction they want. Socialization is the processthat we “share” along with others, by communicating and also by having close views towards different things in life. Appreciative socialization involves placing emphasis on those elements that have value to us, which are positive. We consider appreciative group socialization as a model of good practice that aims the development among group members and increasesempowerment process.

  3. Do group dynamics play a role in the evolution of member galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Annie; Balogh, Michael L; McGee, Sean L; Wilman, David J; Connelly, Jennifer L; Harris, William E; Mok, Angus; Mulchaey, John S; Bower, Richard G; Finoguenov, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    We examine galaxy groups from the present epoch to z = 1 to explore the impact of group dynamics on galaxy evolution. We use group catalagues from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Group Environment and Evolution Collaboration (GEEC) and the high redshift GEEC2 sample to study how the observed member properties depend on galaxy stellar mass, group dynamical mass and dynamical state of the host group. We find a strong correlation between the fraction of non-star-forming (quiescent) galaxies and galaxy stellar mass, but do not detect a significant difference in the quiescent fraction with group dynamical mass, within our sample halo mass range of 10^13-10^14.5 M_sun, or with dynamical sate. However, at a redshift of approximately 0.4 we do see some evidence that the quiescent fraction in low mass galaxies (log(M_star/M_sun) 10.5), evolution is most strongly correlated to the stellar mass of a galaxy with little or no additional effect related to either the group dynamical mass or dynamical state. For lo...

  4. Dynamics and applicability of the similarity renormalization group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launey, K D; Dytrych, T; Draayer, J P [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Popa, G, E-mail: kristina@baton.phys.lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Zanesville, OH 43701 (United States)

    2012-01-13

    The similarity renormalization group (SRG) concept (or flow equations methodology) is studied with a view toward the renormalization of nucleon-nucleon interactions for ab initio shell-model calculations. For a general flow, we give quantitative measures, in the framework of spectral distribution theory, for the strength of the SRG-induced higher order (many-body) terms of an evolved interaction. Specifically, we show that there is a hierarchy among the terms, with those of the lowest particle rank being the most important. This feature is crucial for maintaining the unitarity of SRG transformations and key to the method's applicability. (paper)

  5. Swarm Dynamics of a Group of Mobile Autonomous Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; CHU Tian-Guang; WANG Long; WANG Zhan-Feng

    2005-01-01

    @@ We propose a simple swarm model to study collective behaviour ofa group of mobile autonomous agents interact ing through a long range attraction and short range repulsion function. It is shown that the individuals (agents) will aggregate and eventually form a cohesive cluster of finite size around the swarm centre in a finite time, and the size depends only on the parameters of the swarm model. Furthermore, it is also shown that all the individuals will converge to equilibrium positions of the swarm model, and thus the configuration of the swarm converges to a constant constellation. Numerical simulations are also worked out to illustrate the analytical results.

  6. Addressing group dynamics in a brief motivational intervention for college student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Alexander S; Brown, Janice M

    2003-01-01

    Previous research indicates that brief motivational interventions for college student drinkers may be less effective in group settings than individual settings. Social psychological theories about counterproductive group dynamics may partially explain this finding. The present study examined potential problems with group motivational interventions by comparing outcomes from a standard group motivational intervention (SGMI; n = 25), an enhanced group motivational intervention (EGMI; n = 27) designed to suppress counterproductive processes, and a no intervention control (n = 23). SGMI and EGMI participants reported disruptive group dynamics as evidenced by low elaboration likelihood, production blocking, and social loafing, though the level of disturbance was significantly lower for EGMI individuals (p = .001). Despite counteracting group dynamics in the EGMI condition, participants in the two interventions were statistically similar in post-intervention problem recognition and future drinking intentions. The results raise concerns over implementing individually-based interventions in group settings without making necessary adjustments.

  7. Psychoanalytic case presentations in a weaving thoughts group: on countertransference and group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsson, Björn

    2012-08-01

    This article summarizes experiences of psychoanalytic case presentations in weaving thoughts (WT) peer groups. The format is presented and illustrated using a session with a group of analysts. In this setting, the frame of the presentation is guaranteed by the moderator. One aim is to create a group setting with many parallels to the analytic situation. A second aim is to discourage members from becoming enmeshed in destructive group functioning, such as internal disputes that may block a deeper understanding of the material. Classical psychoanalysis permits the analyst to reflect behind the patient on the transference-countertransference interplay. However, such reflections may be marred by undetected countertransference problems. Different supervision formats have different ways of helping the analyst with them. The WT format 'copies' the analytic session to the group, hence each member associates to the material in peace. Meanwhile the presenter looks, metaphorically speaking, at the web of their associations at his or her own pace. This may help him or her to confront and reflect on unresolved countertransference issues. This article indicates the method's similarities and differences compared with other formats. Arguments are supported by a child psychotherapy session, but the method is equally suitable for adult case material.

  8. Group Development for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Sylvia; Guetzloe, Eleanor

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses effective techniques for teaching students with emotional disturbances and/or behavior disorders in group settings. Three stages of group development are described with specific teaching strategies for each stage identified and related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, including needs for safety and trust, belonging and…

  9. Group Development for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Sylvia; Guetzloe, Eleanor

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses effective techniques for teaching students with emotional disturbances and/or behavior disorders in group settings. Three stages of group development are described with specific teaching strategies for each stage identified and related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, including needs for safety and trust, belonging and…

  10. Yunnan Copper Group Finalized Three Year Development Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>According to news from Yunnan Copper (Group) Co.,Ltd,the Group Company has put forward its three year development target,namely by the end of 2012 to achieve resource reserve of 15 million tons (in which copper

  11. Developments in the Gung Ho dynamical core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Gung Ho is the new dynamical core being developed for the next generation Met Office weather and climate model, suitable for meeting the exascale challenge on emerging computer architectures. It builds upon the earlier collaborative project between the Met Office, NERC and STFC Daresbury of the same name to investigate suitable numerical methods for dynamical cores. A mixed-finite element approach is used, where different finite element spaces are used to represent various fields. This method provides a number of beneficial improvements over the current model, such a compatibility and inherent conservation on quasi-uniform unstructured meshes, whilst maintaining the accuracy and good dispersion properties of the staggered grid currently used. Furthermore, the mixed finite element approach allows a large degree of flexibility in the type of mesh, order of approximation and discretisation, providing a simple way to test alternative options to obtain the best model possible.

  12. Geometry of Dynamic Large Networks: A Scaling and Renormalization Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    Geometry of Dynamic Large Networks - A Scaling and Renormalization Group Approach IRAJ SANIEE LUCENT TECHNOLOGIES INC 12/11/2013 Final Report...Z39.18 Final Performance Report Grant Title: Geometry of Dynamic Large Networks: A Scaling and Renormalization Group Approach Grant Award Number...test itself may be scaled to much larger graphs than those we examined via renormalization group methodology. Using well-understood mechanisms, we

  13. Understanding the group dynamics and success of teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Michael; Bagrow, James P

    2016-04-01

    Complex problems often require coordinated group effort and can consume significant resources, yet our understanding of how teams form and succeed has been limited by a lack of large-scale, quantitative data. We analyse activity traces and success levels for approximately 150 000 self-organized, online team projects. While larger teams tend to be more successful, workload is highly focused across the team, with only a few members performing most work. We find that highly successful teams are significantly more focused than average teams of the same size, that their members have worked on more diverse sets of projects, and the members of highly successful teams are more likely to be core members or 'leads' of other teams. The relations between team success and size, focus and especially team experience cannot be explained by confounding factors such as team age, external contributions from non-team members, nor by group mechanisms such as social loafing. Taken together, these features point to organizational principles that may maximize the success of collaborative endeavours.

  14. Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, Eric

    2006-12-01

    Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).

  15. Narrative-collaborative group coaching develops social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard; Nielsen, Glen; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of narrative-collaborative group coaching on career development, self-reflection and the general functioning of young sports talents with the goal of achieving integration of their sports careers, educational demands and private lives......-collaborative group coaching can be understood as a community psychological intervention that helps to support the development of durable social networks and the increase of social capital....

  16. Dynamics of extinction debt across five taxonomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, John M; Monokrousos, Nikolaos; Mazaris, Antonios D; Newmark, William D; Vokou, Despoina

    2016-07-25

    Species extinction following habitat loss is well documented. However, these extinctions do not happen immediately. The biodiversity surplus (extinction debt) declines with some delay through the process of relaxation. Estimating the time constants of relaxation, mainly the expected time to first extinction and the commonly used time for half the extinction debt to be paid off (half-life), is crucial for conservation purposes. Currently, there is no agreement on the rate of relaxation and the factors that it depends on. Here we find that half-life increases with area for all groups examined in a large meta-analysis of extinction data. A common pattern emerges if we use average number of individuals per species before habitat loss as an area index: for mammals, birds, reptiles and plants, the relationship has an exponent close to a half. We also find that the time to first determined extinction is short and increases slowly with area.

  17. Facilitating dental student reflections: using mentor groups to discuss clinical experiences and personal development

    OpenAIRE

    Koole, Sebastiaan; Christiaens, Véronique; Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the consensus on the importance of reflection for dental professionals, a lack of understanding remains about how students and clinicians should develop their ability to reflect. The aim of this study was to investigate dental students’ and mentors’ perceptions of mentor groups as an instructional method to facilitate students’ reflection in terms of the strategy’s learning potential, role of the mentor, group dynamics, and feasibility. At Ghent University in Belgium, third- and fourt...

  18. Development of Copeland Score Methods for Determine Group Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermatita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Voting method requires to determine group decision of decision by each decision maker in group. Determination of decisions by group of decision maker requires voting methods. Copeland score is one of voting method that has been developed by previous researchers. This method does not accommodate the weight of the expertise and interests of each decision maker. This paper proposed the voting method using Copeland score with added weighting. The method has developed of considering the weight of the expertise and interests of the decision maker. The method accordance with the problems encountered of group decision making . Expertise and interests of decision makers are given weight based on their expertises of decision maker contribution of the problems faced by the group to determine the decision.

  19. Group Dynamics in Top Management Teams: Groupthink, Vigilance, and Alternative Models of Organizational Failure and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson; Owens; Tetlock; Fan; Martorana

    1998-02-01

    This study explored the heuristic value of Janis' (1982) groupthink and vigilant decision making models as explanations of failure and success in top management team decision making using the Organizational Group Dynamics Q-sort (GDQ). Top management teams of seven Fortune 500 companies were examined at two historical junctures-one when the team was successful (defined as satisfying strategic constituencies) and one when the team was unsuccessful. Results strongly supported the notion that a group' decision making process is systematically related to the outcomes experienced by the team. Ideal-type Q-sorts organized around Janis' analysis of groupthink and vigilance were substantially correlated with Q-sorts of failing and successful groups, respectively. The fit was, however, far from perfect. Ideal-type Q-sorts derived from other frameworks correlated better with the failure-success classification than did the Janis-derived ideal types. Successful groups showed some indicators of groupthink (e.g., risk-taking, cohesion, and strong, opinionated leaders), whereas unsuccessful groups showed signs of vigilance (e.g., internal debate to the point of factionalism). The results illustrate the usefulness of the GDQ for developing and empirically testing theory in organizational behavior from historical cases. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  20. Development on dynamic nuclear polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Penttila, S I

    2002-01-01

    Our interest in understanding the spin content of the nucleon has left its marks on the recent development of the dynamic nuclear polarized (DNP) targets. This can be seen from the targets developed at CERN and SLAC for the measurement of the polarized spin structure functions in deep inelastic scattering. The results of the experiments indicated that less than 30% of the nucleon spin is carried by the quarks. This unpredicted small value initiated planning of new polarized target experiments to determine the gluon polarization on the nucleon using polarized real photons and polarized /sup 6/LiD targets. In several facilities very intense polarized photon beams are available at a wide energy range. During the next few years these photon beams with DNP targets will be used to test the fundamental GDH sum rule. Other DNP target developments are also discussed. (61 refs).

  1. Export Prices, Trade Dynamics and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Heuvelen (Harro)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on international trade and the economic development of the Philippines. The Philippines is a country that is often said to be stuck in the Middle-Income Trap. Indicating that the Philippines has been unable to move up to the highest income group. The author c

  2. Dynamical History of the Local Group in LCDM

    CERN Document Server

    Banik, Indranil

    2015-01-01

    The positions and velocities of galaxies in the Local Group (LG) measure the gravitational field within it. This is mostly due to the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31). We constrain their masses using a sample of 32 galaxies with measured distances and radial velocities (RVs). To do this, we follow the trajectories of several thousand simulated particles on a pure Hubble flow from redshift 9. For each observed galaxy, we obtain a trajectory which today is at the same position. Its final velocity is the model prediction for the velocity of that galaxy. We carefully consider the impact of tides raised by objects outside the LG. We directly include Centaurus A and try to account for IC 342 and M81. With our analysis, the total LG mass is $4.33^{+0.37}_{-0.32} \\times {10}^{12} M_\\odot$, with $0.20^{+0.05}_{-0}$ of this being in the MW. However, no plausible set of initial conditions yields a good match to the RVs of our sample of LG galaxies. We introduce a parameter $\\sigma_{extra}$ to quantify the typical disa...

  3. How milk-fed dairy calves perform in stable versus dynamic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rikke Engelbrecht; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Skjøth, F;

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present field trial was to compare calf performance among pre-weaned calves in two different group housing systems, stable groups ("all in-all out") and dynamic groups (continuous introduction). Performance data was collected from 484 calves randomly assigned to the two systems...... at six large (230-450 cows) commercial Danish dairy herds. All six farms had both systems simultaneously in the same stall, and under identical management and feeding regimes. Calves in stable groups had significantly higher daily live weight gain than calves in dynamic groups (870 vs. 810 g...

  4. Lending Groups and Different Social Capitals in Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. B. Marconatto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lending groups (LGs and social capital are two central elements to the many microfinance solutions operating around the world. However, LG effectiveness in reducing transaction costs and lending risks for microfinance institutions (MFIs is mediated by institutional environments. Starting from this assumption, we discuss the existent interactions between the institutional environments of developed (Anglo-Saxon and communitarian and developing countries with different stocks of social capital (individual, network and institutional and the influences of this interaction on LG effectiveness. In order to do so, we applied the institutional perspective of O. Williamson to build a theoretical framework to examine the interaction of all these conditions, allowing for analysis of their main relations within the microfinance context. Based on this framework, we propose on the one hand that in developing and Anglo-Saxon developed nations, stocks of both individual and network social capital are the most important for an LG’s effectiveness. However, in Anglo-Saxon countries, these two stocks of social capital are complemented by formal contracting devices. In communitarian developed countries, on the other hand, the stocks of institutional social capital have a stronger positive impact on LG dynamics.

  5. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  6. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  7. "Stop and Go": In Search of New Ecology and Dynamics in Group Counselling for Employees in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, Anita; Spangar, Timo

    2013-01-01

    "Stop and Go" (SG) is a group counselling concept developed for employees in transition. The SG approach has its main roots in relational psychology. This article explores the ecology and the dynamics of the SG process including the simultaneous presence of societal and social ('meso') factors, as well as the individual…

  8. The Cogema Group and the sustainable development; Le groupe Cogema et le developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document presents the COGEMA Group commitment to sustainable development. Through this commitment, COGEMA is pursuing a policy of ''global performance'' allying economic progress, social progress and protection of the environment, in all its activities. This report points out the many contributions that COGEMA activities make to sustainable development: monitoring of the environment and of releases from its facilities; progress in Research and Development (treatment of liquid and gas effluents, optimized recycling of spent nuclear materials and reduction of their volume, etc.); certification; support for local economic development in the areas around the Group sites, not only in France, but also abroad, as at the mines in Canada and Niger; a strong policy of openness and transparency in its nuclear activities and ongoing dialogue with NGO. The document lays the bases for a number of indicators that can be used as of next year to measure the Group contribution to meeting the challenges of sustainable development. More-detailed statistical data are also presented in the annual environmental reports from the industrial sites in the COGEMA Group. (A.L.B.)

  9. Dynamic management of sustainable development methods for large technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krishans, Zigurds; Merkuryev, Yuri; Oleinikova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Management of Sustainable Development presents a concise summary of the authors' research in dynamic methods analysis of technical systems development. The text illustrates mathematical methods, with a focus on practical realization and applications.

  10. Locomotion Disorders and Skin and Claw Lesions in Gestating Sows Housed in Dynamic versus Static Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Emilie-Julie; Maes, Dominiek; van Riet, Miriam M. J.; Millet, Sam; Ampe, Bart; Janssens, Geert P. J.; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Lameness and lesions to the skin and claws of sows in group housing are commonly occurring indicators of reduced welfare. Typically, these problems are more common in group housing than in individual housing systems. Group management type (dynamic versus static) and stage of gestation influence the behavior of the animals, which in turn influences the occurrence of these problems. The present study compared prevalence, incidence and mean scores of lameness and skin and claw lesions in static versus dynamic group housed sows at different stages of gestation during three consecutive reproductive cycles. A total of 10 Belgian sow herds were monitored; 5 in which dynamic groups and 5 in which static groups were utilized. All sows were visually assessed for lameness and skin lesions three times per cycle and the claws of the hind limbs were assessed once per cycle. Lameness and claw lesions were assessed using visual analogue scales. Static groups, in comparison with dynamic groups, demonstrated lower lameness scores (Psows demonstrating claw lesions regardless of group management. Prevalences of lameness (22.4 vs. 8.9%, P<0.05) and skin lesions (46.6 vs. 4.4%, P<0.05) were highest during the group-housed phase compared to the individually housed phases. Although the prevalence of lameness and skin lesions did not differ three days after grouping versus at the end of the group-housing phase, their incidence peaked during the first three days after moving from the insemination stalls to the group. In conclusion, the first three days after grouping was the most risky period for lameness incidence, but there was no significant difference between static or dynamic group management. PMID:27680675

  11. Structural model of in-group dynamic of 6-10 years old boys’ motor fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko O.V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine structural model of in-group dynamic of 6-10 years old boys’ motor fitness. Material: in the research 6 years old boys (n=48, 7 years old (n=45, 8 years old (n=60, 9 years’ age (n=47 and10 years’ age (n=40 participated. We carried out analysis of factorial model of schoolchildren’s motor fitness. Results: we received information for taking decisions in monitoring of physical education. This information is also necessary for working out of effective programs of children’s and adolescents’ physical training. We determined model of motor fitness and specified informative tests for pedagogic control in every age group. In factorial model of boys’ motor fitness the following factor is the most significant: for 6 years - complex development of motor skills; for 7 years - also complex development of motor skills; for 8 years - strength and coordination; for 9 years - complex development of motor skills; for 10 years - complex development of motor skills. Conclusions: In factorial model of 6-10 years old boys’ motor fitness the most significant are backbone and shoulder joints’ mobility, complex manifestation of motor skills, motor coordination. The most informative tests for assessment of different age boys’ motor fitness have been determined.

  12. Business Groups Exist in Developed Markets Also: Britain Since 1850

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey G. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Diversified business groups are well-known phenomenon in emerging markets, both today and historically. This is often explained by the prevalence of institutional voids or the nature of government-business relations. It is typically assumed that such groups were much less common in developed economies, and largely disappeared during the twentieth century. This working paper contests this assumption with evidence from Britain between 1850 and the present day. During the nineteenth century merc...

  13. Business Groups Exist in Developed Markets Also: Britain Since 1850

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey G. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Diversified business groups are well-known phenomenon in emerging markets, both today and historically. This is often explained by the prevalence of institutional voids or the nature of government-business relations. It is typically assumed that such groups were much less common in developed economies, and largely disappeared during the twentieth century. This working paper contests this assumption with evidence from Britain between 1850 and the present day. During the nineteenth century merc...

  14. Endorsement of Growth Factors and Its Relation to Stage of Group Development in Experiential Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiweewa, John M.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation utilized critical incidents methodology to examine participants' endorsement of twelve primary growth factors during a Master's level group counseling class. Additionally, the study examined whether some factors are more salient than others at each stage of development (i.e., forming, storming, norming, performing) as defined by…

  15. Modulational development of nonlinear gravity-wave groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chereskin, T. K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of the development of nonlinear surface gravity-wave groups are presented, and the amplitude and phase modulations are calculated using Hilbert-transform techniques. With increasing propagation distance and wave steepness, the phase modulation develops local phase reversals whose locations correspond to amplitude minima or nodes. The concomitant frequency modulation develops jumps or discontinuities. The observations are compared with recent similar results for wavetrains. The observations are modelled numerically using the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The motivation is twofold: to examine quantitatively the evolution of phase as well as amplitude modulation, and to test the inviscid predictions for the asymptotic behavior of groups versus long-time observations. Although dissipation rules out the recurrence, there is a long-time coherence of the groups. The phase modulation is found to distinguish between dispersive and soliton behavior.

  16. Expert performance in sport and the dynamics of talent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Elissa; Davids, Keith; Renshaw, Ian; Portus, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Research on expertise, talent identification and development has tended to be mono-disciplinary, typically adopting genocentric or environmentalist positions, with an overriding focus on operational issues. In this paper, the validity of dualist positions on sport expertise is evaluated. It is argued that, to advance understanding of expertise and talent development, a shift towards a multidisciplinary and integrative science focus is necessary, along with the development of a comprehensive multidisciplinary theoretical rationale. Here we elucidate dynamical systems theory as a multidisciplinary theoretical rationale for capturing how multiple interacting constraints can shape the development of expert performers. This approach suggests that talent development programmes should eschew the notion of common optimal performance models, emphasize the individual nature of pathways to expertise, and identify the range of interacting constraints that impinge on performance potential of individual athletes, rather than evaluating current performance on physical tests referenced to group norms.

  17. Energy Innovation 1998. IVO group`s research and development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; McConchie, R.; Fletcher, R. [eds.

    1998-07-01

    The IVO Group is a Finnish company mastering all aspects of the entire energy chain, and also operating extensively on the international market. The Group`s operations concentrate on five business areas: energy, engineering, operation and maintenance, grid services, and energy measurement. The personnel numbers well over 8 800, and the turnover is about FIM 14 billion. The services to customers include the supply of electricity and heat, the planning, construction, operation and maintenance of power plants and transmission systems, the transmission of power, and other services requiring expertise in all the key fields of energy engineering. Mastery of the entire energy chain gives us a substantial competitive edge on international markets, where the IVO Group has been a player for decades. The operations have expanded to the other Nordic countries, which now constitute the home market. Focal areas also include Great Britain, Central and Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia. The IVO Group annually invests some FIM 250 million in research and development. A large proportion of this money is used for the development of environmentally benign solutions

  18. Dynamics of physical development of young schoolchildren in Lviv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorenko V.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate features of dynamics of physical development of 7- and 9-year-old schoolchildren in Lviv by anthropometric indices. The basis for the analysis of dynamics of physical development of 7- and 9-year-old schoolchildren in Lviv were the results of anthropometric measurements made in 1969 – 1971, 1996, and our own research, conducted in 2014 – 2015. Statistical analysis was performed by the method of least squares with determining the reliability of the results by Student’s t-test. The absolute growth and growth rate (% of anthropometric indices of 7- and 9-year-old schoolchildren and group body mass indexes (BMI were calculated by Platonova A.G. method (2012. Anthropometric indices of Lviv schoolchildren over 2014-2015 were compared with the hygienic standards of 2013. It was revealed that the dynamics of physical development of Lviv schoolchildren from 1969 to 2015 is characterized by acceleration processes that occurred irregularly. A clear regularity of increasing height and weight, as well as intensification of their growth rate in schoolchildren aged from 7- to 9-years was observed for the last 19 years. Chest circumference remained unchanged. It was noted intensification of physical development processes in boys. The obtained results indicate to the processes of asthenization and gracilization in children. According to BMI values physical development of the 7-year-old girls was harmonic, 9-year-old boys (1996 – disharmonic, other groups – disharmonic in some children. Anthropometric indices of Lviv schoolchildren in 2014 - 2015 do not differ from those of «Criteria of evaluation of physical development of schoolchildren» (2013.

  19. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Janečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the development proceeds in stages that correspond to the development of normal vision child. If development proceeds in the right direction is the temporal aspect criterion rather orientation. For blind children is also important to strengthen the ability to correctly identify their own body through somatognosy. Stereognosy in turn determines the degree of contact with the outer world and focus it in relation to the physical schema.

  20. Future Development Strategies for S Group Based on SWOT Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohui; QI; Ligen; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,the real estate development enterprises are facing the gradually increased government’s macro-control,and the increasingly fierce market competition,so it is very imperative to timely adjust and change the enterprises’ development strategies to adapt to the new development situation.With S Group as the study object,we use SWOT analysis to analyze the company’s internal and external environment,study the current situation of the company and the existing problems,and clearly point out the opportunities and challenges facing the company.Finally we put forth some targeted strategic recommendations,in order to provide a reference for the development of S Group.

