Nakatani, Naoki; Guo, Sheng
2017-03-01
This paper describes an interface between the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method and the complete active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method and its analytical gradient, as well as an extension to the second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) method. This interfacing allows large active-space multi-reference computations to be easily performed. The interface and its extension are both implemented in terms of reduced density matrices (RDMs) which can be efficiently computed via the DMRG sweep algorithm. We also present benchmark results showing that, in practice, the DMRG-CASSCF calculations scale with active-space size in a polynomial manner in the case of quasi-1D systems. Geometry optimization of a binuclear iron-sulfur cluster using the DMRG-CASSCF analytical gradient is demonstrated, indicating that the inclusion of the valence p-orbitals of sulfur and double-shell d-orbitals of iron lead to non-negligible changes in the geometry compared to the results of small active-space calculations. With the exception of the selection of M values, many computational settings in these practical DMRG calculations have been tuned and black-boxed in our interface, and so the resulting DMRG-CASSCF and DMRG-CASPT2 calculations are now available to novice users as a common tool to compute strongly correlated electronic wavefunctions.
Relativistic field theories have no `sign problem' with DMRG
Weir, David J
2010-01-01
The density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is applied to a relativistic complex scalar field at finite chemical potential. The two-point function and various bulk quantities are studied. It is seen that bulk quantities do not change with the chemical potential until it is larger than the minimum excitation energy. The technical limitations of DMRG for treating bosons in relativistic field theories are discussed. Applications to other relativistic models and to non-topological solitons are also suggested.
Efficient perturbation theory to improve the density matrix renormalization group
Tirrito, Emanuele; Ran, Shi-Ju; Ferris, Andrew J.; McCulloch, Ian P.; Lewenstein, Maciej
2017-02-01
The density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is one of the most powerful numerical methods available for many-body systems. It has been applied to solve many physical problems, including the calculation of ground states and dynamical properties. In this work, we develop a perturbation theory of the DMRG (PT-DMRG) to greatly increase its accuracy in an extremely simple and efficient way. Using the canonical matrix product state (MPS) representation for the ground state of the considered system, a set of orthogonal basis functions {| ψi> } is introduced to describe the perturbations to the ground state obtained by the conventional DMRG. The Schmidt numbers of the MPS that are beyond the bond dimension cutoff are used to define these perturbation terms. The perturbed Hamiltonian is then defined as H˜i j= ; its ground state permits us to calculate physical observables with a considerably improved accuracy compared to the original DMRG results. We benchmark the second-order perturbation theory with the help of a one-dimensional Ising chain in a transverse field and the Heisenberg chain, where the precision of the DMRG is shown to be improved O (10 ) times. Furthermore, for moderate L the errors of the DMRG and PT-DMRG both scale linearly with L-1 (with L being the length of the chain). The linear relation between the dimension cutoff of the DMRG and that of the PT-DMRG at the same precision shows a considerable improvement in efficiency, especially for large dimension cutoffs. In the thermodynamic limit we show that the errors of the PT-DMRG scale with √{L-1}. Our work suggests an effective way to define the tangent space of the ground-state MPS, which may shed light on the properties beyond the ground state. This second-order PT-DMRG can be readily generalized to higher orders, as well as applied to models in higher dimensions.
Prodhan, Suryoday; Ramasesha, S
2016-01-01
Symmetry adapted density matrix renormalization group (SDMRG) technique has been an efficient method for studying low-lying eigenstates in one- and quasi-one dimensional electronic systems. However, SDMRG method had bottlenecks involving construction of linearly independent symmetry adapted basis states as the symmetry matrices in the DMRG basis were not sparse. We have developed a modified algorithm to overcome this bottleneck. The new method incorporates end-to-end interchange symmetry ($C_2$), electron- hole symmetry (J) and parity symmetry (P ) in these calculations. The one-to-one correspondence between direct-product basis states in the DMRG Hilbert space for these symmetry operations renders the symmetry matrices in the new basis with maximum sparseness, just one non-zero matrix element per row. Using methods similar to those employed in exact diagonalization technique for Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) models, developed in the eighties, it is possible to construct orthogonal SDMRG basis states while bypassi...
Signatures of Dirac Cones in a DMRG Study of the Kagome Heisenberg Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yin-Chen He
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on a kagome lattice is one of the most paradigmatic models in the context of spin liquids, yet the precise nature of its ground state is not understood. We use large-scale density matrix renormalization group simulations (DMRG on infinitely long cylinders and find indications for the formation of a gapless Dirac spin liquid. First, we use adiabatic flux insertion to demonstrate that the spin gap is much smaller than estimated from previous DMRG simulation. Second, we find that the momentum-dependent excitation spectrum, as extracted from the DMRG transfer matrix, exhibits Dirac cones that match those of a π-flux free-fermion model [the parton mean-field ansatz of a U(1 Dirac spin liquid].
The Polarizable Embedding Density Matrix Renormalization Group Method
Hedegård, Erik D
2016-01-01
The polarizable embedding (PE) approach is a flexible embedding model where a pre-selected region out of a larger system is described quantum mechanically while the interaction with the surrounding environment is modeled through an effective operator. This effective operator represents the environment by atom-centered multipoles and polarizabilities derived from quantum mechanical calculations on (fragments of) the environment. Thereby, the polarization of the environment is explicitly accounted for. Here, we present the coupling of the PE approach with the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). This PE-DMRG method is particularly suitable for embedded subsystems that feature a dense manifold of frontier orbitals which requires large active spaces. Recovering such static electron-correlation effects in multiconfigurational electronic structure problems, while accounting for both electrostatics and polarization of a surrounding environment, allows us to describe strongly correlated electronic structures ...
DMRG-SCF study of the singlet, triplet, and quintet states of oxo-Mn(Salen)
Wouters, Sebastian; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri
2014-01-01
We use CheMPS2, our free open-source spin-adapted implementation of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) [Wouters et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 185, 1501 (2014)], to study the lowest singlet, triplet, and quintet states of the oxo-Mn(Salen) complex. We describe how an initial approximate DMRG calculation in a large active space around the Fermi level can be used to obtain a good set of starting orbitals for subsequent complete-active-space or DMRG self-consistent field (CASSCF or DMRG-SCF) calculations. This procedure mitigates the need for a localization procedure, followed by a manual selection of the active space. Per multiplicity, the same active space of 28 electrons in 22 orbitals (28e, 22o) is obtained with the 6-31G*, cc-pVDZ, and ANO-RCC-VDZP basis sets (the latter with DKH2 scalar relativistic corrections). Our calculations provide new insight into the electronic structure of the quintet.
DMRG-CASPT2 study of the longitudinal static second hyperpolarizability of all-trans polyenes
Wouters, Sebastian; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri
2016-08-01
We have implemented internally contracted complete active space second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) with the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) as active space solver [Y. Kurashige and T. Yanai, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094104 (2011)]. Internally contracted CASPT2 requires to contract the generalized Fock matrix with the 4-particle reduced density matrix (4-RDM) of the reference wavefunction. The required 4-RDM elements can be obtained from 3-particle reduced density matrices (3-RDM) of different wavefunctions, formed by symmetry-conserving single-particle excitations op top of the reference wavefunction. In our spin-adapted DMRG code chemps2 https://github.com/sebwouters/chemps2, we decompose these excited wavefunctions as spin-adapted matrix product states and calculate their 3-RDM in order to obtain the required contraction of the generalized Fock matrix with the 4-RDM of the reference wavefunction. In this work, we study the longitudinal static second hyperpolarizability of all-trans polyenes C2nH2n+2 [n = 4-12] in the cc-pVDZ basis set. DMRG-SCF and DMRG-CASPT2 yield substantially lower values and scaling with system size compared to RHF and MP2, respectively.
Memory,Time and Technique Aspects of Density Matrix Renormalization Group Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIN Shao-Jin; LOU Ji-Zhong
2001-01-01
We present the memory size,computational time,and technique aspects of density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm.We show how to estimate the memory size and computational time before starting a large scale DMRG calculation.We propose an implementation of the Hamiltonian wavefunction multiplication and a wavefunction initialization in DMRG with block matrix data structure.One-dimensional Heisenberg model is used to illustrate our study.``
Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi
2009-06-01
This article presents an efficient and parallelized implementation of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm for quantum chemistry calculations. The DMRG method as a large-scale multireference electronic structure model is by nature particularly efficient for one-dimensionally correlated systems, while the present development is oriented toward applications for polynuclear transition metal compounds, in which the macroscopic one-dimensional structure of electron correlation is absent. A straightforward extension of the DMRG algorithm is proposed with further improvements and aggressive optimizations to allow its application with large multireference active space, which is often demanded for metal compound calculations. Special efficiency is achieved by making better use of sparsity and symmetry in the operator and wave function representations. By accomplishing computationally intensive DMRG calculations, the authors have found that a large number of renormalized basis states are required to represent high entanglement of the electron correlation for metal compound applications, and it is crucial to adopt auxiliary perturbative correction to the projected density matrix during the DMRG sweep optimization in order to attain proper convergence to the solution. Potential energy curve calculations for the Cr2 molecule near the known equilibrium precisely predicted the full configuration interaction energies with a correlation space of 24 electrons in 30 orbitals [denoted by (24e,30o)]. The energies are demonstrated to be accurate to 0.6mEh (the error from the extrapolated best value) when as many as 10 000 renormalized basis states are employed for the left and right DMRG block representations. The relative energy curves for [Cu2O2]2+ along the isomerization coordinate were obtained from DMRG and other correlated calculations, for which a fairly large orbital space (32e,62o) is modeled as a full correlation space. The DMRG prediction nearly overlaps
Mukhopadhyay, S.; Ramasesha, S.
2009-08-01
We have used the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method to study the linear and nonlinear optical responses of first generation nitrogen based dendrimers with donor acceptor groups. We have employed Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian to model the interacting π electrons in these systems. Within the DMRG method we have used an innovative scheme to target excited states with large transition dipole to the ground state. This method reproduces exact optical gaps and polarization in systems where exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian is possible. We have used a correction vector method which tacitly takes into account the contribution of all excited states, to obtain the ground state polarizibility, first hyperpolarizibility, and two photon absorption cross sections. We find that the lowest optical excitations as well as the lowest excited triplet states are localized. It is interesting to note that the first hyperpolarizibility saturates more rapidly with system size compared to linear polarizibility unlike that of linear polyenes.
Mukhopadhyay, S; Ramasesha, S
2009-08-21
We have used the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method to study the linear and nonlinear optical responses of first generation nitrogen based dendrimers with donor acceptor groups. We have employed Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian to model the interacting pi electrons in these systems. Within the DMRG method we have used an innovative scheme to target excited states with large transition dipole to the ground state. This method reproduces exact optical gaps and polarization in systems where exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian is possible. We have used a correction vector method which tacitly takes into account the contribution of all excited states, to obtain the ground state polarizibility, first hyperpolarizibility, and two photon absorption cross sections. We find that the lowest optical excitations as well as the lowest excited triplet states are localized. It is interesting to note that the first hyperpolarizibility saturates more rapidly with system size compared to linear polarizibility unlike that of linear polyenes.
Guo, Sheng; Hu, Weifeng; Sun, Qiming; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2015-01-01
The strongly-contracted variant of second order N -electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) is an efficient perturbative method to treat dynamic correlation without the problems of intruder states or level shifts, while the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) provides the capability to tackle static correlation in large active spaces. We present a combination of the DMRG and strongly-contracted NEVPT2 (DMRG-SC-NEVPT2) that uses an efficient algorithm to compute high order reduced density matrices from DMRG wave functions. The capabilities of DMRG-SC-NEVPT2 are demonstrated on calculations of the chromium dimer potential energy curve at the basis set limit, and the excitation energies of poly-p-phenylene vinylene(PPV).
The Density Matrix Renormalization Group Method applied to Interaction Round a Face Hamiltonians
1996-01-01
Given a Hamiltonian with a continuous symmetry one can generally factorize that symmetry and consider the dynamics on invariant Hilbert spaces. In statistical mechanics this procedure is known as the vertex-IRF map, and in certain cases, like rotational invariant Hamiltonians, it can be implemented via group theoretical techniques. Using this map we translate the DMRG method, which applies to 1D vertex Hamiltonians, into a formulation adequate to study IRF Hamiltonians. The advantage of the I...
Incommensurate structures studied by a modified Density Matrix Renormalization Group Method
1999-01-01
A modified density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method is introduced and applied to classical two-dimensional models: the anisotropic triangular nearest- neighbor Ising (ATNNI) model and the anisotropic triangular next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model. Phase diagrams of both models have complex structures and exhibit incommensurate phases. It was found that the incommensurate phase completely separates the disordered phase from one of the commensurate phases, i. e. the non-existenc...
DMRG-CASPT2 study of the longitudinal static second hyperpolarizability of all-trans polyenes
Wouters, Sebastian; Van Neck, Dimitri
2016-01-01
We have implemented internally contracted complete active space second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) with the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) as active space solver [Y. Kurashige and T. Yanai, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094104 (2011)]. Internally contracted CASPT2 requires to contract the generalized Fock matrix with the 4-particle reduced density matrix (4-RDM) of the reference wavefunction. The required 4-RDM elements can be obtained from 3-particle reduced density matrices (3-RDM) of different wavefunctions, formed by symmetry-conserving single-particle excitations op top of the reference wavefunction. In our spin-adapted DMRG code chemps2 [https://github.com/sebwouters/chemps2], we decompose these excited wavefunctions as spin-adapted matrix product states, and calculate their 3-RDM in order to obtain the required contraction of the generalized Fock matrix with the 4-RDM of the reference wavefunction. In this work, we study the longitudinal static second hyperpolarizability of all-trans polyenes...
Guo, Sheng; Watson, Mark A; Hu, Weifeng; Sun, Qiming; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2016-04-12
The strongly contracted variant of second-order N-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) is an efficient perturbative method to treat dynamic correlation without the problems of intruder states or level shifts, while the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) provides the capability to address static correlation in large active spaces. We present a combination of the DMRG and strongly contracted NEVPT2 (DMRG-SC-NEVPT2) that uses an efficient algorithm to compute high-order reduced-density matrices from DMRG wave functions. The capabilities of DMRG-SC-NEVPT2 are demonstrated on calculations of the chromium dimer potential energy curve at the basis set limit, and the excitation energies of a trimer model of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV(n = 3)).
Lan, Tran Nguyen; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi
2014-05-13
The density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method is used in conjunction with the complete active space (CAS) procedure, the CAS configuration interaction (CASCI), and the CAS self-consistent field (CASSCF) to evaluate hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs) for a series of diatomic (2)Σ radicals (BO, CO(+), CN, and AlO) and vinyl (C2H3) radical. The electron correlation effects on the computed HFCC values were systematically investigated using various levels of active space, which were increasingly extended from single valence space to large-size model space entailing double valence and at least single polarization shells. In addition, the core correlation was treated by including the core orbitals in active space. Reasonably accurate results were obtained by the DMRG-CASSCF method involving orbital optimization, while DMRG-CASCI calculations with Hartree-Fock orbitals provided poor agreement of the HFCCs with the experimental values. To achieve further insights into the accuracy of HFCC calculations, the orbital contributions to the total spin density were analyzed at a given nucleus, which is directly related to the FC term and is numerically sensitive to the level of correlation treatment and basis sets. The convergence of calculated HFCCs with an increasing number of renormalized states was also assessed. This work serves as the first study on the performance of the ab initio DMRG method for HFCC prediction.
A state interaction spin-orbit coupling density matrix renormalization group method
Sayfutyarova, Elvira R.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2016-06-01
We describe a state interaction spin-orbit (SISO) coupling method using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) wavefunctions and the spin-orbit mean-field (SOMF) operator. We implement our DMRG-SISO scheme using a spin-adapted algorithm that computes transition density matrices between arbitrary matrix product states. To demonstrate the potential of the DMRG-SISO scheme we present accurate benchmark calculations for the zero-field splitting of the copper and gold atoms, comparing to earlier complete active space self-consistent-field and second-order complete active space perturbation theory results in the same basis. We also compute the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the spin-ladder of the iron-sulfur dimer complex [Fe2S2(SCH3)4]3-, determining the splitting of the lowest quartet and sextet states. We find that the magnitude of the zero-field splitting for the higher quartet and sextet states approaches a significant fraction of the Heisenberg exchange parameter.
A state interaction spin-orbit coupling density matrix renormalization group method.
Sayfutyarova, Elvira R; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2016-06-21
We describe a state interaction spin-orbit (SISO) coupling method using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) wavefunctions and the spin-orbit mean-field (SOMF) operator. We implement our DMRG-SISO scheme using a spin-adapted algorithm that computes transition density matrices between arbitrary matrix product states. To demonstrate the potential of the DMRG-SISO scheme we present accurate benchmark calculations for the zero-field splitting of the copper and gold atoms, comparing to earlier complete active space self-consistent-field and second-order complete active space perturbation theory results in the same basis. We also compute the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the spin-ladder of the iron-sulfur dimer complex [Fe2S2(SCH3)4](3-), determining the splitting of the lowest quartet and sextet states. We find that the magnitude of the zero-field splitting for the higher quartet and sextet states approaches a significant fraction of the Heisenberg exchange parameter.
Advanced density matrix renormalization group method for nuclear structure calculations
Legeza, Ö; Poves, A; Dukelsky, J
2015-01-01
We present an efficient implementation of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm that includes an optimal ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals and an efficient expansion of the active space utilizing various concepts of quantum information theory. We first show how this new DMRG methodology could solve a previous $400$ KeV discrepancy in the ground state energy of $^{56}$Ni. We then report the first DMRG results in the $pf+g9/2$ shell model space for the ground $0^+$ and first $2^+$ states of $^{64}$Ge which are benchmarked with reference data obtained from Monte Carlo shell model. The corresponding correlation structure among the proton and neutron orbitals is determined in terms of the two-orbital mutual information. Based on such correlation graphs we propose several further algorithmic improvement possibilities that can be utilized in a new generation of tensor network based algorithms.
Advanced density matrix renormalization group method for nuclear structure calculations
Legeza, Ã.-.; Veis, L.; Poves, A.; Dukelsky, J.
2015-11-01
We present an efficient implementation of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm that includes an optimal ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals and an efficient expansion of the active space utilizing various concepts of quantum information theory. We first show how this new DMRG methodology could solve a previous 400 keV discrepancy in the ground state energy of 56Ni. We then report the first DMRG results in the p f +g 9 /2 shell model space for the ground 0+ and first 2+ states of 64Ge which are benchmarked with reference data obtained from a Monte Carlo shell model. The corresponding correlation structure among the proton and neutron orbitals is determined in terms of two-orbital mutual information. Based on such correlation graphs we propose several further algorithmic improvement possibilities that can be utilized in a new generation of tensor network based algorithms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Zi-Xiang, E-mail: zihu@princeton.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Department of Physics, ChongQing University, ChongQing 400044 (China); Papić, Z.; Johri, S.; Bhatt, R.N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Schmitteckert, Peter [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2012-06-18
We report a systematic study of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) using the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method on two different geometries: the sphere and the cylinder. We provide convergence benchmarks based on model Hamiltonians known to possess exact zero-energy ground states, as well as an analysis of the number of sweeps and basis elements that need to be kept in order to achieve the desired accuracy. The ground state energies of the Coulomb Hamiltonian at ν=1/3 and ν=5/2 filling are extracted and compared with the results obtained by previous DMRG implementations in the literature. A remarkably rapid convergence in the cylinder geometry is noted and suggests that this boundary condition is particularly suited for the application of the DMRG method to the FQHE. -- Highlights: ► FQHE is a two-dimensional physics. ► Density-matrix renormalization group method applied to FQH systems. ► Benchmark study both on sphere and cylinder geometry.
Communication: DMRG-SCF study of the singlet, triplet, and quintet states of oxo-Mn(Salen)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wouters, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastianwouters@gmail.com; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri [Center for Molecular Modelling, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Bogaerts, Thomas [Center for Molecular Modelling, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics and Catalysis, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S3), 9000 Gent (Belgium); Van Der Voort, Pascal [Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics and Catalysis, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S3), 9000 Gent (Belgium)
2014-06-28
We use CHEMPS2, our free open-source spin-adapted implementation of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) [S. Wouters, W. Poelmans, P. W. Ayers, and D. Van Neck, Comput. Phys. Commun. 185, 1501 (2014)], to study the lowest singlet, triplet, and quintet states of the oxo-Mn(Salen) complex. We describe how an initial approximate DMRG calculation in a large active space around the Fermi level can be used to obtain a good set of starting orbitals for subsequent complete-active-space or DMRG self-consistent field calculations. This procedure mitigates the need for a localization procedure, followed by a manual selection of the active space. Per multiplicity, the same active space of 28 electrons in 22 orbitals (28e, 22o) is obtained with the 6-31G{sup *}, cc-pVDZ, and ANO-RCC-VDZP basis sets (the latter with DKH2 scalar relativistic corrections). Our calculations provide new insight into the electronic structure of the quintet.
The Density Matrix Renormalization Group Method and Large-Scale Nuclear Shell-Model Calculations
Dimitrova, S S; Pittel, S; Stoitsov, M V
2002-01-01
The particle-hole Density Matrix Renormalization Group (p-h DMRG) method is discussed as a possible new approach to large-scale nuclear shell-model calculations. Following a general description of the method, we apply it to a class of problems involving many identical nucleons constrained to move in a single large j-shell and to interact via a pairing plus quadrupole interaction. A single-particle term that splits the shell into degenerate doublets is included so as to accommodate the physics of a Fermi surface in the problem. We apply the p-h DMRG method to this test problem for two $j$ values, one for which the shell model can be solved exactly and one for which the size of the hamiltonian is much too large for exact treatment. In the former case, the method is able to reproduce the exact results for the ground state energy, the energies of low-lying excited states, and other observables with extreme precision. In the latter case, the results exhibit rapid exponential convergence, suggesting the great promi...
Wouters, Sebastian; Nakatani, Naoki; Van Neck, Dimitri; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2013-08-01
The similarities between Hartree-Fock (HF) theory and the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) are explored. Both methods can be formulated as the variational optimization of a wave-function Ansatz. Linearization of the time-dependent variational principle near a variational minimum allows to derive the random phase approximation (RPA). We show that the nonredundant parameterization of the matrix product state (MPS) tangent space [J. Haegeman, J. I. Cirac, T. J. Osborne, I. Pižorn, H. Verschelde, and F. Verstraete, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.070601 107, 070601 (2011)] leads to the Thouless theorem for MPS, i.e., an explicit nonredundant parameterization of the entire MPS manifold, starting from a specific MPS reference. Excitation operators are identified, which extends the analogy between HF and DMRG to the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA), the configuration interaction (CI) expansion, and coupled cluster theory. For a small one-dimensional Hubbard chain, we use a CI-MPS Ansatz with single and double excitations to improve on the ground state and to calculate low-lying excitation energies. For a symmetry-broken ground state of this model, we show that RPA-MPS allows to retrieve the Goldstone mode. We also discuss calculations of the RPA-MPS correlation energy. With the long-range quantum chemical Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian, low-lying TDA-MPS and RPA-MPS excitation energies for polyenes are obtained.
Ghosh, Debashree; Hachmann, Johannes; Yanai, Takeshi; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2008-04-01
In previous work we have shown that the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) enables near-exact calculations in active spaces much larger than are possible with traditional complete active space algorithms. Here, we implement orbital optimization with the DMRG to further allow the self-consistent improvement of the active orbitals, as is done in the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method. We use our resulting DMRG-CASSCF method to study the low-lying excited states of the all-trans polyenes up to C24H26 as well as β-carotene, correlating with near-exact accuracy the optimized complete π-valence space with up to 24 active electrons and orbitals, and analyze our results in the light of the recent discovery from resonance Raman experiments of new optically dark states in the spectrum.
Yanai, Takeshi; Saitow, Masaaki; Xiong, Xiao-Gen; Chalupský, Jakub; Kurashige, Yuki; Guo, Sheng; Sharma, Sandeep
2017-09-07
We present the development of the multistate multireference second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) with multi-root references, which are described using the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method to handle a large active space. The multistate first-order wave functions are expanded into the internally contracted (IC) basis of the single-state single-reference (SS-SR) scheme, which is shown to be the most feasible variant to use DMRG references. The feasibility of the SS-SR scheme comes from two factors: first, it formally does not require the fourth-order transition reduced density matrix (TRDM); and second, the computational complexity scales linearly with the number of the reference states. The extended multistate (XMS) treatment is further incorporated, giving suited treatment of the zeroth-order Hamiltonian despite the fact that the SS-SR based IC basis is not invariant with respect the XMS rotation. In addition, the state-specific fourth-order reduced density matrix (RDM) is eliminated in an approximate fashion using the cumulant reconstruction formula, as also done in the previous state-specific DMRG-cu(4)-CASPT2 approach. The resultant method, referred to as DMRG-cu(4)-XMS-CASPT2, uses the RDMs and TRDMs of up to third-order provided by the DMRG calculation. The multistate potential energy curves of the photoisomerization of diarylethene derivatives with CAS(26e,24o) are presented to illustrate the applicability of our theoretical approach.
Hu, Weifeng
2015-01-01
We describe and extend the formalism of state-specific analytic density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) energy gradients, first used by Liu et al (J. Chem. Theor.Comput. 9, 4462 (2013)). We introduce a DMRG wavefunction maximum overlap following technique to facilitate state-specific DMRG excited state optimization. Using DMRG configuration interaction (DMRG-CI) gradients we relax the low-lying singlet states of a series of trans-polyenes up to C20H22. Using the relaxed excited state geometries as well as correlation functions, we elucidate the exciton, soliton, and bimagnon ("single-fission") character of the excited states, and find evidence for a planar conical intersection.
Veis, Libor; Neese, Frank; Legeza, Örs; Pittner, Jiří
2016-01-01
We present an alternative method for accurate treatment of strongly correlated systems which combines the coupled cluster (CC) theory with the density matrix renormalization group method (DMRG). The connection is done in the spirit of the tailored CC method [T. Kinoshita, O. Hino, and R. J. Bartlett, \\textit{J. Chem. Phys.} {\\bf 123} (2005) 074106]. In the first step, the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients corresponding to single and double excitations within the DMRG active space are computed by contraction of the matrix product state (MPS) matrices. These coefficients are subsequently transformed into CC amplitudes. In the second step, the CC amplitudes are used to define a "tailored" single reference CCSD wavefunction. As a result, the DMRG method is responsible for the proper description of non-dynamic correlation, whereas the dynamic correlation is incorporated through the framework of the CC theory. We illustrate the potential of this method on prominent multireference model systems like N$_2$ ...
Vibrational Density Matrix Renormalization Group.
Baiardi, Alberto; Stein, Christopher J; Barone, Vincenzo; Reiher, Markus
2017-08-08
Variational approaches for the calculation of vibrational wave functions and energies are a natural route to obtain highly accurate results with controllable errors. Here, we demonstrate how the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) can be exploited to optimize vibrational wave functions (vDMRG) expressed as matrix product states. We study the convergence of these calculations with respect to the size of the local basis of each mode, the number of renormalized block states, and the number of DMRG sweeps required. We demonstrate the high accuracy achieved by vDMRG for small molecules that were intensively studied in the literature. We then proceed to show that the complete fingerprint region of the sarcosyn-glycin dipeptide can be calculated with vDMRG.
Pižorn, Iztok; Verstraete, Frank
2012-02-10
The numerical renormalization group (NRG) is rephrased as a variational method with the cost function given by the sum of all the energies of the effective low-energy Hamiltonian. This allows us to systematically improve the spectrum obtained by NRG through sweeping. The ensuing algorithm has a lot of similarities to the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) when targeting many states, and this synergy of NRG and DMRG combines the best of both worlds and extends their applicability. We illustrate this approach with simulations of a quantum spin chain and a single impurity Anderson model where the accuracy of the effective eigenstates is greatly enhanced as compared to the NRG, especially in the transition to the continuum limit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harris, Travis V.; Morokuma, Keiji, E-mail: morokuma@fukui.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103 (Japan); Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi [Institute for Molecular Science, 38 Nishigo-Naka, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)
2014-02-07
The applicability of ab initio multireference wavefunction-based methods to the study of magnetic complexes has been restricted by the quickly rising active-space requirements of oligonuclear systems and dinuclear complexes with S > 1 spin centers. Ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods built upon an efficient parameterization of the correlation network enable the use of much larger active spaces, and therefore may offer a way forward. Here, we apply DMRG-CASSCF to the dinuclear complexes [Fe{sub 2}OCl{sub 6}]{sup 2−} and [Cr{sub 2}O(NH{sub 3}){sub 10}]{sup 4+}. After developing the methodology through systematic basis set and DMRG M testing, we explore the effects of extended active spaces that are beyond the limit of conventional methods. We find that DMRG-CASSCF with active spaces including the metal d orbitals, occupied bridging-ligand orbitals, and their virtual double shells already capture a major portion of the dynamic correlation effects, accurately reproducing the experimental magnetic coupling constant (J) of [Fe{sub 2}OCl{sub 6}]{sup 2−} with (16e,26o), and considerably improving the smaller active space results for [Cr{sub 2}O(NH{sub 3}){sub 10}]{sup 4+} with (12e,32o). For comparison, we perform conventional MRCI+Q calculations and find the J values to be consistent with those from DMRG-CASSCF. In contrast to previous studies, the higher spin states of the two systems show similar deviations from the Heisenberg spectrum, regardless of the computational method.
The density matrix renormalization group for ab initio quantum chemistry
Wouters, Sebastian
2014-01-01
During the past 15 years, the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) has become increasingly important for ab initio quantum chemistry. Its underlying wavefunction ansatz, the matrix product state (MPS), is a low-rank decomposition of the full configuration interaction tensor. The virtual dimension of the MPS, the rank of the decomposition, controls the size of the corner of the many-body Hilbert space that can be reached with the ansatz. This parameter can be systematically increased until numerical convergence is reached. The MPS ansatz naturally captures exponentially decaying correlation functions. Therefore DMRG works extremely well for noncritical one-dimensional systems. The active orbital spaces in quantum chemistry are however often far from one-dimensional, and relatively large virtual dimensions are required to use DMRG for ab initio quantum chemistry (QC-DMRG). The QC-DMRG algorithm, its computational cost, and its properties are discussed. Two important aspects to reduce the computational co...
Nocera, A.; Alvarez, G.
2016-11-01
Frequency-dependent correlations, such as the spectral function and the dynamical structure factor, help illustrate condensed matter experiments. Within the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) framework, an accurate method for calculating spectral functions directly in frequency is the correction-vector method. The correction vector can be computed by solving a linear equation or by minimizing a functional. This paper proposes an alternative to calculate the correction vector: to use the Krylov-space approach. This paper then studies the accuracy and performance of the Krylov-space approach, when applied to the Heisenberg, the t-J, and the Hubbard models. The cases studied indicate that the Krylov-space approach can be more accurate and efficient than the conjugate gradient, and that the error of the former integrates best when a Krylov-space decomposition is also used for ground state DMRG.
Nocera, A; Alvarez, G
2016-11-01
Frequency-dependent correlations, such as the spectral function and the dynamical structure factor, help illustrate condensed matter experiments. Within the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) framework, an accurate method for calculating spectral functions directly in frequency is the correction-vector method. The correction vector can be computed by solving a linear equation or by minimizing a functional. This paper proposes an alternative to calculate the correction vector: to use the Krylov-space approach. This paper then studies the accuracy and performance of the Krylov-space approach, when applied to the Heisenberg, the t-J, and the Hubbard models. The cases studied indicate that the Krylov-space approach can be more accurate and efficient than the conjugate gradient, and that the error of the former integrates best when a Krylov-space decomposition is also used for ground state DMRG.
Nguyen Lan, Tran; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi
2015-01-13
We have developed a new computational scheme for high-accuracy prediction of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant (HFCC) of heavy molecules, accounting for the high-level electron correlation effects, as well as the scalar-relativistic effects. For electron correlation, we employed the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method in conjunction with a complete active space model. The orbital-optimization procedure was employed to obtain the optimized orbitals required for accurately determining the isotropic HFCC. For the scalar-relativistic effects, we initially derived and implemented the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) hyperfine coupling operators up to the third order (DKH3) by using the direct transformation scheme. A set of 4d transition-metal radicals consisting of Ag atom, PdH, and RhH2 were chosen as test cases. Good agreement between the isotropic HFCC values obtained from DMRG/DKH3 and experiment was archived. Because there are no available gas-phase values for PdH and RhH2 radicals in the literature, the results from the present high-level theory may serve as benchmark data.
Hu, Weifeng; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2015-07-14
We describe and extend the formalism of state-specific analytic density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) energy gradients, first used by Liu et al. [J. Chem. Theor. Comput. 2013, 9, 4462]. We introduce a DMRG wave function maximum overlap following technique to facilitate state-specific DMRG excited-state optimization. Using DMRG configuration interaction (DMRG-CI) gradients, we relax the low-lying singlet states of a series of trans-polyenes up to C20H22. Using the relaxed excited-state geometries, as well as correlation functions, we elucidate the exciton, soliton, and bimagnon ("single-fission") character of the excited states, and find evidence for a planar conical intersection.
Extending the range of real time density matrix renormalization group simulations
Kennes, D. M.; Karrasch, C.
2016-03-01
We discuss a few simple modifications to time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithms which allow to access larger time scales. We specifically aim at beginners and present practical aspects of how to implement these modifications within any standard matrix product state (MPS) based formulation of the method. Most importantly, we show how to 'combine' the Schrödinger and Heisenberg time evolutions of arbitrary pure states | ψ > and operators A in the evaluation of ψ(t) = . This includes quantum quenches. The generalization to (non-)thermal mixed state dynamics ρ(t) =Tr [ ρA(t) ] induced by an initial density matrix ρ is straightforward. In the context of linear response (ground state or finite temperature T > 0) correlation functions, one can extend the simulation time by a factor of two by 'exploiting time translation invariance', which is efficiently implementable within MPS DMRG. We present a simple analytic argument for why a recently-introduced disentangler succeeds in reducing the effort of time-dependent simulations at T > 0. Finally, we advocate the python programming language as an elegant option for beginners to set up a DMRG code.
Group theoretical methods in Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olmo, M.A. del; Santander, M.; Mateos Guilarte, J.M. (eds.) (Universidad de Valladolid. Facultad de Ciencias. Valladolid (Spain))
1993-01-01
The meeting had 102 papers. These was distributed in following areas: -Quantum groups,-Integrable systems,-Physical Applications of Group Theory,-Mathematical Results,-Geometry, Topology and Quantum Field Theory,-Super physics,-Super mathematics,-Atomic, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Nuclear and Particle Physics,-Symmetry and Foundations of classical and Quantum mechanics.
A Density Matrix Renormalization Group Approach to an Asymptotically Free Model with Bound States
Martín-Delgado, M A
1999-01-01
We apply the DMRG method to the 2 dimensional delta function potential which is a simple quantum mechanical model with asymptotic freedom and formation of bound states. The system block and the environment block of the DMRG contain the low energy and high energy degrees of freedom, respectively. The ground state energy and the lowest excited states are obtained with an unprecedent accuracy. We compare the DMRG method with the Similarity RG method and propose its generalization to field theoretical models in high energy physics.
Roemelt, Michael
2015-07-01
Spin Orbit Coupling (SOC) is introduced to molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In the presented scheme, one first approximates the electronic ground state and a number of excited states of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) Hamiltonian with the aid of the DMRG algorithm. Owing to the spin-adaptation of the algorithm, the total spin S is a good quantum number for these states. After the non-relativistic DMRG calculation is finished, all magnetic sublevels of the calculated states are constructed explicitly, and the SOC operator is expanded in the resulting basis. To this end, spin orbit coupled energies and wavefunctions are obtained as eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the full Hamiltonian matrix which is composed of the SOC operator matrix and the BO Hamiltonian matrix. This treatment corresponds to a quasi-degenerate perturbation theory approach and can be regarded as the molecular equivalent to atomic Russell-Saunders coupling. For the evaluation of SOC matrix elements, the full Breit-Pauli SOC Hamiltonian is approximated by the widely used spin-orbit mean field operator. This operator allows for an efficient use of the second quantized triplet replacement operators that are readily generated during the non-relativistic DMRG algorithm, together with the Wigner-Eckart theorem. With a set of spin-orbit coupled wavefunctions at hand, the molecular g-tensors are calculated following the scheme proposed by Gerloch and McMeeking. It interprets the effective molecular g-values as the slope of the energy difference between the lowest Kramers pair with respect to the strength of the applied magnetic field. Test calculations on a chemically relevant Mo complex demonstrate the capabilities of the presented method.
Nakatani, Naoki; Wouters, Sebastian; Van Neck, Dimitri; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2014-01-14
Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG-LRT) was first presented in terms of the DMRG renormalization projectors [J. J. Dorando, J. Hachmann, and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184111 (2009)]. Later, with an understanding of the manifold structure of the matrix product state (MPS) ansatz, which lies at the basis of the DMRG algorithm, a way was found to construct the linear response space for general choices of the MPS gauge in terms of the tangent space vectors [J. Haegeman, J. I. Cirac, T. J. Osborne, I. Pižorn, H. Verschelde, and F. Verstraete, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 070601 (2011)]. These two developments led to the formulation of the Tamm-Dancoff and random phase approximations (TDA and RPA) for MPS. This work describes how these LRTs may be efficiently implemented through minor modifications of the DMRG sweep algorithm, at a computational cost which scales the same as the ground-state DMRG algorithm. In fact, the mixed canonical MPS form implicit to the DMRG sweep is essential for efficient implementation of the RPA, due to the structure of the second-order tangent space. We present ab initio DMRG-TDA results for excited states of polyenes, the water molecule, and a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster.
Nakatani, Naoki; Wouters, Sebastian; Van Neck, Dimitri; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2014-01-01
Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG-LRT) was first presented in terms of the DMRG renormalization projectors [J. J. Dorando, J. Hachmann, and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184111 (2009)]. Later, with an understanding of the manifold structure of the matrix product state (MPS) ansatz, which lies at the basis of the DMRG algorithm, a way was found to construct the linear response space for general choices of the MPS gauge in terms of the tangent space vectors [J. Haegeman, J. I. Cirac, T. J. Osborne, I. Pižorn, H. Verschelde, and F. Verstraete, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 070601 (2011)]. These two developments led to the formulation of the Tamm-Dancoff and random phase approximations (TDA and RPA) for MPS. This work describes how these LRTs may be efficiently implemented through minor modifications of the DMRG sweep algorithm, at a computational cost which scales the same as the ground-state DMRG algorithm. In fact, the mixed canonical MPS form implicit to the DMRG sweep is essential for efficient implementation of the RPA, due to the structure of the second-order tangent space. We present ab initio DMRG-TDA results for excited states of polyenes, the water molecule, and a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster.
Polarizable Embedding Density Matrix Renormalization Group.
Hedegård, Erik D; Reiher, Markus
2016-09-13
The polarizable embedding (PE) approach is a flexible embedding model where a preselected region out of a larger system is described quantum mechanically, while the interaction with the surrounding environment is modeled through an effective operator. This effective operator represents the environment by atom-centered multipoles and polarizabilities derived from quantum mechanical calculations on (fragments of) the environment. Thereby, the polarization of the environment is explicitly accounted for. Here, we present the coupling of the PE approach with the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). This PE-DMRG method is particularly suitable for embedded subsystems that feature a dense manifold of frontier orbitals which requires large active spaces. Recovering such static electron-correlation effects in multiconfigurational electronic structure problems, while accounting for both electrostatics and polarization of a surrounding environment, allows us to describe strongly correlated electronic structures in complex molecular environments. We investigate various embedding potentials for the well-studied first excited state of water with active spaces that correspond to a full configuration-interaction treatment. Moreover, we study the environment effect on the first excited state of a retinylidene Schiff base within a channelrhodopsin protein. For this system, we also investigate the effect of dynamical correlation included through short-range density functional theory.
Improved Monte Carlo Renormalization Group Method
Gupta, R.; Wilson, K. G.; Umrigar, C.
1985-01-01
An extensive program to analyze critical systems using an Improved Monte Carlo Renormalization Group Method (IMCRG) being undertaken at LANL and Cornell is described. Here we first briefly review the method and then list some of the topics being investigated.
Freitag, Leon; Knecht, Stefan; Angeli, Celestino; Reiher, Markus
2017-02-14
We present a second-order N-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) based on a density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) reference wave function that exploits a Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron repulsion integrals (CD-DMRG-NEVPT2). With a parameter-free multireference perturbation theory approach at hand, the latter allows us to efficiently describe static and dynamic correlation in large molecular systems. We demonstrate the applicability of CD-DMRG-NEVPT2 for spin-state energetics of spin-crossover complexes involving calculations with more than 1000 atomic basis functions. We first assess, in a study of a heme model, the accuracy of the strongly and partially contracted variant of CD-DMRG-NEVPT2 before embarking on resolving a controversy about the spin ground state of a cobalt tropocoronand complex.
Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R
2016-01-01
Current descriptions of the ab initio DMRG algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab-initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational par...
Second-Order Self-Consistent-Field Density-Matrix Renormalization Group.
Ma, Yingjin; Knecht, Stefan; Keller, Sebastian; Reiher, Markus
2017-06-13
We present a matrix-product state (MPS)-based quadratically convergent density-matrix renormalization group self-consistent-field (DMRG-SCF) approach. Following a proposal by Werner and Knowles (J. Chem. Phys. 1985, 82, 5053), our DMRG-SCF algorithm is based on a direct minimization of an energy expression which is correct to second order with respect to changes in the molecular orbital basis. We exploit a simultaneous optimization of the MPS wave function and molecular orbitals in order to achieve quadratic convergence. In contrast to previously reported (augmented Hessian) Newton-Raphson and superconfiguration-interaction algorithms for DMRG-SCF, energy convergence beyond a quadratic scaling is possible in our ansatz. Discarding the set of redundant active-active orbital rotations, the DMRG-SCF energy converges typically within two to four cycles of the self-consistent procedure.
Second-Order Self-Consistent-Field Density-Matrix Renormalization Group
Ma, Yingjin; Keller, Sebastian; Reiher, Markus
2016-01-01
We present a matrix-product state (MPS)-based quadratically convergent density-matrix renormalization group self-consistent-field (DMRG-SCF) approach. Following a proposal by Werner and Knowles (JCP 82, 5053, (1985)), our DMRG-SCF algorithm is based on a direct minimization of an energy expression which is correct to second-order with respect to changes in the molecular orbital basis. We exploit a simultaneous optimization of the MPS wave function and molecular orbitals in order to achieve quadratic convergence. In contrast to previously reported (augmented Hessian) Newton-Raphson and super-configuration-interaction algorithms for DMRG-SCF, energy convergence beyond a quadratic scaling is possible in our ansatz. Discarding the set of redundant active-active orbital rotations, the DMRG-SCF energy converges typically within two to four cycles of the self-consistent procedure
Freitag, Leon; Angeli, Celestino; Reiher, Markus
2016-01-01
We present a second-order N-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) based on a density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) reference wave function that exploits a Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron repulsion integrals (CD-DMRG-NEVPT2). With a parameter-free multireference perturbation theory approach at hand, the latter allows us to efficiently describe static and dynamic correlation in large molecular systems. We demonstrate the applicability of CD-DMRG-NEVPT2 for spin-state energetics of spin-crossover complexes involving calculations with more than 1000 atomic basis functions. We first assess in a study of a heme model the accuracy of the strongly- and partially-contracted variant of CD-DMRG-NEVPT2 before embarking on resolving a controversy about the spin ground state of a cobalt tropocoronand complex.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dayasindhu Dey
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG is a state-of-the-art numerical technique for a one dimensional quantum many-body system; but calculating accurate results for a system with Periodic Boundary Condition (PBC from the conventional DMRG has been a challenging job from the inception of DMRG. The recent development of the Matrix Product State (MPS algorithm gives a new approach to find accurate results for the one dimensional PBC system. The most efficient implementation of the MPS algorithm can scale as O(p x m^3, where p can vary from 4 to m^2. In this paper, we propose a new DMRG algorithm, which is very similar to the conventional DMRG and gives comparable accuracy to that of MPS. The computation effort of the new algorithm goes as O(m^3 and the conventional DMRG code can be easily modified for the new algorithm. Received: 2 August 2016, Accepted: 12 October 2016; Edited by: K. Hallberg; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.080006 Cite as: D Dey, D Maiti, M Kumar, Papers in Physics 8, 080006 (2016
Group Contribution Methods for Phase Equilibrium Calculations.
Gmehling, Jürgen; Constantinescu, Dana; Schmid, Bastian
2015-01-01
The development and design of chemical processes are carried out by solving the balance equations of a mathematical model for sections of or the whole chemical plant with the help of process simulators. For process simulation, besides kinetic data for the chemical reaction, various pure component and mixture properties are required. Because of the great importance of separation processes for a chemical plant in particular, a reliable knowledge of the phase equilibrium behavior is required. The phase equilibrium behavior can be calculated with the help of modern equations of state or g(E)-models using only binary parameters. But unfortunately, only a very small part of the experimental data for fitting the required binary model parameters is available, so very often these models cannot be applied directly. To solve this problem, powerful predictive thermodynamic models have been developed. Group contribution methods allow the prediction of the required phase equilibrium data using only a limited number of group interaction parameters. A prerequisite for fitting the required group interaction parameters is a comprehensive database. That is why for the development of powerful group contribution methods almost all published pure component properties, phase equilibrium data, excess properties, etc., were stored in computerized form in the Dortmund Data Bank. In this review, the present status, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, possible applications, and typical results of the different group contribution methods for the calculation of phase equilibria are presented.
Lectures on the functional renormalization group method
Polonyi, J
2001-01-01
These introductory notes are about functional renormalization group equations and some of their applications. It is emphasised that the applicability of this method extends well beyond critical systems, it actually provides us a general purpose algorithm to solve strongly coupled quantum field theories. The renormalization group equation of F. Wegner and A. Houghton is shown to resum the loop-expansion. Another version, due to J. Polchinski, is obtained by the method of collective coordinates and can be used for the resummation of the perturbation series. The genuinely non-perturbative evolution equation is obtained in a manner reminiscent of the Schwinger-Dyson equations. Two variants of this scheme are presented where the scale which determines the order of the successive elimination of the modes is extracted from external and internal spaces. The renormalization of composite operators is discussed briefly as an alternative way to arrive at the renormalization group equation. The scaling laws and fixed poin...
Lim, S. P.; Sheng, D. N.
2016-07-01
A many-body localized (MBL) state is a new state of matter emerging in a disordered interacting system at high-energy densities through a disorder-driven dynamic phase transition. The nature of the phase transition and the evolution of the MBL phase near the transition are the focus of intense theoretical studies with open issues in the field. We develop an entanglement density matrix renormalization group (En-DMRG) algorithm to accurately target highly excited states for MBL systems. By studying the one-dimensional Heisenberg spin chain in a random field, we demonstrate the accuracy of the method in obtaining energy eigenstates and the corresponding statistical results of quantum states in the MBL phase. Based on large system simulations by En-DMRG for excited states, we demonstrate some interesting features in the entanglement entropy distribution function, which is characterized by two peaks: one at zero and another one at the quantized entropy S =ln2 with an exponential decay tail on the S >ln2 side. Combining En-DMRG with exact diagonalization simulations, we demonstrate that the transition from the MBL phase to the delocalized ergodic phase is driven by rare events where the locally entangled spin pairs develop power-law correlations. The corresponding phase diagram contains an intermediate or crossover regime, which has power-law spin-z correlations resulting from contributions of the rare events. We discuss the physical picture for the numerical observations in this regime, where various distribution functions are distinctly different from results deep in the ergodic and MBL phases for finite-size systems. Our results may provide new insights for understanding the phase transition in such systems.
DMRG studies of the frustrated kagome antiferromagnets and the application to volborthite
Gong, Shou-Shu; Sheng, D. N.; Yang, Kun
Motivated by the recent magnetization measurements on the high-quality single crystals of the kagome antiferromagnet volborthite, we study the ground state and magnetization properties of two kagome models proposed from the electronic structure simulations, which treat the volborthite as either the coupled trimers or the coupled frustrated chains on the kagome lattice. We study the models using density-matrix renormalization group on the cylinder geometry with the system width up to 4 legs. We find a quantum phase diagram of the models with changing couplings, and identify the magnetic properties of each phase. In the antiferromagnetic phases, we also study the magnetization curve and the different phases in the magnetic field. Finally, we compare the magetization properties of the models with the experimental observations of volborthite. NSF DMR-1157490, DMR-1408560, and the State of Florida.
Alvarez, G.
2009-09-01
The purpose of this paper is (i) to present a generic and fully functional implementation of the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm, and (ii) to describe how to write additional strongly-correlated electron models and geometries by using templated classes. Besides considering general models and geometries, the code implements Hamiltonian symmetries in a generic way and parallelization over symmetry-related matrix blocks. Program summaryProgram title: DMRG++ Catalogue identifier: AEDJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: See file LICENSE No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 15 795 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 83 454 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, MPI Computer: PC, HP cluster Operating system: Any, tested on Linux Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes RAM: 1 GB (256 MB is enough to run included test) Classification: 23 External routines: BLAS and LAPACK Nature of problem: Strongly correlated electrons systems, display a broad range of important phenomena, and their study is a major area of research in condensed matter physics. In this context, model Hamiltonians are used to simulate the relevant interactions of a given compound, and the relevant degrees of freedom. These studies rely on the use of tight-binding lattice models that consider electron localization, where states on one site can be labeled by spin and orbital degrees of freedom. The calculation of properties from these Hamiltonians is a computational intensive problem, since the Hilbert space over which these Hamiltonians act grows exponentially with the number of sites on the lattice. Solution method: The DMRG is a numerical variational technique to study quantum many body Hamiltonians. For one-dimensional and quasi one-dimensional systems, the
Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R.
2016-07-01
Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.
Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R
2016-07-01
Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.
Functional renormalization group methods in quantum chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braun, J.
2006-12-18
We apply functional Renormalization Group methods to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). First we calculate the mass shift for the pion in a finite volume in the framework of the quark-meson model. In particular, we investigate the importance of quark effects. As in lattice gauge theory, we find that the choice of quark boundary conditions has a noticeable effect on the pion mass shift in small volumes. A comparison of our results to chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD suggests that lattice QCD has not yet reached volume sizes for which chiral perturbation theory can be applied to extrapolate lattice results for low-energy observables. Phase transitions in QCD at finite temperature and density are currently very actively researched. We study the chiral phase transition at finite temperature with two approaches. First, we compute the phase transition temperature in infinite and in finite volume with the quark-meson model. Though qualitatively correct, our results suggest that the model does not describe the dynamics of QCD near the finite-temperature phase boundary accurately. Second, we study the approach to chiral symmetry breaking in terms of quarks and gluons. We compute the running QCD coupling for all temperatures and scales. We use this result to determine quantitatively the phase boundary in the plane of temperature and number of quark flavors and find good agreement with lattice results. (orig.)
Coe, Jeremy P; Almeida, Nuno M S; Paterson, Martin J
2017-09-02
We investigate if a range of challenging spin systems can be described sufficiently well using Monte Carlo configuration interaction (MCCI) and the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) in a way that heads toward a more "black box" approach. Experimental results and other computational methods are used for comparison. The gap between the lowest doublet and quartet state of methylidyne (CH) is first considered. We then look at a range of first-row transition metal monocarbonyls: MCO when M is titanium, vanadium, chromium, or manganese. For these MCO systems we also employ partially spin restricted open-shell coupled-cluster (RCCSD). We finally investigate the high-spin low-lying states of the iron dimer, its cation and its anion. The multireference character of these molecules is also considered. We find that these systems can be computationally challenging with close low-lying states and often multireference character. For this more straightforward application and for the basis sets considered, we generally find qualitative agreement between DMRG and MCCI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A spin-adapted Density Matrix Renormalization Group algorithm for quantum chemistry
Sharma, Sandeep
2014-01-01
We extend the spin-adapted density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm of McCulloch and Gulacsi [Europhys. Lett.57, 852 (2002)] to quantum chemical Hamiltonians. This involves two key modifications to the non-spin-adapted DMRG algorithm: the use of a quasi-density matrix to ensure that the renormalised DMRG states are eigenvalues of $S^2$ , and the use of the Wigner-Eckart theorem to greatly reduce the overall storage and computational cost. We argue that the advantages of the spin-adapted DMRG algorithm are greatest for low spin states. Consequently, we also implement the singlet-embedding strategy of Nishino et al [Phys. Rev. E61, 3199 (2000)] which allows us to target high spin states as a component of a mixed system which is overall held in a singlet state. We evaluate our algorithm on benchmark calculations on the Fe$_2$S$_2$ and Cr$_2$ transition metal systems. By calculating the full spin ladder of Fe$_2$S$_2$ , we show that the spin-adapted DMRG algorithm can target very closely spaced spin ...
Phase diagram of the Fermi Hubbard model with spin-dependent external potentials:A DMRG study
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏兴波; 孟烨铭; 吴哲明; 高先龙
2015-01-01
We investigate a one-dimensional two-component system in an optical lattice of attractive interactions under a spin-dependent external potential. Based on the density-matrix renormalization group methods, we obtain its phase diagram as a function of the external potential imbalance and the strength of the attractive interaction through the analysis on the density profiles and the momentum pair correlation functions. We find that there are three different phases in the system, a coexisted fully polarized and Fulde–Ferrell–Larkin–Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase, a normal polarized phase, and a Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) phase. Different from the systems of spin-independent external potential, where the FFLO phase is normally favored by the attractive interactions, in the present situation, the FFLO phases are easily destroyed by the attractive interactions, leading to the normal polarized or the BCS phase.
Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Van Voorhis, Troy
2005-05-22
We describe the theory and implementation of two extensions to the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) algorithm in quantum chemistry: (i) to work with an underlying nonorthogonal one-particle basis (using a biorthogonal formulation) and (ii) to use non-Hermitian and complex operators and complex wave functions, which occur naturally in biorthogonal formulations. Using these developments, we carry out ground-state calculations on ethene, butadiene, and hexatriene, in a polarized atomic-orbital basis. The description of correlation in these systems using a localized nonorthogonal basis is improved over molecular-orbital DMRG calculations, and comparable to or better than coupled-cluster calculations, although we encountered numerical problems associated with non-Hermiticity. We believe that the non-Hermitian DMRG algorithm may further become useful in conjunction with other non-Hermitian Hamiltonians, for example, similarity-transformed coupled-cluster Hamiltonians.
