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Sample records for group disruptive behavior

  1. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  2. A Comparative Study of Group Contingencies and Randomized Reinforcers to Reduce Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation employed an alternating treatments design to (1) examine the efficacy of group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior, and (2) compare the effects of independent, interdependent, and dependent group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior in adolescent males identified with serious emotional…

  3. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  4. Interdependent Group Contingency and Mystery Motivators to Reduce Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly A.; Theodore, Lea A.; Aloiso, Danielle; Alric-Edwards, Jolie M.; Hughes, Tammy L.

    2007-01-01

    Children exhibiting challenging and disruptive behaviors can require teachers to spend a substantial amount of time on classroom management. Disruptive behaviors in the classroom impact the learning process by taking time away from academic instruction. Further, preschoolers who are disruptive are more likely to continue displaying problematic…

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Groups for Children Manifesting ADHD and Other Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Lauren

    1993-01-01

    Presents a model for school-based, cognitive-behavioral groups for children manifesting problem behaviors. Discusses key aspects of organizational readiness to conduct this type of program, particularly the importance of having the support of the children's classroom teachers. Describes the child group format and content, including recommended…

  6. Randomization of Group Contingencies and Reinforcers To Reduce Classroom Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Jenson, William R.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of randomizing both contingencies for reinforcement and reinforcers to decrease classroom disruptive behavior in five adolescent students with serious emotional disorder. Results reveal that the percentage of observed intervals of disruptive behaviors decreased immediately and dramatically in all students. (Contains 24…

  7. Social status and aggressive and disruptive behavior in girls: individual, group, and classroom influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, David B; Farmer, Thomas W; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies have found distinct subtypes of aggressive youth, marked by either high social status or social marginalization, and that various measures of status differentially associate with aggression. The majority of these studies, however, focused on boys, adolescents, and/or relational aggression in girls. The current research examined how the kind of status measured and the social ecology affect the association between overt aggression and social status in a sample of 187 3rd grade girls. Cluster analysis uncovered aggressive-popular, aggressive-unpopular, and prosocial-popular configurations. Although likeability was related solely to prosocial behavior, other measures of status co-occurred with both prosocial and aggressive behavior. Peer-group behavior complemented that of individuals, though peer-group and classroom acceptance of aggression were not related to cluster prevalence.

  8. Correlation between disruptive behaviors and school grouping (single-sex vs. coeducational in students from Callao, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Gordillo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Debate on single-sex vs. coeducational schooling has increased over the last years. The purpose of the following study is to produce empirical evidence on this debate by comparing the frequency of disruptive behaviors in students thatattend single-sex and coeducational schools, in order to find statistical correlation.The frequency of disruptive behaviors in students coming from 5 single-sex schools was compared to that coming from 5 coeducational ones. Data came from 844 students aged 14, attending public schools in Callao, Peru. Students from single-sex schools showed less frequent disruptive behavior in each of the three measured categories—disruptive behaviors, behaviors that show lack of responsibility and anti-social behavior. A weak correlation was found between each of the three categories and the main variable. The study controlled for extraneous variables.

  9. The implications of different developmental patterns of disruptive behavior problems for school adjustment. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L

    1998-01-01

    Based upon developmental models of disruptive behavior problems, this study examined the hypothesis that the nature of a child's externalizing problems at home may be important in predicting the probability of and nature of school adjustment problems at school entry. Parent ratings were collected for a sample of 631 behaviorally disruptive children using the Child Behavior Checklist. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed differentiated ratings of oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home. Teacher and peer nominations assessed school adjustment at the end of first grade. As expected from a developmental perspective, aggressive behaviors indicated more severe dysfunction and were more likely to generalize to the school setting than were oppositional behaviors. Hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home led to more classroom disruption than did aggressive or oppositional behaviors. Co-occurring patterns of oppositional/aggressive and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors were more common than were single-problem patterns, and were associated with broad dysfunction in the social and classroom contexts. The results were interpreted within a developmental framework, in which oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors may reflect distinct (as well as shared) developmental processes that have implications for the home-to-school generalization of behavior problems and subsequent school adjustment.

  10. Multiple Family Groups to reduce child disruptive behavior difficulties: moderating effects of child welfare status on child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil

    2015-08-01

    Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7-11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6-month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system.

  11. Structuring the Classroom to Prevent Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, William; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Specific suggestions to help teachers structure the classroom to prevent disruptive behaviors are offered in the areas of physical arrangement and "traffic rules" time management, assignments, grouping practices, classroom atmosphere, and professional demeanor. (DB)

  12. Jogging Can Modify Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jill I.

    1980-01-01

    Jogging was used to modify disruptive behavior as part of the classroom routine for 12 learning disabled elementary-grade boys. The number of incidents of each of five negative behaviors were reduced by half following the 10-minute jogging routine. (SBH)

  13. Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ODD or CD, and well-planned classroom behavioral techniques in his mainstream classroom have been ineffective, this may lead to a decision to place him in a special classroom at school that is set up for more intensive behavior management. However, schools are mandated to educate your child ...

  14. Multiple Family Group Service Model for Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Child Outcomes at Post-Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia; Dean-Assael, Kara; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Hoagwood, Kimberly; McKay, Mary

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits of a multiple family group (MFG) service delivery model compared with services as usual (SAU) in improving the functioning of youth with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder in families residing in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Participants included 320 youth aged 7 to 11 and their families who were referred to participating outpatient clinics. Participants were assigned to the MFG or the SAU condition, with parent report of child oppositional behavior, social competence, and level of youth impairment as primary outcomes at post-treatment. Family engagement to MFG was measured by attendance to each group session. Caregivers of youth in the MFG service delivery model condition reported significant improvement in youth oppositional behavior and social competence compared with youth in the SAU condition. Impairment improved over time for both groups with no difference between treatment conditions. The MFG led to greater percentage of youth with clinically significant improvements in oppositional behavior. Attendance to the MFG was high, given the high-risk nature of the study population. The MFG service delivery model offers an efficient and engaging format to implement evidence-based approaches to improving functioning of youth with oppositional defiant and/or conduct disorder in families from socioeconomically disadvantaged communities.

  15. Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

  16. A model of disruptive surgeon behavior in the perioperative environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Amalia; Elder, William B

    2014-09-01

    Surgeons are the physicians with the highest rates of documented disruptive behavior. We hypothesized that a unified conceptual model of disruptive surgeon behavior could be developed based on specific individual and system factors in the perioperative environment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 operating room staff of diverse occupations at a single institution. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Participants described episodes of disruptive surgeon behavior, personality traits of perpetrators, environmental conditions of power, and situations when disruptive behavior was demonstrated. Verbal hostility and throwing or hitting objects were the most commonly described disruptive behaviors. Participants indicated that surgical training attracts and creates individuals with particular personality traits, including a sense of shame. Interviewees stated this behavior is tolerated because surgeons have unchecked power, have strong money-making capabilities for the institution, and tend to direct disruptive behavior toward the least powerful employees. The most frequent situational stressors were when something went wrong during an operation and working with unfamiliar team members. Each factor group (ie, situational stressors, cultural conditions, and personality factors) was viewed as being necessary, but none of them alone were sufficient to catalyze disruptive behavior events. Disruptive physician behavior has strong implications for the work environment and patient safety. This model can be used by hospitals to better conceptualize conditions that facilitate disruptive surgeon behavior and to establish programs to mitigate conduct that threatens patient safety and employee satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. School-based interventions for disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Youth disruptive behavior is a concern for youth, school personnel,families, and society. Early childhood disruptive behaviors negatively impact the classroom, and are associated with negative academic, social, behavioral, emotional, substance use, health, and justice system outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. Effective, comprehensive, multicomponent interventions targeting risk/protective factors and pathways associated with antisocial behavior reduce and/or mitigate these negative outcomes. Positive effects have been demonstrated for universal and indicated programs for participating youth and families in early childhood, and for high-risk youth in adolescence and young adulthood. These empirically supported programs inform the treatment of complex and difficult-to-treat disruptive behavior.

  18. Disc Golf Play: Using Recreation to Improve Disruptive Classroom Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael Lee; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the use of disc golf as a creative, recreational play intervention for improving classroom behaviors in disruptive children. Twenty-two elementary students were randomly selected for either a treatment or control group and rated at pre- and post- by their teachers on the use of nine positive classroom behaviors (e.g., sharing,…

  19. Disruptive behavior among elementary students in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Jiménez, José; Valero-Valenzuela, Alfonso; Anguera, M Teresa; Díaz Suárez, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which disruptive behaviors occur most often in physical education (PE) classes, and to identify the existence of a pattern of behavior that leads to this disruptive behavior. With this in mind, we analyzed five PE sessions taken by pupils at different elementary school in the region of Murcia. The total sample size was 96 students aged between 10 and 13. Data was recorded using an observation instrument (a combination of a field format and a categorical system) and was then analyzed using the "HOISAN" software tool, with a sequential analysis and polar coordinates being conducted. The results of the study revealed that disruptive behaviors (52 %) occur more frequently than non-relevant behaviors (48 %), the most common of them being disinterested behavior (29 %), followed by indiscipline (15 %), with no statistically significant differences being detected in violent behavior. As regards patterns of behavior, disinterested behavior is stimulated by "no eye contact", "middle distance", "inside the task", "no use of material", "giving orders" and "registering of activities", while indiscipline is stimulated by "no eye contact", "far distance", "outside the task", "use of material", "grouping in pairs" and "preparation of material". In conclusion, it can be stated that disruptiveness is far more common in physical education sessions, affects the development of sessions and has a negative impact on student learning. A solution to this problem should therefore be sought immediately in order to ensure quality education.

  20. The Structure of Childhood Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Gremillion, Monica; Roberts, Bethan; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) frequently co-occur. Comorbidity of these 2 childhood disruptive behavior domains has not been satisfactorily explained at either a structural or etiological level. The current study evaluated a bifactor model, which allows for a "g" factor in addition to…

  1. The Structure of Childhood Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Gremillion, Monica; Roberts, Bethan; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) frequently co-occur. Comorbidity of these 2 childhood disruptive behavior domains has not been satisfactorily explained at either a structural or etiological level. The current study evaluated a bifactor model, which allows for a "g" factor in addition to…

  2. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  3. Variation in Response to Evidence-Based Group Preventive Intervention for Disruptive Behavior Problems: A View from 938 Coping Power Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Dishion, Thomas J; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Powell, Nicole P; Qu, Lixin

    2017-01-05

    Prior research suggests that under some conditions, interventions that aggregate high-risk youth may be less effective, or at worse, iatrogenic. However, group formats have considerable practical utility for delivery of preventive interventions, and thus it is crucial to understand child and therapist factors that predict which aggressive children can profit from group intervention and which do not. To address these questions we video-recorded group Coping Power intervention sessions (938 sessions), coded both leader and participant behavior, and analyzed both leader and children's behaviors in the sessions that predicted changes in teacher and parent, reports of problem behavior at 1-year follow up. The sample included 180 high-risk children (69% male) who received intervention in 30 separate Coping Power intervention groups (six children assigned per group). The evidence-based Coping Power prevention program consists of 32 sessions delivered during the 4th and 5th grade years; only the child component was used in this study. The behavioral coding system used in the analyses included two clusters of behaviors for children (positive; negative) and two for the primary group leaders (group management; clinical skills). Growth spline models suggest that high levels of children's negative behaviors predicted increases in teacher and parent rated aggressive and conduct problem behaviors during the follow-up period in the three of the four models. Therapist use of clinical skills (e.g., warmth, nonreactive) predicted less increase in children's teacher-rated conduct problems. These findings suggest the importance of clinical training in the effective delivery of evidence-based practices, particularly when working with high-risk youth in groups.

  4. Disruptive behavior and clinical outcomes: perceptions of nurses and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H; O'Daniel, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Providing safe, error-free care is the number-one priority of all health care professionals. Excellent outcomes have been associated with procedural efficiency, the implementation of evidence-based standards, and the use of tools designed to reduce the likelihood of medical error (such as computerized medication orders and bar-coded patient identification). But the impact of work relationships on clinical outcomes isn't as well documented. The current survey was designed as a follow-up to a previous VHA West Coast survey that examined the prevalence and impact of physicians' disruptive behavior on the job satisfaction and retention of nurses (see "Nurse-Physician Relationships: Impact on Nurse Satisfaction and Retention," June 2002). Based on the findings of that survey and subsequent comments on it, the follow-up survey examined the disruptive behavior of both physicians and nurses, as well as both groups' and administrators' perceptions of its effects on providers and its impact on clinical outcomes. Surveys were distributed to 50 VHA hospitals across the country, and results from more than 1,500 survey participants were evaluated. Nurses were reported to have behaved disruptively almost as frequently as physicians. Most respondents perceived disruptive behavior as having negative or worsening effects, in both nurses and physicians, on stress, frustration, concentration, communication, collaboration, information transfer, and workplace relationships. Even more disturbing was the respondents' perceptions of negative or worsening effects of disruptive behavior on adverse events, medical errors, patient safety, patient mortality, the quality of care, and patient satisfaction. These findings suggest that the consequences of disruptive behavior go far beyond nurses' job satisfaction and morale, affecting communication and collaboration among clinicians, which may well, in turn, have a negative impact on clinical outcomes. Strategies aimed at reducing the incidence and

  5. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  6. Policy development for disruptive student behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia M; Farnsworth, Judy; Springer, Pamela J

    2008-01-01

    Nursing students who demonstrate disruptive and at-risk behaviors in the classroom and clinical arena compromise the learning environment and are unable to provide safe, quality client care. They require early and swift identification, consultation, sanctions, or possible referral into treatment to protect themselves and public safety. The authors describe the evolution of a comprehensive policy for faculty intervention with at-risk students and provide an exemplar of a situation illustrating the use of the policy.

  7. A CIT Investigation of Disruptive Faculty Behaviors: The Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, K. Douglas; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent focus on disruptive student behaviors in the classroom, little attention has been given to disruptive faculty behaviors. Utilizing theoretical concepts developed in the services-marketing literature, this study empirically explores student perceptions of disruptive faculty behaviors in the classroom. More specifically, this…

  8. Effect of the good behavior game on disruptive library behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fishbein, Jill E.; Wasik, Barbara H.

    1981-01-01

    A modification of the good behavior game was used to reduce disruptive behaviors during a weekly library period of children in a fourth-grade class. Modifications included student input in designing rules, attempts to state rules in positive terms, observation of class behavior in the experimental (library) setting as well as in a comparison (classroom) setting, and librarian involvement in instituting the game coupled with teacher involvement in delivering reinforcers. Reinforcers consisted ...

  9. Differential Effects of Seating Arrangements on Disruptive Behavior of Fifth Grade Students during Independent Seatwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicard, David F.; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C.; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students…

  10. An organizational assessment of disruptive clinician behavior: findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, Jo M; Dang, Deborah; Nyberg, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated registered nurses' (RNs) and physicians' (MD) experiences with disruptive behavior, triggers, responses, and impacts on clinicians, patients, and the organization. Using the Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey for Hospital Settings, it was found that RNs experienced a significantly higher frequency of disruptive behaviors and triggers than MDs; MDs (45% of 295) and RNs (37% of 689) reported that their peer's disruptive behavior affected them most negatively. The most frequently occurring trigger was pressure from high census, volume, and patient flow; 189 incidences of harm to patients as a result of disruptive behavior were reported. Findings provide organizational leaders with evidence to customize interventions to strengthen the culture of safety.

  11. Reader's theater: a teaching strategy to help students respond to disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Jane; Lux, Kathleen

    2011-05-01

    The seriousness of disruptive behavior among nurses has been documented by professional nursing organizations, nurse researchers, hospital administrators, and the Joint Commission. Disruptive behavior is any inappropriate behavior, confrontation, or conflict ranging from verbal abuse to physical and sexual harassment. Although the profession recommends development of nursing curricula to address disruptive behavior, the literature on this topic is scarce. Using reader's theater, an innovative teaching strategy, the 10 most common forms of disruptive behavior were introduced. The scripts were used in a senior-level baccalaureate nursing transition course to increase students' awareness of and ability to handle disruptive behaviors. Reader's theater is a scripted, formalized storytelling experience that provides an opportunity for self-reflection and group discussions. After the reader's theater learning activity, students reported an increased ability to recognize and handle disruptive behavior in the workplace.

  12. Effects of disruptive surgeon behavior in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Amalia; Elder, William B

    2015-01-01

    Surgeons are the physician group most commonly identified as "disruptive physicians." The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model of the results of disruptive surgeon behavior and to identify the coping strategies used by perioperative staff. Perspectives of 19 individuals of diverse occupations in the perioperative setting were drawn together using a grounded theory methodology. Effects of disruptive behavior described by participants included shift in attention from the patient to the surgeon, increased mistakes during procedures, deterrence from careers in surgery, and diminished respect for surgeons. Individual coping strategies employed in the face of intimidation include talking to colleagues, externalizing the behavior, avoidance of perpetrators, and warning others. Using grounded theory analysis, we were able to elucidate the impact of disruptive surgeon behavior in the perioperative environment. This conceptual model may be used to understand and counter the negative effects of manipulation and intimidation of hospital staff and trainees and to build on current programmatic strengths to improve surgical environments and training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The main component of classical contraceptives, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L, 29.64 ng/L, 2.96 µg/L and 296.4 µg/L can disrupt the mating behavior of adult male Xenopus laevis. EE2 exposure at all concentrations lowered male sexual arousal, indicated by decreased proportions of advertisement calls and increased proportions of the call type rasping, which characterizes a sexually unaroused state of a male. Additionally, EE2 at all tested concentrations affected temporal and spectral parameters of the advertisement calls, respectively. The classical and highly sensitive biomarker vitellogenin, on the other hand, was only induced at concentrations equal or higher than 2.96 µg/L. If kept under control conditions after a 96 h EE2 exposure (2.96 µg/L, alterations of male advertisement calls vanish gradually within 6 weeks and result in a lower sexual attractiveness of EE2 exposed males toward females as demonstrated by female choice experiments. These findings indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant EE2 concentrations can directly disrupt male mate calling behavior of X. laevis and can indirectly affect the mating behavior of females. The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline.

  14. Neuroimaging findings in disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalind H; Clanton, Roberta L; Rogers, Jack C; De Brito, Stéphane A

    2015-08-01

    Decades of research have shown that youths with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are a heterogeneous population. Over the past 20 years, researchers have distinguished youths with DBD as those displaying high (DBD/HCU) versus low (DBD/LCU) callous-unemotional (CU) traits. These traits include flat affect and reduced empathy and remorse, and are associated with more severe, varied, and persistent patterns of antisocial behavior and aggression. Conduct problems in youths with HCU and LCU are thought to reflect distinct causal vulnerabilities, with antisocial behavior in youths with DBD/HCU reflecting a predominantly genetic etiology, while antisocial behavior in youths with DBD/LCU is associated primarily with environmental influences. Here we selectively review recent functional (fMRI) and structural (sMRI) magnetic resonance imaging research on DBD, focusing particularly on the role of CU traits. First, fMRI studies examining the neural correlates of affective stimuli, emotional face processing, empathy, theory of mind, morality, and decision-making in DBD are discussed. This is followed by a review of the studies investigating brain structure and structural connectivity in DBD. Next, we highlight the need to further investigate females and the role of sex differences in this population. We conclude the review by identifying potential clinical implications of this research.

  15. Noncontingent peer attention as treatment for disruptive classroom behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, K. M.; Drew, H A; Weber, N L

    2000-01-01

    A functional analysis isolated peer attention as the primary maintaining variable for disruptive behavior displayed by a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Using a brief reversal design, noncontingent reinforcement was then shown to reduce disruptive behavior relative to the peer attention condition. Implications for assessing behavior disorders in mainstream school settings are discussed.

  16. Is your hospital safe? Disruptive behavior and workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F

    2008-01-01

    The author defines disruptive behavior; distinguishes among disruptive, impaired, and incompetent behavior; describes the prevalence of disruptive behavior; and identifies some recommendations to prevent and resolve disruptive behavior in hospitals. The proactive prevention and management of workplace bullying have implications on managing costs, quality, and satisfaction in hospitals among patients, families, staff, and physicians. The author describes an evidence-based framework and recommends that hospital administrators use it to design an organizational approach to promoting a work environment that is psychologically and physiologically safe and that enables staff to focus on delivering high-quality, cost-effective, and satisfying care.

  17. Preschool Children's Observed Disruptive Behavior: Variations across Sex, Interactional Context, and Disruptive Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A. O.; Carter, Alice S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in disruptive behavior and sensitivity to social context are documented, but the intersection between them is rarely examined empirically. This report focuses on sex differences in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts and diagnostic status. Preschoolers (n = 327) were classified as nondisruptive (51%),…

  18. Reducing Disruptive Behavior in an Urban School Cafeteria: An Extension of the Good Behavior Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Barry L.; Lannie, Amanda L.; Barnabas, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Non-classroom settings are often the most violence-prone areas within a school. This study investigated the impact of an interdependent group contingency on the disruptive behaviors of students in grades K-6 in an urban school cafeteria. Nine female noontime aides and National School and Community Corps staff members implemented the Lunchroom…

  19. Reducing Disruptive Behavior in an Urban School Cafeteria: An Extension of the Good Behavior Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Barry L.; Lannie, Amanda L.; Barnabas, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Non-classroom settings are often the most violence-prone areas within a school. This study investigated the impact of an interdependent group contingency on the disruptive behaviors of students in grades K-6 in an urban school cafeteria. Nine female noontime aides and National School and Community Corps staff members implemented the Lunchroom…

  20. Testing the impact of a social skill training versus waiting list control group for the reduction of disruptive behaviors and stress among preschool children in child care: the study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Sylvana M; Larose, Marie-Pier; Geoffroy, Marie Claude; Laurin, Julie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle

    2017-08-07

    Most preschoolers growing up in western industrialized countries receive child care services (CCS) during the day, while their parents are at work. Meta-analytic data suggest that CCS represent a stressful experience for preschoolers. This may be because preschoolers have not yet developed the social skills necessary to cope with the new and rapidly fluctuating social contexts of CCS. We tested the effectiveness of a child care-based social skill training program aiming to improve children's social behaviors and reduce the stress they experience. We used a cluster randomized control trial (cRCT) to compare children's social behaviors and stress levels in pre- and post-intervention according to whether they received a social skill training intervention or not. Nineteen (n = 19) public CCS (n = 362, 3-years-old preschoolers) of underprivileged neighborhoods (Montreal, Canada) were randomized to one of two conditions: 1) social skills training (n = 10 CCS); or 2) waiting list control group (n = 9 CCS). Educators in the intervention group conducted bi-weekly social skills training sessions over a period of 8 months. The intervention covered four topics: making social contacts, problem solving, emotional self-regulation, as well as emotional expression and recognition. Main outcome measures included preschoolers' disruptive (e.g. aggression, opposition, conflicts) and prosocial behaviors (e.g. sharing toys, helping another child), and stress levels assessed by salivary cortisol sampling at pre and post intervention assessments. Educators' practices will be tested as potential mediators of the expected changes in behaviors and neuroendocrine stress. To our knowledge, this is the first cRCT to test the effectiveness of a child care based social skill training program on the reduction of disruptive behaviors and levels of stress. Significant challenges include the degree of adherence to the intervention protocol as well educators and preschoolers' turnover

  1. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  2. Temperament and Common Disruptive Behavior Problems in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Gremillion, Monica L; Roberts, Bethan

    2012-11-01

    The study evaluated trait associations with common Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), during an understudied developmental period: Preschool. Participants were 109 children ages 3 to 6 and their families. DBD symptoms were available via parent and teacher/caregiver report on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale. Traits were measured using observational coding paradigms, and parent and examiner report on the Child Behavior Questionnaire and the California Q-Sort. The DBD groups exhibited significantly higher negative affect, higher surgency, and lower effortful control. Negative affect was associated with most DBD symptom domains; surgency and reactive control were associated with hyperactivity-impulsivity; and effortful control was associated with ADHD and inattention. Interactive effects between effortful control and negative affect and curvilinear associations of reactive control with DBD symptoms were evident. Temperament trait associations with DBD during preschool are similar to those seen during middle childhood. Extreme levels of temperament traits are associated with DBD as early as preschool.

  3. Communication skills training to address disruptive physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Disruptive behavior among health care providers has been linked to negative patient outcomes. High-stress areas, including the perioperative setting, are especially prone to this behavior. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an educational communication skills intervention aimed at increasing the perceived self-efficacy of perioperative nurses to address disruptive physician behavior. Seventeen perioperative nurses participated in a two-day communication skills program presented by a certified Crucial Conversations trainer. By using paired t test analysis, I found that there was a statistically significant increase in total mean self-efficacy scores immediately after the intervention and four weeks after the intervention. In addition, four weeks after the intervention, participants reported the ability to address disruptive physician behavior 71% of the time. The results of this study suggest that one intervention strategy to address the serious threat of disruptive physician behavior to patient safety is to educate nurses in communication skills.

  4. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part I: reliability of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Hill, Carri; Carter, Alice S; Danis, Barbara; Egger, Helen L; Keenan, Kate; Leventhal, Bennett L; Cicchetti, Domenic; Maskowitz, Katie; Burns, James; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2008-06-01

    To examine the reliability of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS), a new observational method for assessing preschool disruptive behavior. The DB-DOS is a structured clinic-based assessment designed to elicit clinically salient behaviors relevant to the diagnosis of disruptive behavior in preschoolers. Child behavior is assessed in three interactional contexts that vary by partner (parent versus examiner) and level of support provided. Twenty-one disruptive behaviors are coded within two domains: problems in Behavioral Regulation and problems in Anger Modulation. A total of 364 referred and nonreferred preschoolers participated: interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on a primary sample (n = 335) and test-retest reliability was assessed in a separate sample (n = 29). The DB-DOS demonstrated good interrater and test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the DB-DOS multidomain model of disruptive behavior. The DB-DOS is a reliable observational tool for clinic-based assessment of preschool disruptive behavior. This standardized assessment method holds promise for advancing developmentally sensitive characterization of preschool psychopathology.