  1. Group EDF annual report 2005 sustainable development; Groupe EDF rapport annuel 2005 developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The EDF Group's Sustainable Development Report for 2005 is designed to report on Group commitments particularly within its Agenda 21, its ethical charter, and the Global Compact. It has also been prepared with reference to external reference frameworks: the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines and the French New Economic Regulations (NRE) contained in the May 15, 2001 French law. It contents the Chairman's statement, the evaluation of renewing and sharing commitments with all stakeholders, the managing local issues, EDF responses to the challenges of the future. Indicators are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  2. Quantum groups, orthogonal polynomials and applications to some dynamical systems; Groupes quantiques, polynomes orthogonaux et applications a quelques systemes dynamiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campigotto, C.

    1993-12-01

    The first part is concerned with the introduction of quantum groups as an extension of Lie groups. In particular, we study the case of unitary enveloping algebras in dimension 2. We then connect the quantum group formalism to the construction of g CGC recurrent relations. In addition, we construct g-deformed Krawtchouck and Meixner orthogonal polynomials and list their respective main characteristics. The second part deals with some dynamical systems from a classical, a quantum and a gp-analogue point of view. We investigate the Coulomb Kepler system by using the canonical namical systems which contain as special cases some interesting systems for nuclear of atomic physics and for quantum chemistry, such as the Hartmann system, the ring-shaped oscillator, the Smarodinsky-Winternitz system, the Aharonov-Bohen system and the dyania of Dirac and Schroedinger. (author). 291 refs.

  3. Toward understanding and treating violence in America: some contributions from group dynamic and group therapy perspectives: introduction to part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Robert H; Schermer, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The co-editors introduce a two-part Special Section of the Journal devoted to understanding and treating violence in America. They examine the relevance of clinical experience for contributions that can be made by group therapists and group dynamic thinkers to the growing national dialogue about this problem. The pervasive nature, causes, and different forms of violence in the United States are compared with those found in other countries. Underlying sociocultural values and myths, historical and current cultural contexts are considered breeding grounds for potential violence. How therapists can promote healthy change in their groups and in the broader society is explored. The articles contained in part one are reviewed against this backdrop.

  4. Narrative-collaborative group coaching develops social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard; Nielsen, Glen; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of narrative-collaborative group coaching on career development, self-reflection and the general functioning of young sports talents with the goal of achieving integration of their sports careers, educational demands and private lives. The in......-collaborative group coaching can be understood as a community psychological intervention that helps to support the development of durable social networks and the increase of social capital....... study included six participants. The group-coaching intervention had a significant effect on the scores for social recovery and general well-being. The qualitative study showed that groupcoaching participants valued the shared process of meaning-making as especially valuable. Narrative...

  5. Accelerated molecular dynamics methods: introduction and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Voter, Arthur F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shim, Y [UNIV OF TOLEDO; Amar, J G [UNIV OF TOLEDO

    2009-01-01

    reaction pathways may be important, we return instead to a molecular dynamics treatment, in which the trajectory itself finds an appropriate way to escape from each state of the system. Since a direct integration of the trajectory would be limited to nanoseconds, while we are seeking to follow the system for much longer times, we modify the dynamics in some way to cause the first escape to happen much more quickly, thereby accelerating the dynamics. The key is to design the modified dynamics in a way that does as little damage as possible to the probability for escaping along a given pathway - i.e., we try to preserve the relative rate constants for the different possible escape paths out of the state. We can then use this modified dynamics to follow the system from state to state, reaching much longer times than we could reach with direct MD. The dynamics within any one state may no longer be meaningful, but the state-to-state dynamics, in the best case, as we discuss in the paper, can be exact. We have developed three methods in this accelerated molecular dynamics (AMD) class, in each case appealing to TST, either implicitly or explicitly, to design the modified dynamics. Each of these methods has its own advantages, and we and others have applied these methods to a wide range of problems. The purpose of this article is to give the reader a brief introduction to how these methods work, and discuss some of the recent developments that have been made to improve their power and applicability. Note that this brief review does not claim to be exhaustive: various other methods aiming at similar goals have been proposed in the literature. For the sake of brevity, our focus will exclusively be on the methods developed by the group.

  6. The walking behaviour of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Moussaid, Mehdi; Garnier, Simon; Helbing, Dirk; Theraulaz, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behavior consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We ...

  7. The Development of Mutuality in Natural Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul Morgan

    1983-01-01

    Describes factors affecting the development of mutuality of attraction in natural small groups, and tests the hypothesis of the acquaintance process in 41 female residents of three floors of a university dormitory over the course of a year. Two floors showed definite increases in dyadic mutuality over time. (JAC)

  8. Beyond Idea Generation: The Power of Groups in Developing Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kibby; Ruggeri, Azzurra; Kämmer, Juliane E.; Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V.

    2016-01-01

    Brainstorming research has claimed that individuals are more creative than groups. However, these conclusions are largely based on measuring creativity by the number of ideas generated, and researchers have tended to neglect other important components of creativity, such as the quality of developed ideas. These studies aim to address this gap in…

  9. Beyond Idea Generation: The Power of Groups in Developing Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kibby; Ruggeri, Azzurra; Kämmer, Juliane E.; Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V.

    2016-01-01

    Brainstorming research has claimed that individuals are more creative than groups. However, these conclusions are largely based on measuring creativity by the number of ideas generated, and researchers have tended to neglect other important components of creativity, such as the quality of developed ideas. These studies aim to address this gap in…

  10. Developing an Educational Technology Group for Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The College of Education Technology Group is a pilot program that supports teacher candidates in developing an understanding of the integration of technology. By engaging teacher candidates with local schools the program is enhancing technology-based learning in the classroom for high school students, especially those from First Nations and other…

  11. Positioning in Groups: A New Development in Systemic Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jeff W.; Singh, RajVinder

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a new approach, employing a combination of Positioning Theory and Semantic Polarities, that educational psychologists can use to develop and facilitate change in organisations and groups. Resistance to change can be seen as reflecting a lack of the language that the members of an organisation need to participate effectively…

  12. Positioning in Groups: A New Development in Systemic Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jeff W.; Singh, RajVinder

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a new approach, employing a combination of Positioning Theory and Semantic Polarities, that educational psychologists can use to develop and facilitate change in organisations and groups. Resistance to change can be seen as reflecting a lack of the language that the members of an organisation need to participate effectively…

  13. Noether’s theorem for dissipative quantum dynamical semi-groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, John E., E-mail: jug@aber.ac.uk [Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ, Wales (United Kingdom); Ratiu, Tudor S., E-mail: tudor.ratiu@epfl.ch [Section de Mathématiques and Bernoulli Center, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne CH 1015 (Switzerland); Smolyanov, Oleg G., E-mail: smolyanov@yandex.ru [Mechanics and Mathematics Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-15

    Noether’s theorem on constants of the motion of dynamical systems has recently been extended to classical dissipative systems (Markovian semi-groups) by Baez and Fong [J. Math. Phys. 54, 013301 (2013)]. We show how to extend these results to the fully quantum setting of quantum Markov dynamics. For finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, we construct a mapping from observables to completely positive maps that leads to the natural analogue of their criterion of commutativity with the infinitesimal generator of the Markov dynamics. Using standard results on the relaxation of states to equilibrium under quantum dynamical semi-groups, we are able to characterise the constants of the motion under quantum Markov evolutions in the infinite-dimensional setting under the usual assumption of existence of a stationary strictly positive density matrix. In particular, the Noether constants are identified with the fixed point of the Heisenberg picture semi-group.

  14. [Development of nursing pratice in family medecine groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Danielle; Goudreau, Johanne; Hudon, Eveline; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Lamothe, Lise; Jobin, Guy; Gilbert, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the development of nursing practice in family medicine groups (FMGs). The two-year case study consisted of 73 semi-directed interviews ofnurses, physicians and managers in five FMGs. The findings led to three main observations: nursing practice varies considerably from one FMG to another, the development of nurses' practice seems to be associated with the development of a collaborative relationship, and the satisfaction of the professionals in the FMG, nurses in particular, depends on the type of practice. It is important to implement measures to encourage the optimal use ofnurses' skills in a FMG.

  15. Problem Based Learning as a Shared Musical Journey--Group Dynamics, Communication and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvang, Charlotte; Beck, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is how we can facilitate problem based learning (PBL) more creatively. We take a closer look upon the connection between creative processes and social communication in the PBL group including how difficulties in the social interplay may hinder creativity. The paper draws on group dynamic theory, and points out the…

  16. Maldives. Package on population education for special interest groups developed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Population Education Program of the Non-Formal Education Center has developed a package of Population Education for Special Interest Groups comprising a learning package and fieldworker's guide. The learning package is especially developed for teaching population education for out-of-school populations. Special interest groups in Maldives include newly married couples, adolescents, and working youth. Produced under the guidance of UNESCO, Bangkok, the package contains 36 different materials such as posters, charts, leaflets, booklets, stories, and illustrated booklets which may be taught in 36 to 45 periods. The materials deal with eight themes, namely, family size and family welfare, population and resources, delayed marriage and parenthood, responsible parenthood, population-related values and beliefs, women in development, AIDS/STD, and respect for old people. Accompanying the learning package is the fieldworker's guide used to teach the package. It contains individual guides for each of the 36 learning materials. The guide gives the titles of the materials, format, objectives of the materials, messages, target groups, and an overview of the content of each learning materials. The methodologies used for teaching the learning materials include role playing, group discussion, questioning, brainstorming, survey, creative writing, problem-solving and evaluation. The package will be used by fieldworkers to conduct island-based population education courses.

  17. Nonequilibrium dynamics of active matter with correlated noise: A dynamical renormalization group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachan, Devin; Levine, Alex; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2014-03-01

    Biology is rife with examples of active materials - soft matter systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states by energy input at the micro scale. For example, solutions of active micron scale swimmers produce active fluids showing phenomena reminiscent of turbulent convection at low Reynolds number; cytoskeletal networks driven by endogenous molecular motors produce active solids whose mechanics and low frequency strain fluctuations depend sensitively on motor activity. One hallmark of these systems is that they are driven at the micro scale by temporally correlated forces. In this talk, we study how correlated noise at the micro scale leads to novel long wavelength and long time scale dynamics at the macro scale in a simple model system. Specifically, we study the fluctuations of a ϕ4 scalar field obeying model A dynamics and driven by noise with a finite correlation time τ. We show that the effective dynamical system at long length and time scales is driven by white noise with a renormalized amplitude and renormalized transport coefficients. We discuss the implications of this result for a broad class of active matter systems driven at the micro scale by colored noise.

  18. Reproductive strategies and group dynamics in the genus \\kur{Acomys}.

    OpenAIRE

    ČÍŽKOVÁ, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive behaviour and aspects of group dynamics in the genus Acomys were studied in the respect to the individuals? physical condition, life history traits and social environment. Three of the presented studies reveal the important effect of social environment on the behaviour of group members to the new-coming male and reproductive behaviour of females (sex ratio of the pups and litter size). The other two studies investigate the costs associated with group living and cooperative breedi...

  19. The Walking Behaviour of Pedestrian Social Groups and Its Impact on Crowd Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Perozo, Niriaska; Garnier, Simon; Helbing, Dirk; Theraulaz, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its “non-aerodynamic” shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals. PMID:20383280

  20. The walking behaviour of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its "non-aerodynamic" shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals.

  1. Tibet Mineral Development Teams up with Jinchuan Group to Develop Nimu Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Tibet Mineral Development decided to sign a cooperation framework agreement with Jinchuan Group Co.,Ltd.,to assign a 25% stake in Nimu Copper Development Co.,Ltd. to Jinchuan Group or its subsidiary,and jointly develop Nimu Copper.

  2. Task group to develop list of environmental standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new task group designed to develop a list of existing and potential standards that are applicable to environmental contamination problems in soil, rock, and groundwater has been established by the American Society for Testing a n d Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee on Geotechnics of Waste Management. The list currently includes over 60 existing and draft ASTM standards from ASTM committees in the areas of site characterization, construction evaluation, and geosynthetics.

  3. Group concept mapping for evaluation and development in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagell, Peter; Edfors, Ellinor; Hedin, Gita; Westergren, Albert; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl

    2016-09-01

    The value of course evaluations has been debated since they frequently fail to capture the complexity of education and learning. Group Concept Mapping (GCM), a participant-centred mixed-method was explored as a tool for evaluation and development in nursing education and to better understand students' learning experiences, using data from a GCM-based evaluation of a research training assignment integrating clinical practice and research data collection within a Swedish university nursing program. Student nurses (n = 47) participated in a one-day GCM exercise. Focus group brainstorming regarding experiences from the assignment that the students considered important and instructive yielded 98 statements that were individually sorted based on their student-perceived relationships, and rated regarding their importance/instructiveness and need for development. Quantitative analysis of sort data produced a 2-dimensional map representing their conceptual relationships, and eight conceptual areas. Average cluster ratings were plotted relative to each other and provided a decision aid for development and planning by identifying areas (i.e., "Research methodology", "Patients' perspectives", and "Interviewer role") considered highly important/instructive and in high need for development. These experiences illustrate the use and potential of GCM as an interactive participant-centred approach to evaluation, planning and development in nursing and other higher health science educations.

  4. Local group modes and the dynamics of intramolecular energy transfer across a heavy atom

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Vicente; Fairen, Victor; Lederman, Steven M.; Marcus, R.A

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics of energy transfer is discussed for a model system in which two ligands are separated by a heavy atom. Numerical and analytical results are given for the case that each ligand is a CC. In the quasiperiodic regime, the dynamics are interpreted using perturbation theory. Local group modes involved in an intramolecular energy localization which can occur in this regime are identified. An approximate separation of the primarily ligand–ligand motions from the primarily ligand–metal–li...

  5. Bifurcation and complex dynamics of a discrete-time predator-prey system involving group defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sohel Rana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a discrete-time predator-prey system involving group defense. The existence and local stability of positive fixed point of the discrete dynamical system is analyzed algebraically. It is shown that the system undergoes a flip bifurcation and a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the interior of R+2 by using bifurcation theory. Numerical simulation results not only show the consistence with the theoretical analysis but also display the new and interesting dynamical behaviors, including phase portraits, period-7, 20-orbits, attracting invariant circle, cascade of period-doubling bifurcation from period-20 leading to chaos, quasi-periodic orbits, and sudden disappearance of the chaotic dynamics and attracting chaotic set. The Lyapunov exponents are numerically computed to characterize the complexity of the dynamical behaviors.

  6. Psychological changes and group dynamics during confinement in an isolated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Norbert O; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu

    2002-02-01

    Cultural and personal traits will become important as the number of short-duration spaceflights of international crews supporting the International Space Station (ISS) increases and more people begin staying aboard ISS for longer durations. This project investigated the interpersonal and personal changes of Japanese subjects during a 1-wk stay in the Japanese Experiment Module. The Giebetaen Test (GT) was used to determine if the cultural background and personality traits of the subjects become more explicit and stronger during isolation. Six males and two females aged 22-28 yr participated in the study. They stayed 7 d in the isolation chamber at the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The GT was chosen as an individual and group diagnostic instrument; it was administrated four times during, and one time after, isolation. According to the GT-self-picture, subjects exhibited a change toward negative social resonance and social withdrawal. Subgroups formed but caused no isolation or tension. The GT-foreign-pictures showed that the judgment of other subjects changed toward hedonic and permeability directions. The common interpersonal relationships of the Japanese subjects influenced the group dynamics. These relationships tend to be integrative and tend to support the network and value systems, emphasizing connectedness and minimizing differences. The cultural background became more explicit and stronger during isolation. Based on this, isolation studies with international crews and intercultural training will be necessary for international crews performing both short- and long-duration missions.

  7. A modern artificial intelligence Playware art tool for psychological testing of group dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2015-01-01

    and the psychological findings. We describe the modern artificial intelligence implementation of this instrument. Between an art piece and a psychological test, at a first cognitive analysis, it seems to be a promising research tool. In the discussion we speculate about potential industrial applications, as well.......We describe an artistic method used for the psychological analysis of group dynamics. The design of the artistic system, which mediates group dynamics, emerges from our studies of modular Playware and remixing Playware. Inspired from remixing modular Playware, where users remix samples in the form...

  8. Management factors affecting aggression in dynamic group housing systems with electronic sow feeding - a field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L S; Bertelsen, D; Jensen, K H

    1999-01-01

    material and starting the feeding cycle in the evening for overnight feeding may improve behaviour in dynamic group housing systems with ESF. However, the benefits of starting the feeding cycle in the evening may depend on low disturbance in daytime from other management procedures......A series of 24-h video studies on four commercial Danish pig herds investigated the behaviour of pregnant sows kept in dynamic groups (72 to 200 sows) with electronic sow feeding (ESF). The herds mainly differed with respect to provision of a layer of unchopped straw as bedding material...

  9. EPC is Developing-- Introduction to China EPC Working Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The year of 2004 is the first year for EPC (Electronic Product Code ) entering China. EPC brings the new opportunity for RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Hardware) technology and boundless imagining space and market chance, and provides an open platform for global logistics development. China EPC Working Group organized the first Chinese EPC forum on April 22nd, 2004. After June of last year, there were almost 2 or 3 forums on EPC/RFID every month. Over ten ministries and commissions, such as Ministry of Information and Industry, Ministry of Science and Technology, have been paying much attention to the EPC development. International retailers, such as Wal-Mart, Metro,Tesco and DOD all support the development of EPC. Especially,Wal-Mart gave the mandate to it's first 100 suppliers, and all the goods shipped to Wal-Mart distributor center should be tagged since January 2005.

  10. Problembased learning as a shared musical journey - group dynamics, communication and creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvang, Charlotte; Beck, Bolette Daniels

    2015-01-01

    of the supervisor in a PBL group process. Further we argue that creativity is rooted deep in our consciousness and connected to our ability to work with a flexible mind. In order to enhance the cohesion as well as the creativity of the group a model of music listening as a concrete intervention tool in PBL...... on group dynamic theory, and points out the importance of building a reflexive milieu in the group. Musical concepts are used to illustrate the communicative and creative aspects of PBL and the paper uses the analogy between improvising together and do a project work together. We also discuss the role...

  11. Contributions of Dynamic Systems Theory to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John P.; Austin, Andrew; Schutte, Anne R.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the contributions of dynamic systems theory to the field of cognitive development, focusing on modeling using dynamic neural fields. After introducing central concepts of dynamic field theory (DFT), we probe empirical predictions and findings around two examples--the DFT of infant perseverative reaching that explains Piaget's A-not-B…

  12. Contributions of Dynamic Systems Theory to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John P.; Austin, Andrew; Schutte, Anne R.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the contributions of dynamic systems theory to the field of cognitive development, focusing on modeling using dynamic neural fields. After introducing central concepts of dynamic field theory (DFT), we probe empirical predictions and findings around two examples--the DFT of infant perseverative reaching that explains Piaget's A-not-B…

  13. Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012 R3 development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pocius, Mindaugas

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Dynamics AX developer who is primarily focused on delivering time-proven applications, then this book is for you. This book is focused more on people who are willing to raise their programming skills above the beginner level, and at the same time learn the functional aspects of Dynamics AX. Some Dynamics AX coding experience is expected.

  14. Individual Development of Professionalism in Educational Peer Group Supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    -dimensional theoretical model, it is shown that all GPs developed their professional behaviour, and many of them strengthened their professional identity in this domain towards a changed professionalism. Most participants emphasized the positive experience of sharing worries with families indicating care and interest......Background. Research has shown that peer-group supervision can strengthen GPs' professionalism, but little is known about the individual learning processes. To establish professionalism beyond professional behaviour, identity and idealism need to be included. The inner attitudinal values...... of professionalism within the individual are, however, difficult to assess. Aim. On the basis of a multiple case study, this paper describes the process of professional learning and challenges for individual GPs, as they take part in supervision groups focusing on children cases. Methods and Results. By using a two...

  15. Molecular group dynamics study on slip flow of thin fluid film based on the Hamaker hypotheses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thin fluid film was assumed to consist of a number of spherical fluid molecular groups and the attractive forces of molecular group pairs were calculated by the derived equation according to the three Hamaker homogeneous material hypotheses. Regarding each molecular group as a dynamics individual, the simulation method for the shearing motion of multilayer fluid molecular groups, which was initiated by two moving walls, was proposed based on the Verlet velocity iterative algorithm. The simulations reveal that the velocities of fluid molecular groups change about their respective mean velocities within a narrow range in steady state. It is also found that the velocity slips occur at the wall boundary and in a certain number of fluid film layers close to the wall. Because the dimension of molecular group and the number of group layers are not restricted, the hypothetical thickness of fluid film model can be enlarged from nanometer to micron by using the proposed simulation method.

  16. Brain-to-Brain Synchrony Tracks Real-World Dynamic Group Interactions in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikker, Suzanne; Wan, Lu; Davidesco, Ido; Kaggen, Lisa; Oostrik, Matthias; McClintock, James; Rowland, Jess; Michalareas, Georgios; Van Bavel, Jay J; Ding, Mingzhou; Poeppel, David

    2017-05-08

    The human brain has evolved for group living [1]. Yet we know so little about how it supports dynamic group interactions that the study of real-world social exchanges has been dubbed the "dark matter of social neuroscience" [2]. Recently, various studies have begun to approach this question by comparing brain responses of multiple individuals during a variety of (semi-naturalistic) tasks [3-15]. These experiments reveal how stimulus properties [13], individual differences [14], and contextual factors [15] may underpin similarities and differences in neural activity across people. However, most studies to date suffer from various limitations: they often lack direct face-to-face interaction between participants, are typically limited to dyads, do not investigate social dynamics across time, and, crucially, they rarely study social behavior under naturalistic circumstances. Here we extend such experimentation drastically, beyond dyads and beyond laboratory walls, to identify neural markers of group engagement during dynamic real-world group interactions. We used portable electroencephalogram (EEG) to simultaneously record brain activity from a class of 12 high school students over the course of a semester (11 classes) during regular classroom activities (Figures 1A-1C; Supplemental Experimental Procedures, section S1). A novel analysis technique to assess group-based neural coherence demonstrates that the extent to which brain activity is synchronized across students predicts both student class engagement and social dynamics. This suggests that brain-to-brain synchrony is a possible neural marker for dynamic social interactions, likely driven by shared attention mechanisms. This study validates a promising new method to investigate the neuroscience of group interactions in ecologically natural settings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Convergent validity of group tests of cognitive development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanich, Greg P.; Unruh, Roy D.; Perry, Bruce; Phillips, Gary

    This study was designed to investigate the convergent validity of individual clinical task interviews as presented by Piaget and Inhelder paired with three widely used group tests of cognitive development. These tests are designed to assess the acquisition of cognitive abilities. The three group test raw scores paired with summed raw scores on four concrete-formal task interviews yielded the following Pearson product-moment correlations: Reasoning Test (Ankney and Joyce), 0.43; Logical Reasoning Test (Burney), 0.61; Classroom Test of Formal Operations (Lawson), 0.37. The raw data was then ranked into cognitive level groups and presented on contingency tables. The following contingency coefficients were determined: Logical Reasoning Test, 0.52; Logical Reasoning Test (adjusted), 0.61; Classroom Test of Formal Operations, 0.50. This study reflects that the Reasoning Test tends to indicate lower cognitive levels of subjects when paired with summed scores on the clinical task interviews, whereas the Logical Reasoning Test and the Classroom Test of Formal Operations tend to indicate higher cognitive levels of subjects when paired with summed scores on the clinical task interviews. In each case the correlations do not appear to be sufficiently strong to warrant selection or categorization of an individual student based on his/her test performance.

  18. Condition-based dynamic maintenance operations planning and grouping. Application to commercial heavy vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvard, K., E-mail: keomany.bouvard@volvo.co [Volvo Technology, 99 route de Lyon, 69806 Saint Priest cedex (France); Laboratoire d' Automatique de Genie Informatique et Signal - FRE3303 - Polytech' Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Artus, S., E-mail: samuel.artus@volvo.co [Volvo Technology, 99 route de Lyon, 69806 Saint Priest cedex (France); Berenguer, C., E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes - Institut Charles Delaunay and UMR CNRS 6279 - 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Cocquempot, V., E-mail: vincent.cocquempot@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire d' Automatique de Genie Informatique et Signal - FRE3303 - Polytech' Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-06-15

    This paper aims at presenting a method to optimize the maintenance planning for a commercial heavy vehicle. Such a vehicle may be considered as a multi-components system. Grouping maintenance operations related to each component reduces the global maintenance cost of the system. Classically, the optimization problem is solved using a priori reliability characteristics of components. Two types of methods may be used, i.e. static or dynamic methods. Static methods provide a fixed maintenance planning, whereas dynamic methods redefine the groups of maintenance operations at each decision time. Dynamic procedures can incorporate component information such as component states or detected failures. For deteriorating systems, reliability characteristics of each component may be estimated thanks to deterioration models and may be updated when a degradation measure is available. This additional information on degradation features allows to better follow the real state of each component and to improve the maintenance planning.