Yanai, Takeshi; Kurashige, Yuki; Neuscamman, Eric; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2010-01-01
We describe the joint application of the density matrix renormalization group and canonical transformation theory to multireference quantum chemistry. The density matrix renormalization group provides the ability to describe static correlation in large active spaces, while the canonical transformation theory provides a high-order description of the dynamic correlation effects. We demonstrate the joint theory in two benchmark systems designed to test the dynamic and static correlation capabilities of the methods, namely, (i) total correlation energies in long polyenes and (ii) the isomerization curve of the [Cu2O2]2+ core. The largest complete active spaces and atomic orbital basis sets treated by the joint DMRG-CT theory in these systems correspond to a (24e,24o) active space and 268 atomic orbitals in the polyenes and a (28e,32o) active space and 278 atomic orbitals in [Cu2O2]2+.
Joint efficient ordering method for group multiobjective programming
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Yuda; HU Didi
2006-01-01
This paper introduces the concepts of individual efficient pair and group efficient pair for each alternative in group multiobjective programming, and corresponding to these concepts defines the concepts of individual joint efficient preference and group joint efficient preference, respectively. Based on the fundamental properties of the mapping from individual joint efficient preference to group joint efficient preference and group efficient number of alternative, a method of ordering alternatives for group multiobjective programming problems is given.
Development of Copeland Score Methods for Determine Group Decisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ermatita
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Voting method requires to determine group decision of decision by each decision maker in group. Determination of decisions by group of decision maker requires voting methods. Copeland score is one of voting method that has been developed by previous researchers. This method does not accommodate the weight of the expertise and interests of each decision maker. This paper proposed the voting method using Copeland score with added weighting. The method has developed of considering the weight of the expertise and interests of the decision maker. The method accordance with the problems encountered of group decision making . Expertise and interests of decision makers are given weight based on their expertises of decision maker contribution of the problems faced by the group to determine the decision.
A Method for Comparing Completely Standardized Solutions in Multiple Groups.
Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.
2000-01-01
Outlines a method for comparing completely standardized solutions in multiple groups. The method is based on a correlation structure analysis of equal-size samples and uses the correlation distribution theory implemented in the structural equation modeling program RAMONA. (SLD)
IRT studies of many groups: The alignment method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bengt eMuthen
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Asparouhov and Muthen (forthcoming presented a new method for multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, referred to as the alignment method. The alignment method can be used to estimate group-specific factor means and variances without requiring exact measurement invariance. A strength of the method is the ability to conveniently estimate models for many groups, such as with comparisons of countries. This paper focuses on IRT applications of the alignment method. An empirical investigation is made of binary knowledge items administered in two separate surveys of a set of countries. A Monte Carlo study is presented that shows how the quality of the alignment can be assessed.
Computer Aided Flowsheet Design using Group Contribution Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bommareddy, Susilpa; Eden, Mario R.; Gani, Rafiqul
In this paper, a systematic group contribution based framework is presented for synthesis of process flowsheets from a given set of input and output specifications. Analogous to the group contribution methods developed for molecular design, the framework employs process groups to represent...
Computer Aided Flowsheet Design using Group Contribution Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bommareddy, Susilpa; Eden, Mario R.; Gani, Rafiqul
2011-01-01
In this paper, a systematic group contribution based framework is presented for synthesis of process flowsheets from a given set of input and output specifications. Analogous to the group contribution methods developed for molecular design, the framework employs process groups to represent...
Mac Lane method in the investigation of magnetic translation groups
Florek, Wojciech
1998-01-01
Central extensions of the three-dimensional translation group T=Z^3 by the unitary group U(1) (a group of factors) are considered within the frame of the Mac~Lane method. All nonzero vectors t in T are considered to be generators of T. This choice leads to very illustrative relations between the Mac~Lane method and Zak's approach to magnetic translation groups. It is shown that factor systems introduced by Zak and Brown can be realized only for the unitary group U(1) and for some of its finit...
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group in practice.
Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Hu, Weifeng; Nakatani, Naoki; Sharma, Sandeep; Yang, Jun; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2015-01-21
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is a tool that can be applied to a wide variety of interesting problems in quantum chemistry. Here, we examine the density matrix renormalization group from the vantage point of the quantum chemistry user. What kinds of problems is the DMRG well-suited to? What are the largest systems that can be treated at practical cost? What sort of accuracies can be obtained, and how do we reason about the computational difficulty in different molecules? By examining a diverse benchmark set of molecules: π-electron systems, benchmark main-group and transition metal dimers, and the Mn-oxo-salen and Fe-porphine organometallic compounds, we provide some answers to these questions, and show how the density matrix renormalization group is used in practice.
Two Methods for Deriving Members' Weights in Group Decision Making
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Ze-shui
2001-01-01
The Analytic Hierarchy Process is a powerful technique for group decision making. Both theWeighted Arithmetic Mean Method (WAMM) and Weighted Geometric Mean Method (WGMM) are themost common group preference aggregation methods in AHP. In order to use the WAMM and WGMM, onehas to find the weights to be assigned to the members of the group. This is often a difficult task, especiallyso if the group is large as in the case of public policy decisions. These situations need an objective method toderive members'weights. But a few studies are available in the literature. Based on judgement matrices anderror analyses, this paper presents two practical and efficient methods for addressing such situations. Somenumerical examples are also given.
A Grouping Method of Distribution Substations Using Cluster Analysis
Ohtaka, Toshiya; Iwamoto, Shinichi
Recently, it has been considered to group distribution substations together for evaluating the reinforcement planning of distribution systems. However, the grouping is carried out by the knowledge and experience of an expert who is in charge of distribution systems, and a subjective feeling of a human being causes ambiguous grouping at the moment. Therefore, a method for imitating the grouping by the expert has been desired in order to carry out a systematic grouping which has numerical corroboration. In this paper, we propose a grouping method of distribution substations using cluster analysis based on the interconnected power between the distribution substations. Moreover, we consider the geographical constraints such as rivers, roads, business office boundaries and branch boundaries, and also examine a method for adjusting the interconnected power. Simulations are carried out to verify the validity of the proposed method using an example system. From the simulation results, we can find that the imitation of the grouping by the expert becomes possible due to considering the geographical constraints and adjusting the interconnected power, and also the calculation time and iterations can be greatly reduced by introducing the local and tabu search methods.
Hybrid-space density matrix renormalization group study of the doped two-dimensional Hubbard model
Ehlers, G.; White, S. R.; Noack, R. M.
2017-03-01
The performance of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is strongly influenced by the choice of the local basis of the underlying physical lattice. We demonstrate that, for the two-dimensional Hubbard model, the hybrid-real-momentum-space formulation of the DMRG is computationally more efficient than the standard real-space formulation. In particular, we show that the computational cost for fixed bond dimension of the hybrid-space DMRG is approximately independent of the width of the lattice, in contrast to the real-space DMRG, for which it is proportional to the width squared. We apply the hybrid-space algorithm to calculate the ground state of the doped two-dimensional Hubbard model on cylinders of width four and six sites; at n =0.875 filling, the ground state exhibits a striped charge-density distribution with a wavelength of eight sites for both U /t =4.0 and 8.0 . We find that the strength of the charge ordering depends on U /t and on the boundary conditions. Furthermore, we investigate the magnetic ordering as well as the decay of the static spin, charge, and pair-field correlation functions.
A Group Contribution Method for Estimating Cetane and Octane Numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kubic, William Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Process Modeling and Analysis Group
2016-07-28
Much of the research on advanced biofuels is devoted to the study of novel chemical pathways for converting nonfood biomass into liquid fuels that can be blended with existing transportation fuels. Many compounds under consideration are not found in the existing fuel supplies. Often, the physical properties needed to assess the viability of a potential biofuel are not available. The only reliable information available may be the molecular structure. Group contribution methods for estimating physical properties from molecular structure have been used for more than 60 years. The most common application is estimation of thermodynamic properties. More recently, group contribution methods have been developed for estimating rate dependent properties including cetane and octane numbers. Often, published group contribution methods are limited in terms of types of function groups and range of applicability. In this study, a new, broadly-applicable group contribution method based on an artificial neural network was developed to estimate cetane number research octane number, and motor octane numbers of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons. The new method is more accurate over a greater range molecular weights and structural complexity than existing group contribution methods for estimating cetane and octane numbers.
Advancing Telephone Focus Groups Method Through the Use of Webinar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eunice Chong
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Telephone focus groups have been increasingly popular in public health research and evaluation. One of the main concerns of telephone focus groups is the lack of nonverbal cues among participants, which could limit group interactions and dynamics during the focus group discussion. To overcome this limitation, we supplemented telephone focus groups with webinar technology in a recent evaluation of a provincial public health program in Ontario, Canada. In this article, we share the methods used and our experiences in conducting telephone focus groups supplemented with webinar technology, including advantages and challenges. Our experience will inform other researchers who may consider using telephone focus groups with webinars in future research and evaluation.
Composite group of explicit Runge-Kutta methods
Hamid, Fatin Nadiah Abd; Rabiei, Faranak; Ismail, Fudziah
2016-06-01
In this paper,the composite groups of Runge-Kutta (RK) method are proposed. The composite group of RK method of third and second order, RK3(2) and fourth and third order RK4(3) base on classical Runge-Kutta method are derived. The proposed methods are two-step in nature and have less number of function evaluations compared to the existing Runge-Kutta method. The order conditions up to order four are obtained using rooted trees and composite rule introduced by J. C Butcher. The stability regions of RK3(2) and RK4(3) methods are presented and initial value problems of first order ordinary differential equations are carried out. Numerical results are compared with existing Runge-Kutta method.
THE CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN METHOD: THE CASE OF GROUP NOX
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcela ALMEIDA
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, different groups of architects search for the possibilities of digital technology contribution to architecture. Among the various stances, this paper particularly highlights the Dutch architects group called NOX, which develops a design method that uses both digital and analogical techniques, as well as incorporates knowledge from other disciplines. The Dutch group’s work serves as a guideline, as it indicates the subjects to be examined. Also based on the studies of other authors, the present research analyses the modifications contemporary architecture is going through, such as matters related to form, design method and conceiving of space, time and reality. Keywords: Contemporary architecture; NOX group; design methodology; digital; analogical.
A New Method for Grey Forecasting Model Group
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李峰; 王仲东; 宋中民
2002-01-01
In order to describe the characteristics of some systems, such as the process of economic and product forecasting, a lot of discrete data may be used. Although they are discrete, the inside law can be-founded by some methods. For a series that the discrete degree is large and the integrated tendency is ascending, a new method for grey forecasting model group is given by the grey system theory. The method is that it firstly transforms original data, chooses some clique values and divides original data into groups by different clique values; then, it establishes non-equigap GM(1, 1) model for different groups and searches forecasting area of original data by the solution of model. At the end of the paper, the result of reliability of forecasting value is obtained. It is shown that the method is feasible.
Prediction of biodegradation kinetics using a nonlinear group contribution method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tabak, H.H. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Govind, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States))
1993-02-01
The fate of organic chemicals in the environment depends on their susceptibility to biodegradation. Hence, development of regulations concerning their manufacture and use requires information on the extent and rate of biodegradation. Recent studies have attempted to correlate the kinetics of biodegradation with the molecular structure of the compound. This has led to the development of structure-biodegradation relationships (SBRs) using the group contribution approach. Each defined group present in the chemical structure of the compound is assigned a unique numerical contribution toward the calculation of the biodegradation kinetic constants. In this paper, a nonlinear group contribution method has been developed using neural networks; it is trained using literature data on the first-order biodegradation kinetic rate constant for a number of priority pollutants. The trained neural network is then used to predict the biodegradation kinetic constant for a new list of compounds, and results have been compared with the experimental values and the predictions obtained from a linear group contribution method. It has been shown that the nonlinear group contribution method using neural networks is able to provide a superior fit to the training set data and test data set and produce a lower prediction error than the previous linear method.
Computer Aided Flowsheet Design using Group Contribution Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bommareddy, Susilpa; Eden, Mario R.; Gani, Rafiqul
In this paper, a systematic group contribution based framework is presented for synthesis of process flowsheets from a given set of input and output specifications. Analogous to the group contribution methods developed for molecular design, the framework employs process groups to represent...... information of each flowsheet to minimize the computational load and information storage. The design variables for the selected flowsheet(s) are identified through a reverse simulation approach and are used as initial estimates for rigorous simulation to verify the feasibility and performance of the design....
Potential Energy Surfaces Using Algebraic Methods Based on Unitary Groups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renato Lemus
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This contribution reviews the recent advances to estimate the potential energy surfaces through algebraic methods based on the unitary groups used to describe the molecular vibrational degrees of freedom. The basic idea is to introduce the unitary group approach in the context of the traditional approach, where the Hamiltonian is expanded in terms of coordinates and momenta. In the presentation of this paper, several representative molecular systems that permit to illustrate both the different algebraic approaches as well as the usual problems encountered in the vibrational description in terms of internal coordinates are presented. Methods based on coherent states are also discussed.
Numerical renormalization group method for quantum impurity systems
Bulla, Ralf; Costi, Theo A.; Pruschke, Thomas
2008-04-01
In the early 1970s, Wilson developed the concept of a fully nonperturbative renormalization group transformation. When applied to the Kondo problem, this numerical renormalization group (NRG) method gave for the first time the full crossover from the high-temperature phase of a free spin to the low-temperature phase of a completely screened spin. The NRG method was later generalized to a variety of quantum impurity problems. The purpose of this review is to give a brief introduction to the NRG method, including some guidelines for calculating physical quantities, and to survey the development of the NRG method and its various applications over the last 30 years. These applications include variants of the original Kondo problem such as the non-Fermi-liquid behavior in the two-channel Kondo model, dissipative quantum systems such as the spin-boson model, and lattice systems in the framework of the dynamical mean-field theory.
The Numerical Renormalization Group Method for correlated electrons
Bulla, Ralf
2000-01-01
The Numerical Renormalization Group method (NRG) has been developed by Wilson in the 1970's to investigate the Kondo problem. The NRG allows the non-perturbative calculation of static and dynamic properties for a variety of impurity models. In addition, this method has been recently generalized to lattice models within the Dynamical Mean Field Theory. This paper gives a brief historical overview of the development of the NRG and discusses its application to the Hubbard model; in particular th...
Method of fabricating vertically aligned group III-V nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, George T; Li, Qiming
2014-11-25
A top-down method of fabricating vertically aligned Group III-V micro- and nanowires uses a two-step etch process that adds a selective anisotropic wet etch after an initial plasma etch to remove the dry etch damage while enabling micro/nanowires with straight and smooth faceted sidewalls and controllable diameters independent of pitch. The method enables the fabrication of nanowire lasers, LEDs, and solar cells.
A Method for Finding Metabolic Pathways Using Atomic Group Tracking
Zhong, Cheng; Lin, Hai Xiang; Wang, Jianyi
2017-01-01
A fundamental computational problem in metabolic engineering is to find pathways between compounds. Pathfinding methods using atom tracking have been widely used to find biochemically relevant pathways. However, these methods require the user to define the atoms to be tracked. This may lead to failing to predict the pathways that do not conserve the user-defined atoms. In this work, we propose a pathfinding method called AGPathFinder to find biochemically relevant metabolic pathways between two given compounds. In AGPathFinder, we find alternative pathways by tracking the movement of atomic groups through metabolic networks and use combined information of reaction thermodynamics and compound similarity to guide the search towards more feasible pathways and better performance. The experimental results show that atomic group tracking enables our method to find pathways without the need of defining the atoms to be tracked, avoid hub metabolites, and obtain biochemically meaningful pathways. Our results also demonstrate that atomic group tracking, when incorporated with combined information of reaction thermodynamics and compound similarity, improves the quality of the found pathways. In most cases, the average compound inclusion accuracy and reaction inclusion accuracy for the top resulting pathways of our method are around 0.90 and 0.70, respectively, which are better than those of the existing methods. Additionally, AGPathFinder provides the information of thermodynamic feasibility and compound similarity for the resulting pathways. PMID:28068354
A New Group-Formation Method for Student Projects
Borges, Jose; Dias, Teresa Galvao; Cunha, Joao Falcao E.
2009-01-01
In BSc/MSc engineering programmes at Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP), the need to provide students with teamwork experiences close to a real world environment was identified as an important issue. A new group-formation method that aims to provide an enriching teamwork experience is proposed. Students are asked to answer a…
(Re)searching Methods: Reading Fiction in Literary Response Groups
Janzen, Melanie D.
2015-01-01
The trouble with education research is that the research is burdened with trouble before it begins. Working as a poststructural education researcher and engaged in a recent research project that sought to engage with questions of teacher identity, I employed an alternative data elicitation method of literary response groups--similar to that of…
A New Group-Formation Method for Student Projects
Borges, Jose; Dias, Teresa Galvao; Cunha, Joao Falcao E.
2009-01-01
In BSc/MSc engineering programmes at Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP), the need to provide students with teamwork experiences close to a real world environment was identified as an important issue. A new group-formation method that aims to provide an enriching teamwork experience is proposed. Students are asked to answer a…
An Overview of the Monte Carlo Methods, Codes, & Applications Group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trahan, Travis John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-08-30
This report sketches the work of the Group to deliver first-principle Monte Carlo methods, production quality codes, and radiation transport-based computational and experimental assessments using the codes MCNP and MCATK for such applications as criticality safety, non-proliferation, nuclear energy, nuclear threat reduction and response, radiation detection and measurement, radiation health protection, and stockpile stewardship.
Aims and methods of IRD expert group reviews
Beauvais, Marie-Laure
2013-01-01
This work, the seventh published in the IRD’s “Expert Group Review“ series, has the same general aims as the earlier ones and has been conducted by the same method, briefly summarized below. The IRD (Institut de recherche pour le développement, a State-funded research agency) conducts expert group reviews “to order“, to inform policy decisions and public debate on issues of importance to society. Putting its scientists’ research and knowledge at the disposal of the community is one of the IRD...
Aims and methods of IRD expert group reviews in general
Beauvais, Marie-Laure
2013-01-01
This work, the sixth to be published in the IRD’s “Expert Group Review” series, has the same general aims as the earlier ones and has been conducted by the same method, briefly summarised below. The IRD (Institut de recherche pour le développement, a State-funded research agency) conducts expert group reviews “to order”, to inform policy decisions and public debate on issues of importance to society. Putting its scientists’ research and knowledge at the disposal of the community is one of the...
Methods for forming group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials
Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)
2002-01-01
Methods are disclosed for forming Group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.
Group-theoretical method for physical property tensors of quasicrystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gong Ping; Hu Cheng-Zheng; Zhou Xiang; Wang Ai-Jun; Miao Ling
2006-01-01
In addition to the phonon variable there is the phason variable in hydrodynamics for quasicrystals. These two kinds of hydrodynamic variables have different transformation properties. The phonon variable transforms under the vector representation, whereas the phason variable transforms under another related representation. Thus, a basis (or a set of basis functions) in the representation space should include such two kinds of variables. This makes it more difficult to determine the physical property tensors of quasicrystals. In this paper the group-theoretical method is given to determine the physical property tensors of quasicrystals. As an illustration of this method we calculate the third-order elasticity tensors of quasicrystals with five-fold symmetry by means of basis functions. It follows that the linear phonon elasticity is isotropic, but the nonlinear phonon elasticity is anisotropic for pentagonal quasicrystals. Meanwhile, the basis functions are constructed for all noncrystallographic point groups of quasicrystals.
Blood grouping based on PCR methods and agarose gel electrophoresis.
Sell, Ana Maria; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila
2015-01-01
The study of erythrocyte antigens continues to be an intense field of research, particularly after the development of molecular testing methods. More than 300 specificities have been described by the International Society for Blood Transfusion as belonging to 33 blood group systems. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a central tool for red blood cells (RBC) genotyping. PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis are low cost, easy, and versatile in vitro methods for amplifying defined target DNA (RBC polymorphic region). Multiplex-PCR, AS-PCR (Specific Allele Polymerase Chain Reaction), and RFLP-PCR (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polymerase Chain Reaction) techniques are usually to identify RBC polymorphisms. Furthermore, it is an easy methodology to implement. This chapter describes the PCR methodology and agarose gel electrophoresis to identify the polymorphisms of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood group systems.
Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro
2014-07-15
Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).
Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers
Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro
2014-07-15
Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).
Video quality experts group: the quest for valid objective methods
Corriveau, Philip J.; Webster, Arthur A.; Rohaly, Ann M.; Libert, John M.
2000-06-01
Subjective assessment methods have been used reliably for many years to evaluate video quality. They continue to provide the most reliable assessments compared to objective methods. Some issues that arise with subjective assessment include the cost of conducting the evaluations and the fact that these methods cannot easily be used to monitor video quality in real time. Furthermore, traditional, analog objective methods, while still necessary, are not sufficient to measure the quality of digitally compressed video systems. Thus, there is a need to develop new objective methods utilizing the characteristics of the human visual system. While several new objective methods have been developed, there is to date no internationally standardized method. The Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG) was formed in October 1997 to address video quality issues. The group is composed of experts from various backgrounds and affiliations, including participants from several internationally recognized organizations working in the field of video quality assessment. The majority of participants are active in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and VQEG combines the expertise and resources found in several ITU Study Groups to work towards a common goal. The first task undertaken by VQEG was to provide a validation of objective video quality measurement methods leading to Recommendations in both the Telecommunications (ITU-T) and Radiocommunication (ITU-R) sectors of the ITU. To this end, VQEG designed and executed a test program to compare subjective video quality evaluations to the predictions of a number of proposed objective measurement methods for video quality in the bit rate range of 768 kb/s to 50 Mb/s. The results of this test show that there is no objective measurement system that is currently able to replace subjective testing. Depending on the metric used for evaluation, the performance of eight or nine models was found to be statistically equivalent, leading to the
Methods for improved growth of group III nitride semiconductor compounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melnik, Yuriy; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro
2015-03-17
Methods are disclosed for growing group III-nitride semiconductor compounds with advanced buffer layer technique. In an embodiment, a method includes providing a suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. The method includes forming an AlN buffer layer by flowing an ammonia gas into a growth zone of the processing chamber, flowing an aluminum halide containing precursor to the growth zone and at the same time flowing additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas into the growth zone of the processing chamber. The additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas that is flowed into the growth zone during buffer layer deposition suppresses homogeneous AlN particle formation. The hydrogen halide or halogen gas may continue flowing for a time period while the flow of the aluminum halide containing precursor is turned off.
Group of Signs: A New Method to Evaluate Glycemic Variability
Zaccardi, Francesco; Stefano, Paola Di; Busetto, Elena; Federici, Marco Orsini; Manto, Andrea; Infusino, Fabio; Lanza, Gaetano Antonio; Pitocco, Dario; Ghirlanda, Giovanni
2008-01-01
Background Glycemic variability is an important parameter used to resolve potential clinical problems in diabetic patients. It is known that glycemic variability generates oxidative stress and potentially contributes to the development of macro- and microvascular complications in diabetes. By controlling glycemic variability, it is possible to reduce these complications and to set the therapy for all patients with diabetes. The aims of this study were to (1) propose a new standardized, objective, and flexible approach to measure glycemic variability by a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS)—the group of signs (GOS) method; (2) compare the correlation between mean amplitude of glucose excursion (MAGE), a well-known index of glycemic variability calculated by the physician and the MAGE defined with the GOS method, in order to validate the GOS; and (3) suggest new indexes of glycemic variability. Methods We tested the GOS algorithm on data collected by a CGMS every 5 minutes for 24 hours on 50 patients. Consequently, for 8 patients we calculated and compared the physician's MAGE in the standard way and by the GOS method. Results Comparison between the two methods has shown high correlations, from a minimum correlation of 86% to a maximum of 98%, with p values <0.01 (Pearson test). Conclusions Preliminary data suggest that the proposed algorithm is a valid, efficient, and reliable method able to calculate the standard MAGE on CGMS data systematically and to create other alternative glycemic variability indexes. PMID:19885294
Dattani, Nikesh S.; Sharma, Sandeep; Alavi, Ali
2016-06-01
Being the simplest uncharged homonuclear dimer after H_2 that has a stable ground state, Li_2 is one of the most important benchmark systems for theory and experiment. In 1930, Delbruck used Li_2 to test his theory of homopolar binding, and it was used again and again as a prototype to test what have now become some of the most ubiquitous concepts in molecular physics (LCAO, SCF, MO, just to name a few). Experimentally, Roscoe and Schuster studied alkali dimers back in 1874. At the dawn of quantum mechanics, the emerging types of spectroscopic analyses we now use today, were tested on Li_2 in the labs of Wurm (1928), Harvey (1929), Lewis (1931), and many others, independently. Li_2 was at the centre of the development of PFOODR in the 80s, and PAS in the 90s; and Lithium Bose-Einstein condensates were announced only 1 month after the Nobel Prize winning BEC announcement in 1995. Even now in the 2010s, numerous experimental and theoretical studies on Li have tested QED up to the 7th power of the fine structure constant. Li_2 has also been of interest to sub-atomic physicists, as it was spectroscopic measurements on ^7Li_2 that determined the spin of ^7Li to be 3/2 in 1931; and Li_2 has been proposed in 2014 as a candidate for the first ``halo nucleonic molecule". The lowest triplet state a(1^3Σ_u^+) is an excellent benchmark system for all newly emerging ab initio techniques because it has only 6e^-, its potential is only 334 cm-1 deep, it avoids harsh complications from spin-orbit coupling, and it is the deepest potential for which all predicted vibrational energy levels have been observed with 0.0001 cm-1 precision. However the current best ab initio potentials do not even yield all vibrational energy spacings correct to within 1 cm-1. This could be because the calculation was only done on a cc-pV5Z basis set, or because the QCISD(T,full) method that the authors used, only considered triple excitations while a full CI calculation should include up to hexuple
Snapshot Observation for 2D Classical Lattice Models by Corner Transfer Matrix Renormalization Group
Ueda, K.; Otani, R.; Nishio, Y; Gendiar, A.; Nishino, T
2004-01-01
We report a way of obtaining a spin configuration snapshot, which is one of the representative spin configurations in canonical ensemble, in a finite area of infinite size two-dimensional (2D) classical lattice models. The corner transfer matrix renormalization group (CTMRG), a variant of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), is used for the numerical calculation. The matrix product structure of the variational state in CTMRG makes it possible to stochastically fix spins each by ea...
Comparing groups randomization and bootstrap methods using R
Zieffler, Andrew S; Long, Jeffrey D
2011-01-01
A hands-on guide to using R to carry out key statistical practices in educational and behavioral sciences research Computing has become an essential part of the day-to-day practice of statistical work, broadening the types of questions that can now be addressed by research scientists applying newly derived data analytic techniques. Comparing Groups: Randomization and Bootstrap Methods Using R emphasizes the direct link between scientific research questions and data analysis. Rather than relying on mathematical calculations, this book focus on conceptual explanations and
Tensor renormalization group methods for spin and gauge models
Zou, Haiyuan
The analysis of the error of perturbative series by comparing it to the exact solution is an important tool to understand the non-perturbative physics of statistical models. For some toy models, a new method can be used to calculate higher order weak coupling expansion and modified perturbation theory can be constructed. However, it is nontrivial to generalize the new method to understand the critical behavior of high dimensional spin and gauge models. Actually, it is a big challenge in both high energy physics and condensed matter physics to develop accurate and efficient numerical algorithms to solve these problems. In this thesis, one systematic way named tensor renormalization group method is discussed. The applications of the method to several spin and gauge models on a lattice are investigated. theoretically, the new method allows one to write an exact representation of the partition function of models with local interactions. E.g. O(N) models, Z2 gauge models and U(1) gauge models. Practically, by using controllable approximations, results in both finite volume and the thermodynamic limit can be obtained. Another advantage of the new method is that it is insensitive to sign problems for models with complex coupling and chemical potential. Through the new approach, the Fisher's zeros of the 2D O(2) model in the complex coupling plane can be calculated and the finite size scaling of the results agrees well with the Kosterlitz-Thouless assumption. Applying the method to the O(2) model with a chemical potential, new phase diagram of the models can be obtained. The structure of the tensor language may provide a new tool to understand phase transition properties in general.
Systematization method for distinguishing plastic groups by using NIR spectroscopy.
Kaihara, Mikio; Satoh, Minami; Satoh, Minoru
2007-07-01
A systematic classification method for polymers is not yet available in case of using near infrared spectra (NIR). That is why we have been searching for a systematic method. Because raw NIR spectra usually have few obvious peaks, NIR spectra have been pretreated by 2nd derivation for taking well modulated spectra. After the pretreatment, we applied classification and regression trees (CART) to the discrimination between the spectra and the species of polymers. As a result, we obtained a relatively simple classification tree. Judging from the obtained splitting conditions and the classified polymers, we concluded that obtained knowledge on the chemical function groups estimated by the important wavelength regions is not always applicable to this classification tree. However, we clarified the splitting rules for polymer species from the NIR spectral point of view.
PREFACE: XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP) (Group30)
Brackx, Fred; De Schepper, Hennie; Van der Jeugt, Joris
2015-04-01
The XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP), also known as the Group30 conference, took place in Ghent (Belgium) from Monday 14 to Friday 18 July 2014. The conference was organised by Ghent University (Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics, and Department of Mathematical Analysis). The website http://www.group30.ugent.be is still available. The ICGTMP is one of the traditional conference series covering the most important topics of symmetry which are relevant to the interplay of present-day mathematics and physics. More than 40 years ago a group of enthusiasts, headed by H. Bacry of Marseille and A. Janner of Nijmegen, initiated a series of annual meetings with the aim to provide a common forum for scientists interested in group theoretical methods. At that time most of the participants belonged to two important communities: on the one hand solid state specialists, elementary particle theorists and phenomenologists, and on the other mathematicians eager to apply newly-discovered group and algebraic structures. The conference series has become a meeting point for scientists working at modelling physical phenomena through mathematical and numerical methods based on geometry and symmetry. It is considered as the oldest one among the conference series devoted to geometry and physics. It has been further broadened and diversified due to the successful applications of geometric and algebraic methods in life sciences and other areas. The first four meetings took place alternatively in Marseille and Nijmegen. Soon after, the conference acquired an international standing, especially following the 1975 colloquium in Nijmegen and the 1976 colloquium in Montreal. Since then it has been organized in many places around the world. It has become a bi-annual colloquium since 1990, the year it was organized in Moscow. This was the first time the colloquium took place in Belgium. There were 246 registered
Risky Group Decision-Making Method for Distribution Grid Planning
Li, Cunbin; Yuan, Jiahang; Qi, Zhiqiang
2015-12-01
With rapid speed on electricity using and increasing in renewable energy, more and more research pay attention on distribution grid planning. For the drawbacks of existing research, this paper proposes a new risky group decision-making method for distribution grid planning. Firstly, a mixing index system with qualitative and quantitative indices is built. On the basis of considering the fuzziness of language evaluation, choose cloud model to realize "quantitative to qualitative" transformation and construct interval numbers decision matrices according to the "3En" principle. An m-dimensional interval numbers decision vector is regarded as super cuboids in m-dimensional attributes space, using two-level orthogonal experiment to arrange points uniformly and dispersedly. The numbers of points are assured by testing numbers of two-level orthogonal arrays and these points compose of distribution points set to stand for decision-making project. In order to eliminate the influence of correlation among indices, Mahalanobis distance is used to calculate the distance from each solutions to others which means that dynamic solutions are viewed as the reference. Secondly, due to the decision-maker's attitude can affect the results, this paper defines the prospect value function based on SNR which is from Mahalanobis-Taguchi system and attains the comprehensive prospect value of each program as well as the order. At last, the validity and reliability of this method is illustrated by examples which prove the method is more valuable and superiority than the other.
A Group Action Method for Construction of Strong Substitution Box
Jamal, Sajjad Shaukat; Shah, Tariq; Attaullah, Atta
2017-06-01
In this paper, the method to develop cryptographically strong substitution box is presented which can be used in multimedia security and data hiding techniques. The algorithm of construction depends on the action of a projective general linear group over the set of units of the finite commutative ring. The strength of substitution box and ability to create confusion is assessed with different available analyses. Moreover, the ability of resistance against malicious attacks is also evaluated. The substitution box is examined by bit independent criterion, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity test, linear approximation probability test and differential approximation probability test. This substitution box is equated with well-recognized substitution boxes such as AES, Gray, APA, S8, prime of residue, Xyi and Skipjack. The comparison shows encouraging results about the strength of the proposed box. The majority logic criterion is also calculated to analyze the strength and its practical implementation.
Exact Group Sequential Methods for Estimating a Binomial Proportion
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Zhengjia Chen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We first review existing sequential methods for estimating a binomial proportion. Afterward, we propose a new family of group sequential sampling schemes for estimating a binomial proportion with prescribed margin of error and confidence level. In particular, we establish the uniform controllability of coverage probability and the asymptotic optimality for such a family of sampling schemes. Our theoretical results establish the possibility that the parameters of this family of sampling schemes can be determined so that the prescribed level of confidence is guaranteed with little waste of samples. Analytic bounds for the cumulative distribution functions and expectations of sample numbers are derived. Moreover, we discuss the inherent connection of various sampling schemes. Numerical issues are addressed for improving the accuracy and efficiency of computation. Computational experiments are conducted for comparing sampling schemes. Illustrative examples are given for applications in clinical trials.
Uncertainty Analysis of Method-Based Operating Event Groups Ranking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zdenko Šimić
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Safe operation and industrial improvements are coming from the technology development and operational experience (OE feedback. A long life span for many industrial facilities makes OE very important. Proper assessment and understanding of OE remains a challenge because of organization system relations, complexity, and number of OE events acquired. One way to improve OE events understanding is to focus their investigation and analyze in detail the most important. The OE ranking method is developed to select the most important events based on the basic event parameters and the analytical hierarchy process applied at the level of event groups. This paper investigates further how uncertainty in the model affects ranking results. An analysis was performed on the set of the two databases from the 20 years of nuclear power plants in France and Germany. From all uncertainties the presented analysis selected ranking indexes as the most relevant for consideration. Here the presented analysis of uncertainty clearly shows that considering uncertainty is important for all results, especially for event groups ranked closely and next to the most important one. Together with the previously performed sensitivity analysis, uncertainty assessment provides additional insights and a better judgment of the event groups’ importance in further detailed investigation.
Nearest neighbor interaction in the Path Integral Renormalization Group method
de Silva, Wasanthi; Clay, R. Torsten
2014-03-01
The Path Integral Renormalization Group (PIRG) method is an efficient numerical algorithm for studying ground state properties of strongly correlated electron systems. The many-body ground state wave function is approximated by an optimized linear combination of Slater determinants which satisfies the variational principle. A major advantage of PIRG is that is does not suffer the Fermion sign problem of quantum Monte Carlo. Results are exact in the noninteracting limit and can be enhanced using space and spin symmetries. Many observables can be calculated using Wick's theorem. PIRG has been used predominantly for the Hubbard model with a single on-site Coulomb interaction U. We describe an extension of PIRG to the extended Hubbard model (EHM) including U and a nearest-neighbor interaction V. The EHM is particularly important in models of charge-transfer solids (organic superconductors) and at 1/4-filling drives a charge-ordered state. The presence of lattice frustration also makes studying these systems difficult. We test the method with comparisons to small clusters and long one dimensional chains, and show preliminary results for a coupled-chain model for the (TMTTF)2X materials. This work was supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-06ER46315.
Variable identification in group method of data handling methodology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, Iraci Martinez, E-mail: martinez@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bueno, Elaine Inacio [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Guarulhos, SP (Brazil)
2011-07-01
The Group Method of Data Handling - GMDH is a combinatorial multi-layer algorithm in which a network of layers and nodes is generated using a number of inputs from the data stream being evaluated. The GMDH network topology has been traditionally determined using a layer by layer pruning process based on a preselected criterion of what constitutes the best nodes at each level. The traditional GMDH method is based on an underlying assumption that the data can be modeled by using an approximation of the Volterra Series or Kolmorgorov-Gabor polynomial. A Monitoring and Diagnosis System was developed based on GMDH and Artificial Neural Network - ANN methodologies, and applied to the IPEN research Reactor IEA-R1. The GMDH was used to study the best set of variables to be used to train an ANN, resulting in a best monitoring variable estimative. The system performs the monitoring by comparing these estimative calculated values with measured ones. The IPEN Reactor Data Acquisition System is composed of 58 variables (process and nuclear variables). As the GMDH is a self-organizing methodology, the input variables choice is made automatically, and the real input variables used in the Monitoring and Diagnosis System were not showed in the final result. This work presents a study of variable identification of GMDH methodology by means of an algorithm that works in parallel with the GMDH algorithm and traces the initial variables paths, resulting in an identification of the variables that composes the best Monitoring and Diagnosis Model. (author)
Variable identification in group method of data handling methodology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, Iraci Martinez, E-mail: martinez@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bueno, Elaine Inacio [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Guarulhos, SP (Brazil)
2011-07-01
The Group Method of Data Handling - GMDH is a combinatorial multi-layer algorithm in which a network of layers and nodes is generated using a number of inputs from the data stream being evaluated. The GMDH network topology has been traditionally determined using a layer by layer pruning process based on a preselected criterion of what constitutes the best nodes at each level. The traditional GMDH method is based on an underlying assumption that the data can be modeled by using an approximation of the Volterra Series or Kolmorgorov-Gabor polynomial. A Monitoring and Diagnosis System was developed based on GMDH and Artificial Neural Network - ANN methodologies, and applied to the IPEN research Reactor IEA-R1. The GMDH was used to study the best set of variables to be used to train an ANN, resulting in a best monitoring variable estimative. The system performs the monitoring by comparing these estimative calculated values with measured ones. The IPEN Reactor Data Acquisition System is composed of 58 variables (process and nuclear variables). As the GMDH is a self-organizing methodology, the input variables choice is made automatically, and the real input variables used in the Monitoring and Diagnosis System were not showed in the final result. This work presents a study of variable identification of GMDH methodology by means of an algorithm that works in parallel with the GMDH algorithm and traces the initial variables paths, resulting in an identification of the variables that composes the best Monitoring and Diagnosis Model. (author)
A Method for Group Extraction in Complex Social Networks
Bródka, Piotr; Musial, Katarzyna; Kazienko, Przemysław
The extraction of social groups from social networks existing among employees in the company, its customers or users of various computer systems became one of the research areas of growing importance. Once we have discovered the groups, we can utilise them, in different kinds of recommender systems or in the analysis of the team structure and communication within a given population.
Accurate variational electronic structure calculations with the density matrix renormalization group
Wouters, Sebastian
2014-01-01
During the past 15 years, the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) has become increasingly important for ab initio quantum chemistry. The underlying matrix product state (MPS) ansatz is a low-rank decomposition of the full configuration interaction tensor. The virtual dimension of the MPS controls the size of the corner of the many-body Hilbert space that can be reached. Whereas the MPS ansatz will only yield an efficient description for noncritical one-dimensional systems, it can still be used as a variational ansatz for other finite-size systems. Rather large virtual dimensions are then required. The two most important aspects to reduce the corresponding computational cost are a proper choice and ordering of the active space orbitals, and the exploitation of the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian. By taking care of both aspects, DMRG becomes an efficient replacement for exact diagonalization in quantum chemistry. DMRG and Hartree-Fock theory have an analogous structure. The former can be interpreted a...
Accounting for Heterogeneity in Hedging Behavior: Comparing & Evaluating Grouping Methods
Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.; Irwin, S.H.
2011-01-01
Abstract Heterogeneity, i.e., the notion that individuals respond differently to economic stimuli, can have profound consequences for the interpretation of behavior and the formulation of agricultural policy. This paper compares and evaluates three grouping techniques that can be used to account for
Group IV direct band gap photonics: Methods, Challenges and Opportunities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard eGeiger
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The concept of direct band gap group IV materials offers a paradigm change for Si-photonics concerning the monolithic implementation of light emitters: The idea is to integrate fully compatible group IV materials with equally favorable optical properties as the chemically incompatible group III-V-based systems. The concept involves either mechanically applied strain on Ge or alloying of Ge with Sn and permits to drastically improve the insufficient radiative efficiency of Ge. The favorable optical properties result from a modified band structure transformed from an indirect to a direct one. The first demonstration of such a direct band gap laser, accomplished in GeSn, exemplifies the capability of this new concept. These systems may permit a qualitative as well as a quantitative expansion of Si-photonics into traditional but also new areas of applications, provided they can be operated energy efficiently, under ambient conditions and integrated with current Si technologies. This review aims to discuss the challenges along this path in terms of fabrication, characterization and fundamental understanding, and will elaborate on evoking opportunities of this new class of group IV-based laser materials.
Group IV direct band gap photonics: Methods, Challenges and Opportunities
Geiger, Richard; Zabel, Thomas; Sigg, Hans
2015-07-01
The concept of direct band gap group IV materials offers a paradigm change for Si-photonics concerning the monolithic implementation of light emitters: The idea is to integrate fully compatible group IV materials with equally favorable optical properties as the chemically incompatible group III-V-based systems. The concept involves either mechanically applied strain on Ge or alloying of Ge with Sn and permits to drastically improve the insufficient radiative efficiency of Ge. The favorable optical properties result from a modified band structure transformed from an indirect to a direct one. The first demonstration of such a direct band gap laser, accomplished in GeSn, exemplifies the capability of this new concept. These systems may permit a qualitative as well as a quantitative expansion of Si-photonics into traditional but also new areas of applications, provided they can be operated energy efficiently, under ambient conditions and integrated with current Si technologies. This review aims to discuss the challenges along this path in terms of fabrication, characterization and fundamental understanding, and will elaborate on evoking opportunities of this new class of group IV-based laser materials.
Renormalization group methods for the Reynolds stress transport equations
Rubinstein, R.
1992-01-01
The Yakhot-Orszag renormalization group is used to analyze the pressure gradient-velocity correlation and return to isotropy terms in the Reynolds stress transport equations. The perturbation series for the relevant correlations, evaluated to lowest order in the epsilon-expansion of the Yakhot-Orszag theory, are infinite series in tensor product powers of the mean velocity gradient and its transpose. Formal lowest order Pade approximations to the sums of these series produce a rapid pressure strain model of the form proposed by Launder, Reece, and Rodi, and a return to isotropy model of the form proposed by Rotta. In both cases, the model constants are computed theoretically. The predicted Reynolds stress ratios in simple shear flows are evaluated and compared with experimental data. The possibility is discussed of deriving higher order nonlinear models by approximating the sums more accurately. The Yakhot-Orszag renormalization group provides a systematic procedure for deriving turbulence models. Typical applications have included theoretical derivation of the universal constants of isotropic turbulence theory, such as the Kolmogorov constant, and derivation of two equation models, again with theoretically computed constants and low Reynolds number forms of the equations. Recent work has applied this formalism to Reynolds stress modeling, previously in the form of a nonlinear eddy viscosity representation of the Reynolds stresses, which can be used to model the simplest normal stress effects. The present work attempts to apply the Yakhot-Orszag formalism to Reynolds stress transport modeling.
Method and system for source authentication in group communications
Roy-Chowdhury, Ayan (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
A method and system for authentication is provided. A central node for issuing certificates to a plurality of nodes associated with the central node in a network is also provided. The central node receives a first key from at least one node from among the plurality of nodes and generates a second key based on the received first key and generates a certificate for the at least one node. The generated certificate is transmitted to the at least one node.
Vaughn, Lisa M; Lohmueller, MaryAnn
2014-08-01
Group-level assessment (GLA) is a qualitative and participatory large group method in which timely and valid data are collaboratively generated and interactively evaluated with relevant stakeholders leading to the development of participant-driven data and relevant action plans. This method is useful across a wide range of evaluation purposes in many environments. GLA involves bringing a large group of participants together to build a common database through the co-identification of relevant needs, judgments, and priorities. The GLA process proceeds through the following seven steps: climate setting, generating, appreciating, reflecting, understanding, selecting, and action. This article describes the methodological development and process of conducting a GLA and its various applications across the evaluation spectrum. We highlight several exemplars where GLA was used in order to demonstrate the particular nuances of working with different sizes and types of groups and to elaborate on our learnings from the wide applicability of the method.
Evaluating user reputation in online rating systems via an iterative group-based ranking method
Gao, Jian
2015-01-01
Reputation is a valuable asset in online social lives and it has drawn increased attention. How to evaluate user reputation in online rating systems is especially significant due to the existence of spamming attacks. To address this issue, so far, a variety of methods have been proposed, including network-based methods, quality-based methods and group-based ranking method. In this paper, we propose an iterative group-based ranking (IGR) method by introducing an iterative reputation-allocation process into the original group-based ranking (GR) method. More specifically, users with higher reputation have higher weights in dominating the corresponding group sizes. The reputation of users and the corresponding group sizes are iteratively updated until they become stable. Results on two real data sets suggest that the proposed IGR method has better performance and its robustness is considerably improved comparing with the original GR method. Our work highlights the positive role of users' grouping behavior towards...
Peer Assessment in Group Projects Accounting for Assessor Reliability by an Iterative Method
Ko, Sung-Seok
2014-01-01
This study proposes an advanced method to factor in the contributions of individual group members engaged in an integrated group project using peer assessment procedures. Conway et al. proposed the Individual Weight Factor (IWF) method for peer assessment which has been extensively developed over the years. However, most methods associated with…
A method to find groups of orthogous genes across multiple genomes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ALMEIDA, N.F.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this work we propose a simple method to obtain groups of homologous genes across multiple (k organisms, called kGC. Our method takes as input all-against-all Blastp comparisons and produces groups of homologous sequences. First, homologies among groups of paralogs of all the k compared genomes are found, followed by homologies of groups among k - 1 genomes and so on, until groups belonging exclusively to only one genome, that is, groups of one genome not presenting strong similarities with any group of any other genome, are identified. We have used our method to determine homologous groups across six Actinobacterial complete genomes. To validate kGC, we first investigate the Pfam classification of the homologous groups, and after compare our results with those produced by OrthoMCL. Although kGC is much simpler than OrthoMCL it presented similar results with respect to Pfam classification.
Christian, Karen Jeanne
2011-01-01
Students often use study groups to prepare for class or exams; yet to date, we know very little about how these groups actually function. This study looked at the ways in which undergraduate organic chemistry students prepared for exams through self-initiated study groups. We sought to characterize the methods of social regulation, levels of…
77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices
2012-03-26
... National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial...: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is forming a Work Group (WG) to examine alternative methods for testing the accuracy of commercial measuring devices including, but not limited...
An adaptive distance-based group contribution method for thermodynamic property prediction.
He, Tanjin; Li, Shuang; Chi, Yawei; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Wang, Zhi; Yang, Bin; He, Xin; You, Xiaoqing
2016-09-14
In the search for an accurate yet inexpensive method to predict thermodynamic properties of large hydrocarbon molecules, we have developed an automatic and adaptive distance-based group contribution (DBGC) method. The method characterizes the group interaction within a molecule with an exponential decay function of the group-to-group distance, defined as the number of bonds between the groups. A database containing the molecular bonding information and the standard enthalpy of formation (Hf,298K) for alkanes, alkenes, and their radicals at the M06-2X/def2-TZVP//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory was constructed. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) fitting were used to obtain the contributions from individual groups and group interactions for further predictions. Compared with the conventional group additivity (GA) method, the DBGC method predicts Hf,298K for alkanes more accurately using the same training sets. Particularly for some highly branched large hydrocarbons, the discrepancy with the literature data is smaller for the DBGC method than the conventional GA method. When extended to other molecular classes, including alkenes and radicals, the overall accuracy level of this new method is still satisfactory.
Group supervision in a private setting: Practice and method for theory and practice in psychotherapy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Graziana Mangiacavallo
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The report aims to tell the experience of a supervision group in a private setting. The group consists of professional psychotherapists driven by the more experienced practitioner, who shares a clinical reasoning on psychotherapy with younger colleagues. The report aims to present the supervision group as a methode and to showcase its features. The supervision group becomes a container of professional experiences that speak of the new way of doing psychotherapy.
MULTIPLE CRITERA METHODS WITH FOCUS ON ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS AND GROUP DECISION MAKING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lidija Zadnik-Stirn
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Managing natural resources is a group multiple criteria decision making problem. In this paper the analytic hierarchy process is the chosen method for handling the natural resource problems. The one decision maker problem is discussed and, three methods: the eigenvector method, data envelopment analysis method, and logarithmic least squares method are presented for the derivation of the priority vector. Further, the group analytic hierarchy process is discussed and six methods for the aggregation of individual judgments or priorities: weighted arithmetic mean method, weighted geometric mean method, and four methods based on data envelopment analysis are compared. The case study on land use in Slovenia is applied. The conclusions review consistency, sensitivity analyses, and some future directions of research.
A geometrical formulation of the renormalization group method for global analysis
Kunihiro, T
1995-01-01
On the basis of the classical theory of envelope,we formulate the renormalization group (RG) method for global analysis, recently proposed by Goldenfeld et al. It is clarified why the RG equation improves things.
Utopian preference mapping and the utopian preference method for group multiobjective optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Yuda; HONG Zhenjie; ZHOU Xuanwei
2003-01-01
The individual utopian preference and the group utopian preference on a set of alternatives, and the concept of the utopian preference mapping from the individual utopian preferences, to the group utopian preference, based on the utopian points of the corresponding multiobjective optimization models proposed by decision makers are introduced. Through studying the various fundamental properties of the utopian preference mapping, a method for solving group multiobjective optimization problems with multiple multiobjective optimization models is constructed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ceriani, Roberta; Gani, Rafiqul; Meirelles, A.J.A.
2009-01-01
In the present work a group contribution method is proposed for the estimation of the heat capacity of organic liquids as a function of temperature for fatty compounds found in edible oil and biofuels industries. The data bank used for regression of the group contribution parameters (1395 values...
Effects of the School-to-Work Group Method among Young People
Koivisto, Petri; Vuori, Jukka; Nykyri, Elina
2007-01-01
This study examines effects of the School-to-Work Group Method among 17-25-year-old young people facing the transition from vocational college to work. After baseline measurement (N=416) participants were randomized into experimental and control groups. The results of ten month follow-up (N=334) showed notable beneficial impacts of the group…
Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements
Bell, Zane W.; Huei-Ho, Chuen; Brown, Gilbert M.; Hurlbut, Charles
2003-04-08
Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.
Method for Improving Mg Doping During Group-III Nitride MOCVD
Creighton, J. Randall; Wang, George T.
2008-11-11
A method for improving Mg doping of Group III-N materials grown by MOCVD preventing condensation in the gas phase or on reactor surfaces of adducts of magnesocene and ammonia by suitably heating reactor surfaces between the location of mixing of the magnesocene and ammonia reactants and the Group III-nitride surface whereon growth is to occur.
The Density Matrix Renormalization Group applied to single-particle Quantum Mechanics
1999-01-01
A simplified version of White's Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm has been used to find the ground state of the free particle on a tight-binding lattice. We generalize this algorithm to treat the tight-binding particle in an arbitrary potential and to find excited states. We thereby solve a discretized version of the single-particle Schr\\"odinger equation, which we can then take to the continuum limit. This allows us to obtain very accurate results for the lowest energy le...
A developmental teaching method applied to a select group of nursing students.
James, R M
1994-01-01
This study investigates the relationships between Integrated Skills Reinforcement (ISR), an instructional method that reinforces basic skills, student reading comprehension and student attrition rates using a quasi-experimental method. Ninety-three junior level baccalaureate nursing students at a city university participated in the study. One class of 42 students taught by the ISR method was designated the treatment group. Another class of 51 students taught by the lecture method served as the comparison group. Reading comprehension data were collected by retest and posttest the second and twelfth weeks of the semester, respectively, using the Descriptive Test of Language Skills (DTLS). Differences between the comparison and treatment group mean scores on the DTLS were not statistically significant (p lecture method and the ISR method effectively improve reading comprehension levels. Comparison group experienced attrition at 22.5 percent (13 students). By contrast, all 42 students in the treatment group completed the course. Possibly, some elements of the ISR method viably reduce attrition in the school of nursing at this city university.
Methods and compositions for diagnosing and preventing a group B streptococcal infection
Brady, Linda Jeannine; Seifert, Kyle N.; Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Bohnsack, John F.
2009-09-15
The present invention provides a group B streptococcal (GBS) surface antigen, designated epsilon antigen, that is co-expressed with the delta antigen on a subset of serotype III GBS. Epsilon is expressed on more pathogenic Restriction Digest Pattern (RDP) III-3 GBS, but not on RDP types 1, 2, or 4. Accordingly, the present invention provides compositions and methods for detecting a group B streptococcus serotype III, RDP III-3 strain. Vaccines and methods of identifying agents which inhibit adhesion of a group B streptococcal cell to a host cell are also provided.
Process synthesis, design and analysis using a process-group contribution method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kumar Tula, Anjan; Eden, Mario R.; Gani, Rafiqul
2015-01-01
This paper describes the development and application of a process-group contribution method to model, simulate and synthesize chemical processes. Process flowsheets are generated in the same way as atoms or groups of atoms are combined to form molecules in computer aided molecular design (CAMD......) techniques. The fundamental pillars of this framework are the definition and use of functional process-groups (building blocks) representing a wide range of process operations, flowsheet connectivity rules to join the process-groups to generate all the feasible flowsheet alternatives and flowsheet property...
The focus group method and possibilities of its application in kinantropological research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luděk Šebek
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In our article we deal with the problematics of focus groups and their implementation in kinantropological research. The primary target of an analysis of electronic information resources of the Palacky University was to look up research projects built upon the of focus group metodology. The analysis of accessible articles put forward that particularly in the field of kinantropological research, the method is used scarcely. The main objective of our article was to introduce the focus group as a valuable research method and outline the potential applications in kinantropology. On the basis of the summarized information on focus groups research we concluded that the focus groups may represent an effective tool for capturing such phenomenons as the affect of social environment, subcultural aspects, or self efficacy on development of attitudes to lifelong learning in the context of motor activity. The confirmation of the outlined possibilities will be the subject of our further research.
Cross-Cultural Group Counseling and the Use of the Sentence Completion Method.