  5. Girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A J; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-07-01

    It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males, later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. This study used nine waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semiparametric group-based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A. J.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; Doreleijers, Theo A.H.; Loeber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. Methods The current study used 9 waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semi-parametric group based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, PTSD, substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Results Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Conclusion Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. PMID:25302849

  7. Concurrent attenuated reactivity of alpha-amylase and cortisol is related to disruptive behavior in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries-Bouw, Marjan; Jansen, Lucres; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo; van de Ven, Peter; Popma, Arne

    2012-06-01

    Attenuated reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase has been proposed as a specific sympathetic marker of disruptive behavior in juveniles and may have additional value to studying other autonomic parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Investigating the interrelationships between neurobiological parameters in relation to juvenile disruptive behavior may enhance insight into the complex mechanisms at play. We investigated salivary alpha-amylase, cortisol, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) in response to a standardized public speaking task, and examined interactions between these parameters in relation to disruptive behavior. Participants were 48 delinquent male adolescents (mean age 18.4 years, SD 0.9), with and without a disruptive behavior disorder (resp. DP+, DP-) and 16 matched normal controls (NC). A structured psychiatric interview as well as the Youth Self Report and Child Behavior Checklist were administered to assess disruptive behavior. Alpha-amylase and cortisol reactivity, but not HR or HRV, showed significant inverse associations with dimensional measures of disruptive behavior. Moreover, both cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity were significantly lower in the DP+ group as compared to the NC group. The mentioned relationships remained present when nicotine use was entered as a covariate. Combining alpha-amylase and cortisol in one model explained a larger part of the variance of disruptive behavior than either single parameter. There were no interactions between alpha-amylase and cortisol or HRV in relation to disruptive behavior. Attenuated alpha-amylase responsivity to stress is a correlate of disruptive behavior in late-adolescent males. Although nicotine use explains a considerable part of the variance of disruptive behavior, both alpha-amylase and cortisol are related to disruptive behavior, over and above the effect of nicotine use. Combining alpha-amylase and cortisol improved insight into neurobiological

  8. Classwide Intervention to Manage Disruptive Behavior in the Kindergarten Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schneider, Dana L.; Rezzetano, Kristin M.; Prodan, Tana; Tankersley, Melody

    2010-01-01

    The authors present an investigation of a classwide intervention to reduce disruptive behavior in a kindergarten classroom. Participants included children in 3 kindergarten classrooms and their teachers in an at-risk school district in Northeast Ohio. On the basis of student behaviors and teacher goals, the authors chose the Good Behavior Game…

  9. Randomizing Multiple Contingency Components to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors and Increase Student Engagement in an Urban Second-Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKissick, Chele; Hawkins, Renee O.; Lentz, Francis E.; Hailley, Jennifer; McGuire, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors displayed in the classroom interfere with learning by taking time away from academic instruction. This study investigated the effects of randomizing components within an interdependent group contingency for group disruptive behavior and engagement levels of 26 students in a second-grade classroom in an urban Midwestern school.…

  10. Double Jeopardy: Child and School Characteristics That Predict Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in First Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Thompson, Celine; Powers, C J

    2008-01-01

    High rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior exhibited by children during their initial years of elementary school increase their risk for significant behavioral adjustment problems with teachers and peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique and combined contributions of child vulnerabilities and school context to the development of aggressive-disruptive student behavior during first grade. Parent ratings and child interviews assessed three child characteristics associated with risk for the development of aggressive behavior problems in elementary school (aggressive-disruptive behaviors at home, attention problems, and social cognitions) in a sample of 755 first-grade children in four demographically diverse American communities. Two school characteristics associated with student aggressive-disruptive behavior problems (low-quality classroom context, school poverty levels) were also assessed. Linear and multilevel analyses showed that both child and school characteristics made independent and cumulative contributions to the development of student aggressive-disruptive behavior at school. Although rates of student aggressive-disruptive behavior varied by gender and race, the predictive model generalized across all groups of children in the study.

  11. Development and validation of the Johns Hopkins Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Deborah; Nyberg, Dorothy; Walrath, Jo M; Kim, Miyong T

    2015-01-01

    Although the negative impact of disruptive clinician behavior on quality health care delivery has gained attention recently, little systematic effort to address this issue has been reported. To facilitate empirical research to reduce disruptive clinician behaviors, an assessment tool (Johns Hopkins Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey [JH-DCBS]) with 5 discrete subscales was developed using a 2-step design. First a pool of items was generated from focus group studies and the literature, and then a psychometric evaluation of the survey was conducted with a sample of clinicians (N = 1198) practicing in a large urban academic medical center. The results indicated that the tool was reliable (Cronbach α = .79-.91), showed high content validity (Content Validity Index = .97), and had significantly high correlations with theoretically selected variables. The study team concluded that the JH-DCBS provides a valid empirical assessment of disruptive behavior. Assessment results may be used to design strategies to improve the health and safety of practice environments.

  12. A comparison of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior to reduce disruptive behavior in a preschool classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Maki, Amber; Barenz, Rebecca; Jurgens, Mandy; Sailer, Angela; Haugen, Meredith; Kopp, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the disruptive behaviors of 25 children in a preschool classroom. Using an alternating treatments design, disruptive behavior was reduced when the participants earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior (DRO) or lost tokens for the occurrence of disruptive behavior (response cost). Initially, DRO was more successful in reducing the number of disruptive behaviors; however, over time, response cost proved to be more effective.

  13. Development of Survey Scales for Measuring Exposure and Behavioral Responses to Disruptive Intraoperative Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafranca, Alexander; Hamlin, Colin; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Robinson, Sandra; Jacobsohn, Eric

    2017-09-10

    Disruptive intraoperative behavior has detrimental effects to clinicians, institutions, and patients. How clinicians respond to this behavior can either exacerbate or attenuate its effects. Previous investigations of disruptive behavior have used survey scales with significant limitations. The study objective was to develop appropriate scales to measure exposure and responses to disruptive behavior. We obtained ethics approval. The scales were developed in a sequence of steps. They were pretested using expert reviews, computational linguistic analysis, and cognitive interviews. The scales were then piloted on Canadian operating room clinicians. Factor analysis was applied to half of the data set for question reduction and grouping. Item response analysis and theoretical reviews ensured that important questions were not eliminated. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach α. Model fit was examined on the second half of the data set using confirmatory factor analysis. Content validity of the final scales was re-evaluated. Consistency between observed relationships and theoretical predictions was assessed. Temporal stability was evaluated on a subsample of 38 respondents. A total of 1433 and 746 clinicians completed the exposure and response scales, respectively. Content validity indices were excellent (exposure = 0.96, responses = 1.0). Internal consistency was good (exposure = 0.93, responses = 0.87). Correlations between the exposure scale and secondary measures were consistent with expectations based on theory. Temporal stability was acceptable (exposure = 0.77, responses = 0.73). We have developed scales measuring exposure and responses to disruptive behavior. They generate valid and reliable scores when surveying operating room clinicians, and they overcome the limitations of previous tools. These survey scales are freely available.

  14. Managing Student Behavior during Large Group Guidance: What Works Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Participants provided information pertaining to managing non-task-related behavior of students during large group guidance lessons. In particular, school counselors were asked often how often they provide large group guidance, the frequency of which students exhibit off-task and/or disruptive behavior during guidance lessons, and techniques they…

  15. Sentinel events, disruptive behavior, and medical staff codes of conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiker, Michelle

    2009-09-01

    Regardless of physician concerns, hospitals and other organizations accredited by the Joint Commission are required to comply with the new leadership standard and define acceptable, disruptive, and inappropriate behaviors in a code of conduct. The new standard also requires them to implement a process for managing disruptive and inappropriate behaviors. Rules and standards can be very effective ways to promote safety and quality, but at the same time may be subject to abuse if not properly monitored. As a result, physicians should continue to monitor how hospitals have implemented the new leadership standard and raise concerns about any vague definitions, encroachment on physician rights, and misuse of the code of conduct.

  16. A comparison of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior to reduce disruptive behavior in a preschool classroom.

    OpenAIRE

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Maki, Amber; Barenz, Rebecca; Jurgens, Mandy; Sailer, Angela; Haugen, Meredith; Kopp, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the disruptive behaviors of 25 children in a preschool classroom. Using an alternating treatments design, disruptive behavior was reduced when the participants earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior (DRO) or lost tokens for the occurrence of disruptive behavior (response cost). Initially, DRO was more successful in reducing the number of disruptive behavi...

  17. Profiles of Disruptive Behavior across Early Childhood: Contributions of Frustration Reactivity, Physiological Regulation, and Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Kathryn A.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.

    2008-01-01

    Disruptive behavior, including aggression, defiance, and temper tantrums, typically peaks in early toddlerhood and decreases by school entry; however, some children do not show this normative decline. The current study examined disruptive behavior in 318 boys and girls at 2, 4, and 5 years of age and frustration reactivity, physiological…

  18. Identifying Unbiased Items for Screening Preschoolers for Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studts, Christina R; Polaha, Jodi; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2016-10-25

    OBJECTIVE : Efficient identification and referral to behavioral services are crucial in addressing early-onset disruptive behavior problems. Existing screening instruments for preschoolers are not ideal for pediatric primary care settings serving diverse populations. Eighteen candidate items for a new brief screening instrument were examined to identify those exhibiting measurement bias (i.e., differential item functioning, DIF) by child characteristics. METHOD : Parents/guardians of preschool-aged children (N = 900) from four primary care settings completed two full-length behavioral rating scales. Items measuring disruptive behavior problems were tested for DIF by child race, sex, and socioeconomic status using two approaches: item response theory-based likelihood ratio tests and ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS : Of 18 items, eight were identified with statistically significant DIF by at least one method. CONCLUSIONS : The bias observed in 8 of 18 items made them undesirable for screening diverse populations of children. These items were excluded from the new brief screening tool.

  19. Disruptive behaviors and early sexual intercourse: The GAZEL Youth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galéra, Cédric; Messiah, Antoine; Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Encrenaz, Gaelle; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Michel, Gregory; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Fombonne, Eric

    2010-05-30

    Sexual health-risk behaviors in disruptive children are poorly understood. In a longitudinal population-based sample, event-time analyses showed that subjects with high levels of conduct disorder symptoms, particularly in combination with simultaneously high levels of hyperactivity-inattention symptoms, exhibited the highest risk for earlier sexual activity compared to controls, suggesting the need for prevention.

  20. Early family regularity protects against later disruptive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rijlaarsdam (Jolien); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.P. Ringoot (Ank); Ivanova, M.Y. (Masha Y.); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); S.J. Roza (Sabine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractInfants’ temperamental anger or frustration reactions are highly stable, but are also influenced by maturation and experience. It is yet unclear why some infants high in anger or frustration reactions develop disruptive behavior problems whereas others do not. We examined family regulari

  1. School Counselors Serving Students with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    School counselors are in a prime position to collaborate with school and community stakeholders to both prevent and respond to the challenges experienced and exhibited by students with one or more disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). In this article, the DBDs discussed include conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive…

  2. Disruptive Student Behavior, Perceived Self-Efficacy, and Teacher Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Andre; Tomic, Welko

    This study tested a model in which perceived self-efficacy in classroom management explained the influence of student disruptive behavior on teacher burnout. Dutch secondary teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Self-Efficacy Scale for Classroom Management and Discipline, and Order and Organization subscale of the Classroom Environment…

  3. The Learning Killer: Disruptive Student Behavior in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Alan

    2005-01-01

    A recent survey examining student learning in the college classroom found disruptive student behavior to be a major learning inhibitor. Compounding this is the realization that most college faculty are ill prepared to handle this problem. This article discusses the results of the survey as well as identifies the various types of disruptive…

  4. A Comparison of Response Cost and Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Maki, Amber; Barenz, Rebecca; Jurgens, Mandy; Sailer, Angela; Haugen, Meredith; Kopp, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the disruptive behaviors of 25 children in a preschool classroom. Using an alternating treatments design, disruptive behavior was reduced when the participants earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior (DRO) or…

  5. Group selection in behavioral evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2017-09-09

    How may patterns of behavior change over an organism's lifetime? The answer is that they evolve (behavioral evolution) as species evolve over generations (biological evolution). In biological evolution, under certain conditions, groups of cooperative organisms would be selected over groups of non-cooperative organisms, even when cooperation imposes a cost to individuals. Analogously, in behavioral evolution, patterns of acts may be selected even when each individual act in the pattern is costly. Although there is considerable debate among biologists whether the conditions for group selection are met in biological evolution, it is argued here that they are met in behavioral evolution (as well as in cultural evolution). The article shows how selection of patterns can explain the learning of self-control and altruism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Advancing a multidimensional, developmental spectrum approach to preschool disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Choi, Seung W; Nichols, Sara R; Kestler, Jacqueline; Burns, James L; Carter, Alice S; Henry, David

    2014-01-01

    Dimensional approaches are gaining scientific traction. However, their potential for elucidating developmental aspects of psychopathology has not been fully realized. The goal of this article is to apply a multidimensional, developmental framework to model the normal-abnormal spectrum of preschool disruptive behavior. The Multidimensional Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), a novel measure, was used to model dimensional severity across developmental parameters theorized to distinguish the normative misbehavior of early childhood from clinically salient disruptive behavior. The 4 MAP-DB dimensions are Temper Loss, Noncompliance, Aggression, and Low Concern for Others. Parents of a diverse sample of 1,488 preschoolers completed the MAP-DB. Multidimensional item response theory (IRT) was used for dimensional modeling. The 4-dimensional, developmentally informed model demonstrated excellent fit. Its factor loadings did not differ across demographic subgroups. All dimensions provided good coverage of the abnormal end of the severity continuum, but only Temper Loss and Noncompliance provided good coverage of milder, normatively occurring behaviors. The developmental expectability and quality of behaviors distinguished normative from atypical behaviors. The point at which frequency of behaviors was atypical varied based on dimensional location for Temper Loss, Noncompliance, and Aggression. The MAP-DB provides an innovative method for operationalizing developmentally specified, dimensional phenotypes in early childhood. Establishing the validity of these dimensional phenotypes in relation to clinical outcomes, neurocognitive substrates, and etiologic pathways will be a crucial test of their clinical utility. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An analysis and reduction of disruptive behavior on school buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, B F; Bailey, J S; Barber, F

    1981-01-01

    Thousands of children are injured or killed each year in school bus accidents. A significant number of these tragic incidents is precipitated by disruptive child behavior that distracts the drivers from their difficult task. Two experiments were conducted which addressed this problem. For both experiments an automated sound recording device (referred to as a Noise Guard) selectively responsive to frequencies above 500 Hz (i.e., unresponsive to bus drone) recorded both the duration and frequency of noise outbursts above a tolerable threshold. Additionally, an observer made in situ measurements of other disruptions including roughhousing and getting-out-of-seat. In the first experiment, following baseline measurements of these behaviors, middle-school students received feedback for noise outbursts. That is, when "Noise Guard" was activated, it in turn operated one of several lights on a panel visible to all passengers. Each day students were allowed to listen to high-appeal taped music while riding the bus and to participate in a raffle for prizes, provided the number of outbursts on the preceding day remained below a specified criterion indicated on the light panel. This intervention resulted in drastic reductions of noise outbursts with a concomitant reduction in other disruptive behaviors. Comparable results were obtained in the second experiment which eliminated the raffle from the intervention.

  8. Use of a Behavioral Graphic Organizer to Reduce Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Flower, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Students with challenging behavior spend substantial amounts of time away from instruction due to behavioral problems. Time away from instruction reduces their opportunities for learning, which are critical as these students typically demonstrate academic performance below their same-age peers. After removal from instruction due to behavioral…

  9. Disruptive behavior in Down syndrome children: a cross-sectional comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Sohier; El-Hadidy, Mohamed; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Amdel-Hady, Dina; Wahba, Yahya; Al-Haggar, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with intellectual disability, and patients with DS show significant psychopathology. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of disruptive behavior in DS patients compared to their siblings, and to find any association between the disruptive behavior and the degree of intelligence. This is a cross-sectional comparative study done in Mansoura University Children's Hospital during the period March 1, 2012-February 28, 2013. In this study, 100 cases of DS and an equal number of their brothers/sisters were enrolled in the study. The Arabic version of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was used for assessing social and mental intelligence quotient (IQ). The Arabic version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children (MINI-KID) and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) rating scale were used for assessing disruptive behavior disorders. Both social and mental IQs were significantly higher in non-DS than in DS cases. The prevalence of different variants of attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD)-impulsive, inattentive, and combined types-was significantly lower in non-DS than in DS cases; however, there was no statistical difference between both groups as regards oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder (CD). Also among DS cases, impulsive and combined types varied significantly with the degree of their IQ. ADHD was more common among DS patients with a special impact of IQ on the type of psychiatric illness. We recommend psychiatric assessment for DS patients as a part of multidisciplinary management.

  10. The Role of Teacher Behavior Management in the Development of Disruptive Behaviors: An Intervention Study with the Good Behavior Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and…

  11. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children’s Disruptive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children’s behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children’s behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they related to parent-teacher rating discrepancies of disruptive behavior in a sample of 327 preschoolers. Observed disruptive behavior was assessed with a la...

  12. Differential Reinforcement of Communicative Behaviors (DRC): An Intervention for the Disruptive Behaviors of Developmentally Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Carr, Edward G.

    A study, involving four developmentally disabled children who exhibited a variety of disruptive behaviors such as self-injury and tantrums, was conducted to assess the influence of task demands and adult attention on children's behaviors. The three experimental conditions were the "EASY 100" which consisted of an easy task on which children could…

  13. The role of teacher behavior management in the development of disruptive behaviors: an intervention study with the good behavior game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A C; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-08-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and children's on-task and off-task classroom behavior and peer reports of hyperactive and oppositional behavior were available. Results showed that the reduced use of negative remarks of intervention teachers predicted children's increase in on-task behavior and decrease in talking-out behavior. These improved children's classroom behaviors in turn mediated the impact of the intervention on the development of hyperactive and oppositional behavior over the studied period. These results were similar for girls and boys. The results underscore the role of teachers' classroom management strategies in improving children's classroom behavior, which, in turn is an important component in the reduction of disruptive behavior development.

  14. Disruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray......This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray...

  15. Disruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray......This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray...

  16. Ending disruptive behavior: staff nurse recommendations to nurse educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Kathleen M; Hutcheson, Jane B; Peden, Ann R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to identify educational strategies that can prepare new graduates to manage disruptive behavior (DB) in the workplace. DB is any inappropriate behavior, confrontation, or conflict - ranging from verbal abuse to sexual harassment - that harms or intimidates others to the extent that quality of care or patient safety could be compromised. Individual interviews were conducted with nine staff nurses currently in practice in acute care settings in the United States. Staff nurses recommended educational strategies that focused on communication skills for professional practice. These included learning how to communicate with hostile individuals, and giving and receiving constructive criticism. Descriptions that participants provided about their work culture were an unexpected finding that has relevance for nurse educators as they prepare students for transition to practice Nurses described lack of management support and intervention for DB situations, personality clashes with coworkers, and devaluation of nursing work as affecting professional practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preventing disruptive behavior in early elementary schoolchildren: impact of a universal classroom-based preventive intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.C. van Lier (Pol)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractKnowledge about the development of children with disruptive behaviors, leading to disruptive disorders and related poor outcomes, guides prevention research in the development and evaluation of preventive interventions. The overview of effective interventions in this chapter showed that

  18. Early family regularity protects against later disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Tiemeier, Henning; Ringoot, Ank P; Ivanova, Masha Y; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Roza, Sabine J

    2016-07-01

    Infants' temperamental anger or frustration reactions are highly stable, but are also influenced by maturation and experience. It is yet unclear why some infants high in anger or frustration reactions develop disruptive behavior problems whereas others do not. We examined family regularity, conceptualized as the consistency of mealtime and bedtime routines, as a protective factor against the development of oppositional and aggressive behavior. This study used prospectively collected data from 3136 families participating in the Generation R Study. Infant anger or frustration reactions and family regularity were reported by mothers when children were ages 6 months and 2-4 years, respectively. Multiple informants (parents, teachers, and children) and methods (questionnaire and interview) were used in the assessment of children's oppositional and aggressive behavior at age 6. Higher levels of family regularity were associated with lower levels of child aggression independent of temperamental anger or frustration reactions (β = -0.05, p = 0.003). The association between child oppositional behavior and temperamental anger or frustration reactions was moderated by family regularity and child gender (β = 0.11, p = 0.046): family regularity reduced the risk for oppositional behavior among those boys who showed anger or frustration reactions in infancy. In conclusion, family regularity reduced the risk for child aggression and showed a gender-specific protective effect against child oppositional behavior associated with anger or frustration reactions. Families that ensured regularity of mealtime and bedtime routines buffered their infant sons high in anger or frustration reactions from developing oppositional behavior.

  19. Evidence-based interventions for adolescents with disruptive behaviors in school-based settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Tarah M; Ebert, Jon S; Gracey, Kathy A; Chapman, Gabrielle L; Epstein, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Disruptive behaviors in the school setting can threaten the maintenance of optimal learning environments in schools. Challenging behaviors, such as defiance, hostility, and aggression, often define disruptive classroom behaviors. This article presents a clinical review of existing literature on interventions for adolescent disruptive behavior problems in school-based settings and in outpatient mental health settings and makes recommendations around working with adolescents with disruptive behaviors in school-based settings. Many types of interventions are effective; effective implementation is key to good results.

  20. Effects of parent management training programs on disruptive behavior for children with a developmental disability: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotarczak, Laura; Lee, Gloria K

    2015-03-01

    This meta-analysis determined the effects of parent management training (PMT) on disruptive behaviors in children with a developmental disability. Parent management training programs, based on behavioral theories of psychology, are commonly used in addressing disruptive behavior in children. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria with a total of 540 participants, with 275 in experimental groups and 265 in control groups. The effect of PMT on the disruptive behavior in children with a developmental disability was significant (g=0.39). The moderator effects of type of PMT, delivery type and setting, and administrator level of education were also significant. The moderator effects of child age, and session number and duration were not significant in this meta-analysis.

  1. Longitudinal prediction of disruptive behavior disorders in adolescent males from multiple risk domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Goodlett, Benjamin D; Shaw, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders.

  2. Empathy dysfunction in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wied, Minet; Gispen-de Wied, Christine; van Boxtel, Anton

    2010-01-10

    In this essay, we focus on empathy in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), based on the assumption that lack of empathy is a risk factor for the development of DBD. We reflect on the heterogeneity of DBD, the complex nature of the empathy construct, discuss empathy's role in aggression, and review recent findings from studies on empathic skills in children and adolescents with DBD. Research suggests that the mechanisms underlying empathy problems may be different for DBD subtypes. Individuals with psychopathic tendencies may show a selective impairment in empathy with sadness and fear due to abnormalities in neural circuits connected with the amygdala. Individuals without these tendencies may show little empathy for a variety of reasons, such as hostile attributions, anxiety and/or poor regulatory skills. Understanding more about the nature and causes of empathy dysfunction in DBD could aid in identifying subtypes and help to improve prevention and intervention programs. Suggestions for future research are made.

  3. Family Involvement for Children with Disruptive Behaviors: The Role of Parenting Stress and Motivational Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semke, Carrie A.; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Kwon, Kyongboon; Sheridan, Susan M.; Woods, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Children with disruptive behaviors are at risk for adverse outcomes. Family involvement is a significant predictor of positive child behavior outcomes; however, little research has investigated parent psychological variables that influence family involvement for children with disruptive behaviors. This study investigated the role of parental…

  4. Improving Classroom Engagement among High School Students with Disruptive Behavior: Evaluation of the Class Pass Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tai A.; Cook, Clayton R.; Dart, Evan H.; Socie, Diana G.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Long, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Off-task and disruptive classroom behaviors have a negative impact on the learning environment and present a unique challenge for teachers to address. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Class Pass Intervention (CPI) as a behavior management strategy for secondary students with disruptive classroom behavior. The CPI consists of providing…

  5. The use of noncontingent escape to reduce disruptive behaviors in children with speech delays.

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, C. L.; Holmes, P A

    1998-01-01

    Noncontingent escape (NCE) was used to reduce disruptive behavior in 3 children during regularly scheduled speech therapy sessions. Results showed rapid decreases in disruptive behavior and accompanying increases in compliance across children. Findings suggest that speech therapists with little expertise in behavior analysis can effectively implement NCE.

  6. Disruption of persistent nociceptive behavior in rats with learning impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Ma

    Full Text Available Despite the subjective nature of pain experience with cognitive and affective dimensions, preclinical pain research has largely focused on its sensory dimension. Here, we examined the relationship between learning/memory and nociceptive behavior in rats with combined learning impairment and persistent nociception. Learning impairment was induced by bilateral hippocampal injection of a mixed Aβ solution, whereas persistent nociception produced in these rats by complete Freund's adjuvant-induced ankle inflammation. Those rats with learning impairment showed a diminished development of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia and a shorter time course of nociceptive behavior without alteration of their baseline nociceptive threshold. In rats with pre-established hyperalgesia and allodynia due to ankle inflammation, bilateral intra-hippocampal injection of cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor promoted the earlier recovery of nociceptive behavior. Moreover, expression of Aβ, NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and protein kinase Cγ was upregulated, whereas the choline acetyl transferase expression was downregulated, in the hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, and/or spinal cord of rats with combined learning impairment and persistent nociception. The data indicate that learning impairment could disrupt the response to a state of persistent nociception, suggesting an important role for cognitive maladaptation in the mechanisms of chronic pain. These results also suggest that a preclinical model of combined learning impairment and persistent nociception may be useful to explore the brain mechanisms underlying the transition from acute to chronic pain.

  7. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of three aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school – peer-dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in first and third grade, and peer relations were assessed during second grade. Results indicate...

  8. Can Institutionalized Adolescent Females With a Substantiated History of Sexual Abuse Benefit From Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Targeting Disruptive and Delinquent Behaviors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, E.; Lanctôt, N.; Lemieux, A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent adolescent females in residential care with a substantiated history of sexual abuse can benefit from a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) targeting disruptive and delinquent behaviors. In total, 104 adolescent females in the treatment group and 78

  9. Can Institutionalized Adolescent Females With a Substantiated History of Sexual Abuse Benefit From Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Targeting Disruptive and Delinquent Behaviors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, E.; Lanctôt, N.; Lemieux, A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent adolescent females in residential care with a substantiated history of sexual abuse can benefit from a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) targeting disruptive and delinquent behaviors. In total, 104 adolescent females in the treatment group and 78 adolesce

  10. Teaching Behavioral Awareness in Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a model for behavioral change which synthesizes behavioral awareness with empirically identified target behaviors. Stages of the model are presented and cautions for implementation are given. Suggests the model can help students gain an understanding of the consequences of behavioral problems. (BL)

  11. An Examination of the Sibling Training Hypothesis for Disruptive Behavior in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ella; Plamondon, André; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-02-13

    Sibling training for disruptive behavior (one sibling teaching another disruptive behavior) is examined during early childhood. We used a conservative, recently developed, statistical model to identify sibling training. Sibling training was operationalized as the cross-lagged association between earlier child behavior and later sibling behavior, and differentiated from other reasons that contribute to sibling similarity. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked 916 children (Mage  = 3.46, SD = 2.23) in 397 families using multi-informant data. Evidence for sibling training was found. Earlier younger siblings' disruptive behavior predicted later lower levels of older siblings' disruptive behavior. Thus, the sibling training found in early childhood was producing greater dissimilarity, rather than similarity, on disruptive behavior. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Foster Parent Intervention Engagement Moderating Child Behavior Problems and Placement Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarmo, David S; Chamberlain, Patricia; Leve, Leslie D; Price, Joe

    2009-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors conduct a within intervention group analysis to test whether caregiver engagement (e.g., participation, homework completion, openness to ideas, apparent satisfaction) in a group-based intervention moderates risk factors for foster child outcomes in a state-supported randomized trial of caregiver parent training. METHODS: The intervention is delivered in 16 weekly sessions by trained leaders. Outcomes are pre-post change in problem behaviors and negative placements. RESULTS: Analysis of 337 caregivers nested within 59 parent groups show caregiver engagement moderates number of prior placements on increases in child problem behaviors, and moderates risk of negative placement disruption for Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Variance in parent group process affects program effectiveness. Implications for practice and increasing effective engagement are discussed.