  19. Low-temperature hopping dynamics with energy disorder: renormalization group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velizhanin, Kirill A; Piryatinski, Andrei; Chernyak, Vladimir Y

    2013-08-28

    We formulate a real-space renormalization group (RG) approach for efficient numerical analysis of the low-temperature hopping dynamics in energy-disordered lattices. The approach explicitly relies on the time-scale separation of the trapping/escape dynamics. This time-scale separation allows to treat the hopping dynamics as a hierarchical process, RG step being a transformation between the levels of the hierarchy. We apply the proposed RG approach to analyze hopping dynamics in one- and two-dimensional lattices with varying degrees of energy disorder, and find the approach to be accurate at low temperatures and computationally much faster than the brute-force direct diagonalization. Applicability criteria of the proposed approach with respect to the time-scale separation and the maximum number of hierarchy levels are formulated. RG flows of energy distribution and pre-exponential factors of the Miller-Abrahams model are analyzed.

  20. Group dynamics in a long-term blind endeavor on Earth: An analog for space missions (Lewis & Clark Expedition group dynamic analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allner, M.; Rygalov, V.

    2008-12-01

    suggested distinguishable mission phase model, the Lewis and Clark Expedition will be analyzed for similarities to these space findings. Factors of consideration in support of this analysis involve an understanding of the leadership qualities of Lewis and Clark (and relations established and maintained with one another), the selection and diversity of their crew, and the group dynamics that were developed and maintained so carefully during the expedition. With this knowledge and understanding one can gain enormous insights useful in the planning and preparation for future long-duration space exploratory missions with high level of autonomy, mobility, minimal primary life support supply and high dependence on material re-circulation and In-Situ Resource Utilization approach.

  1. Individualistic Striving and Group Dynamics of Fifth- and Eighth-Grade Japanese Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwalb, David W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Individualistic and competitive striving and group dynamics were compared for 42 fifth grade and 42 eighth grade Japanese boys in central Tokyo using a card-stacking procedure. Results are discussed in terms of social loafing versus social striving and behavior patterns of Japanese adults. (SLD)

  2. Selection-driven extinction dynamics for group II introns in Enterobacteriales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sébastien; Cordaux, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are one of the major driving forces of genome evolution, raising the question of the long-term dynamics underlying their evolutionary success. Some TEs were proposed to evolve under a pattern of periodic extinctions-recolonizations, in which elements recurrently invade and quickly proliferate within their host genomes, then start to disappear until total extinction. Depending on the model, TE extinction is assumed to be driven by purifying selection against colonized host genomes (Sel-DE model) or by saturation of host genomes (Sat-DE model). Bacterial group II introns are suspected to follow an extinction-recolonization model of evolution, but whether they follow Sel-DE or Sat-DE dynamics is not known. Our analysis of almost 200 group II intron copies from 90 sequenced Enterobacteriales genomes confirms their extinction-recolonization dynamics: patchy element distributions among genera and even among strains within genera, acquisition of new group II introns through plasmids or other mobile genetic elements, and evidence for recent proliferations in some genomes. Distributions of recent and past proliferations and of their respective homing sites further provide strong support for the Sel-DE model, suggesting that group II introns are deleterious to their hosts. Overall, our observations emphasize the critical impact of host properties on TE dynamics.

  3. Selection-driven extinction dynamics for group II introns in Enterobacteriales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Leclercq

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs are one of the major driving forces of genome evolution, raising the question of the long-term dynamics underlying their evolutionary success. Some TEs were proposed to evolve under a pattern of periodic extinctions-recolonizations, in which elements recurrently invade and quickly proliferate within their host genomes, then start to disappear until total extinction. Depending on the model, TE extinction is assumed to be driven by purifying selection against colonized host genomes (Sel-DE model or by saturation of host genomes (Sat-DE model. Bacterial group II introns are suspected to follow an extinction-recolonization model of evolution, but whether they follow Sel-DE or Sat-DE dynamics is not known. Our analysis of almost 200 group II intron copies from 90 sequenced Enterobacteriales genomes confirms their extinction-recolonization dynamics: patchy element distributions among genera and even among strains within genera, acquisition of new group II introns through plasmids or other mobile genetic elements, and evidence for recent proliferations in some genomes. Distributions of recent and past proliferations and of their respective homing sites further provide strong support for the Sel-DE model, suggesting that group II introns are deleterious to their hosts. Overall, our observations emphasize the critical impact of host properties on TE dynamics.

  4. Sociometry: An Approach for Assessing Group Dynamics in Web-Based Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Martha; Turner, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Student interactivity in web-based educational environments has shown to increase academic learning and motivation (Jiang, 1998; Petraglia, 1998). However, instructors often find it difficult to assess the quality of online group dynamics without visual observations of student behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of…

  5. Density matrix renormalization group with efficient dynamical electron correlation through range separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan, E-mail: erik.hedegard@phys.chem.ethz.ch; Knecht, Stefan; Reiher, Markus, E-mail: markus.reiher@phys.chem.ethz.ch [Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Kielberg, Jesper Skau; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard, E-mail: hjj@sdu.dk [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, Odense (Denmark)

    2015-06-14

    We present a new hybrid multiconfigurational method based on the concept of range-separation that combines the density matrix renormalization group approach with density functional theory. This new method is designed for the simultaneous description of dynamical and static electron-correlation effects in multiconfigurational electronic structure problems.

  6. Density matrix renormalization group with efficient dynamical electron correlation through range separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Knecht, Stefan; Kielberg, Jesper Skau

    2015-01-01

    We present a new hybrid multiconfigurational method based on the concept of range-separation that combines the density matrix renormalization group approach with density functional theory. This new method is designed for the simultaneous description of dynamical and static electroncorrelation...

  7. Density Matrix Renormalization Group with Efficient Dynamical Electron Correlation Through Range Separation

    CERN Document Server

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Kielberg, Jesper Skau; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Reiher, Markus

    2015-01-01

    We present a new hybrid multiconfigurational method based on the concept of range-separation that combines the density matrix renormalization group approach with density functional theory. This new method is designed for the simultaneous description of dynamical and static electron-correlation effects in multiconfigurational electronic structure problems.

  8. Influence of the leaving group on the dynamics of a gas-phase SN2 reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stei, Martin; Carrascosa, Eduardo; Kainz, Martin A.; Kelkar, Aditya H.; Meyer, Jennifer; Szabó, István; Czakó, Gábor; Wester, Roland

    2016-02-01

    In addition to the nucleophile and solvent, the leaving group has a significant influence on SN2 nucleophilic substitution reactions. Its role is frequently discussed with respect to reactivity, but its influence on the reaction dynamics remains unclear. Here, we uncover the influence of the leaving group on the gas-phase dynamics of SN2 reactions in a combined approach of crossed-beam imaging and dynamics simulations. We have studied the reaction F- + CH3Cl and compared it to F- + CH3I. For the two leaving groups, Cl and I, we find very similar structures and energetics, but the dynamics show qualitatively different features. Simple scaling of the leaving group mass does not explain these differences. Instead, the relevant impact parameters for the reaction mechanisms are found to be crucial and the differences are attributed to the relative orientation of the approaching reactants. This effect occurs on short timescales and may also prevail in solution-phase conditions.

  9. Development Of Dynamic Probabilistic Safety Assessment: The Accident Dynamic Simulator (ADS) Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.H.; Mosleh, A.; Dang, V.N

    2003-03-01

    The development of a dynamic methodology for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) addresses the complex interactions between the behaviour of technical systems and personnel response in the evolution of accident scenarios. This paper introduces the discrete dynamic event tree, a framework for dynamic PSA, and its implementation in the Accident Dynamic Simulator (ADS) tool. Dynamic event tree tools generate and quantify accident scenarios through coupled simulation models of the plant physical processes, its automatic systems, the equipment reliability, and the human response. The current research on the framework, the ADS tool, and on Human Reliability Analysis issues within dynamic PSA, is discussed. (author)

  10. Computational Developments for Distance Determination of Stellar Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. A. Sharaf; A. M. Sendi

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a statistical method for distance determination of stellar groups. The method depends on the assumption that the members of the group scatter around a mean absolute magnitude in Gaussian distribution. The mean apparent magnitude of the members is then expressed by frequency function, so as to correct for observational incompleteness at the faint end. The problem reduces to the solution of a highly transcendental equation for a given magnitude parameter . For the computational developments of the problem, continued fraction by the Top–Down algorithm was developed and applied for the evaluation of the error function erf(). The distance equation () = 0 was solved by an iterative method of second order of convergence using homotopy continuation technique. This technique does not need any prior knowledge of the initial guess, a property which avoids the critical situations between divergent and very slow convergent solutions, that may exist in the applications of other iterative methods depending on initial guess. Finally, we apply the method for the nearby main sequence late type stars assuming that the stars of each group of the same spectral type scatter around a mean absolute magnitude in a Gaussian distribution. The accuracies of the numerical results are satisfactory, in that, the percentage errors between and the mean values are respectively: (2.4%, 1.6%, 0.72%, 0.66%, 3.5%, 2.4%, 2%, 2.5%, 0.9%) for the stars of spectral types: (F5V, F6V, F7V, F8V, F9V, G0V, G2V, G5V, G8V).

  11. The Development of In-Group Favoritism : Between Social Reality and Group Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Wolf, Angela de

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how social reality restricts children’s tendency for in-group favoritism in group evaluations. Children were faced with social reality considerations and with group identity concerns. Using short stories, in this experimental study, conducted among 3 age groups (6-, 8-, and 10-ye

  12. Intra-group interaction and the development of norms which promote inter-group hostility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Postmes, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests there is more inter-group discrimination when rewards rather than punishments are distributed between groups (the positive-negative asymmetry effect). This study investigated whether intra-group interaction and the obstruction of in-group advancement moderate this finding. Particip

  13. Intra-group interaction and the development of norms which promote inter-group hostility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Postmes, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests there is more inter-group discrimination when rewards rather than punishments are distributed between groups (the positive-negative asymmetry effect). This study investigated whether intra-group interaction and the obstruction of in-group advancement moderate this finding. Particip

  14. Development of a Dynamic Lidar Uncertainty Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clifton, Andrew [WindForS; Bonin, Timothy [CIRES/NOAA ESRL; Choukulkar, Aditya [CIRES/NOAA ESRL; Brewer, W. Alan [NOAA ESRL; Delgado, Ruben [University of Maryland Baltimore County

    2017-08-07

    As wind turbine sizes increase and wind energy expands to more complex and remote sites, remote-sensing devices such as lidars are expected to play a key role in wind resource assessment and power performance testing. The switch to remote-sensing devices represents a paradigm shift in the way the wind industry typically obtains and interprets measurement data for wind energy. For example, the measurement techniques and sources of uncertainty for a remote-sensing device are vastly different from those associated with a cup anemometer on a meteorological tower. Current IEC standards for quantifying remote sensing device uncertainty for power performance testing consider uncertainty due to mounting, calibration, and classification of the remote sensing device, among other parameters. Values of the uncertainty are typically given as a function of the mean wind speed measured by a reference device and are generally fixed, leading to climatic uncertainty values that apply to the entire measurement campaign. However, real-world experience and a consideration of the fundamentals of the measurement process have shown that lidar performance is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions, such as wind shear, turbulence, and aerosol content. At present, these conditions are not directly incorporated into the estimated uncertainty of a lidar device. In this presentation, we describe the development of a new dynamic lidar uncertainty framework that adapts to current flow conditions and more accurately represents the actual uncertainty inherent in lidar measurements under different conditions. In this new framework, sources of uncertainty are identified for estimation of the line-of-sight wind speed and reconstruction of the three-dimensional wind field. These sources are then related to physical processes caused by the atmosphere and lidar operating conditions. The framework is applied to lidar data from a field measurement site to assess the ability of the framework to predict

  15. Multicultural Group Work: A Force for Developing and Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Multicultural group work represents a powerful tool for helping and healing in the context of human diversity. This article summarizes multicultural group work, including task, psychoeducational, counseling, and psychotherapy groups, and describes a group work model for multicultural assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning. Group work…

  16. Dynamical symmetry breaking in chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Liang; Shrock, Robert

    2016-09-01

    We analyze patterns of dynamical symmetry breaking in strongly coupled chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups G . If the gauge coupling for a factor group Gi⊂G becomes sufficiently strong, it can produce bilinear fermion condensates that break the Gi symmetry itself and/or break other gauge symmetries Gj⊂G . Our comparative study of a number of strongly coupled direct-product chiral gauge theories elucidates how the patterns of symmetry breaking depend on the structure of G and on the relative sizes of the gauge couplings corresponding to factor groups in the direct product.

  17. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in Chiral Gauge Theories with Direct-Product Gauge Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    We analyze patterns of dynamical symmetry breaking in strongly coupled chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups $G$. If the gauge coupling for a factor group $G_i \\subset G$ becomes sufficiently strong, it can produce bilinear fermion condensates that break the $G_i$ symmetry itself and/or break other gauge symmetries $G_j \\subset G$. Our comparative study of a number of strongly coupled direct-product chiral gauge theories elucidates how the patterns of symmetry breaking depend on the structure of $G$ and on the relative sizes of the gauge couplings corresponding to factor groups in the direct product.

  18. Dynamic Multicast Grouping Approach in HLA-Based Distributed Interactive Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Zhong-jian; HOU Chao-zhen

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of data distributed management service in distributed interactive simulation based on high level architecture (HLA) and to reduce the network traffic and save the system resource, the approaches of multicast grouping in HLA-based distributed interactive simulation are discussed. Then a new dynamic multicast grouping approach is proposed. This approach is based on the current publication and subscription region in the process of simulation. The results of simulation experiment show that this approach can significantly reduce the message overhead and use fewer multicast groups.

  19. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces-from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or "homophily").

  20. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces—from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or “homophily”).

  1. Scaled Group Consensus in Multiagent Systems With First/Second-Order Continuous Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junyan; Shi, Yang

    2017-08-29

    We investigate scaled group consensus problems of multiagent systems with first/second-order linear continuous dynamics. For a complex network consisting of two subnetworks with different physical quantities or task distributions, it is concerned with this case that the agents' states in one subnetwork converge to a consistent value asymptotically, while the states in the other subnetwork approach another value with a ratio of the former. For the case of the information exchange being directed, novel consensus protocols are designed for both first-order and second-order dynamics to solve the scaled group consensus problems. By utilizing algebra theory, graph theory, and Lyapunov stability theory, several necessary and sufficient conditions are established to guarantee the agents' states reaching the scaled group consensus asymptotically. Finally, several simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  2. Complexities of Organization Dynamics and Development: Leaders and Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    This article shows the theoretical framework for understanding organizational dynamics and development - the change theory and subordinate relationships within contemporary organizations. The emphasis is on power strategies and the relationship to organizational dynamics and development. The integrative process broadens the understanding of…

  3. Dynamical evolution and spectral characteristics of the stellar group Mamajek 2

    CERN Document Server

    Jilinski, E; De la Reza, R; Drake, N A; Bazzanella, B

    2008-01-01

    The dynamical evolution of the recently detected stellar group Mamajek 2 is studied by means of its past 3D orbit. The past orbits of the open clusters NGC 2516 and $\\alpha$ Persei, belonging to the so-called "Local Association", were also computed in order to check for a possible common past dynamical evolution of these systems. To complete the data of the Mamajek 2 small group, we have obtained high resolution FEROS spectra to measure the radial and also the projected rotational velocities of its members; an estimate of its metallicity was obtained as well. Two exceptionally low rotating A-type stars turned out to be a strong magnetic Ap star in one case, and a normal A0 star with near-solar metallicity in the other. The dynamical results showed that NGC 2516 and Mamajek 2 may have had a common origin at the age of 135 $\\pm$ 5 Myr. This dynamical age confirms the individual ages of 140 Myr for NGC 2516 and 120 $\\pm$ 25 Myr for Mamajek 2 obtained independently by photometric methods. Both these groups appear...

  4. Promoting development with low achievement grouping students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu, Tsu-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is hypothesized that students who are categorized in the C-level (low level Achievement Grouping (AG in English instruction classes did not necessarily performed at their peak potential in English language competence. Furthermore, it is assumed that the underlying concepts behind the low achievement levels may lies in two assumptions. First, Brophy (2004 addressed the situation with four categories of students based upon how expectancy-related motivational problems might cause students to develop low expectations for themselves. Second, the concept involving the use of AG, might have cause some of the more capable students to lower their achievement levels in English. In response, an action research was accomplished using a Cooperative Task-Based Learning (CTBL model, based on the concept of learning motivation for students with low achievement levels in an attempt to enhance the students’ English competencies. To evaluate the effectiveness of such teaching methodology, data were collected in the form of interview accounts, self-reflective logs, field notes, observations, and students’ work sheets. Results show that numerous positive outcomes from both the teachers’ and the students’ perspectives were noted from the use of the CTBL. In addition, results also show that cooperative group work has proven to be an effective learning strategy. Lastly, useful implications based on the findings were given to shed light on issues regarding the positive effects of skilled-based curriculum designs.

  5. Undergraduate Rural Medical Education Program Development: Focus Group Consultation with the NRHA Rural Medical Educators Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura H.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; Florence, Joseph A.; Boulger, James G.; Hunsaker, Matt L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Over a decade ago, leaders in rural medical education established the Rural Medical Educators (RME) Group, an interest group within the National Rural Health Association, to support faculty in rural medical education programs. This group has convened an annual RME conclave since 2006. In 2008, this conclave convened 15 national leaders in…

  6. Problem Based Learning as a Shared Musical Journey – Group Dynamics, Communication and Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Lindvang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is how we can facilitate problem based learning (PBL more creatively. We take a closer look upon the connection between creative processes and social communication in the PBL group including how difficulties in the social interplay may hinder creativity. The paper draws on group dynamic theory, and points out the importance of building a reflexive milieu in the group. Musical concepts are used to illustrate the communicative and creative aspects of PBL and the paper uses the analogy between improvising together and do a project work together. We also discuss the role of the supervisor in a PBL group process. Further we argue that creativity is rooted deep in our consciousness and connected to our ability to work with a flexible mind. In order to enhance the cohesion as well as the creativity of the group a model of music listening as a concrete intervention tool in PBL processes is proposed.

  7. Problembased learning as a shared musical journey - group dynamics, communication and creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvang, Charlotte; Beck, Bolette Daniels

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is how we can facilitate problem based learning (PBL) more creatively. We take a closer look upon the connection between creative processes and social communication in the PBL group including how difficulties in the social interplay may hinder creativity. The paper draws...... on group dynamic theory, and points out the importance of building a reflexive milieu in the group. Musical concepts are used to illustrate the communicative and creative aspects of PBL and the paper uses the analogy between improvising together and do a project work together. We also discuss the role...... of the supervisor in a PBL group process. Further we argue that creativity is rooted deep in our consciousness and connected to our ability to work with a flexible mind. In order to enhance the cohesion as well as the creativity of the group a model of music listening as a concrete intervention tool in PBL...

  8. Recent Developments in System Dynamics Software

    OpenAIRE

    Valyi, I.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is a short review of a conference held in Sevilla, Spain, in October 1987. Organized by the Systems Dynamic Society, it concentrated around concepts in methodology and applications of nonlinear system modelling within the framework introduced by Jay Forrester and his followers. The attitude to this approach is controversial. For example, the respective methodologies do not involve the identification of system parameters and the construction of the models from available data do...

  9. Recent developments in antikaon-nucleon dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hyodo, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated by various experimental achievements, the study of Kbar N dynamics now enters a new phase. The two-body Kbar N interaction is largely constrained by recent experimental data, and the nature of the Lambda(1405) resonance is being unveiled by several theoretical analyses. These findings provide a basic tool for applications to KbarK-nuclear systems. We summarize the current status of the Kbar N phenomenology and outline the future direction in this field.

  10. Symmetry breaking in the opinion dynamics of a multi-group project organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Tao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Ping; Chen, Xing-Guang

    2012-10-01

    A bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics in multi-group projects is presented in which each group's opinion evolution is driven by two types of forces: (i) the group's cohesive force which tends to restore the opinion back towards the initial status because of its company culture; and (ii) nonlinear coupling forces with other groups which attempt to bring opinions closer due to collaboration willingness. Bifurcation analysis for the case of a two-group project shows a cusp catastrophe phenomenon and three distinctive evolutionary regimes, i.e., a deadlock regime, a convergence regime, and a bifurcation regime in opinion dynamics. The critical value of initial discord between the two groups is derived to discriminate which regime the opinion evolution belongs to. In the case of a three-group project with a symmetric social network, both bifurcation analysis and simulation results demonstrate that if each pair has a high initial discord, instead of symmetrically converging to consensus with the increase of coupling scale as expected by Gabbay's result (Physica A 378 (2007) p. 125 Fig. 5), project organization (PO) may be split into two distinct clusters because of the symmetry breaking phenomenon caused by pitchfork bifurcations, which urges that apart from divergence in participants' interests, nonlinear interaction can also make conflict inevitable in the PO. The effects of two asymmetric level parameters are tested in order to explore the ways of inducing dominant opinion in the whole PO. It is found that the strong influence imposed by a leader group with firm faith on the flexible and open minded follower groups can promote the formation of a positive dominant opinion in the PO.

  11. Symmetry breaking in the opinion dynamics of a multi-group project organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhen-Tao; Zhou Jing; Li Ping; Chen Xing-Guang

    2012-01-01

    A bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics in multi-group projects is presented in which each group's opinion evolution is driven by two types of forces:(i) the group's cohesive force which tends to restore the opinion back towards the initial status because of its company culture; and (ii) nonlinear coupling forces with other groups which attempt to bring opinions closer due to collaboration willingness.Bifurcation analysis for the case of a two-group project shows a cusp catastrophe phenomenon and three distinctive evolutionary regimes,i.e.,a deadlock regime,a convergence regime,and a bifurcation regime in opinion dynamics.The critical value of initial discord between the two groups is derived to discriminate which regime the opinion evolution belongs to.In the case of a three-group project with a symmetric social network,both bifurcation analysis and simulation results demonstrate that if each pair has a high initial discord,instead of symmetrically converging to consensus with the increase of coupling scale as expected by Gabbay's result (Physica A 378 (2007) p.125 Fig.5),project organization (PO) may be split into two distinct clusters because of the symmetry breaking phenomenon caused by pitchfork bifurcations,which urges that apart from divergence in participants' interests,nonlinear interaction can also make conflict inevitable in the PO.The effects of two asymmetric level parameters are tested in order to explore the ways of inducing dominant opinion in the whole PO.It is found that the strong influence imposed by a leader group with firm faith on the flexible and open minded follower groups can promote the formation of a positive dominant opinion in the PO.

  12. The dynamics of the local group as a probe of Dark Energy and Modified Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we study the dynamics of the Local Group (LG) within the context of cosmological models beyond General Relativity (GR). Using observable kinematic quantities to identify candidate pairs we build up samples of simulated LG-like objects drawing from f(R), symmetron, DGP and quintessence N-body simulations together with their ΛCDM counterparts featuring the same initial random phase realisations. The variables and intervals used to define LG-like objects are referred to as Local Group model; different models are used throughout this work and adapted to study their dynamical and kinematic properties. The aim is to determine how well the observed LG-dynamics can be reproduced within cosmological theories beyond GR, We compute kinematic properties of samples drawn from alternative theories and ΛCDM and compare them to actual observations of the LG mass, velocity and position. As a consequence of the additional pull, pairwise tangential and radial velocities are enhanced in modified gravity and coupled dark energy with respect to ΛCDM inducing significant changes to the total angular momentum and energy of the LG. For example, in models such as f(R) and the symmetron this increase can be as large as 60%, peaking well outside of the 95% confidence region allowed by the data. This shows how simple considerations about the LG dynamics can lead to clear small-scale observational signatures for alternative scenarios, without the need of expensive high-resolution simulations.

  13. Regularities in the dynamics and development of the International System

    CERN Document Server

    Piepers, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    A finite-time singularity accompanied by log-periodic oscillations shaped the war dynamics and development of the International System during the period 1495 - 1945. The identification of this singularity provides us with a perspective to penetrate and decode the dynamics of the International System. Various regularities in the dynamics of the International System can be identified. These regularities are remarkably consistent, and can be attributed to the connectivity and the growth of connectivity of the International System.