Ruiz, Sandoval Aureliano
1984-01-01
Describes the use of the sentence completion method in multi-ethnic groups using a set of eight cross-cultural sentence items. Participants' feedback suggested that the method has been instrumental in the exploration and conceptual understanding of cultural, ethnical and lingual aspects. (JAC)
A Novel Bit-level Image Encryption Method Based on Chaotic Map and Dynamic Grouping
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张国基; 沈彦
2012-01-01
In this paper,a novel bit-level image encryption method based on dynamic grouping is proposed.In the proposed method,the plain-image is divided into several groups randomly,then permutation-diffusion process on bit level is carried out.The keystream generated by logistic map is related to the plain-image,which confuses the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image.The computer simulation results of statistical analysis,information entropy analysis and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed encryption method is secure and reliable enough to be used for communication application.
Kurnyavko, O. L.; Shirokov, I. V.
2016-07-01
We offer a method for constructing invariants of the coadjoint representation of Lie groups that reduces this problem to known problems of linear algebra. This method is based on passing to symplectic coordinates on the coadjoint representation orbits, which play the role of local coordinates on those orbits. The corresponding transition functions are their parametric equations. Eliminating the symplectic coordinates from the transition functions, we can obtain the complete set of invariants. The proposed method allows solving the problem of constructing invariants of the coadjoint representation for Lie groups with an arbitrary dimension and structure.
A Novel Multicriteria Group Decision Making Approach With Intuitionistic Fuzzy SIR Method
Chai, Junyi
2011-01-01
The superiority and inferiority ranking (SIR) method is a generation of the well-known PROMETHEE method, which can be more efficient to deal with multi-criterion decision making (MCDM) problem. Intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs), as an important extension of fuzzy sets (IFs), include both membership functions and non-membership functions and can be used to, more precisely describe uncertain information. In real world, decision situations are usually under uncertain environment and involve multiple individuals who have their own points of view on handing of decision problems. In order to solve uncertainty group MCDM problem, we propose a novel intuitionistic fuzzy SIR method in this paper. This approach uses intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation operators and SIR ranking methods to handle uncertain information; integrate individual opinions into group opinions; make decisions on multiple-criterion; and finally structure a specific decision map. The proposed approach is illustrated in a simulation of group decision ma...
Group Delay Spectrum Estimation Method of Improvement of SNR for MST Radar Data
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Dr. K. Nagi Reddy
2015-03-01
Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of this work is to study the use of phase based features, specifically, group delay function based features. The group delay function has been used in clean and noisy environments. The group delay function can be ill-behaved when the signal is not minimum phase (in particular, when the zeros of the transfer function are on the unit circle. To solve this, it was shown in [1] that modified group delay function (MODGDF is a practical estimate of the minimum phase group delay function. In this paper, we propose to use the product of the power spectrum and the complex group delay function (CGDF, from the product spectrum. This spectrum combines the information from the magnitude spectrum as well as the phase spectrum. Finally computation and comparison of SNR‘s are being done on these three methods.
A Group-Period Phase Comparison Method Based on Equivalent Phase Comparison Frequency
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DU Bao-Qiang; ZHOU Wei; DONG Shao-Feng; ZHOU Hai-Niu
2009-01-01
Based on the principle of equivalent phase comparison frequency, we propose a group-period phase comparison method. This method can be used to reveal the inherent relations between periodic signals and the change laws of the phase difference. If these laws are applied in the processing of the mutual relations between frequency signals, phase comparison can be accomplished without frequency normalization. Experimental results show that the method can enhance the measurement resolution to 10-13/s in the time domain.
New applications of the renormalization group method in physics: a brief introduction.
Meurice, Y; Perry, R; Tsai, S-W
2011-07-13
The renormalization group (RG) method developed by Ken Wilson more than four decades ago has revolutionized the way we think about problems involving a broad range of energy scales such as phase transitions, turbulence, continuum limits and bifurcations in dynamical systems. The Theme Issue provides articles reviewing recent progress made using the RG method in atomic, condensed matter, nuclear and particle physics. In the following, we introduce these articles in a way that emphasizes common themes and the universal aspects of the method.
Multi-group pin power reconstruction method based on colorset form functions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Hao
2009-01-01
A multi-group pin power reconstruction method that fully exploits nodal information obtained from global coarse mesh solution has been developed.It expands the intra-nodal flux distributions into nonseparable semi-analytic basis functions,and a colorset based form function generating method is proposed,which can accurately model the spectral interaction occurring at assembly interface.To demonstrate its accuracy and applicability to realistic problems,the new method is tested against two benchmark problems,including a mixed-oxide fuel problem.The results show that the new method is comparable in accuracy to fine-mesh methods.
The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: The Voronoi-Delaunay Method Catalog of Galaxy Groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerke, Brian F.; /UC, Berkeley; Newman, Jeffrey A.; /LBNL, NSD; Davis, Marc; /UC, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Marinoni, Christian; /Brera Observ.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Conroy, Charlie; Cooper, Michael C.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Faber, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; /Lick Observ.; Kaiser, Nick; /Hawaii U.; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; /Lick Observ.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; /Maryland U.
2012-02-14
We use the first 25% of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey spectroscopic data to identify groups and clusters of galaxies in redshift space. The data set contains 8370 galaxies with confirmed redshifts in the range 0.7 {<=} z {<=} 1.4, over one square degree on the sky. Groups are identified using an algorithm (the Voronoi-Delaunay Method) that has been shown to accurately reproduce the statistics of groups in simulated DEEP2-like samples. We optimize this algorithm for the DEEP2 survey by applying it to realistic mock galaxy catalogs and assessing the results using a stringent set of criteria for measuring group-finding success, which we develop and describe in detail here. We find in particular that the group-finder can successfully identify {approx}78% of real groups and that {approx}79% of the galaxies that are true members of groups can be identified as such. Conversely, we estimate that {approx}55% of the groups we find can be definitively identified with real groups and that {approx}46% of the galaxies we place into groups are interloper field galaxies. Most importantly, we find that it is possible to measure the distribution of groups in redshift and velocity dispersion, n({sigma}, z), to an accuracy limited by cosmic variance, for dispersions greater than 350 km s{sup -1}. We anticipate that such measurements will allow strong constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy in the future. Finally, we present the first DEEP2 group catalog, which assigns 32% of the galaxies to 899 distinct groups with two or more members, 153 of which have velocity dispersions above 350 km s{sup -1}. We provide locations, redshifts and properties for this high-dispersion subsample. This catalog represents the largest sample to date of spectroscopically detected groups at z {approx} 1.
The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: The Voronoi-Delaunay Method Catalog of Galaxy Groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerke, Brian F.; /UC, Berkeley; Newman, Jeffrey A.; /LBNL, NSD; Davis, Marc; /UC, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Marinoni, Christian; /Brera Observ.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Conroy, Charlie; Cooper, Michael C.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Faber, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; /Lick Observ.; Kaiser, Nick; /Hawaii U.; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; /Lick Observ.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; /Maryland U.
2012-02-14
We use the first 25% of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey spectroscopic data to identify groups and clusters of galaxies in redshift space. The data set contains 8370 galaxies with confirmed redshifts in the range 0.7 {<=} z {<=} 1.4, over one square degree on the sky. Groups are identified using an algorithm (the Voronoi-Delaunay Method) that has been shown to accurately reproduce the statistics of groups in simulated DEEP2-like samples. We optimize this algorithm for the DEEP2 survey by applying it to realistic mock galaxy catalogs and assessing the results using a stringent set of criteria for measuring group-finding success, which we develop and describe in detail here. We find in particular that the group-finder can successfully identify {approx}78% of real groups and that {approx}79% of the galaxies that are true members of groups can be identified as such. Conversely, we estimate that {approx}55% of the groups we find can be definitively identified with real groups and that {approx}46% of the galaxies we place into groups are interloper field galaxies. Most importantly, we find that it is possible to measure the distribution of groups in redshift and velocity dispersion, n({sigma}, z), to an accuracy limited by cosmic variance, for dispersions greater than 350 km s{sup -1}. We anticipate that such measurements will allow strong constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy in the future. Finally, we present the first DEEP2 group catalog, which assigns 32% of the galaxies to 899 distinct groups with two or more members, 153 of which have velocity dispersions above 350 km s{sup -1}. We provide locations, redshifts and properties for this high-dispersion subsample. This catalog represents the largest sample to date of spectroscopically detected groups at z {approx} 1.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michelle Redman-MacLaren
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Background: Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective: To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. Design: A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or ‘chunks’ of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. Results: New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data ‘chunks’. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Conclusions: Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action.
A simple three step method for selective placement of organic groups in mesoporous silica thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franceschini, Esteban A. [Gerencia Química, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Llave, Ezequiel de la; Williams, Federico J. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física and INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soler-Illia, Galo J.A.A., E-mail: galo.soler.illia@gmail.com [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física and INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Nanosistemas, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, 25 de Mayo y Francia (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2016-02-01
Selective functionalization of mesoporous silica thin films was achieved using a three step method. The first step consists in an outer surface functionalization, followed by washing off the structuring agent (second step), leaving the inner surface of the pores free to be functionalized in the third step. This reproducible method permits to anchor a volatile silane group in the outer film surface, and a second type of silane group in the inner surface of the pores. As a concept test we modified the outer surface of a mesoporous silica film with trimethylsilane (–Si–(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) groups and the inner pore surface with propylamino (–Si–(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}–NH{sub 2}) groups. The obtained silica films were characterized by Environmental Ellipsometric Porosimetry (EEP), EDS, XPS, contact angle and electron microscopy. The selectively functionalized silica (SF) shows an amount of surface amino functions 4.3 times lower than the one-step functionalized (OSF) silica samples. The method presented here can be extended to a combination of silane chlorides and alkoxides as functional groups, opening up a new route toward the synthesis of multifunctional mesoporous thin films with precisely localized organic functions. - Highlights: • Selective functionalization of mesoporous silica thin films was achieved using a three step method. • A volatile silane group is anchored by evaporation on the outer film surface. • A second silane is deposited in the inner surface of the pores by post-grafting. • Contact angle, EDS and XPS measurements show different proportions of amino groups on both surfaces. • This method can be extended to a combination of silane chlorides and alkoxides functional groups.
Selecting a comparison group for 5-year oral and pharyngeal cancer survivors: Two methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Logan Henrietta L
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess potential long-term consequences of cancer treatment, studies that include comparison groups are needed. These comparison groups should be selected in a way that allows the subtle long-range effects of cancer therapy to be detected and distinguishes them from the effects of aging and other risk factors. The purpose of this investigation was to test two methods of recruiting a comparison group for 5-year oral and pharyngeal cancer survivors (peer-nominated and listed sample with emphasis on feasibility and the quality of the match. Methods Participants were drawn from a pool of 5-year survivors treated at a large Southeastern hospital. A peer-nominated sample was solicited from the survivors. A listed sample matched on sex, age, and zip code was purchased. Telephone interviews were conducted by a professional call center. Results The following represent our key findings: The quality of matching between survivors and listed sample was better than that between survivors and peer-nominated group in age and sex. The quality of matching between the two methods on other key variables did not differ except for education, with the peer method providing a better match for the survivors than the listed sample. The yield for the listed sample method was greater than for the peer-nominated method. The cost per completed interview was greater for the peer-nominated method than the listed sample. Conclusion This study not only documents the methodological challenges in selecting a comparison group for studies examining the late effects of cancer treatment among older individuals but also documents challenges in matching groups that potentially have disproportionate levels of comorbidities and at-risk health behaviors.
Form gene clustering method about pan-ethnic-group products based on emotional semantic
Chen, Dengkai; Ding, Jingjing; Gao, Minzhuo; Ma, Danping; Liu, Donghui
2016-09-01
The use of pan-ethnic-group products form knowledge primarily depends on a designer's subjective experience without user participation. The majority of studies primarily focus on the detection of the perceptual demands of consumers from the target product category. A pan-ethnic-group products form gene clustering method based on emotional semantic is constructed. Consumers' perceptual images of the pan-ethnic-group products are obtained by means of product form gene extraction and coding and computer aided product form clustering technology. A case of form gene clustering about the typical pan-ethnic-group products is investigated which indicates that the method is feasible. This paper opens up a new direction for the future development of product form design which improves the agility of product design process in the era of Industry 4.0.
Two-Group Theory of the Feynman-Alpha Method for Reactivity Measurement in ADS
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Lénárd Pál
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The theory of the Feynman-alpha method, which is used to determine the subcritical reactivity of systems driven by an external source such as an ADS, is extended to two energy groups with the inclusion of delayed neutrons. This paper presents a full derivation of the variance to mean formula with the inclusion of two energy groups and delayed neutrons. The results are illustrated quantitatively and discussed in physical terms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nazarova Galina
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Calculation method to determine the group composition of the heavy fraction of vacuum distillate with high content of saturated hydrocarbons, obtained by vacuum distillation of the residue from the West Siberian oil with subsequent hydrotreating, are given in this research. The method is built on the basis of calculation the physico-chemical characteristics and the group composition of vacuum distillate according to the fractional composition and density considering with high content of saturated hydrocarbons in the fraction. Calculation method allows to determine the content of paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic hydrocarbons and the resins in vacuum distillate with high accuracy and can be used in refineries for rapid determination of the group composition of vacuum distillate.
Multi-criteria group decision making with fuzzy data:an extension of the VIKOR method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wenqi Jiang; Jennifer Shang
2015-01-01
The VIKOR method is a multi-criteria decision making aid, which employs linear normalization to offer compromise solu-tions and has been successful y applied to various group decision making problems. However, the conventional VIKOR techniques used to integrate group judgments and the information loss arising from defuzzification are problematic and distort final outcomes. An improved integration method, which is optimization-based, is proposed. And it can handle fuzzy criteria values and weights. The precondition for accurately defuzzifying triangular fuzzy num-bers is identified. Several effective defuzzification procedures are proposed to improve the extant VIKOR, and a comprehensive evaluation framework is offered to aid multi-criteria group decision making. Final y, a numerical example is provided to il ustrate the practicability of the proposed method.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张素英; 邓子辰
2004-01-01
For the constrained generalized Hamiltonian system with dissipation, by introducing Lagrange multiplier and using projection technique, the Lie group integration method was presented, which can preserve the inherent structure of dynamic system and the constraint-invariant. Firstly, the constrained generalized Hamiltonian system with dissipative was converted to the non-constraint generalized Hamiltonian system, then Lie group integration algorithm for the non-constraint generalized Hamiltonian system was discussed, finally the projection method for generalized Hamiltonian system with constraint was given. It is found that the constraint invariant is ensured by projection technique, and after introducing Lagrange multiplier the Lie group character of the dynamic system can't be destroyed while projecting to the constraint manifold. The discussion is restricted to the case of holonomic constraint. A presented numerical example shows the effectiveness of the method.
Group decision-making approach for flood vulnerability identification using the fuzzy VIKOR method
Lee, G.; Jun, K. S.; Chung, E.-S.
2015-04-01
This study proposes an improved group decision making (GDM) framework that combines the VIKOR method with data fuzzification to quantify the spatial flood vulnerability including multiple criteria. In general, GDM method is an effective tool for formulating a compromise solution that involves various decision makers since various stakeholders may have different perspectives on their flood risk/vulnerability management responses. The GDM approach is designed to achieve consensus building that reflects the viewpoints of each participant. The fuzzy VIKOR method was developed to solve multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problems with conflicting and noncommensurable criteria. This comprising method can be used to obtain a nearly ideal solution according to all established criteria. This approach effectively can propose some compromising decisions by combining the GDM method and fuzzy VIKOR method. The spatial flood vulnerability of the southern Han River using the GDM approach combined with the fuzzy VIKOR method was compared with the spatial flood vulnerability using general MCDM methods, such as the fuzzy TOPSIS and classical GDM methods (i.e., Borda, Condorcet, and Copeland). As a result, the proposed fuzzy GDM approach can reduce the uncertainty in the data confidence and weight derivation techniques. Thus, the combination of the GDM approach with the fuzzy VIKOR method can provide robust prioritization because it actively reflects the opinions of various groups and considers uncertainty in the input data.
Prediction of Hansen Solubility Parameters with a New Group-Contribution Method
Stefanis, Emmanuel; Panayiotou, Costas
2008-04-01
A group-contribution method for the estimation of Hansen solubility parameters of pure organic compounds is presented. It uses two kinds of characteristic groups: first-order groups that describe the basic molecular structure of compounds and second-order groups, which are based on the conjugation theory and improve the accuracy of predictions. A large variety of characteristic groups ensure the prediction of Hansen solubility parameters for a broad series of organic compounds, including those having complex multi-ring, heterocyclic, and aromatic structures. The predictions are exclusively based on the molecular structure of compounds, and no experimental data are needed. The predicted values permit a fairly reliable selection of solvents based on the radius of a Hansen solubility parameter sphere or on a Teas parameter ternary plot. Especially designed algorithms permit the preparation of a list of new molecular structures which, if synthesized, could be the ideally suited solvents for a series of corresponding applications.
Design of butter tube group filling method%黄油桶装方法研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李瑞虎; 袁越锦
2012-01-01
A butter tube group filling method and a group filling system are designed to ensure the quality of butter filling and improve the filling efficiency. The system makes butter tube simultaneous group running, simultaneous primary group filling, simultaneous respective group measurement (respective compensation come true. The whole work process is controlled by PLC.%设计了成组灌装方法和灌装系统,实现黄油桶成组同步运行,成组同步初灌装,成组同步分别计量、分别补偿,保证黄油灌装质量,提高灌装效率.整个工作过程用PLC(Programmable Logic Controller,可编程控制器)控制.
METHOD OF GROUP OBJECTS FORMING FOR SPACE-BASED REMOTE SENSING OF THE EARTH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. N. Grigoriev
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Subject of Research. Research findings of the specific application of space-based optical-electronic and radar means for the Earth remote sensing are considered. The subject matter of the study is the current planning of objects survey on the underlying surface in order to increase the effectiveness of sensing system due to the rational use of its resources. Method. New concept of a group object, stochastic swath and stochastic length of the route is introduced. The overview of models for single, group objects and their parameters is given. The criterion for the existence of the group object based on two single objects is formulated. The method for group objects formation while current survey planning has been developed and its description is presented. The method comprises several processing stages for data about objects with the calculation of new parameters, the stochastic characteristics of space means and validates the spatial size of the object value of the stochastic swath and stochastic length of the route. The strict mathematical description of techniques for model creation of a group object based on data about a single object and onboard special complex facilities in difficult conditions of registration of spatial data is given. Main Results. The developed method is implemented on the basis of modern geographic information system in the form of a software tool layout with advanced tools of processing and analysis of spatial data in vector format. Experimental studies of the forming method for the group of objects were carried out on a different real object environment using the parameters of modern national systems of the Earth remote sensing detailed observation Canopus-B and Resurs-P. Practical Relevance. The proposed models and method are focused on practical implementation using vector spatial data models and modern geoinformation technologies. Practical value lies in the reduction in the amount of consumable resources by means of
Protecting groups for RNA synthesis: an increasing need for selective preparative methods.
Somoza, Alvaro
2008-12-01
RNA can be chemically synthesized by automated DNA/RNA synthesizers, using protected ribonucleosides activated as phosphoramidites. The efficiency of the synthesis depends greatly on the protecting groups used, especially the protecting group on the 2'-hydroxyl functionality. The strategies employed to place the protecting groups on the desired functionality are quite inefficient, requiring additional modifications of the substrate, or leading to mixtures of protected compounds. In this tutorial review, the methods available for the selective protection of ribonucleosides are commented on, introducing the reader to the synthetic challenges involved.
Measuring Group Synchrony: A Cluster-Phase Method for Analyzing Multivariate Movement Time-Series
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Michael eRichardson
2012-10-01
Full Text Available A new method for assessing group synchrony is introduced as being potentially useful for objectively determining degree of group cohesiveness or entitativity. The cluster-phase method of Frank and Richardson (2010 was used to analyze movement data from the rocking chair movements of six-member groups who rocked their chairs while seated in a circle facing the center. In some trials group members had no information about others’ movements (their eyes were shut or they had their eyes open and gazed at a marker in the center of the group. As predicted, the group level synchrony measure was able to distinguish between situations where synchrony would have been possible and situations where it would be impossible. Moreover, other aspects of the analysis illustrated how the cluster phase measures can be used to determine the type of patterning of group synchrony, and, when integrated with multi-level modeling, can be used to examine individual-level differences in synchrony and dyadic level synchrony as well.
Validation of a blood group genotyping method based on high-resolution melting curve analysis.
Gong, Tianxiang; Hong, Ying; Wang, Naihong; Fu, Xuemei; Zhou, Changhua
2014-01-01
The detection of polymorphism is the basis of blood group genotyping and phenotype prediction. Genotyping may be useful to determine blood groups when serologic results are unclear. The development and application of different methods for blood group genotyping may be needed as a substitute for blood group typing. The purpose of this study is to establish an approach for blood group genotyping based on a melting curve analysis of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using DNA extracted from whole blood, we developed and validated a DNA typing method for detecting DO*01/DO*02, DO*01/DI*02, LU*01/LU*02, and GYPB*03/GYBP*04 alleles using a melting curve analysis. All assays were confirmed with a commercial reagent containing sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP), and a cohort of the samples was confirmed with sequencing. Results for all blood groups were within the range of specificity and assay variability. Genotypes of 300 blood donors were fully consistent with PCR-SSP data. The obtained genotype distribution is in complete concordance with existing data for the Chinese population. There are several advantages for this approach of blood group genotyping: lower contamination rates with PCR products in this laboratory, ease of performance, automation potential, and rapid cycling time.
Evaluation of Cloud Services: A Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Group Decision Making Method
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Santoso Wibowo
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making method for evaluating the performance of Cloud services in an uncertain environment. Intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are used to better model the subjectivity and imprecision in the performance evaluation process. An effective algorithm is developed based on the technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution and the Choquet integral operator for adequately solving the performance evaluation problem. An example is presented for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed method for solving the multi-criteria group decision making problem in real situations.
[Research progress of real-time quantitative PCR method for group A rotavirus detection].
Guo, Yan-Qing; Li, Dan-Di; Duan, Zhao-Jun
2013-11-01
Group A rotavirus is one of the most significant etiological agents which causes acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. So far, several method which includes electron microscopy (EM), enzyme immunoassay (EIA), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)and Real-time Quantitative PCR has been established for the detection of rotavirus. Compared with other methods, Real-time quantitative PCR have advantages in specificity, sensitivity, genotyping and quantitative accuracy. This article shows a overview of the application of real-time quantitative PCR technique to detecte group A rotavirus.
Beatriz Carlini-Cotrim
1996-01-01
Descreve-se e discute-se o grupo focal, método qualitativo de coleta de dados de ampla aplicação na Saúde Pública. Especial ênfase é conferida às potencialidades do uso do grupo focal em investigações, na área de abuso de drogas.The focus group, a qualitative research method useful for Public Health investigation, is described and discussed. The potential application of the focus group method in drug abuse research in Brazil is emphasized.
The Renormalization-Group Method Applied to Asymptotic Analysis of Vector Fields
Kunihiro, T
1996-01-01
The renormalization group method of Goldenfeld, Oono and their collaborators is applied to asymptotic analysis of vector fields. The method is formulated on the basis of the theory of envelopes, as was done for scalar fields. This formulation actually completes the discussion of the previous work for scalar equations. It is shown in a generic way that the method applied to equations with a bifurcation leads to the Landau-Stuart and the (time-dependent) Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is confirmed that this method is actually a powerful theory for the reduction of the dynamics as the reductive perturbation method is. Some examples for ordinary diferential equations, such as the forced Duffing, the Lotka-Volterra and the Lorenz equations, are worked out in this method: The time evolution of the solution of the Lotka-Volterra equation is explicitly given, while the center manifolds of the Lorenz equation are constructed in a simple way in the RG method.
Grey situation group decision-making method based on prospect theory.
Zhang, Na; Fang, Zhigeng; Liu, Xiaqing
2014-01-01
This paper puts forward a grey situation group decision-making method on the basis of prospect theory, in view of the grey situation group decision-making problems that decisions are often made by multiple decision experts and those experts have risk preferences. The method takes the positive and negative ideal situation distance as reference points, defines positive and negative prospect value function, and introduces decision experts' risk preference into grey situation decision-making to make the final decision be more in line with decision experts' psychological behavior. Based on TOPSIS method, this paper determines the weight of each decision expert, sets up comprehensive prospect value matrix for decision experts' evaluation, and finally determines the optimal situation. At last, this paper verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the method by means of a specific example.
Rapid method for identification of group B streptococci in neonatal blood cultures.
Holmes, R. L.; Harada, W A
1981-01-01
A rapid technique used for the identification of Streptococcus agalactiae, Lancefield group B, from the blood cultures of two neonatal infants is reported. The method utilized the Phadebact Streptococcus Test System (Pharmacia Diagnostics, Piscataway, N.J.) and the supernatant from 13- and 14-h blood cultures. Additional studies with simulated neonatal blood cultures revealed that this method was reproducible. Additional studies also revealed that some non-specific agglutination did occur, wh...
THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: THE VORONOI-DELAUNAY METHOD CATALOG OF GALAXY GROUPS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerke, Brian F. [KIPAC, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 29, Menlo Park, CA 94725 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Davis, Marc [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0424, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dutton, Aaron A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California-Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Konidaris, Nicholas; Lin, Lihwai [Astronomy Department, Caltech 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Noeske, Kai [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rosario, David J. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstr. 1, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yan, Renbin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)
2012-05-20
We present a public catalog of galaxy groups constructed from the spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the fourth data release from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) Galaxy Redshift Survey, including the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). The catalog contains 1165 groups with two or more members in the EGS over the redshift range 0 < z < 1.5 and 1295 groups at z > 0.6 in the rest of DEEP2. Twenty-five percent of EGS galaxies and fourteen percent of high-z DEEP2 galaxies are assigned to galaxy groups. The groups were detected using the Voronoi-Delaunay method (VDM) after it has been optimized on mock DEEP2 catalogs following similar methods to those employed in Gerke et al. In the optimization effort, we have taken particular care to ensure that the mock catalogs resemble the data as closely as possible, and we have fine-tuned our methods separately on mocks constructed for the EGS and the rest of DEEP2. We have also probed the effect of the assumed cosmology on our inferred group-finding efficiency by performing our optimization on three different mock catalogs with different background cosmologies, finding large differences in the group-finding success we can achieve for these different mocks. Using the mock catalog whose background cosmology is most consistent with current data, we estimate that the DEEP2 group catalog is 72% complete and 61% pure (74% and 67% for the EGS) and that the group finder correctly classifies 70% of galaxies that truly belong to groups, with an additional 46% of interloper galaxies contaminating the catalog (66% and 43% for the EGS). We also confirm that the VDM catalog reconstructs the abundance of galaxy groups with velocity dispersions above {approx}300 km s{sup -1} to an accuracy better than the sample variance, and this successful reconstruction is not strongly dependent on cosmology. This makes the DEEP2 group catalog a promising probe of the growth of cosmic structure that can potentially be used for cosmological tests.
A method for studying decision-making by guideline development groups
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Michie Susan
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidisciplinary guideline development groups (GDGs have considerable influence on UK healthcare policy and practice, but previous research suggests that research evidence is a variable influence on GDG recommendations. The Evidence into Recommendations (EiR study has been set up to document social-psychological influences on GDG decision-making. In this paper we aim to evaluate the relevance of existing qualitative methodologies to the EiR study, and to develop a method best-suited to capturing influences on GDG decision-making. Methods A research team comprised of three postdoctoral research fellows and a multidisciplinary steering group assessed the utility of extant qualitative methodologies for coding verbatim GDG meeting transcripts and semi-structured interviews with GDG members. A unique configuration of techniques was developed to permit data reduction and analysis. Results Our method incorporates techniques from thematic analysis, grounded theory analysis, content analysis, and framework analysis. Thematic analysis of individual interviews conducted with group members at the start and end of the GDG process defines discrete problem areas to guide data extraction from GDG meeting transcripts. Data excerpts are coded both inductively and deductively, using concepts taken from theories of decision-making, social influence and group processes. These codes inform a framework analysis to describe and explain incidents within GDG meetings. We illustrate the application of the method by discussing some preliminary findings of a study of a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE acute physical health GDG. Conclusion This method is currently being applied to study the meetings of three of NICE GDGs. These cover topics in acute physical health, mental health and public health, and comprise a total of 45 full-day meetings. The method offers potential for application to other health care and decision
Solving Nonlinear Differential Algebraic Equations by an Implicit Lie-Group Method
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Chein-Shan Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We derive an implicit Lie-group algorithm together with the Newton iterative scheme to solve nonlinear differential algebraic equations. Four numerical examples are given to evaluate the efficiency and accuracy of the new method when comparing the computational results with the closed-form solutions.
Does it work everywhere? Group Model Building as participative method in intercultural perspective
Arensbergen, P. van; Lansu, M.E.M.; Bleijenbergh, I.L.
2016-01-01
Group Model Building (GMB) is a type of facilitated modeling, in which the input of the participants to structuring a complex problem is crucial. There is a high level of participant interaction and involvement. The method focuses on open communication between participants to gain insight in complex
Structure of Symmetry Groups via Cartan's Method: Survey of Four Approaches
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Oleg I. Morozov
2005-10-01
Full Text Available In this review article we discuss four recent methods for computing Maurer-Cartan structure equations of symmetry groups of differential equations. Examples include solution of the contact equivalence problem for linear hyperbolic equations and finding a contact transformation between the generalized Hunter-Saxton equation and the Euler-Poisson equation.
Constructing a Measurement Method of Differences in Group Preferences Based on Relative Entropy
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Shiyu Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the research and data analysis of the differences involved in group preferences, conventional statistical methods cannot reflect the integrity and preferences of human minds; in particular, it is difficult to exclude humans’ irrational factors. This paper introduces a preference amount model based on relative entropy theory. A related expansion is made based on the characteristics of the questionnaire data, and we also construct the parameters to measure differences in the data distribution of different groups on the whole. In this paper, this parameter is called the center distance, and it effectively reflects the preferences of human minds. Using the survey data of securities market participants as an example, this paper analyzes differences in market participants’ attitudes toward the effectiveness of securities regulation. Based on this method, differences between groups that were overlooked by analysis of variance are found, and certain aspects obscured by general data characteristics are also found.
On Functional and Holographic Renormalization Group Methods in Stochastic Theory of Turbulence
Ogarkov, S L
2016-01-01
A nonlocal quantum-field model is constructed for the system of hydrodynamic equations for incompressible viscous fluid (the stochastic Navier--Stokes (NS) equation and the continuity equation). This model is studied by the following two mutually parallel methods: the Wilson--Polchinski functional renormalization group method (FRG), which is based on the exact functional equation for the generating functional of amputated connected Green's functions (ACGF), and the Heemskerk--Polchinski holographic renormalization group method (HRG), which is based on the functional Hamilton--Jacobi (HJ) equation for the holographic boundary action. Both functional equations are equivalent to infinite hierarchies of integro-differential equations (coupled in the FRG case) for the corresponding families of Green's functions (GF). The RG-flow equations can be derived explicitly for two-particle functions. Because the HRG-flow equation is closed (contains only a two-particle GF), the explicit analytic solutions are obtained for ...
Extraction of Roof Lines from High-Resolution Images by a Grouping Method
Dal Poz, A. P.; Fernandes, V. J. M.
2016-06-01
This paper proposes a method for extracting groups of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines from highresolution aerial images using corresponding Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) roof polyhedrons as initial approximations. The proposed method is based on two main steps. First, straight lines that are candidates to represent roof ridgelines and roof boundaries of a building are extracted from the aerial image. Second, a group of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines of a selected building is obtained through the optimization of a Markov Random Field (MRF)-based energy function using the genetic algorithm optimization method. The formulation of this energy function considers several attributes, such as the proximity of the extracted straight lines to the corresponding projected ALS-derived roof polyhedron and the rectangularity (extracted straight lines that intersect at nearly 90°). Experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper.
The Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy MULTIMOORA Method for Group Decision Making in Engineering
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Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Multiple criteria decision making methods have received different extensions under the uncertain environment in recent years. The aim of the current research is to extend the application of the MULTIMOORA method (Multiobjective Optimization by Ratio Analysis plus Full Multiplicative Form for group decision making in the uncertain environment. Taking into account the advantages of IVIFS (interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets in handling the problem of uncertainty, the development of the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy MULTIMOORA (IVIF-MULTIMOORA method for group decision making is considered in the paper. Two numerical examples of real-world civil engineering problems are presented, and ranking of the alternatives based on the suggested method is described. The results are then compared to the rankings yielded by some other methods of decision making with IVIF information. The comparison has shown the conformity of the proposed IVIF-MULTIMOORA method with other approaches. The proposed algorithm is favorable because of the abilities of IVIFS to be used for imagination of uncertainty and the MULTIMOORA method to consider three different viewpoints in analyzing engineering decision alternatives.
COMPARISON OF FUZZY TOPSIS METHODS USED GROUP DECISION MAKING AND AN APPLICATION
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FATİH ECER
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Fuzzy TOPSIS method used group decision making in fuzzy environment is one of the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM methods. It is needed to decision makers (DM, alternatives and decision criteria in order to apply this method. Foundation of the method is the ideal solution is the shortest distance from Fuzzy Positive Ideal Solution (FPIS and the farthest distance from Fuzzy Negative Ideal Solution (FNIS. Using FPIS and FNIS, closeness coefficients of alternatives are evaluated. Closeness coefficients express scores of the alternatives. According to closeness coefficients, alternatives are ranked from the best to the worst. In this study, two fuzzy TOPSIS methods having different algorithms are compared. To this purpose, firstly assessments of decision makers are converted to triangular fuzzy numbers. It is seen at the end of the study that ranking orders of alternatives don’t change.
Method for Risky Multiobjective Group Decision-Making and Its Application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于义彬; 王本德
2003-01-01
The multiobjective group decision-making problem under risk is common in reality. This paper focuses on the study about risky multiobjective group decision-making problem where the index value is not certain. We give indexes classifying method and index normalizing formula of this type problem. By building objective function that minimizes general weighted distance from every alternative to the relatively best and worst alternative, the optimal membership degree of every decision-maker to every alternative can be obtained, and by building another objective function that minimizes general weighted distance from the optimal membership degree of every decision-maker to every alternative to the group optimal alternative and the group inferior alternative, the optimal membership degree of every decision-maker to every alternative can be obtained, which are both based on probability theory and fuzzy theory. Aftermost a model is established which collects group pREFERENCES. This method provides a new idea and approach for solving multiobjective decision-making problem among uncertain system, which is applicable for practical problem. Finally a case study shows a satisfactory result.
A new method for finding and characterizing galaxy groups via low-frequency radio surveys
Croston, J. H.; Ineson, J.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Mingo, B.
2017-09-01
We describe a new method for identifying and characterizing the thermodynamic state of large samples of evolved galaxy groups at high redshifts using high-resolution, low-frequency radio surveys, such as those that will be carried out with LOFAR and the Square Kilometre Array. We identify a sub-population of morphologically regular powerful [Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II)] radio galaxies and demonstrate that, for this sub-population, the internal pressure of the radio lobes is a reliable tracer of the external intragroup/intracluster medium (ICM) pressure, and that the assumption of a universal pressure profile for relaxed groups enables the total mass and X-ray luminosity to be estimated. Using a sample of well-studied FR II radio galaxies, we demonstrate that our method enables the estimation of group/cluster X-ray luminosities over three orders of magnitude in luminosity to within a factor of ∼2 from low-frequency radio properties alone. Our method could provide a powerful new tool for building samples of thousands of evolved galaxy groups at z > 1 and characterizing their ICM.
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Jian Guo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Information system (IS project selection is of critical importance to every organization in dynamic competing environment. The aim of this paper is to develop a hybrid multicriteria group decision making approach based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory for IS project selection. The decision makers’ assessment information can be expressed in the form of real numbers, interval-valued numbers, linguistic variables, and intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs. All these evaluation pieces of information can be transformed to the form of IFNs. Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group opinion. Intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is used to obtain the entropy weights of the criteria. TOPSIS method combined with intuitionistic fuzzy set is proposed to select appropriate IS project in group decision making environment. Finally, a numerical example for information system projects selection is given to illustrate application of hybrid multi-criteria group decision making (MCGDM method based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory and TOPSIS method.
A method to quantify movement activity of groups of animals using automated image analysis
Xu, Jianyu; Yu, Haizhen; Liu, Ying
2009-07-01
Most physiological and environmental changes are capable of inducing variations in animal behavior. The behavioral parameters have the possibility to be measured continuously in-situ by a non-invasive and non-contact approach, and have the potential to be used in the actual productions to predict stress conditions. Most vertebrates tend to live in groups, herds, flocks, shoals, bands, packs of conspecific individuals. Under culture conditions, the livestock or fish are in groups and interact on each other, so the aggregate behavior of the group should be studied rather than that of individuals. This paper presents a method to calculate the movement speed of a group of animal in a enclosure or a tank denoted by body length speed that correspond to group activity using computer vision technique. Frame sequences captured at special time interval were subtracted in pairs after image segmentation and identification. By labeling components caused by object movement in difference frame, the projected area caused by the movement of every object in the capture interval was calculated; this projected area was divided by the projected area of every object in the later frame to get body length moving distance of each object, and further could obtain the relative body length speed. The average speed of all object can well respond to the activity of the group. The group activity of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were quantified based on these methods. High UIA level condition elicited a marked increase in school activity at the first hour (P<0.05) exhibiting an avoidance reaction (trying to flee from high UIA condition), and then decreased gradually.
Adaptive grouping for the higher-order multilevel fast multipole method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borries, Oscar Peter; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter
2014-01-01
An alternative parameter-free adaptive approach for the grouping of the basis function patterns in the multilevel fast multipole method is presented, yielding significant memory savings compared to the traditional Octree grouping for most discretizations, particularly when using higher-order basis...... functions. Results from both a uniformly and nonuniformly meshed scatterer are presented, showing how the technique is worthwhile even for regular meshes, and demonstrating that there is no loss of accuracy in spite of the large reduction in memory requirements and the relatively low computational cost....
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Grabowik Cezary
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents results of tensile tests carried out for specimens made of the selected group of the filament materials. As a manufacturing technology FDM 3D printing method was chosen. The selected group of the filament materials involved the group of wood, PLA, ABS, PET, PMMA and ASA. Herein, it should be noticed, that technical data sheets that are delivered by filament materials producers include data that are valid for only one specific printing direction. This printing direction is deliberately selected, in such way that ensures the best material characteristics. Therefore, received during the research results allow to make comparison between a catalogue data and data obtained in the printing process. It aids both mechanical designer and product manufacturer at the stage of the printed product mechanical properties shaping.
Estimation of Physical Properties of Amino Acids by Group-Contribution Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jhamb, Spardha Virendra; Liang, Xiaodong; Gani, Rafiqul
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present group-contribution (GC) based property models for estimation of physical properties of amino acids using their molecular structural information. The physical properties modelled in this work are normal melting point (Tm), aqueous solubility (Ws), and octanol....../water partition coefficient (Kow) of amino acids. The developed GC-models are based on the published GC-method by Marrero and Gani (J. Marrero, R. Gani, Fluid Phase Equilib. 2001, 183-184, 183-208) with inclusion of new structural parameters (groups and molecular weight of compounds). The main objective...... of introducing these new structural parameters in the GC-model is to provide additional structural information for amino acids having large and complex structures and thereby improve predictions of physical properties of amino acids. The group-contribution values were calculated by regression analysis using...
Methods for forming group III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials
Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)
2000-01-01
Methods are disclosed for forming Group III--arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plevin, Michael J., E-mail: michael.plevin@ibs.fr [CEA, Institut de Biologie Structurale Jean-Pierre Ebel (France); Hamelin, Olivier [CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Metaux (France); Boisbouvier, Jerome; Gans, Pierre [CEA, Institut de Biologie Structurale Jean-Pierre Ebel (France)
2011-02-15
A new method for stereospecific assignment of prochiral methyl groups in proteins is presented in which protein samples are produced using U-[{sup 13}C]glucose and subsaturating amounts of 2-[{sup 13}C]methyl-acetolactate. The resulting non-uniform labeling pattern allows proR and proS methyl groups to be easily distinguished by their different phases in a constant-time two-dimensional {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C correlation spectra. Protein samples are conveniently prepared using the same media composition as the main uniformly-labeled sample and contain higher levels of isotope-enrichment than fractional labeling approaches. This new strategy thus represents an economically-attractive, robust alternative for obtaining isotopically-encoded stereospecific NMR assignments of prochiral methyl groups.
Evaluation of cabin design based on the method of multiple attribute group decision-making
Li, Xiaowen; Lv, Linlin; Li, Ping
2013-07-01
New century, cabin design has become an important factor affecting the compact capability of modern naval vessels. Traditional cabin design, based on naval rules and designer's subjective feeling and experience, holds that weapons and equipments are more important than habitability. So crew's satisfaction is not high to ships designed by traditional methods. In order to solve this problem, the method of multiple attribute group decision-making was proposed to evaluate the cabin design projects. This method considered many factors affecting cabin design, established a target system, quantified fuzzy factors in cabin design, analyzed the need of crews and gave a reasonable evaluation on cabin design projects. Finally, an illustrative example analysis validates the effectiveness and reliability of this method.
A simple micro-culture method for the study of group B arboviruses*
de Madrid, Ana Teresa; Porterfield, James S.
1969-01-01
Thirty-nine group B arboviruses have been titrated by a simple micro-culture method. The technique uses a stable line of pig kidney cells (PS cells) in which plaques develop when cells are first infected in suspension in the wells of haemagglutination trays and are then incubated for from 3 to 10 days under an overlay containing carboxymethyl-cellulose. This method can be adapted to measure neutralizing antibodies, and the principle underlying the test is applicable to other cells and other viruses. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4183812
Neutron Age Determination in Fast Reactor Materials using the Group Method
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Kabanova Marina F.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the methods of identifying fast neutron age in sodium (Na and uranium-238 (238U; describes the model of advanced and effective fast neutron nuclear reactors (FN, where Na is a coolant while 238U is involved in the fuel cycle in large quantities; justifies the choice of the group method for calculating the neutron age value in the substances mentioned above that can show the accuracy of the used constants for Na and estimate various versions of multilevel description of neutron moderation in 238U – the most powerful resonance absorber of the neutron reactor active zone.
Velásquez, Ana Milena; Hoyos, Bibian A
2017-02-01
Three methods of molecular dynamics simulation [Green-Kubo (G-K), non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) and reversed non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (RNEMD)], and two group contribution methods [UNIFAC-VISCO and Grunberg-Nissan (G-N)] were used to calculate the viscosity of mixtures of n-heptane and toluene (known as heptol). The results obtained for the viscosity and density of heptol were compared with reported experimental data, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. Overall, the five methods showed good agreement between calculated and experimental viscosities. In all cases, the deviation was lower than 9%. It was found that, as the concentration of toluene increases, the deviation of the density of the mixture (as calculated with molecular dynamics methods) also increases, which directly affects the viscosity result obtained. Among the molecular simulation techniques evaluated here, G-K produced the best results, and represents the optimal balance between quality of result and time required for simulation. The NEMD method produced acceptable results for the viscosity of the system but required more simulation time as well as the determination of an appropriate shear rate. The RNEMD method was fast and eliminated the need to determine a set of values for shear rate, but introduced large fluctuations in measurements of shear rate and viscosity. The two group contribution methods were accurate and fast when used to calculate viscosity, but require knowledge of the viscosity of the pure compounds, which is a serious limitation for applications in complex multicomponent systems.
Lattice-Inversion Embedded-Atom-Method Interatomic Potentials for Group-VA Transition Metals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁晓俭; 陈难先; 申江
2011-01-01
The lattice-inversion embedded-atom-method (LI-EAM) interatomic potential we developed previously [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 (2010) 375503] is extended to group- VA transition metals (V, Nb and Ta). It is found that considering interatomic interactions up to appropriate-distance-neighbor atoms is crucial to constructing accurate EAM potentials, especially for the prediction of surface energy. The LI-EAM interatomic potentials for group-VA transition metals are successfully built by considering interatomic interactions up to the fifth neighbor atoms. These angular-independent potentials drastically promote the accuracy of the predicted surface energies, which match the experimental resuits well.%The lattice-inversion embedded-atom-method(LI-EAM)interatomic potential we developed previously[J.Phys.:Condens.Matter 22(2010)375503]is extended to group-VA transition metals(V,Nb and Ta).It is found that considering interatomic interactions up to appropriate-distance-neighbor atoms is crucial to constructing accurate EAM potentials,especially for the prediction of surface energy.The LI-EAM interatomic potentials for group-VA transition metals are successfully built by considering interatomic interactions up to the fifth neighbor atoms.These angular-independent potentials drastically promote the accuracy of the predicted surface energies,which match the experimental results well.
High-Resolution Group Quantization Phase Processing Method in Radio Frequency Measurement Range.
Du, Baoqing; Feng, Dazheng; Tang, Yaohua; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Duo; Cai, Chaofeng; Wan, Maoquan; Yang, Zhigang
2016-07-08
Aiming at the more complex frequency translation, the longer response time and the limited measurement precision in the traditional phase processing, a high-resolution phase processing method by group quantization higher than 100 fs level is proposed in radio frequency measurement range. First, the phase quantization is used as a step value to quantize every phase difference in a group by using the fixed phase relationships between different frequencies signals. The group quantization is formed by the results of the quantized phase difference. In the light of frequency drift mainly caused by phase noise of measurement device, a regular phase shift of the group quantization is produced, which results in the phase coincidence of two comparing signals which obtain high-resolution measurement. Second, in order to achieve the best coincidences pulse, a subtle delay is initiatively used to reduce the width of the coincidences fuzzy area according to the transmission characteristics of the coincidences in the specific medium. Third, a series of feature coincidences pulses of fuzzy area can be captured by logic gate to achieve the best phase coincidences information for the improvement of the measurement precision. The method provides a novel way to precise time and frequency measurement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szpigel, S. [Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Timoteo, V.S. [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Duraes, F. de O [Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2010-02-15
In this work we study the Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) evolution of effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions derived using the Subtracted Kernel Method (SKM) approach. We present the results for the phaseshifts in the {sup 1}S{sub 0} channel calculated using a SRG potential evolved from an initial effective potential obtained by implementing the SKM scheme for the leading-order NN interaction in chiral effective field theory (ChEFT).
Hydrogen Solubility in Heavy Undefined Petroleum Fractions Using Group Contributions Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aguilar-Cisneros Humberto
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Hydrogen solubility in heavy undefined petroleum fractions is estimated by taking as starting point a method of characterization based on functional groups [ Carreón-Calderón et al. (2012 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51, 14188-14198 ]. Such method provides properties entering into equations of states and molecular pseudostructures formed by non-integer numbers of functional groups. Using Vapor-Liquid Equilibria (VLE data from binary mixtures of known compounds, interaction parameters between hydrogen and the calculated functional groups were estimated. Besides, the incorporation of the hydrogen-carbon ratio of the undefined petroleum fractions into the method allows the corresponding hydrogen solubility to be properly estimated. This procedure was tested with seven undefined petroleum fractions from 27 to 6 API over wide ranges of pressure and temperature (323.15 to 623.15 K. The results seem to be in good agreement with experimental data (overall Relative Average Deviation, RAD < 15%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kristen Jacklin
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This article describes the innovative use of sequential focus groups (SFGs with Indigenous adults living with type 2 diabetes. This use of SFGs has not been previously described in the literature. In our project, SFGs were used to explore Indigenous people’s experiences in managing their diabetes. Our research objective has been to elucidate deep understandings of these experiences in order to inform the development of continuing medical education curriculum with the aim of improving approaches to diabetes care for Indigenous people. Working in partnerships with Indigenous health organizations, we recruited four groups comprising participants from diverse Indigenous communities (two urban, two rural in three provinces of Canada. We conducted a series of five focus groups (SFGs with the same participants (6–8 participants at each site for a total of 20 focus groups and 29 participants. Indigenous people living with type 2 diabetes were asked open-ended questions concerning their experiences with diabetes and diabetes care in primary health-care settings. Our findings concerning the use of SFGs for Indigenous health research draw on team member and participants’ reflections captured in facilitator field notes, memos from debriefing sessions, and focus group transcripts. The SFG approach enabled in-depth exploration of the complex, and at times sensitive, issues related to Indigenous people’s views on diabetes and their experiences of diabetes care. The repeated sessions facilitated comfort and camaraderie among participants, which led to insightful sessions filled with personal and emotional stories of living with diabetes, the impacts of colonization, and health-care experiences. Overall, the method fostered a deeper level of engagement, exploration, and reflection than a single-session focus group typically would. We suggest this adaptation of the traditional single-session focus groups would be applicable to a wide variety of research
Schoonenboom, Judith
2016-01-01
Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M-C Luan; D-Z Yu; L Tang; L-J Zhang
2008-01-01
Objective:To identify members of genera of rickettsia and O.tsutsugamushi simultaneously.Methods:Rapid and duplex and nested PCR methods have been established by designing primers based on the conserved re-gions of heat shock protein GroEL gene.345 mouse viscera samples including liver,spleen and kidney,96 Xe-nopsylla cheopis and 32 chiggers collected from Hongta areas of Yuxi city,Yunnan province were tested by the new PCR methods.Results:The result of the study showed that the new PCR methods could identify most members of genera -Rickettsia and Orientia simultaneously with 100% specificity and its sensitivity could test one copy per microliter.The results of detection prevalence of rickettsioses in mouse,flea and mites DNA sam-ples showed that the total rickettsia infection rate in mouse was 34.78% (120 /345).The total infection rates in R.typhi,O.t Karp and R.sibirica of mouse samples were 28.12% (97 /345),19.71% (68 /345)and 0. 29% (1 /345)respectively.Co-infection rates in R.typhi and O.t Karp of mouse samples were 13.33% (46 /345).O.t Karp type has been the main epidemic strain in these areas.Conclusion:We concluded that this PCR method could be used to detect multi-genera rickettsia simultaneously.Molecular evidences provided in this and previous studies strongly support that Hongta areas of Yuxi city are a natural focus for typhus and scrub typhus with the common occurrence of their confection.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG,Zhao-Xiang(邓兆祥); LIN,Xiang-Qin(林祥钦); TONG,Zhong-Hua(童中华)
2002-01-01
The four different schemes of Group Explicit Method (GEM): GER, GEL, SAGE and DAGE have been claimed to be unstable when employed for electrochemical digital simulations with large model diffusion coefficient DM@ However, in this investigation, in spite of the conditional stability of GER and GEL, the SAGE scheme, which is a combination of GEL and GER, was found to be unconditionally stable when used for simulations of electrochemical reaction-diffusions and had a performance comparable with or even better than the Fast Quasi Explicit Finite Difference Method (FQEFD) in srme aspects. Corresponding differential equations of SAGE scheme for digital simulations of various electrochemical mechanisms with both uniform and exponentially expanded space units were established. The effectiveness of the SAGE method was further demonstrated by the simulations of an EC and a catalytic mechanism with very large homogoneous rate constants.
Zhu, Zheng; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2014-03-01
We study the thermodynamic properties of the two-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin-glass model on a square lattice using the tensor renormalization group method based on a higher-order singular-value decomposition. Our estimates of the internal energy per spin agree very well with high-precision parallel tempering Monte Carlo studies, thus illustrating that the method can, in principle, be applied to frustrated magnetic systems. In particular, we discuss the necessary tuning of parameters for convergence, memory requirements, efficiency for different types of disorder, as well as advantages and limitations in comparison to conventional multicanonical and Monte Carlo methods. Extensions to higher space dimensions, as well as applications to spin glasses in a field are explored.
Solving an Inverse Sturm-Liouville Problem by a Lie-Group Method
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Liu Chein-Shan
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Solving an inverse Sturm-Liouville problem requires a mathematical process to determine unknown function in the Sturm-Liouville operator from given data in addition to the boundary values. In this paper, we identify a Sturm-Liouville potential function by using the data of one eigenfunction and its corresponding eigenvalue, and identify a spatial-dependent unknown function of a Sturm-Liouville differential operator. The method we employ is to transform the inverse Sturm-Liouville problem into a parameter identification problem of a heat conduction equation. Then a Lie-group estimation method is developed to estimate the coefficients in a system of ordinary differential equations discretized from the heat conduction equation. Numerical tests confirm the accuracy and efficiency of present approach. Definite and random disturbances are also considered when comparing the present method with that by using a technique of numerical differentiation.
Solving an Inverse Sturm-Liouville Problem by a Lie-Group Method
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Chein-Shan Liu
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Solving an inverse Sturm-Liouville problem requires a mathematical process to determine unknown function in the Sturm-Liouville operator from given data in addition to the boundary values. In this paper, we identify a Sturm-Liouville potential function by using the data of one eigenfunction and its corresponding eigenvalue, and identify a spatial-dependent unknown function of a Sturm-Liouville differential operator. The method we employ is to transform the inverse Sturm-Liouville problem into a parameter identification problem of a heat conduction equation. Then a Lie-group estimation method is developed to estimate the coefficients in a system of ordinary differential equations discretized from the heat conduction equation. Numerical tests confirm the accuracy and efficiency of present approach. Definite and random disturbances are also considered when comparing the present method with that by using a technique of numerical differentiation.