  13. Diet-Induced Obesity and Circadian Disruption of Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; Mendoza, Jorge; Garcia, Alexandra N.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior. In general, DIO may alter locomotor activity by decreasing total activity. On the other hand, DIO largely alters eating patterns, producing increased overall ingestion and number of eating bouts that can extend to the resting period. Furthermore, within the hypothalamic areas, little effect has been reported on the molecular circadian mechanism in DIO animals with ad libitum hypercaloric diets and little or no data exist so far on its effects on the reward system areas. We further discuss the possibility of an uncoupling of metabolic and reward systems in DIO and highlight a gap of circadian and metabolic research that may help to better understand the implications of obesity. PMID:28223912

  14. Digital Parent Training for Children with Disruptive Behaviors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Pawar, Aditya; Kane, John M; Correll, Christoph U

    2016-10-01

    Digital-based parent training (DPT) programs for parents of children with disruptive behaviors have been developed and tested in randomized trials. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the efficacy of these programs versus a control condition. We conducted a systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of peer-reviewed randomized studies comparing DPT targeting children with disruptive behaviors versus a control group (wait list or no treatment). Altogether, seven studies (n = 718) were meta-analyzed. Compared to the control groups, DPT resulted in significantly greater improvement in child behavior (effect size [ES] = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21-0.66, studies = 7), parent behavior (ES = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.57, studies = 6), and parental confidence (ES = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.12-0.59, studies = 4). The improvement in child behavior was moderated by age group and severity of clinical presentation, which overlapped 100%. While DPT was superior to control conditions in studies of young children (mean age disruptive behaviors (ES = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.40-0.82, studies = 4), results were nonsignificant in studies of older children (mean age >11 years) with a nonclinical range of symptoms (ES = 0.21, 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.42, studies = 3). Analyses yielded similar results of higher ESs favoring studies of young children with clinical range disruptive behaviors for parent behavior and parental confidence, but the differences were not significant. Results further suggested that in studies of younger children, interactive programs (e.g., computerized programs) were more effective in improving child behavior compared to noninteractive programs (e.g., watching video clips) (p disruptive behaviors that can save human resources.

  15. Overweight and obese status in children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Kristen K; Sharp, William G; McCracken, Courtney E; De Vinck-Baroody, Oana; Dong, Liansai; Aman, Michael G; McDougle, Christopher J; McCracken, James T; Eugene Arnold, L; Weitzman, Carol; Leventhal, John M; Vitiello, Benedetto; Scahill, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are common in pediatric populations. Children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior may be at higher risk. This study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior are more likely to be overweight or obese than matched controls. Baseline data from medication-free children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network (N = 276) were compared to 544 control children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database matched on age, sex, race, parent education, and era of data collection. The mean age of the children with autism spectrum disorder was 7.9 ± 2.6 years; 84.4% were males. In the autism spectrum disorder group, the prevalence was 42.4% for overweight and 21.4% for obesity compared to 26.1% for overweight and 12.0% for obesity among controls (p autism spectrum disorder sample, obesity was associated with minority status and lower daily living skills. These findings suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior are at increased risk for obesity and underscore the need for weight management interventions in this population.

  16. Behavioral Parenting Interventions for Child Disruptive Behaviors and Anxiety: What’s Different and What’s the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Jones, Deborah J.; Parent, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of parents in behavioral interventions with children’s disruptive and anxiety problems. The evolution of interventions for these two types of problems differs, as has the role of parents in these interventions. In contrast to the central role of parents in the conceptualization and treatment of disruptive behaviors, parents have played a more varied and less prominent role in the conceptualization and treatment of children’s anxiety. Furthermore, the literature involving parents in the treatment of children’s anxiety indicates these interventions are more efficacious than control groups but not more efficacious than intervening with the child alone. Some limited evidence emerges for parenting as a mediator in the treatment of disruptive behaviors, but not of anxiety, where the role of parenting has rarely been measured. Implications for conceptualizing the role of parents in intervention programs for youth are discussed and directions for future research are delineated (e.g., collecting long term follow-up data, examine moderators of treatment response, develop programs for comorbid diagnoses). PMID:23178234

  17. Technology-enhanced program for child disruptive behavior disorders: development and pilot randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J; Forehand, Rex; Cuellar, Jessica; Parent, Justin; Honeycutt, Amanda; Khavjou, Olga; Gonzalez, Michelle; Anton, Margaret; Newey, Greg A

    2014-01-01

    Early onset disruptive behavior disorders are overrepresented in low-income families; yet these families are less likely to engage in behavioral parent training (BPT) than other groups. This project aimed to develop and pilot test a technology-enhanced version of one evidence-based BPT program, Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC). The aim was to increase engagement of low-income families and, in turn, child behavior outcomes, with potential cost-savings associated with greater treatment efficiency. Low-income families of 3- to 8-year-old children with clinically significant disruptive behaviors were randomized to and completed standard HNC (n = 8) or Technology-Enhanced HNC (TE-HNC; n = 7). On average, caregivers were 37 years old; 87% were female, and 80% worked at least part-time. More than half (53%) of the youth were boys; the average age of the sample was 5.67 years. All families received the standard HNC program; however, TE-HNC also included the following smartphone enhancements: (a) skills video series, (b) brief daily surveys, (c) text message reminders, (d) video recording home practice, and (e) midweek video calls. TE-HNC yielded larger effect sizes than HNC for all engagement outcomes. Both groups yielded clinically significant improvements in disruptive behavior; however, findings suggest that the greater program engagement associated with TE-HNC boosted child treatment outcome. Further evidence for the boost afforded by the technology is revealed in family responses to postassessment interviews. Finally, cost analysis suggests that TE-HNC families also required fewer sessions than HNC families to complete the program, an efficiency that did not compromise family satisfaction. TE-HNC shows promise as an innovative approach to engaging low-income families in BPT with potential cost-savings and, therefore, merits further investigation on a larger scale.

  18. Cortisol reactivity in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behavior problems: the impact of callous unemotional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Kroeger, Anne; Weyers, Peter; Grasmann, Doerte; Horschinek, Mira; Freitag, Christine; Clement, Hans-Willi

    2011-05-15

    There is a body of literature demonstrating an association between altered hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity and aggressive behavior. Aggressive and disruptive behavior also is highly prevalent in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Findings on HPA-axis reactivity in ADHD, however, are rather inconsistent. Specific temperamental risk factors previously were associated with a specific subtype of severe disruptive behavior. These traits might also be characterized by a distinct neurobiological profile across ADHD and disruptive behavior disorders. In this study we focus on psychopathic traits, notably callous unemotional (CU) traits. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether two groups of ADHD patients with high or low CU traits differed in cortisol reactivity. Subjects were 36 boys with ADHD and disruptive behavior symptoms aged 8 to 14 years. Salivary cortisol probes were taken before and repeatedly after an experimental standardized stress test. Patients scoring high on CU traits showed a blunted HPA axis reactivity to the experimentally induced stress. Results underscore the need to consider specific personality traits in investigating neurobiological correlates in ADHD with disruptive behavior problems.

  19. A Group Contingency Program to Improve the Behavior of Elementary School Students in a Cafeteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Karmazin, Karen; Kreher, Joanne; Panahon, Carlos J.; Carlson, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Studies of behavior modification interventions for disruptive behavior in schools have generally focused on classroom behavior with less research directed toward child behavior in other school settings (e.g., cafeterias). The present report documents the effect of a group contingency intervention with a random reward component, targeting…

  20. A Group Contingency Program to Improve the Behavior of Elementary School Students in a Cafeteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Karmazin, Karen; Kreher, Joanne; Panahon, Carlos J.; Carlson, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Studies of behavior modification interventions for disruptive behavior in schools have generally focused on classroom behavior with less research directed toward child behavior in other school settings (e.g., cafeterias). The present report documents the effect of a group contingency intervention with a random reward component, targeting…

  1. Girls' Disruptive Behavior and its Relationship to Family Functioning: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneman, Leoniek M; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison E; Koot, Hans M

    2009-06-01

    Although a number of reviews of gender differences in disruptive behavior and parental socialization exist, we extend this literature by addressing the question of differential development among girls and by placing both disruptive behavior and parenting behavior in a developmental framework. Clarifying the heterogeneity of development in girls is important for developing and optimizing gender-specific prevention and treatment programs. In the current review, we describe the unique aspects of the development of disruptive behavior in girls and explore how the gender-specific development of disruptive behavior can be explained by family linked risk and protective processes. Based on this review, we formulate a gender-specific reciprocal model of the influence of social factors on the development of disruptive behavior in girls in order to steer further research and better inform prevention and treatment programs.

  2. Perspective: delivering effective and engaging continuing medical education on physicians' disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Kimberly; Lord, Julie; Murray, Suzanne

    2011-05-01

    Education about physicians' disruptive behavior is relevant for practicing physicians, who must demonstrate competence in professionalism for maintenance of certification. In addition, physicians need to know about newer regulatory standards that define disruptive behavior and mandated processes for dealing with such behavior, as health care organizations are now charged with having formal policies addressing this issue. There is a growing literature about dealing with disruptive behavior, but it has not addressed education, including continuing medical education (CME), aimed at reducing or preventing disruptive behavior. The authors suggest specific strategies for such CME educational programs, including knowing the audience before the presentation, avoiding potential pitfalls, defusing defensiveness, and increasing audience "buy-in." They present two viewpoints from which to approach the topic of disruptive behavior, depending on the audience: "rekindling of values" and "risk reduction." The authors also recommend interactive teaching methods designed to maximize audience participation and foster self-awareness and reflection.

  3. The Impact of Foster Parent Training on Parenting Skills and Child Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David T; Niec, Larissa N; Schoonover, Ciera E

    2017-02-01

    Children in foster care are at risk for behavioral and emotional problems that require higher levels of care than other children. To meet these needs and reduce placement disruptions, foster parents require effective parenting skills. Although a number of training models have been evaluated, the findings on the efficacy of foster parent training (FPT) are mixed. We conducted a meta-analysis of the FPT outcome research from 1984 to 2014 to develop a clearer understanding of the impact of such trainings. Fifteen samples (16 studies) were identified that investigated the impact of FPT on self-reported parenting skills and knowledge and child problem behaviors. The mean effect size for child disruptive behavior using a random effects model was small but significant at -.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [-.39, -.01], Z = 2.05, p < .05), suggesting that, on average, foster parents who were involved in the trainings reported fewer child behavior problems than parents who did not receive the training. The mean effect size for parenting was moderate and significant at .52 (95% CI = [.22, .82], Z = 3.38, p < .05), indicating that, on average, parents in the treatment groups reported higher levels of skills and knowledge following training than did those in the control group. While these results are promising, more research is necessary to investigate the inconsistency in effect sizes across studies.

  4. Effects of tootling on classwide disruptive and appropriate behavior of upper-elementary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Abigail M; Tingstrom, Daniel H; Sterling, Heather E; Dufrene, Brad A; Lynne, Shauna

    2015-05-01

    The current study assessed the effects of a positive peer reporting procedure known as Tootling on classwide disruptive as well as appropriate behavior with fourth- and fifth-grade students and their teachers in two regular education classrooms. Tootling is a technique that teaches students to recognize and report peers' prosocial behavior rather than inappropriate behavior (i.e., as in tattling), and is also a variation on the expression, "tooting your own horn." Tootling combined with an interdependent group contingency and publicly posted feedback were assessed using an ABAB withdrawal design with a multiple baseline element across classrooms. Results demonstrated decreases in classwide disruptive behavior as well as increases in appropriate behavior compared with baseline and withdrawal phases across both classrooms, with results maintained at follow-up. Tootling was also rated highly acceptable by both teachers. Effect size calculations reflected moderate to strong effects across all comparisons. Limitations of the present study, directions for future research, and implications for practice are discussed.

  5. Fear conditioning, persistence of disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits: an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, M.D.; Popma, A.; van den Brink, W.; Pape, L.E.; Kindt, M.; van Domburgh, L.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Children diagnosed with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Deficient fear conditioning may be a key mechanism underlying persistence, and has been associated with altered regional brain

  6. Behavioral Parent Training Effect on Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Varnado

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and other disorders affecting central nervous system functioning leading to disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents seldom include an adjunctive psychosocial intervention. Objective: The purpose of this quality improvement study was to implement Behavioral Parent Training (BPT in an outpatient private practice setting to improve outcomes in home, school, and social settings for children and adolescents. Method: Parent(s/guardian(s of ten (n=10 children ages seven through 12. The study utilized the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale, Home Situations Questionnaire, and Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale – Parent Form as well as Teacher Rating Scale and School Questionnaires for measurement of behaviours prior to BPT. The standardized ADHD parent and teacher rating scales along with the questionnaires for both were again completed at the conclusion of the BPT sessions for comparison. Results: Findings indicated significant improvements in disruptive behaviour. Conclusion: Psychosocial interventions such as BPT can be a powerful adjunct to pharmacotherapy in ADHD and behavior disorders for this population. Providing such intervention in a routine practice setting offers the potential for improved outcomes in the child/adolescent’s home, school, and social setting.

  7. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunima; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan; Hartman, Catharina A

    2014-02-01

    The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing depression than children without ADHD; (2) the pathway from ADHD to depression is mediated (partly) through anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders; and (3) mediation through anxiety is more prevalent in girls, and mediation through disruptive behavior disorders is more prevalent in boys. From October 2008 to September 2010, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess ADHD, major depressive episodes, anxiety disorders, and disruptive behavior disorders in 1,584 participants from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohort. Cox regression was used to model the effects of ADHD, anxiety, and disruptive behaviors on depression. Risk of and pathways to depression were studied in both children with ADHD and children with subthreshold ADHD. Comorbid depression was present in 36% of children with a diagnosis of ADHD, 24% of children with subthreshold ADHD, and 14% of children with no ADHD. Anxiety and disruptive behaviors mediated 32% of depression in ADHD. Pathways through anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders were independent of gender. Disruptive behavior disorder was a stronger mediator than anxiety for both genders (all P disruptive behavior disorders are present in a child with ADHD. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Child Disruptive Behavior and Parenting Efficacy: A Comparison of the Effects of Two Models of Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin; Rodriguez, Eileen; Cappella, Elise; Morris, Jordan; McClowry, Sandee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS), a temperament-based preventive intervention, in reducing the disruptive behavior problems of young children from low-income, urban families. Results indicate that children enrolled in INSIGHTS evidenced a decrease in disruptive behavior problems…

  9. A Pilot Study of Parent Training in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearss, Karen; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Smith, Tristram; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Guidance on effective interventions for disruptive behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited. We present feasibility and initial efficacy data on a structured parent training program for 16 children (ages 3-6) with ASD and disruptive behavior. The 6-month intervention included 11 Core and up to 2 Optional…

  10. "Ain't Misbehavin": Towards a Developmentally-Specified Nosology for Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing consensus that disruptive behavior disorders and syndromes (DBDs) are identifiable in preschool children. There is also concomitant recognition of the limitations of the current DBD nosology for distinguishing disruptive behavior symptoms from the normative misbehavior of early childhood. In particular, there appears to be…

  11. Utilization of Superheroes Social Skills to Reduce Disruptive and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Cavell, Hannah J.

    2016-01-01

    The current pilot study investigated the effectiveness of the Superheroes Social Skills program in decreasing disruptive and aggressive behavior of elementary-age students with high-incidence disabilities. Six students in a self-contained classroom, identified as displaying high rates of disruptive and aggressive behavior toward peers, were…

  12. HPA-axis activity as a predictor of future disruptive behaviors in young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sondeijker, Frouke E. P. L.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Tiemeier, Henning; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    Low HPA-axis activity has been proposed as a risk factor for disruptive behaviors. However longitudinal data on this topic are practically lacking. In the present study we investigated if low HPA-axis activity predicted future disruptive behaviors. We included 1,399 boys and girls from the Dutch gen

  13. Cumulative Effects of Mothers' Risk and Promotive Factors on Daughters' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043).…

  14. Friend Influence on Early Adolescent Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom: Teacher Emotional Support Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated how the level of disruptive behavior and friend influence on disruptive behavior varies across classrooms in relation to teacher emotional support. Data were collected from 48 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (N = 879 students) and included classroom observations at Wave 1 and student reports of their disruptive…

  15. The Effectiveness of Social Stories on Decreasing Disruptive Behaviors of Children with Autism: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of social stories on decreasing the disruptive behaviors of children with autism. Social stories were created for three participants, ages 7 and 9, to decrease three target disruptive behaviors, using a loud voice in class, chair tipping, and cutting in lunch line. Using a…

  16. Randomized Trial of Anger Control Training for Adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhdolsky, Denis G.; Vitulano, Lawrence A.; Carroll, Deirdre H.; McGuire, Joseph; Leckman, James F.; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    A randomized trial to examine the efficacy of anger control training for treating adolescents with Tourette's syndrome and disruptive behavior reveals that those administered with the anger control training showed a decrease in their Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale score by 52 percent as compared with a decrease of 11 percent in the treatment as…

  17. Social Goals in Urban Physical Education: Relationships with Effort and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among four distinct types of social goals, effort, and disruptive behavior in urban physical education. Social responsibility, affiliation, recognition, status goals, along with effort and disruptive behavior in physical education were reported by high school physical education students (N = 314) from…

  18. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior.…

  19. Child Disruptive Behavior and Parenting Efficacy: A Comparison of the Effects of Two Models of Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin; Rodriguez, Eileen; Cappella, Elise; Morris, Jordan; McClowry, Sandee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS), a temperament-based preventive intervention, in reducing the disruptive behavior problems of young children from low-income, urban families. Results indicate that children enrolled in INSIGHTS evidenced a decrease in disruptive behavior problems…

  20. Disrupted expected value and prediction error signaling in youths with disruptive behavior disorders during a passive avoidance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart F; Pope, Kayla; Sinclair, Stephen; Fowler, Katherine A; Brislin, Sarah J; Williams, W Craig; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, R James R

    2013-03-01

    Youths with disruptive behavior disorders, including conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, show major impairments in reinforcement-based decision making. However, the neural basis of these difficulties remains poorly understood. This partly reflects previous failures to differentiate responses during decision making and feedback processing and to take advantage of computational model-based functional MRI (fMRI). Participants were 38 community youths ages 10-18 (20 had disruptive behavior disorders, and 18 were healthy comparison youths). Model-based fMRI was used to assess the computational processes involved in decision making and feedback processing in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula, and caudate. Youths with disruptive behavior disorders showed reduced use of expected value information within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex when choosing to respond and within the anterior insula when choosing not to respond. In addition, they showed reduced responsiveness to positive prediction errors and increased responsiveness to negative prediction errors within the caudate during feedback. This study is the first to determine impairments in the use of expected value within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and insula during choice and in prediction error-signaling within the caudate during feedback in youths with disruptive behavior disorders.

  1. Disruptive behavior in the elementary school with special curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Medved, Tina

    2016-01-01

    The thesis describes disruptive behaviour issues in pupils with mild intellectual disabilities. In the theoretical part I present mild intellectual disabilities in the light of mental development, emotional and behavioural difficulties/disorders. Further on I discuss the issue of disruptive behaviour. Then I focus on disruptive behaviours in pupils with with mild intellectual disabilities. I still present mental disorder in pupils with mild intellectual disabilities. I was interested in t...

  2. Predictive validity of the MMPI-2 clinical, PSY-5, and RC scales for therapy disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Wubbo; Tiemens, Bea G; Verheul, Roel; Meerman, Anke; Egger, Jos; Hutschemaekers, Giel

    2012-11-01

    Impulsive acts, parasuicidal behavior, and other therapy disruptive incidents occur frequently in the treatment of patients with personality disorders and increase the risk that patients will drop out of treatment. This study examined the predictive validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) and Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales for therapy disruptive behavior and compared them with the original clinical scales. Using an inventory, the treatment staff recorded the therapy disruptive behavior of 104 patients with personality disorders who were receiving inpatient psychotherapy. Both the RC and the PSY-5 scales predicted several categories of therapy disruptive behavior, and both scales predicted more categories of therapy disruptive behavior than the original clinical scales. Anger outbursts were predicted especially well by a combination of two of the RC scales. The information about the MMPI-2 obtained in this study may be helpful in case formulation when initiating inpatient treatment for patients with personality disorders.

  3. Meta-Analysis of fMRI Studies of Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Analucia A; Radua, Joaquim; Rubia, Katya

    2016-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in conduct disorder and in oppositional defiant disorder have shown inconsistencies. The aim of this meta-analysis of fMRI studies in disruptive behavior disorders was to establish the most consistent brain dysfunctions and to address task- and subtype-related heterogeneity. Web-based publication databases were searched to conduct a meta-analysis of all whole-brain fMRI studies of youths with disruptive behavior disorder or conduct problems up to August 2015. Sub-meta-analyses were conducted in functional subdomains of emotion processing; in cool and hot executive functions, which refer to goal-directed higher cognitive functions with and without motivational and affective significance; and in a subgroup of youths with additional psychopathic traits. The authors performed a meta-analysis of voxel-based group differences in functional activation using the anisotropic effect-size version of seed-based d mapping. Across 24 studies, 338 youths with disruptive behavior disorder or conduct problems relative to 298 typically developing youths had consistent underactivation in the rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate and in the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral caudate. Sub-meta-analyses of fMRI studies showed that medial fronto-cingulate dysfunction was driven by hot executive function. The sub-meta-analysis of emotion processing fMRI studies showed the most consistent underactivation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and temporal pole, while cool executive functions were associated with temporal abnormalities. Youths with disruptive behavior disorder with psychopathic traits showed reduced ventromedial prefrontal-hypothalamic-limbic activation, but they also showed hyperactivation in cognitive control mediating dorsolateral prefrontal-dorsal and striatal regions. The findings show that the most consistent dysfunction in youths with disruptive behavior disorder is in the rostro-dorsomedial, fronto-cingulate, and

  4. Effects of Classwide Positive Peer "Tootling" to Reduce the Disruptive Classroom Behaviors of Elementary Students with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihak, David F.; Kirk, Emily R.; Boon, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a classwide positive peer reporting intervention known as "tootling" in conjunction with a group contingency procedure to reduce the number of disruptive behaviors in a third-grade inclusive classroom. Nineteen elementary students including four students with disabilities (i.e., specific learning…

  5. Moderators of Parent Training for Disruptive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, Luc; Smith, Tristram; Johnson, Cynthia; Bearss, Karen; Swiezy, Naomi; Aman, Michael G; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Deng, Yanhong; Dziura, James; Scahill, Lawrence

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a 6 month, randomized trial of parent training (PT) versus a parent education program (PEP) in 180 young children (158 boys, 22 girls), ages 3-7 years, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PT was superior to PEP in decreasing disruptive and noncompliant behaviors. In the current study, we assess moderators of treatment response in this trial. Thirteen clinical and demographic variables were evaluated as potential moderators of three outcome variables: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability subscale (ABC-I), Home Situations Questionnaire (HSQ), and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale (CGI-I). We used an intent-to-treat model and random effects regression. Neither IQ nor ASD severity moderated outcome on the selected outcome measures. Severity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and anxiety moderated outcomes on the ABC-I and HSQ. For instance, there was a 6.6 point difference on the ABC-I between high and low ADHD groups (p = .05) and a 5.3 point difference between high and low Anxiety groups (p = .04). Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms and household income moderated outcomes on the HSQ. None of the baseline variables moderated outcome on the CGI-I. That IQ and ASD symptom severity did not moderate outcome suggests that PT is likely to benefit a wide range of children with ASD and disruptive behavior.

  6. Neuroendocrine and behavioral implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Henry, P.; McGary, S.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies in our laboratory have focused on endocrine, neuroendocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction in the Japanese quail. These studies considered various stages in the life cycle, including embryonic development, sexual maturation, adult reproductive function, and aging. A major focus of our research has been the role of neuroendocrine systems that appear to synchronize both endocrine and behavioral responses. These studies provide the basis for our more recent research on the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproductive function in the Japanese quail. These endocrine active chemicals include pesticides, herbicides, industrial products, and plant phytoestrogens. Many of these chemicals appear to mimic vertebrate steroids, often by interacting with steroid receptors. However, most EDCs have relatively weak biological activity compared to native steroid hormones. Therefore, it becomes important to understand the mode and mechanism of action of classes of these chemicals and sensitive stages in the life history of various species. Precocial birds, such as the Japanese quail, are likely to be sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, because sexual differentiation occurs during this period. Accordingly, adult quail may be less impacted by EDC exposure. Because there are a great many data available on normal development and reproductive function in this species, the Japanese quail provides an excellent model for examining the effects of EDCs. Thus, we have begun studies using a Japanese quail model system to study the effects of EDCs on reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses. In this review, we have two goals: first, to provide a summary of reproductive development and sexual differentiation in intact Japanese quail embryos, including ontogenetic patterns in steroid hormones in the embryonic and maturing quail. Second, we discuss some recent data from experiments in our laboratory in which EDCs have been tested in

  7. Chaotic homes and children's disruptive behavior: a longitudinal cross-lagged twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R; Hanscombe, Ken B; Haworth, Claire M A; Davis, Oliver S P; Plomin, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Chaotic home lives are correlated with behavior problems in children. In the study reported here, we tested whether there was a cross-lagged relation between children's experience of chaos and their disruptive behaviors (conduct problems and hyperactivity-inattention). Using genetically informative models, we then tested for the first time whether the influence of household chaos on disruptive behavior was environmentally mediated and whether genetic influences on children's disruptive behaviors accounted for the heritability of household chaos. We measured children's perceptions of household chaos and parents' ratings of children's disruptive behavior at ages 9 and 12 in a sample of 6,286 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). There was a phenotypic cross-lagged relation between children's experiences of household chaos and their disruptive behavior. In genetically informative models, we found that the effect of household chaos on subsequent disruptive behavior was environmentally mediated. However, genetic influences on disruptive behavior did not explain why household chaos was heritable.

  8. Effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training to modify disruptive and prosocial child behavior: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Ankie T A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2013-12-01

    The present meta-analytic review examined effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training (IYPT) regarding disruptive and prosocial child behavior, and aimed to explain variability in intervention outcomes. Fifty studies, in which an intervention group receiving the IYPT was compared to a comparison group immediately after intervention, were included in the analyses. Results showed that the IYPT is an effective intervention. Positive effects for distinct outcomes and distinct informants were found, including a mean effect size of d=.27 concerning disruptive child behavior across informants. For parental report, treatment studies were associated with larger effects (d=.50) than indicated (d=.20) and selective (d=.13) prevention studies. Furthermore, initial severity of child behavior revealed to be the strongest predictor of intervention effects, with larger effects for studies including more severe cases. Findings indicate that the IYPT is successful in improving child behavior in a diverse range of families, and that the parent program may be considered well-established.