  14. Professional Group Development Trainers’ Personality Characteristics and Affective Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eRapp Ricciardi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Development of Groups and Leaders (UGL, provided by the Swedish National Defence College and mentored by UGL-trainers, is one of the most popular management programs among civilians in Sweden. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the training. We used the affective profile model (i.e., the combination of positive, PA, and negative affect, NA to mapp important markers of empowerment, self-awareness, adaptive coping skills, and maturity among the UGL-trainers. The aims were: (1 to compare profiles between UGL-trainers and managers/supervisors and (2 to investigate differences in personal characteristics.Method: UGL-trainers (N = 153 and the comparison group (104 Swedish Chiefs of Police completed an online survey on optimism, self-esteem, locus of control, and affect. The four profiles are: self-fulfilling (high PA, low NA, high affective (high PA, high NA, low affective (high PA, low NA, and self-destructive (low PA, high NA,Results: The self-fulfilling profile was more common among UGL-trainers (25.70% than among Chiefs of Police (19.20%. UGL-trainers, compared to Chiefs of Police, were more likely to express a self-fulling than a low affective profile (OR=2.22, p < .05 and a high affective than a low affective profile (OR=1.43, p <.001. UGL-trainers with a self-fulfilling profile, compared to those with a self-destructive profile, scored higher in optimism, higher in self-esteem, and lower in external locus of control. Conclusions: The probability of self-fulfilment rather than low affectivity was higher among UGL-trainers. Self-fulfilment was associated to markers of self-awareness and adaptive coping skills. However, the most common profile was the low affective, which is associated to low performance during stress, low degree of personal development, low degree of purpose in life, and low resilience. Hence, it might be important for UGL-trainers to have a continuos training in awareness after

  15. Computer-Mediated Collaborative Projects: Processes for Enhancing Group Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin-Bryant, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    Groups are a fundamental part of the business world. Yet, as companies continue to expand internationally, a major challenge lies in promoting effective communication among employees who work in varying time zones. Global expansion often requires group collaboration through computer systems. Computer-mediated groups lead to different communicative…

  16. Terrorist Group Dynamics Through the Lens of the Tigantourine Assault in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Algerian terrorist assault in January 2013 that was carried out by Mokhtar Belmokhtar and his “Battalion of Blood” activists against a BP-Norwegian-Algerian-Japanese gas facility in In Amenas, Algeria, is worth considering as it provides a rare glimpse into several key dimensions of terrorist group dynamics that are important for scholars and counter- terrorism practitioners to understand.

  17. A Novel Bit-level Image Encryption Method Based on Chaotic Map and Dynamic Grouping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国基; 沈彦

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a novel bit-level image encryption method based on dynamic grouping is proposed.In the proposed method,the plain-image is divided into several groups randomly,then permutation-diffusion process on bit level is carried out.The keystream generated by logistic map is related to the plain-image,which confuses the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image.The computer simulation results of statistical analysis,information entropy analysis and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed encryption method is secure and reliable enough to be used for communication application.

  18. Internal character dictates phase transition dynamics between isolation and cohesive grouping

    CERN Document Server

    Manrique, Pedro D; Johnson, Neil F

    2015-01-01

    We show that accounting for internal character among interacting, heterogeneous entities generates rich phase transition behavior between isolation and cohesive dynamical grouping. Our analytical and numerical calculations reveal different critical points arising for different character-dependent grouping mechanisms. These critical points move in opposite directions as the population's diversity decreases. Our analytical theory helps explain why a particular class of universality is so common in the real world, despite fundamental differences in the underlying entities. Furthermore, it correctly predicts the non-monotonic temporal variation in connectivity observed recently in one such system.

  19. On the new member's subsecret distribution protocol in dynamic group secret-sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng; WANG Wei-nong

    2005-01-01

    Secret-sharing is a common method to protect important data, such as the private key of a public-key system. Dynamic Group Secret-sharing (DGS) is a system where all of the members in a group hold a subsecret of the key information and where the number of members in the group is variable. This kind of secret-sharing is broadly used in many special distribution systems, such as Self-secure Ad-hoc Network. Distributing this subsecret to a new member when he enters the group is the common method that ensures all the members participate in the same secret-sharing. However, no' atisfactory subsecret distribution scheme exists at present. This paper proposes a new protocol that tries to satisfy both security and efficiency.

  20. Development of a Family Dynamic Environment Scale for Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a short and reliable Family Dynamic Environment Scale (FDES) that would better serve the needs of mental health professionals in detecting the potential for delinquent behavior in Korean adolescents related to a dysfunctional family dynamic environment. Semi-structured interviews with 30 adolescents were initially conducted to generate a set of items, after which, 44 participants were included in method test-retest reliability test. Finally, 544 participants recruited by proportional stratified random sampling were included in a factor analysis. The original version of the FDES had 60 items in 7 categories; the final version included 42 items grouped into 5 factors. Both test-retest reliability and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were high for the final version of the scale. As a result of factor analysis, five factors were extracted: family psychological climate, parent-child relationship, paternal parenting attitude, family cohesion, and maternal parenting attitude. These contributed 50.3% of the variance in the item scores. All 42 items loaded above .35 on their respective factors. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for internal consistency were .95 for the total 42 items and .92, .81, .82, .78, and .71, respectively, for each of the 5 factors.

  1. State and group dynamics of world stock market by principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2016-05-01

    We study the dynamic interactions and structural changes by a principal component analysis (PCA) to cross-correlation coefficients of global financial indices in the years 1998-2012. The variances explained by the first PC increase with time and show a drastic change during the crisis. A sharp change in PC coefficient implies a transition of market state, a situation which occurs frequently in the American and Asian indices. However, the European indices remain stable over time. Using the first two PC coefficients, we identify indices that are similar and more strongly correlated than the others. We observe that the European indices form a robust group over the observation period. The dynamics of the individual indices within the group increase in similarity with time, and the dynamics of indices are more similar during the crises. Furthermore, the group formation of indices changes position in two-dimensional spaces due to crises. Finally, after a financial crisis, the difference of PCs between the European and American indices narrows.

  2. State and group dynamics of world stock market by principal component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nobi, Ashadun

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamic interactions and structural changes in global financial indices in the years 1998-2012. We apply a principal component analysis (PCA) to cross-correlation coefficients of the stock indices. We calculate the correlations between principal components (PCs) and each asset, known as PC coefficients. A change in market state is identified as a change in the first PC coefficients. Some indices do not show significant change of PCs in market state during crises. The indices exposed to the invested capitals in the stock markets are at the minimum level of risk. Using the first two PC coefficients, we identify indices that are similar and more strongly correlated than the others. We observe that the European indices form a robust group over the observation period. The dynamics of the individual indices within the group increase in similarity with time, and the dynamics of indices are more similar during the crises. Furthermore, the group formation of indices changes position in two-dimensional spa...

  3. The Italian Red Brigades and the structure and dynamics of terrorist groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantelli, Carole Beebe

    2010-06-01

    One of the problems in dealing with terrorism is that we have virtually no access to individual terrorists; only their actions are visible. The founders of the Italian terrorist group, the Red Brigades, on the other hand, have written about their experiences and have exhaustively explained their motivations. The author's premise is that these autobiographies and her interviews with several of the group's members give us access to the unconscious processes involved in the formation and operation of the group. After terrorist attacks, it is natural to ask whether the terrorists' capacity for collective violence is an indication of personal pathology. This paper argues that the relevant pathology in the terrorist enterprise is not that of the individual but that of the group. Relying on the theories of groups of Freud (1921), Bion (1961), Anzieu (1984) and Kaes (2007), the author argues that psychoanalytic theory is essential to understanding the motivations and actions of violent groups which otherwise remain obscure. Although the discussion has been confined to one terrorist group, the author hopes that it can also be useful for understanding the unconscious dynamics of other groups structured around an ideology which mandates the destruction of human life.

  4. A strategic conflict avoidance approach based on cooperative coevolutionary with the dynamic grouping strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiangmin; Zhang, Xuejun; Wei, Jian; Hwang, Inseok; Zhu, Yanbo; Cai, Kaiquan

    2016-07-01

    Conflict avoidance plays a crucial role in guaranteeing the safety and efficiency of the air traffic management system. Recently, the strategic conflict avoidance (SCA) problem has attracted more and more attention. Taking into consideration the large-scale flight planning in a global view, SCA can be formulated as a large-scale combinatorial optimisation problem with complex constraints and tight couplings between variables, which is difficult to solve. In this paper, an SCA approach based on the cooperative coevolution algorithm combined with a new decomposition strategy is proposed to prevent the premature convergence and improve the search capability. The flights are divided into several groups using the new grouping strategy, referred to as the dynamic grouping strategy, which takes full advantage of the prior knowledge of the problem to better deal with the tight couplings among flights through maximising the chance of putting flights with conflicts in the same group, compared with existing grouping strategies. Then, a tuned genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to different groups simultaneously to resolve conflicts. Finally, the high-quality solutions are obtained through cooperation between different groups based on cooperative coevolution. Simulation results using real flight data from the China air route network and daily flight plans demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reduce the number of conflicts and the average delay effectively, outperforming existing approaches including GAs, the memetic algorithm, and the cooperative coevolution algorithms with different well-known grouping strategies.

  5. Development of methodology for horizontal axis wind turbine dynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugundji, J.

    1982-01-01

    Horizontal axis wind turbine dynamics were studied. The following findings are summarized: (1) review of the MOSTAS computer programs for dynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines; (2) review of various analysis methods for rotating systems with periodic coefficients; (3) review of structural dynamics analysis tools for large wind turbine; (4) experiments for yaw characteristics of a rotating rotor; (5) development of a finite element model for rotors; (6) development of simple models for aeroelastics; and (7) development of simple models for stability and response of wind turbines on flexible towers.

  6. The Impact of Instructor's Group Management Strategies on Students' Attitudes to Group Work and Generic Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, Riccardo; Jackling, Beverley; Seelanatha, Lalith

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of two distinct group work management strategies on finance students' attitudes towards group work and their perceptions of generic skill development. Using quantitative and qualitative data, comparisons are made between students who experienced a supportive group work environment and students who experienced an…

  7. The Impact of Instructor's Group Management Strategies on Students' Attitudes to Group Work and Generic Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, Riccardo; Jackling, Beverley; Seelanatha, Lalith

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of two distinct group work management strategies on finance students' attitudes towards group work and their perceptions of generic skill development. Using quantitative and qualitative data, comparisons are made between students who experienced a supportive group work environment and students who experienced an…

  8. Dynamics of personal development on healthy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramida I.E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the effectiveness of different physical training for the relatively healthy students. The study involved 1004 students. The directions of development of the students' positive personal qualities. Found that the positive development of personality of students observed mostly on the first and third year than in the second. Could not find significant differences between the growth estimates of development of personality traits of students in classes in the sample program and the program specializations. Found that the rate of development of students' personality traits minor: the average growth estimates for core positive personal qualities for 3 years does not exceed 10% of the maximum possible level. Recommended in the classroom more emphasis on developing positive personality traits. It is shown that special attention should be paid to the development of emotional stability of students and their tolerance towards other people.

  9. A Comparison of the Effects of Group Dynamics on Individuals Assigned to Integral and Non-Integral Aircrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    34 Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 10: 149-165(1974). Cartwright , Dorwin and Alvin Zander. Group Dynamics Research and Theory. Row, Peterson and...Company, Evanston IL 1953. Cartwright , Dorwin and Alvin Zander. "The Nature of Group Cohesiveness," Group Dynamics, 91-109. Harper and Row, New York...other reasons. Cartwright and Zander propose that groups may either facilitate or inhibit tne attainment of desirable social objectives ( Cartwright and

  10. Group Dynamics of Zebra and Wildebeest in a Woodland Savanna: Effects of Predation Risk and Habitat Density

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Thaker; Vanak, Abi T.; Cailey R. Owen; Monika B. Ogden; Rob Slotow

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Group dynamics of gregarious ungulates in the grasslands of the African savanna have been well studied, but the trade-offs that affect grouping of these ungulates in woodland habitats or dense vegetation are less well understood. We examined the landscape-level distribution of groups of blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and Burchell's zebra, Equus burchelli, in a predominantly woodland area (Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa; KGR) to test the hypothesis that group dynamics...

  11. New product development with dynamic decision support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, JP

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available product development processes: A case study, Technovation 26: 1233-1243. Carbonell-Foulquíe, P., Munuera-Alemán, J.L., Rodríguez-Escudero, 2004, Criteria employed for go/no-go decisions when developing successful highly innovative products, Industrial...

  12. The interaction between electrolyte and surfaces decorated with charged groups: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Carles; Faraudo, Jordi

    2010-01-14

    In this paper, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of an interface containing charged functional groups of different valences in contact with 2:1 ionic solution. We take into account both the finite sizes of the ions in solution and the functional groups but we neglect the structural details of the solvent (primitive model). We show that the distribution of ions and the electrostatic properties of the system depend strongly on the valence of the interfacial charged groups. In the case of surfaces containing well-separated charged interfacial groups, we observe counterion binding at these groups induced by electrostatic interactions. A detailed analysis of the potential of mean force between interfacial charged groups and ions reveals significant features not anticipated by present theories of electrolytes near interfaces. Overall, our results show that, in primitive models of the ion-interface interaction, not only the ionic size and valence are important but the size and valence of the interfacial charged groups also have a significant impact.

  13. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  14. Mediated Group Development and Dynamics: An Examination of Video Chatting, Twitter, and Facebook in Group Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Brandi N.; Kaufmann, Renee; Beck, Anna-Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Instructors incorporate technological tools into the classroom to address short attention spans, appeal to technologically savvy students, and to increase engagement. This study used both quantitative descriptive and qualitative embedded assessment data to examine the use of three popular tools (i.e. Twitter, Facebook, and video chatting) in…

  15. Dynamics of heterorhizic root systems: protoxylem groups within the fine-root system of Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishi, Takuo; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    To understand the physiology of fine-root functions in relation to soil organic sources, the heterogeneity of individual root functions within a fine-root system requires investigation. Here the heterogeneous dynamics within fine-root systems are reported. The fine roots of Chamaecyparis obtusa were sampled using a sequential ingrowth core method over 2 yr. After color categorization, roots were classified into protoxylem groups from anatomical observations. The root lengths with diarch and triarch groups fluctuated seasonally, whereas the tetrarch root length increased. The percentage of secondary root mortality to total mortality increased with increasing amounts of protoxylem. The carbon : nitrogen ratio indicated that the decomposability of primary roots might be greater than that of secondary roots. The position of diarch roots was mostly apical, whereas tetrarch roots tended to be distributed in basal positions within the root architecture. We demonstrate the heterogeneous dynamics within a fine-root system of C. obtusa. Fine-root heterogeneity should affect soil C dynamics. This heterogeneity is determined by the branching position within the root architecture.

  16. Interactions between grain boundary faceting, migration and grain rotation: Color group and molecular dynamics simulation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue

    Color group theory and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study the faceting and rotation of grains in nanocrystalline materials and their interactions. Color group arguments were used to determine symmetry-dictated extrema with respect to misorientation of the grains and with respect to grain boundary normal orientations. MD simulations were used to study the evolution of the system and to elucidate the interactions between grain rotation and faceting in nano-scale systems. The systems of study were fcc bicrystalline systems with two grains sharing their [110] directions. Two geometric parameters were studied: the misorientation between two grains with a common rotation axis in the [110] direction of both grains, and the grain boundary normal orientation of fcc (110) tilt grain boundaries. The symmetry-dictated extremum (SDE) with respect to misorientation around both grains' [110] direction is 90 degrees. The SDE with respect to GB normal orientations for (110) tilt GBs are located on top of the color and classical mirror planes of their dichromatic patterns. By using periodic boundary conditions and a cylindrical embedded grain structure in our simulations, grains are only free to vary the misorientation between grains around the common [110] direction, and the normal of the grain boundaries are always perpendicular to both grains [110] direction. All SDE studied in our simulation are observed to be local energy minimum states. We observed the systems reducing their excess energy through three main modes: forming facets at the boundaries, rotating between the two grains, and reduction of grain boundary area through grain shrinkage. Facets are formed in low-energy grain boundaries and oscillating rotation occurred when the initial misorientation was not a SDE. A new algorithm was developed to quantitatively measure the grain rotation. The ovsered rotations are not rigid-body rotations and have strong interaction with faceting. Systems with lower

  17. National facilities study. Volume 5: Space research and development facilities task group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    With the beginnings of the U.S. space program, there was a pressing need to develop facilities that could support the technology research and development, testing, and operations of evolving space systems. Redundancy in facilities that was once and advantage in providing flexibility and schedule accommodation is instead fast becoming a burden on scarce resources. As a result, there is a clear perception in many sectors that the U.S. has many space R&D facilities that are under-utilized and which are no longer cost-effective to maintain. At the same time, it is clear that the U.S. continues to possess many space R&D facilities which are the best -- or among the best -- in the world. In order to remain world class in key areas, careful assessment of current capabilities and planning for new facilities is needed. The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future aerospace facilities that meets current and projected government and commercial needs. In order to assess the nation's capability to support space research and development (R&D), a Space R&D Task Group was formed. The Task Group was co-chaired by NASA and DOD. The Task Group formed four major, technologically- and functionally- oriented working groups: Human and Machine Operations; Information and Communications; Propulsion and Power; and Materials, Structures, and Flight Dynamics. In addition to these groups, three supporting working groups were formed: Systems Engineering and Requirements; Strategy and Policy; and Costing Analysis. The Space R&D Task Group examined several hundred facilities against the template of a baseline mission and requirements model (developed in common with the Space Operations Task Group) and a set of excursions from the baseline. The model and excursions are described in Volume 3 of the NFS final report. In addition, as a part of the effort, the group examined key strategic issues associated with space R

  18. Nearrings some developments linked to semigroups and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrero, Celestina Cotti

    2002-01-01

    This work presents new and old constructions of nearrings. Links between properties of the multiplicative of nearrings (as regularity conditions and identities) and the structure of nearrings are studied. Primality and minimality properties of ideals are collected. Some types of `simpler' nearrings are examined. Some nearrings of maps on a group are reviewed and linked with group-theoretical and geometrical questions. Audience: Researchers working in nearring theory, group theory, semigroup theory, designs, and translation planes. Some of the material will be accessible to graduate students.

  19. Do Dental Students' Personality Types and Group Dynamics Affect Their Performance in Problem-Based Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Jung-Joon; An, So-Youn; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the personality types of dental students and their group dynamics were linked to their problem-based learning (PBL) performance. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) instrument was used with 263 dental students enrolled in Seoul National University School of Dentistry from 2011 to 2013; the students had participated in PBL in their first year. A four-session PBL setting was designed to analyze how individual personality types and the diversity of their small groups were associated with PBL performance. Overall, the results showed that the personality type of PBL performance that was the most prominent was Judging. As a group became more diverse with its different constituent personality characteristics, there was a tendency for the group to be higher ranked in terms of PBL performance. In particular, the overperforming group was clustered around three major profiles: Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Judging (ENTJ), Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ISTJ), and Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ESTJ). Personality analysis would be beneficial for dental faculty members in order for them to understand the extent to which cooperative learning would work smoothly, especially when considering group personalities.

  20. Dynamical analysis of strong-lensing galaxy groups at intermediate redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, R P; Verdugo, T; Garrido, F; Limousin, M; Padilla, N; Foëx, G; Cabanac, R; Gavazzi, R; Barrientos, L F; Richard, J

    2012-01-01

    We present VLT spectroscopic observations of 7 discovered galaxy groups between 0.3groups were selected from the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey (SL2S), a survey that consists in a systematic search for strong lensing systems in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). We give details about the target selection, spectroscopic observations and data reduction for the first release of confirmed SL2S groups. The dynamical analysis of the systems reveals that they are gravitationally bound structures, with at least 4 confirmed members and velocity dispersions between 300 and 800 km/s. Their virial masses are between 10^13 and 10^14 M_sun, and so can be classified as groups or low mass clusters. Most of the systems are isolated groups, except two of them that show evidence of an ongoing merger of two sub-structures. We find a good agreement between the velocity dispersions estimated from the analysis of the kinematics of group galaxies and the weak lensing measurements, and conclude...

  1. Disentangling the impact of social groups on response times and movement dynamics in evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nikolai W F; Holl, Stefan; Mehner, Wolfgang; Seyfried, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Crowd evacuations are paradigmatic examples for collective behaviour, as interactions between individuals lead to the overall movement dynamics. Approaches assuming that all individuals interact in the same way have significantly improved our understanding of pedestrian crowd evacuations. However, this scenario is unlikely, as many pedestrians move in social groups that are based on friendship or kinship. We test how the presence of social groups affects the egress time of individuals and crowds in a representative crowd evacuation experiment. Our results suggest that the presence of social groups increases egress times and that this is largely due to differences at two stages of evacuations. First, individuals in social groups take longer to show a movement response at the start of evacuations, and, second, they take longer to move into the vicinity of the exits once they have started to move towards them. Surprisingly, there are no discernible time differences between the movement of independent individuals and individuals in groups directly in front of the exits. We explain these results and discuss their implications. Our findings elucidate behavioural differences between independent individuals and social groups in evacuations. Such insights are crucial for the control of crowd evacuations and for planning mass events.

  2. Disentangling the impact of social groups on response times and movement dynamics in evacuations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai W F Bode

    Full Text Available Crowd evacuations are paradigmatic examples for collective behaviour, as interactions between individuals lead to the overall movement dynamics. Approaches assuming that all individuals interact in the same way have significantly improved our understanding of pedestrian crowd evacuations. However, this scenario is unlikely, as many pedestrians move in social groups that are based on friendship or kinship. We test how the presence of social groups affects the egress time of individuals and crowds in a representative crowd evacuation experiment. Our results suggest that the presence of social groups increases egress times and that this is largely due to differences at two stages of evacuations. First, individuals in social groups take longer to show a movement response at the start of evacuations, and, second, they take longer to move into the vicinity of the exits once they have started to move towards them. Surprisingly, there are no discernible time differences between the movement of independent individuals and individuals in groups directly in front of the exits. We explain these results and discuss their implications. Our findings elucidate behavioural differences between independent individuals and social groups in evacuations. Such insights are crucial for the control of crowd evacuations and for planning mass events.

  3. [Population dynamics and development in the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, B

    1995-12-01

    The impact is examined of socioeconomic factors on Caribbean population dynamics. This work begins by describing the socioeconomic context of the late 1980s and early 1990s, under the influence of the economic changes and crises of the 1980s. The small size, openness, dependency, and lack of diversification of the Caribbean economies have made them vulnerable to external pressures. The Bahamas and Belize had economic growth rates exceeding 5% annually during 1981-90, but most of the countries had low or negative growth. Unemployment, poverty, the structural adjustment measures adopted in the mid-1980s, and declines in social spending exacerbated general economic conditions. In broad terms, the population situation of the Caribbean is marked by diversity of sizes and growth rates. A few countries oriented toward services and tourism had demographic growth rates exceeding 3%, while at least 7 had almost no growth or negative growth. Population growth rates reflected different combinations of natural increase and migration. Crude death rates ranged from around 5/1000 to 11/1000, except in Haiti, and all countries of the region except Haiti had life expectancies of 70 years or higher. Despite fertility decline, the average crude birth rate was still relatively high at 26/1000, and the rate of natural increase was 1.8% annually for the region. Nearly half of the regional population was under 15 or over 65 years old. The body of this work provides greater detail on mortality patterns, variations by sex, infant mortality, causes of death, and implications for policy. The discussion of fertility includes general patterns and trends, age specific fertility rates, contraceptive prevalence, levels of adolescent fertility and age factors in adolescent sexual behavior, characteristics of adolescent unions, contraceptive usage, health and social consequences of adolescent childbearing, and the search for solutions. The final section describes the magnitude and causes of

  4. Academic writing development: a complex, dynamic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penris, Wouter; Verspoor, Marjolijn; Pfenniger, Simone; Navracsics, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally we look at learning outcomes by examining single outcomes. A new and future direction is to look at the actual process of development. Imagine an advanced, 17-year-old student of English (L2) who has just finished secondary school in the Netherlands and wants to become an English

  5. Academic writing development: a complex, dynamic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penris, Wouter; Verspoor, Marjolijn; Pfenniger, Simone; Navracsics, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally we look at learning outcomes by examining single outcomes. A new and future direction is to look at the actual process of development. Imagine an advanced, 17-year-old student of English (L2) who has just finished secondary school in the Netherlands and wants to become an English teach

  6. Context-aware adaptation for group communication support applications with dynamic architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Ismael Bouassida; Chassot, Christophe; Jmaiel, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a refinement-based adaptation approach for the architecture of distributed group communication support applications. Unlike most of previous works, our approach reaches implementable, context-aware and dynamically adaptable architectures. To model the context, we manage simultaneously four parameters that influence Qos provided by the application. These parameters are: the available bandwidth, the exchanged data communication priority, the energy level and the available memory for processing. These parameters make it possible to refine the choice between the various architectural configurations when passing from a given abstraction level to the lower level which implements it. Our approach allows the importance degree associated with each parameter to be adapted dynamically. To implement adaptation, we switch between the various configurations of the same level, and we modify the state of the entities of a given configuration when necessary. We adopt the direct and mediated Producer-...

  7. Numerical renormalization group for the bosonic single-impurity Anderson model: Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jung; Byczuk, Krzysztof; Bulla, Ralf

    2010-08-01

    The bosonic single-impurity Anderson model (B-SIAM) is studied to understand the local dynamics of an atomic quantum dot (AQD) coupled to a Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) state, which can be implemented to probe the entanglement and the decoherence of a macroscopic condensate. Our recent approach of the numerical renormalization-group calculation for the B-SIAM revealed a zero-temperature phase diagram, where a Mott phase with local depletion of normal particles is separated from a BEC phase with enhanced density of the condensate. As an extension of the previous work, we present the calculations of the local dynamical quantities of the B-SIAM which reinforce our understanding of the physics in the Mott and the BEC phases.