Minakata, Daisuke; Li, Ke; Westerhoff, Paul; Crittenden, John
2009-08-15
The hydroxyl radical (HO*) is a strong oxidant that reacts with electron-rich sites of organic compounds and initiates complex chain mechanisms. In order to help understand the reaction mechanisms, a rule-based model was previously developed to predict the reaction pathways. For a kinetic model, there is a need to develop a rate constant estimator that predicts the rate constants for a variety of organic compounds. In this study, a group contribution method (GCM) is developed to predict the aqueous phase HO* rate constants for the following reaction mechanisms: (1) H-atom abstraction, (2) HO* addition to alkenes, (3) HO* addition to aromatic compounds, and (4) HO* interaction with sulfur (S)-, nitrogen (N)-, or phosphorus (P)-atom-containing compounds. The GCM hypothesizes that an observed experimental rate constant for a given organic compound is the combined rate of all elementary reactions involving HO*, which can be estimated using the Arrhenius activation energy, E(a), and temperature. Each E(a) for those elementary reactions can be comprised of two parts: (1) a base part that includes a reactive bond in each reaction mechanism and (2) contributions from its neighboring functional groups. The GCM includes 66 group rate constants and 80 group contribution factors, which characterize each HO* reaction mechanism with steric effects of the chemical structure groups and impacts of the neighboring functional groups, respectively. Literature-reported experimental HO* rate constants for 310 and 124 compounds were used for calibration and prediction, respectively. The genetic algorithms were used to determine the group rate constants and group contribution factors. The group contribution factors for H-atom abstraction and HO* addition to the aromatic compounds were found to linearly correlate with the Taft constants, sigma*, and electrophilic substituent parameters, sigma+, respectively. The best calibrations for 83% (257 rate constants) and predictions for 62% (77
Clinical course teaching in transport of critically ill patients: Small group methods
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Mohammad Taghi Beigmohammadi
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Critically ill patient transfer is potentially risky and may be lead to morbidity and mortality. Physicians' skill is very important for safe transport. We want to evaluate the effect of clinical course teaching on the promotion of physicians' abilities in the transport of critically ill patients. In an interventional study, 320 interns, male and female, were taught about patient transfer in two groups include in one day clinical course as the small group system (n=160 and other group the lecture base learning (n=160. In the clinical course, each participant under observation of an anesthesiologist in the operation room and ICU was acquainted with mask ventilation, intubation and learned to work with a defibrillator, infusion pump, portable ventilator and pulse oximeter. In lecture group, the anesthesiologist explained the topics by video and dummy. At the end of education course, the interns’ abilities were evaluated based on checklist method and scored by the project colleague in all educational items. Three hundred twenty interns, 122 males, and 198 females; were enrolled, two groups. The clinical course training caused improvements in the interns’ knowledge and abilities in intubation and use of the defibrillator and portable ventilator vs.lecture group significantly (P<0.005. The males were better than females in laryngoscopy, but the progress of the females was significantly better than males (P=0.003. The rate of adverse events was reduced significantly after clinical course teaching (P=0.041 Clinical course teaching could promote interns' clinical competencies in the transport of critically ill patients.
Amador Carrascal, Carolina; Chen, Shigao; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F; Urban, Matthew
2017-01-11
Quantitative ultrasound elastography is increasingly being used in the assessment of chronic liver disease. Many studies have reported ranges of liver shear wave velocities values for healthy individuals and patients with different stages of liver fibrosis. Nonetheless, ongoing efforts exist to stabilize quantitative ultrasound elastography measurements by assessing factors that influence tissue shear wave velocity values, such as food intake, body mass index (BMI), ultrasound scanners, scanning protocols, ultrasound image quality, etc. Time-to-peak (TTP) methods have been routinely used to measure the shear wave velocity. However, there is still a need for methods that can provide robust shear wave velocity estimation in the presence of noisy motion data. The conventional TTP algorithm is limited to searching for the maximum motion in time profiles at different spatial locations. In this study, two modified shear wave speed estimation algorithms are proposed. The first method searches for the maximum motion in both space and time (spatiotemporal peak, STP); the second method applies an amplitude filter (spatiotemporal thresholding, STTH) to select points with motion amplitude higher than a threshold for shear wave group velocity estimation. The two proposed methods (STP and STTH) showed higher precision in shear wave velocity estimates compared to TTP in phantom. Moreover, in a cohort of 14 healthy subjects STP and STTH methods improved both the shear wave velocity measurement precision and the.
Evaluation of simplified dna extraction methods for EMM typing of group a streptococci
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Jose JJM
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Simplified methods of DNA extraction for amplification and sequencing for emm typing of group A streptococci (GAS can save valuable time and cost in resource crunch situations. To evaluate this, we compared two methods of DNA extraction directly from colonies with the standard CDC cell lysate method for emm typing of 50 GAS strains isolated from children with pharyngitis and impetigo. For this, GAS colonies were transferred into two sets of PCR tubes. One set was preheated at 94oC for two minutes in the thermal cycler and cooled while the other set was frozen overnight at -20oC and then thawed before adding the PCR mix. For the cell lysate method, cells were treated with mutanolysin and hyaluronidase before heating at 100oC for 10 minutes and cooling immediately as recommended in the CDC method. All 50 strains could be typed by sequencing the hyper variable region of the emm gene after amplification. The quality of sequences and the emm types identified were also identical. Our study shows that the two simplified DNA extraction methods directly from colonies can conveniently be used for typing a large number of GAS strains easily in relatively short time.
Real-space renormalization group method for quantum 1/2 spins on the pyrochlore lattice.
Garcia-Adeva, Angel J
2014-04-02
A simple phenomenological real-space renormalization group method for quantum Heisenberg spins with nearest and next nearest neighbour interactions on a pyrochlore lattice is presented. Assuming a scaling law for the order parameter of two clusters of different sizes, a set of coupled equations that gives the fixed points of the renormalization group transformation and, thus, the critical temperatures and ordered phases of the system is found. The particular case of spins 1/2 is studied in detail. Furthermore, to simplify the mathematical details, from all the possible phases arising from the renormalization group transformation, only those phases in which the magnetic lattice is commensurate with a subdivision of the crystal lattice into four interlocked face-centred cubic sublattices are considered. These correspond to a quantum spin liquid, ferromagnetic order, or non-collinear order in which the total magnetic moment of a tetrahedral unit is zero. The corresponding phase diagram is constructed and the differences with respect to the classical model are analysed. It is found that this method reproduces fairly well the phase diagram of the pyrochlore lattice under the aforementioned constraints.
A simplified analysis method for piled raft and pile group foundations with batter piles
Kitiyodom, Pastsakorn; Matsumoto, Tatsunori
2002-11-01
A simplified method of numerical analysis has been developed to estimate the deformation and load distribution of piled raft foundations subjected to vertical, lateral, and moment loads, using a hybrid model in which the flexible raft is modelled as thin plates and the piles as elastic beams and the soil is treated as springs. Both the vertical and lateral resistances of the piles as well as the raft base are incorporated into the model. Pile-soil-pile, pile-soil-raft and raft-soil-raft interactions are taken into account based on Mindlin's solutions for both vertical and lateral forces. The validity of the proposed method is verified through comparisons with several existing methods for single piles, pile groups and piled rafts. Workable design charts are given for the estimation of the lateral displacement and the load distribution of piled rafts from the stiffnesses of the raft alone and the pile group alone. Additionally, parametric studies were carried out concerning batter pile foundations. It was found that the use of batter piles can efficiently improve the deformation characteristics of pile foundations subjected to lateral loads.
A modified PCR-SSP method for the identification of ABO blood group antigens.
Downing, J; Darke, C
2003-08-01
The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate molecules synthesized by the glycosyltransferases encoded by the ABO gene on chromosome 9. Kidney transplantation across the ABO barrier generally leads to rapid humoral graft rejection due to the presence of naturally occurring antibodies to the A and B antigens. We have developed a method for ABO typing our cadaveric organ donors by the polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). The method uses 12 primers in eight PCR mixtures and is performed under the same conditions as our routine HLA-A, B, C PCR-SSP typing. The PCR-SSP-based types of 166 regular blood donors and 148 cadaveric organ donors all showed total concordance with their serologically assigned ABO groups. Six individuals possessing the ABO A subgroups (A3, Ax and Aend) all typed as A1 by PCR-SSP, as expected. PCR-SSP is an appropriate method for ABO typing of cadaveric organ donors and, importantly, enables both ABO and HLA typing to be performed on the same DNA material.
Updated method guidelines for cochrane musculoskeletal group systematic reviews and metaanalyses.
Ghogomu, Elizabeth A T; Maxwell, Lara J; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Rader, Tamara; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Johnston, Renea V; Christensen, Robin D K; Rutjes, Anne W S; Winzenberg, Tania M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Zanoli, Gustavo; Wells, George A; Tugwell, Peter
2014-02-01
The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG), one of 53 groups of the not-for-profit, international Cochrane Collaboration, prepares, maintains, and disseminates systematic reviews of treatments for musculoskeletal diseases. It is important that authors conducting CMSG reviews and the readers of our reviews be aware of and use updated, state-of-the-art systematic review methodology. One hundred sixty reviews have been published. Previous method guidelines for systematic reviews of interventions in the musculoskeletal field published in 2006 have been substantially updated to incorporate methodological advances that are mandatory or highly desirable in Cochrane reviews and knowledge translation advances. The methodological advances include new guidance on searching, new risk-of-bias assessment, grading the quality of the evidence, the new Summary of Findings table, and comparative effectiveness using network metaanalysis. Method guidelines specific to musculoskeletal disorders are provided by CMSG editors for various aspects of undertaking a systematic review. These method guidelines will help improve the quality of reporting and ensure high standards of conduct as well as consistency across CMSG reviews.
A Group Contribution Method for the Correlation of Static Dielectric Constant of Ionic Liquids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周颖; 林真; 吴可君; 徐国华; 何潮洪
2014-01-01
Static dielectric constant is a key parameter to estimate the electro-viscous effect which plays important roles in the flow and convective heat transfer of fluids with ions in microfluidic devices such as micro reactors and heat exchangers. A group contribution method based on 27 groups is developed for the correlation of static dielec-tric constant of ionic liquids in this paper. The ionic liquids considered include imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolid-inium, alkylammonium, alkylsulfonium, morpholinium and piperidinium cations and various anions. The data col-lected cover the temperature ranges of 278.15-343.15 K and static dielectric constant ranges of 9.4-85.6. The re-sults of the method show a satisfactory agreement with the literature data with an average absolute relative devia-tion of 7.41%, which is generally of the same order of the experimental data accuracy. The method proposed in this paper provides a simple but reliable approach for the prediction of static dielectric constant of ionic liquids at dif-ferent temperatures.
Practicable group testing method to evaluate weight/weight GMO content in maize grains.
Mano, Junichi; Yanaka, Yuka; Ikezu, Yoko; Onishi, Mari; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Ninomiya, Kenji; Yotsuyanagi, Yuichi; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hino, Akihiro; Naito, Shigehiro; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Takabatake, Reona; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi
2011-07-13
Because of the increasing use of maize hybrids with genetically modified (GM) stacked events, the established and commonly used bulk sample methods for PCR quantification of GM maize in non-GM maize are prone to overestimate the GM organism (GMO) content, compared to the actual weight/weight percentage of GM maize in the grain sample. As an alternative method, we designed and assessed a group testing strategy in which the GMO content is statistically evaluated based on qualitative analyses of multiple small pools, consisting of 20 maize kernels each. This approach enables the GMO content evaluation on a weight/weight basis, irrespective of the presence of stacked-event kernels. To enhance the method's user-friendliness in routine application, we devised an easy-to-use PCR-based qualitative analytical method comprising a sample preparation step in which 20 maize kernels are ground in a lysis buffer and a subsequent PCR assay in which the lysate is directly used as a DNA template. This method was validated in a multilaboratory collaborative trial.
Methods for calculating group cross sections for doubly heterogeneous thermal reactor systems. [HTGR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stamatelatos, M G; LaBauve, R J
1977-02-01
The report discusses methods used at LASL for calculating group cross sections for doubly heterogeneous HTGR systems of the General Atomic design. These cross sections have been used for the neutronic safety analysis calculations of such HTGR systems at various points in reactor lifetime (e.g., beginning-of-life, end-of-equilibrium cycle). They were also compared with supplied General Atomic cross sections generated with General Atomic codes. The overall agreement between the LASL and the GA cross sections has been satisfactory.
Lie group analysis method for two classes of fractional partial differential equations
Chen, Cheng; Jiang, Yao-Lin
2015-09-01
In this paper we deal with two classes of fractional partial differential equation: n order linear fractional partial differential equation and nonlinear fractional reaction diffusion convection equation, by using the Lie group analysis method. The infinitesimal generators general formula of n order linear fractional partial differential equation is obtained. For nonlinear fractional reaction diffusion convection equation, the properties of their infinitesimal generators are considered. The four special cases are exhaustively investigated respectively. At the same time some examples of the corresponding case are also given. So it is very convenient to solve the infinitesimal generator of some fractional partial differential equation.
Formation of Amine Groups on the Surface of GaN: A Method for Direct Biofunctionalization
2010-01-01
the formation of surface sensitive GaN /AlGaN two- dimensional electron gas HEMT devices [5–14]. Furthermore, GaN is robust in aqueous solutions [15...variations are particularly detrimental to GaN HEMT sensors, as they are highly sensitive to the separation between the target and the device surface. Because...locate /apsuscFormation of amine groups on the surface of GaN : A method for direct biofunctionalization R. Stine, B.S. Simpkins, S.P. Mulvaney, L.J
Evaluation of Group-Contribution Methods to Estimate Vegetable Oils and Biodiesel Properties
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E. G. Lima Neto
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Knowing the phase equilibrium has fundamental importance on mixture separation; and physical and thermodynamic properties of the compounds underlie that equilibrium. Estimation methods are supposed to be a powerful skill for predicting physical and thermodynamic properties of the involved compounds, not only because the large number of properties that can be predicted (vapor pressure, boiling point, melting point, critical properties, etc but also due to the low deviation to experimental measure. This work focuses the prediction of some properties of organic substances present in vegetable oils and in the biodiesel of these oils through group-contribution methods and empiric relations. Estimations were compared to data available on literature and experimental data. This comparison shows satisfactory deviation for application on engineering problems.
Tourism forecasting using modified empirical mode decomposition and group method of data handling
Yahya, N. A.; Samsudin, R.; Shabri, A.
2017-09-01
In this study, a hybrid model using modified Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) model is proposed for tourism forecasting. This approach reconstructs intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) produced by EMD using trial and error method. The new component and the remaining IMFs is then predicted respectively using GMDH model. Finally, the forecasted results for each component are aggregated to construct an ensemble forecast. The data used in this experiment are monthly time series data of tourist arrivals from China, Thailand and India to Malaysia from year 2000 to 2016. The performance of the model is evaluated using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) where conventional GMDH model and EMD-GMDH model are used as benchmark models. Empirical results proved that the proposed model performed better forecasts than the benchmarked models.
Krzych, Łukasz J; Bochenek-Klimczyk, Krystyna; Wasiak, Michał; Białek, Krzysztof; Bolkowski, Maciej; Gierek, Danuta; Bochenek, Andrzej
2012-01-01
Surgical revascularization with coronary artery by-pass grafting is still recommended in vast majority of patients with unprotected left main disease. The aim of the paper was to analyze optimal treatment of left main disease in selected groups of patients, on the basis of current guidelines and information gained from literature data. We focused on data in relation to treatment of elderly patients, diabetics and those hemodynamically unstable. Additionally we discussed the issue of anti-platelet therapy and informed consent. As far as efficacy of treatment is concerned, not only method of revascularization but also general condition of the patient, the factors influencing peri-operative risk and optimal pharmacotherapy should be taken into account. Therefore establishment of the heart team is crucial when choosing the most suitable method of invasive treatment of left main disease.
A novel state of health estimation method of Li-ion battery using group method of data handling
Wu, Ji; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Zonghai
2016-09-01
In this paper, the control theory is applied to assist the estimation of state of health (SoH) which is a key parameter to battery management. Battery can be treated as a system, and the internal state, e.g. SoH, can be observed through certain system output data. Based on the philosophy of human health and athletic ability estimation, variables from a specific process, which is a constant current charge subprocess, are obtained to depict battery SoH. These variables are selected according to the differential geometric analysis of battery terminal voltage curves. Moreover, the relationship between the differential geometric properties and battery SoH is modelled by the group method of data handling (GMDH) polynomial neural network. Thus, battery SoH can be estimated by GMDH with inputs of voltage curve properties. Experiments have been conducted on different types of Li-ion battery, and the results show that the proposed method is valid for SoH estimation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jayachandran D
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Knowledge and attitude regarding epilepsy are major factors influencing outcome of treatment and quality of life in the management of epilepsy. Group session is one of the methods available to achieve these goals. It has the advantage of communication to a large number of patients within a short time. We undertook this study to ascertain the efficacy of this technique to impart knowledge and positive attitude towards epilepsy. A structured questionnaire was self administered to 60 patients before and after the meeting and the responses were scored on a scale of 0 to 100. The mean score improved from the baseline value of 73 + 17 to 83 + 13 after the group sessions, which was statistically significant (P<0.01. The change noticed was uniformly significant for all the aspects covered in the questionnaire viz. treatment, education, employment, emotional aspects, family and social aspects. This study has shown that group sessions are effective means to impart knowledge and positive attitude towards epilepsy.
Larkeche, O.; Meniai, A.-H.; Cachot, T.
2012-06-01
The present study concerns the cycle performance modelling of a particular configuration of an absorption refrigeration machine based on phase separation as well as development of a strategy for computer aided design of absorbents. The model uses predictive methods based on the group contribution concept for the computation of the thermodynamic phase equilibria involved such as liquid-liquid and vapour-liquid as well as enthalpy-concentration diagrams. The proposed absorbents computer-aided design strategy is based on the exploration of a number of structural group combinations obtained from a selected set of functional groups, according to the chemistry laws. The model was tested on four different absorbent-refrigerant pairs reported in the literature, namely (benzyl ethyl amine-glycerol), (water-hexanoic acid), (water-2-hexanone) and (water-ethyl propionate) as well as on pairs where the absorbent compound is generated by the proposed absorbent design strategy and the refrigerant is water. The results show that quite good values of the coefficient of performance (COP) can be obtained, indicating that this cycle configuration is promising and energetically efficient, mainly due to hardware savings, i.e. absence of condenser. However, other working fluid combinations have to be tested using the proposed model.
Applying Critical Race Theory to Group Model Building Methods to Address Community Violence.
Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Funchess, Melanie; Burrell, Marcus; Cerulli, Catherine; Bedell, Precious; White, Ann Marie
2016-01-01
Group model building (GMB) is an approach to building qualitative and quantitative models with stakeholders to learn about the interrelationships among multilevel factors causing complex public health problems over time. Scant literature exists on adapting this method to address public health issues that involve racial dynamics. This study's objectives are to (1) introduce GMB methods, (2) present a framework for adapting GMB to enhance cultural responsiveness, and (3) describe outcomes of adapting GMB to incorporate differences in racial socialization during a community project seeking to understand key determinants of community violence transmission. An academic-community partnership planned a 1-day session with diverse stakeholders to explore the issue of violence using GMB. We documented key questions inspired by critical race theory (CRT) and adaptations to established GMB "scripts" (i.e., published facilitation instructions). The theory's emphasis on experiential knowledge led to a narrative-based facilitation guide from which participants created causal loop diagrams. These early diagrams depict how violence is transmitted and how communities respond, based on participants' lived experiences and mental models of causation that grew to include factors associated with race. Participants found these methods useful for advancing difficult discussion. The resulting diagrams can be tested and expanded in future research, and will form the foundation for collaborative identification of solutions to build community resilience. GMB is a promising strategy that community partnerships should consider when addressing complex health issues; our experience adapting methods based on CRT is promising in its acceptability and early system insights.
A Novel Group Decision-Making Method Based on Sensor Data and Fuzzy Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Ting Bai
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Algal bloom is a typical phenomenon of the eutrophication of rivers and lakes and makes the water dirty and smelly. It is a serious threat to water security and public health. Most scholars studying solutions for this pollution have studied the principles of remediation approaches, but few have studied the decision-making and selection of the approaches. Existing research uses simplex decision-making information which is highly subjective and uses little of the data from water quality sensors. To utilize these data and solve the rational decision-making problem, a novel group decision-making method is proposed using the sensor data with fuzzy evaluation information. Firstly, the optimal similarity aggregation model of group opinions is built based on the modified similarity measurement of Vague values. Secondly, the approaches’ ability to improve the water quality indexes is expressed using Vague evaluation methods. Thirdly, the water quality sensor data are analyzed to match the features of the alternative approaches with grey relational degrees. This allows the best remediation approach to be selected to meet the current water status. Finally, the selection model is applied to the remediation of algal bloom in lakes. The results show this method’s rationality and feasibility when using different data from different sources.
Biorthonormal transfer-matrix renormalization-group method for non-Hermitian matrices.
Huang, Yu-Kun
2011-03-01
A biorthonormal transfer-matrix renormalization-group (BTMRG) method for non-Hermitian matrices is presented. This BTMRG produces a dual set of biorthonormal bases to construct the renormalized transfer matrix with only half the dimensions of the matrix of a conventional transfer-matrix renormalization group (TMRG). We show that under generic conditions, such biorthonormal bases always exist. Based on a special E·S·E scheme (where S and E represent the system and environment blocks, respectively, and the two dots in between represent two additional physical sites), the BTMRG method can achieve zero truncation of any reduced state in describing both current left and right Perron states so as to reach a high degree of efficiency and accuracy. We believe that the BTMRG constitutes a more powerful and robust tool than conventional TMRG for non-Hermitian matrices and that it would allow us to better understand the collective behaviors and emerging phenomena of strongly correlated many-body systems. We also show that this scheme is particularly adapted to the calculation of the two-site correlation function of a one-dimensional quantum or two-dimensional classical lattice model.
Application de la methode des sous-groupes au calcul Monte-Carlo multigroupe
Martin, Nicolas
This thesis is dedicated to the development of a Monte Carlo neutron transport solver based on the subgroup (or multiband) method. In this formalism, cross sections for resonant isotopes are represented in the form of probability tables on the whole energy spectrum. This study is intended in order to test and validate this approach in lattice physics and criticality-safety applications. The probability table method seems promising since it introduces an alternative computational way between the legacy continuous-energy representation and the multigroup method. In the first case, the amount of data invoked in continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculations can be very important and tend to slow down the overall computational time. In addition, this model preserves the quality of the physical laws present in the ENDF format. Due to its cheap computational cost, the multigroup Monte Carlo way is usually at the basis of production codes in criticality-safety studies. However, the use of a multigroup representation of the cross sections implies a preliminary calculation to take into account self-shielding effects for resonant isotopes. This is generally performed by deterministic lattice codes relying on the collision probability method. Using cross-section probability tables on the whole energy range permits to directly take into account self-shielding effects and can be employed in both lattice physics and criticality-safety calculations. Several aspects have been thoroughly studied: (1) The consistent computation of probability tables with a energy grid comprising only 295 or 361 groups. The CALENDF moment approach conducted to probability tables suitable for a Monte Carlo code. (2) The combination of the probability table sampling for the energy variable with the delta-tracking rejection technique for the space variable, and its impact on the overall efficiency of the proposed Monte Carlo algorithm. (3) The derivation of a model for taking into account anisotropic
Extracting curved text lines using the chain composition and the expanded grouping method
Noi Bai, Nguyen; Nam, Kim; Song, Youngjun
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present a method to extract the text lines in poorly structured documents. The text lines may have different orientations, considerably curved shapes, and there are possibly a few wide inter-word gaps in a text line. Those text lines can be found in posters, blocks of addresses, artistic documents. Our method is an expansion of the traditional perceptual grouping. We develop novel solutions to overcome the problems of insufficient seed points and varied orientations in a single line. In this paper, we assume that text lines consists of connected components, in which each connected components is a set of black pixels within a letter, or some touched letters. In our scheme, the connected components closer than an iteratively incremented threshold will be combined to make chains of connected components. Elongate chains are identified as the seed chains of lines. Then the seed chains are extended to the left and the right regarding the local orientations. The local orientations will be reevaluated at each side of the chains when it is extended. By this process, all text lines are finally constructed. The advantage of the proposed method over prior works in extraction of curved text lines is that this method can both deal with more than a specific language and extract text lines containing some wide inter-word gaps. The proposed method is good for extraction of the considerably curved text lines from logos and slogans in our experiment; 98% and 94% for the straight-line extraction and the curved-line extraction, respectively.
The Visual Matrix Method: Imagery and Affect in a Group-Based Research Setting
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Lynn Froggett
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The visual matrix is a method for researching shared experience, stimulated by sensory material relevant to a research question. It is led by imagery, visualization and affect, which in the matrix take precedence over discourse. The method enables the symbolization of imaginative and emotional material, which might not otherwise be articulated and allows "unthought" dimensions of experience to emerge into consciousness in a participatory setting. We describe the process of the matrix with reference to the study "Public Art and Civic Engagement" (FROGGETT, MANLEY, ROY, PRIOR & DOHERTY, 2014 in which it was developed and tested. Subsequently, examples of its use in other contexts are provided. Both the matrix and post-matrix discussions are described, as is the interpretive process that follows. Theoretical sources are highlighted: its origins in social dreaming; the atemporal, associative nature of the thinking during and after the matrix which we describe through the Deleuzian idea of the rhizome; and the hermeneutic analysis which draws from object relations theory and the Lorenzerian tradition of scenic understanding. The matrix has been conceptualized as a "scenic rhizome" to account for its distinctive quality and hybrid origins in research practice. The scenic rhizome operates as a "third" between participants and the "objects" of contemplation. We suggest that some of the drawbacks of other group-based methods are avoided in the visual matrix—namely the tendency for inter-personal dynamics to dominate the event. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150369
Research into the group composition of tar using the gas liquid chromatography method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lisin, S.N.; Stepanov, Yu.V.; Lisina, L.A.; Chistyakov, A.N.
1986-03-01
This paper first gives a brief review of current methods used for determining chemical composition of tars, then describes experiments using gas liquid chromatography (GLC) to determine the chemical composition of delta/sub 1/, delta/sub 2/, delta, and delta fractions of medium temperature tars obtained during normal solvent processing (isooctane, toluene, quinoline). For delta and delta fractions, a Tsvet-104 chromatograph was used with a flame-ionization detector under the following conditions: column height 3 m, diameter 3 mm, AW-HMDS filler, 0.25-0.36 mm fractions with 5% SE-30, linear column temperature increase from 50-310/sup 0/C, velocity 6 C/min, condenser temperature 350/sup 0/C, velocity of carrier gas (helium) and hydrogen 100 ml/min, air consumption 1.5 l/min. delta/sub 1/ and delta/sub 2/ fractions were determined using a GC-IC chromatograph (manufactured by Shimatsu) under conditions analogous to those given above. Conclusion is that the yield of chromatographable compounds from tar by the GLC method with temperature programming is practically constant for each tar and can be characterized by the delta fraction content and its chemical composition. A method of determining the group composition of tars and the chemical composition of the delta fraction using GLC is proposed. 13 refs.
Using focus groups to assess presentation methods in a research seminar.
Thomas, K Jackson; Lancaster, Carol
2007-01-01
The purpose of this inquiry was to examine preferences between presentation methods among graduate students enrolled in a research seminar course. Participants consisted of 34 second year students enrolled in the Master of Science degree program in physical therapy in the College of Health Professions at the Medical University of South Carolina. All were required to present a published research article on the general topic of exercise in elderly individuals. However, before the student presentations took place, the instructor presented two different published research papers, both of which were done in sequential time segments during a single class period. For Time Segment 1, the instructor/author used a formal, "lecture," or "platform" type presentation, embellished by power point slides with textual information and graphs. For Time Segment 2, the instructor conducted an informal discussion of the background, methods, and findings of the research paper. After the presentations were completed, students were assigned to focus groups for the purpose of providing verbal and written feedback. Examination of the findings using content analysis revealed a variety of opinions regarding presentation techniques, but showed a general preference for the method employed in Time Segment 1. Among the reasons cited were the structure, the visual aids, and past familiarity and comfort with formal, "lecture" type presentations. Also noted was the predominant view that presenter style was a major factor in judging effectiveness. These findings merit further exploration of presentation styles and teaching methodologies for augmenting teaching effectiveness and enhancing the scholarship of teaching.
GPU-acceleration of parallel unconditionally stable group explicit finite difference method
Parand, K; Hossayni, Sayyed A
2013-01-01
Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are high performance co-processors originally intended to improve the use and quality of computer graphics applications. Since researchers and practitioners realized the potential of using GPU for general purpose, their application has been extended to other fields out of computer graphics scope. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of using GPU in solution of the transient diffusion type equation by parallel and stable group explicit finite difference method. To accomplish that, GPU and CPU-based (multi-core) approaches were developed. Moreover, we proposed an optimal synchronization arrangement for its implementation pseudo-code. Also, the interrelation of GPU parallel programming and initializing the algorithm variables was discussed, using numerical experiences. The GPU-approach results are faster than a much expensive parallel 8-thread CPU-based approach results. The GPU, used in this paper, is an ordinary laptop GPU (GT 335M) and is accessible for e...
Factors affecting the choice of contraceptive method by a group of OEO patients.
Cochrane, S H
1975-01-01
A method of discriminant analysis is described whereby a combination of personal characteristics is established which would best predict whether a woman would choose oral or IUD contraception. The study hypothesized that, at the time of choice, a higher level of motivation is necessary to accept an IUD rather than oral contraception. Approximately 450 patients at a Planned Parenthood clinic in Columbia, South Carolina, were studied between October and December 1970. At the 1% level of significance, it was found that pill users are younger, have fewer children, and are more likely to have used the pill in the last 2 years, compared to IUD users. Income is higher for pill users at the 10% level of significance. Educational levels did not differ between the 2 groups. Other factors were significant at varying levels. It would be possible to establish a combination of variables which would predict the separation between the 2 groups of women. There are problems in this approach. 1 problem is that Planned Parenthood has alw ays stressed the voluntary aspect of contraceptive acceptance.
SmithBattle, Lee; Chantamit-O-Pas, Chutima; Freed, Patricia; McLaughlin, Dorcas; Schneider, Joanne K
2017-05-26
The purpose of this pilot study was to test the safety, acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of Moms Growing Together (MGT), an intervention to prevent and reduce psychological distress in teen mothers. A mixed method design was used. The primary outcomes were reported satisfaction with MGT (acceptance); successful recruitment and retention of teen mothers (feasibility); and prevention or reduction of psychological distress (safety and effectiveness). Summary scores on each of three symptom measures operationally defined psychological distress. Sixteen African-American teen mothers participated in the study: eight in MGT and eight in a comparison group. MGT was considered safe and acceptable. MGT had a negative small effect (effect size [ES] = -0.028) on decreasing depression in participants and a moderate effect in reducing anxiety (ES = 0.395) and trauma symptoms (ES = 0.521-0.554) relative to the comparison group. Prolonged recruitment limited feasibility. Because psychological distress casts a long shadow on teen mothers' well-being, developing teen-friendly clinical programs that address their mental health is a high priority. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Ramos, M., E-mail: WEMLmirapas@iqn.upv.e [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Tortosa, R. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, P. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Barrios, L.L. [Department of Physiology and Cellular Biology, Unit of Cellular Biology (UAB) (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain)
2010-08-15
Interventional radiologists and staff members are frequently exposed to protracted and fractionated low doses of ionizing radiation, which extend during all their professional activities. These exposures can derive, due to the effects of direct and scattered radiation, in deterministic effects (radiodermitis, aged skin, cataracts, telangiectasia in nasal region, vasocellular epitelioms, hands depilation) and/or stochastic ones (cancer incidence). A methodology has been proposed for estimating the radiation risk or detriment from a group of six exposed interventional radiologists of the Hospital Universitario La Fe (Valencia, Spain), which had developed general exposition symptoms attributable to deterministic effects of ionizing radiation. Equivalent doses have been periodically registered using TLD's and wrist dosimeters, H{sub p}(10) and H{sub p}(0.07), respectively, and estimated through the observation of translocations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood (biological methods), by extrapolating the yield of translocations to their respective dose-effect curves. The software RADRISK has been applied for estimating radiation risks in these occupational radiation exposures. This software is based on transport models from epidemiological studies of population exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation, such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors [UNSCEAR, Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: 2006 report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations; 2006]. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for skin cancer has been, using wrist physical doses, of [1.03x10{sup -3}, 5.06x10{sup -2}], concluding that there is not an increased risk of skin cancer incidence. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for leukemia has been, using TLD physical doses, of [7.84x10{sup -2}, 3.36x10{sup -1}], and using biological doses, of [1.40x10{sup -1}, 1.51], which is considerably higher than incidence rates, showing an
A PILOT METHOD FOR MULTIMODAL GROUP THERAPY FOR ADULTS WITH ADHD
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Alina Marin
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The management of ADHD across the lifespan is a topic of scientific and public debate, with much discussion centering on optimal treatments. Increasing empirical evidence suggests that successful management of ADHD involves a combination of stimulant medication and psychosocial interventions. This article describes an original approach combining multiple psychotherapeutic modalities that addresses the complex treatment requirements of adult patients with ADHD, through a structured, integrative, psychosocial therapeutic model that holistically encompasses problematic aspects of life for the adult with ADHD. This model integrates a range of methods, including, problem-solving therapy, mindfulness, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT and family therapy. Each of these methods have previously been empirically proven to be effective for this patient population, but have never been integrated into a coherent intervention comprised of group work designed for problem identification, positive reinforcement and modeling, peer discussions aimed to facilitate anger expression, communication and assertiveness training, and mindfulness and CBT exercises for increased awareness and organization, and to support new solutions for identified problems. Patients are also encouraged to identify trans-generational interaction patterns, reflect on how these patterns impact their emotional difficulties, and eventually achieve enhanced self-acceptance.
Topczewski, Anna; Cui, Zhongmin; Woodruff, David; Chen, Hanwei; Fang, Yu
2013-01-01
This paper investigates four methods of linear equating under the common item nonequivalent groups design. Three of the methods are well known: Tucker, Angoff-Levine, and Congeneric-Levine. A fourth method is presented as a variant of the Congeneric-Levine method. Using simulation data generated from the three-parameter logistic IRT model we…
Steadman, Joseph C.; And Others
Part of continuing Navy research on training and utilizing Group 4 (low ability) personnel, this study investigated the feasibility of teaching such personnel a course in the operation of the AN/PSM-4 multimeter (an electronic measuring device), and evaluate the relative effectiveness of two different instructional methods. The course was given to…
Community assessment workshops: a group method for gathering client experiences of health services.
Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Baum, Fran; Lawless, Angela; Javanparast, Sara; Labonté, Ronald
2014-01-01
Community assessment workshops were developed to gather client experiences of primary health care services in Australia. Primary health care services are particularly concerned with working with disadvantaged populations, for whom traditional client survey methods such as written surveys may not be inclusive and accessible. Service staff at six Australian primary health care services, including two Aboriginal-specific services, invited participants to attend workshops in 2011-2012. Participants were offered transport, childcare and an interpreter, and provided with reimbursement for their time. Ten workshops were run with a total of 65 participants who accessed a variety of services and programmes. A mix of age and gender was achieved. The workshops yielded detailed qualitative data and quantitative rankings for nine service qualities: holistic, effective, efficient, culturally respectful, used by those most in need, responsive to the local community, increasing individual control, supports and empowers the community, and mix of treatment, prevention and promotion. Discussions were audio recorded and transcribed for qualitative analysis. The workshop approach succeeded in being (i) inclusive, reaching users from disadvantaged sections of the community; (ii) comprehensive, providing ratings and discussion that took account of the whole service; (iii) richly descriptive, with researchers able to generate detailed feedback; and (iv) more empowering than traditional client survey methods, by allowing more control to participants and greater benefits than surveys of individuals. The community assessment workshops are a method that could be widely applied to health service evaluation research where the goal is to reach disadvantaged communities and provide ratings and detailed analysis of the experience of users. The participants and the research benefited from the group approach, and the workshops provided valuable, actionable information to the health services
Causal hydrodynamics from kinetic theory by doublet scheme in renormalization-group method
Tsumura, Kyosuke; Kikuchi, Yuta; Kunihiro, Teiji
2016-12-01
We develop a general framework in the renormalization-group (RG) method for extracting a mesoscopic dynamics from an evolution equation by incorporating some excited (fast) modes as additional components to the invariant manifold spanned by zero modes. We call this framework the doublet scheme. The validity of the doublet scheme is first tested and demonstrated by taking the Lorenz model as a simple three-dimensional dynamical system; it is shown that the two-dimensional reduced dynamics on the attractive manifold composed of the would-be zero and a fast modes are successfully obtained in a natural way. We then apply the doublet scheme to construct causal hydrodynamics as a mesoscopic dynamics of kinetic theory, i.e., the Boltzmann equation, in a systematic manner with no ad-hoc assumption. It is found that our equation has the same form as Grad's thirteen-moment causal hydrodynamic equation, but the microscopic formulae of the transport coefficients and relaxation times are different. In fact, in contrast to the Grad equation, our equation leads to the same expressions for the transport coefficients as given by the Chapman-Enskog expansion method and suggests novel formulae of the relaxation times expressed in terms of relaxation functions which allow a natural physical interpretation of the relaxation times. Furthermore, our theory nicely gives the explicit forms of the distribution function and the thirteen hydrodynamic variables in terms of the linearized collision operator, which in turn clearly suggest the proper ansatz forms of them to be adopted in the method of moments.
Cox, Andrew; Chiles, Prue; Care, Leo
2012-01-01
While UK universities see group work as essential to building higher order intellectual and team skills, many international students are unfamiliar with this way of studying. Group work is also a focus of home students' concerns. Cultural differences in the interpretation of space for learning or how spatial issues affect group work processes has…
Thompson's renormalization group method applied to QCD at high energy scale
Nassif, Claudio; Silva, P R
2007-01-01
We use a renormalization group method to treat QCD-vacuum behavior specially closer to the regime of asymptotic freedom. QCD-vacuum behaves effectively like a "paramagnetic system" of a classical theory in the sense that virtual color charges (gluons) emerges in it as a spin effect of a paramagnetic material when a magnetic field aligns their microscopic magnetic dipoles. Due to that strong classical analogy with the paramagnetism of Landau's theory,we will be able to use a certain Landau effective action without temperature and phase transition for just representing QCD-vacuum behavior at higher energies as being magnetization of a paramagnetic material in the presence of a magnetic field $H$. This reasoning will allow us to apply Thompson's approach to such an action in order to extract an "effective susceptibility" ($\\chi>0$) of QCD-vacuum. It depends on logarithmic of energy scale $u$ to investigate hadronic matter. Consequently we are able to get an ``effective magnetic permeability" ($\\mu>1$) of such a ...
The In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group: A Novel Ab Initio Method for Nuclei
Hergert, H; Morris, T D; Schwenk, A; Tsukiyama, K
2015-01-01
We present a comprehensive review of the In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group (IM-SRG), a novel ab inito method for nuclei. The IM-SRG employs a continuous unitary transformation of the many-body Hamiltonian to decouple the ground state from all excitations, thereby solving the many-body problem. Starting from a pedagogical introduction of the underlying concepts, the IM-SRG flow equations are developed for systems with and without explicit spherical symmetry. We study different IM-SRG generators that achieve the desired decoupling, and how they affect the details of the IM-SRG flow. Based on calculations of closed-shell nuclei, we assess possible truncations for closing the system of flow equations in practical applications, as well as choices of the reference state. We discuss the issue of center-of-mass factorization and demonstrate that the IM-SRG ground-state wave function exhibits an approximate decoupling of intrinsic and center-of-mass degrees of freedom, similar to Coupled Cluster (CC) wave fun...
Sadi, Maryam
2017-07-01
In this study a group method of data handling model has been successfully developed to predict heat capacity of ionic liquid based nanofluids by considering reduced temperature, acentric factor and molecular weight of ionic liquids, and nanoparticle concentration as input parameters. In order to accomplish modeling, 528 experimental data points extracted from the literature have been divided into training and testing subsets. The training set has been used to predict model coefficients and the testing set has been applied for model validation. The ability and accuracy of developed model, has been evaluated by comparison of model predictions with experimental values using different statistical parameters such as coefficient of determination, mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. The mean absolute percentage error of developed model for training and testing sets are 1.38% and 1.66%, respectively, which indicate excellent agreement between model predictions and experimental data. Also, the results estimated by the developed GMDH model exhibit a higher accuracy when compared to the available theoretical correlations.
Theory of fully developed hydrodynamic turbulent flow: Applications of renormalization-group methods
Yuan, Jian-Yang; Ronis, David
1992-04-01
A model for randomly stirred or homogeneous turbulent fluids is analyzed using renormalization-group methods on a path-integral representation of the Navier-Stokes equations containing a spatially and temporally colored noise source. For moderate Reynolds numbers and certain values of the dynamic exponent governing the noise correlation, an additional scaling regime is found at wave vectors k beyond those where the Kolmogorov 5/3 law holds. In this case, the energy spectrum decays as k-1-z, where 1zz, and the velocity-distribution function (as characterized by its skewness) deviates from a Gaussian. The additional scaling region disappears, and the Kolmogorov constant and Prandtl number become universal in the limit of infinite Reynolds number. In three spatial dimensions, the latter two equal 3/2( 5) / 3 )1/3 and √0.8 , respectively. The recent homodyne scattering experiments of Tong and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2780 (1990)] are analyzed, and the connection of the new scaling region with intermittency is discussed.
A Columbia River Basalt Group Aquifer in Sustained Drought: Insight from Geophysical Methods
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Mark W. Piersol
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG provide a critical water supply throughout much of the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Increased pumping has resulted in water level declines in this region. Recharge into this aquifer system is generally not well understood. Recent suggestions of probable decades-long droughts in the 21st century add to this problem. We show that geophysical methods can provide useful parameters for improved modeling of aquifers in a primary CRBG aquifer located on the eastern edge of the Columbia Plateau. Groundwater models depend in part on the area, thickness, porosity, storativity, and nature of confinement of this aquifer, most of which are poorly constrained by existing well information and previous stress tests. We have made use of surface gravity measurements, borehole gravity measurements, barometric efficiency estimates, earth tidal response, and earthquake seismology observations to constrain these parameters. We show that the aquifer, despite its persistent drawdown, receives a great deal of recharge annually. Much of the recharge to the aquifer is due to leakage from overlying flows, ultimately tied to precipitation, an important result for future aquifer management in times of sustained drought.
Harty, Harold; Al-Faleh, Nasser
The study was designed to determine differences between two chemistry teaching methods on students' chemistry achievement and attitudes toward science. The two methods were the large lecture-demonstration and small-group laboratory approaches to teaching chemistry. The subjects were 74 eleventh-grade Saudi Arabian students randomly assigned to the two treatment groups. The findings revealed that the small-group laboratory students exhibited significantly greater chemistry achievement than students in the lecture-demonstration group on both immediate and delayed posttests. The results also indicated that students taught by the lab approach possessed more desirable attitudes toward science.
Salazar, Douglas A.
2012-01-01
This study aimed to improve the van Hiele levels of geometric understanding, proof-construction performance and beliefs about proofs of the research respondents: future mathematics teachers exposed to the traditional (instructor-based) method and the enhanced-group Moore method. By using the quasi-experimental method of research, the study…
Mei, Lijie; Wu, Xinyuan
2016-10-01
In general, extended Runge-Kutta-Nyström (ERKN) methods are more effective than traditional Runge-Kutta-Nyström (RKN) methods in dealing with oscillatory Hamiltonian systems. However, the theoretical analysis for ERKN methods, such as the order conditions, the symplectic conditions and the symmetric conditions, becomes much more complicated than that for RKN methods. Therefore, it is a bottleneck to construct high-order ERKN methods efficiently. In this paper, we first establish the ERKN group Ω for ERKN methods and the RKN group G for RKN methods, respectively. We then rigorously show that ERKN methods are a natural extension of RKN methods, that is, there exists an epimorphism η of the ERKN group Ω onto the RKN group G. This epimorphism gives a global insight into the structure of the ERKN group by the analysis of its kernel and the corresponding RKN group G. Meanwhile, we establish a particular mapping φ of G into Ω so that each image element is an ideal representative element of the congruence class in Ω. Furthermore, an elementary theoretical analysis shows that this map φ can preserve many structure-preserving properties, such as the order, the symmetry and the symplecticity. From the epimorphism η together with its section φ, we may gain knowledge about the structure of the ERKN group Ω via the RKN group G. In light of the theoretical analysis of this paper, we obtain high-order structure-preserving ERKN methods in an effective way for solving oscillatory Hamiltonian systems. Numerical experiments are carried out and the results are very promising, which strongly support our theoretical analysis presented in this paper.
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Mei, Lijie, E-mail: bxhanm@126.com; Wu, Xinyuan, E-mail: xywu@nju.edu.cn
2016-10-15
In general, extended Runge–Kutta–Nyström (ERKN) methods are more effective than traditional Runge–Kutta–Nyström (RKN) methods in dealing with oscillatory Hamiltonian systems. However, the theoretical analysis for ERKN methods, such as the order conditions, the symplectic conditions and the symmetric conditions, becomes much more complicated than that for RKN methods. Therefore, it is a bottleneck to construct high-order ERKN methods efficiently. In this paper, we first establish the ERKN group Ω for ERKN methods and the RKN group G for RKN methods, respectively. We then rigorously show that ERKN methods are a natural extension of RKN methods, that is, there exists an epimorphism η of the ERKN group Ω onto the RKN group G. This epimorphism gives a global insight into the structure of the ERKN group by the analysis of its kernel and the corresponding RKN group G. Meanwhile, we establish a particular mapping φ of G into Ω so that each image element is an ideal representative element of the congruence class in Ω. Furthermore, an elementary theoretical analysis shows that this map φ can preserve many structure-preserving properties, such as the order, the symmetry and the symplecticity. From the epimorphism η together with its section φ, we may gain knowledge about the structure of the ERKN group Ω via the RKN group G. In light of the theoretical analysis of this paper, we obtain high-order structure-preserving ERKN methods in an effective way for solving oscillatory Hamiltonian systems. Numerical experiments are carried out and the results are very promising, which strongly support our theoretical analysis presented in this paper.
Eriksson, Tina; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Løgstrup, Louise; Buch, Martin Sandberg; Elwyn, Glyn; Edwards, Adrian
2010-10-01
The Maturity Matrix (MM) comprises a formative evaluation instrument for primary care practices to self-assess their degree of organisational development in a group setting, guided by an external facilitator. The practice teams discuss organisational development, score their own performance and set improvement goals for the following year. The objective of this project was to introduce a translated and culturally adapted version of the MM in Denmark, to test its feasibility, to promote and document organisational change in general practices and to analyse associations between the recorded change(s) and structural factors in practices and the factors associated with the MM process. MM was used by general practices in three counties in Denmark, in two assessment sessions 1 year apart. First rounds of MM visits were carried out in 2006-2007 in 60 practice teams (320 participants (163 GPs, 157 staff)) and the second round in 2007-2008. A total of 48 practice teams (228 participants (117 GPs; 111 staff) participated in both sessions. The MM sessions were the primary intervention. Moreover, in about half of the practices, the facilitator reminded practice teams of their goals by sending them the written report of the initial session and contacted the practices regularly by telephone reminding them of the goals they had set. Those practice teams had password-protected access to their own and benchmark data. Where the minimum possible is 0 and maximum possible is 8, the mean overall MM score increased from 4.4 to 5.3 (difference=0.9, 95%, CI 0.76 to 1.06) from first to second sessions, indicating that development had taken place as measured by this group-based self-evaluation method. There was some evidence that lower-scoring dimensions were prioritised and more limited evidence that the prioritisation and interventions between meetings were helpful to achieve changes. This study provides evidence that MM worked well in general practices in Denmark. Practice teams appeared
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Bijlenga Denise
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making can be based on treatment preferences of the patient, the doctor, or by guidelines based on lay people's preferences. We compared valuations assigned by three groups: patients, obstetrical care professionals, and laypersons, for health states involving both mother and (unborn child. Our aim was to compare the valuations of different groups using different valuation methods and complex obstetric health outcome vignettes that involve both maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods Patients (n = 24, professionals (n = 30, and laypersons (n = 27 valued the vignettes using three valuation methods: visual analogue scale (VAS, time trade-off (TTO, and discrete choice experimentation (DCE. Each vignette covered five health attributes: maternal health ante partum, time between diagnosis and delivery, process of delivery, maternal outcome, and neonatal outcome. We used feasibility questionnaires, Generalization theory, test-retest reliability and within-group reliability to compare the valuation patterns between groups and methods. We assessed relative weights from each valuation method to test for consistency across groups. Results Test-retest reliability was equal across groups, but different across methods: highest for VAS (ICC = 0.61-0.73, intermediate for TTO (ICC = 0.24-0.74 and lowest for DCE (kappa = 0.15-0.37. Within-group reliability was highest in all groups with VAS (ICC = 0.70-0.73, intermediate with DCE (kappa = 0.56-0.76 and lowest with TTO (ICC = 0.20-0.66. Effects of groups were smaller than effects of methods. Differences between groups were largest for severe health states. Conclusion Based on our results, decision making among laypersons should use TTO or DCE; patients should use VAS or TTO.
EXTENSION OF THE 1D FOUR-GROUP ANALYTIC NODAL METHOD TO FULL MULTIGROUP
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B. D. Ganapol; D. W. Nigg
2008-09-01
In the mid 80’s, a four-group/two-region, entirely analytical 1D nodal benchmark appeared. It was readily acknowledged that this special case was as far as one could go in terms of group number and still achieve an analytical solution. In this work, we show that by decomposing the solution to the multigroup diffusion equation into homogeneous and particular solutions, extension to any number of groups is a relatively straightforward exercise using the mathematics of linear algebra.
Linear perturbation renormalization group method for Ising-like spin systems
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J. Sznajd
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The linear perturbation group transformation (LPRG is used to study the thermodynamics of the axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising model with four spin interactions (extended ANNNI in a field. The LPRG for weakly interacting Ising chains is presented. The method is used to study finite field para-ferrimagnetic phase transitions observed in layered uranium compounds, UAs1-xSex, UPd2Si2 or UNi2Si2. The above-mentioned systems are made of ferromagnetic layers and the spins from the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor layers are coupled by the antiferromagnetic interactions J121-xSex the para-ferri phase transition is of the first order as expected from the symmetry reason, in UT2Si2 (T=Pd, Ni this transition seems to be a continuous one, at least in the vicinity of the multicritical point. Within the MFA, the critical character of the finite field para-ferrimagnetic transition at least at one isolated point can be described by the ANNNI model supplemented by an additional, e.g., four-spin interaction. However, in LPRG approximation for the ratio κ = J2/J1 around 0.5 there is a critical value of the field for which an isolated critical point also exists in the original ANNNI model. The positive four-spin interaction shifts the critical point towards higher fields and changes the shape of the specific heat curve. In the latter case for the fields small enough, the specific heat exhibits two-peak structure in the paramagnetic phase.
Down, Richard; Willner, Paul; Watts, Louise; Griffiths, Jenny
2011-01-01
We compared the efficacy of, and adolescents' preferences for, a Cognitive Behavioural (CBT) and Personal Development (PD) Anger Management (AM) group. The CBT group aimed to help adolescents develop skills to manage predominantly reactive aggression. The PD group aimed to enhance motivation to develop less aggressive identities with less use of proactive aggression. Eighteen adolescents were randomly allocated to a 10-session CBT or PD AM Group; seven additional adolescents formed a control group. They completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires to assess anger expression and control, use of AM coping skills (also completed by carers) and self-image. Participants were also interviewed pre- and post-intervention; transcripts were subjected to Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvements in anger coping and self-esteem, relative to the control group. Participants' age was significantly correlated with self-image and anger control outcomes in the CBT group. Qualitative analysis identified factors associated with improved outcomes, particularly regarding participants' age, motivation and readiness to change, engagement in the therapeutic process, group dynamics and emotional expressiveness. Our ability to interpret data clinically was enhanced by the use of a mixed quantitative-qualitative methodology. The results help us to better match interventions to clients.
Barra, J; Peña, M A; Bustamante, P
2000-04-01
The aim of this study is to propose, for the first time, a set of group molar constants for sodium to calculate the partial solubility parameters of sodium salts. The values were estimated using the few experimental partial solubility parameters of acid/sodium salt series available either from the literature (benzoic acid/Na, ibuprofen acid/Na, diclofenac Na) or determined in this work (salicylic acid/Na, p-aminobenzoic acid/Na, diclofenac), the group contribution method of van Krevelen to calculate the partial parameters of the acids, and three reasonable hypothesis. The experimental method used is a modification of the extended Hansen approach based on a regression analysis of the solubility mole fraction of the drug lnX(2) against models including three- or four-partial solubility parameters of a series of pure solvents ranging from non-polar (heptane) to highly polar (water). The modified method combined with the four-parameter model provided the best results for both acids and sodium derivatives. The replacement of the acidic proton by sodium increased the dipolar and basic partial solubility parameters, whereas the dispersion parameter remained unaltered, thus increasing the overall total solubility parameter of the salt. The proposed group molar constants of sodium are consistent with the experimental results as sodium has a relatively low London dispersion molar constant (identical to that of -OH), a very high Keesom dipolar molar constant (identical to that of -NO(2), two times larger than that of -OH), and a very high hydrogen bonding molar constant (identical to that of -OH). The proposed values are: F((Na)d)=270 (J cm(3))(1/2) mol(-1); F((Na)p)=1030 (J cm(3))(1/2) mol(-1); U((Na)h)=17000 J mol(-1). Like the constants for the other groups, the group molar constants proposed for sodium are certainly not the exact values. However, they are believed to be a fair approximation of the impact of sodium on the partial solubility parameters and, therefore, can
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nasimeh Nouhi Jadesi
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Using a mixed methods design, the present study attempted to identify the factors influencing Iranian untrained EFL raters in rating group oral discussion tasks. To fulfil this aim, 16 language learners of varying proficiency levels were selected and randomly assigned to groups of four and performed a group discussion task. Thirty two untrained raters were also selected based on their volunteer participations. They listened to the audio files of the group discussions and assigned a score of one to six to each language learners based on their own judgments. They also provided comments on each language learners’ performance pointing to why they assigned such scores. The researchers had an interview with the raters after the rating session as well. The quantitative phase investigated whether linguistic features of accuracy, fluency, complexity and amount of talk were attended to by the raters in terms of having any relationship to the scores the raters assigned. Speech rate as an index of fluency and amount of talk turned out to be significantly correlated with the scores. Of more importance was the qualitative phase with the aim of identifying other factors that may account for the scores. The comments provided by the raters on each score and the interviews were codified based on Content Analysis (CA approach. It was found that the raters attend not only to the linguistic features in rating oral group discussions, but they are also sensitive to the interactional features like the roles the participants take in groups tasks and the overall interaction patterns of the groups. The findings of this study may shed light on group oral assessment in terms of training the raters rating group oral tests and developing rating scales specific for group oral assessment. Persian Abstract:پژوهش حاضر، با بهره گیری از روش تحقیق ترکیبی به بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر ارزیابان آموزش ندیده
Bijlenga, Denise; Birnie, Erwin; Mol, Ben Wj; Bonsel, Gouke J
2011-11-12
Decision-making can be based on treatment preferences of the patient, the doctor, or by guidelines based on lay people's preferences. We compared valuations assigned by three groups: patients, obstetrical care professionals, and laypersons, for health states involving both mother and (unborn) child. Our aim was to compare the valuations of different groups using different valuation methods and complex obstetric health outcome vignettes that involve both maternal and neonatal outcomes. Patients (n = 24), professionals (n = 30), and laypersons (n = 27) valued the vignettes using three valuation methods: visual analogue scale (VAS), time trade-off (TTO), and discrete choice experimentation (DCE). Each vignette covered five health attributes: maternal health ante partum, time between diagnosis and delivery, process of delivery, maternal outcome, and neonatal outcome. We used feasibility questionnaires, Generalization theory, test-retest reliability and within-group reliability to compare the valuation patterns between groups and methods. We assessed relative weights from each valuation method to test for consistency across groups. Test-retest reliability was equal across groups, but different across methods: highest for VAS (ICC = 0.61-0.73), intermediate for TTO (ICC = 0.24-0.74) and lowest for DCE (kappa = 0.15-0.37). Within-group reliability was highest in all groups with VAS (ICC = 0.70-0.73), intermediate with DCE (kappa = 0.56-0.76) and lowest with TTO (ICC = 0.20-0.66). Effects of groups were smaller than effects of methods. Differences between groups were largest for severe health states. Based on our results, decision making among laypersons should use TTO or DCE; patients should use VAS or TTO.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何春山; 李志兵
2003-01-01
The correlation function of a two-dimensionalIsing model is calculated by the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method.We obtain the critical exponent η= 0.2496 with few computer resources.