  9. Technology-Assisted Parent Training Programs for Children and Adolescents With Disruptive Behaviors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Pawar, Aditya; Mathur, Nandita; Kane, John M; Correll, Christoph U

    2017-05-09

    To systematically review digitally assisted parent training programs (DPTs) targeting the treatment of children and adolescents with disruptive behaviors. A search was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases for peer-reviewed studies published between January 1, 2000, and March 1, 2016. Reference lists of included and review articles were searched manually for additional references. Broad search terms in varying combinations for parent, training, technologies, and disruptive behavior problems were used. We included English-language articles reporting on the effectiveness of DPTs targeting child or adolescent disruptive behaviors (eg, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder). DPTs designed to use digital media or software programs not to be primarily used within a therapy setting (eg, group, face-to-face) were included. Study design, recruitment and sample characteristics, theoretical background, digital program features, user's engagement, and measures of child behavior were extracted. Fourteen intervention studies (n = 2,427, 58% male, 1,500 in DPT conditions, 12 randomized trials) examining 10 programs met inclusion criteria. Interventions included self-directed noninteractive (eg, podcasts; 3 studies) and interactive (eg, online software; 4 studies) DPTs, remotely administered DPTs combined with professional phone-based coaching (2 studies), and a smartphone enhancement of standard treatment. Interventions were delivered over a mean ± SD period of 8.7 ± 4.2 weeks, most (11/14; 78.6%) were remotely administered, and all recruitment procedures included an outreach for parents outside of mental health-care settings. For programs with > 5 sessions, the mean ± SD completion rate of available sessions was 68.6% ± 13.1%. In comparison to no treatment control, self-directed programs yielded significant improvements in child behavior for children (age technology enhancements may increase engagement and outcomes of standard treatment. The

  10. Girls’ Disruptive Behavior and its Relationship to Family Functioning: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kroneman, L.M.; Loeber, R.; Hipwell, A E; Koot, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of reviews of gender differences in disruptive behavior and parental socialization exist, we extend this literature by addressing the question of differential development among girls and by placing both disruptive behavior and parenting behavior in a developmental framework. Clarifying the heterogeneity of development in girls is important for developing and optimizing gender-specific prevention and treatment programs. In the current review, we describe the unique aspects of...

  11. Children with Behavioral, Non-Behavioral, and Multiple Disabilities, and the Risk of Out-of-Home Placement Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, Jesse J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relative risk of placement disruption for 3-10 year-old children placed in out-of-home care based on the biological relatedness of the placement caregiver and child disability status: no disability, a non-behavioral disability only, a behavioral disability only, or both a non-behavioral and behavioral disability.…

  12. A Metatheory of Organizational Group Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Howard H.; Kaplan, Ira T.

    This paper focuses on the organizational group, noting the lack of an integrated theoretical base, describing the nature of group behavior theories, and suggesting the employment of a metatheory framework to improve both the theoretical integration and the practical application of group behavior research. The paper first considers four general…

  13. Effects of parent training on salivary cortisol in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Motamedi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Since adulthood antisocial, aggressive and delinquent behaviors often have their onset early in life, investigating the association between biological factors and disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents are important and are emphasized on in the recent years. Baseline cortisol level seems to be a valuable biological marker of individuals with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD. This study examined the effect of parent training on salivary cortisol levels of children with DBD.
    • METHODS: Saliva samples were assayed to determine cortisol levels in nineteen clinic-referred children with DBD (aged 8 through 13 years before and after an eight-session parent training program. Children’s disruptive behaviors were assessed by Child Behavior Check List before and after the intervention.
    • RESULTS: Children’s salivary cortisol increased significantly after parent training sessions. Children with DBD who had lower basal cortisol levels had more severe disruptive behaviors and a better response to intervention by parent training as assessed by changes in cortisol levels and disruptive behaviour scores. However, post-interventional reduction of disruptive behaviors and increase in cortisol level was significant for all levels of baseline cortisol.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Parent training is an effective method for behavioral modification in DBD. Salivary cortisol may be considered a predictive factor for severity of the child or adolescent's disruptive behaviors and also for response of those behaviors to parent training.
    • KEY WORDS: Disruptive behavior, child, adolescent, parent training.

  14. Managing Disruptive Physician Behavior: First Steps for Designing an Effective Online Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Puddester

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interviews with physician leaders from hospitals in a mid-sized Ontario City were conducted to determine their needs with regard to managing disruptive physician behaviour. These findings were used to inform the design of a two-day skill-development workshop for physician leaders on disruptive behaviour. The workshop was evaluated using a modified version of the Learner Experience Feedback Form, which was built to align with W(eLearn, http://www.ennovativesolution.com/WeLearn/ a framework developed to guide the design, delivery, development, and evaluation of online interprofessional courses and programs (MacDonald, Stodel, Thompson, & Casimiro, 2009. The surveys gathered information related to the content, media, service, structure, and outcomes of the workshop. The findings from the focus group interviews and workshop evaluation identify physician leaders’ needs with regard to disruptive behavior and were used to inform the design of the world’s first Online Physician Health and Wellness Resource http://www.ephysicianhealth.com/ an open access learning resources currently being used globally, in 91 countries. The resource was the recipient of the winner of the International Business/Professional 2010 International eLearning Award. The findings demonstrated the importance of conducting a needs analysis and using a framework to guide the design, delivery and evaluation of effective online healthcare education.

  15. Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training on Non-Targeted Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimovic, Muska

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping,…

  16. A CIT Investigation of Disruptive Student Behaviors: The Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, K. Douglas; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on gaining a better understanding of how students negatively impact other students' classroom experience. More specifically, this research develops a typology of disruptive student behavior, including frequency of occurrence and the perceived magnitude of the disruption from a student perspective. Students also provide…

  17. Randomized prevention trial for early conduct problems: effects on proactive parenting and links to toddler disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Frances; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Burton, Jennifer; Supplee, Lauren

    2007-09-01

    Despite knowledge of early pathways to conduct problems, few preventive interventions are specifically designed to modify disruptive behavior in toddlerhood. One potential prevention target is proactive and positive parenting, which is associated with reduced risk of conduct problems in preschoolers. This randomized trial with 120 low-income 2-year-old boys examined whether a brief family-centered intervention that reduces disruptive behavior (D. Shaw, T. Dishion, L. Supplee, F. Gardner, & K. Arnds, 2006) also leads to increases in proactive and positive parenting. It also explored whether change in parenting predicts change in disruptive behavior. In the intervention group, proactive and positive parenting skills increased among parents of 3-year-olds. Change in proactive and positive parenting of 2- to 3-year-old toddlers correlated with change in child disruptive behavior, although the mediation effect of positive parenting was of only borderline significance. Findings suggest that even within a brief and multifaceted preventive intervention, change in proactive parenting skills contributes modestly but significantly to change in child problem behavior.

  18. Invited article: Managing disruptive physician behavior: impact on staff relationships and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H; O'Daniel, Michelle

    2008-04-22

    Disruptive behavior can have a significant impact on care delivery, which can adversely affect patient safety and quality outcomes of care. Disruptive behavior occurs across all disciplines but is of particular concern when it involves physicians and nurses who have primary responsibility for patient care. There is a higher frequency of disruptive behavior in neurologists compared to most other nonsurgical specialties. Disruptive behavior causes stress, anxiety, frustration, and anger, which can impede communication and collaboration, which can result in avoidable medical errors, adverse events, and other compromises in quality care. Health care organizations need to be aware of the significance of disruptive behaviors and develop appropriate policies, standards, and procedures to effectively deal with this serious issue and reinforce appropriate standards of behavior. Having a better understanding of what contributes to, incites, or provokes disruptive behaviors will help organizations provide appropriate educational and training programs that can lessen the likelihood of occurrence and improve the overall effectiveness of communication among the health care team.

  19. Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school.

  20. Preventing disruptive behavior in elementary schoolchildren: impact of a universal classroom-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Pol A C; Muthén, Bengt O; van der Sar, Ria M; Crijnen, Alfons A M

    2004-06-01

    A population-based, randomized universal classroom intervention trial for the prevention of disruptive behavior (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems, oppositional defiant problems, and conduct problems) is described. Impact on developmental trajectories in young elementary schoolchildren was studied. Three trajectories were identified in children with high, intermediate, or low levels of problems on all 3 disruptive behaviors at baseline. The intervention had a positive impact on the development of all disruptive behavior problems in children with intermediate levels of these problems at baseline. Effect sizes of mean difference at outcome were medium or small. In children with the highest levels of disruptive behavior at baseline, a positive impact of the intervention was found for conduct problems.

  1. Heart Rate and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Grasmann, Dorte; Fegert, Jorg M.; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Schmeck, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; hyperkinetic conduct disorder, conduct disorder, hyperkinetic disorder) characterized by low heart rate profit less from an intensive cognitive behavioral intervention aimed at reducing impulsive, oppositional and aggressive behavior problems. Method: Basal heart rate…

  2. A Comparison of Function-Based Differential Reinforcement Interventions for Children Engaging in Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGray, Matthew W.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling-Turner, Heather; Olmi, D. Joe; Bellone, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a direct comparison of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). Participants included three children in center-based classrooms referred for functional assessments due to disruptive classroom behavior. Functional assessments included interviews and brief…

  3. Heart Rate and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Grasmann, Dorte; Fegert, Jorg M.; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Schmeck, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; hyperkinetic conduct disorder, conduct disorder, hyperkinetic disorder) characterized by low heart rate profit less from an intensive cognitive behavioral intervention aimed at reducing impulsive, oppositional and aggressive behavior problems. Method: Basal heart rate…

  4. Medications used in the treatment of disruptive behavior in children with FASD--a guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsarfati, Jak; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    The majority of children with FASD suffer from disruptive behaviors and most of them need medications to modify these behaviors. The objective of this review is to familiarize professionals caring for children with FASD with stimulants and other drugs for ADHD, and the second generation antipsychotic risperidone - for aggressive and defiant behaviors.

  5. Exploring the Utility of Self-Modeling in Decreasing Disruptive Behavior in Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilias-Lolis, Evelyn; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Students with intellectual disabilities can exhibit a wide array of challenging behaviors in the classroom that pose disruptions to the learning milieu and management problems for those involved in their education. Self-modeling, a behavioral intervention that involves viewing edited videotapes of oneself depicting exemplary behavior, has had…

  6. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children's Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children's behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children's behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they…

  7. Exploring the Utility of Self-Modeling in Decreasing Disruptive Behavior in Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilias-Lolis, Evelyn; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Students with intellectual disabilities can exhibit a wide array of challenging behaviors in the classroom that pose disruptions to the learning milieu and management problems for those involved in their education. Self-modeling, a behavioral intervention that involves viewing edited videotapes of oneself depicting exemplary behavior, has had…

  8. Disruptive Effects of Contingent Food on High-Probability Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Borrero, John C.; Nguyen, Linda; Leon-Enriquez, Yanerys; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B.; DeLeon, Iser G.

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of food contingent on 10 s of consecutive toy engagement resulted in a decrease in engagement and a corresponding increase in other responses that had been previously reinforced with food. Similar effects were not observed when tokens exchangeable for the same food were delivered, suggesting that engagement was disrupted by the…

  9. Identification of developmentally appropriate screening items for disruptive behavior problems in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studts, Christina R; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2013-08-01

    Screening preschool-aged children for disruptive behavior disorders is a key step in early intervention. The study goal was to identify screening items with excellent measurement properties at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems within the developmental context of preschool-aged children. Parents/caregivers of preschool-aged children (N = 900) were recruited from four pediatric primary care settings. Participants (mean age = 31, SD = 8) were predominantly female (87 %), either white (55 %) or African-American (42 %), and biological parents (88 %) of the target children. In this cross-sectional survey, participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and two parent-report behavioral rating scales: the PSC-17 and the BPI. Item response theory analyses provided item parameter estimates and information functions for 18 externalizing subscale items, revealing their quality of measurement along the continuum of disruptive behaviors in preschool-aged children. Of 18 investigated items, 5 items measured only low levels of disruptive behaviors among preschool-aged children. The remaining 13 items measured sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems (i.e., >1.5 SD); however, 5 of these items offered less information, suggesting unreliable measurement. The remaining 8 items had high discrimination and difficulty parameters, offering considerable measurement information at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems. Behaviors measured by the 8 selected parent-report items were consistent with those identified in recent efforts to distinguish developmentally typical misbehaviors from clinically concerning behaviors among preschool-aged children. These items may have clinical utility in screening young children for disruptive behavior disorders.

  10. Temporal effects of antecedent exercise on students' disruptive behaviors: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Anthony; Ducharme, Joseph M; Greenwald, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    Although a growing body of literature indicates that antecedent exercise is effective at reducing disruptive behaviors, there is a paucity of research examining the temporal effects of antecedent exercise. The present investigation involved 4 students (age range 11 to 14years) enrolled in a self-contained special education behavior classroom due to severe aggressive, disruptive, and oppositional behaviors. In an alternating treatment design with baseline, students were first exposed to baseline conditions and then to 2 experimental conditions (i.e., an antecedent exercise condition and a control condition) in a randomized fashion. Results indicated that 30min of moderate to intense aerobic exercise resulted in approximately 90min of behavioral improvements. In addition, there appeared to be an inverse relation between arousal levels and behavioral difficulties. The potential utility of antecedent exercise as a treatment alternative in schools for students with severe disruptive behavior is discussed.

  11. Managing Disruptive Behavior by Patients and Physicians: A Responsibility of the Dialysis Facility Medical Director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward R; Goldman, Richard S

    2015-08-07

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Conditions for Coverage make the medical director of an ESRD facility responsible for all aspects of care, including high-quality health care delivery (e.g., safe, effective, timely, efficient, and patient centered). Because of the high-pressure environment of the dialysis facility, conflicts are common. Conflict frequently occurs when aberrant behaviors disrupt the dialysis facility. Patients, family members, friends, and, less commonly appreciated, nephrology clinicians (i.e., nephrologists and advanced care practitioners) may manifest disruptive behavior. Disruptive behavior in the dialysis facility impairs the ability to deliver high-quality care. Furthermore, disruptive behavior is the leading cause for involuntary discharge (IVD) or involuntary transfer (IVT) of a patient from a facility. IVD usually results in loss of continuity of care, increased emergency department visits, and increased unscheduled, acute dialysis treatments. A sufficient number of IVDs and IVTs also trigger an extensive review of the facility by the regional ESRD Networks, exposing the facility to possible Medicare-imposed sanctions. Medical directors must be equipped to recognize and correct disruptive behavior. Nephrology-based literature and tools exist to help dialysis facility medical directors successfully address and resolve disruptive behavior before medical directors must involuntarily discharge a patient or terminate an attending clinician.

  12. Pharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laje, Gonzalo; Bernert, Rebecca; Morse, Rebecca; Pao, Maryland; Smith, Ann C M

    2010-11-15

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Children and adults with SMS appear to have unique neurobehavioral problems that include: sleep disturbance, self-injurious and maladaptive behaviors, stereotypies, and sensory integration disorders. We gathered retrospective psychotropic use information from parents or other caregivers of 62 individuals with SMS who were asked about use of psychotropic medication from a list of commonly used psychiatric medications. For those drugs identified, respondents were asked to rate the experience with the particular medication using a likert-type scale. Drugs were grouped into seven main categories: (1) stimulants; (2) antidepressants; (3) antipsychotics; (4) sleep aides; (5) mood stabilizers; (6) alpha 2 agonists; and (7) benzodiazepines. Relative frequencies, means and standard deviations pertaining to age and medication effect were derived for each medication category. Six of the seven medication categories examined showed no meaningful deviations from the "no change" score. The benzodiazepine group showed a mild detrimental effect. There were no gender differences in efficacy. Use of psychotropic medication started early in life (mean age 5 years), particularly with sleep aides. Although no medication category was identified as efficacious in SMS, all the categories reported herein may be considered as an option for brief symptomatic relief.

  13. Association Between Childhood Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Evelyn; Low, Nancy C P; Dugas, Erika; Karp, Igor; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and disruptive behavior disorders in 605 children participating in a population-based cohort study. Nineteen percent of children snored (sometimes or often) and 10% had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms. Thirteen percent had an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms and 5-9% had behavioral problems or a conduct disorder. Snoring or OSA symptoms were associated with a twofold difference in the odds of ADHD diagnosis or symptoms. OSA symptoms were associated with a threefold to fourfold difference in the odds of behavioral problems or conduct disorder. Clinicians should consider inquiring about SDB in children with disruptive behavior disorders and should also consider disruptive behavior disorders as potential sequelae of SDB.

  14. Multimethod psychoeducational intervention for preschool children with disruptive behavior: two-year post-treatment follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, T L; Barkley, R A; Crosswait, C; Moorehouse, M; Fletcher, K; Barrett, S; Jenkins, L; Metevia, L

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes the 2-year post-treatment follow-up of preschool children identified as having high levels of disruptive behavior at kindergarten entry. They were assigned to four treatment conditions: A no-treatment group, parent-training only, treatment classroom only, and the combination of parent training with the treatment classroom. Interventions lasted the entire kindergarten academic year. Initial post-treatment results reported previously indicated no effects for the parent-training program but some efficacy for the classroom intervention program. For this report, the disruptive behavior (DB) children were subdivided into those who did (n = 74) and did not (n = 77) receive the treatment classroom. Two-year post-treatment follow-up results indicated no differences between the classroom treated and untreated DB groups. These groups also failed to differ in the percentage of children using available treatments across the follow-up period. The DB children in both groups had significantly more symptoms of ADHD and ODD than a community control group (N = 47) at follow-up. They also received higher ratings of externalizing problems on the parent Child Behavior Checklist, more severe ratings of behavior problems at home, and ratings of more pervasive behavior problems at school, and had poorer academic skills. Results suggested that early intervention classrooms for DB children may not produce enduring effects once treatment is withdrawn, and that better approaches are needed for identifying those DB children at greatest risk for later maladjustment.

  15. Teaching Organizational Behavior Through Discussion Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Stephen; Hamblin, Anthony C.

    1978-01-01

    An educational experiment in teaching organizational behavior to undergraduates in England is reported, with focus on the value and limitations of a systematic form of discussion-group learning based upon a framework outlined by Fawcett Hill. (LBH)

  16. Incremental benefits of a daily report card intervention over time for youth with disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Julie Sarno; Holdaway, Alex S; Zoromski, Allison K; Evans, Steven W; Himawan, Lina K; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Murphy, Caroline E

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the percentage of children who respond positively to a daily report card (DRC) intervention and the extent to which students achieve incremental benefits with each month of intervention in a general education classroom. Participants were 66 children (87% male) with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or disruptive behavior problems who were enrolled in a school-based intervention program in rural, low-income school districts in a Midwest state. The DRC was implemented by each child's teacher, who received consultation from a graduate student clinician, school district counselor, or school district social worker. A latent class analysis using growth-mixture modeling identified two classes of response patterns (i.e., significant improvement and significant decline). Results indicated that 72% of the sample had all of their target behaviors classified as improved, 8% had all of their targets classified as declining, and 20% had one target behavior in each class. To examine the monthly incremental benefit of the DRC, individual effect sizes were calculated. Results for the overall sample indicated that most children experience a benefit of large magnitude (.78) within the first month, with continued incremental benefits through Month 4. The differential pattern of effect sizes for the group of improvers and the group of decliners offer data to determine when and if the DRC should be discontinued and an alternative strategy attempted. Evidence-based guidelines for practical implementation of the DRC are discussed.

  17. A Cognitive Behavioural Group Approach for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttledge, Richard A.; Petrides, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural approaches emphasize the links between thoughts, feelings and behaviour (Greig, 2007). Previous research has indicated that these approaches are efficacious in reducing disruptive behaviour in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to provide further evaluation of cognitive behavioural group work to reduce disruptive…

  18. The Good Behavior Game for Latino English Language Learners in a Small-Group Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jennifer; Bray, Melissa A.; Bilias-Lolis, Evelyn; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a group contingency intervention that has effectively reduced disruptive behavior and improved classroom management in many replications, for various settings and populations. The student composition of American public schools is changing, leading to culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms with unique…

  19. The Good Behavior Game for Latino English Language Learners in a Small-Group Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jennifer; Bray, Melissa A.; Bilias-Lolis, Evelyn; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a group contingency intervention that has effectively reduced disruptive behavior and improved classroom management in many replications, for various settings and populations. The student composition of American public schools is changing, leading to culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms with unique…

  20. Disruptive Behavior and Academic Achievement: The Importance of Psychological and Environment Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço, Abílio A.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aimed to study the impact of self-concept and environment of the classroom in disruptive behaviors, as well as the influence of these behaviors on grades in two state schools in the north of Portugal, through 3 questionnaires (PHCSCS-2, APSA and EDEP to 425 students of the compulsory Portuguese schooling. It was found that with the increase of self-concept and improve the environment of the classroom are less frequent disruptive behaviors, increasing thus the academic achievement of students (Portuguese language and mathematics, which stresses the importance of these constructs in the success school. Educational implications are discussed at these levels of education.

  1. Beyond substance abuse: stress, burnout, and depression as causes of physician impairment and disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen D; Goske, Marilyn J; Johnson, Craig M

    2009-07-01

    Disruptive physician behavior may diminish productivity, lead to medical errors, and compromise patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to review how common psychological conditions such as depression, stress, and burnout may drive disruptive behavior in the workplace and result in impaired patterns of professional conduct similar to what is seen with substance abuse. Problems related to these psychological morbidities may be more effectively managed with improved understanding of the conditions and behaviors, their associated risk factors, and the barriers that exist to reporting them. Further research and educational programs are warranted to address how these conditions might affect radiology.

  2. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits : fMRI in late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, M.D.; van Lith, K.; Kindt, M.; Pape, L.E.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Popma, A.

    2016-01-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent

  3. Heavy Metal in Children's Tooth Enamel: Related to Autism and Disruptive Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maryam M.; Ly, Agnes R.; Goldberg, Wendy A.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Dudgeon, John V.; Mull, Christopher G.; Chan, Tony J.; Kent, Erin E.; Mason, Andrew Z.; Ericson, Jonathon E.

    2012-01-01

    To examine possible links between neurotoxicant exposure and neuropsychological disorders and child behavior, relative concentrations of lead, mercury, and manganese were examined in prenatal and postnatal enamel regions of deciduous teeth from children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), high levels of disruptive behavior (HDB), and typically…

  4. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits : fMRI in late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, M.D.; van Lith, K.; Kindt, M.; Pape, L.E.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Popma, A.

    2016-01-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent ant

  5. Heavy Metal in Children's Tooth Enamel: Related to Autism and Disruptive Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maryam M.; Ly, Agnes R.; Goldberg, Wendy A.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Dudgeon, John V.; Mull, Christopher G.; Chan, Tony J.; Kent, Erin E.; Mason, Andrew Z.; Ericson, Jonathon E.

    2012-01-01

    To examine possible links between neurotoxicant exposure and neuropsychological disorders and child behavior, relative concentrations of lead, mercury, and manganese were examined in prenatal and postnatal enamel regions of deciduous teeth from children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), high levels of disruptive behavior (HDB), and typically…

  6. Improving the Social-Adaptive Behavior of Chronically Disruptive Students in an Elementary School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latif, Deatema L.

    This practicum project addressed the need to improve antisocial behavior in disruptive elementary school children, using a skill deficit perspective. Six student participants were selected on the basis of a high number of school suspensions and their identification as disrespectful, confrontational, and self-absorbed, as well as behaviors that…

  7. Technical Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale--Second Edition--Teacher Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Clark, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and validity of scores on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-second edition-teacher version (DBRS-II-T) was analyzed. The DBRS-II-T was designed to assess teacher observations of students referred for behavioral difficulties. The five-factor model fit the data poorly, but convergent and diagnostic validities were excellent.…

  8. Changes in Adult Behavior to Decrease Disruption from Students in Nonclassroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohanon, Hank

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing classroom disruptions that result from hallway-related behavior in high school settings can be very challenging for high school staff. This article presents a case example of preventing problem behavior related to hallway settings in a high school with over 1,200 students. The interventions are described, and the results of the plan are…

  9. Is My Teaching Disturbing You? Strategies for Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle

    2010-01-01

    Faculty in higher education are experiencing a new generation of college students referred to as Generation X (Gen-Xers) and Millennials. The characteristics and behaviors of Gen-Xers and Millennials have created a more challenging classroom learning environment. Some educators may choose to ignore disruptive behaviors or may simply not know which…

  10. Reliability and Validity of a Measure of Preschool Teachers' Attributions for Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lauren M.; Williford, Amanda P.; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the quality of teacher attributions for child disruptive behavior using a new measure, the Preschool Teaching Attributions measure. A sample of 153 early childhood teachers and 432 children participated. All teachers completed the behavior attributions measure, as well as measures regarding demographics,…

  11. Double Jeopardy: Child and School Characteristics that Predict Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Thompson, Celine; Powers, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    High rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior exhibited by children during their initial years of elementary school increase their risk for significant behavioral adjustment problems with teachers and peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique and combined contributions of child vulnerabilities and school context to the…

  12. Technical Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale--Second Edition--Teacher Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Clark, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and validity of scores on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-second edition-teacher version (DBRS-II-T) was analyzed. The DBRS-II-T was designed to assess teacher observations of students referred for behavioral difficulties. The five-factor model fit the data poorly, but convergent and diagnostic validities were excellent.…

  13. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  14. Associations between Peer Nominations, Teacher Ratings, Self-Reports, and Observations of Malicious and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of two aggression scales for predicting observations of malicious or disruptive behavior at school. Subgroups of a sample of 1,560 children (age 8.6 plus or minus 1.5 years) were assessed using (a) peer nominations of aggression, (b) teacher reports on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) of the Child Behavior Checklist…

  15. School Counselors Connecting the Dots between Disruptive Classroom Behavior and Youth Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidell, Markus P.; Deacon, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Students exhibiting emotional and behavioral problems in the classroom can significantly impact the learning environment and often are referred to school counselors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between high school students' self-concept and disruptive classroom behaviors (DCB). High school students (N = 92)…

  16. Maternal ADHD: Parent-Child Interactions and Relations with Child Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisser, Alison R.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how ADHD symptoms in mothers of children with ADHD relate to their behavior during parent-child interactions and to their children's disruptive behavior. Findings indicated that mothers' retrospective self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were related to their present negativity during parent-led play. Mothers' self-ratings of current…

  17. The effects of a good behavior game on the disruptive behavior of Sundanese elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigh, P A; Umar, A M

    1983-01-01

    An endemic version of the Good Behavior Game was applied in a rural Sudanese second-grade classroom. Official letters of commendation, extra time for recess, victory tags, and a winner's chart were used as backup reinforcers. The class was divided into two teams, and the teacher indicated she would place a check on the board after every rule violation. The students were also told that the team with the fewest marks would win the game and receive the aforementioned prizes. After an initial adaptation period, the rate of disruption was charted across four treatment phases: viz., baseline I, introduction of the game, baseline II, and reintroduction of the game. It was observed that the game phases were associated with marked decreases in the rate of seat leaving, talking without permission, and aggression. The teacher, principal, parents, and students were consequently individually interviewed, and their comments spoke strongly for the social validity of the game.