  8. Cooperative dynamics in the penetration of a group of intruders in a granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2010-11-23

    An object moving in a fluid experiences a drag force that depends on its velocity, shape and the properties of the medium. From this simplest case to the motion of a flock of birds or a school of fish, the drag forces and the hydrodynamic interactions determine the full dynamics of the system. Similar drag forces appear when a single projectile impacts and moves through a granular medium, and this case is well studied in the literature. On the other hand, the case in which a group of intruders impact a granular material has never been considered. Here, we study the simultaneous penetration of several intruders in a very low-density granular medium. We find that the intruders move through it in a collective way, following a cooperative dynamics, whose complexity resembles flocking phenomena in living systems or the movement of reptiles in sand, wherein changes in drag are exploited to efficiently move or propel.

  9. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yong-Wang; Song, Yu-Rong; Jiang, Guo-Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  10. The power of talk: developing discriminatory group norms through discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura G E; Postmes, Tom

    2011-06-01

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a negative societal stereotype (relative to individual rumination in Studies 1 and 3 and alternative discussions in Studies 2 and 3) increases intentions to engage in discrimination against the out-group target of the stereotype. This is mediated by the formation of an in-group norm which supports discrimination (Study 1) and the extent to which the discussion validates the stereotype (Study 2). A fourth study manipulated the extent to which consensus on the negative stereotype was reached through discussion. When the discussion ended in consensus, participants have greater intention to undertake collective action against the stereotyped out-group, mediated by a congruent in-group norm. These results provide evidence that the process by which discussion increases intergroup discrimination is via the formation of discriminatory local group norms. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Viscosity of heptane-toluene mixtures. Comparison of molecular dynamics and group contribution methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Ana Milena; Hoyos, Bibian A

    2017-02-01

    Three methods of molecular dynamics simulation [Green-Kubo (G-K), non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) and reversed non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (RNEMD)], and two group contribution methods [UNIFAC-VISCO and Grunberg-Nissan (G-N)] were used to calculate the viscosity of mixtures of n-heptane and toluene (known as heptol). The results obtained for the viscosity and density of heptol were compared with reported experimental data, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. Overall, the five methods showed good agreement between calculated and experimental viscosities. In all cases, the deviation was lower than 9%. It was found that, as the concentration of toluene increases, the deviation of the density of the mixture (as calculated with molecular dynamics methods) also increases, which directly affects the viscosity result obtained. Among the molecular simulation techniques evaluated here, G-K produced the best results, and represents the optimal balance between quality of result and time required for simulation. The NEMD method produced acceptable results for the viscosity of the system but required more simulation time as well as the determination of an appropriate shear rate. The RNEMD method was fast and eliminated the need to determine a set of values for shear rate, but introduced large fluctuations in measurements of shear rate and viscosity. The two group contribution methods were accurate and fast when used to calculate viscosity, but require knowledge of the viscosity of the pure compounds, which is a serious limitation for applications in complex multicomponent systems.

  12. Dynamics of China's Regional Development and Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Henri L.F.M. de Groot; Cees A. Withagen; Minliang, Zhou

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the existence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve for China, using a sampleof thirty regions and covering the period 1982-1997. The types of pollution included in the studyare wastewater, waste gas and solid waste. We consider the development of the sources ofpollution in a pooled cross-section analysis considering the pollution in absolute levels, in percapita terms and relative to real GDP. At intermediate levels of GDP per capita, the increase of solidand gas emissions t...

  13. Developing a Theory for Dynamic Campaign Planning,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-26

    historical campaigns. THE PURSUIT OF WISDOM AND ART Hermann Hesse . in his novel Siddhartha . develops a situation analogous to the search for a...and that doctrine specifying both the process and product needs to be codified. 3. Hermann Hesse , Siddhartha , New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1974, p. 142...Naval Institute, 1985. Heisenberg, Werner. Philosophic Problems in Nuclear Science. New York: Pantheon Books, Inc, 1952. Hesse , Hermann. Siddhartha . New

  14. Social identity and the development of children's group attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, D; Flesser, D

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed predictions drawn from social identity theory (SIT; Tajfel & Turner) concerning the acquisition of young children's intra- and intergroup attitudes and cognitions. In a minimal group study, 5- and 8-year-old children (N = 258) were arbitrarily assigned to teams that varied in their drawing ability (social status). In addition, the study varied the extent to which the children believed they could change teams (social mobility) and whether the team had additional positive qualities beyond their drawing skill (social change). The children subsequently rated their liking for, and similarity to, the ingroup and the outgroup and the extent to which they wished to change groups. Consistent with SIT and research with adults, the results indicated that children as young as 5 years of age were sensitive to the status of their social group, and that ingroup status has important implications for both their desire to remain group members as well as their perceived similarity to other group members. The extent to which the findings provide support for SIT and the intergroup similarities between adults and children are discussed.

  15. Methyl group dynamics in a glass and its crystalline counterpart by neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, A J; Colmenero, J; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    Methyl group dynamics in the same sample of sodium acetate trihydrate in crystalline and glassy states have been investigated by neutron scattering. Measurements have been carried out in the whole temperature range covering the crossover from rotational tunneling to classical hopping. The results in the crystalline sample have been analyzed according to the usual single-particle model, while those in the glass were analyzed in terms of a broad Gaussian distribution of single-particle potentials, with a standard deviation of 205 K. The average barrier in the glass (417 K) takes, within the experimental error, the same value as the unique barrier in the crystal. (orig.)

  16. Report of the working group on production and dynamics of high brightness beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L. [MS H851I, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Bisognano, J.; Brau, C.; Hogan, M.; Kim, K.; Milton, S.; Nuhn, H.; Pagani, C.; Pierini, P.; Reiser, M.; Schmerge, J.; Serafini, L.; Teng, L.; Winick, H.; Cornacchia, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper summarizes the main discussions of the Working Group on the Production and Dynamics of High Brightness Beams. The following topics are covered in this paper: proposed new electron sources and needed research on existing sources, discussions on issues relating to the description of phase space on non-thermalized electron beam distributions and the theoretical modeling on non-thermalized electron beam distributions, and the present status of the theoretical modeling of beam transport in bends. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and weak nonperturbative renormalization group equation in gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theory with the nonperturbative renormalization group equation (NPRGE), which is a first order nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). In case that the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking occurs, the NPRGE encounters some non-analytic singularities at the finite critical scale even though the initial function is continuous and smooth. Therefore there is no usual solution of the PDE beyond the critical scale. In this paper, we newly introduce the notion of a weak solution which is the global solution of the weak NPRGE. We show how to evaluate the physical quantities with the weak solution.

  18. Reduced Dynamics from the Unitary Group to Some Flag Manifolds : Interacting Matrix Riccati Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we treat the time evolution of unitary elements in the N level system and consider the reduced dynamics from the unitary group U(N) to flag manifolds of the second type (in our terminology). Then we derive a set of differential equations of matrix Riccati types interacting with one another and present an important problem on a nonlinear superposition formula that the Riccati equation satisfies. Our result is a natural generalization of the paper {\\bf Chaturvedi et al} (arXiv : 0706.0964 [quant-ph]).

  19. Universal short-time dynamics: Boundary functional renormalization group for a temperature quench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchetta, Alessio; Gambassi, Andrea; Diehl, Sebastian; Marino, Jamir

    2016-11-01

    We present a method to calculate short-time nonequilibrium universal exponents within the functional-renormalization-group scheme. As an example, we consider the classical critical dynamics of the relaxational model A after a quench of the temperature of the system and calculate the initial-slip exponent which characterizes the nonequilibrium universal short-time behavior of both the order parameter and correlation functions. The value of this exponent is found to be consistent with the result of a perturbative dimensional expansion and of Monte Carlo simulations in three spatial dimensions.

  20. Tuning of electronic properties and dynamical stability of graphene oxide with different functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabhi, Shweta D.; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2017-09-01

    The structural, electronic and vibrational properties of graphene oxide (GO) with varying proportion of epoxy and hydroxyl functional groups have been studied using density functional theory. The functional groups and oxygen density have an obvious influence on the electronic and vibrational properties. The dependence of band gap on associated functional groups and oxygen density shows a possibility of tuning the band gap of graphene by varying the functional groups as well as oxidation level. The absorption of high oxygen content in graphene leads to the gap opening and resulting in a transition from semimetal to semiconductor. Phonon dispersion curves show no imaginary frequency or no softening of any phonon mode throughout the Brillouin zone which confirms the dynamical stability of all considered GO models. Different groups and different oxygen density result into the varying characteristics of phonon modes. The computed results show good agreement with the experimental observations. Our results present interesting possibilities for engineering the electronic properties of graphene and GO and impact the fabrication of new electronics.

  1. Systems approach to studying animal sociality: individual position versus group organization in dynamic social network models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Hock

    Full Text Available Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.

  2. Systems approach to studying animal sociality: individual position versus group organization in dynamic social network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Karlo; Ng, Kah Loon; Fefferman, Nina H

    2010-12-23

    Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against) social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively) fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.

  3. Systems Approach to Studying Animal Sociality: Individual Position versus Group Organization in Dynamic Social Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Karlo; Ng, Kah Loon; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2010-01-01

    Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against) social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively) fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness. PMID:21203425

  4. Recent developments in dynamic testing of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidt J.D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new testing configurations that have been developed since the last DYMAT conference in 2009 are presented. The first is high strain rate testing of Kevlar cloth and Kevlar yarn in a tensile Split Hopkinson Bar (SHB apparatus. The Kevlar cloth/yarn is attached to the bars by specially designed adaptors that keep the impedance constant. In addition to determining the specimen’s stress and strain from the recorded waves in the bars the deformations are also measured with Digital Image Correlation (DIC. The second testing configuration is a high strain rate shear test for sheet metal. The experiment is done by using a flat notched specimen in a tensile SHB apparatus. The shear strain is measured using DIC within the notch and on the boundary. The third development is a compression apparatus for testing at intermediate strain rates ranging from 20 s−1 to 200 s−1. The apparatus is a combination of a hydraulic actuator and a compression SHB. The stress in the specimen is determined from the stress wave in a very long transmitter bar and the strain and strain rate is determined by using DIC. The results show clean stress strain curves (no ringing.

  5. Development Dynamics of Remittances in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munim K. Barai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remittance inflows in the economy of Bangladesh are getting larger every passing year, matching with the increasing external demand for its manpower. The ensuing development impacts of remittances, as a means of transfer of wealth, on socioeconomic factors are increasingly viewed with importance. Remittances have helped improve the social and economic indicators like nutrition, living condition and housing, education, health care, poverty reduction, social security, and investment activities of the recipient households. The relative weight of remittances has also increased against most of the macroeconomic variables alongside the contribution to GDP. Moreover, Bangladesh has been able to avoid any serious imbalances in BOP’s current account, although it has persistent merchandize trade deficits. Not only that, the export tradable sector has thus far remained unaffected from the Dutch Disease effects of remittances.

  6. Effect of Grouping on the Language Development of English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Seema

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine if there was a significant difference between first-grade English Learners (EL) who constitute a majority (greater than 50%) of the English language mainstream classroom (homogeneous grouping) and first-grade EL who constitute a minority (less than 50%) of the English language mainstream classrooms…

  7. Developing Healthcare Practice through Action Learning: Individual and Group Journeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Valerie; McCormack, Brendan; Ives, Glenice

    2008-01-01

    Action Learning is now a well established strategy for reflective inquiry in healthcare. Whilst a great deal is know about action learning there has been inadequate research on the process of learning that takes place, and the impact that this holds for individuals, groups or organisations. This article reports on the findings of 15-month action…

  8. The power of talk : Developing discriminatory group norms through discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Postmes, Tom

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a

  9. The power of talk : Developing discriminatory group norms through discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Postmes, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a

  10. Norm Development, Decision Making, and Structuration in CMC Group Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turman, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    The use of new and advanced technologies has a significant potential to impact the way students communicate in a number of contexts and settings. Many students will find themselves in both academic and career situations where computer-mediated communication (CMC) group interaction will be necessary. As a result, it is important to integrate…

  11. Phases and Patterns of Group Development in Virtual Learning Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung Won; Johnson, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    With the advancement of Internet communication technologies, distributed work groups have great potential for remote collaboration and use of collective knowledge. Adopting the Complex Adaptive System (CAS) perspective (McGrath, Arrow, & Berdhal, "Personal Soc Psychol Rev" 4 (2000) 95), which views virtual learning teams as an adaptive and…

  12. Collision Prevention Platform for a Dynamic Group of Asynchronous Cooperative Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Yared

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fail-safe platform on which cooperative mobile robots rely for their motion. The platform consists of a collision prevention protocol for a dynamic group of cooperative mobile robots with asynchronous communications. The collision prevention protocol is timefree, in the sense that it never relies on physical time, which makes it extremely robust for timing uncertainty common in wireless networks. It guarantees that no two robots ever collide, regardless of the respective activities of the robots. The protocol is based on a fully distributed path reservation system. It assumes a mobile ad hoc network formed by the robots themselves, and takes advantage of the inherent locality of the problem in order to reduce communication. The protocol requires neither initial nor complete knowledge of the composition of the group. A performance analysis of the protocol provides insights for a proper dimensioning of system parameters in order to maximize the average effective speed of the robots.

  13. Explorations in combining cognitive models of individuals and system dynamics models of groups.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.

    2008-07-01

    This report documents a demonstration model of interacting insurgent leadership, military leadership, government leadership, and societal dynamics under a variety of interventions. The primary focus of the work is the portrayal of a token societal model that responds to leadership activities. The model also includes a linkage between leadership and society that implicitly represents the leadership subordinates as they directly interact with the population. The societal model is meant to demonstrate the efficacy and viability of using System Dynamics (SD) methods to simulate populations and that these can then connect to cognitive models depicting individuals. SD models typically focus on average behavior and thus have limited applicability to describe small groups or individuals. On the other hand, cognitive models readily describe individual behavior but can become cumbersome when used to describe populations. Realistic security situations are invariably a mix of individual and population dynamics. Therefore, the ability to tie SD models to cognitive models provides a critical capability that would be otherwise be unavailable.

  14. 77 FR 8284 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... workers of Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group, Lake Forest... Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group, Irvine (formerly at Lake... Employment and Training Administration Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development...

  15. 76 FR 61746 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc.: Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group, Lake Forest, California... workers and former workers of Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group... Employment and Training Administration Western Digital Technologies, Inc.: Hard Drive Development...

  16. The Clean Development Mechanism and Dynamic Capabilities of Implementing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    This study assesses the impact of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) on the dynamic capabilities of implementing firms in India. While doing so, it uses three indicators of firms' dynamic capabilities: R&D expenditures to sales ratio, fuel consumption to sales ratio and total factor productivi...... the PROWESS database. Our results reveal that the CDM implementation does not have significant outcome effects on the dynamic capabilities of firms. Much depends on the type and size of the project, and size of the firm....

  17. Applying Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development in Group Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, John A.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that Kohlberg's theory of moral development and his methods of moral education have special relevance to residential treatment because they (1) provide a framework for understanding the moral decision-making process at various levels of development, and (2) encourage child care professionals of any theoretical or clinical persuasion to…

  18. Dynamic Processes of Speech Development by Seven Adult Learners of Japanese in a Domestic Immersion Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed the dynamic process of speech development in a domestic immersion program by seven adult beginning learners of Japanese. The speech data were analyzed with fluency, accuracy, and complexity measurements at group, interindividual, and intraindividual levels. The results revealed the complex nature of language development…

  19. Dynamic Processes of Speech Development by Seven Adult Learners of Japanese in a Domestic Immersion Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed the dynamic process of speech development in a domestic immersion program by seven adult beginning learners of Japanese. The speech data were analyzed with fluency, accuracy, and complexity measurements at group, interindividual, and intraindividual levels. The results revealed the complex nature of language development…

  20. Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Gefei [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

  1. Value chain dynamics, settlement trajectories and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fold, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Global value chain (GVC) analysis has little to say about the interaction between regions and global chain dynamics. However, recent calls to address broader development issues have resulted in efforts to incorporate a spatial dimension in GVC analysis. Addressing this issue, the paper argues...... by value chain dynamics will improve by adding elements from global production network (GPN) theory to the combined methodology, namely by an examination of territorial embeddedness and value (creation, enhancement, capture, distribution) at settlement level....

  2. Simulating Poverty and Inequality Dynamics in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article considers how the simulation game of DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY provides insight into poverty and inequality dynamics in a development context. It first discusses how the game is rooted in theoretical and conceptual frameworks on poverty and inequality. Subsequently, it reflects on selected playing experiences, with special focus on the…

  3. Introducing guidelines for eco-dynamic development and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Koningsveld, M.; Van Raalte, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    One of the key activities within the Building with Nature innovation programme is the development of a guideline for Eco-dynamic Development and Design. This guidance will be focussed on implementation of the Building with Nature principles throughout all of the stages of hydraulic engineering proje

  4. Product assurance policies and procedures for flight dynamics software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sandra; Jordan, Leon; Decker, William; Page, Gerald; Mcgarry, Frank E.; Valett, Jon

    1987-01-01

    The product assurance policies and procedures necessary to support flight dynamics software development projects for Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The quality assurance and configuration management methods and tools for each phase of the software development life cycles are described, from requirements analysis through acceptance testing; maintenance and operation are not addressed.

  5. Introducing guidelines for eco-dynamic development and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Koningsveld, M.; Van Raalte, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    One of the key activities within the Building with Nature innovation programme is the development of a guideline for Eco-dynamic Development and Design. This guidance will be focussed on implementation of the Building with Nature principles throughout all of the stages of hydraulic engineering

  6. Constraints on the dynamical evolution of the galaxy group M81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehm, W.; Thies, I.; Kroupa, P.

    2017-01-01

    According to the standard model of cosmology, galaxies are embedded in dark matter halos which are made of particles beyond the standard model of particle physics, thus extending the mass and the size of the visible baryonic matter by typically two orders of magnitude. The observed gas distribution throughout the nearby M81 group of galaxies shows evidence for past significant galaxy-galaxy interactions but without a merger having occurred. This group is here studied for possible dynamical solutions within the dark-matter standard model. In order to cover a comprehensive set of initial conditions, the inner three core members M81, M82 and NGC 3077 are treated as a three-body model based on Navarro-Frenk-White profiles. The possible orbits of these galaxies are examined statistically taking into account dynamical friction. Long living, non-merging initial constellations which allow multiple galaxy-galaxy encounters comprise unbound galaxies only, which are arriving from a far distance and happen to simultaneously encounter each other within the recent 500 Myr. Our results are derived by the employment of two separate and independent statistical methods, namely a Markov chain Monte Carlo method and the genetic algorithm using the SAP system environment. The conclusions reached are confirmed by high-resolution simulations of live self-consistent systems (N-body calculations). Given the observed positions of the three galaxies the solutions found comprise predictions for their proper motions.

  7. New location of the Learning and Development group

    CERN Multimedia

    The Learning and Development group

    2016-01-01

    The HR-LD group would like to inform you that, owing to renovations, the service currently located on the fourth floor of Building 5 will be moving to the first floor of Building 653 for around eight months from September 2016.   The HR-LD group will be moving to the first floor of Building 653 for around eight months from September 2016. Please note as well that, from mid-September 2016, the language courses run by CERN will take place in Building 693 (next to the Technical Training Centre, Building 593), instead of on the fourth floor of Building 5. From mid-September 2016, the language courses run by CERN will take place in Building 693. The move will take place in two phases: Language courses: Thursday, 1 and Friday, 2 September 2016 HR-LD group: Monday, 5 and Tuesday, 6 September 2016 Communication by phone and e-mail may be disrupted during this time. The temporary office numbers of those moving will be shown in the CERN Phonebook. Thank you for your understanding.

  8. BoD services in layer 1 VPN with dynamic virtual concatenation group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shu; Peng, Yunfeng; Long, Keping

    2008-11-01

    Bandwidth-on-Demand (BoD) services are characteristic of dynamic bandwidth provisioning based on customers' resource requirement, which will be a must for future networks. BoD services become possible with the development of make-before-break, Virtual Concatenation (VCAT) and Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS). In this paper, we introduce BoD services into L1VPN, thus the resource assigned to a L1VPN can be gracefully adjusted at various bandwidth granularities based on customers' requirement. And we propose a dynamic bandwidth adjustment scheme, which is compromise between make-before-break and VCAT&LCAS and mainly based on the latter. The scheme minimizes the number of distinct paths to support a connection between a source-destination pair, and uses make-beforebreak technology for re-optimization.

  9. How intragroup dynamics affect behavior in intergroup conflict: the role of group norms, prototypicality, and need to belong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinel, W.; van Kleef, G.A.; van Knippenberg, D.; Hogg, M.A.; Homan, A.C.; Moffit, G.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the role of intragroup dynamics in intergroup conflict. In a computer-mediated negotiation experiment (N = 107), we investigated how a group representative’s standing in the group, group norm, and the representative’s need to belong influence behavior in intergroup negotiations.

  10. Individual killer whale vocal variation during intra-group behavioral dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebner, Dawn M.

    calls discussed in Chapter 6 showed that the higher frequency component (HFC) was always associated with sideband 7 (SB7) of the lower frequency component (LFC). Insight into Northern Resident killer whale intra-group vocal dynamics would aid our understanding of vocal behaviors of many other marine mammal species that rely on vocal exchanges for prey capture, group movement or survival. This is the first study to focus on killer whale vocal content and usage as it pertains to intra-group dynamics for (1) mother and offspring separations and (2) for all individuals prior to joining events, as well as (3) individual usage in a diverging pulsed call. It is also the first time the N04 call has been parsed into subtypes.

  11. Dynamic regulatory interactions of Polycomb group genes: MEDEA autoregulation is required for imprinted gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroux, Célia; Gagliardini, Valeria; Page, Damian R; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2006-05-01

    The imprinted Arabidopsis Polycomb group (PcG) gene MEDEA (MEA), which is homologous to Enhancer of Zeste [E(Z)], is maternally required for normal seed development. Here we show that, unlike known mammalian imprinted genes, MEA regulates its own imprinted expression: It down-regulates the maternal allele around fertilization and maintains the paternal allele silent later during seed development. Autorepression of the maternal MEA allele is direct and independent of the MEA-FIE (FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM) PcG complex, which is similar to the E(Z)-ESC (Extra sex combs) complex of animals, suggesting a novel mechanism. A complex network of cross-regulatory interactions among the other known members of the MEA-FIE PcG complex implies distinct functions that are dynamically regulated during reproduction.

  12. Dynamic Group Management Scheme for Sustainable and Secure Information Sensing in IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjoo Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The services provided to users in the environment associated with the Internet of Things (hereinafter referred to as IoT begin with the information collected from sensors. It is imperative to transmit high-quality sensor data for providing better services. It is also required to collect data only from those authenticated sensors. Moreover, it is imperative to collect high-quality data on a sustainable and continuous basis in order to provide services anytime and anywhere in the IoT environment. Therefore, high-quality, authenticated sensor networks should be constructed. The most prominent routing protocol to enhance the energy consumption efficiency for the sustainable data collection in a sensor network is the LEACH routing protocol. The LEACH routing protocol transmits sensor data by measuring the energy of sensors and allocating sensor groups dynamically. However, these sensor networks have vulnerabilities such as key leakage, eavesdropping, replay attack and relay attack, given the nature of wireless network communication. A large number of security techniques have been studied in order to solve these vulnerabilities. Nonetheless, these studies still cannot support the dynamic sensor group allocation of the LEACH routing protocol. Furthermore, they are not suitable for the sensor nodes whose hardware computing ability and energy resources are limited. Therefore, this paper proposed a group sensor communication protocol that utilizes only the four fundamental arithmetic operations and logical operation for the sensor node authentication and secure data transmission. Through the security analysis, this paper verified that the proposed scheme was secure to the vulnerabilities resulting from the nature of wireless network communication. Moreover, this paper verified through the performance analysis that the proposed scheme could be utilized efficiently.

  13. Exploring the Influence of Student Focus Groups in Their Professional and Personal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S.; Hut, R.

    2014-12-01

    A scientific career is often more than a 9-to-5 commitment, both in terms of time and passion. An important factor that fuels this passion is engaging with the community on many levels. In the history of education and professional development, there are numerous studies that emphasis the importance of surrounding groups and like-minded peers in one's professional and personal development in a less constrained environment. In our experience, in modern days where students are surrounded with too much information and yet too little clear signal, the idea of mentor and advisor can no longer limit to one or two people. We strongly feel it is imperative to have the opportunity to share expertise on scientific issues, career options, develop presenting and writing skills, participate in professional volunteer activities with alike and advanced colleagues, share future opportunities, and successfully navigating life both inside and outside of graduate school in a relaxed environment. Most of the professional scientific and engineering communities put a lot of effort to create and maintain professional groups in masters and Ph.D. levels but the dynamics within these groups prove it to be very different and it is challenging to maintain both momentum and productivity. Authors of this report would present their experience in creating, running and maintaining various student groups in the discipline of physics, astronomy, planetary science, hydrology, and optical engineering in US, Europe and Middle East. The common factors and differences based on the supportive community, location, and the educational level would be discussed. An outline of potential helpful factors within the academic institutes and professional communities would be presented based on the examination on various successful and unsuccessful experiences.