The Introduction of Nurture Groups in Maltese Schools: A Method of Promoting Inclusive Education
Cefai, Carmel; Cooper, Paul
2011-01-01
Against the background of increasing stress and pressures in young people's lives and their apparent manifestation in social, emotional and behavioural problems in schools, there has been a renewed interest in nurture groups as an educational intervention. Nurture groups are designed to address the unmet social and emotional needs of young…
Efe, Rifat; Efe, Hulya Aslan
2011-01-01
This study examines the effects of employing student group leaders on the motivation of group members during co-operative learning activities in a secondary school classroom in Turkey. The study was carried out in a period of eight weeks in biology classes during which "living things" and "ecology" topics were taught to a class…
Mutrofin; Degeng, Nyoman Sudana; Ardhana, Wayan; Setyosari, Punaji
2017-01-01
The aim of this study is to examine difference in the effect of instructional methods (lecture-discussion versus group discussion) and teaching talent on teacher trainees student learning outcomes. It was conducted by a quasi-experimental design using the factorialized (2 x 2) version of the nonequivalent control group design. The subjects were…
Nishii, Taiki; Komada, Satoshi; Yashiro, Daisuke; Hirai, Junji
2013-01-01
Conventional estimation methods distribute tension to muscles by solving optimization problems, because the system is redundant. The theory of functionally different effective muscle, based on 3 antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in limbs, has enabled to calculate the maximum joint torque of each pair, i.e. functionally different effective muscle force. Based on this theory, a method to estimate muscular tension has been proposed, where joint torque of each muscle group is derived by multiplying functionally different effective muscle force, the muscular activity of muscular activity pattern for direction of tip force, and ratio of tip force to maximum output force. The estimation of this method is as good as Crowninshield's method, moreover this method also reduce the computation time if the estimation concerns a selected muscle group.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aghapour SA.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Aims: True learning needs the utilization of proper teaching methods leading to students’ interests in the learning activities to gain useful learning experiences. Therefore, it is needed to reform the traditional teaching methods and to use new student-focused methods by the educational systems. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the student-focused group discussion method and lecture method on the learning level in the Midwifery students. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 72 third-semester Midwifery bachelor students of Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch, were selected via census method to participate in the theoretical clinical pregnancy course presented as lecture and group discussion methods in 2014. The final test was done after the end of the training courses. And, material durability test was done 8 weeks after the end of the course sessions. Data was analyzed, using SPSS 16 software and Wilcoxon Non-parametric Test. Findings: There was a significant difference between the mean scores of all the sessions conducted through lecture method (45.00±8.00 and group discussion method (57.00±10.00; p=0.0001. There was a significant difference in the material durability after 8 weeks between the mean scores of lecture (24.50±13.90 and group discussion (35.10±13.10 methods (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Standard student-focused group discussion training affects the midwifery students’ learning more than the lecture method does and there is higher information durability.
Minatour, Yasser; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zarghami, Mahdi; Bakhshi, Maryam Ali
2015-09-01
The purpose of this study was to develop a group fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method to be applied in rating problems associated with water resources management. Thus, here Chen's group fuzzy TOPSIS method extended by a difference technique to handle uncertainties of applying a group decision making. Then, the extended group fuzzy TOPSIS method combined with a consistency check. In the presented method, initially linguistic judgments are being surveyed via a consistency checking process, and afterward these judgments are being used in the extended Chen's fuzzy TOPSIS method. Here, each expert's opinion is turned to accurate mathematical numbers and, then, to apply uncertainties, the opinions of group are turned to fuzzy numbers using three mathematical operators. The proposed method is applied to select the optimal strategy for the rural water supply of Nohoor village in north-eastern Iran, as a case study and illustrated example. Sensitivity analyses test over results and comparing results with project reality showed that proposed method offered good results for water resources projects.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Jun-jun; ZHENG Jun-jie; SUN Ling; ZHANG Shi-biao
2008-01-01
Proper treatment of weak subgrade soil is very important to building a highway of good quality. We proposed an entropy-based multi-criterion group decision analysis method for a group of experts to evaluate alternatives of weak subgrade treatment, with an aim to select the optimum technique which is technically, economically and socially viable. We used fuzzy theory to analyze multiple experts' evaluation on various factors of each alterative treatment. Different experts' evaluations are integrated by the group eigenvalue method. An entropy weight is introduced to minimize the negative influences of subjective human factors of experts. The optimum alternative is identified with ideal point discriminant analysis to calculate the distance of each alternative to the ideal point and prioritize all alternatives according to their distances. A case study on a section of the Shiman Expressway verified that the proposed method can give a rational decision on the optimum method of weak subgrade treatment.
The value of evaluating parenting groups: a new researcher's perspective on methods and results.
Cabral, Judy
2013-06-01
The aim of this research project was to evaluate the impact of the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) parenting groups on the participants' parenting practice and their reported behaviour of their children. Validated tools that met both the Solihull Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and academic requirements were used to establish what changes, if any, in parenting practice and children's behaviour (as perceived by the parent) occur following attendance of a UYCB parenting group. Independent evidence of the efficacy of the Solihull Approach UYCB programme was collated. Results indicated significant increases in self-esteem and parenting sense of competence; improvement in the parental locus of control; a decrease in hyperactivity and conduct problems and an increase in pro-social behaviour, as measured by the 'Strength and Difficulties' questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative findings corroborated each other, demonstrating the impact and effectiveness of the programme and supporting anecdotal feedback on the success of UYCB parenting groups.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dedi Afandi
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions
2014-06-01
D5229M-12 (Standard Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials),10 ASTM D1151...Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials." ASTM International, West
Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Farrell, Edwin
2010-01-01
The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitative methods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a…
Urrego, D.H.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Rama-Corredor, O.; Martrat, B.; Grimalt, J.O.; Thompson, L.; Bush, M.B.; González-Carranza, Z.; Hanselman, J.; Valencia, B.; Velásquez-Ruiz, C.
2016-01-01
We compare eight pollen records reflecting climatic and environmental change from northern and southern sites in the tropical Andes. Our analysis focuses on the last 30 000 years, with particular emphasis on the Pleistocene to Holocene transition. We explore ecological grouping and downcore ordinati
Summanen, P H; Rowlinson, M-C; Wooton, J; Finegold, S M
2009-09-01
The terminology and classification of the Anginosus group streptococci has been inconsistent. We tested the utility of 16S rRNA gene and tuf gene sequencing and conventional biochemical tests for the reliable differentiation of the Anginosus group streptococci. Biochemical testing included Rapid ID 32 Strep, API Strep, Fluo-Card Milleri, Wee-tabs, and Lancefield antigen typing. Altogether, 61 Anginosus group isolates from skin and soft tissue infections and four reference strains were included. Our results showed a good agreement between 16S rRNA gene and tuf gene sequencing. Using the full sequence was less discriminatory than using the first part of the 16S rRNA gene. The three species could not be separated with the API 20 Strep test. Streptococcus intermedius could be differentiated from the other two species by beta-galactosidase (ONPG) and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase reactions. Rapid ID 32 Strep beta-glucosidase reaction was useful in separating S. anginosus strains from S. constellatus. In conclusion, both 16S rRNA gene and tuf gene sequencing can be used for the reliable identification of the Anginosus group streptococci. S. intermedius can be readily differentiated from the other two species by phenotypic tests; however, 16S rRNA gene or tuf gene sequencing may be needed for separating some strains of S. constellatus from S. anginosus.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gharagheizi, Farhad; Ilani-Kashkouli, Poorandokht; Mohammadi, Amir H.
2012-01-01
In this study, a wide literature survey has been carried out to collect an extensive set of liquid viscosity data for ionic liquids (ILs). A data set consisting of 1672 viscosity values and comprising 443 ILs was collated from 204 different literature sources. Using this data set, a reliable group...
Eriksson, T.; Siersma, V.D.; Logstrup, L.; Buch, M.S.; Elwyn, G.; Edwards, A.
2010-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The Maturity Matrix (MM) comprises a formative evaluation instrument for primary care practices to self-assess their degree of organisational development in a group setting, guided by an external facilitator. The practice teams discuss organisational development, score their own performan
Increasing the Degrees of Freedom in Future Group Randomized Trials: The "df*" Method Revisited
Murray, David M.; Blitstein, Jonathan L.; Hannan, Peter J.; Shadish, William R.
2012-01-01
Background: This article revisits an article published in Evaluation Review in 2005 on sample size estimation and power analysis for group-randomized trials. With help from a careful reader, we learned of an important error in the spreadsheet used to perform the calculations and generate the results presented in that article. As we studied the…
Finch, W. Holmes
2016-01-01
Differential item functioning (DIF) assessment is a crucial component in test construction, serving as the primary way in which instrument developers ensure that measures perform in the same way for multiple groups within the population. When such is not the case, scores may not accurately reflect the trait of interest for all individuals in the…
New method of the functional renormalization group approach for Yang-Mills fields
Lavrov, P. M.; Shapiro, I. L.
2014-12-01
We propose a new formulation of the functional renormalization group (FRG) approach, based on the use of regulator functions as composite operators. In this case one can provide (in contrast with standard approach) on-shell gauge-invariance for the effective average action.
Onyia, Okey Peter
2014-01-01
This paper is a sequel to an earlier one that examines "the efficacy of two innovative peer-assessment templates ("PET" and "PACT") introduced to enable students provide evidence of their fairness in evaluating peer contributions to group project work" (Onyia, O. P. and Allen, S., 2012). In the present paper, three…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whitesides, G.E.
1987-01-01
Representatives from eleven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries participated in an exercise to validate computer calculations to evaluate the criticality safety for several fissile material transport and handling situations. A procedure evolved from this work which has been shown to demonstrate whether a given computation method produces ''valid'' results. This procedure is expected to provide a basis for acceptance of computational results on an international basis by regulatory authorities through the comparison of methods used by the various countries. This work will also provide the framework for validating computational methods for other applications such as heat transfer and neutron/gamma shielding.
Peleg, Mor; Asbeh, Nuaman; Kuflik, Tsvi; Schertz, Mitchell
2009-02-01
Children with developmental disorders usually exhibit multiple developmental problems (comorbidities). Hence, such diagnosis needs to revolve on developmental disorder groups. Our objective is to systematically identify developmental disorder groups and represent them in an ontology. We developed a methodology that combines two methods (1) a literature-based ontology that we created, which represents developmental disorders and potential developmental disorder groups, and (2) clustering for detecting comorbid developmental disorders in patient data. The ontology is used to interpret and improve clustering results and the clustering results are used to validate the ontology and suggest directions for its development. We evaluated our methodology by applying it to data of 1175 patients from a child development clinic. We demonstrated that the ontology improves clustering results, bringing them closer to an expert generated gold-standard. We have shown that our methodology successfully combines an ontology with a clustering method to support systematic identification and representation of developmental disorder groups.
Prosopography of social and political groups historically located: method or research technique?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorena Madruga Monteiro
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The prosopographical approach has been questioned in different disciplinary domains as its scientific nature. The debate prosopography is a technique, a tool for research, an auxiliary science or method transpires in scientific arguments and those who are dedicated to explaining the prosopographical research assumptions. In the social sciences, for example, prosopography is not seen only as an instrument of research, but as a method associated with a theoretical construct to apprehend the social world. The historians that use prosopographic analysis, in turn, oscillate about the analysis of collective biography is a method or a polling technique. Given this setting we aimed at in this article, discuss the prosopographical approach from their different uses. The study presents a literature review, demonstrating the technique of prosopography as historical research, and further as a method of sociological analysis, and then highlight your procedures and methodological limits.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mehdi Bagheri; Afshin Bakhtiari; Masoume Jaberi
2013-01-01
Chemical stability and reactivity of organic pollutants is dependent to their formation enthalpies.The main objective of this study is to provide simple straightforward strategy for prediction of the formation enthalpies of wide range organic pollutants only from their structural functional groups.Using such an extended dataset comprising 1694 organic chemicals from 77 diverse material classes benefits the generalizability and reliability of the study.The new suggested collection of 12 functional groups and a simple linear regression lead to promising statistics of R2=0.958,Q2Loo =0.956,and δAEE=57 kJ·mol-1 for the whole dataset.Moreover,unknown experimental formation enthalpies for 27 organic pollutants are estimated by the presented approach.The resultant model needs no technical software/calculations,and thus can be easily applied by a non-specialist user.
GPU-Acceleration of Parallel Unconditionally Stable Group Explicit Finite Difference Method
Parand, K.; Zafarvahedian, Saeed; Hossayni, Sayyed A.
2013-01-01
Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are high performance co-processors originally intended to improve the use and quality of computer graphics applications. Once, researchers and practitioners noticed the potential of using GPU for general purposes, GPUs applications have been extended from graphics applications to other fields. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of using GPU in solution of the transient diffusion type equation by parallel and stable group explicit finite...
Wada, Daichi; Igawa, Hirotaka; Murayama, Hideaki; Kasai, Tokio
2014-03-24
A signal processing method based on group delay calculations is introduced for distributed measurements of long-length fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). Bragg wavelength shifts in interfered signals of OFDR are regarded as group delay. By calculating group delay, the distribution of Bragg wavelength shifts is obtained with high computational efficiency. We introduce weighted averaging process for noise reduction. This method required only 3.5% of signal processing time which was necessary for conventional equivalent signal processing based on short-time Fourier transform. The method also showed high sensitivity to experimental signals where non-uniform strain distributions existed in a long-length FBG.
[The method of personal interaction laboratories applied to groups of married couples].
Pérez Upegui, P
1975-03-01
The aim of Personal Interaction Laboratories is not to overcome or to solve any marriage problem or maladjustment. They provide an intense, quick experience, in which the participants get a rare chance to examine the way they are interacting with each other's partner, and the degree of mutual adaptation. A peculiar atmosphere of trust and reliability is usually created in the group, and grows steadily according to the increasing willingness of all members to share a higher degree of intimacy. This climate allows for deep emotional exchanges through which persons and couples gain a fresh view of themselves, allowing a long lasting drive for improving their life patterns. This report briefs the results of four Laboratories for married couples sponsored by the Human Welfare Foundation ("Fundación para el Bienestar Humano"), at Medellín-Colombia, in 1971 and 1972; they included 8, 10, 6 and 12 couples, that is, 36 in all. Participation in the Laboratories was set on a strictly voluntary basis; information was provided to personnel of the main industrial and commercial corporations, and interested prospective candidates applied for admission. The couples were selected according to their socio-economical level (medium and lower-medium), their educational background (at least two years of high school), and their lack of apparent mental symptoms. A special country resort was selected for the Laboratories, in order to guarantee adequate isolation for the group and no possible contacts with the familiar environment. Sessions were started on Wednesdays at 8 pm and closed on Sundays at 1.30 pm. The available time was completely devoted to Laboratory activities, allowing only short breaks for meals. T-group sessions took most of the time. They were given special attention, being at the core of group development. Each session was 90 to 120 minutes long; a total of nine were programmed. There were complementary activities, such as lectures on marriage counseling, group
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoyuan Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Vehicle group situation is the status and situation of dynamic permutation which is composed of target vehicle and neighboring traffic entities. It is a concept which is frequently involved in the research of traffic flow theory, especially the active vehicle security. Studying vehicle group situation in depth is of great significance for traffic safety. Three-lane condition was taken as an example; the characteristics of target vehicle and its neighboring vehicles were synthetically considered to restructure the vehicle group situation in this paper. The Gamma distribution theory was used to identify the vehicle group situation when target vehicle arrived at the end of the study area. From the perspective of driver-vehicle feature evolution, the reverse reconstruction method of vehicle group situation in the urban road network was proposed. Results of actual driving, virtual driving, and simulation experiments showed that the model established in this paper was reasonable and feasible.
Determination of Carbonyl Functional Groups in Bio-oils by Potentiometric Titration: The Faix Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Black, Stuart; Ferrell, Jack R.
2017-01-01
Carbonyl compounds present in bio-oils are known to be responsible for bio-oil property changes upon storage and during upgrading. Specifically, carbonyls cause an increase in viscosity (often referred to as 'aging') during storage of bio-oils. As such, carbonyl content has previously been used as a method of tracking bio-oil aging and condensation reactions with less variability than viscosity measurements. Additionally, carbonyls are also responsible for coke formation in bio-oil upgrading processes. Given the importance of carbonyls in bio-oils, accurate analytical methods for their quantification are very important for the bio-oil community. Potentiometric titration methods based on carbonyl oximation have long been used for the determination of carbonyl content in pyrolysis bio-oils. Here, we present a modification of the traditional carbonyl oximation procedures that results in less reaction time, smaller sample size, higher precision, and more accurate carbonyl determinations. While traditional carbonyl oximation methods occur at room temperature, the Faix method presented here occurs at an elevated temperature of 80 degrees C.
Black, Stuart; Ferrell, Jack R
2017-02-07
Carbonyl compounds present in bio-oils are known to be responsible for bio-oil property changes upon storage and during upgrading. Specifically, carbonyls cause an increase in viscosity (often referred to as 'aging') during storage of bio-oils. As such, carbonyl content has previously been used as a method of tracking bio-oil aging and condensation reactions with less variability than viscosity measurements. Additionally, carbonyls are also responsible for coke formation in bio-oil upgrading processes. Given the importance of carbonyls in bio-oils, accurate analytical methods for their quantification are very important for the bio-oil community. Potentiometric titration methods based on carbonyl oximation have long been used for the determination of carbonyl content in pyrolysis bio-oils. Here, we present a modification of the traditional carbonyl oximation procedures that results in less reaction time, smaller sample size, higher precision, and more accurate carbonyl determinations. While traditional carbonyl oximation methods occur at room temperature, the Faix method presented here occurs at an elevated temperature of 80 °C.
Patching rainfall data using regression methods. 3. Grouping, patching and outlier detection
Pegram, Geoffrey
1997-11-01
Rainfall data are used, amongst other things, for augmenting or repairing streamflow records in a water resources analysis environment. Gaps in rainfall records cause problems in the construction of water-balance models using monthly time-steps, when it becomes necessary to estimate missing values. Modest extensions are sometimes also desirable. It is also important to identify outliers as possible erroneous data and to group data which are hydrologically similar in order to accomplish good patching. Algorithms are described which accomplish these tasks using the covariance biplot, multiple linear regression, singular value decomposition and the pseudo-Expectation-Maximization algorithm.
Renormalization theory and ultraviolet stability for scalar fields via renormalization group methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gallavotti, G.
1985-04-01
A self-contained analysis is given of the simplest quantum fields from the renormalization group point of view: multiscale decomposition, general renormalization theory, resummations of renormalized series via equations of the Callan-Symanzik type, asymptotic freedom, and proof of ultraviolet stability for sine-Gordon fields in two dimensions and for other super-renormalizable scalar fields. Renormalization in four dimensions (Hepp's theorem and the De Calan--Rivasseau nexclamation bound) is presented and applications are made to the Coulomb gases in two dimensions and to the convergence of the planar graph expansions in four-dimensional field theories (t' Hooft--Rivasseau theorem).
Garden-Robinson, Julie; Eighmy, Myron A; Lyonga, Agnes Ngale
2010-12-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the types of unfamiliar foods international students in the U.S. encounter and to assess food safety information that international students would like to receive for mitigating risks associated with handling and preparing unfamiliar foods. The study identified preferred instructional delivery methods and media for receiving food safety training or information. An electronic group method was used for this study. The electronic group method was chosen to maximize group efficiency by allowing participants to share ideas simultaneously and anonymously with minimal use of time and resources.Types of different (unfamiliar) foods were grouped into major categories. Fast and ready-to-eat foods, and processed and frozen foods constituted a major change for some international students, who were accustomed to homemade and fresh foods in their countries. Participants were interested in receiving information about how to safely handle and prepare unfamiliar foods in their new environment. Preferred methods for receiving food safety information included written materials, online publications, presentations, and materials provided during student orientation. Food packages, websites, and television programs were other preferred methods of receiving food safety information.
Literacy and Minority Language Groups. Community Literacy as a Method and Goal.
Wallerstein, Nina
Problems facing literacy education include how to attract nonEnglish speaking and illiterate adults to the programs and how to reduce attrition and increase motivation for the students who do come to the programs. One method that could help to solve these problems is "community literacy," an approach to learning in which the curriculum…
Characterisation of group behaviour surface texturing with multi-layers fitting method
Kang, Zhengyang; Fu, Yonghong; Ji, Jinghu; Wang, Hao
2016-07-01
Surface texturing was widely applied in improving the tribological properties of mechanical components, but study of measurement of this technology was still insufficient. This study proposed the multi-layers fitting (MLF) method to characterise the dimples array texture surface. Based on the synergistic effect among the dimples, the 3D morphology of texture surface was rebuilt by 2D stylus profiler in the MLF method. The feasible regions of texture patterns and sensitive parameters were confirmed by non-linear programming, and the processing software of MLF method was developed based on the Matlab®. The characterisation parameters system of dimples was defined mathematically, and the accuracy of MLF method was investigated by comparison experiment. The surface texture specimens were made by laser surface texturing technology, in which high consistency of dimples' size and distribution was achieved. Then, 2D profiles of different dimples were captured by employing Hommel-T1000 stylus profiler, and the data were further processed by MLF software to rebuild 3D morphology of single dimple. The experiment results indicated that the MLF characterisation results were similar to those of Wyko T1100, the white light interference microscope. It was also found that the stability of MLF characterisation results highly depended on the number of captured cross-sections.
Choice of Appropriate Multimedia Technology and Teaching Methods for Different Culture Groups
Taratoukhina, Julia
2014-01-01
This paper describes the prerequisites for development in the area of cross-cultural multimedia didactics. This approach is based on research studies of differences between mentalities, ways of working with educational information, culturally-specific teaching methods and teaching techniques that determine differentiated approaches to the choice…
[Evaluation of 24-hour home help services in a community by the focus group interview method].
Yuasa, T; Maeda, A; Motohashi, Y
1999-11-01
The 24-hour home help services that provide day and night care services at home becomes a public health interest in Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the system of 24-hour home help services in a community that has successfully developed it. Participants of this focus group interview were home helpers who were actually engaged in 24-hour home help services in A town of Akita Prefecture. The focus group session was tape-recorded and the tapes were transcribed. The transcripts were evaluated and summarized in order to identify major categories and number of descriptive statements in each category. The results were as follows. First, the home helpers considered that their system of 24-hour home help services could be technically transferred to other communities in Japan. Secondary, the political leadership and the democratic system of community participation were the essential elements for promoting the 24-hour home help services. Thirdly, the regular meetings for discussion about cases and opinion exchanges were required more extensively in the future.
Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Chao; Jin, Jing; Zhu, Zheng; Zhang, Wenjie
2013-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which method, individual information-centered (IIC) or group information-centered (GIC), is more efficient in recovering missing physical activity (PA) data. Method: A total of 2,758 Chinese children and youth aged 9 to 17 years old (1,438 boys and 1,320 girls) wore ActiGraph GT3X/GT3X+…
Ming Li
2012-01-01
Axiomatic design (AD) provides a framework to describe design objects and a set of axioms to evaluate relations between intended functions and means by which they are achieved. It has been extended to evaluate alternatives in engineering under fuzzy environment. With respect to multiple criteria group decision making (MCDM) with incomplete weight information under fuzzy linguistic environment, a new method is proposed. In the method, the fuzzy axiomatic design based on triangle representation...
Hasani, Hamed; Bahrami, Mojtaba; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Allahyary, Elaheh; Amini, Mitra; Abdorahimi, Mehdi; khani, Sara; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohammad; Kojuri, Javad
2015-05-01
To determine the efficacy of different methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPCR) training in 3 different groups of the society. In a prospective and observational study of 2000 individuals in 3 different groups including G1, G2, and G3 4 different protocols of CPCR training were applied and their efficacy was compared between the groups. Also, 12 months after the study course, 460 participants from 3 groups were asked to take apart in a theoretical and practical examination to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the 4 protocols. Among 2000 individuals took a parted in the study, 950 (47.5%) were G1, 600 (30%) were G2, and 450 (22.5%) were G3. G1 in 4 groups were 2.37 and 2.65 times more successful in pretest theoretical and 2.61 and 18.20 times more successful in practical examinations compared with G2 and G3 and gained highest improvement in CPCR skills. Other groups also showed significantly improved CPCR skills. Comparison of different methods of CPCR learning showed that the workshop using interactive lecture as well as human model, educational film, and reference CPCR book has the highest efficacy in all groups. This protocol of CPCR training showed more efficacy in long-term postdelayed evaluation. On the contrary, medical students had better long-term outcomes from the course. Although G1 and G2 obtained better results in learning CPCR skills, in G3 also the theoretical and practical knowledge were improved significantly. This course increased confidence for doing CPCR in all groups of the study. Considering that the most of the bystanders at emergency states are general population, training this group of the society and increasing their confidence about performing CPCR can be so effective and lifesaving at emergency states. (Clinical trial. Gov registration: NCT02120573).
Hasani, Hamed; Bahrami, Mojtaba; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Allahyary, Elaheh; Amini, Mitra; Abdorahimi, Mehdi; khani, Sara; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohammad; Kojuri, Javad
2015-01-01
Abstract To determine the efficacy of different methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPCR) training in 3 different groups of the society. In a prospective and observational study of 2000 individuals in 3 different groups including G1, G2, and G3 4 different protocols of CPCR training were applied and their efficacy was compared between the groups. Also, 12 months after the study course, 460 participants from 3 groups were asked to take apart in a theoretical and practical examination to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the 4 protocols. Among 2000 individuals took a parted in the study, 950 (47.5%) were G1, 600 (30%) were G2, and 450 (22.5%) were G3. G1 in 4 groups were 2.37 and 2.65 times more successful in pretest theoretical and 2.61 and 18.20 times more successful in practical examinations compared with G2 and G3 and gained highest improvement in CPCR skills. Other groups also showed significantly improved CPCR skills. Comparison of different methods of CPCR learning showed that the workshop using interactive lecture as well as human model, educational film, and reference CPCR book has the highest efficacy in all groups. This protocol of CPCR training showed more efficacy in long-term postdelayed evaluation. On the contrary, medical students had better long-term outcomes from the course. Although G1 and G2 obtained better results in learning CPCR skills, in G3 also the theoretical and practical knowledge were improved significantly. This course increased confidence for doing CPCR in all groups of the study. Considering that the most of the bystanders at emergency states are general population, training this group of the society and increasing their confidence about performing CPCR can be so effective and lifesaving at emergency states. (Clinical trial. Gov registration: NCT02120573) PMID:26020392
Ionic conductivities of solid polymer electrolyte/salt systems: Group-contribution method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joo, Jae Ho; Bae, Young Chan [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133791 (Korea, Republic of)
2006-06-19
We establish a new group-contribution model based on the Nernst-Einstein equation in which the diffusion coefficient is derived from the modified double-lattice (MDL) model and the Debye-Huckel (DH) theory. The model includes the combinatorial energy contribution that is responsible for the revised Flory-Huggins entropy of mixing, the van der Waals energy contribution from dispersion, and the polar force and the specific energy contribution from hydrogen bonding. The Nernst-Einstein equation takes into account the mobility of the salt and the motion of the polymer host. To describe the segmental motion of the polymer chain, which is the well known conduction mechanism for solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) systems, the effective co-ordinated unit parameter is introduced. Our results show that good agreement is obtained upon comparison with experimental data of various PEO and salt systems in the interested ranges. (author)
Fabiano, E; Seidl, M; Della Sala, F
2016-01-01
We have tested the original interaction-strength-interpolation (ISI) exchange-correlation functional for main group chemistry. The ISI functional is based on an interpolation between the weak and strong coupling limits and includes exact-exchange as well as the G\\"orling-Levy second-order energy. We have analyzed in detail the basis-set dependence of the ISI functional, its dependence on the ground-state orbitals, and the influence of the size-consistency problem. We show and explain some of the expected limitations of the ISI functional (i.e. for atomization energies), but also unexpected results, such as the good performance for the interaction energy of dispersion-bonded complexes when the ISI correlation is used as a correction to Hartree-Fock.
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Davutoglu Mehmet
2007-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In countries like Turkey where smoking is highly prevalent, children's exposure to tobacco smoke is an important public health problem. The goals of this study were to determine the self-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure status of primary school students in grades 3 to 5, to verify self-reported exposure levels with data provided from a biomarker of exposure, and to develop methods for preventing school children from passive smoking. Methods The study was conducted on 347 primary school students by using a standard questionnaire and urinary cotinine tests. Children with verified ETS exposure were randomly assigned to 2 intervention groups. Two phone interviews were conducted with the parents of the first group regarding their children's passive smoking status and its possible consequences. On the other hand, a brief note concerning urinary cotinine test result was sent to parents of the second group. Nine months after the initial urinary cotinine tests, measurements were repeated in both groups. Results According to questionnaire data, 59.9% of the study group (208 of 347 were exposed to ETS. Urinary cotinine measurements of children were highly consistent with the self-reported exposure levels (P 0.05. Conclusion Self-reported ETS exposure was found to be pretty accurate in the 9–11 age group when checked with urinary cotinine tests. Only informing parents that their childrens' ETS exposure were confirmed by a laboratory test seems to be very promising in preventing children from ETS.
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Kianoush Zahrakar
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the present research was studying the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT with Group method in decreasing stress of diabetic patients. Methods: The population of research consisted of all diabetic patients that are member of diabetic patient’s association 0f karaj city. The sample consisted of 30 diabetic patients (experimental group 15 persons and control group 15 persons that selected through random sampling. Research design was experimental (pretest – posttest with control group. Stress inoculation training on experimental group was performance for 10 sessions. Research instrument were stress signs test. 5 hypotheses were formulated about effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT on decrease stress signs (physical, emotional, behavioral, cognitive and total stress. Analysis of covariance was used for analyzing the data. Results: The finding indicated that Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT had significant effect on decrease every dimension of stress signs. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT in decreasing stress of diabetic patients. Due to the increase of stress in diabetic patients and the effectiveness of mental intervention, special attention should be given psychological treatment in this group of patients.
Method of resonating groups in the Faddeev-Hahn equation formalism for three-body nuclear problem
Nasirov, M Z
2002-01-01
The Faddeev-Hahn equation formalism for three-body nuclear problem is considered. For solution of the equations the method of resonant groups have applied. The calculations of tritium binding energy and doublet nd-scattering length have been carried out. The results obtained shows that Faddeev-Hahn equation formalism is very simple and effective. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allen, D. T.; Behmanesh, N.; Vajdi, L. E.
1989-01-01
Structural profiles of narrow-boiling range fractions from three coal liquefaction processes were determined by identifying the major functional groups in the distillates and estimating their concentrations. The structural profiles were based on an extensive set of analytical data including results from elemental analysis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and liquid chromatography. The functional group distributions were then interfaced with group contribution methods for property estimation. Heat capacities, critical constants, activity coefficients, hydrogen solubilities and vapor pressures were estimated for the narrow boiling fractions. The predictions have been compared to the predictions of more conventional property estimation methods and to experimental data. In addition, sensitivity analyses have been performed to determine which structural features in the coal derived liquids are most important in estimating the values of thermodynamic properties. 43 refs., 16 figs., 59 tabs.
Wood, Timothy J.; Humphrey-Murto, Susan M.; Norman, Geoffrey R.
2006-01-01
When setting standards, administrators of small-scale OSCEs often face several challenges, including a lack of resources, a lack of available expertise in statistics, and difficulty in recruiting judges. The Modified Borderline-Group Method is a standard setting procedure that compensates for these challenges by using physician examiners and is…
Investigate Methods to Decrease Compilation Time-AX-Program Code Group Computer Science R& D Project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cottom, T
2003-06-11
Large simulation codes can take on the order of hours to compile from scratch. In Kull, which uses generic programming techniques, a significant portion of the time is spent generating and compiling template instantiations. I would like to investigate methods that would decrease the overall compilation time for large codes. These would be methods which could then be applied, hopefully, as standard practice to any large code. Success is measured by the overall decrease in wall clock time a developer spends waiting for an executable. Analyzing the make system of a slow to build project can benefit all developers on the project. Taking the time to analyze the number of processors used over the life of the build and restructuring the system to maximize the parallelization can significantly reduce build times. Distributing the build across multiple machines with the same configuration can increase the number of available processors for building and can help evenly balance the load. Becoming familiar with compiler options can have its benefits as well. The time improvements of the sum can be significant. Initial compilation time for Kull on OSF1 was {approx} 3 hours. Final time on OSF1 after completion is 16 minutes. Initial compilation time for Kull on AIX was {approx} 2 hours. Final time on AIX after completion is 25 minutes. Developers now spend 3 hours less waiting for a Kull executable on OSF1, and 2 hours less on AIX platforms. In the eyes of many Kull code developers, the project was a huge success.
Convergence analysis of two-node CMFD method for two-group neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem
Jeong, Yongjin; Park, Jinsu; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Deokjung
2015-12-01
In this paper, the nonlinear coarse-mesh finite difference method with two-node local problem (CMFD2N) is proven to be unconditionally stable for neutron diffusion eigenvalue problems. The explicit current correction factor (CCF) is derived based on the two-node analytic nodal method (ANM2N), and a Fourier stability analysis is applied to the linearized algorithm. It is shown that the analytic convergence rate obtained by the Fourier analysis compares very well with the numerically measured convergence rate. It is also shown that the theoretical convergence rate is only governed by the converged second harmonic buckling and the mesh size. It is also noted that the convergence rate of the CCF of the CMFD2N algorithm is dependent on the mesh size, but not on the total problem size. This is contrary to expectation for eigenvalue problem. The novel points of this paper are the analytical derivation of the convergence rate of the CMFD2N algorithm for eigenvalue problem, and the convergence analysis based on the analytic derivations.
Convergence analysis of two-node CMFD method for two-group neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Yongjin; Park, Jinsu [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111 Daedeok-daero 989 beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Deokjung, E-mail: deokjung@unist.ac.kr [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-12-01
In this paper, the nonlinear coarse-mesh finite difference method with two-node local problem (CMFD2N) is proven to be unconditionally stable for neutron diffusion eigenvalue problems. The explicit current correction factor (CCF) is derived based on the two-node analytic nodal method (ANM2N), and a Fourier stability analysis is applied to the linearized algorithm. It is shown that the analytic convergence rate obtained by the Fourier analysis compares very well with the numerically measured convergence rate. It is also shown that the theoretical convergence rate is only governed by the converged second harmonic buckling and the mesh size. It is also noted that the convergence rate of the CCF of the CMFD2N algorithm is dependent on the mesh size, but not on the total problem size. This is contrary to expectation for eigenvalue problem. The novel points of this paper are the analytical derivation of the convergence rate of the CMFD2N algorithm for eigenvalue problem, and the convergence analysis based on the analytic derivations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olha V. Zastelo
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this article the method of the integral assessment of the level of students` foreign language communicative competence by the group of experts through the complex test in a foreign language is considered. The use of mathematical methods and modern specialized software during complex testing of students significantly improves the expert methods, particularly in the direction of increasing the reliability of the assessment. Capitalizing analytical software environment realizes the simulation of non-linear generalizations based on artificial neural networks, which increases the accuracy of the estimate and allows further efficient use of the competent experts` experience gained in the model.
Obstacle Avoidance Method for a Group of Humanoids Inspired by Social Force Model
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Ali Sadiyoko
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new formulation for obstacle and collision behavior on a group of humanoid robots that adopts walking behavior of pedestrian crowd. A pedestrian receives position information from the other pedestrians, calculate his movement and then continuing his objective. This capability is defined as socio-dynamic capability of a pedestrian. Pedestrian’s walking behavior in a crowd is an example of a sociodynamics system and known as Social Force Model (SFM. This research is trying to implement the avoidance terms in SFM into robot’s behavior. The aim of the integration of SFM into robot’s behavior is to increase robot’s ability to maintain its safety by avoiding the obstacles and collision with the other robots. The attractive feature of the proposed algorithm is the fact that the behavior of the humanoids will imitate the human’s behavior while avoiding the obstacle. The proposed algorithm combines formation control using Consensus Algorithm (CA with collision and obstacle avoidance technique using SFM. Simulation and experiment results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Revisiting the Lie-group symmetry method for turbulent channel flow with wall transpiration
Khujadze, George
2016-01-01
The Lie-group-based symmetry analysis, as first proposed in Avsarkisov et al. (2014) and then later modified in Oberlack et al. (2015), to generate invariant solutions in order to predict the scaling behavior of a channel flow with uniform wall transpiration, is revisited. By focusing first on the results obtained in Avsarkisov et al. (2014), we failed to reproduce two key results: (i) For different transpiration rates at a constant Reynolds number, the mean velocity profiles (in deficit form) do not universally collapse onto a single curve as claimed. (ii) The universally proposed logarithmic scaling law in the center of the channel does not match the direct numerical simulation (DNS) data for the presented parameter values. In fact, no universal scaling behavior in the center of the channel can be detected from their DNS data, as it is misleadingly claimed in Avsarkisov et al. (2014). Moreover, we will demonstrate that the assumption of a Reynolds-number independent symmetry analysis is not justified for th...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiuf, Carsten; Pallesen, Jonatan; Foldager, Leslie
2016-01-01
was demonstrated using simulations and real data analyses. Our method may be a useful supplement to standard procedures relying on evaluation of test statistics individually. Moreover, by being agnostic and not relying on predefined selected regions, it might be a practical alternative to conventionally used......In many areas of science it is custom to perform many, potentially millions, of tests simultaneously. To gain statistical power it is common to group tests based on a priori criteria such as predefined regions or by sliding windows. However, it is not straightforward to choose grouping criteria...... and the results might depend on the chosen criteria. Methods that summarize, or aggregate, test statistics or p-values, without relying on a priori criteria, are therefore desirable. We present a simple method to aggregate a sequence of stochastic variables, such as test statistics or p-values, into fewer...
Supersymmetric O(N) models in d=3 with functional renormalization group (FRG) methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hellwig, Tobias; Heilmann, Marianne; Wipf, Andreas [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universit Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Lithim, Daniel F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, BN1 9QH, Brighton (United Kingdom)
2013-07-01
While a lot of results concerning scalar O(N) models are known, much less is known for supersymmetric O(N) models. The 1/N expansions were examined in some earlier works with the help of the Hartree-Fock approximation. In this talk results for all N are presented. These results were obtained by using FRG methods and a manifest supersymmetric regulator. For finite N fixed point solutions and critical exponents are obtained. We comment on effects of different truncations in the effective average action. Starting point is the LPA approximation. In a second step a wave function renormalization is included and deviations from LPA solution are discussed. This is done for a field dependent and field independent form of the wave function renormalization. This knowledge could also prove to be helpful for further FRG studies of supersymmetric theories.
Fresse, Benoit
2017-01-01
The ultimate goal of this book is to explain that the Grothendieck-Teichmüller group, as defined by Drinfeld in quantum group theory, has a topological interpretation as a group of homotopy automorphisms associated to the little 2-disc operad. To establish this result, the applications of methods of algebraic topology to operads must be developed. This volume is devoted primarily to this subject, with the main objective of developing a rational homotopy theory for operads. The book starts with a comprehensive review of the general theory of model categories and of general methods of homotopy theory. The definition of the Sullivan model for the rational homotopy of spaces is revisited, and the definition of models for the rational homotopy of operads is then explained. The applications of spectral sequence methods to compute homotopy automorphism spaces associated to operads are also explained. This approach is used to get a topological interpretation of the Grothendieck-Teichmüller group in the case of the ...
Kilgour, James M; Grundy, Lisa; Monrouxe, Lynn V
2016-01-01
PHENOMENON: Problem-based learning (PBL) and other small-group, active learning methodologies have been widely adopted into undergraduate and postgraduate healthcare curricula across the world. Although much research has examined student perceptions of these innovative teaching pedagogies, there are still questions over which factors influence these views. This article aims to identify these key elements that affect healthcare student satisfaction with PBL and other small-group learning methods, including case-based and team-based learning. A systematic rapid review method was used to identify high-quality original research papers from the healthcare education literature from between 2009 and 2014. All papers were critically appraised before inclusion in line with published guidelines. Narrative synthesis was achieved using an inductively developed, thematic framework approach. Fifty-four papers were included in the narrative synthesis. The evidence suggests that, despite an initial period of negative emotion and anxiety, the perspectives of healthcare students toward small-group, active learning methods are generally positive. The key factors influencing this satisfaction level include (a) the facilitator role, (b) tutorial structure, (c) individual student factors, (d) case authenticity, (e) increased feedback, (f) group harmony, and (g) resource availability. Insights: Student satisfaction is an important determinant of healthcare education quality, and the findings of this review may be of value in future curriculum design. The evidence described here suggests that an ideal curriculum may be based on an expert-led, hybrid PBL model.
Li, Peiwu; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Zhaowei; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Zhang, Qi
2015-12-28
To detect and monitor G-group aflatoxins in agricultural products, we generated class-specific monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognized aflatoxins G₁ and G₂. Of the final three positive and stable hybridomas obtained, clone 2G6 produced a monoclonal antibody that had equal sensitivity to aflatoxins G₁ and G₂, and did not cross-react with aflatoxins B₁, B₂, or M₁. Its IC50 values for aflatoxins G₁ and G₂ were 17.18 ng·mL(-1) and 19.75 ng·mL(-1), respectively. Using this new monoclonal antibody, we developed a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA); the method had a limit of detection of 0.06 ng·mL(-1). To validate this CI-ELISA, we spiked uncontaminated peanut samples with various amounts of aflatoxins G₁ and G₂ and compared recovery rates with those determined by a standard HPLC method. The recovery rates of the CI-ELISA ranging from 94% to 103% were comparable to those of the HPLC (92% to 102%). We also used both methods to determine the amounts of G-group aflatoxins in five peanut samples contaminated by aflatoxin B₁-positive, and their relative standard deviations ranged from 8.4% to 17.7% (under 20%), which demonstrates a good correlation between the two methods. We further used this CI-ELISA to assess the ability of 126 fungal strains isolated from peanuts or field soils to produce G-group aflatoxins. Among these, seven stains producing different amounts of G-group aflatoxins were identified. Our results showed that the monoclonal antibody 2 G6-based CI-ELISA was suitable for the detection of G-group aflatoxins present in peanuts and also those produced by fungi.
Lee, Gwang Jin; Shin, Byong-Kyu; Yu, Yun-Hyun; Ahn, Jongsung; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill
2016-09-05
The determination for the contents of multi-components in ginseng products has come to the fore by demands of in-depth information, but the associated industries confront the high cost of securing pure standards for the continuous quality evaluation of the products. This study aimed to develop a prospective high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) method for relative quantification of ginsenosides in ginseng products without a considerable change from the conventional gradient analysis. We investigated the effects of mobile phase composition and elution bandwidth, which are potential variables affecting the ELSD response in the gradient analysis. Similar ELSD response curves of nine major ginsenosides were obtained under the identical flow injection conditions, and the response increased as the percentage of organic solvent increased. The nine ginsenosides were divided into three groups to confirm the effect of elution bandwidth. The ELSD response significantly decreased in case of the late eluted ginsenoside in the individual groups under the isocratic conditions. With the consideration of the two important effects, stepwise changes of the gradient condition were carried out to reach a group quantification method. The inconsistent responses of the nine ginsenosides were reconstituted to three normalized responses by the stepwise changes of the gradient condition, and this result actualized relative quantification in the individual groups. The availability was confirmed by comparing the ginsenoside contents in a base material of ginseng products determined by the direct and group quantification method. The largest difference in the determination results from the two methods was 8.26%, and the difference of total contents was only 0.91%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parker
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Background Undergraduate nursing students are often confused by multiple understandings of critical thinking. In response to this situation, the Critiique for critical thinking (CCT project was implemented to provide consistent structured guidance about critical thinking. Objectives This paper introduces Critiique software, describes initial validation of the content of this critical thinking tool and explores wider applications of the Critiique software. Materials and Methods Critiique is flexible, authorable software that guides students step-by-step through critical appraisal of research papers. The spelling of Critiique was deliberate, so as to acquire a unique web domain name and associated logo. The CCT project involved implementation of a modified nominal focus group process with academic staff working together to establish common understandings of critical thinking. Previous work established a consensus about critical thinking in nursing and provided a starting point for the focus groups. The study was conducted at an Australian university campus with the focus group guided by open ended questions. Results Focus group data established categories of content that academic staff identified as important for teaching critical thinking. This emerging focus group data was then used to inform modification of Critiique software so that students had access to consistent and structured guidance in relation to critical thinking and critical appraisal. Conclusions The project succeeded in using focus group data from academics to inform software development while at the same time retaining the benefits of broader philosophical dimensions of critical thinking.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joop eHox
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Cluster randomized trials assess the effect of an intervention that is carried out at the group or cluster level. Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour is often used to model the effect of the intervention as an indirect effect mediated in turn by attitude, norms and behavioural intention. Structural equation modelling (SEM is the technique of choice to estimate indirect effects and their significance. However, this is a large sample technique, and its application in a cluster randomized trial assumes a relatively large number of clusters. In practice, the number of clusters in these studies tends to be relatively small, e.g. much less than fifty. This study uses simulation methods to find the lowest number of clusters needed when multilevel SEM is used to estimate the indirect effect. Maximum likelihood estimation is compared to Bayesian analysis, with the central quality criteria being accuracy of the point estimate and the confidence interval. We also investigate the power of the test for the indirect effect. We conclude that Bayes estimation works well with much smaller cluster level sample sizes such as 20 cases than maximum likelihood estimation; although the bias is larger the coverage is much better. When only 5 to 10 clusters are available per treatment condition even with Bayesian estimation problems occur.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zaitseva A.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A novel approach for improving estimations of existing group contribution methods is developed. Instead of fixed contributions, weighted contributions are optimized for each property estimation using a database. These weighting factors are calculated based on similarities between the compound whose properties are estimated and the other compounds in the database. By this approach, those components which are chemically more similar to the estimated one can systematically be given more weight in the estimation process, while sustaining the general nature of the group contribution methods. The new approach was applied to the Joback and Reid (1987, and the Marrero and Gani (2001 group contribution methods. The performances were demonstrated on Normal Boiling Point (NBP predictions. The absolute average error of NBP estimations was reduced by 6.3 K for the Joback and Reid method and by 4 K for the Marrero and Gani method. Other physical properties such as critical pressure, volume, formation energies, melting temperature and fusion enthalpy were estimated by applying the new technique to Joback and Reid method. La nouvelle approche pour améliorer les estimations existantes de la méthode de contribution du groupe est développée. Au lieu d’utiliser les contributions fixes, les contributions pondérées sont optimisées pour chaque propriété de la base de données. Les facteurs de pondération sont calculés en se basant sur les similitudes entre le composé, dont les propriétés sont estimées, et les autres composés de la base de données. En utilisant cette approche, les substances qui sont chimiquement plus proches des substances en question sont systématiquement plus pondérées. Ainsi la nature générale de l’approche est maintenue. La nouvelle technique est appliquée aux méthodes de contribution du groupe de Joback et Reid (1987, ainsi que de Marrero et Gani (2001. Les performances sont démontrées en utilisant la prédiction du
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mattei, Michele; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Gani, Rafiqul
2013-01-01
A group-contribution (GC) property prediction model for estimating the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of nonionic surfactants in water at 25 °C is presented. The model is based on the Marrero and Gani GC method. A systematic analysis of the model performance against experimental data......; and carbohydrate derivate ethers, esters, and thiols. The model developed consists of linear group contributions, and the critical micelle concentration is estimated using the molecular structure of the nonionic surfactant alone. Compared to other models used for the prediction of the critical micelle...... is carried out using data for a wide range of nonionic surfactants covering a wide range of molecular structures. As a result of this procedure, new third order groups based on the characteristic structures of nonionic surfactants are defined and are included in the Marrero and Gani GC model. In this way...
A new approach to tolerance analysis method based onthe screw and the Lie Algebra of Lie Group
Zhai, X. C.; Du, Q. G.; Wang, W. X.; Wen, Q.; Liu, B. S.; Sun, Z. Q.
2016-11-01
Tolerance analysis refers to the process of establishing mapping relations between tolerance features and the target feature along the dimension chain. Traditional models for tolerance analysis are all based on rigid body kinematics, and they adopt the Homogeneous Transformation Matrix to describe feature variation and accumulation. However, those models can hardly reveal the nature of feature variations. This paper proposes a new tolerance analysis method based on the screw and the Lie Algebra of Lie Group, which describes feature variation as the screw motion, and completely maps the twist, an element of the Lie Algebra, to the Lie Group that represents the feature configuration space. Thus, the analysis can be conducted in a more succinct and direct way. In the end, the method is applied in an example and proven to be robust and effective.
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M Seidi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Lyapunov exponent method is one of the best tools for investigating the range of stability and the transient behavior of the dynamical systems. In beryllium-moderated and heavy water-moderated reactors, photo-neutron plays an important role in dynamic behavior of the reactor. Therefore, stability analysis for changes in the control parameters of the reactor in order to guarantee safety and control nuclear reactor is important. In this work, the range of stability has been investigated using Lyapunov exponent method in response to step, ramp and sinusoidal external reactivities regarding six groups of delayed neutrons plus nine groups of photo-neutrons. The qualitative results are in good agreement with quantitative results of other works
Rakita, Slađana; Pojić, Milica; Tomić, Jelena; Torbica, Aleksandra
2014-05-01
The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics of an analytical method for determination of free sulphydryl (SH) groups of wheat gluten performed with previous gluten incubation for variable times (45, 90 and 135min) at variable temperatures (30 and 37°C), in order to determine its fitness-for-purpose. It was observed that the increase in temperature and gluten incubation time caused the increase in the amount of free SH groups, with more dynamic changes at 37°C. The method characteristics identified as relevant were: linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision (repeatability and reproducibility) and measurement uncertainty, which were checked within the validation protocol, while the method performance was monitored by X- and R-control charts. Identified method characteristics demonstrated its acceptable fitness-for-purpose, when assay included previous gluten incubation at 30°C. Although the method repeatability at 37°C was acceptable, the corresponding reproducibility did not meet the performance criterion on the basis of HORRAT value (HORRAT<2).
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Bik C. Chow
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID often live a sedentary lifestyle and have higher rates of overweight and obesity. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and methods of a multi-component physical activity (PA intervention program that aims to increase PA levels in adults with ID who live in group homes. The study employed a multi-component delayed treatment control group design involving adults with ID who lived in two group homes. Interventions included 30 exercise sessions in groups over a 10-week period and three educational lessons based on social cognitive theory that aimed to improve self-efficacy and social support for PA in the participants. In addition, staff training in exercise and advice on institutional PA policies were provided to the caregivers working in the group homes. Outcome measures on three aspects were collected: (1 physical fitness, (2 PA as assessed by an ActiGraph accelerometer, and (3 self-efficacy and social support for PA. Our major objective was to develop the intervention protocol, and the successful completion of this study will provide valuable evidence on how to promote active lifestyles in adults with ID.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patricia Bourgault
Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of the PASSAGE Program, a structured multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for the self-management of FMS.A mixed-methods randomized controlled trial (intervention (INT vs. waitlist (WL was conducted with patients suffering from FMS. Data were collected at baseline (T0, at the end of the intervention (T1, and 3 months later (T2. The primary outcome was change in pain intensity (0-10. Secondary outcomes were fibromyalgia severity, pain interference, sleep quality, pain coping strategies, depression, health-related quality of life, patient global impression of change (PGIC, and perceived pain relief. Qualitative group interviews with a subset of patients were also conducted. Complete data from T0 to T2 were available for 43 patients.The intervention had a statistically significant impact on the three PGIC measures. At the end of the PASSAGE Program, the percentages of patients who perceived overall improvement in their pain levels, functioning and quality of life were significantly higher in the INT Group (73%, 55%, 77% respectively than in the WL Group (8%, 12%, 20%. The same differences were observed 3 months post-intervention (Intervention group: 62%, 43%, 38% vs Waitlist Group: 13%, 13%, 9%. The proportion of patients who reported ≥ 50% pain relief was also significantly higher in the INT Group at the end of the intervention (36% vs 12% and 3 months post-intervention (33% vs 4%. Results of the qualitative analysis were in line with the quantitative findings regarding the efficacy of the intervention. The improvement, however, was not reflected in the primary outcome and other secondary outcome measures.The PASSAGE Program was effective in helping FMS patients gain a sense of control over their symptoms. We suggest including PGIC in future clinical trials on FMS as they appear to capture important aspects of the patients' experience.International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number
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Dolmashkin, A A; Dubrovskii, V A; Zabenkov, I V [V.I.Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University, Saratov (Russian Federation)
2012-05-31
The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.