  18. Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in an after School Program Classroom: The Effects of the Daily Behavior Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorvey, Zamecia J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to address behavior discipline problems in special and general education setting classrooms. Disruptive behaviors are a major concern as they create excessive stress and demands for classroom teachers and school administrators to address them. Effective interventions are needed to properly address them. Moreover, classroom…

  19. Reduction of Disruptive Behaviors Using an Intervention Based on the Good Behavior Game and the Say-Do-Report Correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Olivares, Rosario; Pino, M. Jose; Herruzo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior can waste a great deal of teaching time in the classroom, leading to feelings of frustration in teachers and an increase in academic failure among pupils. Prior research indicates that intervening in these kinds of behaviors improves the classroom atmosphere and facilitates the learning process. With this in mind, the aims of…

  20. Effects of Antecedent Variables on Disruptive Behavior and Accurate Responding in Young Children in Outpatient Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Boelter, Eric W; Wacker, David P.; Call, Nathan A; Ringdahl, Joel E; Kopelman, Todd; Gardner, Andrew W.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of manipulations of task variables on inaccurate responding and disruption were investigated with 3 children who engaged in noncompliance. With 2 children in an outpatient clinic, task directives were first manipulated to identify directives that guided accurate responding; then, additional dimensions of the task were manipulated to evaluate their influence on disruptive behavior. With a 3rd child, similar procedures were employed at school. Results showed one-step directives set ...

  1. Emotional flooding and hostile discipline in the families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mence, Melanie; Hawes, David J; Wedgwood, Lucinda; Morgan, Susan; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Hunt, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between negative parenting practices and dysfunction in parents' cognitive processing of child affect cues in families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems. This dysfunction comprised a bias toward the misclassification of child affect as anger (affect appraisal bias) and parents' proneness to emotional flooding (Gottman, 1991, 1993). Participants were families of toddlers (n = 82; 53% male; aged 18-48 months) referred to a tertiary-level health service for the treatment of disruptive behavior problems. Affect appraisal bias was indexed in terms of the discrepancy between rates of child anger coded from video recordings of parent-child interactions and rates of child anger estimated by parents immediately after these interactions. Parenting practices and emotional flooding were assessed using the Parenting Scale and the Parental Flooding Scale. Both hostile and overreactive discipline were positively associated with severity of disruptive behavior problems, however only hostile discipline was associated with the biased appraisal of child affect and emotional flooding. Emotional flooding was found to be a unique predictor of hostile discipline, independent of covariates including the severity of disruptive behavior problems. Variance in hostile discipline was further explained by the interaction between emotional flooding and affect appraisal bias. Emotional flooding appears to be particularly proximal to hostile discipline in the families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems, consistent with evidence previously reported for nonclinical families.

  2. Putting theory to the test: modeling a multidimensional, developmentally-based approach to preschool disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Carter, Alice S; Burns, James L; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2012-06-01

    There is increasing emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, but empirical evidence of their utility is just emerging. In particular, although a range of multidimensional models have been proposed, the relative fit of competing models has rarely been tested. Furthermore, developmental considerations have received scant attention. In this study, we tested a developmentally based, four-dimensional model of disruptive behavior theorized to represent the defining features of disruptive behavior at preschool age: Temper Loss, Noncompliance, Aggression, and Low Concern for Others. Model testing was conducted in two independent samples of preschoolers: Clinically Enriched Sample (n = 336) and Epidemiologic Sample (n = 532). The tau-equivalent confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the fit of the Developmental Model relative to three leading competing models (DSM opositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) Model, "Callous" Model, and an "Irritable/Headstrong/Hurtful" Model). Reliability of the four dimensions was also tested. Validity of the dimensions was tested by predicting multi-informant, multi-method ratings of disruptive behavior and impairment, and incremental utility relative to DSM symptoms. In both samples, the Developmental Model demonstrated a superior fit compared with the competing models within the full sample, and across key demographic subgroups. Validity was also demonstrated, including incremental utility relative to DSM-IV disruptive behavior symptoms. Critical next steps for achieving scientific consensus about the optimal dimensional model of disruptive behavior and its clinical application are discussed. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining the Impact of a Positive Behavior Support Program and Direct Instruction of Social and Emotional Learning Skills on the Externalizing Behaviors of Disruptive Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Darla Renee

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescent disruptive youth in Pennsylvania are removed from traditional school settings for externalizing behaviors including aggression, defying authority, poor relationships with peers and adults, disruptive behaviors, and bullying. Post-school outcomes of adolescent disruptive youth remain dismal, and these students are the most…

  4. Perceptual Grouping of Closed Contours Is Disrupted by the Interpretation of the Scene Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Closure is one of the grouping principles in perceptual organization. Studies have shown that closure can be affected by several factors, specifically by low-level image features. However, the effects of high-level non-image factors on grouping by closure are unknown. In two experiments we investigated how closure is affected when depth information is introduced to the 2D closed contours, whilst the other 2D features remain intact. The first experiment showed that the grouping of closed contours was disrupted by the manipulation in 3D layout. The second experiment showed that thus disruption resulted in the impairment of searching efficiency. These findings suggest that closure is not only determined by the image features, but also affected by the interpretation of the contextual scene layout.

  5. Measuring and managing the economic impact of disruptive behaviors in the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors have been shown to have a significant negative impact on staff relationships, team collaboration, communication flow, and patient outcomes of care. They can be a major factor in contributing to the occurrence of adverse events that compromise quality care and patient safety and can put the patient and organization at increased risk. Whereas organizations generally are not reticent to make system enhancements designed to improve patient safety, they are more reluctant to address human factor issues such as disruptive behaviors for a variety of reasons. This article presents a 10-step process for addressing both the economic and quality impact of disruptive behaviors in an attempt to stimulate a call to action.

  6. The quality and economic impact of disruptive behaviors on clinical outcomes of patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2011-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors have been shown to have a negative impact on work relationships, team collaboration, communication efficiency, and process flow, all of which can adversely affect patient safety and quality of care. Despite the growing recognition of the damage that can be done, there are still pockets of resistance to taking action to address the issue head-on. Given the new call to action from the Joint Commission accreditation standard and the growing public accountability for patient safety, organizations need to recognize the full impact of disruptive behaviors and implement appropriate policies, procedures, and educational programs to raise levels of awareness regarding the seriousness of the issue, hold individuals accountable for their behavior, and provide training and support not only to reduce the incidence and consequences of disruptive events but also to improve efficiency of communication and team collaboration in an effort to improve outcomes of care.

  7. Facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with disruptive behavior disorder and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Peter; Munsters, Nicolette; Kenemans, Leon; Schutter, Dennis; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6-7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD. Electromyographic (EMG) activity in response to emotional facial expressions was recorded in 47 children with DBD, 18 children with ADHD and 35 healthy developing children. All groups displayed significant facial mimicry to the emotional expressions of other children. No group differences between children with DBD, children with ADHD and healthy developing children were found. In addition, no differences in facial mimicry were found between the clinical group (i.e., all children with a diagnosis) and the typically developing group in an analysis with ADHD symptoms as a covariate, and no differences were found between the clinical children and the typically developing children with DBD symptoms as a covariate. Facial mimicry in children with DBD and ADHD throughout the first primary school years was unimpaired, in line with studies on empathy using other paradigms.

  8. Facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with disruptive behavior disorder and ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Deschamps

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD. However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. AIMS: To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6-7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD. METHODS: Electromyographic (EMG activity in response to emotional facial expressions was recorded in 47 children with DBD, 18 children with ADHD and 35 healthy developing children. RESULTS: All groups displayed significant facial mimicry to the emotional expressions of other children. No group differences between children with DBD, children with ADHD and healthy developing children were found. In addition, no differences in facial mimicry were found between the clinical group (i.e., all children with a diagnosis and the typically developing group in an analysis with ADHD symptoms as a covariate, and no differences were found between the clinical children and the typically developing children with DBD symptoms as a covariate. CONCLUSION: Facial mimicry in children with DBD and ADHD throughout the first primary school years was unimpaired, in line with studies on empathy using other paradigms.

  9. Facial Mimicry in 6–7 Year Old Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Peter; Munsters, Nicolette; Kenemans, Leon; Schutter, Dennis; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Background Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Aims To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6–7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD. Methods Electromyographic (EMG) activity in response to emotional facial expressions was recorded in 47 children with DBD, 18 children with ADHD and 35 healthy developing children. Results All groups displayed significant facial mimicry to the emotional expressions of other children. No group differences between children with DBD, children with ADHD and healthy developing children were found. In addition, no differences in facial mimicry were found between the clinical group (i.e., all children with a diagnosis) and the typically developing group in an analysis with ADHD symptoms as a covariate, and no differences were found between the clinical children and the typically developing children with DBD symptoms as a covariate. Conclusion Facial mimicry in children with DBD and ADHD throughout the first primary school years was unimpaired, in line with studies on empathy using other paradigms. PMID:24416323

  10. Disruptive Behaviors in an Emergency Department: the Perspective of Physicians and Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddineshat, Maryam; Rosenstein, Alan H; Akaberi, Arash; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Disruptive behaviors cause many problems in the workplace, especially in the emergency department (ED).This study was conducted to assess the physician’s and nurse’s perspective toward disruptive behaviors in the emergency department. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 45 physicians and 110 nurses working in the emergency department of five general hospitals in Bojnurd participated. Data were collected using a translated, changed, and validated questionnaire (25 item). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: Findings showed that physicians gave more importance to nurse-physician relationships in the ED when compared to nurses’ perspective (90% vs. 70%). In this study, 81% of physicians and 52% of nurses exhibited disruptive behaviors. According to the participants these behaviors could result in adverse outcomes, such as stress (97%), job dissatisfaction and can compromise patient safety (53%), quality of care (72%), and errors (70%). Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors could have a negative effects on relationships and collaboration among medical staffs, and on patients’ quality of care as well. It is essential to provide some practical strategies for prevention of these behaviors. PMID:27752490

  11. Disruptive behaviors and HPA-axis activity in young adolescent boys and girls from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sondeijker, Frouke E. P. L.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Veenstra, René; Tiemeier, H.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    It is important to investigate associations between biological factors and disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents. Antisocial, aggressive, and criminal behaviors in adults often begin early in life. Disruptive behaviors are often thought to be associated with low activity of the hypothalam

  12. Visualization and minimization of disruptive bubble behavior in ultrasonic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjung; Park, Keunhwan; Oh, Jongkeun; Choi, Jaehyuck; Kim, Ho-Young

    2010-08-01

    Although ultrasonic technology has been successfully adopted for semiconductor cleaning, a recent trend of extreme miniaturization of patterns calls for a novel process that can remove contaminant particles without damaging nanoscale patterns. Unstable bubble oscillations have been hypothesized to cause such surface damages, and here we show direct visualization results that a high acoustic pressure induces bubble instability leading to pattern damages. As a remedy for the conventional ultrasonic cleaning scheme, we introduce a novel cleaning system using dual transducers, in which one transducer generates bubbles with a high acoustic pressure in an acoustically isolated sub-chamber and the other drives the oscillation of bubbles around the cleaning area at a low acoustic pressure. The system is shown to achieve a high cleaning efficiency for submicron-sized particles while significantly suppressing the disruptive bubble instability thereby reducing the detachment of firmly attached nanoparticles. Comparison of the adhesion force of the firmly attached nanoparticles and the yield strength of nanopatterns allows us to anticipate that this scheme is capable of reducing damages of nanopatterns on semiconductor wafers and photomasks. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assertive Discipline and Its Impact on Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Tasha R.

    2010-01-01

    Past research studies suggested that many students could benefit from well-structured classroom management strategies to help in the reduction of discipline problems that some may have. The research, however, was inconclusive as to which classroom management strategies are the most effective in managing behaviors within the classroom setting. The…

  14. Classwide Functional Analysis and Treatment of Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Veena Y.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling, Heather E.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Hardy, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively few functional assessment and intervention studies have been conducted in preschool classrooms with children of typical development who engage in high incidence problem behaviors. Moreover, limited studies have used functional assessment procedures with the class as the unit of analysis. This study included functional analyses and a…

  15. Development process of an assessment tool for disruptive behavior problems in cross-cultural settings: the Disruptive Behavior International Scale - Nepal version (DBIS-N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Matthew D; Ghimire, Lajina; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Haroz, Emily; Wissow, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Systematic processes are needed to develop valid measurement instruments for disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) in cross-cultural settings. We employed a four-step process in Nepal to identify and select items for a culturally valid assessment instrument: 1) We extracted items from validated scales and local free-list interviews. 2) Parents, teachers, and peers (n=30) rated the perceived relevance and importance of behavior problems. 3) Highly rated items were piloted with children (n=60) in Nepal. 4) We evaluated internal consistency of the final scale. We identified 49 symptoms from 11 scales, and 39 behavior problems from free-list interviews (n=72). After dropping items for low ratings of relevance and severity and for poor item-test correlation, low frequency, and/or poor acceptability in pilot testing, 16 items remained for the Disruptive Behavior International Scale-Nepali version (DBIS-N). The final scale had good internal consistency (α=0.86). A 4-step systematic approach to scale development including local participation yielded an internally consistent scale that included culturally relevant behavior problems.

  16. Comparing Self-Regulation-Associated Event Related Potentials in Preschool Children with and without High Levels of Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L; Tardif, Twila; Thompson, Meaghan C; Gehring, William J

    2016-11-28

    Deficient self-regulation plays a key role in the etiology of early onset disruptive behavior disorders and signals risk for chronic psychopathology. However, to date, there has been no research comparing preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior using Event Related Potentials (ERPs) associated with specific self-regulation sub-processes. We examined 15 preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior (35 % female) and 20 peers with low disruptive behavior (50 % female) who completed a Go/No-go task that provided emotionally valenced feedback. We tested whether 4 ERP components: the Error Related Negativity, the Error Positivity, the Feedback Related Negativity, and the No-go N2, differed in preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior. Preschoolers with high levels of disruptive behavior showed less differentiation between the Error Positivity and corresponding waveforms following correct responses at posterior sites. Preschoolers with high and low disruptive behavior also showed differences in Go/No-go N2 waveform amplitudes across electrodes. These findings suggest that preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior may show abnormal brain activity during certain self-regulation sub-processes, informing potential advances in conceptualizing and treating early disruptive behavior.

  17. Disruptive behavior in preschool children: distinguishing normal misbehavior from markers of current and later childhood conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji S; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    To investigate which disruptive behaviors in preschool were normative and transient vs markers of conduct disorder, as well as which disruptive behaviors predicted the persistence of conduct disorder into school age. Data from a longitudinal study of preschool children were used to investigate disruptive behaviors. Caregivers of preschoolers ages 3.0-5.11 years (n = 273) were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment to derive the following diagnostic groups: conduct disorder, externalizing disorder without conduct disorder, internalizing disorder without externalizing disorder, and healthy. At school age, participants were again assessed via an age-appropriate diagnostic interview. Logistic and linear regression with pairwise group comparisons was used to investigate clinical markers of preschool conduct disorder and predictors of school age conduct disorder. Losing one's temper, low-intensity destruction of property, and low-intensity deceitfulness/stealing in the preschool period were found in both healthy and disordered groups. In contrast, high-intensity argument/defiant behavior, both low- and high-intensity aggression to people/animals, high-intensity destruction of property, high-intensity deceitfulness/stealing, and high-intensity peer problems were markers of preschool conduct disorder and predictors of school age conduct disorder. Inappropriate sexual behavior was not a marker for preschool conduct disorder but was a predictor of school age conduct disorder. These findings provide a guide for primary care clinicians to help identify preschoolers with clinical conduct disorder and those who are at risk for persistent conduct disorder in childhood. Preschoolers displaying these symptoms should be targeted for mental health assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal Mind-Mindedness Provides a Buffer for Pre-Adolescents at Risk for Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Aldercotte, Amanda; Foley, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness, defined as the propensity to view one's child as an agent with independent thoughts and feelings, mitigates the impact of low maternal education on conduct problems in young children (Meins et al. 2013), but has been little studied beyond the preschool years. Addressing this gap, we applied a multi-measure and multi-informant approach to assess family adversity and disruptive behavior at age 12 for a socially diverse sample of 116 children for whom ratings of disruptive behavior at age 6 were available. Each mother was asked to describe her child and transcripts of these five-minute speech samples were coded for (i) mind-mindedness (defined by the proportion of child attributes that were mental rather than physical or behavioral) and (ii) positivity (defined by the proportion of child attributes that were positive rather than neutral or negative). Our regression results showed that, independent of associations with prior adjustment, family adversity, child gender and low maternal monitoring, mothers' mind-mindedness (but not positivity) predicted unique variance in disruptive behavior at age 12. In addition, a trend interaction term provided partial support for the hypothesis that pre-adolescents exposed to family adversity may benefit in particular from maternal mind-mindedness. We discuss the possible mechanisms underpinning these findings and their implications for clinical interventions to reduce disruptive behavior in adolescence.

  19. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459

  20. Introduction: Multilingual Behavior in Youth Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Normann Jørgensen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This introduction reviews some of the major work on bilingual and multilingual children and adolescents in Scandinavia, from Kotsinas (1985 and Boyd (1985 to the present. The introduction was originally published in J. N. Jørgensen (ed. 2001: Multilingual behavior in Youth Groups, Copenhagen Studies in Bilingualism, The Køge Series, Volume K11, Danish University of Education.

  1. Description and Comparison of Group Behavior Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    they prefer to behave. The claisification theory started with the work of Carl Gustav Jung (7:18). Jung believed an individual’s behavior was...preference for introversion . These preferences are displayed in the scale percentages and in the group mean scores (see Appendix C). The Navy shows

  2. Bisphenol A and Phthalate Endocrine Disruption of Parental and Social Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Susan Rosenfeld

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs can induce promiscuous neurobehavioral disturbances. Bisphenol A and phthalates are two widely prevalent and persistent EDCs reported to lead to such effects. Parental and social behaviors are especially vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these traits are programmed by the organizational-activational effects of testosterone and estrogen. BPA and other EDC exposure disrupts normal maternal care provided by rodents and non-human primates, such as nursing, time she spends hunched over and in the nest, and grooming her pups. Paternal care may also be affected by BPA. No long term study has linked perinatal exposure to BPA or other EDC and later parental behavioral deficits in humans. The fact that the same brain regions and neural hormone substrates govern parental behaviors in animal models and humans suggests that this suite of behaviors may also be vulnerable in the latter. Social behaviors, such as communication, mate choice, pair bonding, social inquisitiveness and recognition, play behavior, social grooming, copulation, and aggression, are compromised in animal models exposed to BPA, phthalates, and other EDCs. Early contact to these chemicals is also correlated with maladaptive social behaviors in children. These behavioral disturbances may originate by altering the fetal or adult gonadal production of testosterone or estrogen, expression of ESR1, ESR2, and AR in the brain regions governing these behaviors, neuropeptide/ protein hormone (oxytocin, vasopressin, and prolactin and their cognate neural receptors, and/or through epimutations. Robust evidence exists for all of these EDC-induced changes. Concern also exists for transgenerational persistence of such neurobehavioral disruptions. In sum, evidence for social and parental deficits induced by BPA, phthalates, and related chemicals is strongly mounting, and such effects may ultimately compromise the overall social fitness of

  3. School discipline and disruptive classroom behavior: the moderating effects of student perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Sandra M

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between school discipline and student classroom behavior. A traditional deterrence framework predicts that more severe discipline will reduce misbehavior. In contrast, normative perspectives suggest that compliance depends upon commitment to rules and authority, including perceptions of fairness and legitimacy. Using school and individual-level data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and multilevel regression modeling, the author finds support for the normative perspective. Students who perceive school authority as legitimate and teacher–student relations as positive are rated as less disruptive. While perceptions of fairness also predict lower disruptions, the effects are mediated by positive teacher–student relations. Contrary to the deterrence framework, more school rules and higher perceived strictness predicts more, not less, disruptive behavior. In addition, a significant interaction effect suggests that attending schools with more severe punishments may have the unintended consequence of generating defiance among certain youth.

  4. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits: fMRI in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Moran D; van Lith, Koen; Kindt, Merel; Pape, Louise E; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent antisocial development. However, we have recently shown that both DBD persisters and desisters are characterized by increased fear conditioning compared with healthy controls (HCs). In this study, we investigated whether brain function during fear extinction is associated with DBD subgroup-membership and psychopathic traits. Adolescents from a childhood arrestee cohort (mean age 17.6 years, s.d. 1.4) who met criteria for a DBD diagnosis during previous assessments were re-assessed and categorized as persistent DBD (n = 25) or desistent DBD (n = 25). Functional MRI during the extinction phase of a classical fear-conditioning task was used to compare regional brain function between these subgroups and 25 matched controls. Both DBD persisters and desisters showed hyperreactivity during fear extinction, when compared with HCs. Impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits were positively associated with responses in the fear neurocircuitry and mediated the association between neural activation and group membership. These results suggest that fear acquisition and fear extinction deficits may provide an endophenotype for an emotionally hyperreactive subtype of antisocial development.

  5. A plan for identification, treatment, and remediation of disruptive behaviors in physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiggart, William H; Dewey, Charlene M; Hickson, Gerald B; Finlayson, A J Reid; Spickard, William A

    2009-01-01

    Physicians exhibiting a pattern of disruptive conduct represent a small portion of all healthcare professionals. Available evidence demonstrates, however, that their behaviors can result in increased workplace stress; contribute to poor workplace environments; contribute to dysfunctional teams; reduce quality of care for patients and families; and increase risk of litigation for hospitals and institutions. Our experience at Vanderbilt reveals that both internal and external factors play a role in a physician's behavior and ability to cope with workplace stresses. We have gained valuable insight into various means of indentifying, assessing, treating, and remediating physicians exhibiting unprofessional behavior. The vast majority of healthcare team members conduct themselves professionally and without complaint. This paper will demonstrate how to address those rare individuals who exhibit disruptive and/or unprofessional behavior.

  6. Executive Functioning Characteristics Associated with ADHD Comorbidity in Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A.; Kronenberger, William G.; Wang, Yang; Dunn, David W.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Mathews, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of executive dysfunction in youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) remains unclear, despite extensive research in samples of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the relationship between DBD, ADHD, and executive function deficits in aggressive teens, adolescents with DBD and comorbid ADHD…

  7. Case Management as a Significant Component of Usual Care Psychotherapy for Youth with Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoffness, Rachel; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Roesch, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Youth with disruptive behavior problems (DBPs) represent the majority of youth served in usual care (UC) psychotherapy, and are at high risk for maladaptive outcomes. Little is known about UC psychotherapeutic strategies utilized with this population. Researchers and clinicians suggest that case management (CM) is a major activity occurring in…

  8. Case Management as a Significant Component of Usual Care Psychotherapy for Youth with Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoffness, Rachel; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Roesch, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Youth with disruptive behavior problems (DBPs) represent the majority of youth served in usual care (UC) psychotherapy, and are at high risk for maladaptive outcomes. Little is known about UC psychotherapeutic strategies utilized with this population. Researchers and clinicians suggest that case management (CM) is a major activity occurring in…

  9. Therapists' Attitudes Towards Psychotherapeutic Strategies in Community-Based Psychotherapy with Children with Disruptive Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Garland, Ann F.; Taylor, Robin; Zoffness, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about what individual treatment strategies therapists providing usual care psychotherapy consider the most valuable to their practice. The Therapeutic Strategies Survey (TSS) assesses therapists' attitudes about the value of 27 individual treatment strategies in their practice with children with disruptive behavior problems in community-based outpatient psychotherapy. Findings indicate that therapists from multiple professional disciplines highly value many individual psychoth...

  10. A theoretical model to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model for leaders to use to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations. Leadership is needed to improve interpersonal relationships within the workforce. A workforce with a culture of internal conflict will be unable to achieve its full potential to delivery quality patient care.

  11. Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…

  12. Risky Decision Making in Substance Dependent Adolescents with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Bokhoven, I. van; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Lochman, J.E.; Matthys, W.C.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Of all psychiatric disorders, the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are the most likely to predispose to substance dependence (SD). One possible underlying mechanism for this increased vulnerability is risky decision making. The aim of this study was to examine decision making in DBD adolescents

  13. Mortality in individuals with disruptive behavior disorders diagnosed by specialist services - A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, James G; Giørtz Pedersen, Marianne; Erskine, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), inclusive of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are associated with outcomes likely to increase risk of mortality. Using Danish National Registers, a total of 1.92 million individuals including 9495 individuals with DBDs diagnosed ...

  14. Facial Mimicry in 6-7 Year Old Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder and ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, Peter; Munsters, Nicolette; Kenemans, Leon; Schutter, Dennis; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age.