  14. Theories in Developing Oral Communication for Specific Learner Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Marham Jupri

    2016-01-01

    The current article presents some key theories most relevant to the development of oral communication skills in an Indonesian senior high school. Critical analysis on the learners' background is employed to figure out their strengths and weaknesses. The brief overview of the learning context and learners' characteristic are used to identify which…

  15. Developing Intercultural Competence in Multilingual and Multicultural Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Internationalization and intercultural competence are key issues in higher education institutions across the globe. In times of accelerating globalization, intercultural competence emerges as one of the most desirable graduate capabilities for those who are likely to work in international environments. This article focuses on the development of…

  16. Wireless Spectrum Research & Development Senior Steering Group's Testbed Information Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This application contains a list of Federal R&D sites that are available for public-private collaborative research efforts in the field of spectrum and wireless...

  17. Social, Mental, Academic and Physical Development in Groups Doing Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas, Kazim; Temel, Veysel; Akpinar, Selahattin; Akpinar, Oznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show whether sport has an effect on education/academic success and social, mental and physical development or not. The search involves 160 students studying at Physical Education and Sports High School at Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University. Graded quintet likert type questionnaire was used as a measuring means. The first…

  18. NASBE Study Group Surveys State Leadership Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bobbi; Hull, Robert

    2015-01-01

    State board members, working in partnership with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted an in-depth study of states' school leadership development policies and practices. Data from this study are being analyzed to determine ways that states can create systems and structures for…

  19. The effect of team dynamics on software development process improvement

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Rory V.; Basri, Shuib

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed This article identifies the effect of team dynamics in the context of software development teams and its impact on software process improvement (SPI) activities in very small companies, in order to understand the relationship between these two variables. Most software development work is done by teams of software engineers working together in a collaborative manner to execute a software development process. Although there is much literature examining software proc...

  20. Small Group Dynamics and the Watergate Coverup: A Case Study of Groupthink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Rebecca J.

    The decisions President Richard Nixon and his closest advisors made in the Watergate coverup were products of what Irving Janis calls "groupthink." Groupthink, a type of decision-making emphasizing unanimity over objective evaluation, develops when the decision makers (1) form a group of marked cohesiveness, (2) insulate themselves from…

  1. HIERARCHICAL ACCESS CONTROL IN DYNAMIC PEER GROUPS USING SYMMETRIC POLYNOMIAL AND TREE BASED GROUP ELLIPTIC CURVE DIFFIE HELLMAN SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Begum Jeddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical Access Control in group communication is an active area of research which is difficult to achieve it. Its primary objective is to allow users of a higher authority group to access information or resource held by lower group users and preventing the lower group users to access information held by higher class users. Large collection of collaborative applications in organizations inherently has hierarchical structures for functioning, where providing security by efficient group key management is a big challenging issue. While preserving centralized methods for hierarchical access control, it is difficult to achieve efficiency as a single membership change will result in lot of changes which are difficult to maintain. So, using distributed key agreement techniques is more appropriate for this scenario. This study explore on novel group key agreement approach, which combines both the symmetric polynomial scheme and Tree Based Group elliptic Curve key exchange. Also, it yields a secure protocol suite that is good in fault-tolerant and simple. The efficiency of SP-TGECDH is better than many other schemes. Using TGECDH makes the scheme suitable small Low powered devices.

  2. Impact of weather on dynamics of plant functional groups in an abandoned limestone grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Dzwonko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined to what extend the rate and direction of changes in unmanaged grassland depend on fluctuations in climatic conditions. Vegetation data from permanent plots in a semi-natural grassland in southern Poland collected over 12 years were used. Relations between weather variables, time, and the cover of 41 more frequent species and 14 plant functional groups were analysed. The greatest effect on the dynamics of species and functional groups had precipitation in spring and/or early summer, particularly in the current year. The majority of plant groups were significantly affected also by the temperature in spring and early summer in one of the three previous years. During 12 years, the cover of annuals and biennials, short plants, and plants with small leaves decreased, while the cover of taller plants, plants with larger leaves, and with vegetative spread increased. The analyses suggest that these successional changes were not directly associated with climatic conditions but were affected by them indirectly through interspecific competition. The fluctuations in climatic conditions, chiefly precipitation, had a significant effect on both the composition and the rate of changes in abandoned grassland. The increase in the cover of tall perennial species with broad leaves hindered succession towards woodland despite of the presence of woods in the closed vicinity. It can be expected that during drier periods colonisation of grassland by later successional species could be easier.

  3. Mitochondrial dynamics in neuronal injury, development and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Kyle H; Strack, Stefan

    2017-02-15

    Mitochondria fulfill numerous cellular functions including ATP production, Ca(2+) buffering, neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation, ROS production and sequestration, apoptosis and intermediate metabolism. Mitochondrial dynamics, a collective term for the processes of mitochondrial fission, fusion and transport, governs mitochondrial function and localization within the cell. Correct balance of mitochondrial dynamics is especially important in neurons as mutations in fission and fusion enzymes cause peripheral neuropathies and impaired development of the nervous system in humans. Regulation of mitochondrial dynamics is partly accomplished through post-translational modification of mitochondrial fission and fusion enzymes, in turn influencing mitochondrial bioenergetics and transport. The importance of post-translational regulation is highlighted by numerous neurodegenerative disorders associated with post-translational modification of the mitochondrial fission enzyme Drp1. Not surprisingly, mitochondrial dynamics also play an important physiological role in the development of the nervous system and synaptic plasticity. Here, we highlight recent findings underlying the mechanisms and regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in relation to neurological disease, as well as the development and plasticity of the nervous system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Dynamic simulation for effective workforce management in new product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mutingi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective planning and management of workforce for new product development (NPD projects is a great challenge to many organisations, especially in the presence of engineering changes during the product development process. The management objective in effective workforce management is to recruit, develop and deploy the right people at the right place at the right time so as to fulfill organizational objectives. In this paper, we propose a dynamic simulation model to address the workforce management problem in a typical NPD project consisting of design, prototyping, and production phases. We assume that workforce demand is a function of project work remaining and the current available skill pool. System dynamics simulation concepts are used to capture the causality relationships and feedback loops in the workforce system from a systems thinking. The evaluation of system dynamics simulation reveals the dynamic behaviour in NPD workforce management systems and shows how adaptive dynamic recruitment and training decisions can effectively balance the workforce system during the NPD process.

  5. Development of the Chalmers Grouped Actinide Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halleröd Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several solvents for Grouped ActiNide EXtraction (GANEX processes have been investigated at Chalmers University of Technology in recent years. Four different GANEX solvents; cyclo-GANEX (CyMe4- -BTBP, 30 vol.% tri-butyl phosphate (TBP and cyclohexanone, DEHBA-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 20 vol.% N,N-di-2(ethylhexyl butyramide (DEHBA and cyclohexanone, hexanol-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and hexanol and FS-13-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and phenyl trifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13 have been studied and the results are discussed and compared in this work. The cyclohexanone based solvents show fast and high extraction of the actinides but a somewhat poor diluent stability in contact with the acidic aqueous phase. FS-13-GANEX display high separation factors between the actinides and lanthanides and a good radiolytic and hydrolytic stability. However, the distribution ratios of the actinides are lower, compared to the cyclohexanone based solvents. The hexanol-GANEX is a cheap solvent system using a rather stable diluent but the actinide extraction is, however, comparatively low.

  6. Dynamic simulation of sustainable farm development scenarios using cognitive modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuzhyk Kateryna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation of sustainable farm development scenarios using cognitive modeling. The paper presents a dynamic simulation system of sustainable development scenarios on farms using cognitive modeling. The system incorporates relevant variables which affect the sustainable development of farms. Its user provides answers to strategic issues connected with the level of farm sustainability over a long-term perspective of dynamic development. The work contains a description of the model structure as well as the results of simulations carried out on 16 farms in northern Ukraine. The results show that the process of sustainability is based mainly on the potential for innovation in agricultural production and biodiversity. The user is able to simulate various scenarios for the sustainable development of a farm and visualize the influence of factors on the economic and social situation, as well as on environmental aspects. Upon carrying out a series of simulations, it was determined that the development of farms characterized by sustainable development is based on additional profit, which serves as the main motivation for transforming a conventional farm into a sustainable one. Nevertheless, additional profit is not the only driving force in the system of sustainable development. The standard of living, market condition, and legal regulations as well as government support also play a significant motivational role.

  7. Dynamic two-stage mechanism of versatile DNA damage recognition by xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Flurina C.; Camenisch, Ulrike; Fei, Jia; Kaczmarek, Nina; Mathieu, Nadine [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zuerich-Vetsuisse, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Naegeli, Hanspeter, E-mail: naegelih@vetpharm.uzh.ch [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zuerich-Vetsuisse, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-01

    The recognition and subsequent repair of DNA damage are essential reactions for the maintenance of genome stability. A key general sensor of DNA lesions is xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein, which recognizes a wide variety of helix-distorting DNA adducts arising from ultraviolet (UV) radiation, genotoxic chemicals and reactive metabolic byproducts. By detecting damaged DNA sites, this unique molecular sensor initiates the global genome repair (GGR) pathway, which allows for the removal of all the aforementioned lesions by a limited repertoire of excision factors. A faulty GGR activity causes the accumulation of DNA adducts leading to mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, neurological degeneration and other traits of premature aging. Recent findings indicate that XPC protein achieves its extraordinary substrate versatility by an entirely indirect readout strategy implemented in two clearly discernible stages. First, the XPC subunit uses a dynamic sensor interface to monitor the double helix for the presence of non-hydrogen-bonded bases. This initial screening generates a transient nucleoprotein intermediate that subsequently matures into the ultimate recognition complex by trapping undamaged nucleotides in the abnormally oscillating native strand, in a way that no direct contacts are made between XPC protein and the offending lesion itself. It remains to be elucidated how accessory factors like Rad23B, centrin-2 or the UV-damaged DNA-binding complex contribute to this dynamic two-stage quality control process.

  8. Many-body localization in one dimension as a dynamical renormalization group fixed point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosk, Ronen; Altman, Ehud

    2013-02-08

    We formulate a dynamical real space renormalization group (RG) approach to describe the time evolution of a random spin-1/2 chain, or interacting fermions, initialized in a state with fixed particle positions. Within this approach we identify a many-body localized state of the chain as a dynamical infinite randomness fixed point. Near this fixed point our method becomes asymptotically exact, allowing analytic calculation of time dependent quantities. In particular, we explain the striking universal features in the growth of the entanglement seen in recent numerical simulations: unbounded logarithmic growth delayed by a time inversely proportional to the interaction strength. This is in striking contrast to the much slower entropy growth as loglogt found for noninteracting fermions with bond disorder. Nonetheless, even the interacting system does not thermalize in the long time limit. We attribute this to an infinite set of approximate integrals of motion revealed in the course of the RG flow, which become asymptotically exact conservation laws at the fixed point. Hence we identify the many-body localized state with an emergent generalized Gibbs ensemble.

  9. Intra-Party Dynamics and the Political Transformation of Non-State Armed Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Dudouet

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although non-state armed groups are primary stakeholders in contemporary political conflicts, there has been little research into their members’ perspectives on internal factors shaping radicalisation and de-radicalisation. State and international actors often assume that bringing rebel leaders to the negotiating table or “converting” them to peaceful politicians means weakening, splitting, or dismantling militant structures. This paper re-evaluates those assumptions in the light of rebel leaders’ own accounts of internal organisational dynamics before, during, and after political conflicts and peace settlements. Participatory action research with “insider experts” from armed movements in Northern Ireland, Kosovo, Nepal, Aceh, El Salvador, Colombia, and South Africa reveals insiders’ analysis of leadership and organisational dynamics during armed conflict and political talks and highlights the rational decision-making process whereby proactive leaders constantly (reassess and adjust their tactics (from unarmed to armed and vice versa as the strategic environment evolves. Horizontal and vertical communication between members is critical for enabling collective ownership of transformation processes from violent insurgency to peaceful transition and preventing internal splits and disaffection during peace negotiations. The claim that rebel organisations should be dismantled as quickly as possible during peace processes is found to be dubious, highlighting instead the importance of retaining cohesive coordination and communication structures during volatile post-war transitions.

  10. Dynamics of Social Group Competition: Modeling the Decline of Religious Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel M.; Yaple, Haley A.; Wiener, Richard J.

    2011-08-01

    When social groups compete for members, the resulting dynamics may be understandable with mathematical models. We demonstrate that a simple ordinary differential equation (ODE) model is a good fit for religious shift by comparing it to a new international data set tracking religious nonaffiliation. We then generalize the model to include the possibility of nontrivial social interaction networks and examine the limiting case of a continuous system. Analytical and numerical predictions of this generalized system, which is robust to polarizing perturbations, match those of the original ODE model and justify its agreement with real-world data. The resulting predictions highlight possible causes of social shift and suggest future lines of research in both physics and sociology.

  11. Renormalization group improvement and dynamical breaking of symmetry in a supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, A. G.; Ferrari, A. F.; Lehum, A. C.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the consequences of the Renormalization Group Equation (RGE) in the determination of the effective superpotential and the study of Dynamical Symmetry Breaking (DSB) in an N = 1 supersymmetric theory including an Abelian Chern-Simons superfield coupled to N scalar superfields in (2 + 1) dimensional spacetime. The classical Lagrangian presents scale invariance, which is broken by radiative corrections to the effective superpotential. We calculate the effective superpotential up to two-loops by using the RGE and the beta functions and anomalous dimensions known in the literature. We then show how the RGE can be used to improve this calculation, by summing up properly defined series of leading logs (LL), next-to-leading logs (NLL) contributions, and so on... We conclude that even if the RGE improvement procedure can indeed be applied in a supersymmetric model, the effects of the consideration of the RGE are not so dramatic as it happens in the non-supersymmetric case.

  12. FLOCKING OF MULTI-AGENT DYNAMIC SYSTEMS WITH GUARANTEED GROUP CONNECTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoli LI; Yugeng XI

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates distributed flocking problem where the information exchange among agents is modeled by the communication topology changing with time. Previous research on this problem establishes group stabilization by assuming that the dynamic topology is connected all the time, which however cannot be guaranteed by most proposed distributed control laws. In this paper, a distributed algorithm to distill a necessary subgraph of the initial communication topology is presented.This subgraph covers all the vertices of the communication topology and is proved to be connected as long as the initial communication topology is connected. A distributed control law is then designed to pursue the flocking motion while preserving all the edges in this subgraph. In this way, connectivity can be preserved all the time, and flocking problem is thus solved only provided the initial communication topology of multi-agent system is connected.

  13. Dynamics of dry matter synthesis during corn development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latković Dragana S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of mineral nutrition and combinations of mineral and organic nutrients on the dynamics of vegetative mass development in corn have been examined in a long-term stationary trial. The dynamics was monitored per phenological stage and per plant part. The obtained results showed that the dynamics of dry matter accumulation changed in dependence of development stage and nutrition variant. Smallest gains in dry matter in all stages under study were obtained in the control variant. Highest gains were obtained in the variants which combined mineral nutrition and manuring. The smallest gain of dry matter, 7.22% of the dry matter accumulated at full maturity, was registered at the seven-leaf stage.

  14. 40 CFR 52.823 - PM10 State Implementation Plan Development in Group II Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Development in Group II Areas. 52.823 Section 52.823 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... State Implementation Plan Development in Group II Areas. The Iowa Department of Natural Resources...: Three groups within the State of Iowa have been classified as Group II areas for fine particulate...

  15. The Dynamics of Hope and Motivations in Groups Working on Complex Societal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Andersson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a study of how participants’ sense of personal hope and motivation was affected by a facilitated process in which four groups of people worked on different complex social issues. The group interventions were designed to scaffold increased understanding of the complexity of the chosen issue. A method called The Integral Process for Working on Complex Issues was used in all of the groups. Issues addressed in the four groups were: neighborhood deterioration, lack of community engagement, the need for better strategies for communication between rescue service actors in critical life-and-death situations, and transition to a more environmentally sustainable city. The study investigated the participants’ self-reported changes in their levels of hope regarding the possibility of achieving positive results on the selected issue, and changes in their motivation to engage in work to that end. The data were gathered through interviews with individual group participants before and after the group process. The sessions supported group members to develop more awareness of the complexity of the issues, and to develop strategies for action. The study indicates that the discovery of new potential pathways to manage an issue, through a more comprehensive understanding of the complexity involved, was a key factor influencing levels of hope and motivation. Reports from participants showed that when the participants formulated concrete actions that made sense to them, then “particularized hope” emerged, as well as motivation to continue to engage. Thus, increased levels of hope about a delimited part of the issue were reported, while in some cases, participants reported having less hope about the issue complex as a whole.

  16. Japanese wind energy development policy: Grand plan or group think?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Scott Victor, E-mail: scott.valentine@nus.edu.sg [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-11-15

    This paper analyzes Japan's national power generation strategy with a view to explaining Japan's phlegmatic approach to wind energy development. The analysis concludes that Japan's current power generation strategy is not optimized to achieve the government's three strategic energy objectives of simultaneously enhancing economic security, national energy security and environmental security (3Es). To achieve long-run energy sustainability, Japan needs to strive to phase out nuclear power, which is the centerpiece of its current power generation strategy. The analysis concludes by offering four suggestions for a sustainable 3E power generation strategy: (1) internalize all external costs associated with power generation technologies in order to level the economic playing field, (2) increase feed-in mandates for renewable energy to 20%, (3) fully liberalize the power generation industry and (4) intensify R and D in energy storage technologies to support intermittent renewable technologies.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF SULCI & GYRI AT DIFFERENT FOETAL AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The human nervous system is the most complex, widely investigated and yet poorly understood physical system known to mankind. The study of the development of human brain in utero is possible with investigations like ultrasound scanning and magnetic resonance imaging during pregnancy. At what week of gestation which part of brain is forming is known now. Progress of neuronal growth is assessed. It follows a predictable timetable. AIM: The aim is provide certain anatomical standards of neural developmental growth comparing already available imaging studies by physical dissection of fetuses and adult brains. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 50 fetuses (from 20 weeks of gestation and 10 adult brains were dissected, formalin prepared and studied. Weight and volume also recorded. OBSERVATIONS: Are tabulated. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: Results are comparable with results of imaging studies.

  18. Analysis of Uncertainty in Dynamic Processes Development of Banks Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei V. Korovyakovskii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers the approach to measure of uncertainty estimation in dynamic processes of banks functioning, using statistic data of different banking operations indicators. To calculate measure of uncertainty in dynamic processes of banks functioning the phase images of relevant sets of statistic data are considered. Besides, it is shown that the form of phase image of the studied sets of statistic data can act as a basis of measure of uncertainty estimation in dynamic processes of banks functioning. The set of analytical characteristics are offered to formalize the form of phase image definition of the studied sets of statistic data. It is shown that the offered analytical characteristics consider inequality of changes in values of the studied sets of statistic data, which is one of the ways of uncertainty display in dynamic processes development. The invariant estimates of measure of uncertainty in dynamic processes of banks functioning, considering significant changes in absolute values of the same indicators for different banks were obtained. The examples of calculation of measure of uncertainty in dynamic processes of concrete banks functioning were cited.

  19. Designing Logistic Information Platform to Fostering Development Trend in China Automobile Manufacturing Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yue

    2009-01-01

    The logistics resource in China's automobile group can't be optimized and allocated because of the "information island" problem in the group's logistics information platform in the whole group. In addition, it is the development trend of China's automobile group LIN to build a logistics e - market in the range of the group.

  20. Dynamic Development in Speaking versus Writing in Identical Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, HuiPing; Verspoor, Marjolijn; Vahtrick, Louisa

    2015-01-01

    Taking a dynamic usage-based perspective, this longitudinal case study compares the development of sentence complexity in speaking versus writing in two beginner Taiwanese learners of English (identical twins) in an extensive corpus consisting of 100 oral and 100 written texts of approximately 200 words produced by each twin over 8 months. Three…

  1. Introduction: Second Language Development as a Dynamic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bot, Kees

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution, some of the basic characteristics of complex adaptive systems, collectively labeled Dynamic Systems Theory (DST), are discussed. Such systems are self-organizing, dependent on initial conditions, sometimes chaotic, and they show emergent properties. The focus in DST is on development over time. Language is seen as a dynamic…

  2. Dynamic sensory-motor oscillation and cerebral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Giampaolo

    2010-11-01

    Drawing from Freud's Project, the author proposes a model of cerebral development whose sensory-motor structure is defined by a frontal-occipital oscillatory dynamic with a twofold function: the oscillation explains the formation and maintenance of mother-infant attunement in cerebral growth, while, at the same time, also explaining the functioning of the projective-introjective dynamic at the basis of psychoanalytic theory. The oscillatory dynamic, according to this perspective, operates as a "bridge" between two seminal theoretical models of developments--the psychoanalytic and the infant research model--which, in turn, leads to the formulation of some neurological hypotheses on how oscillation regulates the elaboration of maternal interaction in the infant's brain, and how the mother may act to modify it. The paper discusses how the oscillatory dynamic offers an innovative framework for the reconceptualization of the development of mentalization, the function of mirror neurons, and, most interestingly, of the development of language, explaining the non-verbal properties of ordinary linguistic communication and the function of oscillation in the regulation of information exchange processing.

  3. A dynamic study of explosive cyclogeneses developments over the ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永刚; 孙成志; 吕美仲; 欧阳子济

    2001-01-01

    A diagnostic analysis of two explosive cyclogeneses and one general cyclone over the Northwest Pacific Ocean in 1979 is presented by potential vorticity and E-P flux. The analysis results demonstrate that main dynamic mechanism of explosive cyclogenesis development is upper-layer forcing action and large condensation latent heatproduced by lower-layer aqueous vapour transportation.

  4. A Dynamic Systems Theory Model of Visual Perception Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a model for understanding the development of visual perception from a dynamic systems theory perspective. It contrasts to a hierarchical or reductionist model that is often found in the occupational therapy literature. In this proposed model vision and ocular motor abilities are not foundational to perception, they are seen…

  5. Effect of group walking traffic on dynamic properties of pedestrian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabpoor, E.; Pavic, A.; Racic, V.; Zivanovic, S.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of reported vibration serviceability problems in newly built pedestrian structures, such as footbridges and floors, under walking load has attracted considerable attention in the civil engineering community over the past two decades. The key design challenges are: the inter- and intra-subject variability of walking people, the unknown mechanisms of their interaction with the vibrating walking surfaces and the synchronisation between individuals in a group. Ignoring all or some of these factors makes the current design methods an inconsistent approximation of reality. This often leads to considerable over- or under-estimation of the structural response, yielding an unreliable assessment of vibration performance. Changes to the dynamic properties of an empty structure due to the presence of stationary people have been studied extensively over the past two decades. The understanding of the similar effect of walking people on laterally swaying bridges has improved tremendously in the past decade, due to considerable research prompted by the Millennium Bridge problem. However, there is currently a gap in knowledge about how moving pedestrians affect the dynamic properties of vertically vibrating structures. The key reason for this gap is the scarcity of credible experimental data pertinent to moving pedestrians on vertically vibrating structures, especially for multi-pedestrian traffic. This paper addresses this problem by studying the dynamic properties of the combined human-structure system, i.e. occupied structure damping ratio, natural frequency and modal mass. This was achieved using a comprehensive set of frequency response function records, measured on a full-scale test structure, which was occupied by various numbers of moving pedestrians under different walking scenarios. Contrary to expectations, it was found that the natural frequency of the joint moving human-structure system was higher than that of the empty structure, while it was

  6. Development of a solid propellant viscoelastic dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufferd, W. L.; Fitzgerald, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a one year study to develop a dynamic response model for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) propellant are presented. An extensive literature survey was conducted, from which it was concluded that the only significant variables affecting the dynamic response of the SRM propellant are temperature and frequency. Based on this study, and experimental data on propellants related to the SRM propellant, a dynamic constitutive model was developed in the form of a simple power law with temperature incorporated in the form of a modified power law. A computer program was generated which performs a least-squares curve-fit of laboratory data to determine the model parameters and it calculates dynamic moduli at any desired temperature and frequency. Additional studies investigated dynamic scaling laws and the extent of coupling between the SRM propellant and motor cases. It was found, in agreement with other investigations, that the propellant provides all of the mass and damping characteristics whereas the case provides all of the stiffness.

  7. 40 CFR 52.1423 - PM10 State implementation plan development in group II areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... development in group II areas. 52.1423 Section 52.1423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Nebraska § 52.1423 PM10 State implementation plan development in group II areas. The state of Nebraska... classified as Group II areas for the purpose of PM10 State Implementation Plan (SIP) development....