Dommeyer, Curt J.
2007-01-01
This article reports on the use of group and individual diaries to control social loafing on the group project. Although both forms of the diary were designed to prevent social loafing, neither appeared to do so. An unexpected result of the individual diaries is that they appeared to make the majority of the class, namely the "nonloafers," more…
Ing, Alex; Schwarzbauer, Christian
2014-01-01
Functional connectivity has become an increasingly important area of research in recent years. At a typical spatial resolution, approximately 300 million connections link each voxel in the brain with every other. This pattern of connectivity is known as the functional connectome. Connectivity is often compared between experimental groups and conditions. Standard methods used to control the type 1 error rate are likely to be insensitive when comparisons are carried out across the whole connectome, due to the huge number of statistical tests involved. To address this problem, two new cluster based methods – the cluster size statistic (CSS) and cluster mass statistic (CMS) – are introduced to control the family wise error rate across all connectivity values. These methods operate within a statistical framework similar to the cluster based methods used in conventional task based fMRI. Both methods are data driven, permutation based and require minimal statistical assumptions. Here, the performance of each procedure is evaluated in a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, utilising a simulated dataset. The relative sensitivity of each method is also tested on real data: BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) fMRI scans were carried out on twelve subjects under normal conditions and during the hypercapnic state (induced through the inhalation of 6% CO2 in 21% O2 and 73%N2). Both CSS and CMS detected significant changes in connectivity between normal and hypercapnic states. A family wise error correction carried out at the individual connection level exhibited no significant changes in connectivity. PMID:24906136
Ing, Alex; Schwarzbauer, Christian
2014-01-01
Functional connectivity has become an increasingly important area of research in recent years. At a typical spatial resolution, approximately 300 million connections link each voxel in the brain with every other. This pattern of connectivity is known as the functional connectome. Connectivity is often compared between experimental groups and conditions. Standard methods used to control the type 1 error rate are likely to be insensitive when comparisons are carried out across the whole connectome, due to the huge number of statistical tests involved. To address this problem, two new cluster based methods--the cluster size statistic (CSS) and cluster mass statistic (CMS)--are introduced to control the family wise error rate across all connectivity values. These methods operate within a statistical framework similar to the cluster based methods used in conventional task based fMRI. Both methods are data driven, permutation based and require minimal statistical assumptions. Here, the performance of each procedure is evaluated in a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, utilising a simulated dataset. The relative sensitivity of each method is also tested on real data: BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) fMRI scans were carried out on twelve subjects under normal conditions and during the hypercapnic state (induced through the inhalation of 6% CO2 in 21% O2 and 73%N2). Both CSS and CMS detected significant changes in connectivity between normal and hypercapnic states. A family wise error correction carried out at the individual connection level exhibited no significant changes in connectivity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seiya Nishiyama
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The maximally-decoupled method has been considered as a theory to apply an basic idea of an integrability condition to certain multiple parametrized symmetries. The method is regarded as a mathematical tool to describe a symmetry of a collective submanifold in which a canonicity condition makes the collective variables to be an orthogonal coordinate-system. For this aim we adopt a concept of curvature unfamiliar in the conventional time-dependent (TD self-consistent field (SCF theory. Our basic idea lies in the introduction of a sort of Lagrange manner familiar to fluid dynamics to describe a collective coordinate-system. This manner enables us to take a one-form which is linearly composed of a TD SCF Hamiltonian and infinitesimal generators induced by collective variable differentials of a canonical transformation on a group. The integrability condition of the system read the curvature C = 0. Our method is constructed manifesting itself the structure of the group under consideration. To go beyond the maximaly-decoupled method, we have aimed to construct an SCF theory, i.e., υ (external parameter-dependent Hartree-Fock (HF theory. Toward such an ultimate goal, the υ-HF theory has been reconstructed on an affine Kac-Moody algebra along the soliton theory, using infinite-dimensional fermion. An infinite-dimensional fermion operator is introduced through a Laurent expansion of finite-dimensional fermion operators with respect to degrees of freedom of the fermions related to a υ-dependent potential with a Υ-periodicity. A bilinear equation for the υ-HF theory has been transcribed onto the corresponding τ-function using the regular representation for the group and the Schur-polynomials. The υ-HF SCF theory on an infinite-dimensional Fock space F∞ leads to a dynamics on an infinite-dimensional Grassmannian Gr∞ and may describe more precisely such a dynamics on the group manifold. A finite-dimensional Grassmannian is identified with a Gr
Reschovsky, James D; Hadley, Jack; Landon, Bruce E
2006-08-01
To examine how health plan payment, group ownership, compensation methods, and other practice management tools affect physician perceptions of whether their overall financial incentives tilt toward increasing or decreasing services to patients. Nationally representative data on physicians are from the 2000-2001 Community Tracking Study Physician Survey (N=12,406). Ordered and multinomial logistic regression were used to explore how physician, group, and market characteristics are associated with physician reports of whether overall financial incentives are to increase services, decrease services, or neither. Seven percent of physicians report financial incentives are to reduce services to patients, whereas 23 percent report incentives to increase services. Reported incentives to reduce services were associated with reports of lower ability to provide quality care. Group revenue in the form of capitation was associated with incentives to reduce services whereas practice ownership and variable compensation and bonuses for employee physicians were mostly associated with incentives to increase services to patients. Full ownership of groups, productivity incentives, and perceived competitive markets for patients were associated with incentives to both increase and reduce services. Practice ownership and the ways physicians are compensated affect their perceived incentives to increase or decrease services to patients. In the latter case, this adversely affects perceived quality of care and satisfaction, although incentives to increase services may also have adverse implications for quality, cost, and insurance coverage.
Nabwey, Hossam A.; Boumazgour, Mohamed; Rashad, A. M.
2017-03-01
The group method analysis is applied to study the steady mixed convection stagnation-point flow of a non-Newtonian nanofluid towards a vertical stretching surface. The model utilized for the nanofluid incorporates the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects. Applying the one-parameter transformation group which reduces the number of independent variables by one and thus, the system of governing partial differential equations has been converted to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and these equations are then computed numerically using the implicit finite-difference scheme. Comparison with previously published studies is executed and the results are found to be in excellent agreement. Results for the velocity, temperature, and the nanoparticle volume fraction profiles as well as the local skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are presented in graphical and tabular forms, and discussed for different values of the governing parameters to show interesting features of the solutions.
Fujiwara, Y; Kohno, M; Suzuki, Y; Baye, D; Sparenberg, J M
2004-01-01
We carry out Faddeev calculations of three-alpha (3 alpha) and two-alpha plus Lambda (alpha alpha Lambda) systems, using two-cluster resonating-group method kernels. The input includes an effective two-nucleon force for the alpha alpha resonating-group method and a new effective Lambda N force for the Lambda alpha interaction. The latter force is a simple two-range Gaussian potential for each spin-singlet and triplet state, generated from the phase-shift behavior of the quark-model hyperon-nucleon interaction, fss2, by using an inversion method based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Owing to the exact treatment of the Pauli-forbidden states between the clusters, the present three-cluster Faddeev formalism can describe the mutually related, alpha alpha, 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems, in terms of a unique set of the baryon-baryon interactions. For the three-range Minnesota force which describes the alpha alpha phase shifts quite accurately, the ground-state and excitation energies of 9Be Lambda are...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gitanjali Kailas
2014-09-01
Full Text Available To evaluate lecture as a large group teaching method from student’s perspective. METHODS: The present study was undertaken in the department of Microbiology, KIMS, Amalapuram. A total of 60 Second year MBBS students were taken as study subjects. A questionnaire was designed and students were asked to fill it and also give suggestions as a part of feedback about the lectures conducted in the department of Microbiology. RESULTS: A total of 83.4% students find Chalkboard method + Power point presentation as the best way of delivering a lecture. Nearly 56.6% students opined that ideal duration for class should be 40 - 50 minutes. Long duration of lecture was a major disadvantage according to 66.6% students. 90% students feel that some time period of lecture should be reserved for interactive session. Majority of students also preferred class on e-learning. 70% students feel that tutorials or seminars are needed along with theory class for better understanding of the subject. CONCLUSION: Lectures should be efficiently delivered by the instructor giving a conceptual understanding of the subject instead of mere reading the content. Lecture should be supplemented with tutorials and group discussion to improve learning. Duration of class should be restricted to 40-50 minutes as traditional long duration class makes it difficult to hold the attention of the students for an entire class period. Brief interaction with students will promote active learning. E-learning should be encouraged.
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Monireh Shariatzadeh
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Marriage and choice of spouse is one of the most important events of human life which affect not only the physical but also mental health of the individual. It is certain that any problem that arises in the family, the losses will concern the total structure and cultural value system of the society. Unfortunately, young couples do not allocate particular time and energy to preparedness to establish relationship and consequently experience the considerable amount of conflict in early years of marital life. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of choice theory education on increasing self-differentiation and intimacy in married couples. Methods: In this interventional study, 30 married couples of students (n=60 were selected and allocated randomly to case (15 couples and control (15 couples groups. Differentiation of Self-Inventory (DSI and Marital Intimacy (MIQ questionnaires were completed by students. The control group received no training. Intervention included 10 sessions of choice theory education. Results: results showed that choice theory education by grouping method is effective in increasing the self-differentiation of married students, in which the mean score of self-differentiation in case group increased from 170.2±19.2 to 191.8±10.1. Also, the effect of intervention on increasing the couples’ marital intimacy was not significant. Conclusion: Result of this research confirmed the effectiveness of choice theory education in increasing the self- differentiation, so regarding the cultural and social transition and also the increasing need of incipient married youth, it is recommended that education of these skills will be concerned in the academic and training centers.
Camelon, K M; Hådell, K; Jämsén, P T; Ketonen, K J; Kohtamäki, H M; Mäkimatilla, S; Törmälä, M L; Valve, R H
1998-10-01
Dietitians from Canada, Finland, France, and Sweden have explored methods of teaching meal planning to persons with diabetes and dyslipidemia in the Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study. The Plate Model, a method commonly used in Europe, is a simple alternative to the traditional exchange-based method for teaching meal planning. In this visual method, a dinner plate serves as a pie chart to show proportions of the plate that should be covered by various food groups. Portions of foods and appropriate food choices can be depicted for meals and snacks in assorted forms of the model. Methods of presenting the model range from professional photography to hand-drawn sketches and displays of food replicas. Benefits of the model for adult learners include enhancement of the connection between dietary theory and practice, promotion of memory retention and understanding through visual messages, and experience of a positive approach to nutrition counseling. Various cuisines and festive foods can be incorporated into the model. The Plate Model offers a meal planning approach that is simple and versatile. The effectiveness of the model and its applications to other populations need to be evaluated.
Sasaki, Akira; Kojo, Masashi; Hirose, Kikuji; Goto, Hidekazu
2011-11-02
The path-integral renormalization group and direct energy minimization method of practical first-principles electronic structure calculations for multi-body systems within the framework of the real-space finite-difference scheme are introduced. These two methods can handle higher dimensional systems with consideration of the correlation effect. Furthermore, they can be easily extended to the multicomponent quantum systems which contain more than two kinds of quantum particles. The key to the present methods is employing linear combinations of nonorthogonal Slater determinants (SDs) as multi-body wavefunctions. As one of the noticeable results, the same accuracy as the variational Monte Carlo method is achieved with a few SDs. This enables us to study the entire ground state consisting of electrons and nuclei without the need to use the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Recent activities on methodological developments aiming towards practical calculations such as the implementation of auxiliary field for Coulombic interaction, the treatment of the kinetic operator in imaginary-time evolutions, the time-saving double-grid technique for bare-Coulomb atomic potentials and the optimization scheme for minimizing the total-energy functional are also introduced. As test examples, the total energy of the hydrogen molecule, the atomic configuration of the methylene and the electronic structures of two-dimensional quantum dots are calculated, and the accuracy, availability and possibility of the present methods are demonstrated.
2017-04-20
NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-WMM-C Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069...8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-SR-0371 ARL-ADHES-QA-001.02 Rev 1.0 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...provides the development history and rationale for the standard process description ARL-ADHES-QA-001.00 Rev 1.0, Adhesives: Test Method, Group
Okumura, Teppei; More, Surhud; Masaki, Shogo
2016-01-01
The peculiar velocity field measured by redshift-space distortions (RSD) in galaxy surveys provides a unique probe of the growth of large-scale structure. However, systematic effects arise when including satellite galaxies in the clustering analysis. Since satellite galaxies tend to reside in massive halos with a greater halo bias, the inclusion boosts the clustering power. In addition, virial motions of the satellite galaxies cause a significant suppression of the clustering power due to nonlinear RSD effects. We develop a novel method to recover the redshift-space power spectrum of halos from the observed galaxy distribution by minimizing the contamination of satellite galaxies. The cylinder grouping method (CGM) we study effectively excludes satellite galaxies from a galaxy sample. However, we find that this technique produces apparent anisotropies in the reconstructed halo distribution over all the scales which mimic RSD. On small scales, the apparent anisotropic clustering is caused by exclusion of halos...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ms. Yelena N. Suvorkina
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The article deals with one of the empirical research methods investigating the childhood sub-culture. The method is called observation. The author marked general theoretical position, recommendations on its implementation. Based on observations of the group of children behavior in the guesthouse pool it is found out that such category, as honesty is very important in the organization of the order, taking into account that the subculture of childhood is an open, self-organizing system. In the pool, the children come up with a wide variety of games. The adjacent areas are also involved. The author identified two borders, taking place for the child: a clear (fixed border is the side of the pool and unclear border as the transitional designation of states, qualities (dangerous – safe.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y KHETIB
2000-12-01
Full Text Available It is now well established that the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s, the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC’s and other chlororinated hydrocarbons which are compounds mostly used as refrigerants, are causing more damages than benefits to the environment and particularly to the ozone layer. Therefore one can see how important it is to search for substitutes to these compounds with desirable combination of physical properties to meet the needs of specific applications but, ultimately, with no harms to the environment. In this paper, although the bases of a computer-aided design of refrigerants (CADR method being developed are outlined, the main purpose still remains the demonstration of the great ability and importance of group contribution methods in the development of such techniques, particularly for predicting vapour-liquid equilibria and other thermodynamic properties like the enthalpy or entropy of generated systems, by the use of models like the UNIFAC.
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McKenzie Kwame
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies suggest that the rates of self harm vary by ethnic group, but the evidence for variation in risk factors has not been synthesised to inform preventive initiatives. Methods We undertook a systematic literature review of research about self harm that compared at least two ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Results 25 publications from 1765 titles and abstracts met our inclusion criteria. There was higher rate of self harm among South Asian women, compared with South Asian men and White women. In a pooled estimate from two studies, compared to their white counterparts, Asian women were more likely to self harm (Relative Risk 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1 to 1.8, p = 0.005, and Asian men were less likely to self harm (RR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4 to 0.7, p Conclusion This review finds some ethnic differences in the nature and presentation of self harm. This argues for ethnic specific preventive actions. However, the literature does not comprehensively cover the UK's diverse ethnic groups.
Guichard, Anne; Tardieu, Émilie; Dagenais, Christian; Nour, Kareen; Lafontaine, Ginette; Ridde, Valéry
2017-04-01
The aim of this project was to identify and prioritize a set of conditions to be considered for incorporating a health equity tool into public health practice. Concept mapping and focus groups were implemented as complementary methods to investigate the conditions of use of a health equity tool by public health organizations in Quebec. Using a hybrid integrated research design is a richer way to address the complexity of questions emerging from intervention and planning settings. This approach provides a deeper, operational, and contextualized understanding of research results involving different professional and organizational cultures, and thereby supports the decision-making process. Concept mapping served to identify and prioritize in a limited timeframe the conditions to be considered for incorporation into a health equity tool into public health practices. Focus groups then provided a more refined understanding of the barriers, issues, and facilitating factors surrounding the tools adoption, helped distinguish among participants' perspectives based on functional roles and organizational contexts, and clarified some apparently contradictory results from the concept map. The combined use of these two techniques brought the strengths of each approach to bear, thereby overcoming some of the respective limitations of concept mapping and focus groups. This design is appropriate for investigating targets with multiple levels of complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Lina Manuela Jay
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF is the most frequent autosomal recessive disorder in the Caucasian population with an incidence of 1 in 2,500 newborns. More than 1,300 mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene that causes CF have been described. However, mutation F508del is the most common mutation in different populations around the world. Objective: To develop a fast, reliable and low-cost technique to screen carriers and affected individuals for the F508del mutation. This kind of analysis will have an impact on genetic counselling to decrease the incidence of new cases, in the early diagnosis and instauration of appropriate treatment to decrease morbidity and mortality associated to CF in Colombia. Methods: The reliability of the PCR-heteroduplex by grouping technique by analysis of 400 blood spot samples from asymptomatic CF patients was defined. Results: Using PCR-heteroduplex by grouping technique 100% efficiency, reproducibility and specificity and 92%sensitivity were found. Conclusions: The sensitivity and reproducibility of the PCR-heteroduplex by grouping technique up to pooling of 10 samples were demonstrated. This kind of analysis could be used in heterozygotes and affected screening programs.
Pankow, J. F.; Asher, W. E.
2008-05-01
The SIMPOL.1 group contribution method is developed for predicting the liquid vapor pressure poL (atm) and enthalpy of vaporization Δ Hvap (kJ mol-1) of organic compounds as functions of temperature (T). For each compound i, the method assumes log10poL,i (T)=∑kνk,ibk(T) where νk,i is the number of groups of type k, and bk (T) is the contribution to log10poL,i (T) by each group of type k. A zeroeth group is included that uses b0 (T) with ν0,i=1 for all i. A total of 30 structural groups are considered: molecular carbon, alkyl hydroxyl, aromatic hydroxyl, alkyl ether, alkyl ring ether, aromatic ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, nitrate, nitro, alkyl amine (primary, secondary, and tertiary), aromatic amine, amide (primary, secondary, and tertiary), peroxide, hydroperoxide, peroxy acid, C=C, carbonylperoxynitrate, nitro-phenol, nitro-ester, aromatic rings, non-aromatic rings, C=C-C=O in a non-aromatic ring, and carbon on the acid-side of an amide. The T dependence in each of the bk (T) is assumed to follow b(T)=B1/T+B2+B3T+B4ln T. Values of the B coefficients are fit using an initial basis set of 272 compounds for which experimentally based functions po L,i=fi (T) are available. The range of vapor pressure considered spans fourteen orders of magnitude. The ability of the initially fitted B coefficients to predict poL values is examined using a test set of 184 compounds and a T range that is as wide as 273.15 to 393.15 K for some compounds. σFIT is defined as the average over all points of the absolute value of the difference between experimental and predicted values of log10poL,i (T). After consideration of σFIT for the test set, the initial basis set and test set compounds are combined, and the B coefficients re-optimized. For all compounds and temperatures, σFIT=0.34: on average, poL,i (T) values are predicted to within a factor of 2. Because d(log10 poL,i (T))d(1/T) is related to the enthalpy of vaporization ΔHvap,i, the fitted B provide
Hox, Joop J.; Moerbeek, Mirjam; Kluytmans, Anouck; van de Schoot, Rens
2014-01-01
Cluster randomized trials assess the effect of an intervention that is carried out at the group or cluster level. Ajzen's theory of planned behavior is often used to model the effect of the intervention as an indirect effect mediated in turn by attitude, norms and behavioral intention. Structural
Kumar, Manoranjan
2016-02-03
An efficient density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm is presented and applied to Y junctions, systems with three arms of n sites that meet at a central site. The accuracy is comparable to DMRG of chains. As in chains, new sites are always bonded to the most recently added sites and the superblock Hamiltonian contains only new or once renormalized operators. Junctions of up to N=3n+1≈500 sites are studied with antiferromagnetic (AF) Heisenberg exchange J between nearest-neighbor spins S or electron transfer t between nearest neighbors in half-filled Hubbard models. Exchange or electron transfer is exclusively between sites in two sublattices with NA≠NB. The ground state (GS) and spin densities ρr=⟨Szr⟩ at site r are quite different for junctions with S=1/2, 1, 3/2, and 2. The GS has finite total spin SG=2S(S) for even (odd) N and for MG=SG in the SG spin manifold, ρr>0(<0) at sites of the larger (smaller) sublattice. S=1/2 junctions have delocalized states and decreasing spin densities with increasing N. S=1 junctions have four localized Sz=1/2 states at the end of each arm and centered on the junction, consistent with localized states in S=1 chains with finite Haldane gap. The GS of S=3/2 or 2 junctions of up to 500 spins is a spin density wave with increased amplitude at the ends of arms or near the junction. Quantum fluctuations completely suppress AF order in S=1/2 or 1 junctions, as well as in half-filled Hubbard junctions, but reduce rather than suppress AF order in S=3/2 or 2 junctions.
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David Metzgar
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS exhibits a high degree of clinically relevant phenotypic diversity. Strains vary widely in terms of antibiotic resistance (AbR, clinical severity, and transmission rate. Currently, strain identification is achieved by emm typing (direct sequencing of the genomic segment coding for the antigenic portion of the M protein or by multilocus genotyping methods. Phenotype analysis, including critical AbR typing, is generally achieved by much slower and more laborious direct culture-based methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compare genotype identification (by emm typing and PCR/ESI-MS with directly measured phenotypes (AbR and outbreak associations for 802 clinical isolates of GAS collected from symptomatic patients over a period of 6 years at 10 military facilities in the United States. All independent strain characterization methods are highly correlated. This shows that recombination, horizontal transfer, and other forms of reassortment are rare in GAS insofar as housekeeping genes, primary virulence and antibiotic resistance determinants, and the emm gene are concerned. Therefore, genotyping methods offer an efficient way to predict emm type and the associated AbR and virulence phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data presented here, combined with much historical data, suggest that emm typing assays and faster molecular methods that infer emm type from genomic signatures could be used to efficiently infer critical phenotypic characteristics based on robust genotype: phenotype correlations. This, in turn, would enable faster and better-targeted responses during identified outbreaks of constitutively resistant or particularly virulent emm types.
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Ming Li
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Axiomatic design (AD provides a framework to describe design objects and a set of axioms to evaluate relations between intended functions and means by which they are achieved. It has been extended to evaluate alternatives in engineering under fuzzy environment. With respect to multiple criteria group decision making (MCDM with incomplete weight information under fuzzy linguistic environment, a new method is proposed. In the method, the fuzzy axiomatic design based on triangle representation model is used to aggregate the linguistic evaluating information. In order to get the weight vector of the criteria, we establish a nonlinear optimization model based on the basic ideal of fuzzy axiomatic design (FAD, by which the criteria weights can be determined. It is based on the concept that the optimal alternative should have the least weighted information content. Then, the weighted information content is derived by summing weighted information content for each criterion. The alternative that has the least total weighted information content is the best. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate the availability of the proposed method.
Chin, Alex W; Plenio, Martin B
2011-01-01
This chapter gives a self-contained review of the how standard open quantum system Hamiltonians can be mapped analytically onto representations in which the environments appear as one dimensional harmonic chains with nearest neighbour interactions. This mapping, carried out rigorously using orthogonal polynomial theory, then allows the full evolution of the system and environment to be simulated using time-adaptive density matrix renormalisation group methods. With the combination of these two techniques, numerically-exact results can be obtained for dissipative quantum systems in the presence of arbitrarily complex environmental spectral functions, and the correlations and processes in the environment which drive the effectively irreversible dynamics of the reduced state of the quantum system can be explored in real time. The chain representation also reveals a number of universal features of harmonic environments characterised by a spectral density which are discussed here.
Kulyamina, E. Yu.; Zitserman, V. Yu.; Fokin, L. R.
2017-01-01
A technique for reconstructing thermal properties, including the melting curve, of refractory metals based on the use of experimental data on caloric properties available up to the melting point and some regularities of the Debye-Grüneisen theory has been proposed. The calculation result is the consistent system of high-temperature thermal data, including the thermal expansion coefficient, solid-phase density, and volume jump upon melting. This technique was tried-out on refractory platinum-group metals based on experimental data on the enthalpy of the metals and confirmed by consistency with a thermodynamic calculation using shock-wave experiments and results obtained by the quantum molecular dynamics method.
Tominaga, Nozomu; Blinnikov, Sergei I
2015-01-01
We develop a time-dependent multi-group multidimensional relativistic radiative transfer code, which is required to numerically investigate radiation from relativistic fluids involved in, e.g., gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei. The code is based on the spherical harmonic discrete ordinate method (SHDOM) that evaluates a source function including anisotropic scattering in spherical harmonics and implicitly solves the static radiative transfer equation with a ray tracing in discrete ordinates. We implement treatments of time dependence, multi-frequency bins, Lorentz transformation, and elastic Thomson and inelastic Compton scattering to the publicly available SHDOM code. Our code adopts a mixed frame approach; the source function is evaluated in the comoving frame whereas the radiative transfer equation is solved in the laboratory frame. This implementation is validated with various test problems and comparisons with results of a relativistic Monte Carlo code. These validations confirm that the code ...
Huq, M Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A; Dunscombe, Peter B; Gibbons, John P; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Mundt, Arno J; Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R; Rath, Frank; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Williamson, Jeffrey F; Yorke, Ellen D
2016-07-01
The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for "intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)" as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation therapy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Farnoush Farhadi; Maryam Sorkhi; Sattar Hashemi; Ali Hamzeh
2012-01-01
The growth of social networks in modern information systems has enabled the collaboration of experts at a scale that was unseen before.Given a task and a graph of experts where each expert possesses some skills,we tend to find an effective team of experts who are able to accomplish the task.This team should consider how team members collaborate in an effective manner to perform the task as well as how efficient the team assignment is,considering each expert has the minimum required level of skill.Here,we generalize the problem in multiple perspectives.First,a method is provided to determine the skill level of each expert based on his/her skill and collaboration among neighbors.Second,the graph is aggregated to the set of skilled expert groups that are strongly correlated based on their skills as well as the best connection among them.By considering the groups,search space is significantly reduced and moreover it causes to prevent from the growth of redundant communication costs and team cardinality while assigning the team members.Third,the existing RarestFirst algorithm is extended to more generalized version,and finally the cost definition is customized to improve the efficiency of selected team.Experiments on DBLP co-authorship graph show that in terms of efficiency and effectiveness,our proposed framework is achieved well in practice.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pazhanivelu, V.; Paul Blessington Selvadurai, A. [Department of Physics, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044 (India); Kannan, R. [Department of Physics, Pondicherry Engineering College, Puducherry 605014 (India); Murugaraj, R., E-mail: r.murugaraj@gmail.com [Department of Physics, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044 (India)
2016-04-15
In this paper, we report on the structural, vibrational and magnetic behavior of Ist group elements (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +} and K{sup +}) codoping effect in ZnO:Fe nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by co-precipitation method. The single crystalline phase of the prepared NPs was identified as Wurtizite structure and the Raman spectra expressed the local structural change and the presence of complex lattice defects such as Zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}) and Oxygen vacanvy (V{sup +}{sub o}) defects in the NPs. The presence of functional groups was confirmed by FT-IR spectral analysis. The optical absorption properties of the prepared NPs were characterised by UV-Drs spectroscopy. The valance state of Zinc ions and the role of Oxygen related defects were analysed from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral line illustrated the presence of complex defects such as Zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}) and oxygen vacancy (V{sup +}{sub o}) defects in the sample. The observed room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in the prepared sample was induced by lattice defects. The observed results are discussed and reported.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H.BAYAT; M.R.NEYSHABOURI; K.MOHAMMADI; N.NARIMAN-ZADEH
2011-01-01
Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have been developed to estimate soil water retention curves (SWRC) by various techniques. In this study PTFs were developed to estimate the parameters (θs, θr, α and λ) of the Brooks and Corey model from a data set of 148 samples. Particle and aggregate size distribution fractal parameters (PSDFPs and ASDFPs, respectively) were computed from three fractal models for either particle or aggregate size distribution. The most effective model in each group was determined by sensitivity analysis. Along with the other variables, the selected fractal parameters were employed to estimate SWRC using multi-objective group method of data handling (mGMDH) and different topologies of artificial neural networks (ANNs). The architecture of ANNs for parametric PTFs was different regarding the type of ANN, output layer transfer functions and the number of hidden neurons. Each parameter was estimated using four PTFs by the hierarchical entering of input variables in the PTFs. The inclusion of PSDFPs in the list of inputs improved the accuracy and reliability of parametric PTFs with the exception of θs. The textural fraction variables in PTF1 for the estimation of α were replaced with PSDFPs in PTF3. The use of ASDFPs as inputs significantly improved α estimates in the model. This result highlights the importance of ASDFPs in developing parametric PTFs. The mGMDH technique performed significantly better than ANNs in most PTFs.
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J. F. Pankow
2008-05-01
Full Text Available The SIMPOL.1 group contribution method is developed for predicting the liquid vapor pressure p^{o}_{L} (atm and enthalpy of vaporization Δ H_{vap} (kJ mol^{-1} of organic compounds as functions of temperature (T. For each compound i, the method assumes log_{10}p^{o}_{L,i} (T=∑_{k}ν_{k,i}b_{k}(T where ν_{k,i} is the number of groups of type k, and b_{k} (T is the contribution to log_{10}p^{o}_{L,i} (T by each group of type k. A zeroeth group is included that uses b_{0} (T with ν_{0,i}=1 for all i. A total of 30 structural groups are considered: molecular carbon, alkyl hydroxyl, aromatic hydroxyl, alkyl ether, alkyl ring ether, aromatic ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, nitrate, nitro, alkyl amine (primary, secondary, and tertiary, aromatic amine, amide (primary, secondary, and tertiary, peroxide, hydroperoxide, peroxy acid, C=C, carbonylperoxynitrate, nitro-phenol, nitro-ester, aromatic rings, non-aromatic rings, C=C–C=O in a non-aromatic ring, and carbon on the acid-side of an amide. The T dependence in each of the b_{k} (T is assumed to follow b(T=B_{1}/T+B_{2}+B_{3}T+B_{4}ln T. Values of the B coefficients are fit using an initial basis set of 272 compounds for which experimentally based functions p^{o} _{L,i}=f_{i} (T are available. The range of vapor pressure considered spans fourteen orders of magnitude. The ability of the initially fitted B coefficients to predict p^{o}_{L} values is examined using a test set of 184 compounds and a T range that is as wide as 273
Watari, Ricky; Kobsar, Dylan; Phinyomark, Angkoon; Osis, Sean; Ferber, Reed
2016-10-01
Not all patients with patellofemoral pain exhibit successful outcomes following exercise therapy. Thus, the ability to identify patellofemoral pain subgroups related to treatment response is important for the development of optimal therapeutic strategies to improve rehabilitation outcomes. The purpose of this study was to use baseline running gait kinematic and clinical outcome variables to classify patellofemoral pain patients on treatment response retrospectively. Forty-one individuals with patellofemoral pain that underwent a 6-week exercise intervention program were sub-grouped as treatment Responders (n=28) and Non-responders (n=13) based on self-reported measures of pain and function. Baseline three-dimensional running kinematics, and self-reported measures underwent a linear discriminant analysis of the principal components of the variables to retrospectively classify participants based on treatment response. The significance of the discriminant function was verified with a Wilk's lambda test (α=0.05). The model selected 2 gait principal components and had a 78.1% classification accuracy. Overall, Non-responders exhibited greater ankle dorsiflexion, knee abduction and hip flexion during the swing phase and greater ankle inversion during the stance phase, compared to Responders. This is the first study to investigate an objective method to use baseline kinematic and self-report outcome variables to classify on patellofemoral pain treatment outcome. This study represents a significant first step towards a method to help clinicians make evidence-informed decisions regarding optimal treatment strategies for patients with patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sayenko, Dimitry G; Nguyen, Robert; Hirabayashi, Tomoyo; Popovic, Milos R; Masani, Kei
2015-09-01
A critical limitation with transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation as a rehabilitative approach is the rapid onset of muscle fatigue during repeated contractions. We have developed a method called spatially distributed sequential stimulation (SDSS) to reduce muscle fatigue by distributing the center of electrical field over a wide area within a single stimulation site, using an array of surface electrodes. To extend the previous findings and to prove feasibility of the method by exploring the fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS for lower limb muscle groups in the able-bodied population, as well as in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). SDSS was delivered through 4 active electrodes applied to the knee extensors and flexors, plantarflexors, and dorsiflexors, sending a stimulation pulse to each electrode one after another with 90° phase shift between successive electrodes. Isometric ankle torque was measured during fatiguing stimulations using SDSS and conventional single active electrode stimulation lasting 2 minutes. We demonstrated greater fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS compared with the conventional protocol, as revealed by larger values of fatigue index and/or torque peak mean in all muscles except knee flexors of able-bodied individuals, and in all muscles tested in individuals with SCI. Our study has revealed improvements in fatigue tolerance during transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation using SDSS, a stimulation strategy that alternates activation of subcompartments of muscles. The SDSS protocol can provide greater stimulation times with less decrement in mechanical output compared with the conventional protocol. © The Author(s) 2014.
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Hideyuki Arimitsu
Full Text Available Here we describe a simple affinity purification method for Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e, a major causative factor of edema disease in swine. Escherichia coli strain MV1184 transformed with the expression plasmid pBSK-Stx2e produced Stx2e when cultivated in CAYE broth containing lincomycin. Stx2e bound to commercial D-galactose gel, containing α-D-galactose immobilized on agarose resin via a divinyl sulfone linker, and was eluted with phosphate-buffered saline containing 4.5 M MgCl2. A small amount of Stx2e bound to another commercial α-galactose-immobilized agarose resin, but not to β-galactose-immobilized resin. In addition, Stx2e bound to thiophilic adsorbent resin containing β-mercaptoethanol immobilized on agarose resin via a divinyl sulfone, and was purified in the same manner as from D-galactose gel, but the Stx2e sample contained some contamination. These results indicate that Stx2e bound to D-galactose gel mainly through the divinyl sulfone group on the resin and to a lesser extent through α-D-galactose. With these methods, the yields of Stx2e and attenuated mutant Stx2e (mStx2e from 1 L of culture were approximately 36 mg and 27.7 mg, respectively, and the binding capacity of the D-galactose gel and thiophilic adsorbent resin for Stx2e was at least 20 mg per 1 ml of resin. In addition, using chimeric toxins with prototype Stx2 which did not bind to thiophilic adsorbent resin and some types of mutant Stx2e and Stx2 which contained inserted mutations in the B subunits, we found that, at the least, asparagine (amino acid 17 of the B subunits was associated with Stx2e binding to the divinyl sulfone group. The mStx2e that was isolated exhibited vaccine effects in ICR mice, indicating that these methods are beneficial for large-scale preparation of Stx2e toxoid, which protects swine from edema disease.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bueno, Elaine Inacio
2011-07-01
The increasing demand in the complexity, efficiency and reliability in modern industrial systems stimulated studies on control theory applied to the development of Monitoring and Fault Detection system. In this work a new Monitoring and Fault Detection methodology was developed using GMDH (Group Method of Data Handling) algorithm and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) which was applied to the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN. The Monitoring and Fault Detection system was developed in two parts: the first was dedicated to preprocess information, using GMDH algorithm; and the second part to the process information using ANNs. The GMDH algorithm was used in two different ways: firstly, the GMDH algorithm was used to generate a better database estimated, called matrix{sub z}, which was used to train the ANNs. After that, the GMDH was used to study the best set of variables to be used to train the ANNs, resulting in a best monitoring variable estimative. The methodology was developed and tested using five different models: one Theoretical Model and four Models using different sets of reactor variables. After an exhausting study dedicated to the sensors Monitoring, the Fault Detection in sensors was developed by simulating faults in the sensors database using values of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in these sensors database. The results obtained using GMDH algorithm in the choice of the best input variables to the ANNs were better than that using only ANNs, thus making possible the use of these methods in the implementation of a new Monitoring and Fault Detection methodology applied in sensors. (author)
Bidgani, Shahrokh; Navidifar, Tahereh; Najafian, Mahin; Amin, Mansour
2016-03-01
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci, GBS) is a colonizing microorganism in pregnant women and without causing symptoms. Colonization of GBS in the rectovaginal region in late of pregnancy is a risk factor for newborn diseases. GBS infection in newborn babies is acquired by the aspiration of infected amniotic fluid or vertical transmission during delivery through the birth canal. The aim of this study was determination of GBS prevalence among vaginal and anorectal specimens at gestation females by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture-based methods. In this study, 137 rectal and vaginal swabs were separately collected from women with gestational age 35-37 weeks from July 2013 to March 2014 at the teaching hospital of Razi, Ahvaz, Iran. All samples were enrichment in selective culture media Todd-Hewitt broth for 24 hours and recognized by standard culture using blood agar, phenotypic tests, and amplification of the CFB gene. Age range was 16-45 years (mean, 28.34 ± 0.7 years). Of rectal samples, 42 (30.7%) were positive based on culture method and 57 (41.6%) samples were positive by PCR. Of 137 vaginal samples, 38 (27.7%) were positive by culture and 60 (43.8%) samples were positive by PCR. The chance of colonization with GBS was increased in women with a history of urinary tract infection. The frequency of GBS culture from rectal samples was higher than vaginal samples. However, the detection percentage of GBS using PCR from vaginal samples was higher than rectal samples. By contrast, the culture is a time-consuming method requiring at least 48 hours for GBS fully identification but PCR is a sensitive and rapid technique in detection of GBS, with the result was acquired during 3 hours. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.
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Kranzler Henry R
2005-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection and evaluation of population stratification are crucial issues in the conduct of genetic association studies. Statistical approaches useful for understanding these issues have been proposed; these methods rely on information gained from genotyping sets of markers that reflect population ancestry. Before using these methods, a set of markers informative for differentiating population genetic substructure (PGS is necessary. We have previously evaluated the performance of a Bayesian clustering method implemented in the software STRUCTURE in detecting PGS with a particular informative marker set. In this study, we implemented a likelihood based method (LBM in evaluating the informativeness of the same selected marker panel, with respect to assessing potential for stratification in samples of European Americans (EAs and African Americans (AAs, that are known to be admixed. LBM calculates the probability of a set of genotypes based on observations in a reference population with known specific allele frequencies for each marker, assuming Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (HWE for each marker and linkage equilibrium among markers. Results In EAs, the assignment accuracy by LBM exceeded 99% using the most efficient marker FY, and reached perfect assignment accuracy using the 10 most efficient markers excluding FY. In AAs, the assignment accuracy reached 96.4% using FY, and >95% when using at least the 9 most efficient markers. The comparison of the observed and reference allele frequencies (which were derived from previous publications and public databases shows that allele frequencies observed in EAs matched the reference group more accurately than allele frequencies observed in AAs. As a result, the LBM performed better in EAs than AAs, as might be expected given the dependence of LBMs on prior knowledge of allele frequencies. Performance was not dependent on sample size. Conclusion The performance of the LBM depends on the
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Tada,Hiroshi
1981-06-01
Full Text Available The distribution of 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP groups in the draining lymph nodes of guinea pigs 12 h after painting the skin with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB was examined by a peroxidase labelled antibody method using antibody against DNP groups. DNP groups were detected on cells that were found mainly in the subcapsular sinus of the lymph nodes. Electron microscopic examination showed DNP groups distributed on the surface of lymphocytes. The significance of these findings is discussed.
An efficient matrix product operator representation of the quantum chemical Hamiltonian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keller, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.keller@phys.chem.ethz.ch; Reiher, Markus, E-mail: markus.reiher@phys.chem.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Dolfi, Michele, E-mail: dolfim@phys.ethz.ch; Troyer, Matthias, E-mail: troyer@phys.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
2015-12-28
We describe how to efficiently construct the quantum chemical Hamiltonian operator in matrix product form. We present its implementation as a density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm for quantum chemical applications. Existing implementations of DMRG for quantum chemistry are based on the traditional formulation of the method, which was developed from the point of view of Hilbert space decimation and attained higher performance compared to straightforward implementations of matrix product based DMRG. The latter variationally optimizes a class of ansatz states known as matrix product states, where operators are correspondingly represented as matrix product operators (MPOs). The MPO construction scheme presented here eliminates the previous performance disadvantages while retaining the additional flexibility provided by a matrix product approach, for example, the specification of expectation values becomes an input parameter. In this way, MPOs for different symmetries — abelian and non-abelian — and different relativistic and non-relativistic models may be solved by an otherwise unmodified program.
Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Dan
2007-01-01
the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present two DMRG setups for calculating the linear conductance of strongly correlated nanostructures in the infinitesimal source-drain voltage regime. The first setup describes the leads by modified real-space tight-binding chains, whereas the second...... describes the leads in momentum-space. We benchmark each of these schemes against exact Greens function results for the conductance in the non-interacting limit, thus demonstrating the accuracy of the lead descriptions. We first use the DMRG implementations to calculate the conductance of an interacting...... spinless resonant 7 site chain, studying the effect of repulsive interaction inside the chain. We demonstrate that both weak and strong interactions inside the chain lead to Coulomb blockade renormalization of the resonances in the conductance spectrum. Additionally the strongly interacting case sharpens...
A. Paige. Fischer
2012-01-01
Designing policies to harness the potential of heterogeneous target groups such as nonindustrial private forest owners to contribute to public policy goals can be challenging. The behaviors of such groups are shaped by their diverse motivations and circumstances. Segmenting heterogeneous target groups into more homogeneous subgroups may improve the chances of...
In this study, a new analytical technique was developed for the identification and quantification of multi-functional compounds containing simultaneously at least one hydroxyl or one carboxylic group, or both. This technique is based on derivatizing first the carboxylic group(s) ...
Ding, Siew-Hong; Kamaruddin, Shahrul
2015-07-01
Maintenance has been acknowledged by industrial management as a significant influencing factor of plant performance. Effective plant maintenance can be realized by developing a proper maintenance strategy. However, selecting an appropriate maintenance strategy is difficult because maintenance is a non-repetitive task such as production activity. Maintenance also does not leave a consistent traceable record that can be referred to during the decision-making process. The involvement of tangible and intangible factors in the assessment process further increases the complexity of the decision-making process. The technique of preference order by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is one of the most well-known decision-making methods and has been widely used by organizations to conduct effective decisions regarding maintenance issues. TOPSIS has also evolved by integrating different approaches such as the fuzzy concept. Although numerous TOPSIS applications for maintenance decision making have been published, the effectiveness of crisp TOPSIS and fuzzy TOPSIS needs to be investigated further. This paper attempts to present a comparison between conventional crisp TOPSIS and fuzzy TOPSIS from a group maintenance decision-making perspective by an empirical illustration. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to demonstrate further the resilience of crisp TOPSIS and fuzzy TOPSIS.
DeGirolami, P C; Mepani, C P
1981-07-01
A direct fluorescent antibody test kit (Fluorotec-F, Pfizer Inc., New York, New York) designed for rapid identification of members of the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) was evaluated. Tested were 228 clinical specimens (144 direct smears of clinical material, 14 smears of positive blood cultures, and 70 smears of colonies isolated from clinical material) and 49 reference strains of anaerobic bacteria, including 23 members of the BFG. Fluorotec-F detected 68 of 69 (98.5%) members of the BFG, including 55 B. fragilis, 12 B. thetaiotaomicron, and two B. ovatus, identified by cultural methods in all clinical specimens. Three specimens that yielded B. uniformis also fluoresced. Three specimens fluoresced but failed to yield members of the BFG or B. uniformis on culture. Of the 49 reference strains tested, all strains of B. fragilis, B. thetaiotaomicron, nd B. uniformis tested were detected by Fluorotec-F, but only five of a total of 14B. vulgatus, B. distasonis, and B. ovatus tested fluoresced. Of the 25 reference strains of anaerobic bacteria not belonging to the BFG, none fluoresced except for two strains of B. eggerthii. Direct fluorescent antibody staining of smears of clinical specimens suitable for anaerobic culture is a valuable tool for rapid detection of B. fragilis infections.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernanda C Dórea
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent focus on earlier detection of pathogen introduction in human and animal populations has led to the development of surveillance systems based on automated monitoring of health data. Real- or near real-time monitoring of pre-diagnostic data requires automated classification of records into syndromes--syndromic surveillance--using algorithms that incorporate medical knowledge in a reliable and efficient way, while remaining comprehensible to end users. METHODS: This paper describes the application of two of machine learning (Naïve Bayes and Decision Trees and rule-based methods to extract syndromic information from laboratory test requests submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. RESULTS: High performance (F1-macro = 0.9995 was achieved through the use of a rule-based syndrome classifier, based on rule induction followed by manual modification during the construction phase, which also resulted in clear interpretability of the resulting classification process. An unmodified rule induction algorithm achieved an F(1-micro score of 0.979 though this fell to 0.677 when performance for individual classes was averaged in an unweighted manner (F(1-macro, due to the fact that the algorithm failed to learn 3 of the 16 classes from the training set. Decision Trees showed equal interpretability to the rule-based approaches, but achieved an F(1-micro score of 0.923 (falling to 0.311 when classes are given equal weight. A Naïve Bayes classifier learned all classes and achieved high performance (F(1-micro= 0.994 and F(1-macro = .955, however the classification process is not transparent to the domain experts. CONCLUSION: The use of a manually customised rule set allowed for the development of a system for classification of laboratory tests into syndromic groups with very high performance, and high interpretability by the domain experts. Further research is required to develop internal validation rules in order to establish
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. F. Pankow
2007-08-01
Full Text Available The SIMPOL.1 group contribution method is developed for predicting the liquid vapor pressure p_{L}^{o} (atm and enthalpy of vaporization ΔH_{vap} (kJ mol^{-1} of organic compounds as functions of temperature (T. For each compound i, the method assumes log_{10}p_{L,i}^{o}(T=Σ_{k}ν_{k,i}b_{k}(T where ν_{k,i} is the number of groups of type k, and b_{k}(T is the contribution to log_{10} p_{L,i}^{o}(T by each group of type k. A zeroeth group is included that uses b_{0}(T with ν_{0,i}=1 for all i. A total of 30 structural groups are considered: molecular carbon, alkyl hydroxyl, aromatic hydroxyl, alkyl ether, alkyl ring ether, aromatic ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, nitrate, nitro, alkyl amine (primary, secondary, and tertiary, aromatic amine, amide (primary, secondary, and tertiary, peroxide, hydroperoxide, peroxy acid, C=C, carbonylperoxynitrate, nitro-phenol, nitro-ester, aromatic rings, non-aromatic rings, C=C–C=O in a non-aromatic ring, and carbon on the acid-side of an amide. The T dependence in each of the b_{k}(T is assumed to follow b(T=B_{1}/T+B_{2}+B_{3}T+B_{4}lnT. Values of the B coefficients are fit using an initial basis set of 272 compounds for which experimentally based functions p_{L,i}^{o}=f_{i}(T are available. The range of vapor pressure considered spans fourteen orders of magnitude. The ability of the initially fitted B coefficients to predict p_{L}^{o} values is examined using a test
El Aila, Nabil A; Tency, Inge; Claeys, Geert; Saerens, Bart; Cools, Piet; Verstraelen, Hans; Temmerman, Marleen; Verhelst, Rita; Vaneechoutte, Mario
2010-09-29
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), followed by subculture on sheep blood agar. However, this procedure may require 48 h to complete. We compared different sampling and culture techniques for the detection of GBS. A total of 300 swabs was taken from 100 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. For each subject, one rectovaginal, one vaginal and one rectal ESwab were collected. Plating onto Columbia CNA agar (CNA), group B streptococcus differential agar (GBSDA) (Granada Medium) and chromID Strepto B agar (CA), with and without Lim broth enrichment, were compared. The isolates were confirmed as S. agalactiae using the CAMP test on blood agar and by molecular identification with tDNA-PCR or by 16S rRNA gene sequence determination. The overall GBS colonization rate was 22%. GBS positivity for rectovaginal sampling (100%) was significantly higher than detection on the basis of vaginal sampling (50%), but not significantly higher than for rectal sampling (82%). Direct plating of the rectovaginal swab on CNA, GBSDA and CA resulted in detection of 59, 91 and 95% of the carriers, respectively, whereas subculturing of Lim broth yielded 77, 95 and 100% positivity, respectively. Lim broth enrichment enabled the detection of only one additional GBS positive subject. There was no significant difference between GBSDA and CA, whereas both were more sensitive than CNA. Direct culture onto GBSDA or CA (91 and 95%) detected more carriers than Lim broth enrichment and subculture onto CNA (77%). One false negative isolate was observed on GBSDA, and three false positives on CA. In conclusion, rectovaginal sampling increased the number GBS
Molloy Elreda, Lauren; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Gest, Scott D; Ram, Nilam; Bamberger, Katharine
2016-11-01
Although the majority of evidence-based programs are designed for group delivery, group process and its role in participant outcomes have received little empirical attention. Data were collected from 20 groups of participants (94 early adolescents, 120 parents) enrolled in an efficacy trial of a mindfulness-based adaptation of the Strengthening Families Program (MSFP). Following each weekly session, participants reported on their relations to group members. Social network analysis and methods sensitive to intraindividual variability were integrated to examine weekly covariation between group process and participant progress, and to predict post-intervention outcomes from levels and changes in group process. Results demonstrate hypothesized links between network indices of group process and intervention outcomes and highlight the value of this unique analytic approach to studying intervention group process.
Hosseini, Seyed Abolfazl; Afrakoti, Iman Esmaili Paeen
2017-04-01
Accurate unfolding of the energy spectrum of a neutron source gives important information about unknown neutron sources. The obtained information is useful in many areas like nuclear safeguards, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. In the present study, the energy spectrum of a poly-energetic fast neutron source is reconstructed using the developed computational codes based on the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) and Decision Tree (DT) algorithms. The neutron pulse height distribution (neutron response function) in the considered NE-213 liquid organic scintillator has been simulated using the developed MCNPX-ESUT computational code (MCNPX-Energy engineering of Sharif University of Technology). The developed computational codes based on the GMDH and DT algorithms use some data for training, testing and validation steps. In order to prepare the required data, 4000 randomly generated energy spectra distributed over 52 bins are used. The randomly generated energy spectra and the simulated neutron pulse height distributions by MCNPX-ESUT for each energy spectrum are used as the output and input data. Since there is no need to solve the inverse problem with an ill-conditioned response matrix, the unfolded energy spectrum has the highest accuracy. The 241Am-9Be and 252Cf neutron sources are used in the validation step of the calculation. The unfolded energy spectra for the used fast neutron sources have an excellent agreement with the reference ones. Also, the accuracy of the unfolded energy spectra obtained using the GMDH is slightly better than those obtained from the DT. The results obtained in the present study have good accuracy in comparison with the previously published paper based on the logsig and tansig transfer functions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hill, J.G.; Anderson, G.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)
1995-03-01
The SORWT model presents a methodology to group SSTs that is both simple to understand and logical in its assumptions and construction. The SORWT model has predicted the existence of 24 groups of SSTs ranging from 22 tanks per group to two tanks per group. These 24 groups encompass 133 tanks and 93% of the total waste contained in SSTs. The first 14 groups (i.e., those that contain four tanks per group or more) represent 109 tanks and 83% of the total waste volume. This demonstrates the potential for using the SORWT model to efficiently allocate resources and to maximize characterization information gained by a minimum number of sampling events. The verification study has shown that the SST groups predicted by the SORWT model are statistically significant and reduce the variability in the concentrations for all analytes examined. The SORWT model organizes a vast amount of information and presents clear options on which SSTs are more desirable to sample. The model is also simple and flexible in its ability to incorporate new parameters such as new SST analytical data, shifting programmatic needs, and/or risk assessment-oriented criteria. This report presents the nominal composition, inventory, and uncertainty for five of the 24 SORWT groups, representing 28 tanks, 10% of the total waste volume, and 29% of the total sludge volume in SSTs. Consequently, this document provides a logical beginning framework for tank waste characterization until further information becomes available or different programmatic needs are identified.
Na, Ji Ung; Lee, Tae Rim; Kang, Mun Ju; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Jeong, Yeon Kwon
2014-12-01
For the basic life support (BLS) renewal course, we have devised a new educational programme entitled a small-group-discussion (SGD) programme using personalised video-based debriefing. We compared the efficacy in BLS skill improvement of the SGD programme with the currently used practice-while-watching (PWW) programme, which uses a standardised education video. This was a prospective, cluster randomised study, conducted in a single centre, over 6 months from May 2009 to October 2009. Training was performed in two groups of participants, each group with a different renewal education programme. The efficacy of the programmes was compared using the modified Cardiff test and skill-reporting manikins. Results from 2169 participants were analysed: 1061 in the SGD programme group and 1108 in the PWW programme group. There were no differences between groups on the pretest, either in compression or non-compression skills. However, on the post-test, the SGD programme gave better results for both compression skills and non-compression skills. The new SGD renewal programme is more effective than the PWW programme for improving skills in BLS renewal training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Matrix product states and variational methods applied to critical quantum field theory
Milsted, Ashley; Osborne, Tobias J
2013-01-01
We study the second-order quantum phase-transition of massive real scalar field theory with a quartic interaction in (1+1) dimensions on an infinite spatial lattice using matrix product states (MPS). We introduce and apply a naive variational conjugate gradient method, based on the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP) for imaginary time, to obtain approximate ground states, using a related ansatz for excitations to calculate the particle and soliton masses and to obtain the spectral density. We also estimate the central charge using finite-entanglement scaling. Our value for the critical parameter agrees well with recent Monte Carlo results, improving on an earlier study which used the related DMRG method, verifying that these techniques are well-suited to studying critical field systems. We also obtain critical exponents that agree, as expected, with those of the transverse Ising model. Additionally, we treat the special case of uniform product states (mean field theory) separately, showing that they ...
Swank, Jacqueline M.; Shin, Sang Min
2015-01-01
This research study focused on the use of a garden group counseling intervention to address the self-esteem of children with emotional and behavioral problems. The researchers found higher self-esteem among participants (N = 31) following the gardening group. Additionally, participants discussed feeling calm and happy and learning to working…
Crump, Charla A.; Dudley, Jack A.