  15. Pharmacotherapy of Disruptive Behavior in Mentally Retarded Subjects: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Frank; Reis, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    The review presented here describes the state of the art of pharmacological treatment of aggression in subjects with mental retardation (MR) summing up results for both, children and adults. In general, psychopharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in individuals with MR is similar to the treatment in subjects without MR. Compared to…

  16. ADHD with Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder: Discrete or Nondistinct Disruptive Behavior Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F.; Doerfler, Leonard A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Method: Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male…

  17. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

  18. Onset and Progression of Disruptive Behavior Problems among Community Boys and Girls: A Prospective Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Jaelyn R.; Nicholson, Jody S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder are the most common forms of psychopathology seen among community youth. This study investigated prospective symptomatology of these disruptive behavior disorders from ages 5 though 14 in an at-risk community-based sample of 170 boys and girls born to…

  19. Psychosocial Treatment Efficacy for Disruptive Behavior Problems in Very Young Children: A Meta-Analytic Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Chow, Candice; Chan, Priscilla T.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Wilson, Lianna A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Service use trends showing increased off-label prescribing in very young children and reduced psychotherapy use raise concerns about quality of care for early disruptive behavior problems. Meta-analysis can empirically clarify best practices and guide clinical decision making by providing a quantitative synthesis of a body of…

  20. The Token Economy: Reducing the Disruptive and Off-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicole Taylor

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a token economy as an intervention to reduce disruptive and off-task behavior of third grade students in an open concept setting. The intervention combines the use of a token reinforcement with a raffle style drawing. The students receive tokens on an intermittent reinforcement schedule for being on-task,…

  1. Antecedent Classroom Factors and Disruptive Behaviors of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Asmus, Jennifer M.; Boyd, Brian A.; Ladwig, Crystal N.; Sellers, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between antecedent classroom factors and the disruptive behaviors of five elementary-aged students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the influence of four types of molar antecedent classroom factors (i.e., instructional setting, instructional activity,…

  2. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2 to 7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies,…

  3. Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…

  4. Predictive Validity of the MMPI-2 Clinical, PSY-5, and RC Scales for Therapy Disruptive Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, W.; Tiemens, B.G.; Verheul, R.; Meerman, A.; Egger, J.; Hutschemaekers, G.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Impulsive acts, parasuicidal behavior, and other therapy disruptive incidents occur frequently in the treatment of patients with personality disorders and increase the risk that patients will drop out of treatment. Objective. This study examined the predictive validity of the Minnesota M

  5. Pharmacotherapy of Disruptive Behavior in Mentally Retarded Subjects: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Frank; Reis, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    The review presented here describes the state of the art of pharmacological treatment of aggression in subjects with mental retardation (MR) summing up results for both, children and adults. In general, psychopharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in individuals with MR is similar to the treatment in subjects without MR. Compared to…

  6. The Disproportionality Dilemma: Patterns of Teacher Referrals to School Counselors for Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Julia; Day-Vines, Norma L.; Griffin, Dana; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Disproportionality plagues schools nationwide in special education placement, dropout, discipline referral, suspension, and expulsion rates. This study examined predictors of teacher referrals to school counselors for disruptive behavior in a sample of students selected from the Educational Longitudinal Study 2002 (National Center for Education…

  7. A Function-Based Intervention to Decrease Disruptive Behavior and Increase Academic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Smither, Rachel; Huseman, Rachel; Guffey, Jennifer; Fox, James

    2007-01-01

    A range of interventions exist to prevent and respond to disruptive classroom behavior. This study documents the efficacy of a function-based intervention conducted using a multiple baseline across settings design. Despite moderately variable levels of treatment fidelity, results suggest a functional relation between the introduction of a package…

  8. A Comparative Study of the Seriousness Attributed to Disruptive Classroom Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzens, Concepcion; Badia, Mar; Genovard, Candido; Dezcallar, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we present a comparative analysis of three samples of teachers from Coimbra, Barcelona and Murcia that provides insight into the importance teachers attach to disruptive behavior and how different perspectives and values affect their daily work. Method: This research is framed within a quantitative empirical-analytic…

  9. ADHD with Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder: Discrete or Nondistinct Disruptive Behavior Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F.; Doerfler, Leonard A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Method: Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male…

  10. Facial Mimicry in 6-7 Year Old Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder and ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P.K.H.; Munsters, N.M.; Kenemans, J.L.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Matthys, W.C.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age.

  11. Classroom-Based Functional Analysis and Intervention for Disruptive and Off-Task Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, Emily D.; Wills, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature on the use of functional analysis in schools, there is a need for more demonstrations of this technology being used during the course of typical instruction. In this study, we conducted functional analyses of disruptive and off-task behavior in a reading classroom setting for 3 participants of typical…

  12. Kindergarten Disruptive Behaviors, Protective Factors, and Educational Achievement by Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Larose, Simon; Trembaly, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether 2 aspects of disruptive behaviors (i.e., hyperactivity-inattention and aggressiveness-opposition) observed in kindergarten predict noncompletion of high school by early adulthood. Also investigated was whether other personal characteristics such as anxiety or prosociality as well as parent child-rearing attitudes and…

  13. PCL-R Psychopathy Predicts Disruptive Behavior Among Male Offenders in a Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Martin; De Ruiter, Corine; Nijman, Henk

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between psychopathy, according to the Dutch language version of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and various types of disruptive behavior during inpatient forensic psychiatric treatment is investigated. Ninety-two male participants were administered the PCL-R following admission to an inpatient forensic…

  14. Youth Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Trajectories and subsequent Gambling among Urban Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S.; Liu, Weiwei; Hedden, Sarra L.; Goldweber, Asha; Storr, Carla L.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Stinchfield, Randy; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Petras, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examines the association between aggressive/disruptive behavior development in two distinct developmental periods, childhood (i.e., grades 1–3) and early adolescence (i.e., grades 6–10) and subsequent gambling behavior in late adolescence up to age 20. Method The sample consists of 310 urban males of predominately minority and low socioeconomic status followed from first grade to late adolescence. Separate general growth mixture models (GGMM) were estimated to explore the heterogeneity in aggressive/disruptive behavior development in the above-mentioned two time periods. Results Three distinct behavior trajectories were identified for each time period: a chronic high, a moderate increasing and a low increasing class for childhood, and a chronic high, a moderate increasing followed by decreasing and a low stable class for early adolescence. There was no association between childhood behavior trajectories and gambling involvement. Males with a moderate behavior trajectory in adolescence where two times more likely to gamble compared to those in the low stable class (OR=1.89, 95% CI=1.11, 3.24). Those with chronic high trajectories during either childhood or early adolescence (OR=2.60, 95% CI=1.06, 6.38; OR=3.19, 95% CI=1.18, 8.64, respectively) were more likely to be at-risk/problem gamblers than those in the low class. Conclusions Aggressive/disruptive behavior development in childhood and early adolescence is associated with gambling and gambling problems in late adolescence among urban male youth. Preventing childhood and youth aggressive/disruptive behavior may be effective to prevent youth problem gambling. PMID:23410188

  15. Affective network and default mode network in depressive adolescents with disruptive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sun Mi Kim,1 Sung Yong Park,1 Young In Kim,1 Young Don Son,2 Un-Sun Chung,3,4 Kyung Joon Min,1 Doug Hyun Han1 1Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon, 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 4School Mental Health Resources and Research Center, Kyungpook National University Children’s Hospital, Daegu, South Korea Aim: Disruptive behaviors are thought to affect the progress of major depressive disorder (MDD in adolescents. In resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC studies of MDD, the affective network (limbic network and the default mode network (DMN have garnered a great deal of interest. We aimed to investigate RSFC in a sample of treatment-naïve adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors.Methods: Twenty-two adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors (disrup-MDD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We used a seed-based correlation approach concerning two brain circuits including the affective network and the DMN, with two seed regions ­including the bilateral amygdala for the limbic network and the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC for the DMN. We also observed a correlation between RSFC and severity of depressive symptoms and disruptive behaviors.Results: The disrup-MDD participants showed lower RSFC from the amygdala to the orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus compared to HC participants. Depression scores in disrup-MDD participants were negatively correlated with RSFC from the amygdala to the right orbitofrontal cortex. The disrup-MDD participants had higher PCC RSFC compared to HC participants in a cluster that included the left precentral gyrus, left insula, and left parietal lobe. Disruptive behavior scores in disrup-MDD patients were positively

  16. The disruptive behavior disorders and the coexisting deficits in the context of theories describing family relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak, Marta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study is to understand behavior disturbances and widely comprehended deficits attached to it, with regards to quality of family relations.Method. To explain the etiology and the consequences of the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorder the authors analyzed literature which allowed combining the theory of attachment and the theory of deficits.In the first part of the script the authors described Bowlby’s theory of attachment, which arranges attachment behaviors in behavioral attachment system. To expand comprehension of the subject theymentioned psychoanalytic and system concepts. The second part of the paper is devoted to the definition of deficit phenomenon and determining its different areas on the basis of observations made by the researchers dealing with this matter.Conclusion. In authors’ opinion the deficits occurring in children suffering from disruptive behavior disorder are connected with improper family relations. The disruptive behavior disorders may be a way of defense against narcissistic injury as well as motor discharging of the emotional difficulties.

  17. Sssshhh. We're Taking Notes Here. Colleges Look for New Ways To Discourage Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes some of the efforts colleges are taking to discourage disruptive behavior by students in the classroom. Many of these initiatives have been requested by students themselves. Most depend on setting clear expectations for student behavior. (SLD)

  18. Collective behavior states in animal groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambui, Dorílson S.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we study some states of collective behavior observed in groups of animals. For this end we consider an agent-based model with biologically motivated behavioral rules where the speed is treated as an independent stochastic variable, and the motion direction is adjusted in accord with alignment and attractive interactions. Four types of collective behavior have been observed: disordered motion, collective rotation, coherent collective motion, and formation flight. We investigate the case when transitions between collective states depend on both the speed and the attraction between individuals. Our results show that, to any size of the attraction, small speeds are associated to the coherent collective motion, while collective rotation is more and more pronounced for high speed since the attraction radius is large enough.

  19. The role of friends' disruptive behavior in the development of children's tobacco experimentation: results from a preventive intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.; Vuijk, P.

    2011-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends’ disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children’s tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52%

  20. The Role of Friends' Disruptive Behavior in the Development of Children's Tobacco Experimentation: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Pol A. C.; Huizink, Anja; Vuijk, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children's tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52% males) were randomly assigned to the Good…

  1. Interactions between Maternal Parenting and Children's Early Disruptive Behavior: Bidirectional Associations across the Transition from Preschool to School Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…

  2. Effects of antecedent variables on disruptive behavior and accurate responding in young children in outpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelter, Eric W; Wacker, David P; Call, Nathan A; Ringdahl, Joel E; Kopelman, Todd; Gardner, Andrew W

    2007-01-01

    The effects of manipulations of task variables on inaccurate responding and disruption were investigated with 3 children who engaged in noncompliance. With 2 children in an outpatient clinic, task directives were first manipulated to identify directives that guided accurate responding; then, additional dimensions of the task were manipulated to evaluate their influence on disruptive behavior. With a 3rd child, similar procedures were employed at school. Results showed one-step directives set the occasion for accurate responding and that other dimensions of the task (e.g., preference) functioned as motivating operations for negative reinforcement.

  3. An Exploration of the Use of Functional Behavior Assessment and Noncontingent Reinforcement on Disruptive Behavior in Middle School General Education Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Melody C.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers sometimes experience problems with disruptive behavior in their classrooms. These aberrant and socially mediated behaviors can be difficult for teachers to manage without the proper research-based skills and training. This project explored the effects of training general education classroom teachers to conduct a functional behavior assessment and deliver noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) for disruptive classroom behavior(s). Participants included four middle school general education ...

  4. Analyzing the concept of disruptive behavior in healthcare work: an integrative review*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Meneses Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the concept of disruptive behavior in healthcare work. METHOD An integrative review carried out in the theoretical phase of a qualitative research substantiated by the theoretical framework of the Hybrid Model of Concept Development. The search for articles was conducted in the CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, PubMed and SciVerse Scopus databases in 2013. RESULTS 70 scientific articles answered the guiding question and lead to attributes of disruptive behavior, being: incivility, psychological violence and physical/sexual violence; with their main antecedents (intrapersonal, interpersonal and organizational being: personality characteristics, stress and work overload; and consequences of: workers' moral/mental distress, compromised patient safety, labor loss, and disruption of communication, collaboration and teamwork. CONCLUSION Analysis of the disruptive behavior concept in healthcare work showed a construct in its theoretical stage that encompasses different disrespectful conduct adopted by health workers in the hospital context, which deserve the attention of leadership for better recognition and proper handling of cases and their consequences.

  5. From evolution to revolution: understanding mutability in large and disruptive human groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Roger M.; Felmlee, Diane; Verma, Dinesh C.; Preece, Alun; Williams, Grace-Rose

    2017-05-01

    Over the last 70 years there has been a major shift in the threats to global peace. While the 1950's and 1960's were characterised by the cold war and the arms race, many security threats are now characterised by group behaviours that are disruptive, subversive or extreme. In many cases such groups are loosely and chaotically organised, but their ideals are sociologically and psychologically embedded in group members to the extent that the group represents a major threat. As a result, insights into how human groups form, emerge and change are critical, but surprisingly limited insights into the mutability of human groups exist. In this paper we argue that important clues to understand the mutability of groups come from examining the evolutionary origins of human behaviour. In particular, groups have been instrumental in human evolution, used as a basis to derive survival advantage, leaving all humans with a basic disposition to navigate the world through social networking and managing their presence in a group. From this analysis we present five critical features of social groups that govern mutability, relating to social norms, individual standing, status rivalry, ingroup bias and cooperation. We argue that understanding how these five dimensions interact and evolve can provide new insights into group mutation and evolution. Importantly, these features lend themselves to digital modeling. Therefore computational simulation can support generative exploration of groups and the discovery of latent factors, relevant to both internal group and external group modelling. Finally we consider the role of online social media in relation to understanding the mutability of groups. This can play an active role in supporting collective behaviour, and analysis of social media in the context of the five dimensions of group mutability provides a fresh basis to interpret the forces affecting groups.

  6. Taking a new approach to reduce the incidence of physician disruptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2015-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors continue to play a disturbing role in today's healthcare environment, negatively affecting care relationships that can adversely impact outcomes of patient care. Many organizations have implemented a number of different strategies in an effort to address this important issue with varying degrees of success. New complexities and changing roles, responsibilities and accountabilities for the delivery of appropriate, high-value, high-quality, safe, satisfying care have added increasing pressures on healthcare organizations to better integrate and coordinate healthcare delivery across the entire spectrum of care. Physicians play a crucial role in this process. When disruptive behaviors occur, rather than taking the traditional more remedial punitive approach to behavioral management, organizations would do better to try to focus on strategies that address physician and staff needs and provide appropriate supportive services to help them better adjust to stress and pressures of today's healthcare environment. Increasing levels of stress and burnout are taking their toll on physician attitudes and behaviors resulting in increasing levels of disillusionment, dissatisfaction and frustration affecting physician well-being and performance. Physicians often won't act on their own and we need to look to the organizations they are affiliated with to take the initiative by providing appropriate administrative, clinical and emotional support services before the occurrence of an unwanted event. Allowing physicians' input, listening to their concerns and providing needed support will enhance physician satisfaction, engagement, compliant attitudes and behaviors that lead to less disruption and better patient care.

  7. Bullying, incivility, and disruptive behaviors in the healthcare setting: identification, impact, and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felblinger, Dianne M

    2009-01-01

    Bullying, incivility, and their associated disruptive behaviors are insidious and destructive forces with negative consequences that require identification and intervention at the individual and organizational level. Costs incurred secondary to these insensitive behaviors are substantial and involve matters of patient safety, absenteeism, turnover, turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and employee healthcare. Factors that increase the risk of hostile behaviors include changing hierarchies, conflicting loyalties, stress, and the state of the science. Each organization has the responsibility to develop processes for managing threatening and intimidating actions. New criteria are proposed to guide the implementation of successful programs.

  8. The Association Between Student Reports of Classmates’ Disruptive Behavior and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Blank

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Classroom disciplinary climate and its correlation to students’ performance is a widely debated issue. Policy reports tend to assume that classroom disruptions interfere with the learning experience. Empirical evidence for this assumption, however, which carefully distinguishes classroom climate from the school climate in general, is still wanting. This study examines the relation between student reports regarding disciplinary infractions to student achievement, with a special focus on classroom disruptions. Multilevel regressions were used to estimate the contribution of classroom and school disciplinary infractions on eighth-grade students’ test scores. Reports of disruptive behavior proved to correlate negatively with test scores, whereas the effect of other school and classroom characteristics, including teachers’ attitudes and school disciplinary policy, were insignificant (controlling for students’ prior achievements. We conclude that a disruptive classroom climate can hinder the learning process and lower the achievement of the entire class, regardless of the conduct of any particular student. Therefore, a special focus on disruptions in the classroom, in contradistinction with school disciplinary climate in general—which is lacking in most studies—emerges as instrumental to the understanding of how school climate relates to student achievement.

  9. Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, P K H; Schutter, D J L G; Kenemans, J L; Matthys, W

    2015-01-01

    Empathy has been associated with decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior. This study examined empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six- and 7-year-old children with DBD (with and without ADHD) (n = 67) and with ADHD only (n = 27) were compared to typically developing children (TD) (n = 37). Parents and teachers rated affective empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure. Children reported affective empathic ability in response to sad story vignettes. Empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress was assessed with a computer task, the Interpersonal Response Task (IRT). Compared to TD, children with DBD (with and without ADHD) and those with ADHD only were rated as less empathic by their teachers, but not by their parents. No differences between groups were observed in children who reported affect correspondence. Children with DBD (with and without ADHD) showed less prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress compared to TD. Children with ADHD only did not differ from TD. An additional analysis comparing all children with a diagnosis to the TD group revealed that the difference in prosocial behavior remained after controlling for ADHD symptoms, but not after controlling for DBD symptoms. These findings of impaired empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in young children with DBD suggest that interventions to ameliorate peer relationships may benefit from targeting on increasing prosocial behavior in these children.

  10. Positive peer pressure: the effects of peer monitoring on children's disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden Smith, L K; Fowler, S A

    1984-01-01

    Classroom peers can serve as powerful sources of reinforcement in increasing or maintaining both the positive and negative behaviors of their classmates. In two experiments, we examined the effectiveness of a peer-monitored token system on reducing disruption and nonparticipation during a transition period of a kindergarten class for behaviorally impaired children. Additionally, the effect of providing and subsequently withholding corrective feedback to peer mediators on the accuracy of their point awards was evaluated. Results in Experiment 1 suggest that both teacher- and peer-monitored interventions were successful in decreasing disruption and increasing participation of monitored peers. Experiment 2 further demonstrated that peer monitors could successfully initiate the token system without prior adult implementation. Analysis of the point awards in both experiments indicates that peer monitors consistently awarded points that were earned. However, when corrective feedback was withdrawn the peer monitors frequently awarded points that were not earned, i.e., they rarely withheld points for undesirable behavior. Even so, the monitored peers' disruptive behavior was maintained at low rates.

  11. Systems approach to address incivility and disruptive behaviors in health-care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Elizabeth; Kusy, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing evidence that disruptive behaviors within health-care teams constitute a major threat to the quality of care, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO; Joint Commission Resources, 2008) has a new leadership standard that addresses disruptive and inappropriate behaviors effective January 1, 2009. For professionals who work in human resources and organization development, these standards represent a clarion call to design and implement evidence-based interventions to create health-care communities of respectful engagement that have zero tolerance for disruptive, uncivil, and intimidating behaviors by any professional. In this chapter, we will build an evidence-based argument that sustainable change must include organizational, team, and individual strategies across all professionals in the organization. We will then describe an intervention model--Toxic Organization Change System--that has emerged from our own research on toxic behaviors in the workplace (Kusy & Holloway, 2009) and provide examples of specific strategies that we have used to prevent and ameliorate toxic cultures.

  12. Addressing the Causes and Consequences of Disruptive Behaviors in the Healthcare Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H Rosenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive behaviors in health care can have a significant adverse effect on staff interactions that can negatively impact staff satisfaction, staff performance, and patient outcomes of care. Despite growing evidence of the ill effects of these types of behaviors many organizations are still having a difficult time in addressing these issues in an effective manner. Gaining a better understanding of the nature, causes, and impact of these behaviors is crucial to finding the right remedies for solution. Nobody intentionally starts the day planning to be disruptive; it’s just that things get in the way. A combination of deep seated factors related to age and gender preferences, culture and ethnicity, life experiences, and other events that help shape values, attitudes and personalities, and more external factors related to training, environmental pressures, and personal issues all contribute to the mix. Early recognition, early intervention, and taking a pro-active supportive approach to improve individual behaviors will result in better relationships, less disruption, more satisfaction, and better outcomes of care.

  13. Callous unemotional traits in children with disruptive behavior disorder: Predictors of developmental trajectories and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Manfredi, Azzurra; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Masi, Gabriele

    2016-02-28

    The present study investigated trajectories of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnosis followed-up from childhood to adolescence, to explore possible predictors of these trajectories, and to individuate adolescent clinical outcomes. A sample of 59 Italian referred children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (53 boys and 6 girls, 21 with Conduct Disorder) was followed up from childhood to adolescence. CU traits were assessed with CU-scale of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-parent report. Latent growth curve models showed that CU traits are likely to decrease linearly from 9 to 15 years old, with a deceleration in adolescence (from 12 to 15). There was substantial individual variability in the rate of change of CU traits over time: patients with a minor decrease of CU symptoms during childhood were at increased risk for severe behavioral problems and substance use into adolescence. Although lower level of socio-economic status and lower level of parenting involvement were associated to elevated levels of CU traits at baseline evaluation, none of the considered clinical and environmental factors predicted the levels of CU traits. The current longitudinal research suggests that adolescent outcomes of Disruptive Behavior Disorder be influenced by CU traits trajectories during childhood.

  14. Managing disruptive behaviors in the health care setting: focus on obstetrics services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2011-03-01

    Disruptive behaviors can have a significant negative impact on staff relationships, communication flow, task responsibility, and team collaboration, all of which can adversely impact patient outcomes of care. Addressing disruptive behaviors in a positive manner by emphasizing the benefits of mutual understanding, shared goals and priorities, and adherence to accepted standards of care will enhance communication flow and improve the process and outcomes of care. This is particularly relevant in the obstetrics setting, where care is delivered over a continuum of time, with multiple different members of the health care team playing a vital role as the patient progresses from labor to delivery. Critical strategies for success include having strong organizational commitment and leadership support, raising provider insight and awareness, implementing appropriate policies and procedures, providing appropriate educational and training programs, and facilitating action-oriented interventional support. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychoticism and disruptive behavior can be also good predictors of school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Widaman, Keith; Mansur-Alves, Marcela; Bacelar, Tatiane Dias; Saldanha, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The relations of Gf (Standard Progressive Matrices Raven), Gc (verbal scale of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version), personality dimensions (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Junior Version), and disruptive behavior (TDAH scale) with school achievement (measured by TDE test and PISA test) were investigated. Two samples of students (total N = 534) representing a broad range of socioeconomic status (SES) participated in this study. Path models were conducted. The results demonstrated that (1) in both samples no sex differences related to school achievement were found; (2) in the first sample, after controlling for age and SES differences, Gf and psychoticism predicted (.38 and -.13, respectively) school achievement (measured by TDE test); (3) in the second sample, after controlling for SES differences to which additional measures were administered, Gf and Gc positively predicted (.22 and .40, respectively) school achievement (measured by PISA test). In addition, psychoticism and disruptive behavior also predicted school performance (-.14 and -.28, respectively). Some theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  16. Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model

    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component hypotheses were that (a) maladaptive traits would increase risk for inattention/hyperactivity, (b) inattention/hyperactivity would increase risk for disrupti...

  17. Addressing disruptive behaviors in the organizational setting: the win-win approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2013-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors can have a significant impact on organizational dynamics and work relationships and a profound negative effect on staff and patient satisfaction, performance efficiency, and patient outcomes. Despite the growing call for action, many organizations still have difficulty in addressing these issues in a consistent, effective manner. Presented below is a model that focuses on causes and barriers and offers solutions designed to promote a "What's in it for me?" win-win approach for improving morale, job satisfaction, and patient care.

  18. Identifying comorbid depression and disruptive behavior disorders: comparison of two approaches used in adolescent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Stoep, Ann; Adrian, Molly C; Rhew, Isaac C; McCauley, Elizabeth; Herting, Jerald R; Kraemer, Helena C

    2012-07-01

    Interest in commonly co-occurring depression and disruptive behavior disorders in children has yielded a small body of research that estimates the prevalence of this comorbid condition and compares children with the comorbid condition and children with depression or disruptive behavior disorders alone with respect to antecedents and outcomes. Prior studies have used one of two different approaches to measure comorbid disorders: (1) meeting criteria for two DSM or ICD diagnoses or (2) scoring .5 SD above the mean or higher on two dimensional scales. This study compares two snapshots of comorbidity taken simultaneously in the same sample with each of the measurement approaches. The Developmental Pathways Project administered structured diagnostic interviews as well as dimensional scales to a community-based sample of 521 11-12 year olds to assess depression and disruptive behavior disorders. Clinical caseness indicators of children identified as "comorbid" by each method were examined concurrently and 3-years later. Cross-classification of adolescents via the two approaches revealed low agreement. When other indicators of caseness, including functional impairment, need for services, and clinical elevations on other symptom scales were examined, adolescents identified as comorbid via dimensional scales only were similar to those who were identified as comorbid via DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Findings suggest that when relying solely on DSM diagnostic criteria for comorbid depression and disruptive behavior disorders, many adolescents with significant impairment will be overlooked. Findings also suggest that lower dimensional scale thresholds can be set when comorbid conditions, rather than single forms of psychopathology, are being identified.

  19. Multisystemic therapy for disruptive behavior problems in youths with autism spectrum disorders: a progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David V; Borduin, Charles M; Kanne, Stephen M; Mazurek, Micah O; Farmer, Janet E; Brown, Rachel M A

    2014-07-01

    Youths with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often engage in serious disruptive behaviors that interfere with their ability to successfully manage day-to-day responsibilities and contribute to relationship problems with caregivers, peers, and teachers. Effective treatments are needed to address the factors linked with disruptive behavior problems in this population of youths. Multisystemic therapy (MST) is a comprehensive family- and community-based treatment approach that has been effective with other difficult-to-treat populations of youths and holds promise for youths with ASD. In this article, we review the broad range of factors associated with disruptive behaviors among youths with ASD and discuss how MST interventions can be adapted to address those factors. We also present a framework for our adaptation of the MST model for youths with ASD. This framework includes a recently completed pilot study as well as an ongoing efficacy trial that together have served to identify key interventions for our adaptation of the MST model. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  20. Three applications of functional analysis with group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharwächter, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Case illustrations from group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy are presented to demonstrate three applications of functional analysis and the resulting cognitive behavioral interventions. The principles of group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy are explained. A functional analysis is applied first to the problem behavior of an individual group member. A clinical case illustrates how the group members help to change this individual group member's behavior from a learning theory perspective. Next, the circular interactional problem behavior between two group members is reduced to the individual functional analysis of each of the two member's problem behaviors. It is then illustrated how the two group member's problem behaviors, as well as feedback from others, contribute toward helping to change each others behavior. The paper concludes that functional analysis and ensuing behavioral interventions can be also applied to group as a whole behavior.

  1. Testing the effects of safety climate and disruptive children behavior on school bus drivers performance: A multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Lee, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The study was designed to test a multilevel path model whose variables exert opposing effects on school bus drivers' performance. Whereas departmental safety climate was expected to improve driving safety, the opposite was true for in-vehicle disruptive children behavior. The driving safety path in this model consists of increasing risk-taking practices starting with safety shortcuts leading to rule violations and to near-miss events. The study used a sample of 474 school bus drivers in rural areas, driving children to school and school-related activities. Newly developed scales for measuring predictor, mediator and outcome variables were validated with video data taken from inner and outer cameras, which were installed in 29 buses. Results partially supported the model by indicating that group-level safety climate and individual-level children distraction exerted opposite effects on the driving safety path. Furthermore, as hypothesized, children disruption moderated the strength of the safety rule violation-near miss relationship, resulting in greater strength under high disruptiveness. At the same time, the hypothesized interaction between the two predictor variables was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate in general and distracted driving in particular for professional drivers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining the Associations Among Home-School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M; Graves, Scott L; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home-school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home-school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed.

  3. Direct Behavioral Consultation: Effects on Teachers' Praise and Student Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Lestremau, Lauren; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavioral consultation is an extension of traditional behavioral consultation and focuses on assessment and training in the classroom during ongoing classroom activities. This study evaluated direct behavioral consultation services in two elementary alternative classrooms referred following a program evaluation in which data suggested…

  4. Co-occurring Anxiety and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: The Roles of Anxious Symptoms, Reactive Aggression, and Shared Risk Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bubier, Jennifer L.; Drabick, Deborah A.G.