  8. Dynamics of human foveal development after premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Ramiro S; O'Connell, Rachelle V; Sarin, Neeru; Freedman, Sharon F; Wallace, David K; Cotten, C Michael; Winter, Katrina P; Stinnett, Sandra; Chiu, Stephanie J; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina; Toth, Cynthia A

    2011-12-01

    To determine the dynamic morphologic development of the human fovea in vivo using portable spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Prospective, observational case series. Thirty-one prematurely born neonates, 9 children, and 9 adults. Sixty-two neonates were enrolled in this study. After examination for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), SD-OCT imaging was performed at the bedside in nonsedated infants aged 31 to 41 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (= gestational age in weeks + chronologic age) and at outpatient follow-up ophthalmic examinations. Thirty-one neonates met eligibility criteria. Nine children and nine adults without ocular pathology served as control groups. Semiautomatic retinal layer segmentation was performed. Central foveal thickness, foveal to parafoveal (FP) ratio (central foveal thickness divided by thickness 1000 μm from the foveal center), and 3-dimensional thickness maps were analyzed. In vivo determination of foveal morphology, layer segmentation, analysis of subcellular changes, and spatiotemporal layer shifting. In contrast with the adult fovea, several signs of immaturity were observed in the neonates: a shallow foveal pit, persistence of inner retinal layers (IRLs), and a thin photoreceptor layer (PRL) that was thinnest at the foveal center. Three-dimensional mapping showed displacement of retinal layers out of the foveal center as the fovea matured and the progressive formation of the inner/outer segment band in the opposite direction. The FP-IRL ratios decreased as IRL migrated before term and minimally after that, whereas FP-PRL ratios increased as PRL subcellular elements formed closer to term and into childhood. A surprising finding was the presence of cystoid macular edema in 58% of premature neonates that appeared to affect inner foveal maturation. This study provides the first view into the development of living cellular layers of the human retina and of subcellular specialization at the fovea in premature infant eyes

  9. Group Dynamics as a Critical Component of Successful Space Exploration: Conceptual Theory and Insights from the Biosphere 2 Closure Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Allen, John P.

    As space exploration and eventually habitation achieves longer durations, successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups will become vital. The paper summarizes important underlying research and conceptual theory and how these manifested in a well-documented example: the closure experiments of Biosphere 2. Key research breakthroughs in discerning the operation of small human groups comes from the pioneering work of W.R. Bion. He discovered two competing modalities of behavior. The first is the “task-oriented” or work group governed by shared acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time, resources and rational, and intelligent management of challenges presented. The opposing, usually unconscious, modality is what Bion called the “basic-assumption” group and alternates between three “group animal” groups: dependency/kill the leader; fight/flight and pairing. If not dealt with, these dynamics work to undermine and defeat the conscious task group’s goal achievement. The paper discusses crew training and selection, various approaches to structuring the work and hierarchy of the group, the importance of contact with a larger population through electronic communication and dealing with the “us-them” syndrome frequently observed between crew and Mission Control. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 is drawn on in new ways to illustrate vicissitudes and management of group dynamics especially as both the inside team of biospherians and key members of Mission Control had training in working with group dynamics. Insights from that experience may help mission planning so that future groups in space cope successfully with inherent group dynamics challenges that arise.

  10. A Dynamically Driven, Universal Thermal Profile of Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Groups and clusters of galaxies show a universal, nearly linear entropy radial profile $K(r)$. Using deprojected 13 clusters and 9 groups from the literature, we find that $K(r)\\propto r^{0.97\\pm0.01}$, consistent with the mean power-law index $\\sim(0.9-1.1)$ of previous studies. An equally good fit to the data is given by a $(t_{cool}/t_{ff})\\propto r^{0.73\\pm0.01}$ ratio between cooling and free-fall times. Both profiles slightly flatten at small radii, as $(t_{cool}/t_{ff})$ becomes of order unity. The entropy profile is usually attributed to the primordial gas crossing the virial shock, to non-standard heat conduction, or to turbulent heating. We argue that a dynamical mechanism is needed to sustain such a simple profile, oblivious to the temperature peak at the edge of the core and to the virial shock at the outskirts, and robust to the presence of ongoing cooling, merger, and AGN activity. In particular, we show that such a profile is naturally obtained in a spiral flow, which is likely to exist in most...

  11. Intuitionistic Trapezoidal Fuzzy Group Decision-Making Based on Prospect Choquet Integral Operator and Grey Projection Pursuit Dynamic Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahang Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the interaction among attributes and the influence of decision makers’ risk attitude, this paper proposes an intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy aggregation operator based on Choquet integral and prospect theory. With respect to a multiattribute group decision-making problem, the prospect value functions of intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are aggregated by the proposed operator; then a grey relation-projection pursuit dynamic cluster method is developed to obtain the ranking of alternatives; the firefly algorithm is used to optimize the objective function of projection for obtaining the best projection direction of grey correlation projection values, and the grey correlation projection values are evaluated, which are applied to classify, rank, and prefer the alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is taken in the present study to make the proposed method comprehensible.

  12. Dynamical Systems Method and Applications Theoretical Developments and Numerical Examples

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrates the application of DSM to solve a broad range of operator equations The dynamical systems method (DSM) is a powerful computational method for solving operator equations. With this book as their guide, readers will master the application of DSM to solve a variety of linear and nonlinear problems as well as ill-posed and well-posed problems. The authors offer a clear, step-by-step, systematic development of DSM that enables readers to grasp the method's underlying logic and its numerous applications. Dynamical Systems Method and Applications begins with a general introduction and

  13. A Framework for Exploring the Dynamics of Autonomous Work Groups in Manufacturing Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; W; K; Chan; W; B; Lee

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, new paradigm of enterprise organization i s constantly changing due to the emergence of the global marketplace, the rise of information technology, and the emphasis of the social developments. This re quires a more flexible form of organization that are more adaptable to rapid cha nges in business environment such as autonomous work groups (AWGs) in order to achieve higher productivity and effectiveness. AWGs are work units responsib le for the production of goods and the provision of servi...

  14. Assessing group dynamics by individual radio satellites in the Mars-500 project

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes, Bernd; Sitev, A. S.; Vinokhodova, A. G.; Salnitski, V.P.; Savchenko, Eduardo; Artyukhova, Anna; Bubeev, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    In a methodological feasibility experiment a wireless group structure (WLGS) monitor system was developed and tested during the Mars500 project. Twice a week each crew member brought a small short-distance radio satellite registering the presence of any other sensor in-room in five second intervals during the wake time. Six satellites were additionally attached to the wall of the simulator’s main compartments. The time being together was registered as well as the signal amplitude providing an...

  15. How Stuttering Develops: The Multifactorial Dynamic Pathways Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Weber, Christine

    2017-09-18

    We advanced a multifactorial, dynamic account of the complex, nonlinear interactions of motor, linguistic, and emotional factors contributing to the development of stuttering. Our purpose here is to update our account as the multifactorial dynamic pathways theory. We review evidence related to how stuttering develops, including genetic/epigenetic factors; motor, linguistic, and emotional features; and advances in neuroimaging studies. We update evidence for our earlier claim: Although stuttering ultimately reflects impairment in speech sensorimotor processes, its course over the life span is strongly conditioned by linguistic and emotional factors. Our current account places primary emphasis on the dynamic developmental context in which stuttering emerges and follows its course during the preschool years. Rapid changes in many neurobehavioral systems are ongoing, and critical interactions among these systems likely play a major role in determining persistence of or recovery from stuttering. Stuttering, or childhood onset fluency disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins when neural networks supporting speech, language, and emotional functions are rapidly developing. The multifactorial dynamic pathways theory motivates experimental and clinical work to determine the specific factors that contribute to each child's pathway to the diagnosis of stuttering and those most likely to promote recovery.

  16. Developing cohesion in court-mandated group treatment of male spouse abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Reuben N

    2003-07-01

    Cohesion in group treatment of spouse abusers plays an important and often overlooked role. Involuntary abuser groups can benefit from cohesion, but due to their unique structure, cohesion may develop differently than in voluntary psychotherapy groups. Initially, abuser groups may develop premature levels of cohesion that can make group members unwilling to express conflict, develop intimacy, and take responsibility for their actions. Understanding the abuser personality and the unique characteristics of involuntary abuser groups can shed light on why cohesion develops the way it does and the importance it plays in abuser groups. Developing effective interventions that target premature cohesion can help the group members express conflict, develop intimacy, and take responsibility for their actions, thus bringing about therapeutic levels of cohesion.

  17. Transcriptome dynamics during human erythroid differentiation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yadong; Wang, Hai; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Qu, Hongzhu; Zhang, Zhaojun; Xiong, Qian; Qi, Heyuan; Cui, Peng; Lin, Qiang; Ruan, Xiuyan; Yang, Yaran; Li, Yajuan; Shu, Chang; Li, Quanzhen; Wakeland, Edward K; Yan, Jiangwei; Hu, Songnian; Fang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms controlling erythroid differentiation and development, we analyzed the genome-wide transcription dynamics occurring during the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) into the erythroid lineage and development of embryonic to adult erythropoiesis using high throughput sequencing technology. HESCs and erythroid cells at three developmental stages: ESER (embryonic), FLER (fetal), and PBER (adult) were analyzed. Our findings revealed that the number of expressed genes decreased during differentiation, whereas the total expression intensity increased. At each of the three transitions (HESCs-ESERs, ESERs-FLERs, and FLERs-PBERs), many differentially expressed genes were observed, which were involved in maintaining pluripotency, early erythroid specification, rapid cell growth, and cell-cell adhesion and interaction. We also discovered dynamic networks and their central nodes in each transition. Our study provides a fundamental basis for further investigation of erythroid differentiation and development, and has implications in using ESERs for transfusion product in clinical settings.

  18. Setting development goals using stochastic dynamical system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolis, Stamatios C.; Bali Swain, Ranjula; Sumpter, David J. T.

    2017-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme was an ambitious attempt to encourage a globalised solution to important but often-overlooked development problems. The programme led to wide-ranging development but it has also been criticised for unrealistic and arbitrary targets. In this paper, we show how country-specific development targets can be set using stochastic, dynamical system models built from historical data. In particular, we show that the MDG target of two-thirds reduction of child mortality from 1990 levels was infeasible for most countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the MDG targets were not ambitious enough for fast-developing countries such as Brazil and China. We suggest that model-based setting of country-specific targets is essential for the success of global development programmes such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This approach should provide clear, quantifiable targets for policymakers. PMID:28241057

  19. Setting development goals using stochastic dynamical system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Shyam; Nicolis, Stamatios C; Bali Swain, Ranjula; Sumpter, David J T

    2017-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme was an ambitious attempt to encourage a globalised solution to important but often-overlooked development problems. The programme led to wide-ranging development but it has also been criticised for unrealistic and arbitrary targets. In this paper, we show how country-specific development targets can be set using stochastic, dynamical system models built from historical data. In particular, we show that the MDG target of two-thirds reduction of child mortality from 1990 levels was infeasible for most countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the MDG targets were not ambitious enough for fast-developing countries such as Brazil and China. We suggest that model-based setting of country-specific targets is essential for the success of global development programmes such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This approach should provide clear, quantifiable targets for policymakers.

  20. Dynamic virtual fixture on the Euclidean group for admittance-type manipulator in deforming environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongwen; Zhu, Qingsong; Xiong, Jing; Wang, Lei

    2014-04-27

    In a deforming anatomic environment, the motion of an instrument suffers from complex geometrical and dynamic constraints, robot assisted minimally invasive surgery therefore requires more sophisticated skills for surgeons. This paper proposes a novel dynamic virtual fixture (DVF) to enhance the surgical operation accuracy of admittance-type medical robotics in the deforming environment. A framework for DVF on the Euclidean Group SE(3) is presented, which unites rotation and translation in a compact form. First, we constructed the holonomic/non-holonomic constraints, and then searched for the corresponded reference to make a distinction between preferred and non-preferred directions. Second, different control strategies are employed to deal with the tasks along the distinguished directions. The desired spatial compliance matrix is synthesized from an allowable motion screw set to filter out the task unrelated components from manual input, the operator has complete control over the preferred directions; while the relative motion between the surgical instrument and the anatomy structures is actively tracked and cancelled, the deviation relative to the reference is compensated jointly by the operator and DVF controllers. The operator, haptic device, admittance-type proxy and virtual deforming environment are involved in a hardware-in-the-loop experiment, human-robot cooperation with the assistance of DVF controller is carried out on a deforming sphere to simulate beating heart surgery, performance of the proposed DVF on admittance-type proxy is evaluated, and both human factors and control parameters are analyzed. The DVF can improve the dynamic properties of human-robot cooperation in a low-frequency (0 ~ 40 rad/sec) deforming environment, and maintain synergy of orientation and translation during the operation. Statistical analysis reveals that the operator has intuitive control over the preferred directions, human and the DVF controller jointly control the

  1. Uncovering the dynamics of interaction in development cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe; Lundsgaarde, Erik; Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe

    constellations, relationships and ideas. Specifically, it addresses the extent to which the commonly-used binary concepts of development cooperation provider groups adequately capture relevant distinctions among the actors and add analytical value to research on development cooperation. The paper advocates...... adopting more analytically and conceptually diverse approaches to study the interaction between heterogeneous development actors and homogenising forces in the field of development cooperation, recognising the complexity and (dis)continuities of stability and change in this arena....

  2. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  3. The Town Effect: Dynamic Interaction between a Group of Structures and Waves in the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2010-11-01

    In a conventional approach, the mechanical behaviour of a structure subjected to seismic or blast waves is treated separately from its surroundings, and in many cases, the dynamic coupling effect between multiple structures and the waves propagating in the ground is disregarded. However, if many structures are built densely in a developed urban area, this dynamic interaction may not become negligible. The first purpose of this contribution is to briefly show the effect of multiple interactions between waves and surface buildings in a town. The analysis is based on a recently developed, fully coupled, rigorous mathematical study, and for simplicity, each building in the town is represented by a rigid foundation, a mass at the top and an elastic spring that connects the foundation and mass. The buildings stand at regular spatial intervals on a linear elastic half-space and are subjected to two-dimensional anti-plane vibrations. It is found that the buildings in this model significantly interact with each other through the elastic ground, and the resonant (eigen) frequencies of the collective system (buildings or town) become lower than that of a single building with the same rigid foundation. This phenomenon may be called the “town effect” or “city effect.” Then, second, it is shown that the actual, unique structural damage pattern caused by the 1976 Friuli, Italy, earthquake may better be explained by this “town effect,” rather than by investigating the seismic performance of each damaged building individually. The results suggest that it may also be possible to evaluate the physical characteristics of incident seismic/blast waves “inversely” from the damage patterns induced to structures by the waves.

  4. Dynamic Mechanism for Development of Urban and Rural Spatial Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lufeng; DUAN

    2014-01-01

    The space is a place where human beings conduct social and economic activities,and also the carrier of any public living form and right action. Urban area and rural area are two integral parts of regional economic system. Without joint and coordinated development of urban and rural areas,it is impossible to realize global optimization of economy and maximization of social welfare. Through study of dynamic mechanism for development of urban and rural spatial integration,it is expected to understand laws,mechanism and means of urban and rural spatial structure evolution,so as to better promote sustainable development of urban and rural population,resources and environment.

  5. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  6. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  7. Real-Time Station Grouping under Dynamic Traffic for IEEE 802.11ah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Le; Khorov, Evgeny; Latré, Steven; Famaey, Jeroen

    2017-07-04

    RAW grouping under dynamic traffic in real time, which is a major leap towards applying RAW mechanism in real-life IoT networks.

  8. A brief introduction to the Nonlinear Atmospheric Dynamics Research Group in the State Key Laboratory of LASG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@Nonlinear atmospheric dynamics is an interdisciplinary branch of atmospheric sciences,geophysical fluid dynamics and nonlinear sciences.As a basis for numerical weather prediction and short-term climate predication,it is a frontier of rapidly developing atmospheric sciences in recent years.

  9. Development of a transfer function method for dynamic stability measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.

    1977-01-01

    Flutter testing method based on transfer function measurements is developed. The error statistics of several dynamic stability measurement methods are reviewed. It is shown that the transfer function measurement controls the error level by averaging the data and correlating the input and output. The method also gives a direct estimate of the error in the response measurement. An algorithm is developed for obtaining the natural frequency and damping ratio of low damped modes of the system, using integrals of the transfer function in the vicinity of a resonant peak. Guidelines are given for selecting the parameters in the transfer function measurement. Finally, the dynamic stability measurement technique is applied to data from a wind tunnel test of a proprotor and wing model.

  10. Dynamical mean-field theory and path integral renormalisation group calculations of strongly correlated electronic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmann, D.B.

    2007-02-15

    The two-plane HUBBARD model, which is a model for some electronic properties of undoped YBCO superconductors as well as displays a MOTT metal-to-insulator transition and a metal-to-band insulator transition, is studied within Dynamical Mean-Field Theory using HIRSCH-FYE Monte Carlo. In order to find the different transitions and distinguish the types of insulator, we calculate the single-particle spectral densities, the self-energies and the optical conductivities. We conclude that there is a continuous transition from MOTT to band insulator. In the second part, ground state properties of a diagonally disordered HUBBARD model is studied using a generalisation of Path Integral Renormalisation Group, a variational method which can also determine low-lying excitations. In particular, the distribution of antiferromagnetic properties is investigated. We conclude that antiferromagnetism breaks down in a percolation-type transition at a critical disorder, which is not changed appreciably by the inclusion of correlation effects, when compared to earlier studies. Electronic and excitation properties at the system sizes considered turn out to primarily depend on the geometry. (orig.)

  11. Dynamic renormalization group study of a generalized continuum model of crystalline surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerno, Rodolfo; Moro, Esteban

    2002-01-01

    We apply the Nozières-Gallet dynamic renormalization group (RG) scheme to a continuum equilibrium model of a d-dimensional surface relaxing by linear surface tension and linear surface diffusion, and which is subject to a lattice potential favoring discrete values of the height variable. The model thus interpolates between the overdamped sine-Gordon model and a related continuum model of crystalline tensionless surfaces. The RG flow predicts the existence of an equilibrium roughening transition only for d=2 dimensional surfaces, between a flat low-temperature phase and a rough high-temperature phase in the Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) universality class. The surface is always in the flat phase for any other substrate dimensions d>2. For any value of d, the linear surface diffusion mechanism is an irrelevant perturbation of the linear surface tension mechanism, but may induce long crossovers within which the scaling properties of the linear molecular-beam epitaxy equation are observed, thus increasing the value of the sine-Gordon roughening temperature. This phenomenon originates in the nonlinear lattice potential, and is seen to occur even in the absence of a bare surface tension term. An important consequence of this is that a crystalline tensionless surface is asymptotically described at high temperatures by the EW universality class.

  12. Efficient traffic grooming with dynamic ONU grouping for multiple-OLT-based access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizong; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Wang, Hongxiang

    2015-12-01

    Fast bandwidth growth urges large-scale high-density access scenarios, where the multiple Passive Optical Networking (PON) system clustered deployment can be adopted as an appropriate solution to fulfill the huge bandwidth demands, especially for a future 5G mobile network. However, the lack of interaction between different optical line terminals (OLTs) results in part of the bandwidth resources waste. To increase the bandwidth efficiency, as well as reduce bandwidth pressure at the edge of a network, we propose a centralized flexible PON architecture based on Time- and Wavelength-Division Multiplexing PON (TWDM PON). It can provide flexible affiliation for optical network units (ONUs) and different OLTs to support access network traffic localization. Specifically, a dynamic ONU grouping algorithm (DGA) is provided to obtain the minimal OLT outbound traffic. Simulation results show that DGA obtains an average 25.23% traffic gain increment under different OLT numbers within a small ONU number situation, and the traffic gain will increase dramatically with the increment of the ONU number. As the DGA can be deployed easily as an application running above the centralized control plane, the proposed architecture can be helpful to improve the network efficiency for future traffic-intensive access scenarios.

  13. Wind turbine control systems: Dynamic model development using system identification and the fast structural dynamics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, J.G.; Wright, A.D.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1996-10-01

    Mitigating the effects of damaging wind turbine loads and responses extends the lifetime of the turbine and, consequently, reduces the associated Cost of Energy (COE). Active control of aerodynamic devices is one option for achieving wind turbine load mitigation. Generally speaking, control system design and analysis requires a reasonable dynamic model of {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} (i.e., the system being controlled). This paper extends the wind turbine aileron control research, previously conducted at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), by presenting a more detailed development of the wind turbine dynamic model. In prior research, active aileron control designs were implemented in an existing wind turbine structural dynamics code, FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence). In this paper, the FAST code is used, in conjunction with system identification, to generate a wind turbine dynamic model for use in active aileron control system design. The FAST code is described and an overview of the system identification technique is presented. An aileron control case study is used to demonstrate this modeling technique. The results of the case study are then used to propose ideas for generalizing this technique for creating dynamic models for other wind turbine control applications.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics. [numerical methods and algorithm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This collection of papers was presented at the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Conference held at Ames Research Center in California on March 12 through 14, 1991. It is an overview of CFD activities at NASA Lewis Research Center. The main thrust of computational work at Lewis is aimed at propulsion systems. Specific issues related to propulsion CFD and associated modeling will also be presented. Examples of results obtained with the most recent algorithm development will also be presented.

  15. Attributes and Dynamic Development Phases of Informal ICT Consortia

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlmann, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical analyses about informal consortia are not yet able to entirely illustrate the informal standard setting landscape. This paper tries to provide a broad and comprehensive picture of informal standards consortia and their dynamic development in the past ten years. Analyses show that consortia have distinct characteristics which help to position and explain their existence in the standard setting context. Furthermore the observation of consortia survival identifies relat...

  16. The dynamics of democracy, development and cultural values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaiser, Viktoria; Ranganathan, Shyam; Mann, Richard P; Sumpter, David J T

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades many countries have experienced rapid changes in their economies, their democratic institutions and the values of their citizens. Comprehensive data measuring these changes across very different countries has recently become openly available. Between country similarities suggest common underlying dynamics in how countries develop in terms of economy, democracy and cultural values. We apply a novel Bayesian dynamical systems approach to identify the model which best captures the complex, mainly non-linear dynamics that underlie these changes. We show that the level of Human Development Index (HDI) in a country drives first democracy and then higher emancipation of citizens. This change occurs once the countries pass a certain threshold in HDI. The data also suggests that there is a limit to the growth of wealth, set by higher emancipation. Having reached a high level of democracy and emancipation, societies tend towards equilibrium that does not support further economic growth. Our findings give strong empirical evidence against a popular political science theory, known as the Human Development Sequence. Contrary to this theory, we find that implementation of human-rights and democratisation precede increases in emancipative values.

  17. Group dynamics of zebra and wildebeest in a woodland savanna: effects of predation risk and habitat density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Thaker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group dynamics of gregarious ungulates in the grasslands of the African savanna have been well studied, but the trade-offs that affect grouping of these ungulates in woodland habitats or dense vegetation are less well understood. We examined the landscape-level distribution of groups of blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and Burchell's zebra, Equus burchelli, in a predominantly woodland area (Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa; KGR to test the hypothesis that group dynamics are a function of minimizing predation risk from their primary predator, lion, Panthera leo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using generalized linear models, we examined the relative importance of habitat type (differing in vegetation density, probability of encountering lion (based on utilization distribution of all individual lions in the reserve, and season in predicting group size and composition. We found that only in open scrub habitat, group size for both ungulate species increased with the probability of encountering lion. Group composition differed between the two species and was driven by habitat selection as well as predation risk. For both species, composition of groups was, however, dominated by males in open scrub habitats, irrespective of the probability of encountering lion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Distribution patterns of wildebeest and zebra groups at the landscape level directly support the theoretical and empirical evidence from a range of taxa predicting that grouping is favored in open habitats and when predation risk is high. Group composition reflected species-specific social, physiological and foraging constraints, as well as the importance of predation risk. Avoidance of high resource open scrub habitat by females can lead to loss of foraging opportunities, which can be particularly costly in areas such as KGR, where this resource is limited. Thus, landscape-level grouping dynamics are species specific and particular to the

  18. Nest-Gallery Development and Caste Composition of Isolated Foraging Groups of the Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khoirul Himmi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An X-ray computed-tomographic examination of nest-gallery development from timbers naturally infested by foraging groups of Incisitermes minor colonies was conducted. This study documents the colonization process of I. minor to new timbers and how the isolated groups maintain their nest-gallery system. The results suggested that development of a nest-gallery within a suitable wood item is not random, but shows selection for softer substrate and other adaptations to the different timber environments. Stigmergic coordinations were expressed in dynamic changes of the nest-gallery system; indicated by fortification behavior in sealing and re-opening a tunnel approaching the outer edge of the timber, and accumulating fecal pellets in particular chambers located beneath the timber surface. The study also examines the caste composition of isolated groups to discover how I. minor sustains colonies with and without primary reproductives.

  19. Nest-Gallery Development and Caste Composition of Isolated Foraging Groups of the Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmi, S Khoirul; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Yanase, Yoshiyuki; Oya, Masao; Torigoe, Toshiyuki; Akada, Masanori; Imadzu, Setsuo

    2016-07-22

    An X-ray computed-tomographic examination of nest-gallery development from timbers naturally infested by foraging groups of Incisitermes minor colonies was conducted. This study documents the colonization process of I. minor to new timbers and how the isolated groups maintain their nest-gallery system. The results suggested that development of a nest-gallery within a suitable wood item is not random, but shows selection for softer substrate and other adaptations to the different timber environments. Stigmergic coordinations were expressed in dynamic changes of the nest-gallery system; indicated by fortification behavior in sealing and re-opening a tunnel approaching the outer edge of the timber, and accumulating fecal pellets in particular chambers located beneath the timber surface. The study also examines the caste composition of isolated groups to discover how I. minor sustains colonies with and without primary reproductives.