Noting that many university speech students suffer from communication apprehension (CA) and must face the fear and anxiety of performance in front of the class, a study examined the effectiveness of group discussion, interpersonal communication, public speaking, and small group activities and interactions in reducing CA. Subjects, 57 students,…
Swank, Jacqueline M.; Shin, Sang Min
2015-01-01
This research study focused on the use of a garden group counseling intervention to address the self-esteem of children with emotional and behavioral problems. The researchers found higher self-esteem among participants (N = 31) following the gardening group. Additionally, participants discussed feeling calm and happy and learning to working…
Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.
2016-01-01
This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…
Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.
2016-01-01
This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mardanparvar H.
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Aims: The requirements for revising the traditional education methods and utilization of new and active student-oriented learning methods have come into the scope of the educational systems long ago. Therefore, the new methods are being popular in different sciences including medical sciences. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of teaching through three methods (group guided discovery, questions and answers, and lecture methods on the learning level and information durability in the nursing students. Instrument & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 62 forth-semester nursing students of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, who were passing the infectious course for the first time at the first semester of the academic year 2015-16, were studied. The subjects were selected via census method and randomly divided into three groups including group guided discovery, questions and answers, and lecture groups. The test was conducted before, immediately after, and one month after the conduction of the training program using a researcher-made questionnaire. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, ANOVA with repeated observations, and LSD post-hoc test. Findings: The mean score of the test conducted immediately after the training program in the lecture group was significantly lesser than guided discovery and question and answer groups (p<0.001. In addition, the mean score of the test conducted one month after the training program in guided discovery group was significantly higher than both question and answer (p=0.004 and lecture (p=0.001 groups. Conclusion: Active educational methods lead to a higher level of the students’ participation in the educational issues and provided a background to enhance learning and for better information durability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Friis Bjerre
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Card sorting is an easy-to-use, quick, inexpensive, yet powerful usability method for information organizing on a website as it generates usable input directly from end-users as to how they would expect to find information on a website. When run collaboratively in groups, the discussion between the users about the content of the cards and their relatedness provides valuable insight into the users’ mental models. Focusing on epistemic asymmetry in the group discussion, this article highlights important issues which may affect the outcome of group card sorting. It is demonstrated that group card sorting demands great attention from the test manager in relation to the composition of the group, i.e. the number of users per group and the users’ educational level and formal organizational positions, in order to ensure a result that is representative of the group as a whole.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈鸿雁; 田桂玲; 朱文江; 哈莎; 叶蕴华
2003-01-01
3- (Diethoxyphosphoryloxy)- 1,2,3-benzotriazln-4 (3H)-one (DE-PBT) was an organophosphorus coupling reagent developed by our group. It was an effective coupling reagent for the synthesis of protected peptides containing Tyr, Ser and Thr with unprotected hydroxy group on their side chain. The further study of the synthesis of a series of protected dipeptides containing hisfidine with unprotected imidazole group using DEPBT is reported. During the synthetic procedure, the imidazole group of histidine did not need to be protected. When the carboxyl components were N-protected aromatic amino acids or basic amino acids, the yields were relatively high (63%--81%). However,when the carboxyl components were N-protected acidic amino acids, the yields were relatively low (47%--48%). The results expanded the application of DEPBT on the synthesis of bioactive peptides containing histidine.
Pumper, Megan A; Mendoza, Jason A; Arseniev-Koehler, Alina; Holm, Matthew; Waite, Alan; Moreno, Megan A
2015-01-01
In the United States, most adolescents do not obtain the recommended amounts of physical activity for optimal health. Around 80% of adolescents own a mobile device, and social media is frequently used by adolescents on mobile devices. Few studies have examined the use of social media as part of an intervention to promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a Facebook group as part of a mHealth physical activity intervention trial. Adolescents, ages 14-18 years, were recruited for a four week physical activity intervention using the FitBit Flex. Participants were also given the option to join a private Facebook group where they could interact and were given badges for fitness accomplishments. The research assistant moderator posted on the Facebook group an average of 25.3 times (SD=7.2). Post-intervention, participants completed a phone interview about their experience. Of 30 intervention participants (avg age 16.0 (SD=1.1), 60.0% female), 17 opted to join the Facebook group (avg age 16.3 (SD=1.2), 47.0% female) of which 10 completed a qualitative interview. Participants averaged 4.9 interactions (SD=8.7) on the Facebook group wall throughout the intervention. From the interview responses, major themes included enjoying the badge feature of the Facebook group and wanting more content and interaction. In conclusion, participants used and enjoyed having the Facebook group, particularly the badge feature of the group, as an adjunct to the physical activity intervention.
Parker, Steve; Mayner, Lidia; Michael Gillham, David
2015-12-01
Undergraduate nursing students are often confused by multiple understandings of critical thinking. In response to this situation, the Critiique for critical thinking (CCT) project was implemented to provide consistent structured guidance about critical thinking. This paper introduces Critiique software, describes initial validation of the content of this critical thinking tool and explores wider applications of the Critiique software. Critiique is flexible, authorable software that guides students step-by-step through critical appraisal of research papers. The spelling of Critiique was deliberate, so as to acquire a unique web domain name and associated logo. The CCT project involved implementation of a modified nominal focus group process with academic staff working together to establish common understandings of critical thinking. Previous work established a consensus about critical thinking in nursing and provided a starting point for the focus groups. The study was conducted at an Australian university campus with the focus group guided by open ended questions. Focus group data established categories of content that academic staff identified as important for teaching critical thinking. This emerging focus group data was then used to inform modification of Critiique software so that students had access to consistent and structured guidance in relation to critical thinking and critical appraisal. The project succeeded in using focus group data from academics to inform software development while at the same time retaining the benefits of broader philosophical dimensions of critical thinking.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures and Methods for Estimating Costs of Nitrogen Oxides Controls Applied to Group 1, Boilers B Appendix B to Part 76 Protection of... EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM Pt. 76, App. B Appendix B to Part 76—Procedures and Methods for Estimating Costs...
Kaljuste, K; Undén, A
1993-08-01
Primary amino groups on the model peptide Xaa-Ala-Pro-Lys(ClZ)-Tyr(2BrZ), synthesized on a p-methylbenzhydryl amine resin with conventional Boc/benzyl protective group strategy, were reacted with 4,4'-dimethoxydityl chloride in dichloromethane, resulting in the introduction of the dimethoxydityl group, which is an acid-labile N-alkyl type of protective group. The secondary amino groups thereby formed can be methylated by treating the peptide-resin with formaldehyde and sodium cyanoborohydride in N,N-dimethylformamide. After the removal of the dimethoxydityl group with trifluoroacetic acid, the resulting N-methylated amino acid residues with a free secondary amino groups are accessible for acylation with the next activated Boc amino acid. With this method majority of the 20 common amino acids can be monomethylated directly on the resin and, in most cases, with very low levels of the side reactions. In the cases where the complete methylation is difficult to achieve, the remaining primary amino groups can be selectively acylated in the presence of secondary amino groups with trimethylacetic acid 1-hydroxybenzotriazole ester. The method provides a convenient general route to synthesize N-methylated derivatives of most of the occurring and synthetic amino acids.
1983-10-31
tranal. Sykes and Bell) pp. 342-51 12. J. M. McKinley and P. P. Schmidt, Che. Phys. Letters, submitted. and ref. (4) 13. G. Arfken . Mathematical Methods ...Transfer of Atoms, Ions and Molecular Groups Nf in Solution.III. Monte Carlo methods for the evaluation of rate constants I by P. P. Schmidt Prepared...technical Groups in Solution.poilI. Monte Carlo methods for the evaluation of rate a. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER congtant 7, AUTHOR(e) B. CONTRACT Oft
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Min, Hyegeun; Son, Jin Gyeong; Kim, Jeong Won; Yu, Hyunung; Lee, Tae Geol; Moon, Dae Won [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-03-15
To develop a methodology for absolute determination of the surface areal density of functional groups on organic and bio thin films, medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) spectroscopy was utilized to provide references for calibration of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or Fourier transformation-infrared (FT-IR) intensities. By using the MEIS, XPS, and FT-IR techniques, we were able to analyze the organic thin film of a Ru dye compound (C{sub 58}H{sub 86}O{sub 8}N{sub 8}S{sub 2}Ru), which consists of one Ru atom and various stoichiometric functional groups. From the MEIS analysis, the absolute surface areal density of Ru atoms (or Ru dye molecules) was determined. The surface areal densities of stoichiometric functional groups in the Ru dye compound were used as references for the calibration of XPS and FT-IR intensities for each functional group. The complementary use of MEIS, XPS, and FT-IR to determine the absolute surface areal density of functional groups on organic and bio thin films will be useful for more reliable development of applications based on organic thin films in areas such as flexible displays, solar cells, organic sensors, biomaterials, and biochips.
Pajewski, Lara; Solla, Mercedes; Fontul, Simona
2017-04-01
This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 4 "Different applications of GPR and other NDT technologies in civil engineering" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu). The main objective of the Action TU1208, started in April 2013 and ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting in Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 150 Institutions from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. WG4 deals with the use of GPR outside from the civil engineering area, namely in archaeological prospecting and cultural heritage diagnostics, agriculture and management of water resources, investigation of polluted industrial sites, non-destructive testing of living tree trunks, planetary exploration, demining, localization of people buried under avalanches and debris, and more. Furthermore, this WG studies the integration of GPR with other Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods. The most relevant achievements stemming from WG4 will be presented during the 2017 EGU GA. These are: (i) The collection of thorough information on the state-of-the-art, ongoing studies, problems and future research needs on the topics of interest for this WG; (ii) The performance of a plethora of interesting case studies in important sites all over Europe, including well-known historical places such as Stonehenge (United Kingdom), Carnuntum (Austria), the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland), the Tholos Tomb of Acharnon (Athens, Greece), the Łazienki Royal Palace (Warsaw, Poland), and more; (iii) WG4 contributed to the TU1208 Education Pack, an open educational package conceived to teach GPR in University
Diana Mauladin
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study is to see the impact of learning methods and environmental knowledge on the naturalistic intelligence of children aged 5-6 years. This research was carried out at Ar-Ridho Nature Kindergarten Semarang, with a total sample of 60 children. This study used an experimental method. The results of this study are as follows: (1) The naturalist intelligence groups of children who were given handson method of learning was higher than in children given storyt...
SOLUTION OF THE RAYLEIGH PROBLEM FOR A POWER-LAW NON-NEWTONIAN CONDUCTING FLUID VIA GROUP METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mina B.Abd-el-Malek; Nagwa A.Badran; Hossam S.Hassan
2002-01-01
An investigation is made of the magnetic Rayleigh problem where a semi-infinite plate is given an impulsive motion and thereafter moves with constant velocity in a nonNewtonian power law fluid of infinite extent. The solution of this highly non-linear problem is obtained by means of the transformation group theoretic approach. The one-parameter group transformation reduces the number of independent variables by one and the governing partial differential equation with the boundary conditions reduce to an ordinary differential equation with the appropriate boundary conditions. Effect of the some parameters on the velocity u ( y, t) has been studied and the results are plotted.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Rossman, Wayne; Schmitt, Nicholas
2010-01-01
We give an infinite dimensional generalized Weierstrass representation for spacelike constant mean curvature (CMC) surfaces in Minkowski 3-space $\\R^{2,1}$. The formulation is analogous to that given by Dorfmeister, Pedit and Wu for CMC surfaces in Euclidean space, replacing the group $SU_2$ with...
2009-09-04
pneumonia . Less frequently, it can cause severe symptoms such as toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing fasciitis, and sterile rheumatic sequelae [1]. Penicillin ... Pneumonia outbreak associated with group A Streptococcus at a military training facility. Clin Infect Dis 40: 511–518. 17. Lamagni TL, Neal S, Keshishian C...Macrolide resistance and erythromycin resistance determinants among Belgian Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. J Antimicrob
AbuSeileek, Ali Farhan
2012-01-01
This study explored the effect of cooperative learning small group size and two different instructional modes (positive interdependence vs. individual accountability) on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) undergraduate learners' communication skills (speaking and writing) achievement in computer-based environments. The study also examined the…
Walton, Kristen L. W.; Baker, Jason C.
2009-01-01
Communication of scientific and medical information and collaborative work are important skills for students pursuing careers in health professions and other biomedical sciences. In addition, group work and active learning can increase student engagement and analytical skills. Students in our public health microbiology class were required to work…
Bijlenga, D.; Birnie, E.; Mol, B.W.J.; Bonsel, G.J.
2011-01-01
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Decision-making can be based on treatment preferences of the patient, the doctor, or by guidelines based on lay people's preferences. We compared valuations assigned by three groups: patients, obstetrical care professionals, and laypersons, for health states involving both
D. Bijlenga (Denise); E. Birnie (Erwin); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)
2011-01-01
textabstractBackground: Decision-making can be based on treatment preferences of the patient, the doctor, or by guidelines based on lay people's preferences. We compared valuations assigned by three groups: patients, obstetrical care professionals, and laypersons, for health states involving both
Bijlenga, D.; Birnie, E.; Mol, B.W.J.; Bonsel, G.J.
2011-01-01
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Decision-making can be based on treatment preferences of the patient, the doctor, or by guidelines based on lay people's preferences. We compared valuations assigned by three groups: patients, obstetrical care professionals, and laypersons, for health states involving both moth
Engelsma, K.A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.; Bijma, P.; Windig, J.J.
2012-01-01
Genetic diversity is often evaluated using pedigree information. Currently, diversity can be evaluated in more detail over the genome based on large numbers of SNP markers. Pedigree- and SNP-based diversity were compared for two small related groups of Holstein animals genotyped with the 50 k SNP
Engelsma, K A; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L; Bijma, P; Windig, J J
2012-06-01
Genetic diversity is often evaluated using pedigree information. Currently, diversity can be evaluated in more detail over the genome based on large numbers of SNP markers. Pedigree- and SNP-based diversity were compared for two small related groups of Holstein animals genotyped with the 50 k SNP chip, genome-wide, per chromosome and for part of the genome examined. Diversity was estimated with coefficient of kinship (pedigree) and expected heterozygosity (SNP). SNP-based diversity at chromosome regions was determined using 5-Mb sliding windows, and significance of difference between groups was determined by bootstrapping. Both pedigree- and SNP-based diversity indicated more diversity in one of the groups; 26 of the 30 chromosomes showed significantly more diversity for the same group, as did 25.9% of the chromosome regions. Even in small populations that are genetically close, differences in diversity can be detected. Pedigree- and SNP-based diversity give comparable differences, but SNP-based diversity shows on which chromosome regions these differences are based. For maintaining diversity in a gene bank, SNP-based diversity gives a more detailed picture than pedigree-based diversity. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Wild; Blankley
2000-01-01
Four different two-dimensional fingerprint types (MACCS, Unity, BCI, and Daylight) and nine methods of selecting optimal cluster levels from the output of a hierarchical clustering algorithm were evaluated for their ability to select clusters that represent chemical series present in some typical examples of chemical compound data sets. The methods were evaluated using a Ward's clustering algorithm on subsets of the publicly available National Cancer Institute HIV data set, as well as with compounds from our corporate data set. We make a number of observations and recommendations about the choice of fingerprint type and cluster level selection methods for use in this type of clustering
Artemiou, Elpida; Adams, Cindy L; Vallevand, Andrea; Violato, Claudio; Hecker, Kent G
2013-01-01
Current teaching approaches in human and veterinary medicine across North America, Europe, and Australia include lectures, group discussions, feedback, role-play, and web-based training. Increasing class sizes, changing learning preferences, and economic and logistical challenges are influencing the design and delivery of communication skills in veterinary undergraduate education. The study's objectives were to (1) assess the effectiveness of small-group and web-based methods for teaching communication skills and (2) identify which training method is more effective in helping students to develop communication skills. At the Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM), 96 students were randomly assigned to one of three groups (control, web, or small-group training) in a pre-intervention and post-intervention group design. An Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) was used to measure communication competence within and across the intervention and control groups. Reliability of the OSCEs was determined by generalizability theory to be 0.65 (pre-intervention OSCE) and 0.70 (post-intervention OSCE). Study results showed that (1) small-group training was the most effective teaching approach in enhancing communication skills and resulted in students scoring significantly higher on the post-intervention OSCE compared to the web-based and control groups, (2) web-based training resulted in significant though considerably smaller improvement in skills than small-group training, and (3) the control group demonstrated the lowest mean difference between the pre-intervention/post-intervention OSCE scores, reinforcing the need to teach communication skills. Furthermore, small-group training had a significant effect in improving skills derived from the initial phase of the consultation and skills related to giving information and planning.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa
2015-01-01
-clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline by agar dilution method previously. The inhibition zones of the same antibiotics including meropenem disc were determined by the disc diffusion on Brucella blood agar supplemented with haemin...
Trivedi, K. S. (Editor); Clary, J. B. (Editor)
1980-01-01
A computer aided reliability estimation procedure (CARE 3), developed to model the behavior of ultrareliable systems required by flight-critical avionics and control systems, is evaluated. The mathematical models, numerical method, and fault-tolerant architecture modeling requirements are examined, and the testing and characterization procedures are discussed. Recommendations aimed at enhancing CARE 3 are presented; in particular, the need for a better exposition of the method and the user interface is emphasized.
Costa-Silva, Guilherme J.; Rodriguez, Mónica S.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio
2015-01-01
The genus Rineloricaria is a Neotropical freshwater fish group with a long and problematic taxonomic history, attributed to the large number of species and the pronounced similarity among them. In the present work, taxonomic information and different molecular approaches were used to identify species boundaries and characterize independent evolutionary units. We analyzed 228 samples assembled in 53 distinct morphospecies. A general mixed yule-coalescent (GMYC) analysis indicated the existence of 70 entities, while BOLD system analyses showed the existence of 56 distinct BINs. When we used a new proposed integrative taxonomy approach, mixing the results obtained by each analysis, we identified 73 OTUs. We suggest that Rineloricaria probably has some complexity in the known species and several species not formally described yet. Our data suggested that other hyperdiverse fish groups with wide distributions can be further split into many new evolutionary taxonomic units. PMID:26332320
Bidgani, Shahrokh; Navidifar, Tahereh; Najafian, Mahin; Amin, Mansour
2016-01-01
Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci, GBS) is a colonizing microorganism in pregnant women and without causing symptoms. Colonization of GBS in the rectovaginal region in late of pregnancy is a risk factor for newborn diseases. GBS infection in newborn babies is acquired by the aspiration of infected amniotic fluid or vertical transmission during delivery through the birth canal. The aim of this study was determination of GBS prevalence among vaginal and anorectal specim...
Verhelst Rita; Temmerman Marleen; Verstraelen Hans; Cools Piet; Saerens Bart; Claeys Geert; Tency Inge; El Aila Nabil A; Vaneechoutte Mario
2010-01-01
Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), followed by subculture on sheep blood agar. However, this procedure may require 48 h to complete....
Bhui, Kamaldeep; McKenzie, Kwame; Rasul, Farhat
2007-11-19
Studies suggest that the rates of self harm vary by ethnic group, but the evidence for variation in risk factors has not been synthesised to inform preventive initiatives. We undertook a systematic literature review of research about self harm that compared at least two ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. 25 publications from 1765 titles and abstracts met our inclusion criteria. There was higher rate of self harm among South Asian women, compared with South Asian men and White women. In a pooled estimate from two studies, compared to their white counterparts, Asian women were more likely to self harm (Relative Risk 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1 to 1.8, p = 0.005), and Asian men were less likely to self harm (RR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4 to 0.7, p refugees. This review finds some ethnic differences in the nature and presentation of self harm. This argues for ethnic specific preventive actions. However, the literature does not comprehensively cover the UK's diverse ethnic groups.
Wall, Michael
2014-03-01
Experimental progress in generating and manipulating synthetic quantum systems, such as ultracold atoms and molecules in optical lattices, has revolutionized our understanding of quantum many-body phenomena and posed new challenges for modern numerical techniques. Ultracold molecules, in particular, feature long-range dipole-dipole interactions and a complex and selectively accessible internal structure of rotational and hyperfine states, leading to many-body models with long range interactions and many internal degrees of freedom. Additionally, the many-body physics of ultracold molecules is often probed far from equilibrium, and so algorithms which simulate quantum many-body dynamics are essential. Numerical methods which are to have significant impact in the design and understanding of such synthetic quantum materials must be able to adapt to a variety of different interactions, physical degrees of freedom, and out-of-equilibrium dynamical protocols. Matrix product state (MPS)-based methods, such as the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG), have become the de facto standard for strongly interacting low-dimensional systems. Moreover, the flexibility of MPS-based methods makes them ideally suited both to generic, open source implementation as well as to studies of the quantum many-body dynamics of ultracold molecules. After introducing MPSs and variational algorithms using MPSs generally, I will discuss my own research using MPSs for many-body dynamics of long-range interacting systems. In addition, I will describe two open source implementations of MPS-based algorithms in which I was involved, as well as educational materials designed to help undergraduates and graduates perform research in computational quantum many-body physics using a variety of numerical methods including exact diagonalization and static and dynamic variational MPS methods. Finally, I will mention present research on ultracold molecules in optical lattices, such as the exploration of
Fuchs, László
2015-01-01
Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...
Renna, Massimiliano; Gonnella, Maria; Giannino, Donato; Santamaria, Pietro
2014-03-15
Chicory stems, appreciated both raw and cooked, represent a nutritious and refined food. In this study the effects on the quality of stems cooked by conventional (boiling, steaming and microwaving) and innovative (sous vide) methods were analysed. Several physical, chemical and sensory traits were compared using two local varieties (Galatina and Molfettese) of southern Italy (Puglia region). Independently of the variety, the sous vide method did not significantly affect (redness, yellowness and hue angle) or had the least impact on (lightness and total colour difference) quality parameters among the four methods as compared with the raw product. Following sensory analysis, the sous vide product always showed the highest score among the cooking methods. Moreover, this innovative method did not affect total phenol (TP) content and antioxidant activity (AA) compared with uncooked stems of both varieties. Microwaving increased TP content and AA (though associated with higher weight loss), while different responses depending on the chicory variety were observed after boiling and steaming. The results indicate the sous vide technique as optimal to preserve several traits, including organoleptic ones, for the quality of cook-chilled chicory stems. They also provide product-specific information usually required for cooking process strategies in the industrial sector of ready-to-eat vegetables. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Herendy, Csilla
The visual surface of the Hungarian governmental portal - magyarorszag.hu - was inspected in 2007 with two different inspection methods: Eye tacking research and Online focus group research. Both methods help to understand and to chart not only the usability of different websites but also the affective imp ressions associated with the websites. In this study, an Experimental and a Control-group were tested to assess the usability of the site and the emotional re actions to it. The results reveal that the Hungarian government website is too complicated, dull and difficult to apprehend at a glance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joshua M Mitchell
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Large-scale identification of metabolites is key to elucidating and modeling metabolism at the systems level. Advances in metabolomics technologies, particularly ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry enable comprehensive and rapid analysis of metabolites. However, a significant barrier to meaningful data interpretation is the identification of a wide range of metabolites including unknowns and the determination of their role(s in various metabolic networks. Chemoselective (CS probes to tag metabolite functional groups combined with high mass accuracy provide additional structural constraints for metabolite identification and quantification. We have developed a novel algorithm, Chemically Aware Substructure Search (CASS that efficiently detects functional groups within existing metabolite databases, allowing for combined molecular formula and functional group (from CS tagging queries to aid in metabolite identification without a priori knowledge. Analysis of the isomeric compounds in both Human Metabolome Database (HMDB and KEGG Ligand demonstrated a high percentage of isomeric molecular formulae (43% and 28% respectively, indicating the necessity for techniques such as CS-tagging. Furthermore, these two databases have only moderate overlap in molecular formulae. Thus, it is prudent to use multiple databases in metabolite assignment, since each major metabolite database represents different portions of metabolism within the biosphere. In silico analysis of various CS-tagging strategies under different conditions for adduct formation demonstrate that combined FT-MS derived molecular formulae and CS-tagging can uniquely identify up to 71% of KEGG and 37% of the combined KEGG/HMDB database versus 41% and 17% respectively without adduct formation. This difference between database isomer disambiguation highlights the strength of CS-tagging for non-lipid metabolite identification. However, unique identification of complex lipids still needs
Visser, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Deurenberg, P.; Staveren, van W.A.
1995-01-01
The objective of the present study was to validate energy intake data, obtained by dietary history, in twelve elderly women aged 69–82 years. Energy and protein intakes were obtained using the dietary history method with a reference period of 30 d. Reported energy intake was compared with total
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Jane; Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Rasmussen, John
2013-01-01
Objectives: The objective was to test intra tester and inter tester reliability and evaluate if a computer based measurement method is superior to a manual method to reduce pressure in the sitting position. Design: An intra tester and inter tester reliability study was conducted in 2010 at the De......Objectives: The objective was to test intra tester and inter tester reliability and evaluate if a computer based measurement method is superior to a manual method to reduce pressure in the sitting position. Design: An intra tester and inter tester reliability study was conducted in 2010...... at the Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Participants: 20 healthy and able minded aged between 18 and 65. Procedure: The outcome measures were obtained using a pressure imaging system that could register pressure distribution in the sitting...... area. The system was a XSENSOR Pressure Mapping System™. The cushion used was a Roho Quatro select® high profile. All subjects were tested twice with an interval of 24 hours by Testers 1 and 2, who were experienced occupational therapists. Main outcome measures: Risk factor defined as a scalar norm, R...
Sampson, E J; Baird, M A; Burtis, C A; Smith, E M; Witte, D L; Bayse, D D
1980-06-01
We describe a coupled-enzyme equilibrium method for measuring urea in serum, which is performed on supernates prepared by treating each specimen with Ba(OH)2 and ZnSO4 (Somogyi reagent). Analytical recovery of [14C]urea added to a variety of matrices was essentially complete (mean, 100.6%) for the supernates after precipitation. Nine variables were univariately examined in arriving at the reaction conditions for the method: glutamate dehydrogenase, urease, 2-oxoglutarate, ADP, Tris . HCI, NADH, EDTA, pH, and temperature. The reagent is stable for at least 48 days at--20 degrees C and for 23 days at 4 degrees C. Mean analytical recovery of urea (14 mmol/L) added to seven different specimens (three different matrices) was 100.8%. The analytical linear range of the method extends to 30 mmol of urea per liter. Of 22 potential interferents, only bilirubin at 1 mmol/L (580 mg/L), hemoglobin at 10 g/L, and hydroxyurea at 6 mmol/L showed more than 2% interference. We discuss precision and effects of specimen dilution, and compare results for 100 human serum specimens with those measured for the same specimens with four other urea methods. We examined the effects of measuring a blank, consisting of sample and reagent without urease, with each specimen.
Frohlich, Clifford A.
1992-11-01
When seismic events occur in spatially compact clusters, the volume and geometric characteristics of these clusters often provides information about the relative effectiveness of different location methods, or about physical processes occurring within the hypocentral region. This report defines and explains how to determine the convex polyhedron of minimum volume (CPMV) surrounding a set of points. We evaluate both single-event and joint hypocenter determination (JHD) relocations for three rather different clusters of seismic events: (1) nuclear explosions from Muroroa relocated using P and PKP phases reported by the ISC; (2) intermediate depth earthquakes near Bucaramanga, Colombia, relocated using P and PKP phases reported by the ISC; and (3) shallow earthquakes near Vanuatu (formerly, the New Hebrides), relocated using P and S phases from a local station network. This analysis demonstrates that different location methods markedly affect the volume of the CPMV, however, volumes for JHD relations are not always smaller than volumes for single-event relocations.
Deconinck, E; Ghijs, L; Kamugisha, A; Courselle, P
2016-02-01
Three approaches for the development of a screening method to detect adulterated dietary supplements, based on Stationary Phase Optimised Selectivity Liquid Chromatography were compared for their easiness/speed of development and the performance of the optimal method obtained. This comparison was performed for a heterogeneous group of molecules, i.e. slimming agents (Part I) and a group of structural analogues, i.e. PDE-5 inhibitors (Part II). The first approach makes use of primary runs at one isocratic level, the second of primary runs in gradient mode and the third of primary runs at three isocratic levels to calculate the optimal combination of segments of stationary phases. In each approach the selection of the stationary phase was followed by a gradient optimisation. For the PDE-5 inhibitors, the group of structural analogues, only the method obtained with the third approach was able to differentiate between all the molecules in the development set. Although not all molecules are baseline separated, the method allows the identification of the selected adulterants in dietary supplements using only diode array detection. Though, due to the mobile phases used, the method could also be coupled to mass spectrometry. The method was validated for its selectivity following the guidelines as described for the screening of pesticide residues and residues of veterinary medicines in food.
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Shahrokh Bidgani
2016-03-01
Conclusion: The frequency of GBS culture from rectal samples was higher than vaginal samples. However, the detection percentage of GBS using PCR from vaginal samples was higher than rectal samples. By contrast, the culture is a time-consuming method requiring at least 48 hours for GBS fully identification but PCR is a sensitive and rapid technique in detection of GBS, with the result was acquired during 3 hours.
40 CFR 63.488 - Methods and procedures for batch front-end process vent group determination.
2010-07-01
... standard references. Methods to determine individual HAP partial pressures in multicomponent systems are.... ER19jn00.008 Where: Episode = Emissions, kg/episode K = Constant, 2.494 × 10−6 (ppmv)−1(gm-mole/scm) (kg/gm... measurement point, kg/hr. K = Constant, 2.494 × 10−6 (ppmv)−1 (gm-mole/scm) (kg/gm) (min/hr), where...
Bianco, Vittorio; Memmolo, Pasquale; Paturzo, Melania; Finizio, Andrea; Ferraro, Pietro
2017-06-01
In digital holography (DH), the coherent nature of the employed light sources severely degrades the holographic reconstructions due to a mixture of speckle and incoherent additive noise. These can affect both the visual quality in holographic imaging and display, and the accuracy of quantitative phase-contrast reconstructions. Typically, the noise problem is tackled by reducing the illumination coherence, thus the most intuitive way involves the recording of multiple uncorrelated holograms to be incoherently combined. This framework is known as Multi-Look DH (MLDH). However, single shot recordings are highly desirable in DH, and numerical methods are required to go beyond the improvement bound of ML techniques. Among the existing image processing methods, the 3D Block Matching filtering (BM3D) has shown the best performance. Here we present the MLDH-BM3D, a method specifically suitable to filter DH images that combines the two aforementioned strategies to overcome their respective limitations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this framework in three different experimental situations, i.e. reconstructions of single wavelength holograms and color holograms in the visible region and the challenging case of the Infrared Radiation Digital Holography (IRDH) reconstructions, where a very severe noise degradation occurs.
Takahama, Satoshi; Ruggeri, Giulia; Dillner, Ann M.
2016-07-01
Various vibrational modes present in molecular mixtures of laboratory and atmospheric aerosols give rise to complex Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectra. Such spectra can be chemically informative, but they often require sophisticated algorithms for quantitative characterization of aerosol composition. Naïve statistical calibration models developed for quantification employ the full suite of wavenumbers available from a set of spectra, leading to loss of mechanistic interpretation between chemical composition and the resulting changes in absorption patterns that underpin their predictive capability. Using sparse representations of the same set of spectra, alternative calibration models can be built in which only a select group of absorption bands are used to make quantitative prediction of various aerosol properties. Such models are desirable as they allow us to relate predicted properties to their underlying molecular structure. In this work, we present an evaluation of four algorithms for achieving sparsity in FT-IR spectroscopy calibration models. Sparse calibration models exclude unnecessary wavenumbers from infrared spectra during the model building process, permitting identification and evaluation of the most relevant vibrational modes of molecules in complex aerosol mixtures required to make quantitative predictions of various measures of aerosol composition. We study two types of models: one which predicts alcohol COH, carboxylic COH, alkane CH, and carbonyl CO functional group (FG) abundances in ambient samples based on laboratory calibration standards and another which predicts thermal optical reflectance (TOR) organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass in new ambient samples by direct calibration of infrared spectra to a set of ambient samples reserved for calibration. We describe the development and selection of each calibration model and evaluate the effect of sparsity on prediction performance. Finally, we ascribe
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Hiroko eIchikawa
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in psychiatric studies has widely demonstrated that cerebral hemodynamics differs among psychiatric patients. Recently we found that children with attention attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD showed different hemodynamic responses to their own mother’s face. Based on this finding, we may be able to classify their hemodynamic data into two those groups and predict which diagnostic group an unknown participant belongs to. In the present study, we proposed a novel statistical method for classifying the hemodynamic data of these two groups. By applying a support vector machine (SVM, we searched the combination of measurement channels at which the hemodynamic response differed between the two groups; ADHD and ASD. The SVM found the optimal subset of channels in each data set and successfully classified the ADHD data from the ASD data. For the 24-dimentional hemodynamic data, two optimal subsets classified the hemodynamic data with 84% classification accuracy while the subset contains all 24 channels classified with 62% classification accuracy. These results indicate the potential application of our novel method for classifying the hemodynamic data into two groups and revealing the combinations of channels that efficiently differentiate the two groups.
Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H.; Suryapriya, R.; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B.; Revathy, G.; Priyadarssini, M.
2016-01-01
Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving…
Berger, Roland; Hanze, Martin
2009-01-01
Twelfth-grade physics classes with 344 students participated in a quasi-experimental study comparing two small-group learning settings. In the jigsaw classroom, in contrast to the cyclical rotation method, teaching expectancy as well as resource interdependence is established. The study is based on the self-determination theory of motivation,…
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Bonaventure Gustavo
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aliphatic molecules containing free carboxyl groups are important intermediates in many metabolic and signalling reactions, however, they accumulate to low levels in tissues and are not efficiently ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI compared to more polar substances. Quantification of aliphatic molecules becomes therefore difficult when small amounts of tissue are available for analysis. Traditional methods for analysis of these molecules require purification or enrichment steps, which are onerous when multiple samples need to be analyzed. In contrast to aliphatic molecules, more polar substances containing free carboxyl groups such as some phytohormones are efficiently ionized by ESI and suitable for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Thus, the development of a method with which aliphatic and polar molecules -which their unmodified forms differ dramatically in their efficiencies of ionization by ESI- can be simultaneously detected with similar sensitivities would substantially simplify the analysis of complex biological matrices. Results A simple, rapid, specific and sensitive method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of free aliphatic molecules (e.g., free fatty acids (FFA and small polar molecules (e.g., jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA containing free carboxyl groups by direct derivatization of leaf extracts with Picolinyl reagent followed by LC-MS/MS analysis is presented. The presence of the N atom in the esterified pyridine moiety allowed the efficient ionization of 25 compounds tested irrespective of their chemical structure. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained after analysis of Nicotiana attenuata leaf material with previously described analytical methods. Conclusion The method presented was used to detect 16 compounds in leaf extracts of N. attenuata plants. Importantly, the method can be adapted based on the specific analytes of interest with the only consideration that the
Kreslake, Jennifer M; Price, Katherine M; Sarfaty, Mona
2016-09-07
Individuals with chronic health conditions or low socioeconomic status (SES) are more vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. Health communication can provide information on the management of these impacts. This study tested, among vulnerable audiences, whether viewing targeted materials increases knowledge about the health impacts of climate change and strength of climate change beliefs, and whether each are associated with stronger intentions to practice recommended behaviors. Low-SES respondents with chronic conditions were recruited for an online survey in six cities. Respondents were shown targeted materials illustrating the relationship between climate change and chronic conditions. Changes in knowledge and climate change beliefs (pre- and post-test) and behavioral intentions (post-test only) were tested using McNemar tests of marginal frequencies of two binary outcomes or paired t-tests, and multivariable linear regression. Qualitative interviews were conducted among target audiences to triangulate survey findings and make recommendations on the design of messages. Respondents (N = 122) reflected the target population regarding income, educational level and prevalence of household health conditions. (1) Knowledge. Significant increases in knowledge were found regarding: groups that are most vulnerable to heat (children [p effects of climate change benefit from communication materials that explain, using graphics and concise language, how climate change affects health conditions and how to engage in protective adaptation behaviors.
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Malcolm J. D’Souza
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The solvolysis of 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl chloroformate (NVOC-Cl, 1 is followed at 25.0°C in twenty hydroxylic solvents. A comparison with previously published rates for benzyl chloroformate and p-nitrobenzyl chloroformate indicates that the inductive effect of the nitro and the two methoxy groups strongly influences the rate of reaction. For 1, the specific rates of solvolysis are correlated using an extended Grunwald-Winstein (G-W treatment. A direct comparison with the data for phenyl chloroformate (PhOCOCl in identical solvents strongly suggests that the addition step within an addition-elimination mechanism is rate-determining for both substrates. A reevaluation of the kinetic data for 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl, 2 involves a correlation of logk/ko2 versus log(k/koPhOCOCl. In this plot, deviations were observed in solvents rich in a hydrogen-bonding fluoroalcohol component. Omitting the aqueous fluoroalcohol rate measurements for 2 in an analysis using the extended G-W equation suggested the occurrence of dual pathways differing in the dependences upon the ionizing power and nucleophilicity of the solvent. In addition, the fluorenyl ring is rotated out of the plane containing the ether oxygen and, as a result, PhOCOCl is found to solvolyze 20 times faster than 2 in ethanol and methanol.
D'Souza, Malcolm J; Deol, Jasbir K; Pavey, Maryeah T; Kevill, Dennis N
2015-01-01
The solvolysis of 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl chloroformate (NVOC-Cl, 1) is followed at 25.0°C in twenty hydroxylic solvents. A comparison with previously published rates for benzyl chloroformate and p-nitrobenzyl chloroformate indicates that the inductive effect of the nitro and the two methoxy groups strongly influences the rate of reaction. For 1, the specific rates of solvolysis are correlated using an extended Grunwald-Winstein (G-W) treatment. A direct comparison with the data for phenyl chloroformate (PhOCOCl) in identical solvents strongly suggests that the addition step within an addition-elimination mechanism is rate-determining for both substrates. A reevaluation of the kinetic data for 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl, 2) involves a correlation of log(k/k o )2 versus log(k/k o )PhOCOCl. In this plot, deviations were observed in solvents rich in a hydrogen-bonding fluoroalcohol component. Omitting the aqueous fluoroalcohol rate measurements for 2 in an analysis using the extended G-W equation suggested the occurrence of dual pathways differing in the dependences upon the ionizing power and nucleophilicity of the solvent. In addition, the fluorenyl ring is rotated out of the plane containing the ether oxygen and, as a result, PhOCOCl is found to solvolyze 20 times faster than 2 in ethanol and methanol.
Livingstone, Daniel; Bloomfield, Peter R.
At first glance, the goal of the SLOODLE (Simulation Linked Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) project is to develop educational technology - specifically, software for integrating web-based virtual learning environments and 3D multi-user virtual worlds being used for educational purposes. However, a second goal is to research how such integration might best be achieved - and to understand what users might want from such technology. And both goals rely in part on a third - to develop an active and involved community engaged in a participatory design process. This paper reviews the mixed-methods approaches that have been employed to support research as the project principals have been working to engage with users world-wide through a range of activities held in the virtual world of Second LifeTM (SL), on the world-wide web and at demonstration workshops conducted in-person.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zandvliet, H.; Tegels, I. [SME MilieuAdviseurs, Utrecht (Netherlands)
2004-01-20
The aim of the title project is to find an effective method to stimulate Turkish and Moroccan migrants in the Netherlands to save energy. The project has been carried out in Amsterdam-Oost/Watergraafsmeer, Amsterdam-Osdorp, Eindhoven (Tongelre) en Helmond, in the period May 2001 and September 2002. [Dutch] In de periode mei 2001 - september 2002 voerden SME MilieuAdviseurs en Global Action Plan in vier Nederlandse (deel)gemeenten het project 'netwerken rond etnische groepen' uit. Het project richtte zich op het vinden van een effectieve manier om Turkse en Marokkaanse migranten te stimuleren tot energiebesparing. Die energiebesparing op basis van gedragsverandering zou minimaal 5% moeten bedragen. Het project werd uitgevoerd in Amsterdam-Oost/Watergraafsmeer, Amsterdam-Osdorp, Eindhoven (Tongelre) en Helmond. In totaal zijn 20 coaches opgeleid en hebben 168 huishoudens aan dit project deelgenomen verdeeld over 30 teams. De gemiddelde gemeten besparing bedroeg 9% op gas en 11,5% op elektriciteit.
The Method and Effect of Group Counseling Training%团体辅导培训的方法及效果检验
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贾烜
2015-01-01
团体辅导是一种专业的助人技术，随着社会发展，应用在越来越多的领域，这就需要培养相应具有团体带领能力的专业人员。本研究以一项团体领导者培训项目为例，呈现了从团体辅导基础知识、团体辅导理论、团体实际操作等方面综合对团体领导者进行培训的方法。研究对参加团体辅导培训的成员进行了问卷调查，对主观反馈以及问卷测量结果进行量化分析，表明团体辅导培训具有显著效果。同时，从美国等国家和地区对团体领导者的认证标准讨论了我国团体领导者培训进一步发展的方向。%With social development, group counseling is used in more and more areas, which needs professional group leaders who are well trained. This study takes a group leader training program as an example, and presents a comprehensive training method that combining basic knowledge of group counseling, group counseling theory, group counseling practice and so on. Research on members who participate in the training shows that group counseling training has a significant effect. Meanwhile, this research discusses further development of group leader training in our country in comparison with American certification standard of group leaders.
Krauth, C; Hessel, F; Hansmeier, T; Wasem, J; Seitz, R; Schweikert, B
2005-10-01
Measurement of health care costs is a crucial task in health economic evaluation. Various guidelines with different amount of details have been set up for costing methods in economic evaluation which, however, do not precisely stipulate how to value resource consumption. In this article we present a proposal for the standardisation of the monetary valuation of health care utilisation occurring in the follow up period after the actual intervention to be evaluated. From a societal perspective the primary direct and indirect cost components are considered, such as outpatient medical care, pharmaceuticals, non-physician health services, inpatient care, days of sick leave and early retirement due to sickness. The standard costs are based on administrative charges and rates or on official statistics. They are based on the most current data sources which are mainly from 2002 and 2003. This system of standard costs aims at an average valuation of resource consumption. This makes for the comparability of different health economic studies. Most standard costs are not based on market prices but on administratively specified charges and rates. This implies that institutional changes which are quite common in the health care system, may also affect the valuation rates, for example the introduction of DRGs. This should be taken into account when updating the system of standard costs.
Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61
2010-01-01
In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.
Garritty, Chantelle; Stevens, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald; King, Valerie; Kamel, Chris
2016-10-28
Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the methodologies that make systematic reviews authoritative take time, typically 1 to 2 years to complete. Outside the traditional SR timeline, "rapid reviews" have emerged as an efficient tool to get evidence to decision-makers more quickly. However, the use of rapid reviews does present challenges. To date, there has been limited published empirical information about this approach to compiling evidence. Thus, it remains a poorly understood and ill-defined set of diverse methodologies with various labels. In recent years, the need to further explore rapid review methods, characteristics, and their use has been recognized by a growing network of healthcare researchers, policymakers, and organizations, several with ties to Cochrane, which is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high-quality, systematic reviews. In this commentary, we introduce the newly established Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group developed to play a leading role in guiding the production of rapid reviews given they are increasingly employed as a research synthesis tool to support timely evidence-informed decision-making. We discuss how the group was formed and outline the group's structure and remit. We also discuss the need to establish a more robust evidence base for rapid reviews in the published literature, and the importance of promoting registration of rapid review protocols in an effort to promote efficiency and transparency in research. As with standard systematic reviews, the core principles of evidence-based synthesis should apply to rapid reviews in order to minimize bias to the extent possible. The Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group will serve to establish a network of rapid review stakeholders and provide a forum for discussion and training. By facilitating
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石端虎
2014-01-01
Based on the existing problem analysis of classroom teaching for welding inspection curriculum, the teaching methods reform measurements of welding inspection curriculum were provided based on grouping method. The reform measurements of teaching methods are as follows, such as grouping method, students imitation teaching method, incentive method of active answer problem, research feeding teaching method, combination writing academic papers method and so on. Implement thinking and concrete scheme of each teaching methods reform were given, and the implement effects were introduced. Application and practice effects show that better effects are obtained for classroom teaching methods reform of welding inspection based on grouping method, and it can provide favorable reference for classroom teaching methods reform of other curricula.%本文在分析《焊接检验》课程课堂教学存在问题的基础上，提出了基于分组法的《焊接检验》课程教学方法改革措施。教学方法改革主要包括以下几个方面：分组讨论法、学生模仿授课法、主动回答问题奖励法、科研反哺教学法、联合撰写学术论文法。给出了每种教学方法改革的实施思路和具体方案，介绍了其实施成效。应用与实践效果表明基于分组法的《焊接检验》课程课堂教学方法改革取得了较好的成效，可为其它课程的课堂教学方法改革提供有益的参考。
梯形微板法在ABO反定型中的应用%Application of Trapezoidal Microplate Method to Reverse ABO Grouping
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杜雪宁; 刘芳兰; 王振卿; 张来玉
2011-01-01
Objective To evaluate the application of trapezoidal microplate method to reverse ABO grouping. Methods Im-munological reaction of blood group antigen and antibody were carried out on trapezoidal microplate, and the blood group was determined by judging the agglutination by using high-tech camera digital analysis. The method was evaluated for accuracy, reliability, reproducibility and resistance to interference of blood lipid, using U-shaped microplate method as control. Results The accuracy and reproducibility of trapezoidal microplate method were 99. 97% and 100% respectively, and the interference of blood lipid was effectively avoided. All the indexed of the method were superior to those of U-shaped microplate method. Conclusion Trapezoidal microplate method is a high accurate and stable method for reverse ABO grouping, which is more suitable for the treatment of a large quantity of samples in blood station system.%目的 评价梯形微板法在ABO反定型中的应用.方法 采用梯形微板进行血型抗原抗体免疫学反应,利用高科技摄像数码分析技术进行凝集判别,确定血型,分析该方法的准确性、可靠性、重复性和脂血抗干扰性,同时以U型微板法作平行对照.结果 梯形微板法的准确性为99.97％,可靠性较高,重复性为100％,且能有效避免脂血的干扰,各项指标均优于U型微板法.结论 梯形微板法在ABO反定型鉴定中是一项准确性高、稳定性好的检测手段,更适合于血站系统的大批量标本的结果处理.
Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana
2015-10-01
A large international literature on how lay citizens make sense of various aspects of science and technology has been generated by investigations which utilise small group methods. Within that literature, focus group and other group-based methods have come to co-exist, and to some extent, hybridise, with the use of small groups in citizen engagement initiatives. In this article, we report on how we drew upon these methodological developments in the design and operationalisation of a policymaking support tool (STAVE). This tool has been developed to gain insight, in a relatively speedy and cost-effective way, into practical details of the everyday lived experience of people's lives, as relating to the sustainability of corresponding practices. An important challenge we faced was how, in Kuhn's terms, to 'translate' between the forms of life corresponding to the world of policymaking and the world of everyday domestic life. We examine conceptual and methodological aspects of how the tool was designed and assembled, and then trialled in the context of active real-world collaborations with policymaking organisations. These trials were implemented in six European countries, where they were used to support work on live policy issues concerned with sustainable consumption. © The Author(s) 2014.
Katherine Brill; Miriam Marmontel; Meghan Bolen-Richardson; Robert EA Stewart
2016-01-01
Manatees are routinely aged by counting Growth Layer Groups (GLGs) in periotic bones (earbones). Manatee carcasses recovered in Florida between 1974 and 2010 provided age-estimation material for three readers and formed the base for a retrospective analysis of aging precision (repeatability). All readers were in good agreement (high precision) with the greatest apparent source of variation being the result of earbone remodelling with increasing manatee age. Over the same period, methods of sa...
2011-01-01
Background Since the discovery of the "living fossil" in 1938, the coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) has generally been considered to be the closest living relative of the land vertebrates, and this is still the prevailing opinion in most general biology textbooks. However, the origin of tetrapods has not been resolved for decades. Three principal hypotheses (lungfish-tetrapod, coelacanth-tetrapod, or lungfish-coelacanth sister group) have been proposed. Findings We used the Bayesian method under the coalescence model with the latest published program (Bayesian Estimation of Species Trees, or BEST) to perform a phylogenetic analysis for seven relevant taxa and 43 nuclear protein-coding genes with the jackknife method for taxon sub-sampling. The lungfish-coelacanth sister group was consistently reconstructed with the Bayesian method under the coalescence model in 17 out of 21 taxon sets with a Bayesian posterior probability as high as 99%. Lungfish-tetrapod was only inferred from BCLS and BACLS. Neither coelacanth-tetrapod nor lungfish-coelacanth-tetrapod was recovered out of all 21 taxon sets. Conclusions Our results provide strong evidence in favor of accepting the hypothesis that lungfishes and coelacanths form a monophyletic sister-group that is the closest living relative of tetrapods. This clade was supported by high Bayesian posterior probabilities of the branch (a lungfish-coelacanth clade) and high taxon jackknife supports. PMID:21385375
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gras Robin
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the discovery of the "living fossil" in 1938, the coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae has generally been considered to be the closest living relative of the land vertebrates, and this is still the prevailing opinion in most general biology textbooks. However, the origin of tetrapods has not been resolved for decades. Three principal hypotheses (lungfish-tetrapod, coelacanth-tetrapod, or lungfish-coelacanth sister group have been proposed. Findings We used the Bayesian method under the coalescence model with the latest published program (Bayesian Estimation of Species Trees, or BEST to perform a phylogenetic analysis for seven relevant taxa and 43 nuclear protein-coding genes with the jackknife method for taxon sub-sampling. The lungfish-coelacanth sister group was consistently reconstructed with the Bayesian method under the coalescence model in 17 out of 21 taxon sets with a Bayesian posterior probability as high as 99%. Lungfish-tetrapod was only inferred from BCLS and BACLS. Neither coelacanth-tetrapod nor lungfish-coelacanth-tetrapod was recovered out of all 21 taxon sets. Conclusions Our results provide strong evidence in favor of accepting the hypothesis that lungfishes and coelacanths form a monophyletic sister-group that is the closest living relative of tetrapods. This clade was supported by high Bayesian posterior probabilities of the branch (a lungfish-coelacanth clade and high taxon jackknife supports.
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Peiman Eini
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus Pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS is the most important cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adolescents. Acute pharyngitis is one of the most common conditions in all ages but it is most common in children. Over diagnosis of acute pharyngitis represents one of the major causes of antibiotic abuse. The goal of this study is to make an estimate of the frequency of group A streptococcus in sore throat patients in Farshchian hospital emergency department and clinic in Hamadan. Methods: For estimation of the clinical features role in diagnosis of streptococcal sore throat, we took samples of 100 patients with average age of 32.96±29.86 years with sore throat. We took samples from pharynx and used standard methods of bacteriology in order to detect streptococcus. Results: Group A Streptococcus (GAS accounts for 3 percent of all cases of pharyngitis. Clinically, all of the patients had sore throat. The percent breakdowns are as follows: 30% had exudate, 78% had fever, 8% had lymphadenopathy and 7.7 percent of exudative pharyngitis was streptococcal. The cost for unnecessary antibiotic therapy for every single patient who had negative pharynx culture was approximately 32160 Rails. Conclusion: The low frequency of streptococcus pharyngitis in treated patients reveal that diagnosis based on clinical features is not reliable. We recommend use of other diagnostic methods such as Rapid Antigen Detection Tests (RATs. Only reliable and scientific protocols for antibiotic to therapy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leontine Alkema
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In September 2013, the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME published an update of the estimates of the under-five mortality rate (U5MR and under-five deaths for all countries. Compared to the UN IGME estimates published in 2012, updated data inputs and a new method for estimating the U5MR were used. METHODS: We summarize the new U5MR estimation method, which is a Bayesian B-spline Bias-reduction model, and highlight differences with the previously used method. Differences in UN IGME U5MR estimates as published in 2012 and those published in 2013 are presented and decomposed into differences due to the updated database and differences due to the new estimation method to explain and motivate changes in estimates. FINDINGS: Compared to the previously used method, the new UN IGME estimation method is based on a different trend fitting method that can track (recent changes in U5MR more closely. The new method provides U5MR estimates that account for data quality issues. Resulting differences in U5MR point estimates between the UN IGME 2012 and 2013 publications are small for the majority of countries but greater than 10 deaths per 1,000 live births for 33 countries in 2011 and 19 countries in 1990. These differences can be explained by the updated database used, the curve fitting method as well as accounting for data quality issues. Changes in the number of deaths were less than 10% on the global level and for the majority of MDG regions. CONCLUSIONS: The 2013 UN IGME estimates provide the most recent assessment of levels and trends in U5MR based on all available data and an improved estimation method that allows for closer-to-real-time monitoring of changes in the U5MR and takes account of data quality issues.
Alkema, Leontine; New, Jin Rou; Pedersen, Jon; You, Danzhen
2014-01-01
Background In September 2013, the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) published an update of the estimates of the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) and under-five deaths for all countries. Compared to the UN IGME estimates published in 2012, updated data inputs and a new method for estimating the U5MR were used. Methods We summarize the new U5MR estimation method, which is a Bayesian B-spline Bias-reduction model, and highlight differences with the previously used method. Differences in UN IGME U5MR estimates as published in 2012 and those published in 2013 are presented and decomposed into differences due to the updated database and differences due to the new estimation method to explain and motivate changes in estimates. Findings Compared to the previously used method, the new UN IGME estimation method is based on a different trend fitting method that can track (recent) changes in U5MR more closely. The new method provides U5MR estimates that account for data quality issues. Resulting differences in U5MR point estimates between the UN IGME 2012 and 2013 publications are small for the majority of countries but greater than 10 deaths per 1,000 live births for 33 countries in 2011 and 19 countries in 1990. These differences can be explained by the updated database used, the curve fitting method as well as accounting for data quality issues. Changes in the number of deaths were less than 10% on the global level and for the majority of MDG regions. Conclusions The 2013 UN IGME estimates provide the most recent assessment of levels and trends in U5MR based on all available data and an improved estimation method that allows for closer-to-real-time monitoring of changes in the U5MR and takes account of data quality issues. PMID:25013954
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Lloyd Edwards
2015-06-01
Full Text Available There have been reports and claims in the psychotherapeutic literature that the consideration of recent dreams can result in personal realizations and insight. There is theoretical support for these claims from work on Rapid Eye Movement sleep having a function of the consolidation of emotional memories and the creative formation of connections between new and older memories. To investigate these claims, 11 participants (10 females, 1 male reported and considered a recent home dream in a dream discussion group that following the ‘Appreciating dreams’ method of Montague Ullman. The group ran 11 times, each participant attending and participating once. A further nine participants (7 females, 2 males reported and considered a recent home dream in a group that followed the ‘Listening to the dreamer’ method of Michael Schredl. The two studies each had a control condition where the participant also reported a recent event, the consideration of which followed the same technique as was followed for the dream report. Outcomes of the discussions were assessed by the participants on the Gains from Dream Interpretation scale, and on its counterpart, the Gains from Event Interpretation scale. High ratings on the GDI experiential-insight subscale were reported for both methods, when applied to dreams, and for the Ullman method exploration-insight ratings for the dream condition were significantly higher than for the control event condition. In the Ullman method, self-assessment of personal insight due to consideration of dream content was also significantly higher than for the event consideration condition. The findings support the view that benefits can be obtained from the consideration of dream content, in terms of identifying the waking life sources of dream content, and because personal insight may also occur. To investigate the mechanisms for the findings, the studies should be repeated with REM and NREM dream reports, hypothesizing greater
Edwards, Christopher L.; Malinowski, Josie E.; McGee, Shauna L.; Bennett, Paul D.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Blagrove, Mark T.