    2009-01-01

    The current review uses a developmental perspective to examine processes that may underlie and partially account for the association between anxiety disorders and disruptive behavior disorders among children and adolescents. We propose that one way to understand development of comorbid anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders is to examine symptoms that are precursors for or part of these syndromes, such as anxious symptoms and reactive aggression. We use a framework that considers these iss...

  5. Examining the Associations Among Home–School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Graves, Scott L.; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home–school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Control...

  6. Co-occurring anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders: the roles of anxious symptoms, reactive aggression, and shared risk processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, Jennifer L; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2009-11-01

    The current review uses a developmental perspective to examine processes that may underlie and partially account for the association between anxiety disorders and disruptive behavior disorders among children and adolescents. We propose that one way to understand development of comorbid anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders is to examine symptoms that are precursors for or part of these syndromes, such as anxious symptoms and reactive aggression. We use a framework that considers these issues first at the syndrome or disorder level (e.g., anxiety disorders, disruptive behavior disorders), then at the symptom level (e.g., anxious symptoms and reactive aggression), and finally at the risk factor level (e.g., factors associated with anxious symptoms and/or reactive aggression). We apply various frameworks that have been put forth for understanding comorbidity of psychological syndromes to the co-occurrence of anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders and to the co-occurrence of reactive aggression and anxious symptoms where possible. We then identify gaps in the literature with regard to anxiety and reactive aggression, as well as anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders more generally. Finally, we provide a conceptual model describing how the relation of anxiety and reactive aggression may develop into clinically identifiable, comorbid anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders.

  7. Conditioned place preference induced by social play behavior: parametrics, extinction, reinstatement and disruption by methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezza, Viviana; Damsteegt, Ruth; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we investigated behavioral factors underlying conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by social interaction in adolescent rats. We found that the magnitude of socially-induced CPP depended on the social motivation of the animals and on the amount of training. After extinction, socially-induced CPP could be reinstated by a single reconditioning session. Treatment with methylphenidate, which disrupts social play behavior in adolescent rats, but not social exploratory behavior, prevented the development of socially-induced CPP. Interestingly, methylphenidate by itself induced CPP. These data demonstrate that: 1. social interaction is rewarding in adolescent rats; 2. appetitive and mnemonic factors influence the development of socially-induced CPP; 3. comparable to drug-induced CPP, socially-induced CPP can be extinguished and reinstated; 4. social play is likely to be the most rewarding aspect of social interaction in adolescent rats; 5. social context influences the subjective effects of methylphenidate.

  8. Guanfacine Use in Children With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, George T; Brecher, Liza; Bay, Mihee

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize children with Down syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with disruptive behaviors using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and to measure the treatment effects of guanfacine on maladaptive behaviors. Subjects were enrolled from a group of outpatients who visited our clinic between 2002 and 2007. Subjects (N = 23) were children with Down syndrome ages 4 to 12 years (mean 7.4 ± 4.1), who met criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales each showed a significant decrease (P < .0001) at follow-up. The mean decline on Hyperactivity was 25% (-7.8 points), and for Irritability, 25% (-3.5 points). The mean composite score also declined by 24% (-12 points). Effect size differences on Irritability were moderate, whereas differences on Hyperactivity and composite score appeared large. Clinically important target behaviors were reduced. Medication was generally well tolerated and the incidence of treatment emergent side effects remained low.

  9. Toward an exportable parent training program for disruptive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearss, Karen; Lecavalier, Luc; Minshawi, Noha; Johnson, Cynthia; Smith, Tristram; Handen, Benjamin; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Aman, Michael; Swiezy, Naomi; Butter, Eric; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are chronic conditions of early childhood onset characterized by profound deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behavior. The prevalence of ASD is now estimated to be 1 in 88 children. As the number of identified cases of ASD has grown, so have the challenges of serving these children and their families. Unfortunately, the empirical foundation for many interventions for this population is not firmly established. Thus, there is a pressing need to conduct trials that will expand the evidence base and guide clinical treatment. Investigators from the Research Units in Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP; Indiana University, Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, Yale University) followed a treatment development model outlined by an NIMH ad hoc committee to develop and test a parent training (PT) treatment manual for children with ASD accompanied by disruptive behavior problems. This article describes the process of manual development and cross-site therapist training, establishment and maintenance of treatment integrity, assessment of treatment acceptance by families as well as primary outcomes of three trials. Results suggest the structured PT program can be delivered with a high degree of fidelity within and across therapists, is acceptable to parents and can produce significant reductions in disruptive behaviors in children with ASD. PMID:23772233

  10. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb affects social interaction but not maternal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult-born neurons arrive to the olfactory bulb and integrate into the existing circuit throughout life. Despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, its functional impact is still poorly understood. Recent studies point to the importance of newly generated neurons to olfactory learning and memory. Adult neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of factors, notably by instances related to reproductive behavior, such as exposure to mating partners, pregnancy and lactation, and exposure to offspring. To study the contribution of olfactory neurogenesis to maternal behavior and social recognition, here we selectively disrupted olfactory bulb neurogenesis using focal irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult female mice. We show that reduction of olfactory neurogenesis results in an abnormal social interaction pattern with male, but not female, conspecifics; we suggest that this effect could result from inability to detect or discriminate male odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Disruption of olfactory bulb neurogenesis, however, neither impaired maternal-related behaviors, nor did it affect the ability of mothers to discriminate their own progeny from others.

  11. Study of defensive methods and mechanisms in developmental, emotional (internalization), and disruptive behavior (externalization) disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, H R; Zamani, N; Darvishi, M; Khansari, M R

    2014-09-18

    We need to find a way for adaptation with inherent unpleasantness of being human condition and conflicts that it caused, as we did not fail. Methods that we used for adaptation are named defense. This research have performed with the aim of study and compare defensive mechanisms and methods of Developmental, Emotional (Internalization), and Disruptive behavior (Externalization) disorders. Method, sample of this research included 390 family that are by available sampling method are selected. Tools of research were structured clinical interview of forth cognitive and statistical guide of psychopathic disorders for axis I and the way used for assess defensive mechanisms is defensive method 40 question's questionnaires of Andrews (1993). The data are compared by statistical methods comparison of averages and one way variance analysis and HSD tests and results show that undeveloped defensive mechanisms in by developmental disorder family (25.2 ± 3.7) mean and standard deviation, it is most used mechanism and in disruptive behavior disorder family by (11.2 ± 1.9) mean and standard deviation is used least mechanism and in developed mechanism of emotional disorder family by (7.8 ± 3.1) mean and standard deviation is most used mechanism and in developmental disorder family by (4.3 ± 1.5) mean and standard deviation is least mechanism in neuroticism patient, social phobia affected emotional disorder family (15.6 ± 2.6) and disruptive behavior disorder family have least mean and standard deviation (9.2 ± 1.7) (p< 0.005). Recent research shows significant of study defensive mechanism in psychopathic family of disorder children that affecting on the way of life of persons and interpersonal and intrapersonal relations and method of solving problem in family of them in life, so defensive mechanisms require more attention.

  12. Road trauma in teenage male youth with childhood disruptive behavior disorders: a population based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Redelmeier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Teenage male drivers contribute to a large number of serious road crashes despite low rates of driving and excellent physical health. We examined the amount of road trauma involving teenage male youth that might be explained by prior disruptive behavior disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of consecutive male youth between age 16 and 19 years hospitalized for road trauma (cases or appendicitis (controls in Ontario, Canada over 7 years (April 1, 2002 through March 31, 2009. Using universal health care databases, we identified prior psychiatric diagnoses for each individual during the decade before admission. Overall, a total of 3,421 patients were admitted for road trauma (cases and 3,812 for appendicitis (controls. A history of disruptive behavior disorders was significantly more frequent among trauma patients than controls (767 of 3,421 versus 664 of 3,812, equal to a one-third increase in the relative risk of road trauma (odds ratio  =  1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.54, p<0.001. The risk was evident over a range of settings and after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.56, p<0.001. The risk explained about one-in-20 crashes, was apparent years before the event, extended to those who died, and persisted among those involved as pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS: Disruptive behavior disorders explain a significant amount of road trauma in teenage male youth. Programs addressing such disorders should be considered to prevent injuries.

  13. Preschool Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Problems as Predictors of (Pre)adolescent Disruptive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-12 and at age 13-15. ODD and ACD were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report, preschool behavior was evaluated by the parental questionnaire 'How was your child as a pre...

  14. Therapists' attitudes towards psychotherapeutic strategies in community-based psychotherapy with children with disruptive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Garland, Ann F; Taylor, Robin; Zoffness, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about what individual treatment strategies therapists providing usual care psychotherapy consider the most valuable to their practice. The Therapeutic Strategies Survey (TSS) assesses therapists' attitudes about the value of 27 individual treatment strategies in their practice with children with disruptive behavior problems in community-based outpatient psychotherapy. Findings indicate that therapists from multiple professional disciplines highly value many individual psychotherapeutic strategies, and consider strategies common to a majority of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for this population at least as important as strategies not emphasized in EBPs. Implications for developing therapist training and implementation of EBPs are discussed.

  15. [Disruptive nocturnal behavior in elderly subjects: could it be a parasomnia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Parasomnias are sleep-related abnormal behaviors. They are frequent and overlooked causes of nocturnal disruptive behavior in the elderly, especially when patients are cognitively impaired. Confusion and violence can result in sleep disruption, injuries for the patients or their bed partners, caregivers distress, and they can be a motive for institutionalization. Parasomnias include the NonREM sleep disorders of arousal (sleepwalking, sleep terrors, confusional arousals and sleep-related eating disorder), the REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and more rarely the parasomnia overlap syndrome, which associates both NREM and REM parasomnias. Patients with NREM sleep parasomnias are confused, eyes open, with a glazed look during their nocturnal behaviors, and they have a post-episode amnesia. They shout and bolt from the bed (night terrors), look about in a confused manner, walk and speak (sleepwalking), and eat peculiar or inedible food (sleep-related eating disorders). These behaviors, which are frequent in young adults, may be triggered by short-half live hypnotics in elderly. During the parasomnia, the brain is partially awake (enough to perform complex motor and verbal action), and partially asleep (without conscious awareness or responsibility). RBD is characterized by a loss of the normal muscle atonia that accompanies REM sleep. Patients have excessive motor activity such as punching, kicking, or crying out in association with dream content. RBD are frequent in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and may precede the cognitive or motor symptoms of these diseases by 5 to 10 years. RBD can also be promoted by antidepressants. When combined with thorough clinical interviews, the video-polysomnography is a powerful tool, especially for discriminating the parasomnia from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, sleep apneas and periodic leg movements. Ensuring safety and withdrawing deleterious treatments are useful in patients with violent activities, potential

  16. Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P. K. H.; Schutter, D. J. L. G.; Kenemans, J. L.; Matthys, W.

    2015-01-01

    Empathy has been associated with decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior. This study examined empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six- and 7-year-old children with

  17. Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P. K. H.; Schutter, D. J. L. G.; Kenemans, J. L.; Matthys, W.

    2015-01-01

    Empathy has been associated with decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior. This study examined empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six- and 7-year-old children with

  18. Contributions of Hot and Cool Self-Regulation to Preschool Disruptive Behavior and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael; Kupersmidt, Janis; Voegler-Lee, Mare; Bryant, Donna

    2017-01-01

    The construct of self-regulation can be meaningfully distinguished into hot and cool components. The current study investigated self-regulation in a sample of 926 children aged 3–5 years old. Children’s performance on self-regulatory tasks was best described by two latent factors representing hot and cool regulation. When considered alone, hot and cool regulation were both significantly correlated with disruptive behavior and academic achievement. When considered together, cool regulation was uniquely associated with academic achievement, while hot regulation was uniquely associated with inattentive-overactive behaviors. Results are discussed with respect to treatment studies that directly target improvement in children’s self-regulation. PMID:21347919

  19. Efektivitas Anger Management Training Untuk Menurunkan Agresivitas Pada Remaja Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrizulhaidi Nasrizulhaidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efektivitas anger management training untuk menurunkan agresivitas pada remaja disruptive behavior disorders. Subjek penelitian dipilih melalui screening dengan skala CPRS (Conduct Problem Risk Screen dan pengukuran agresivitas dengan skala Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ. AMT (Anger Management Training berupa psikoedukasi, yang mempelajari tentang pemahaman dasar marah, ekspresi marah dan akibatnya, mengidentifikasi diri saat marah, mengontrol pikiran marah dan menentukan tingkat kemarahan. Selanjutnya memahami anger management melalui film, relaksasi otot dan pernapasan, cara menyelesaikan konflik, cara mengontrol marah dan perencanaan dalam mengontrol marah. Adapun metode intervensi yang digunakan terdiri dari diskusi kasus, latihan individual, presentasi dan modelling perilaku. Penempatan subjek dengan random assignment dibagi menjadi dua kelompok. Kelompok eksperimen berjumlah 10 orang, mendapat AMT selama 3 kali pertemuan dan setiap pertemuan memerlukan waktu 120 menit. Sementara subjek di kelompok kontrol juga berjumlah 10 orang, namun tidak mendapatkan perlakuan. Dapat disimpulkan anger management efektif untuk menurunkan agresivitas. Dalam hal ini subjek di kelompok eksperimen mengalami penurunan agresivitas setelah mendapat AMT dan subjek di kelompok kontrol mengalami peningkatan agresivitas karena tidak mendapatkan AMT. Selain itu AMT dapat pula diberikan pada individu yang memiliki kemampuan di bawah rata-rata, dengan memodifikasi program yang lebih berbentuk operasional konkrit. Kata kunci: anger management training, agresivitas, disruptive behavior disorders

  20. Program and Teacher Characteristics Predicting the Implementation of Banking Time with Preschoolers Who Display Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P; Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; Locasale-Crouch, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the relationship among baseline program and teacher characteristics and subsequent implementation of Banking Time. Banking Time is a dyadic intervention intended to improve a teacher's interaction quality with a specific child. Banking Time implementation was examined in the current study using a sample of 59 teachers and preschool children displaying disruptive behaviors in the classroom (~three children per classroom). Predictors included preschool program type, teacher demographic characteristics (personal and professional), and teacher beliefs (self-efficacy, authoritarian beliefs, and negative attributions about child disruptive behavior). Multiple measures and methods (i.e., teacher report, consultant report, independent observations) were used to assess implementation. We created three implementation composite measures (dosage, quality, and generalized practice) that had high internal consistencies within each composite but were only modestly associated with one another, suggesting unique constructs of implementation. We found that type of preschool program was associated with dosage and quality. Aspects of teacher demographics related to all three implementation composites. Teacher beliefs predicted dosage and generalized practice. Results suggest that the factors that predict the implementation of Banking Time vary as a function of the type of implementation being assessed.

  1. Disruptions of network connectivity predict impairment in multiple behavioral domains after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joshua Sarfaty; Ramsey, Lenny E; Snyder, Abraham Z; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Chacko, Ravi V; Weinberger, Kilian; Baldassarre, Antonello; Hacker, Carl D; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2016-07-26

    Deficits following stroke are classically attributed to focal damage, but recent evidence suggests a key role of distributed brain network disruption. We measured resting functional connectivity (FC), lesion topography, and behavior in multiple domains (attention, visual memory, verbal memory, language, motor, and visual) in a cohort of 132 stroke patients, and used machine-learning models to predict neurological impairment in individual subjects. We found that visual memory and verbal memory were better predicted by FC, whereas visual and motor impairments were better predicted by lesion topography. Attention and language deficits were well predicted by both. Next, we identified a general pattern of physiological network dysfunction consisting of decrease of interhemispheric integration and intrahemispheric segregation, which strongly related to behavioral impairment in multiple domains. Network-specific patterns of dysfunction predicted specific behavioral deficits, and loss of interhemispheric communication across a set of regions was associated with impairment across multiple behavioral domains. These results link key organizational features of brain networks to brain-behavior relationships in stroke.

  2. Enhanced Eyeblink Conditioning in Behaviorally Inhibited Individuals is Disrupted by Proactive Interference Following US Alone Pre-exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael Todd; Miller, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety vulnerable individuals exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as well as enhanced proactive interference from conditioned stimulus (CS) or unconditioned stimulus (US) alone pre-exposures (Holloway et al., 2012). US alone pre-exposures disrupt subsequent conditioned response (CR) acquisition to CS-US paired trials as compared to context pre-exposure controls. While Holloway et al. (2012) reported enhanced acquisition in high trait anxiety individuals in the context condition, anxiety vulnerability effects were not reported for the US alone pre-exposure group. It appears from the published data that there were no differences between high and low anxiety individuals in the US alone condition. In the work reported here, we sought to extend the findings of enhanced proactive interference with US alone pre-exposures to determine if the enhanced conditioning was disrupted by proactive interference procedures. We also were interested in the spontaneous eyeblinks during the pre-exposure phase of training. We categorized individuals as anxiety vulnerability or non-vulnerable individuals based scores on the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (AMBI). Sixty-six participants received 60 trials consisting of 30 US alone or context alone pre-exposures followed by 30 CS-US trials. US alone pre-exposures not only disrupted CR acquisition overall, but behaviorally inhibited (BI) individuals exhibited enhanced proactive interference as compared to non-inhibited (NI) individuals. In addition, US alone pre-exposures disrupted the enhanced acquisition observed in BI individuals as compared to NI individuals following context alone pre-exposures. Differences were also found in rates of spontaneous eyeblinks between BI and NI individuals during context pre-exposure. Our findings will be discussed in the light of the neural substrates of eyeblink conditioning as well as possible factors such as hypervigilance in the amygdala and hippocampal systems, and possible

  3. Treating young children's disruptive behavior problems: dissemination of an evidence- based parent management training program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of young children’s disruptive behavior problems are persistent, highly prevalent, and a serious public health concern. If left untreated, these behaviors can lead to serious difficulties in broad areas of child and family functioning, and economically impact the wider society. Therefore

  4. Stop Hurting Start Helping. Empathy in children with disruptive behavior, attention-deficit and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P.K.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357395964

    2014-01-01

    To date, various psychiatric disorders such as disruptive behavior, attention-deficit/hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorders have been associated with deficits in empathy in school-aged children and adolescents. In this dissertation, behavioral and physiological measures were used to study

  5. Stop Hurting Start Helping. Empathy in children with disruptive behavior, attention-deficit and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P.K.H.

    2014-01-01

    To date, various psychiatric disorders such as disruptive behavior, attention-deficit/hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorders have been associated with deficits in empathy in school-aged children and adolescents. In this dissertation, behavioral and physiological measures were used to study empa

  6. The Contribution of Parenting Practices and Parent Emotion Factors in Children at Risk for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Holland, Kerry A.; Frankling, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of different parenting characteristics on child disruptive behavior and emotional regulation among a sample of at-risk children. The sample consisted of 373 Australian 5- to 9-year-old children who were screened for serious behavior problems. Seven parenting variables based on self-report were…

  7. Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Adolescents with ASD: Comparisons to Youth with Intellectual Disability or Typical Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Dual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and behavior problems and/or mental disorders has become increasingly recognized and studied. Reported rates in samples of mixed-age youth with ASD are often above 70%, making this comorbidity more the rule than the exception. The present study compared rates of disruptive behavior disorder…

  8. Treating young children's disruptive behavior problems: dissemination of an evidence- based parent management training program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle

    2015-01-01

    High levels of young children’s disruptive behavior problems are persistent, highly prevalent, and a serious public health concern. If left untreated, these behaviors can lead to serious difficulties in broad areas of child and family functioning, and economically impact the wider society.

  9. The Use of Group Therapy as a Means of Facilitating Cognitive-Behavioural Instruction for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmar, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an action research enquiry examining the efficacy of group therapy as a means of facilitating cognitive-behavioural instruction for students who exhibit disruptive behaviours. A curriculum comprising the key tenets of cognitive-behaviour modification was developed and taught over a 9-week period to a group…

  10. Preschool behavioral and social-cognitive problems as predictors of (pre)adolescent disruptive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-

  11. Preschool behavioral and social-cognitive problems as predictors of (pre)adolescent disruptive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age

  12. Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of embryonic exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Mary Ann; Lavoie, Emma; Thompson, Nichola; Barton, Ashley; Whitehouse, Kasen; Barton, Meredith; Abdelnabi, Mahmoud; Quinn, Michael; Panzica, GianCarlo; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla

    2008-03-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exert hormone-like activity in vertebrates and exposure to these compounds may induce both short- and long-term deleterious effects including functional alterations that contribute to decreased reproduction and fitness. An overview of the effects of a number of EDCs, including androgenic and estrogenic compounds, will be considered. Many studies have been conducted in the precocial Japanese quail, which provides an excellent avian model for testing these compounds. Long-term impacts have also been studied by raising a subset of animals through maturation. The EDCs examined included estradiol, androgen active compounds, soy phytoestrogens, and atrazine. Effects on behavior and hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems were examined. All EDCs impaired reproduction, regardless of potential mechanism of action. Male sexual behavior proved to be a sensitive index of EDC exposure and embryonic exposure to a variety of EDCs consistently resulted in impaired male sexual behavior. Several hypothalamic neural systems proved to be EDC responsive, including arginine vasotocin (VT), catecholamines, and gonadotropin releasing hormone system (GnRH-I). Finally, EDCs are known to impact both the immune and thyroid systems; these effects are significant for assessing the overall impact of EDCs on the fitness of avian populations. Therefore, exposure to EDCs during embryonic development has consequences beyond impaired function of the reproductive axis. In conclusion, behavioral alterations have the advantage of revealing both direct and indirect effects of exposure to an EDC and in some cases can provide a valuable clue into functional deficits at different physiological levels.

  13. Disrupted Glutamatergic Transmission in Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to Behavioral Abnormality in an Animal Model of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jia; Liu, Aiyi; Shi, Michael Y; Yan, Zhen

    2017-03-22

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are the most widely used animal model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we sought to reveal the neuronal circuits and molecular basis of ADHD and its potential treatment using SHR. Combined electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological, chemicogenetic, and behavioral approaches were utilized. We found that AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC) was diminished in SHR, which was correlated with the decreased surface expression of AMPAR subunits. Administration of methylphenidate (a psychostimulant drug used to treat ADHD), which blocks dopamine transporters and norepinephrine transporters, ameliorated the behavioral deficits of adolescent SHR and restored AMPAR-mediated synaptic function. Activation of PFC pyramidal neurons with a CaMKII-driven Gq-coupled designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug also led to the elevation of AMPAR function and the normalization of ADHD-like behaviors in SHR. These results suggest that the disrupted function of AMPARs in PFC may underlie the behavioral deficits in adolescent SHR and enhancing PFC activity could be a treatment strategy for ADHD.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 22 March 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.30.

  14. Why New Spinal Cord Plasticity Does Not Disrupt Old Motor Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Yu; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2017-08-23

    When new motor learning changes the spinal cord, old behaviors are not impaired; their key features are preserved by additional compensatory plasticity. To explore the mechanisms responsible for this compensatory plasticity, we transected the spinal dorsal ascending tract before or after female rats acquired a new behavior-operantly conditioned increase or decrease in the right soleus H-reflex-and examined an old behavior-locomotion. Neither spinal dorsal ascending tract transection nor H-reflex conditioning alone impaired locomotion. Nevertheless, when spinal dorsal ascending tract transection and H-reflex conditioning were combined, the rats developed a limp and a tilted posture that correlated in direction and magnitude with the H-reflex change. When the right H-reflex was increased by conditioning, the right step lasted longer than the left and the right hip was higher than the left; when the right H-reflex was decreased by conditioning, the opposite occurred. These results indicate that ascending sensory input guides the compensatory plasticity that normally prevents the plasticity underlying H-reflex change from impairing locomotion. They support the concept of the state of the spinal cord as a negotiated equilibrium that reflects the concurrent influences of all the behaviors in an individual's repertoire; and they support the new therapeutic strategies this concept introduces.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The spinal cord provides a reliable final common pathway for motor behaviors throughout life. Until recently, its reliability was explained by the assumption that it is hardwired; but it is now clear that the spinal cord changes continually as new behaviors are acquired. Nevertheless, old behaviors are preserved. This study shows that their preservation depends on sensory feedback from the spinal cord to the brain: if feedback is removed, the acquisition of a new behavior may disrupt an old behavior. In sum, when a new behavior changes the spinal cord, sensory

  15. Disentangling Heterogeneity of Childhood Disruptive Behavior Problems Into Dimensions and Subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Koen; Lubke, Gitta H; van der Ende, Jan; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Kushner, Steven A; Verhulst, Frank C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-08-01

    Irritable and oppositional behaviors are increasingly considered as distinct dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder. However, few studies have explored this multidimensionality across the broader spectrum of disruptive behavior problems (DBPs). This study examined the presence of dimensions and distinct subgroups of childhood DBPs, and the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between these dimensions. Using factor mixture models (FMMs), the presence of dimensions and subgroups of DBPs was assessed in the Generation R Study at ages 6 (n = 6,209) and 10 (n = 4,724) years. Replications were performed in two population-based cohorts (Netherlands Twin Registry, n = 4,402, and Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development, n = 1,089) and a clinical sample (n = 1,933). We used cross-lagged modeling in the Generation R Study to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between dimensions. DBPs were assessed using mother-reported responses to the Child Behavior Checklist. Empirically obtained dimensions of DBPs were oppositional behavior (age 6 years), disobedient behavior, rule-breaking behavior (age 10 years), physical aggression, and irritability (both ages). FMMs suggested that one-class solutions had the best model fit for all dimensions in all three population-based cohorts. Similar results were obtained in the clinical sample. All three dimensions, including irritability, predicted subsequent physical aggression (range, 0.08-0.16). This study showed that childhood DBPs should be regarded as a multidimensional phenotype rather than comprising distinct subgroups. Incorporating multidimensionality will improve diagnostic accuracy and refine treatment. Future studies need to address the biological validity of the DBP dimensions observed in this study; herein lies an important opportunity for neuroimaging and genetic measures. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Information behavior in dynamic group work contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Pierce, Linda G.

    2000-01-01

    personnel and documentation on C2. During data analysis, three important themes that highlight the why, what, how and consequences of information behavior in C2 emerged. The first is the concept of interwoven situational awareness consisting of individual, intragroup and intergroup shared understanding...

  17. Three Essays Identifying Consumer Behavior by Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines consumer behavior in different markets. Six different types of Utah snow skiers, namely, half day, local, multiday, college and K-12 students, and season ticket holders, are analyzed in the first paper to determine their demand response to changes in prices, income, weather, transportation costs, and particular days. A…

  18. Information behavior in dynamic group work contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Pierce, Linda G.

    2000-01-01

    personnel and documentation on C2. During data analysis, three important themes that highlight the why, what, how and consequences of information behavior in C2 emerged. The first is the concept of interwoven situational awareness consisting of individual, intragroup and intergroup shared understanding...