  20. Collective Decision Dynamics in Group Evacuation: Modeling Tradeoffs and Optimal Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Schlesinger, Kimberly J; Ali, Imtiaz; Carlson, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying uncertainties in collective human behavior and decision making is crucial for ensuring public health and safety, enabling effective disaster response, informing the design of transportation and communication networks, and guiding the development of new technologies. However, modeling and predicting such behavior is notoriously difficult, due to the influence of a variety of complex factors such as the availability and uncertainty of information, the interaction and influence of social groups and networks, the degree of risk or time pressure involved in a situation, and differences in individual personalities and preferences. Here, we develop a stochastic model of human decision making to describe the empirical behavior of subjects in a controlled experiment simulating a natural disaster scenario. We compare the observed behavior to that of statistically optimal Bayesian decision makers, quantifying the extent to which human decisions are optimal and identifying the conditions in which sub-optimal ...

  1. Investigating the Nonlinear Dynamics of Emerging and Developed Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Guhathakurta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial time-series has been of interest of many statisticians and financial experts. Understanding the characteristic features of a financial-time series has posed some difficulties because of its quasi-periodic nature. Linear statistics can be applied to a periodic time series, but since financial time series is non-linear and non-stationary, analysis of its quasi periodic characteristics is not entirely possible with linear statistics. Thus, the study of financial series of stock market still remains a complex task having its specific requirements. In this paper keeping in mind the recent trends and developments in financial time series studies, we want to establish if there is any significant relationship existing between trading behavior of developing and developed markets. The study is conducted to draw conclusions on similarity or differences between developing economies, developed economies, developing-developed economy pairs. We take the leading stock market indices dataset for the past 15 years in those markets to conduct the study. First we have drawn probability distribution of the dataset to see if any graphical similarity exists. Then we perform quantitative techniques to test certain hypotheses. Then we proceed to implement the Ensemble Empirical Mode Distribution technique to draw out amplitude and phase of movement of index value each data set to compare at granular level of detail. Our findings lead us to conclude that the nonlinear dynamics of emerging markets and developed markets are not significantly different. This could mean that increasing cross market trading and involvement of global investment has resulted in narrowing the gap between emerging and developed markets. From nonlinear dynamics perspective we find no reason to distinguish markets into emerging and developed any more.

  2. At your own risk : The importance of group dynamics and peer processes in adolescent peer groups for adolescents’ involvement in risk behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattiselanno, Kim Lianne

    2016-01-01

    During adolescence peers become increasingly important to the social and emotional development of adolescents. Peer groups form one of the most important settings where adolescents socialize, find social support, and feel connected and accepted. However, these groups also form a context where

  3. Dynamical decimation renormalization-group technique: kinetic gaussian model on nonbranching, branching, and multibranching koch curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu; Yang

    2000-06-01

    A generalizing formulation of dynamical real-space renormalization that is appropriate for arbitrary spin systems is suggested. The alternative version replaces single-spin flipping Glauber dynamics with single-spin transition dynamics. As an application, in this paper we mainly investigate the critical slowing down of the Gaussian spin model on three fractal lattices, including nonbranching, branching, and multibranching Koch curves. The dynamical critical exponent z is calculated for these lattices using an exact decimation renormalization transformation in the assumption of the magneticlike perturbation, and a universal result z=1/nu is found.

  4. Repetitive motor behavior: further characterization of development and temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, Amber M; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Duerr, Isaac; Lewis, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders, common in related neurodevelopmental disorders, and normative in typical development. In order to identify factors that mediate repetitive behavior development, it is necessary to characterize the expression of these behaviors from an early age. Extending previous findings, we characterized further the ontogeny of stereotyped motor behavior both in terms of frequency and temporal organization in deer mice. A three group trajectory model provided a good fit to the frequencies of stereotyped behavior across eight developmental time points. Group based trajectory analysis using a measure of temporal organization of stereotyped behavior also resulted in a three group solution. Additionally, as the frequency of stereotyped behavior increased with age, the temporal distribution of stereotyped responses became increasingly regular or organized indicating a strong association between these measures. Classification tree and principal components analysis showed that accurate classification of trajectory group could be done with fewer observations. This ability to identify trajectory group membership earlier in development allows for examination of a wide range of variables, both experiential and biological, to determine their impact on altering the expected trajectory of repetitive behavior across development. Such studies would have important implications for treatment efforts in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  5. Dynamic behaviour of human neuroepithelial cells in the developing forebrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Lakshmi; Bershteyn, Marina; Paredes, Mercedes F.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.

    2017-01-01

    To understand how diverse progenitor cells contribute to human neocortex development, we examined forebrain progenitor behaviour using timelapse imaging. Here we find that cell cycle dynamics of human neuroepithelial (NE) cells differ from radial glial (RG) cells in both primary tissue and in stem cell-derived organoids. NE cells undergoing proliferative, symmetric divisions retract their basal processes, and both daughter cells regrow a new process following cytokinesis. The mitotic retraction of the basal process is recapitulated by NE cells in cerebral organoids generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. In contrast, RG cells undergoing vertical cleavage retain their basal fibres throughout mitosis, both in primary tissue and in older organoids. Our findings highlight developmentally regulated changes in mitotic behaviour that may relate to the role of RG cells to provide a stable scaffold for neuronal migration, and suggest that the transition in mitotic dynamics can be studied in organoid models. PMID:28139695

  6. The dynamics of software development project management: An integrative systems dynamic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervelde, W. E.; Abdel-Hamid, T.

    1984-01-01

    Rather than continuing to focus on software development projects per se, the system dynamics modeling approach outlined is extended to investigate a broader set of issues pertaining to the software development organization. Rather than trace the life cycle(s) of one or more software projects, the focus is on the operations of a software development department as a continuous stream of software products are developed, placed into operation, and maintained. A number of research questions are ""ripe'' for investigating including: (1) the efficacy of different organizational structures in different software development environments, (2) personnel turnover, (3) impact of management approaches such as management by objectives, and (4) the organizational/environmental determinants of productivity.

  7. Developing a New Dynamic Model for Cultural Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Aftab Azari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As it stands, there is a dramatic increase on cultural management studies, although majorities of them are related to ecology, sociology, anthropology. In this case, the present study examined the most important factors in cultural development via cause-effect method. Consequently, the aim of this study is presenting a comprehensive model for cultural development management based on elite opinions. In order to build a community which has been developed based upon the perspective document "developed, moral-based, focused on religious democracy, social justice, legitimate freedoms, human rights and generosity, advance knowledge included, health, activity, responsibility, inspirational, a human being is selected who is the origin of all positive behavioral developments. In this respect, as it is almost impossible to predict the complex, ambiguous and somehow paradoxical behavior of a human being with linear planning, who is capable of playing many different roles in the chronological process, in this survey Vensim DSS is considered as the research software according to its dynamic features. The results focused on the first theory of order in Chaos entitled as Butterfly Effect, proves that it is possible to predict the effects of changes in the cultural development variable until 2025. In addition, according to the simulated model, cultural development is more sensitive than the production process as compared to distribution and consumption processes. However, it shouldn't be ignored the fact that the effect of creativity is institutionalized in the essence of model and according to theories of natural order and order in Chaos; the core of its changes is based on dynamism, development and innovation.

  8. Report of the working group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axinescu, S.; Bartolini, R.; Bazzani, A.; Biagini, M.; Chao, A.; Dragt, A.; Ellison, J.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Freguglia, P.; Hirata, K.; Ng, K.; Oide, K.; Ritson, D.; Schmidt, F.; Scandale, W.; Tazzari, S.; Todesco, E.; Turchetti, G.; Verolino, L.; Wan, W.; Warnock, R.; Yan, Y.

    1997-02-01

    This is a summary of the topics covered on the single particle nonlinear dynamics of particle accelerators. In particular, discussions of calculation tools for analysis of beams in accelerators, current status of understanding the dynamics aperture, and the problem of ripple, effects have been given. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Reflective practice in ESL teacher development groups from practices to principles

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, Thomas SC

    2013-01-01

    Reflective Practise in ESL Teacher Development Groups discusses the concept of reflective practice in ESL teachers using data from a 3-year collaborative partnership in which three ESL teachers in Canada explored their professional development through reflective practice.

  10. Reflective practice in ESL teacher development groups from practices to principles

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, T

    2013-01-01

    Reflective Practise in ESL Teacher Development Groups  discusses the concept of reflective practice in ESL teachers using data from a 3-year collaborative partnership in which three ESL teachers in Canada explored their professional development through reflective practice.

  11. Xinjiang Nonferrous Group Determined Development Thinking and Launched Multiple Copper Lead & Zinc Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>At present, Xinjiang Nonferrous Group is working vigorously to promote public listing and financing work by following the develop-ment thinking of "Three main businesses, three blocks, and multiple shares".

  12. Impact of a group intervention with mothers and babies on child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Oré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact on child development of a group intervention with mothers and their eight-month-old babies from a marginal urban district of Lima. The groups, control and treatment, were randomized and child development was assessed before and after with the BSID-II. The intervention had a general positive impact in the children’s development, but no significant differences were found between both groups in the Mental Development Index or the Psychomotor Development Index. There was a significant effect (p < .05 in two of the BSID-II Behavioral Scale factors.

  13. Planning and managing future space facility projects. [management by objectives and group dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, J. E.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Tanner, T. A.; Helmreich, R. L.; Burgenbauch, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    To learn how ground-based personnel of a space project plan and organize their work and how such planning and organizing relate to work outcomes, longitudinal study of the management and execution of the Space Lab Mission Development Test 3 (SMD 3) was performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A view of the problems likely to arise in organizations and some methods of coping with these problems are presented as well as the conclusions and recommendations that pertain strictly to SMD 3 management. Emphasis is placed on the broader context of future space facility projects and additional problems that may be anticipated. A model of management that may be used to facilitate problem solving and communication - management by objectives (MBO) is presented. Some problems of communication and emotion management that MBO does not address directly are considered. Models for promoting mature, constructive and satisfying emotional relationships among group members are discussed.

  14. Using Electronic Communication Tools in Online Group Activities to Develop Collaborative Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hanan; Ebner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using synchronous and asynchronous communication tools in online group activities to develop collaborative learning skills. An experimental study was implemented on a sample of faculty of education students in Mansoura University. The sample was divided into two groups, a group studied…

  15. The Individual Regulation Component of Group Emotional Intelligence: Measure Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christina Hamme

    2012-01-01

    Counseling work is increasingly conducted in team format. The methods counseling teams use to manage the emotional component of their group life, or their group emotional intelligence, have been proposed as significantly contributing to group member trust, cooperation, and ultimate performance. Item development, exploratory factor analysis, and…

  16. Development and Implementation of a Psychoeducational Group for Ghanaian Adolescents Experiencing Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkyi, Anthony K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents development and informal assessment of a 10-week psychoeducational program designed for 8 adolescent group members experiencing parental divorce in a rural community in Ghana. Group design, cultural considerations, program implementation, and impacts are described. The literature review pertaining to group work as an…

  17. Are Interpersonal Relationships Necessary for Developing Trust in Online Group Projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Christine E.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Morgan, Kari; Williams, Karen C.

    2011-01-01

    Trust between group members has been suggested as an important part of small group work in online classrooms. Developing interpersonal relationships with group members may promote a sense of trust among them; however, research shows mixed results. The current study explored how students' perceptions of the importance of interpersonal relationships…

  18. IMIA Working Group 15 : Technology assessment and quality development in health informatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennip, E.M.S.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The working group on technology assessment and quality development in health informatics was established as a follow-up to the recommendations made at the IMIA-ISTAHC working conference in 1990. The working group was approved by the IMIA General Assembly at Kyoto, September, 1993. The working group

  19. Decision Development in Small Groups I: A Comparison of Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Marshall Scott

    1981-01-01

    Studies the sequence of phases in group decision making. Compares the unitary sequence model, which assumes that all groups follow the same sequence of phases, and the multiple sequence model, which assumes that different groups follow different sequences. Results support the latter model and suggest revisions in current decision development. (PD)

  20. The Individual Regulation Component of Group Emotional Intelligence: Measure Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christina Hamme

    2012-01-01

    Counseling work is increasingly conducted in team format. The methods counseling teams use to manage the emotional component of their group life, or their group emotional intelligence, have been proposed as significantly contributing to group member trust, cooperation, and ultimate performance. Item development, exploratory factor analysis, and…

  1. Investigating the Development of Work-Oriented Groups in an e-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Ping; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated developmental patterns of virtual groups in the e-learning environment. Our findings suggest that for virtual groups formed for the purpose of e-learning, dependency and inclusion characterize the initial stage of group development, as such characteristics reinforce cooperative relationships and help to build a…

  2. An Investigation of Collaboration Processes in an Online Course: How Do Small Groups Develop over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Namsook

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated communication patterns and behavior in problem-solving groups in a graduate online course. An inductive qualitative analysis method was employed to analyze 732 messages that were retrieved from small group forums. The current study identified a temporal pattern of group development was in comparison with existing…

  3. Development of an adolescent inpatient sexual abuse group: application of Lewin's model of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, C R

    1994-01-01

    The development and implementation of an adolescent sexual abuse group on an inpatient psychiatric unit is described. Steps of Kurt Lewin's model of change are used as a framework for this planned change. Specific issues concerning group procedure and process are detailed. Recommendations for this group and broader use of the Lewin model are included.

  4. The development of collective personality: the ontogenetic drivers of behavioral variation across groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Bengston

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the past decade, the study of personality has become a topic on the frontier of behavioral ecology. However, most studies have focused on exploring inter-individual behavioral variation in solitary animals, and few account for the role that social interactions may have on the development of an individual’s personality. Moreover, a social group may exhibit collective personality: an emergent behavioral phenotype displayed at the group-level, which is not necessarily the sum or average of individual personalities within that group. The social environment, in many cases, can determine group success, which then influences the relative success of all the individuals in that group. In addition, group-level personality may itself evolve, subject to the same selection pressures as individual-level behavioral variation, when the group is a unit under selection. Therefore, we reason that understanding how collective personalities emerge and change over time will be imperative to understanding individual- and group-level behavioral evolution.Personality is considered to be fixed over an individual’s lifetime. However, behavior may shift throughout development, particularly during adolescence. Therefore, juvenile behavior should not be compared with adult behavior when assessing personality. Similarly, as conditions within a group and/or the local environment can shift, group behavior may similarly fluctuate as it matures. We discuss potential within-group factors, such as group initiation, group maturation, genetic make-up of the group, and the internal social environment, and external factors, such as well as how local environment may play a role in generating group-level personalities. There are a variety of studies that explore group development or quantify group personality, but few that integrate both processes. Therefore, we conclude by discussing potential ways to evaluate development of collective personality, and propose several focal

  5. Making instruction and assessment responsive to diverse students' progress: group-administered dynamic assessment in teaching mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2011-01-01

    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) × 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control instruction, and (c) standard-control instruction. The assessment-type consisted between subjects of either (a) a group-administered dynamic posttest or (b) the same group-administered posttest interspersed with a control filler activity. Performance in different mathematics content areas taught in fourth grade was investigated. In total, 1,332 students and 63 classroom teachers in 24 schools across six school districts participated in the study. The results indicate the advantages of using dynamic instruction and assessment in regular classrooms while teaching mathematics, especially when the student body is highly ethnically diverse.

  6. Developing the group mind through functional subgrouping: linking systems-centered training (SCT) and interpersonal neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Susan P; Agazarian, Yvonne M

    2010-10-01

    This article introduces the systems-centered concept of the "group mind" by linking systems-centered thinking and interpersonal neurobiology, building on Siegel's definition of mind as the process of regulating the flow of energy and information. Functional subgrouping, the systems-centered group method for resolving conflicts, discriminates and integrates the flow of energy and information within and between group members, subgroups, and the group-as-a-whole, thus potentiating survival, development, and transformation. This article uses the interpersonal neurobiological framework to discuss functional subgrouping as a tool for developing the group mind: considering how functional subgrouping facilitates emotional regulation, creates a secure relational context, and potentiates neural integration.

  7. Methodology Development of a Gas-Liquid Dynamic Flow Regime Transition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doup, Benjamin Casey

    Current reactor safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5, TRACE, and CATHARE, use flow regime maps or flow regime transition criteria that were developed for static fully-developed two-phase flows to choose interfacial transfer models that are necessary to solve the two-fluid model. The flow regime is therefore difficult to identify near the flow regime transitions, in developing two-phase flows, and in transient two-phase flows. Interfacial area transport equations were developed to more accurately predict the dynamic nature of two-phase flows. However, other model coefficients are still flow regime dependent. Therefore, an accurate prediction of the flow regime is still important. In the current work, the methodology for the development of a dynamic flow regime transition model that uses the void fraction and interfacial area concentration obtained by solving three-field the two-fluid model and two-group interfacial area transport equation is investigated. To develop this model, detailed local experimental data are obtained, the two-group interfacial area transport equations are revised, and a dynamic flow regime transition model is evaluated using a computational fluid dynamics model. Local experimental data is acquired for 63 different flow conditions in bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug, and churn-turbulent flow regimes. The measured parameters are the group-1 and group-2 bubble number frequency, void fraction, interfacial area concentration, and interfacial bubble velocities. The measurements are benchmarked by comparing the prediction of the superficial gas velocities, determined using the local measurements with those determined from volumetric flow rate measurements and the agreement is generally within +/-20%. The repeatability four-sensor probe construction process is within +/-10%. The repeatability of the measurement process is within +/-7%. The symmetry of the test section is examined and the average agreement is within +/-5.3% at z/D = 10 and +/-3.4% at z/D = 32

  8. Oxytocin receptor dynamics in the brain across development and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Radhika; Hammock, Elizabeth A D

    2017-02-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) signaling through the OXT receptor plays a significant role in a variety of physiological processes throughout the lifespan. OXT's effects depend on the tissue distribution of the receptor. This tissue specificity is dynamic and changes across development, and also varies with sex, experience, and species. The purpose of this review is to highlight these themes with examples from several life stages and several species. Important knowledge gaps will also be emphasized. Understanding the effective sites of action for OXT via its receptor will help refine hypotheses about the roles of this important neuropeptide in the experience-dependent development and expression of species-typical social behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 143-157, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Revisiting Group-Based Technology Adoption as a Dynamic Process: The Role of Changing Attitude-Rationale Configurations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayerl, P.S.; Lauche, K.; Axtell, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we set out to better understand the dynamics behind group-based technology adoption by nvestigating the underlying mechanisms of changes in collective adoption decisions over time. Using a longitudinal multi-case study of production teams in the British oil and gas industry, we outli

  10. Revisiting group-based technology adoption as a dynamic process: The role of changing attitude-rationale configurations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayerl, P.S.; Lauche, K.; Axtell, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we set out to better understand the dynamics behind group-based technology adoption by nvestigating the underlying mechanisms of changes in collective adoption decisions over time. Using a longitudinal multi-case study of production teams in the British oil and gas industry, we

  11. Revisiting group-based technology adoption as a dynamic process: The role of changing attitude-rationale configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Bayerl (Saskia); K. Lauche (Kristina); Axtell, C. (Carolyn)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, we set out to better understand the dynamics behind group-based technology adoption by investigating the underlying mechanisms of changes in collective adoption decisions over time. Using a longitudinal multi-case study of production teams in the British oil and gas

  12. An Investigation of Collaboration Processes in an Online Course: How do Small Groups Develop over Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namsook Jahng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated communication patterns and behavior in problem-solving groups in a graduate online course. An inductive qualitative analysis method was employed to analyze 732 messages that were retrieved from small group forums. The current study identified a temporal pattern of group development was in comparison with existing theoretical models: the traditional group development model (Tuckman, 1965; Tuckman & Jensen, 1977 and the punctuated equilibrium model (Gersick, 1988; 1991. All the groups had two working phases and three decision-making points. The temporal pattern of group behavior was close to the phase transition concept of Gersick’s model. Some groups tended to undergo Tuckman’s stages, but their development stages were not necessarily sequential or hierarchical. Thus, it is concluded that Gersick’s model could be more useful for researchers and instructors to better understand and assist online students in problem solving collaborative activities.

  13. Nonequilibrium dynamics of random field Ising spin chains: exact results via real space renormalization group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D S; Le Doussal, P; Monthus, C

    2001-12-01

    The nonequilibrium dynamics of classical random Ising spin chains with nonconserved magnetization are studied using an asymptotically exact real space renormalization group (RSRG). We focus on random field Ising model (RFIM) spin chains with and without a uniform applied field, as well as on Ising spin glass chains in an applied field. For the RFIM we consider a universal regime where the random field and the temperature are both much smaller than the exchange coupling. In this regime, the Imry-Ma length that sets the scale of the equilibrium correlations is large and the coarsening of domains from random initial conditions (e.g., a quench from high temperature) occurs over a wide range of length scales. The two types of domain walls that occur diffuse in opposite random potentials, of the form studied by Sinai, and domain walls annihilate when they meet. Using the RSRG we compute many universal asymptotic properties of both the nonequilibrium dynamics and the equilibrium limit. We find that the configurations of the domain walls converge rapidly toward a set of system-specific time-dependent positions that are independent of the initial conditions. Thus the behavior of this nonequilibrium system is pseudodeterministic at long times because of the broad distributions of barriers that occur on the long length scales involved. Specifically, we obtain the time dependence of the energy, the magnetization, and the distribution of domain sizes (found to be statistically independent). The equilibrium limits agree with known exact results. We obtain the exact scaling form of the two-point equal time correlation function and the two-time autocorrelations . We also compute the persistence properties of a single spin, of local magnetization, and of domains. The analogous quantities for the +/-J Ising spin glass in an applied field are obtained from the RFIM via a gauge transformation. In addition to these we compute the two-point two-time correlation function which can in

  14. Two Group Development Patterns of Virtual Learning Teams: Linear Progression and Adaptive Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung Won

    2006-01-01

    This study examined member behaviors, distribution of performed behaviors, and development-shaping forces in order to identify group development patterns of virtual learning teams. Participants of this study were 7 newly formed virtual learning teams working on a final group project in a 12-week online graduate-level course. Examining the group…

  15. 76 FR 41987 - Interagency Working Group on Coordination of Domestic Energy Development and Permitting in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... an Interagency Working Group on Coordination of Domestic Energy Development and Permitting in Alaska... July 15, 2011 Part V The President Executive Order 13580--Interagency Working Group on Coordination of Domestic Energy Development and Permitting in Alaska #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0;...

  16. 40 CFR 52.935 - PM10 State implementation plan development in group II areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PM10 State implementation plan development in group II areas. 52.935 Section 52.935 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... State implementation plan development in group II areas. On July 7, 1988, the State submitted...

  17. 40 CFR 52.881 - PM10 State implementation plan development in group II areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PM10 State implementation plan development in group II areas. 52.881 Section 52.881 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... State implementation plan development in group II areas. The state has submitted a committal SIP...

  18. 40 CFR 52.63 - PM10 State Implementation Plan development in group II areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PM10 State Implementation Plan development in group II areas. 52.63 Section 52.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... State Implementation Plan development in group II areas. On March 15, 1989, the State submitted...

  19. Professional Co-Development Groups: Addressing the Teacher Training Needs of Social Work Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Valérie; Genest Dufault, Sacha; Châteauvert, Joanie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a professional development initiative organized by two junior university social work teachers. Along with three experienced colleagues, the two teachers experimented with a professional co-development group. The purpose of this group modality, which has much in common with peer supervision, is to reflect on professional…

  20. Development and validation of a global dynamical wetlands extent scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the development of the dynamical wetland extent scheme (DWES and its validation against present day wetland observations. The DWES is a simple, global scale hydrological scheme that solves the water balance of wetlands and estimates their extent dynamically. The extent depends on the balance of water flows in the wetlands and the slope distribution within the grid cells. In contrast to most models, the DWES is not directly calibrated against wetland extent observations. Instead, wetland affected river discharge data are used to optimize global parameters of the model. The DWES is not a complete hydrological model by itself but implemented into the Max Planck Institute – Hydrology Model (MPI-HM. However, it can be transferred into other models as well.

    For present climate, the model validation reveals a good agreement between the occurrence of simulated and observed wetlands on the global scale. The best result is achieved for the northern hemisphere where not only the wetland distribution pattern but also their extent is simulated reasonably well by the DWES. However, the wetland fraction in the tropical parts of South America and Central Africa is strongly overestimated. The simulated extent dynamics correlate well with monthly inundation variations obtained from satellite for most locations. Also, the simulated river discharge is affected by wetlands resulting in a delay and mitigation of peak flows. Compared to simulations without wetlands, we find locally increased evaporation and decreased river flow into the oceans due to the implemented wetland processes.

    In summary, the validation analysis demonstrates the DWES' ability to simulate the global distribution of wetlands and their seasonal variations. Thus, the dynamical wetland extent scheme can provide hydrological boundary conditions for wetland related studies. In future applications, the DWES should be implemented into an earth system model