2015-01-01
There have been reports and claims in the psychotherapeutic literature that the consideration of recent dreams can result in personal realizations and insight. There is theoretical support for these claims from work on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep having a function of the consolidation of emotional memories and the creative formation of connections between new and older memories. To investigate these claims, 11 participants (10 females, one male) reported and considered a recent home dream in a dream discussion group that following the “Appreciating dreams” method of Montague Ullman. The group ran 11 times, each participant attending and participating once. A further nine participants (seven females, two males) reported and considered a recent home dream in a group that followed the “Listening to the dreamer” method of Michael Schredl. The two studies each had a control condition where the participant also reported a recent event, the consideration of which followed the same technique as was followed for the dream report. Outcomes of the discussions were assessed by the participants on the Gains from Dream Interpretation (GDI) scale, and on its counterpart, the Gains from Event Interpretation scale. High ratings on the GDI experiential-insight subscale were reported for both methods, when applied to dreams, and for the Ullman method Exploration-Insight ratings for the dream condition were significantly higher than for the control event condition. In the Ullman method, self-assessment of personal insight due to consideration of dream content was also significantly higher than for the event consideration condition. The findings support the view that benefits can be obtained from the consideration of dream content, in terms of identifying the waking life sources of dream content, and because personal insight may also occur. To investigate the mechanisms for the findings, the studies should be repeated with REM and non-REM dream reports, hypothesizing greater
Edwards, Christopher L; Malinowski, Josie E; McGee, Shauna L; Bennett, Paul D; Ruby, Perrine M; Blagrove, Mark T
2015-01-01
There have been reports and claims in the psychotherapeutic literature that the consideration of recent dreams can result in personal realizations and insight. There is theoretical support for these claims from work on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep having a function of the consolidation of emotional memories and the creative formation of connections between new and older memories. To investigate these claims, 11 participants (10 females, one male) reported and considered a recent home dream in a dream discussion group that following the "Appreciating dreams" method of Montague Ullman. The group ran 11 times, each participant attending and participating once. A further nine participants (seven females, two males) reported and considered a recent home dream in a group that followed the "Listening to the dreamer" method of Michael Schredl. The two studies each had a control condition where the participant also reported a recent event, the consideration of which followed the same technique as was followed for the dream report. Outcomes of the discussions were assessed by the participants on the Gains from Dream Interpretation (GDI) scale, and on its counterpart, the Gains from Event Interpretation scale. High ratings on the GDI experiential-insight subscale were reported for both methods, when applied to dreams, and for the Ullman method Exploration-Insight ratings for the dream condition were significantly higher than for the control event condition. In the Ullman method, self-assessment of personal insight due to consideration of dream content was also significantly higher than for the event consideration condition. The findings support the view that benefits can be obtained from the consideration of dream content, in terms of identifying the waking life sources of dream content, and because personal insight may also occur. To investigate the mechanisms for the findings, the studies should be repeated with REM and non-REM dream reports, hypothesizing greater insight
Mládek, Arnošt; Banáš, Pavel; Jurečka, Petr; Otyepka, Michal; Zgarbová, Marie; Šponer, Jiří
2014-01-14
Sugar-phosphate backbone is an electronically complex molecular segment imparting RNA molecules high flexibility and architectonic heterogeneity necessary for their biological functions. The structural variability of RNA molecules is amplified by the presence of the 2'-hydroxyl group, capable of forming multitude of intra- and intermolecular interactions. Bioinformatics studies based on X-ray structure database revealed that RNA backbone samples at least 46 substates known as rotameric families. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of RNA backbone conformational preferences and 2'-hydroxyl group orientations. First, we create a benchmark database of estimated CCSD(T)/CBS relative energies of all rotameric families and test performance of dispersion-corrected DFT-D3 methods and molecular mechanics in vacuum and in continuum solvent. The performance of the DFT-D3 methods is in general quite satisfactory. The B-LYP-D3 method provides the best trade-off between accuracy and computational demands. B3-LYP-D3 slightly outperforms the new PW6B95-D3 and MPW1B95-D3 and is the second most accurate density functional of the study. The best agreement with CCSD(T)/CBS is provided by DSD-B-LYP-D3 double-hybrid functional, although its large-scale applications may be limited by high computational costs. Molecular mechanics does not reproduce the fine energy differences between the RNA backbone substates. We also demonstrate that the differences in the magnitude of the hyperconjugation effect do not correlate with the energy ranking of the backbone conformations. Further, we investigated the 2'-hydroxyl group orientation preferences. For all families, we conducted a QM and MM hydroxyl group rigid scan in gas phase and solvent. We then carried out set of explicit solvent MD simulations of folded RNAs and analyze 2'-hydroxyl group orientations of different backbone families in MD. The solvent energy profiles determined primarily by the sugar pucker match well with the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
尹巧; 李媛; 聂少涛
2016-01-01
In order to improve the teaching effectiveness of vocational skills curricula, based on the theories of educational modeling, teaching optimization and effective teaching, the author selects five teaching methods, such as situational teaching method, task driven teaching method, autonomous learning guide teaching method, role-playing teaching method, academic achievements process evaluation method, and follows the order structure of“perception”,“thinking”,“action”and“feedback”, to construct the effective teaching methods group applicable to the teaching of vocational skills curriculum according to the requirements of five key behaviors of effective teaching.%为提高职业技能型课程教学有效性，依据教育建模、教学最优化、有效教学等理论，选用情境教学法、任务驱动教学法、指导自主学习教学法、角色扮演教学法、过程性学业评价法五种教学法，遵循“感知”“思考”“行动”和“反馈”的顺序结构，按照有效教学的五种关键行为要求，构建适用于职业技能型课程教学的有效教法群。
Juvonen, Riikka; Koivula, Teija; Haikara, Auli
2008-07-15
The strictly anaerobic brewery contaminants of the genera Pectinatus, Megasphaera, Selenomonas and Zymophilus in the class Clostridia constitute an important group of spoilage bacteria of unpasteurised, packaged beers. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate group-specific PCR methods to detect and differentiate these bacteria in beer. A group-specific primer pair targeting a 342-bp variable region of the 16S rRNA gene was designed and evaluated in end-point PCR with gel electrophoresis and in real-time PCR with SYBR Green I dye. Significant cross-reactions with DNAs from any of the forty-two brewery-related, non-target microbes or from real brewery samples were not detected in either PCR system. The group-specific end-point and real-time PCR products could be differentiated according to species/genus and spoilage potential using restriction fragment length polymorphism (KpnI, XmnI, BssHII, ScaI) and melting point curve analysis, respectively. In combination with a rapid DNA extraction method, the PCR reactions detected ca 10(0)-10(3) CFU per 25 ml of beer depending on the strain and on the PCR system. The end-point and real-time PCR analysis took 6-7 h and 2-3 h, respectively. Pre-PCR enrichment of beer samples for 1-3 days ensured the detection of even a single cultivable cell. The PCR and cultivation results of real brewery samples were mostly congruent but the PCR methods were occasionally more sensitive. The PCR methods developed allow the detection of all the nine beer-spoilage Pectinatus, Megasphaera, Selenomonas and Zymophilus species in a single reaction and their differentiation below group level and reduce the analysis time for testing of their presence in beer samples by 1-2 days. The methods can be applied for brewery routine quality control and for studying occurrence, diversity and numbers of the strictly anaerobic beer spoilers in the brewing process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katherine Brill
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Manatees are routinely aged by counting Growth Layer Groups (GLGs in periotic bones (earbones. Manatee carcasses recovered in Florida between 1974 and 2010 provided age-estimation material for three readers and formed the base for a retrospective analysis of aging precision (repeatability. All readers were in good agreement (high precision with the greatest apparent source of variation being the result of earbone remodelling with increasing manatee age. Over the same period, methods of sample preparation and of determining a final age estimate changed. We examined the effects of altering methods on ease of reading GLGs and found no statistical differences. Accurate age estimates are an important component for effective management of the species and for better models of population trends and we summarize the currently recommended methods for estimating manatee ages using earbones.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lian-hui Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available To solve the cloud service supplier selection problem under the background of cloud computing emergence, an integrated group decision method is proposed. The cloud service supplier selection index framework is built from two perspectives of technology and technology management. Support vector machine- (SVM- based classification model is applied for the preliminary screening to reduce the number of candidate suppliers. A triangular fuzzy number-rough sets-analytic hierarchy process (TFN-RS-AHP method is designed to calculate supplier’s index value by expert’s wisdom and experience. The index weight is determined by criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC. The suppliers are evaluated by the improved TOPSIS replacing Euclidean distance with connection distance (TOPSIS-CD. An electric power enterprise’s case is given to illustrate the correctness and feasibility of the proposed method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herri Setiawan
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper proposed a concept of the Group Decision Support System (GDSS to evaluate the performance of Information and Communications Technology (ICT Projects in Indonesian regional government agencies to overcome any possible inconsistencies which may occur in a decision-making process. By considering the aspect of the applicable legislation, decision makers involved to provide an assessment and evaluation of the ICT project implementation in regional government agencies consisted of Executing Parties of Government Institutions, ICT Management Work Units, Business Process Owner Units, and Society, represented by DPRD (Regional People’s Representative Assembly. The contributions of those decision makers in the said model were in the form of preferences to evaluate the ICT project-related alternatives based on the predetermined criteria for the method of Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM. This research presented a GDSS framework integrating the Methods of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and Copeland Score. The AHP method was used to generate values for the criteria used as input in the calculation process of the TOPSIS method. Results of the TOPSIS calculation generated a project rank indicated by each decision maker, and to combine the different preferences of these decision makers, the Copeland Score method was used as one of the voting methods to determine the best project rank of all the ranks indicated by the desicion makers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fox Kenneth R
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The beneficial effect of physical activity for the prevention of a range of chronic diseases is widely acknowledged. These chronic conditions are most pronounced in economically disadvantaged groups where physical activity levels are consistently lower, yet this group is particularly difficult to recruit and retain in physical activity programmes. This study examined the perceptions of participants, non-participants, and exercise leaders in a low-income area regarding barriers, motives, and enabling factors for organised physical activity with a view to improving recruitment and retention. Methods A mixed methods research approach was adopted to guide data collection and analysis. A survey, incorporating the Motivation for Physical Activity Measure - Revised (MPAM-R, was used to assess the motivations of 152 physical activity session participants in a highly deprived suburban neighbourhood. The MPAM-R data were analysed using t tests, analyses of variance to estimate age, body mass index, and activity mode differences and Pearson's correlation coefficient to address associations. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 33 local residents who did not participate in activity sessions and with 14 activity session leaders. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an inductive thematic approach. Results Participants reported cost, childcare, lack of time and low awareness as barriers to joining activity classes. The need for support, confidence and competence in order to take up activity was widely expressed, particularly among women. Once people are active, high levels of social interaction, interest and enjoyment are associated with improved levels of retention, with different types of physical activity scoring differently on these factors. Conclusions This study suggests that some factors such as cost, the fear of 'walking in alone', accessibility of facilities, and appropriate
Duarte-Delgado, Diana; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Restrepo-Sánchez, Luz-Patricia; Kushalappa, Ajjamada; Mosquera-Vásquez, Teresa
2015-01-15
A High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated to quantify sucrose (non-reducing sugar), glucose, and fructose (reducing sugars) in raw tubers of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja. Chromatographic analysis was performed using an AMINEX HPX 87H column, at 18 °C, linked to a refraction index detector, at 35 °C. The eluent was 10mM sulfuric acid. The conditions established for the method provided an optimum separation of sugars, citric acid, and malic acid, with resolution values higher or equal to one. Among the four sugar extraction methods tested, the double 50% (v/v) aqueous methanol extraction gave the highest level of analytes. Recovery of this extraction method ranged between 94.14 and 99.77%. The HPLC method was validated for repeatability, reproducibility, linearity, and limits of detection, and quantification. Relative standard deviation was found to be lower than five, when testing repeatability and reproducibility, which is suitable considering a range of acceptability from 5.3 to 7.3. Additionally, the regression analyses supported the method linearity in a range of quantification from 3 to 100 mg/L with regression coefficients values greater than 0.998 for the three analytes. Limits of detection were 3.0 mg/L for the three sugars and limits of quantification were 2.0 mg/L for sucrose and 3.0 mg/L for glucose and fructose. Four Colombian commercial cultivars (Criolla Guaneña, Criolla Paisa, Criolla Galeras, and Criolla Colombia) and five landrace accessions from the Colombian Core Collection of Group Phureja were grown in the district of Usme (Bogotá) fields to analyze their sugar contents. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents were found ranging from 0.93 to 3.11 g/100 g tuber dried weight (DW), from 0.25 to 4.53 g/100 g tuber DW, and from 0.10 to 1.49 g/100 g tuber DW, respectively. Therefore, a high range in the variability of sugar contents was found among genotypes. However, the variability was low among
Matús, Peter; Kubová, Jana
2006-07-28
Two methods utilizing the complexation of labile Al species by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) and salicylic acid (SA) ligand groups were developed for aluminium operationally defined fractionation in acid soils. First, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure by a short-term ion-exchange batch reaction with chelating resins Iontosorb Oxin and Iontosorb Salicyl containing both ligand groups was used previously. Second, the 8-hydroxyquinoline, salicylic acid and ammonium salicylate agents with different concentrations by a single extraction protocol were applied in this paper. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were used for aluminium quantification. The comparison of results from both methods show the possibility to supersede the first laborious method for the second simpler one in Al environmental risk assessment. The use of 1% 8-hydroxyquinoline in 2% acetic acid and 0.2% salicylic acid by a single extraction protocol without a need of sample filtration can supersede the SPE procedure in the Al pollution soil monitoring. Finally, the new scheme usable in a laboratory and moreover, directly in a field was proposed for Al fractionation in solid and liquid environmental samples. The labile Al species in soils and sediments are separated after their single leaching by 8-hydroxyquinoline or salicylic acid without a need of sample filtration. The labile Al species in soil solutions and natural waters are separated after their ultrafiltration followed by the SPE procedure with Iontosorb Oxin or Iontosorb Salicyl.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matus, Peter [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Mlynska dolina, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)]. E-mail: matus@fns.uniba.sk; Kubova, Jana [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Mlynska dolina, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)
2006-07-28
Two methods utilizing the complexation of labile Al species by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) and salicylic acid (SA) ligand groups were developed for aluminium operationally defined fractionation in acid soils. First, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure by a short-term ion-exchange batch reaction with chelating resins Iontosorb Oxin and Iontosorb Salicyl containing both ligand groups was used previously. Second, the 8-hydroxyquinoline, salicylic acid and ammonium salicylate agents with different concentrations by a single extraction protocol were applied in this paper. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were used for aluminium quantification. The comparison of results from both methods show the possibility to supersede the first laborious method for the second simpler one in Al environmental risk assessment. The use of 1% 8-hydroxyquinoline in 2% acetic acid and 0.2% salicylic acid by a single extraction protocol without a need of sample filtration can supersede the SPE procedure in the Al pollution soil monitoring. Finally, the new scheme usable in a laboratory and moreover, directly in a field was proposed for Al fractionation in solid and liquid environmental samples. The labile Al species in soils and sediments are separated after their single leaching by 8-hydroxyquinoline or salicylic acid without a need of sample filtration. The labile Al species in soil solutions and natural waters are separated after their ultrafiltration followed by the SPE procedure with Iontosorb Oxin or Iontosorb Salicyl.
ISAR Imaging Method Based on the Bayesian Group-sparse Modeling%基于块稀疏贝叶斯模型的ISAR成像方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴称光; 邓彬; 苏伍各; 王宏强; 秦玉亮
2015-01-01
传统ISAR稀疏成像主要针对独立散射点散射系数的重构问题,然而实际情况下目标散射点之间并不是独立存在的,而是以区域或块的形式存在,在该情形下利用常用的稀疏重构算法并不能完全地刻画块状目标的真实结构,因此该文考虑采用块稀疏重构算法进行目标散射系数重建.基于块稀疏贝叶斯模型和变分推理的重构方法(VBGS),包含了稀疏贝叶斯学习(SBL)方法中参数学习的优点,其利用分层的先验分布来表征未知信号的稀疏块状信息,因而相对于现有的恢复算法能够更好地重建块稀疏信号.该方法基于变分贝叶斯推理原理,根据观测量能自动地估计信号未知参数,而无需人工参数设置.针对稀疏块状目标,该文结合压缩感知(CS)理论将VBGS方法用于ISAR成像,仿真实验成像结果表明该方法优于传统的成像结果,适合于具有块状结构的ISAR目标成像.%The traditional sparse ISAR imaging method mainly considers the recovery of coefficients on individual scatters. However, in the practice situation, the target scatters presented by blocks or groups do not emerge on individual. In this case, the usual sparse recover algorithm can not depict the shape of real target, thus, the group-sparse recover approaches are adopted to reconstruct the coefficients of target scatters. The recovery method based on the Bayesian Group-Sparse modeling and Variational inference (VBGS) uses a hierarchical construction of a general signal prior to model the group sparse signals and contain the merit of Sparse Bayesian Learning (SBL) on parameters learning, as a result, it can reconstruct the group sparse signal better than the usual recover algorithm. The VBGS method uses the variational Bayesian inference approach to estimate the parameters of the unknown signal automatically and does not require the parameter-tuning procedures. Considering the sparse group target, this paper combines the
Joubert, Kyla D; Mabry, Charles D; Kalkwarf, Kyle J; Betzold, Richard D; Spencer, Horace J; Spinks, Kara M; Porter, Austin; Karim, Saleema; Robertson, Ronald D; Sutherland, Michael J; Maxson, Robert T
2016-09-01
Major trunk trauma is common and costly, but comparisons of costs between trauma centers (TCs) are rare. Understanding cost is essential to improve quality, manage trauma service lines, and to facilitate institutional commitment for trauma. We have used results of a statewide trauma financial survey of Levels I to IV TC to develop a useful grouping method for costs and clinical characteristics of major trunk trauma. The trauma financial survey collected billing and clinical data on 75 per cent of the state trauma registry patients for fiscal year 2012. Cost was calculated by separately accounting for embedded costs of trauma response and verification, and then adjusting reasonable costs from the Medicare cost report for each TC. The cost-to-charge ratios were then recalculated and used to determine uniform cost estimates for each patient. From the 13,215 patients submitted for the survey, we selected 1,094 patients with major trunk trauma: lengths of stay ≥ 48 hours and a maximum injury of AIS ≥3 for either thorax or abdominal trauma. These patients were then divided into three Injury Severity Score (ISS) groups of 9 to 15, 16 to 24, or 25+ to stratify patients into similar injury groups for analysis of cost and cost drivers. For abdominal injury, average total cost for patients with ISS 9 to 15 was $17,429. Total cost and cost per day increased with severity of injury, with $51,585 being the total cost for those with ISS 25. Similar trends existed for thoracic injury. Use of the Medicare cost report and cost-to-charge ratios to compute uniform costs with an innovative grouping method applied to data collected across a statewide trauma system provides unique information regarding cost and outcomes, which affects quality improvement, trauma service line management, and decisions on TC participation.
Majdabadi-Farahani, V.; Hanif, M.; Gholaminezhad, I.; Jamali, A.; Nariman-Zadeh, N.
2014-10-01
In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) is used for optimal selection of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller gains. In conventional tuning methods a history of response error of the system under control in the passed time is measured and used to adjust PID parameters in order to improve the performance of the system in proceeding time. But MPC obviates this characteristic of classic PID. In fact MPC tries to tune the controller by predicting the system's behaviour some time steps ahead. In this way, PID parameters are adjusted before any real error occurs in the system's response. For this purpose, polynomial meta-models based on the evolved group method of data handling neural networks are obtained to simply simulate the time response of the dynamic system. Moreover, a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm has been used in a multi-objective Pareto optimisation to select the parameters of the MPC which are prediction horizon, control horizon and relation of weight of Δ u and error, to minimise simultaneously two objective functions that are control effort and integral time absolute error of the system response. The results mentioned at the end obviously declare that the proposed method surpasses conventional tuning methods for PID controllers, and Pareto optimal selection of predictive parameters also improves the performance of the introduced method.
建设项目风险评价的群体决策矩阵方法%Construction Project Risk Assessment of Group Decision Matrix Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈继光
2013-01-01
建设项目在政治、环境、经济、施工、安全等方面的风险评估的群决策过程中,各利益相关群体对于候选方案的每个属性都可以提出自己的个体决策信息,采用乘性加权集结算子构造群体决策矩阵,并判断群体决策矩阵与个体决策矩阵之间的相似度差异值,指导个体决策矩阵的修正,完成个体意见的一致化,得到最终确定评价方案的风险顺序.实例分析的结果表明,采用计算方法有利于提高多利益主体对建设项目风险评价的群决策过程中的综合满意度.%Construction projects in political,environmental,planning,market,the economy,financing risk assessment of group decision making process,each stakeholder groups for each candidate scheme attributes can be put forward its own individual decision information,adopt multiplicative weighted rally operator tectonic group decision matrix,and judging group decision matrix and individual decision matrix the similarity among the difference degree,guiding the individual decision matrix of individual opinion,complete correction of,get consistent final determination evaluation scheme of risk sequence.The example analysis of results show that the calculated by using the method to improve more benefit main body of the project risk assessment of group decision making process of comprehensive satisfaction.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Merete Willemoes; Søndergaard, Birthe; Kjøller, Mette;
2008-01-01
OBJECTIVE: This study compared national self-reported data on medicine use and national prescription records at the individual level. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Data from the nationally representative Danish health survey conducted in 2000 (n=16,688) were linked at the individual level to national...... prescription records covering 1999-2000. Kappa statistics and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: Applying the legend time method to medicine groups used mainly on a chronic basis revealed good to very good agreement between the two data sources, whereas medicines used as needed showed fair...... to moderate agreement. When a fixed-time window was applied for analysis, agreement was unchanged for medicines used mainly on a chronic basis, whereas agreement increased somewhat compared to the legend time method when analyzing medicines used as needed. CONCLUSION: Agreement between national self...
Rung, A; Miller, D R; Scheffer, S J
2009-02-01
The mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) have special significance to U.S. quarantine and U.S. agriculture. Commonly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry, they are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. This study presents a molecular method for distinguishing P. citri, P. minor, and a genetically distinct group that is morphologically identical to P. citri, from Hawaii. This method uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment polymorphism analysis (RFLP) using the restriction enzymes BspH1, BsmH1, and HpH1. The resulting band patterns can be visualized in a 2% agarose gel and are sufficient to differentiate between the three entities mentioned above. PCR-RFLP diagnostics can be used for all life stages and is cheaper and faster than DNA sequencing.
Gibbons, I; Schachman, H K
1976-01-13
Hybridization experiments with variants of an oligomeric protein often provide important information regarding subunit structure, function, and interactions. In some systems, however, the variants are so similar electrophoretically and chromatographically that purification of individual hybrids is not feasible. Therefore a method was developed for preparing hybrids by using 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride as a reversible acylating agent for protein amino groups. The technique involved acylating about 30% of the amino groups at pH 8 to give a derivative with a markedly altered net charge, formation of the hybrid set with unmodified and modified species, separation of the individual components by ion-exchange chromatography, and finally removal of the tetrahydrophthaloyl groups from the desired hybrid by incubation for about 1 day at pH 6 and room temperature. Experiments with model compounds and two enzymes showed that the anhydride was sepcific for amino groups. The extent of modification of proteins was measured by the spectral change at 250 nm, the loss of free amino groups, and the change in electrophoretic mobility of the polypeptide chains in polyacrylamide gels containing 8 M urea. Deacylation of modified, inactive aldolase and the catalytic subunit of aspartate transcarbamylase led to the restoration of the enzyme activity and electrophoretic mobility of the unmodified proteins. Both intra- and inter-subunit hybrids of aspartate transcarbamylase were prepared and isolated by using the tetrahydrophthaloyl groups as a reversible "chromatographic handle". Prior to deacylation the inter-subunit hybrid containing one acylated and one native catalytic subunit (and negative regulatory sub-units) exhibited no homotropic cooperativity and after deacylation the characteristic allosteric properties of the enzyme were regained. Similarly the ligand-promoted conformational changes associated with the allosteric transition were resotred upon deacylation of the intra
Free Boolean Topological Groups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ol’ga Sipacheva
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.
Sharma, Sandeep
2014-01-01
We extend our previous work [J. Chem. Phys, \\textbf{136}, 124121], which described a spin-adapted (SU(2) symmetry) density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm, to additionally utilize general non-Abelian point group symmetries. A key strength of the present formulation is that the requisite tensor operators are not hard-coded for each symmetry group, but are instead generated on the fly using the appropriate Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. This allows our single implementation to easily enable (or disable) any non-Abelian point group symmetry (including SU(2) spin symmetry). We use our implementation to compute the ground state potential energy curve of the C$_2$ dimer in the cc-pVQZ basis set (with a frozen-core), corresponding to a Hilbert space dimension of 10$^{12}$ many-body states. While our calculated energy lies within the 0.3 mE$_h$ error bound of previous initiator full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (i-FCIQMC) and correlation energy extrapolation by intrinsic scaling (CEEIS) c...
分组一致性哈希数据分割方法%Data segmentation method of grouping consistent hash
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
武小年; 方堃; 杨宇洋
2016-01-01
针对分布式入侵检测系统进行数据分割时面临的数据完整性和负载均衡问题,提出一种分组一致性哈希数据分割方法.采用TCP流重组技术保证数据的完整性;在对数据进行分割时,采用改进的分组一致性哈希算法,将具有相近计算能力的结点分为一组,根据组的计算能力,将各组按比例交替映射到整个数据哈希值计算对应的空间;在数据分配时,对结点的负载进行检测和动态调整.仿真测试结果表明,该方法具有较高的检测率,算法所需虚拟结点数量减少,降低了内存占用,提高了系统的负载均衡性.%Aiming at data integrity and load balance problem of distributed intrusion detection system for data segmentation,a data segmentation method of grouping consistent hash was proposed.TCP stream reassembly technology was used to ensure data integrity.When data were divided,the improved grouping consistent hash algorithm was used,and nodes with similar computing capacity were divided into a group.According to the computing capacity of group and proportion,each group was mapped alter-nately in the space corresponding to the hash value calculated.And the load of the node was detected and dynamically adj usted when data were assigned to the node.Results of simulation show that,the method has higher detection rate,the number of re-quired virtual node and the memory consumption are reduced,and load balance of the system is improved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mottaghitalab, M.; Nikkhah, N.; Darmani-Kuhi, H.; López, S.; France, J.
2015-07-01
Artificial neural network models offer an alternative to linear regression analysis for predicting the amino acid content of feeds from their chemical composition. A group method of data handling-type neural network (GMDH-type NN), with an evolutionary method of genetic algorithm, was used to predict methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys) contents of soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) from their proximate analyses (i.e. crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and moisture). A data set with 119 data lines for Met and 116 lines for Lys was used to develop GMDH-type NN models with two hidden layers. The data lines were divided into two groups to produce training and validation sets. The data sets were imported into the GEvoM software for training the networks. The predictive capability of the constructed models was evaluated by their abilities to estimate the validation data sets accurately. A quantitative examination of goodness of fit for the predictive models was made using a number of precision, concordance and bias statistics. The statistical performance of the models developed revealed close agreement between observed and predicted Met and Lys contents for SBM and FM. The results of this study clearly illustrate the validity of GMDH-type NN models to estimate accurately the amino acid content of poultry feed ingredients from their chemical composition . (Author)
A Third-Order p-Laplacian Boundary Value Problem Solved by an SL(3,ℝ Lie-Group Shooting Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chein-Shan Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The boundary layer problem for power-law fluid can be recast to a third-order p-Laplacian boundary value problem (BVP. In this paper, we transform the third-order p-Laplacian into a new system which exhibits a Lie-symmetry SL(3,ℝ. Then, the closure property of the Lie-group is used to derive a linear transformation between the boundary values at two ends of a spatial interval. Hence, we can iteratively solve the missing left boundary conditions, which are determined by matching the right boundary conditions through a finer tuning of r∈[0,1]. The present SL(3,ℝ Lie-group shooting method is easily implemented and is efficient to tackle the multiple solutions of the third-order p-Laplacian. When the missing left boundary values can be determined accurately, we can apply the fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4 method to obtain a quite accurate numerical solution of the p-Laplacian.
Low Energy Properties of the Random Spin-1/2 Ferromagnetic-Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chain
Hida, Kazuo
1996-01-01
The low energy properties of the spin-1/2 random Heisenberg chain with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions are studied by means of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and real space renormalization group (RSRG) method for finite chains. The results of the two methods are consistent with each other. The deviation of the gap distribution from that of the random singlet phase and the formation of the large-spin state is observed even for relatively small systems. For a s...
Method of Building a Group of NURBS Models Based on Genetic Algorithm%基于遗传算法的NURBS模型群体生成方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李媛媛; 刘弘
2011-01-01
Producing a crowd animation needs a great number of individual models.For how to quickly build multiple models from a single built one and ensure that they are not the same, researched methods of NURBS modeling and presented a method of building a group of NURBS models based on genetic algorithm.This method first extracted structure lines of a given NURBS model, initialized a population according to it, and regarded the given model as the best one.Then it adjusted each structure line of each model by using selection,crossover and mutation operations, and made the population evolve to build a group of models with different appearances and to be used in crowd animation.%制作群体动画需要使用大量的个体模型.针对如何由一个制作好的模型快速生成多个模型,并且保证各模型之间的外观不完全相同,对NURBS建模方法进行研究,提出基于遗传算法的NURBS模型群体生成方法.该方法首先提取给定NURBS模型的结构线,根据给定的NURBS模型初始化一个种群,并将给定的NURBS模型作为最佳模型,然后利用选择、交叉、变异三种基本操作对种群中每个模型的每条结构线进行放大或缩小调整,对种群进行进化,生成形态各异的NURBS模型的群体,用于群体动画的制作.
Min, Jun Zhe; Yamashita, Kazuhide; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa; Inagaki, Shinsuke; Higashi, Tatsuya; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro
2010-12-01
Many psychotropic substances are illegally available on the streets and/or via the Internet. This wide distribution has become a serious social problem. To control this problem, many substances have been controlled as 'designated substances' (Shitei-Yakubutsu) in Japan since April 2007 by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, including tryptamines, phenethylamines and piperazines. In the present study, simultaneous determination methods using HPLC with multi-channel electrochemical detection (MECD) were developed for the designated substances. The proposed methods utilizing online electrochemical oxidation are the first report on the simultaneous determination of various designated substances. The methods involve direct determination and require no complicated pretreatments such as fluorescence labeling. The designated substances were separated by reversed-phase chromatography using a TSK-gel ODS-100V (4.6 × 250 mm, i.d., 3 µm) and gradient elution by a mixture of potassium phosphate buffer, methanol and acetonitrile. The total separation of 31 designated substances was successfully performed but required long chromatographic run times. Thus, the designated substances were divided into three groups: (1) tryptamines, (2) phenethylamines and (3) piperazines and others. They were then analyzed by HPLC-MECD as another separation method. The suitable applied voltages for each designated substance were determined based upon the hydrodynamic voltammogram. The limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of the designated substances for the most suitable voltages were in the range of 17.1 pg (5-MeO-MIPT) to 117 ng (indan-2-amine). The calibration curves based on the peak heights were linearly related to the amounts of the designated substances (R(2) > 0.999). Good accuracy and precision by intra-day assay and inter-day assay were also obtained using the present procedures. The proposed methods were applied to the analyses of the designated substance in several real
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Guo
Full Text Available High throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene leads us into a deeper understanding on bacterial diversity for complex environmental samples, but introduces blurring due to the relatively low taxonomic capability of short read. For wastewater treatment plant, only those functional bacterial genera categorized as nutrient remediators, bulk/foaming species, and potential pathogens are significant to biological wastewater treatment and environmental impacts. Precise taxonomic assignment of these bacteria at least at genus level is important for microbial ecological research and routine wastewater treatment monitoring. Therefore, the focus of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic precisions of different ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene hypervariable regions generated from a mix activated sludge sample. In addition, three commonly used classification methods including RDP Classifier, BLAST-based best-hit annotation, and the lowest common ancestor annotation by MEGAN were evaluated by comparing their consistency. Under an unsupervised way, analysis of consistency among different classification methods suggests there are no hypervariable regions with good taxonomic coverage for all genera. Taxonomic assignment based on certain regions of the 16S rRNA genes, e.g. the V1&V2 regions - provide fairly consistent taxonomic assignment for a relatively wide range of genera. Hence, it is recommended to use these regions for studying functional groups in activated sludge. Moreover, the inconsistency among methods also demonstrated that a specific method might not be suitable for identification of some bacterial genera using certain 16S rRNA gene regions. As a general rule, drawing conclusions based only on one sequencing region and one classification method should be avoided due to the potential false negative results.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘官厅; 范天佑
2003-01-01
The complex method of the plane elasticity in 2D quasicrystal with point group 10 mm tenfold rotational symmetry is established. First displacement potential function in the quasicrystal is represented by four analytic functions. Then by utilizing the properties of analytic function and through a great deal of derivation, the complex representations of stresses and displacements components of phonon fields and phason fields in the quasicrystal are given, which are the theoretical foundation for this method. From this theory, and by the help of conformal transformations in the theory of complex function, the problems of elliptic hole in the quasicrystal are solved. Its special cases are the solutions of well-known crack problem. Meanwhile, the results show that even if under the self-counterbalance force in the quasicrystal plane with elliptic hole, the stress components of phonon fields are also related to material constants of the quasicrystal when the phonon fields and phason fields are coupled, which is another distinctive difference from the properties of classical elastic theory. Besides, the present work is generalization and application of the complex method in the classical elastic theory established by Muskhelishvili to 2D quasicrystal. As in the classical elastic theory, if only conformal transformation from the quasicrystal plane to unit circle is found, any holey and crack problem in the quasicrystal plane could be solved.
Mora Osorio, Camilo Andrés; González Barrios, Andrés Fernando
2016-12-07
Calculation of the Gibbs free energy changes of biological molecules at the oil-water interface is commonly performed with Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD). It is a process that could be performed repeatedly in order to find some molecules of high stability in this medium. Here, an alternative method of calculation has been proposed: a group contribution method (GCM) for peptides based on MD of the twenty classic amino acids to obtain free energy change during the insertion of any peptide chain in water-dodecane interfaces. Multiple MD of the twenty classic amino acids located at the interface of rectangular simulation boxes with a dodecane-water medium were performed. A GCM to calculate the free energy of entire peptides is then proposed. The method uses the summation of the Gibbs free energy of each amino acid adjusted in function of its presence or absence in the chain as well as its hydrophobic characteristics. Validation of the equation was performed with twenty-one peptides all simulated using MD in dodecane-water rectangular boxes in previous work, obtaining an average relative error of 16%.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁英华; 陈红萍
2007-01-01
A novel method named two-level group contribution (GC-K) method for the estimation of octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) of chloride hydrocarbon is presented. The equation includes only normal boiling points and molecular weight of compounds. Group contribution parameters of 12 first-level groups and 7 second-level groups for Kow are obtained by correlating experimental data of three types including 57 compounds. By comparing the estimation results of the first-level with that of the two-level groups, it was observed that the latter is better with the addition of the modification of proximity effects. When compared with Marrero's three-level group contribution approach and atom-fragment contribution method (AFC), the accuracy of the average relative error of GC-K by first-level groups is 7.20% and is preferred to other methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monsef-Mirzai, P.; McWhinnie, W.R.; Perry, M.C.; Burchill, P. [Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry
1995-05-01
Experiments with both model compounds (substituted phenols) and with 11 coals (nine British and two American) have established that microwave heating will greatly accelerate silylation reactions of the phenolic -OH groups, e.g. for Creswell coal complete silylation of -OH groups occurs in 35 min in the microwave oven, whereas 24 h is required using a bench reflux technique. Microwave reaction times for coals vary from 35 min to 3 h for more dense coals such as Cortonwood. The above observations have allowed the development of a `one pot` silylation of coal, followed by an in situ analysis of the added Me{sub 3}Si- groups by quantitative {sup 29}Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS n.m.r.) spectroscopy. The development of a quantitative n.m.r. method required the determination of {sup 29}Si spin lattice relaxation times, T{sub 1}, e.g. for silylated coals T{sub 1} {approximately} 8s; for silylated phenols, T{sub 1} {approximately} 25s; for the synthetic smectite clay laponite, T{sub 1} {approximately} 25 s; and for Ph{sub 3}SiH, T{sub 1} {approximately} 64 s. Inert laponite was selected as the standard. The requirement to wait for five T{sub 1 max} between pulses, together with the relatively low natural abundance of {sup 29}Si (4.71%), results in rather long accumulation times to obtain spectra of analytical quality (8-48 h). However, in comparison with other methods, even in the most unfavourable case, the total time from commencement of analysis to result may be described as `rapid`. The results for O{sub OH}/O{sub total} obtained are compared with other literature data. Comparison with ketene data, for example, shows agreement to vary from excellent (Creswell) through satisfactory (Cortonwood) to poor (Pittsburgh). Even in cases where agreement with ketene data is less good, the silylation results may be close to estimates made via other acetylation methods. Possible reasons for the variations observed are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.
Rogers, Catherine; Anderson, Sarah E; Dollahite, Jamie S; Hill, Tisa F; Holloman, Chris; Miller, Carla K; Pratt, Keeley J; Gunther, Carolyn
2017-01-09
Given the ongoing childhood obesity public health crisis and potential protective effect of family meals, there is need for additional family meals research, specifically experimental studies with expanded health outcomes that focus on the at-risk populations in highest need of intervention. Future research, specifically intervention work, would also benefit from an expansion of the target age range to include younger children, who are laying the foundation of their eating patterns and capable of participating in family meal preparations. The purpose of this paper is to address this research gap by presenting the objectives and research methods of a 10-week multi-component family meals intervention study aimed at eliciting positive changes in child diet and weight status. This will be a group quasi-experimental trial with staggered cohort design. Data will be collected via direct measure and questionnaires at baseline, intervention completion (or waiting period for controls), and 10-weeks post-intervention. Setting will be faith-based community center. Participants will be 60 underserved families with at least 1, 4-10 year old child will be recruited and enrolled in the intervention (n = 30) or waitlist control group (n = 30). The intervention (Simple Suppers) is a 10-week family meals program designed for underserved families from racial/ethnic diverse backgrounds. The 10, 90-min program lessons will be delivered weekly over the dinner hour. Session components include: a) interactive group discussion of strategies to overcome family meal barriers, plus weekly goal setting for caregivers; b) engagement in age-appropriate food preparation activities for children; and c) group family meal for caregivers and children. Main outcome measures are change in: child diet quality; child standardized body mass index; and frequency of family meals. Regression models will be used to compare response variables results of intervention to control group, controlling for
Ribes, Luis
2017-01-01
This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest...
Magnetic translation groups as group extension
Florek, Wojciech
1998-01-01
Extensions of a direct product T of two cyclic groups Z_n1 and Z_n2 by an Abelian (gauge) group G with the trivial action of T on G are considered. All possible (nonequivalent) factor systems are determined using the Mac Lane method. Some of resulting groups describe magnetic translation groups. As examples extensions with G=U(1) and G=Z_n are considered and discussed.
Elwyn, Glyn; Bekkers, Marie-Jet; Tapp, Laura; Edwards, Adrian; Newcombe, Robert; Eriksson, Tina; Braspenning, Jozé; Kuch, Christine; Adzic, Zlata Ozvacic; Ayankogbe, Olayinka; Cvetko, Tatjana; In 't Veld, Kees; Karotsis, Antonis; Kersnik, Janko; Lefebvre, Luc; Mecini, Ilir; Petricek, Goranka; Pisco, Luis; Thesen, Janecke; Turón, José María; van Rossen, Edward; Grol, Richard
2010-12-01
Well-organised practices deliver higher-quality care. Yet there has been very little effort so far to help primary care organisations achieve higher levels of team performance and to help them identify and prioritise areas where quality improvement efforts should be concentrated. No attempt at all has been made to achieve a method which would be capable of providing comparisons--and the stimulus for further improvement--at an international level. The development of the International Family Practice Maturity Matrix took place in three phases: (1) selection and refinement of organisational dimensions; (2) development of incremental scales based on a recognised theoretical framework; and (3) testing the feasibility of the approach on an international basis, including generation of an automated web-based benchmarking system. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of developing an organisational assessment tool for primary care organisations that is sufficiently generic to cross international borders and is applicable across a diverse range of health settings, from state-organised systems to insurer-based health economies. It proved possible to introduce this assessment method in 11 countries in Europe and one in Africa, and to generate comparison benchmarks based on the data collected. The evaluation of the assessment process was uniformly positive with the view that the approach efficiently enables the identification of priorities for organisational development and quality improvement at the same time as motivating change by virtue of the group dynamics. We are not aware of any other organisational assessment method for primary care which has been 'born international,' and that has involved attention to theory, dimension selection and item refinement. The principal aims were to achieve an organisational assessment which gains added value by using interaction, engagement comparative benchmarks: aims which have been achieved. The next step is to achieve wider
Berthon, Beatrice; Spezi, Emiliano; Galavis, Paulina; Shepherd, Tony; Apte, Aditya; Hatt, Mathieu; Fayad, Hadi; De Bernardi, Elisabetta; Soffientini, Chiara D; Ross Schmidtlein, C; El Naqa, Issam; Jeraj, Robert; Lu, Wei; Das, Shiva; Zaidi, Habib; Mawlawi, Osama R; Visvikis, Dimitris; Lee, John A; Kirov, Assen S
2017-08-01
The aim of this paper is to define the requirements and describe the design and implementation of a standard benchmark tool for evaluation and validation of PET-auto-segmentation (PET-AS) algorithms. This work follows the recommendations of Task Group 211 (TG211) appointed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The recommendations published in the AAPM TG211 report were used to derive a set of required features and to guide the design and structure of a benchmarking software tool. These items included the selection of appropriate representative data and reference contours obtained from established approaches and the description of available metrics. The benchmark was designed in a way that it could be extendable by inclusion of bespoke segmentation methods, while maintaining its main purpose of being a standard testing platform for newly developed PET-AS methods. An example of implementation of the proposed framework, named PETASset, was built. In this work, a selection of PET-AS methods representing common approaches to PET image segmentation was evaluated within PETASset for the purpose of testing and demonstrating the capabilities of the software as a benchmark platform. A selection of clinical, physical, and simulated phantom data, including "best estimates" reference contours from macroscopic specimens, simulation template, and CT scans was built into the PETASset application database. Specific metrics such as Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Positive Predictive Value (PPV), and Sensitivity (S), were included to allow the user to compare the results of any given PET-AS algorithm to the reference contours. In addition, a tool to generate structured reports on the evaluation of the performance of PET-AS algorithms against the reference contours was built. The variation of the metric agreement values with the reference contours across the PET-AS methods evaluated for demonstration were between 0.51 and 0.83, 0.44 and 0.86, and 0.61 and 1
Burke, Rachael M; McKenna, James P; Cox, Ciara; Coyle, Peter V; Shields, Michael D; Fairley, Derek J
2016-10-01
Sub-optimal recovery of bacterial DNA from whole blood samples can limit the sensitivity of molecular assays to detect pathogenic bacteria. We compared 3 different pre-lysis protocols (none, mechanical pre-lysis and achromopeptidase pre-lysis) and 5 commercially available DNA extraction platforms for direct detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in spiked whole blood samples, without enrichment culture. DNA was extracted using the QIAamp Blood Mini kit (Qiagen), UCP Pathogen Mini kit (Qiagen), QuickGene DNA Whole Blood kit S (Fuji), Speed Xtract Nucleic Acid Kit 200 (Qiagen) and MagNA Pure Compact Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I (Roche Diagnostics Corp). Mechanical pre-lysis increased yields of bacterial genomic DNA by 51.3 fold (95% confidence interval; 31.6-85.1, pextraction methods. Including a pre-lysis step can improve the limits of detection of GBS using PCR or other molecular methods without need for culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nederhof Esther
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive recruitment effort at baseline increases representativeness of study populations by decreasing non-response and associated bias. First, it is not known to what extent increased attrition occurs during subsequent measurement waves among subjects who were hard-to-recruit at baseline and what characteristics the hard-to-recruit dropouts have compared to the hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, it is unknown whether characteristics of hard-to-recruit responders in a prospective population based cohort study are similar across age group and survey method. Methods First, we compared first wave (T1 easy-to-recruit with hard-to-recruit responders of the TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS, a prospective population based cohort study of Dutch (preadolescents (at first wave: n = 2230, mean age = 11.09 (SD 0.56, 50.8% girls, with regard to response rates at subsequent measurement waves. Second, easy-to-recruit and hard-to-recruit participants at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (n = 1881, mean age = 19.1 (SD 0.60, 52.3% girls were compared with fourth wave non-responders and earlier stage drop-outs on family composition, socioeconomic position (SEP, intelligence (IQ, education, sociometric status, substance use, and psychopathology. Results First, over 60% of the hard-to-recruit responders at the first wave were retained in the sample eight years later at the fourth measurement wave. Hard-to-recruit dropouts did not differ from hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, extensive recruitment efforts for the web based survey convinced a population of nineteen year olds with similar characteristics as the hard-to-recruit eleven year olds that were persuaded to participate in a school-based survey. Some characteristics associated with being hard-to-recruit (as compared to being easy-to-recruit were more pronounced among non-responders, resembling the baseline situation (De Winter et al.2005
Wang, Ji; Ge, Jian; Wan, Xiaoke; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian
2012-11-01
A fixed delay interferometer is the key component in a DFDI (dispersed fixed delay interferometer) instrument for an exoplanet search using the radial velocity (RV) technique. Although the group delay (GD) of the interferometer can be measured with white light combs (WLCs), the measurement precision is limited by the comb visibility, and the wavelength coverage is constrained by the comb sampling. For instance, this method can calibrate only half of the SDSS-III MARVELS spectra and reach a precision of 2.2 m s-1. This article introduces an innovative method using a sine source for precision delay calibration over very broad wavelengths. The sine source is made of a monolithic Michelson interferometer fed with white light. The interferometer modulated white light (in a sinusoidal form) is fed into a DFDI instrument for calibration. Due to an optimal GD of the sine source, Fourier components from the DFDI interferometer, the sine source, and their frequency beating can be clearly separated and effectively extracted with a chirped Fourier transform to allow precision measurements of the interferometer GD over the entire range of operation wavelengths. The measurements of the MARVELS interferometer with a sine source show that this new calibration method has improved the wavelength coverage by a factor of 2 and the precision by a factor of 3. The RV measurement error induced by GD measurement uncertainties is controlled to be less than 1 m s-1, which has met the requirements for MARVELS moderate-to-high Doppler precision (∼5–30 m s-1) for exoplanet search around V ∼ 8–12 solar-type stars. Heterodyne combs using an external interferometer source can be applied in other areas of optics measurement and calibration.
VIKOR Method for Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making%直觉模糊多属性群决策的 VIKOR 方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张市芳
2015-01-01
To solve the problems of the totally unknown attribute weights and the intuitionistic fuzzy numbers given to the attribute values ,a decision making method based on VIKOR (Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje ) is presented .Firstly ,the group decision making information is obtained by using the intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA ) operator to aggregate all the individual decision making information .Then ,the entropy weights of the criteria are obtained by utilizing the intuitionistic fuzzy entropy formula .According to the basic concept of the traditional VIKOR method and by means of the distance formula of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers ,the alternatives are ranked ,from w hich the best ones are picked over .Finally ,the analysis of a numerical example proves the practicality and feasibility of the proposed method .%针对属性权重信息完全未知且属性值以直觉模糊数形式给出的多属性群决策问题，提出了一种基于多准则妥协解排序的决策方法。利用直觉模糊加权平均算子集成所有的个体决策信息，以获取群决策信息。利用直觉模糊数熵权公式求得属性的熵权。依据传统VIKOR法的基本思想，结合直觉模糊数的距离公式，对备选方案进行排序择优。文中通过实例分析，表明该方法的实用性与可行性。
Langlois, Michel R; Descamps, Olivier S; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Weykamp, Cas; Baum, Hannsjörg; Pulkki, Kari; von Eckardstein, Arnold; De Bacquer, Dirk; Borén, Jan; Wiklund, Olov; Laitinen, Païvi; Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Cobbaert, Christa
2014-03-01
Despite international standardization programs for LDLc and HDLc measurements, results vary significantly with methods from different manufacturers. We aimed to simulate the impact of analytical error and hypertriglyceridemia on HDLc- and LDLc-based cardiovascular risk classification. From the Dutch National EQA-2012 external quality assessment of 200 clinical laboratories, we examined data from normotriglyceridemic (∼ 1 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemic (∼ 7 mmol/l) serum pools with lipid target values assigned by the Lipid Reference Laboratory in Rotterdam. HDLc and LDLc were measured using direct methods of Abbott, Beckman, Siemens, Roche, Olympus, or Ortho Clinical Diagnostics. We simulated risk reclassification using HDL- and sex-specific SCORE multipliers considering two fictitious moderate-risk patients with initial SCORE 4% (man) and 3% (woman). Classification into high-risk treatment groups (LDLc >2.50 mmol/l) was compared between calculated LDLc and direct LDLc methods. Overall HDLc measurements in hypertriglyceridemic serum showed negative mean bias of -15%. HDL-multipliers falsely reclassified 70% of women and 43% of men to a high-risk (SCORE >5%) in hypertriglyceridemic serum (P bias with Abbott (+16%) and Beckman (+14%) and negative mean bias with Roche (-7%). In hypertriglyceridemic serum, 57% of direct LDLc measurements were above high-risk treatment goal (2.50 mmol/l) vs. 29% of direct LDLc (33% of calculated LDLc) in normotriglyceridemic sera. LDLc and HDLc measurements are unreliable in severe hypertriglyceridemia, and should be applied with caution in SCORE risk classification and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fields, Susannah
2007-08-16
This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. M. Kimball
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.
Lee, Warren Tk; Weisell, Robert; Albert, Janice; Tomé, Daniel; Kurpad, Anura V; Uauy, Ricardo
2016-05-01
The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) has been adopted for assessing protein quality in human foods since 1991, and the shortcomings of using the PDCAAS have been recognized since its adoption. The 2011 FAO Expert Consultation recognized that the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) was superior to the PDCAAS for determining protein quality. However, there were insufficient human data on amino acid digestibility before adopting the DIAAS. More human data were needed before DIAAS could be implemented. In 2014, FAO convened an expert working group to propose and agree on research protocols using both human-based assays and animal models to study ileal amino acid digestibility (metabolic availability) of human foods. The working group identified 5 research protocols for further research and development. A robust database of protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed worldwide, including those consumed in low-income countries, is needed for an informed decision on adopting the DIAAS. A review on the impacts of using the DIAAS on public health policies is necessary. It would be advantageous to have a global coordinating effort to advance research and data collection. Collaboration with international and national agriculture institutes is desirable. Opportunities should be provided for young researchers, particularly those from developing countries, to engage in protein-quality research for sustainable implementation of DIAAS. To conclude, the DIAAS is a conceptually preferable method compared with the PDCAAS for protein and amino acid quality evaluation. However, the complete value of the DIAAS and its impact on public health nutrition cannot be realized until there are sufficient accumulated ileal amino acid digestibility data on human foods that are consumed in different nutritional and environmental conditions, measured by competent authorities. A future meeting may be needed to evaluate the size and quality of the data set
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dicezar Gonçalves
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a fast and accurate molecular approach to allow early detection of two RAPD groups of S. aureus causing bovine mastitis. Seventy five S. aureus isolates from infected animals were characterized by RAPD. Genomic fragments isolated from the unique bands present in either group were cloned and sequenced. Based on the DNA sequences, specific primers were designed to allow for the simultaneous detection of either group by multiplex PCR of S. aureus DNA isolated from clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. Results showed that these proposed primers set could be used to detect various clinical and subclinical S. aureus isolates as well as the detection of the microorganism in bulk milk. Their use as a specific method for effective and early diagnostic tool for S. aureus infection in dairy herds is suggested.Esta pesquisa objetivou o desenvolvimento de técnica rápida e eficiente para diagnosticar precocemente diferentes linhagens de S. aureus causadoras de mastite bovina. Como resultados da metodologia empregada, foram isoladas duas linhagens destas bactérias que causam diferentes tipos de mastite bovina. Os fragmentos de DNA genômico caracterizando ambas as linhagens, por meio de RAPD foram inseridos em vetor plasmidial pGEM e clonados por meio de clones T10 F1 de Escherichia coli. As seqüências obtidas permitiram desenhar iniciadores específicos para o reconhecimento de ambas as linhagens, os quais foram testados com amostras de S. aureus e com outras linhagens próximas. O diagnóstico por meios moleculares, pode ser realizado diretamente de amostras coletadas de rebanhos leiteiros assim como dos equipamentos de ordenha. A significância deste estudo consiste em um rápido e acurado método para localizar animais infectados, representando importante ferramenta no manejo do rebanho, na redução de custos com tratamentos e, rápida recuperação de rebanhos infectados.