  19. Three Essays Identifying Consumer Behavior by Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines consumer behavior in different markets. Six different types of Utah snow skiers, namely, half day, local, multiday, college and K-12 students, and season ticket holders, are analyzed in the first paper to determine their demand response to changes in prices, income, weather, transportation costs, and particular days. A…

  20. The Effects of Music and Group Stage on Group Leader and Member Behavior in Psychoeducational Groups for Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercone, Kristin; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and group stage on group process and group leader and member behavior within 8-week psychoeducational groups for children of divorce. Audiotapes of group sessions were rated using the Interactional Process Analysis and the Group Sessions Ratings Scale. Both treatment groups were very similar in terms of…

  1. The Effects of Music and Group Stage on Group Leader and Member Behavior in Psychoeducational Groups for Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercone, Kristin; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and group stage on group process and group leader and member behavior within 8-week psychoeducational groups for children of divorce. Audiotapes of group sessions were rated using the Interactional Process Analysis and the Group Sessions Ratings Scale. Both treatment groups were very similar in terms of…

  2. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786

  3. The impact of disruptive behavior disorder on substance use treatment outcome in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stacy R; Stanger, Catherine; Thostenson, Jeff; Whitmore, Jennifer J; Budney, Alan J

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) on substance use outcomes in an adolescent sample. Sixty-eight adolescents and their caregivers were randomized to one of two fourteen-week, outpatient treatments: Motivational Enhancement Therapy/Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MET/CBT)+Parent Management Training+Contingency Management (CM; experimental) and MET/CBT+Parent Drug Education (attention control). This study assessed abstinence, substance use, externalizing behavior, and parenting outcomes over five assessment periods for youth with DBD (DBD(+)) and without DBD (DBD(-)). Results showed DBD(+)/experimental adolescents reported fewer days of marijuana use than DBD(+)/control adolescents. Results also showed that parents of DBD(-) adolescents in the experimental condition reported significantly better parenting outcomes compared to DBD(-)/control. Substance abuse treatment for adolescents with DBD which includes a component such as contingency management and parent training has the potential to contribute to substance use outcomes. Such treatment strategies, however, should include additional support for parents.

  4. Prenatal domoic acid exposure disrupts mouse pro-social behavior and functional connectivity MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brian D.; Pearce, Hadley L.; Khan, Omar; Jarrett, Ben R.; Fair, Damien A.; Lahvis, Garet P.

    2016-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a toxin produced by marine algae and known primarily for its role in isolated outbreaks of Amnestic Shellfish Poisoning and for the damage it inflicts on marine mammals, particularly California sea lions. Lethal effects of DA are often preceded by seizures and coma. Exposure to DA during development can result in subtle and highly persistent effects on brain development and include behavioral changes that resemble diagnostic features of schizophrenia and anomalies in social behavior we believe are relevant to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To more fully examine this hypothesis, we chose to examine adolescent mice exposed in utero to DA for endpoints relevant to ASD, specifically changes in social behavior and network structure, the latter measured by resting state functional connectivity (rsfcMRI). We found that male offspring exposed in utero to DA expressed reproducible declines in social interaction and atypical patterns of functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate, a region of the default mode network that is critical for social functioning. We also found disruptions in global topology in regions involved in the processing of reward, social, and sensory experiences. Finally, we found that DA exposed males expressed a pattern of local over-connectivity. These anomalies in brain connectivity bear resemblance to connectivity patterns in ASD and help validate DA-exposed mice as a model of this mental disability. PMID:27050322

  5. The relationship of brain structure to age and executive functioning in adolescent disruptive behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

    2015-03-30

    Characterizing brain maturation in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) may provide insight into the progression of their behavioral deficits. Therefore, this study examined how age and executive functioning were related to structural neural characteristics in DBD. Thirty-three individuals (aged 13-17) with a DBD, along with a matched control sample, completed neuropsychological testing and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gray matter volume and microstructural white matter properties. Voxel-based morphometry quantified gray matter volume, and diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter tracts. In the anterior cingulate, gray matter volume decreased with age in healthy controls but showed no such change in the DBD sample. In the corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), FA increased with age in the control sample significantly more than in the DBD sample. Executive functioning, particularly working memory, was associated with SLF FA bilaterally. However, the relationship of SLF FA to working memory performance was weaker in the DBD sample. These data suggest that youth with DBD have altered brain development compared with typically developing youth. The abnormal maturation of the anterior cingulate and frontoparietal tracts during adolescence may contribute to the persistence of behavioral deficits in teens with a DBD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mental health care for children with disruptive behavior problems: a view inside therapists' offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ann F; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Hurlburt, Michael S; Accurso, Erin C; Zoffness, Rachel J; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Ganger, William

    2010-08-01

    In the United States, more money is spent on treatment for children's mental health problems than for any other childhood medical condition, yet little is known about usual care treatment for children. Objectives of this study were to characterize usual care outpatient psychotherapy for children with disruptive behavior problems and to identify consistencies and inconsistencies between usual care and common elements of evidence-based practices in order to inform efforts to implement evidence-based practices in usual care. Participants included 96 psychotherapists and 191 children aged four to 13 who were presenting for treatment for disruptive behavior to one of six usual care clinics. An adapted version of the Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) was used to assess psychotherapy processes in 1,215 randomly selected (out of 3,241 collected) videotaped treatment sessions; treatment sessions were recorded for up to 16 months. Most children received a large amount of treatment (mean number of sessions=22, plus children received other auxiliary services), and there was great variability in the amount and type of care received. Therapists employed a wide array of treatment strategies directed toward children and parents within and across sessions, but on average all strategies were delivered at a low intensity. Several strategies that were conceptually consistent with evidence-based practices were observed frequently (for example, affect education and using positive reinforcement); however, others were observed rarely (for example, assigning or reviewing homework and role-playing). Usual care treatment for these youths reflected great breadth but not depth. The results highlight specific discrepancies between evidence-based care and usual care, thus identifying potentially potent targets for improving the effectiveness of usual care.

  7. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  8. Mind wandering and motor control: off-task thinking disrupts the online adjustment of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Julia W Y; Dao, Elizabeth; Blinn, Patricia; Krigolson, Olav E; Boyd, Lara A; Handy, Todd C

    2012-01-01

    Mind wandering episodes have been construed as periods of "stimulus-independent" thought, where our minds are decoupled from the external sensory environment. In two experiments, we used behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures to determine whether mind wandering episodes can also be considered as periods of "response-independent" thought, with our minds disengaged from adjusting our behavioral outputs. In the first experiment, participants performed a motor tracking task and were occasionally prompted to report whether their attention was "on-task" or "mind wandering." We found greater tracking error in periods prior to mind wandering vs. on-task reports. To ascertain whether this finding was due to attenuation in visual perception per se vs. a disruptive effect of mind wandering on performance monitoring, we conducted a second experiment in which participants completed a time-estimation task. They were given feedback on the accuracy of their estimations while we recorded their EEG, and were also occasionally asked to report their attention state. We found that the sensitivity of behavior and the P3 ERP component to feedback signals were significantly reduced just prior to mind wandering vs. on-task attentional reports. Moreover, these effects co-occurred with decreases in the error-related negativity elicited by feedback signals (fERN), a direct measure of behavioral feedback assessment in cortex. Our findings suggest that the functional consequences of mind wandering are not limited to just the processing of incoming stimulation per se, but extend as well to the control and adjustment of behavior.

  9. Mind Wandering and Motor Control: Off-Task Thinking Disrupts the Online Adjustment of Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia W. Y. Kam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mind wandering episodes have been construed as periods of "stimulus-independent" thought, where our minds are decoupled from the external sensory environment. In two experiments, we used behavioral and event-related potential (ERP measures to determine whether mind wandering episodes can also be considered as periods of "response-independent" thought, with our minds disengaged from adjusting our behavioral outputs. In the first experiment, participants performed a motor tracking task and were occasionally prompted to report whether their attention was "on-task" or "mind wandering." We found greater tracking error in periods prior to mind wandering vs. on-task reports. To ascertain whether this finding was due to attenuation in visual perception per se vs. a disruptive effect of mind wandering on performance monitoring, we conducted a second experiment in which participants completed a time-estimation task. They were given feedback on the accuracy of their estimations while we recorded their EEG, and were also occasionally asked to report their attention state. We found that the sensitivity of behavior and the P3 ERP component to feedback signals were significantly reduced just prior to mind wandering vs. on-task attentional reports. Moreover, these effects co-occurred with decreases in the error-related negativity elicited by feedback signals (fERN, a direct measure of behavioral feedback assessment in cortex. Our findings suggest that the functional consequences of mind wandering are not limited to just the processing of incoming stimulation per se, but extend as well to the control and adjustment of behavior.

  10. The Impact of Bound Stellar Orbits and General Relativity on the Temporal Behavior of Tidal Disruption Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Lixin; Coppi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We have carried out general relativistic particle simulations of stars tidally disrupted by massive black holes. When a star is disrupted in a bound orbit with moderate eccentricity instead of a parabolic orbit, the temporal behavior of stellar debris changes qualitatively. Stellar debris travels in bound orbits, and returns to the pericenter within a short spread of time, so the fallback rate is much higher than the Eddington rate. Further if the star is disrupted very close to the hole in a regime where general relativity is important, the stellar and the debris orbits display general relativistic precession. Apsidal motion can make the debris stream cross itself after several orbits, which leads to fast dissipation of the debris binding energy. If the star is disrupted in an inclined orbit around a spinning hole, Lense-Thirring precession reduces the probability of such self-crossing, and circularization cannot happen in dynamical timescale. Although we have not computed the light curve using hydrodynamica...

  11. Retrospective review of clozapine in the treatment of patients with autism spectrum disorder and severe disruptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beherec, Laurène; Lambrey, Simon; Quilici, Gwendoline; Rosier, Antoine; Falissard, Bruno; Guillin, Olivier

    2011-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious childhood-onset disorder in which social and language development are primarily affected, with associated repetitive behavior and, in some patients, behavioral symptoms including aggression and self-injury. In ASD, risperidone and aripiprazole are the only second-generation antipsychotic drugs that have shown to decrease disruptive behaviors in large-scale, controlled, double-blind studies. However, in some patients, these medications are not effective. Clozapine, a second-generation antipsychotic drug known to be effective in the treatment of aggression associated with schizophrenia, has received little attention in ASD.We conducted a retrospective analysis of the changes in disruptive behaviors for all patients with ASD treated with clozapine from 2002 to 2010. Disruptive behaviors were monitored during the 4 to 6 months before and after the initiation of clozapine. Long-term tolerance (10 months to 7 years) was also assessed. The relationship between disruptive behaviors and period of treatment (before and after clozapine) was studied with a generalized linear marginal model. Clozapine resulted in a significant 2-fold decrease in the number of the days with aggression, a decrease in the number of psychotropic drugs, and a decrease in the dose of the antipsychotic drugs. The long-term tolerance of clozapine (white blood cell count and extrapyramidal effects) was good, with the exception of significant weight gain (14.3 ± 10.9 kg), the occurrence of metabolic syndrome in 1 patient, and tachycardia in another patient.These results suggest that clozapine should be considered for the management of disruptive behaviors in patients with ASD not improved by first-line antipsychotic drugs.

  12. Group Training for Parents of Children with Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Willie M.

    1986-01-01

    Ten mothers of children 8-12 with adjustment difficulties received group training in behavioral strategies and communication skills. After six weekly six-hour sessions, ratings on the Child Behavior Rating Scale and Family Adjustment Test indicated that the parents' children's perceptions of family functions, behavior, and adjustment were…

  13. Associations among self-concept, verbal behaviors, and group climate early in the group counseling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Der Pan, Peter; Fan, Ai Chun; Bhat, Christine Suniti; Chang, Shona Shih Hua

    2012-12-01

    In this study, relations among group members' self-concept, verbal behaviors, and group climate early in the group counseling process were assessed for college students who were randomly assigned to four counseling groups. Based on measures from the hill interaction matrix, it was observed that family, social, and action self-concepts, as well as engagement, avoidance, and conflict group climate, were correlated with several verbal behaviors. Silence and quadrant 4 (Q4), which consists of speculative and confrontative verbal behaviors at personal and relationship levels, significantly predicted and explained 43% of the variance in engagement group climate. Silence and Q3, comprised of conventional and assertive verbal behaviors at personal and relationship levels, and Q1, conventional and assertive verbal behaviors at topic and group levels, explained 66% of variance in avoidance climate. Q4 and Silence explained 33% of conflict climate variance early in the group sessions. Implications for research and counseling practice are suggested.

  14. The Relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Group Cohesiveness and Workplace Deviance Behavior of Turkish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaydin, Çigdem; Sirin, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a structural model for organizational citizenship behavior, group cohesiveness and workplace deviance behavior. The study group consists of 639 Turkish teachers working in primary and secondary public schools. In the study, the "Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale" and the "Group Cohesiveness…

  15. A risk function for behavioral disruption of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) from mid-frequency active sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, David; Thomas, Len; Marques, Tiago; Harwood, John; Dilley, Ashley; Neales, Bert; Shaffer, Jessica; McCarthy, Elena; New, Leslie; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the potential effects of noise pollution on marine life in the world's oceans. For marine mammals, anthropogenic sounds may cause behavioral disruption, and this can be quantified using a risk function that relates sound exposure to a measured behavioral response. Beaked whales are a taxon of deep diving whales that may be particularly susceptible to naval sonar as the species has been associated with sonar-related mass stranding events. Here we derive the first empirical risk function for Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) by combining in situ data from passive acoustic monitoring of animal vocalizations and navy sonar operations with precise ship tracks and sound field modeling. The hydrophone array at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center, Bahamas, was used to locate vocalizing groups of Blainville's beaked whales and identify sonar transmissions before, during, and after Mid-Frequency Active (MFA) sonar operations. Sonar transmission times and source levels were combined with ship tracks using a sound propagation model to estimate the received level (RL) at each hydrophone. A generalized additive model was fitted to data to model the presence or absence of the start of foraging dives in 30-minute periods as a function of the corresponding sonar RL at the hydrophone closest to the center of each group. This model was then used to construct a risk function that can be used to estimate the probability of a behavioral change (cessation of foraging) the individual members of a Blainville's beaked whale population might experience as a function of sonar RL. The function predicts a 0.5 probability of disturbance at a RL of 150 dBrms re µPa (CI: 144 to 155) This is 15dB lower than the level used historically by the US Navy in their risk assessments but 10 dB higher than the current 140 dB step-function.

  16. Endocrine disrupting pesticides impair the neuroendocrine regulation of reproductive behaviors and secondary sexual characters of red munia (Amandava amandava).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Surya Prakash; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Mohanty, Banalata

    2017-05-01

    The exposure effects of two endocrine disrupting pesticides (EDPs), mancozeb/MCZ and imidacloprid/IMI of the group dithiocarbamate and neonicotinoid respectively, on reproductive behaviors and secondary sexual characters have been studied in a seasonally breeding wildlife bird, red munia (Amandava amandava). Adult male birds were exposed to both the pesticides individually (0.25% LD50 of each) as well as co-exposed (MIX-I: 0.25% LD50 of each and MIX-II: 0.5% LD50 of each) through food for 30d in preparatory (July-August) and breeding (September-October) phase of reproductive cycle. Singing and pairing patterns started decreasing from 2nd week to complete disappearance during 4th week of pesticides exposures at both the phases of reproductive cycles. Similar trend was observed in the disappearance of spots on the plumage as well as color of both plumage and beak which turned black/gray from red. Pesticides caused impairment of the lactotropic as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axes as there was increased plasma PRL and decreased LH, FSH and testosterone levels. Testicular expressions of GnRH and androgen receptor/AR were significantly decreased but that of GnIH significantly increased as compared to control. Significant differences among individually- and co-exposed groups were also present. Abnormalities in sexual behaviors and secondary sexual characteristics could be linked to inhibition of HPT axis and/or direct toxicity at the level of hypothalamus, pituitary and testis. In addition, pesticide-induced hyperprolactinemia as well as impaired thyroid hormones might have also affected maintenance of reproductive behaviors. On co-exposures, the more distinct impairments might be due to cumulative toxicity of pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Testing the Efficacy of INSIGHTS on Student Disruptive Behavior, Classroom Management, and Student Competence in Inner City Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClowry, Sandra Graham; Snow, David L; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Rodriguez, Eileen T

    2010-03-01

    A prevention trial tested the efficacy of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition in reducing student disruptive behavior and enhancing student competence and teacher classroom management. Participants included 116 first and second grade students, their parents, and their 42 teachers in six inner city schools. Teachers completed the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI) and the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Competence and Social Acceptance (TRS) at baseline and again upon completion of the intervention. Boys participating in INSIGHTS, compared with those in the Read Aloud program, showed a significant decline in attentional difficulties and overt aggression toward others. Teachers in INSIGHTS, compared to those in the attention control condition, reported significantly fewer problems managing the emotional-oppositional behavior, attentional difficulties, and covert disruptive behavior of their male students. They also perceived the boys as significantly more cognitively and physically competent.

  18. Child abuse, disruptive behavior disorders, depression, and salivary cortisol levels among institutionalized and community-residing boys in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Hruschka, Daniel J; Kohrt, Holbrook E; Carrion, Victor G; Waldman, Irwin D; Worthman, Carol M

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is related to childhood disruptive behavior disorders and to exposure to abuse and neglect. This study explores the relationship of diurnal salivary cortisol levels with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and caregiver attitudes toward physical punishment among boys in Mongolia. Salivary cortisol was collected in the home or institution 4 times daily for 4 days from 46 boys, aged 4-10 years, in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Caregivers rated child disruptive behavior symptoms, attitudes toward physical punishment, and community violence exposures. Mixed effects models were used to estimate the association of psychopathology and caregiver attitudes with salivary cortisol levels. Boys meeting criteria for ODD displayed consistently lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels compared to boys without ODD diagnoses. Controlling for ODD diagnosis, boys with depression showed higher cortisol levels throughout the day. No other diagnosis was associated with cortisol levels. Psychiatric diagnosis accounted for 17% of between individual variations in cortisol levels unexplained by the covariates. In a separate model, caregivers' beliefs regarding physical punishment accounted for 11% of between individual differences: boys with caregivers who stated physical punishment was necessary for discipline displayed hypocortisolism. Institutionalization did not associate with cortisol levels. Salivary cortisol data from a non-Western naturalistic setting support an association of reduced basal HPA activity with disruptive behavior disorders and caregiver attitudes toward discipline. These findings suggest HPA functioning may be a reflection of or mediate disruptive behavior disorders in children across ethnic and cultural settings. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Achievement Goals and Their Relations to Children's Disruptive Behaviors in an After-School Physical Activity Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This study used a trichotomous achievement goal model to explore and describe what actually happened in terms of students' achievement goals and disruptive behaviors in an after-school physical activity program. Participants included 158 students in grades 3-6. They completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and disruptive…

  20. Disruptive Behavior Disorder and Intergenerational Attachment Patterns: A Comparison of Clinic-Referred and Normally Functioning Preschoolers and Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKlyen, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Examined linkages between child disruptive behavior disorder, quality of mother-child interactions, and mothers' recollections/attitudes toward their parents. Preschool boys (N=25) referred to a psychiatric clinic were matched with normally functioning boys. Mothers and sons were videotaped during a separation-reunion sequence, the Adult…

  1. The Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale--Parent Version (DBRS-PV): Factor Analytic Structure and Validity among Young Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Weieneth, Julie L.; Doctoroff, Greta L.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Goldstein, Lauren H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite recognition that disruptive behavior disorders often begin early in development, existing assessment tools are largely based on research with school-aged children. Further empirical work is needed to evaluate the utility of these tools in younger children. Methods: The present study investigated the factor structure, internal…

  2. Is It Incivility or Mental Illness? Understanding and Coping with Disruptive Student Behavior in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton-Cassill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Rising rates of incivility in the college classroom can generate stress for both faculty and students. However, incivility can take multiple forms, have different causes and require different management techniques. In some cases disruptive behavior is the result of student faculty interactions, and can be ameliorated by improved communication or…

  3. Long-Term, Multimodal Treatment of a Child with Asperger's Syndrome and Comorbid Disruptive Behavior Problems: A Case Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Robb, Jessica A.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Massetti, Greta M.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Arnold, Frances W.; Brice, Anne-Christina; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2005-01-01

    Despite Asperger's Syndrome (AS) becoming a widely recognized disorder on the pervasive developmental spectrum, surprisingly few studies have assessed the utility of psychosocial and/or pharmacological treatments for children with AS. Further, studies have not examined the effects of treatment on disruptive behavior problems commonly exhibited by…

  4. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Tenback, D.E.; Quekel, L.G.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Boot, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). DESIGN: Physically healthy 10- to

  5. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Roke (Yvette); P.N. van Harten (Peter); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); D.E. Tenback (Diederik); L.G.B.A. Quekel (Lorentz G. B.); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); A.M. Boot (Annemieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically hea

  6. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Tenback, Diederik E.; Quekel, Lorentz G. B. A.; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Boot, Annemieke M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically healthy 10- to

  7. Evaluation of the Class Pass Intervention for Typically Developing Students with Hypothesized Escape-Motivated Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Clayton R.; Collins, Tai; Dart, Evan; Vance, Michael J.; McIntosh, Kent; Grady, Erin A.; DeCano, Policarpio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Class Pass Intervention (CPI) as a secondary intervention for typically developing students with escape-motivated disruptive classroom behavior. The CPI consists of providing students with passes that they can use to appropriately request a break from an academic task to engage in a preferred activity for…

  8. Child Teacher Relationship Training as a Head Start Early Mental Health Intervention for Children Exhibiting Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Terri Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the effectiveness of child teacher relationship training (CTRT) with at-risk preschool children exhibiting disruptive behavior. The participants included a total of 23 Head Start teachers and their aides, and children identified by their teachers as exhibiting clinical or borderline levels of externalizing behavior…

  9. Achievement Goals and Their Relations to Children's Disruptive Behaviors in an After-School Physical Activity Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This study used a trichotomous achievement goal model to explore and describe what actually happened in terms of students' achievement goals and disruptive behaviors in an after-school physical activity program. Participants included 158 students in grades 3-6. They completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and disruptive…

  10. Joint Trajectories of Symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Problems and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence and Adjustment Problems during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark; Dishion, Thomas J.; Reid, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of…

  11. A Single-Subject Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Time-Out in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, Kristopher C.; Jenson, William R.; Kircher, John C.

    2007-01-01

    One current area of dispute in the psychological literature is the inclusion of and proper meta-analytic data analysis procedures for single-subject designs. The current single-subject meta-analysis (N = 25) investigated the effect of time-out for the reduction of disruptive classroom behaviors in nondevelopmentally delayed children. Two separate…

  12. Testing the Efficacy of "INSIGHTS" on Student Disruptive Behavior, Classroom Management, and Student Competence in Inner City Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClowry, Sandra Graham; Snow, David L.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Rodriguez, Eileen T.

    2010-01-01

    A prevention trial tested the efficacy of "INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament" as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition in reducing student disruptive behavior and enhancing student competence and teacher classroom management. Participants included 116 first and second grade students, their parents, and their 42 teachers…

  13. The Trouble with Boys: Social Influences and the Gender Gap in Disruptive Behavior. NBER Working Paper No. 17541

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Marianne; Pan, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of the home and school environments in explaining the gender gap in disruptive behavior. We document large differences in the gender gap across key features of the home environment--boys do especially poorly in broken families. In contrast, we find little impact of the early school environment on non-cognitive…

  14. Neural rhythms of change: Long-term improvement after successful treatment in children with disruptive behavior problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, S.; Liao, V.; Liu, Z.X.; Granic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Neural changes were investigated for children with disruptive behavior problems one year after a treatment program ended. Thirty-nine children and their parents visited the research lab before, after, and a year after treatment ended. During those lab visits, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorde

  15. Executive Functions and Child Problem Behaviors Are Sensitive to Family Disruption: A Study of Children of Mothers Working Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewage, Chandana; Bohlin, Gunilla; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Mothers in Sri Lanka are increasingly seeking overseas employment, resulting in disruption of the childcare environment. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal migration on executive function (EF) and behavior, thereby also contributing to the scientific understanding of environmental effects--or more specifically…

  16. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  17. Pharmacotherapy of disruptive behavior and item changes on a standardized rating scale: pooled analysis of risperidone effects in children with subaverage IQ.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aman, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Smedt, G.D.; Wapenaar, R.; Binder, C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), excluding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are characterized by a repetitive pattern of antisocial, aggressive, and defiant behavior involving major violations of age-appropriate norms, resulting in significant functional impairment.

  18. School Psychology: A Public Health Framework: III. Managing Disruptive Behavior in Schools: The Value of a Public Health and Evidence-Based Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This article emphasizes the value of an evidence-based and public health perspective in managing disruptive behavior. Information about comprehensive school-based programs and classroom management techniques for disruptive behavior disorders is presented and the important role school psychologists can play in implementing these programs discussed.…

  19. Scatter Plot Analysis of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Severe Disruptive Behavior in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Anneke P. H. M.; Didden, Robert; Bouts, Lex; Smits, Marcel G.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are at risk for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and disruptive behavior. This pilot study explores temporal characteristics of EDS and severe disruptive behavior across time of day and day of week in seven individuals with PWS (aged between 33 and 49 years) of whom five were matched to controls.…

  20. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of risperidone maintenance treatment in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Toren, P.; Augustyns, I.; Eerdekens, M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors compared the effects of maintenance versus withdrawal of risperidone treatment in children and adolescents with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorder. METHOD: Patients with disruptive behavior disorder (5-17 years of age and a range of intellect) who had responded to risper

  1. Peer Group Socialization of Homophobic Attitudes and Behavior during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2007-01-01

    A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Principles within Group Mentoring: A Randomized Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jent, Jason F.; Niec, Larissa N.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group mentoring program that included components of empirically supported mentoring and cognitive behavioral techniques for children served at a community mental health center. Eighty-six 8- to 12-year-old children were randomly assigned to either group mentoring or a wait-list control group. Group…

  3. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dillon T.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate), or influence (i.e., moderate), peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female) referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors. PMID:25083349

  4. Neuroanatomical substrates of the disruptive effect of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior as revealed by c-Fos immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changjiu; Li, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Olanzapine is one of the most widely prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia. Besides its well-known side effect on weight gain, it may also impair human parental behavior. In this study, we took a preclinical approach to examine the behavioral effects of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior and investigated the associated neural basis using the c-Fos immunohistochemistry. On postpartum days 6-8, Sprague-Dawley mother rats were given a single injection of sterile water or olanzapine (1.0, 3.0 or 5.0mg/kg, sc). Maternal behavior was tested 2h later, after which rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were collected. Ten brain regions that were either implicated in the action of antipsychotic drugs and/or in the regulation of maternal behavior were examined for c-Fos immunoreactivity. Acute olanzapine treatment dose-dependently disrupted various components of maternal behavior (e.g., pup retrieval, pup licking, nest building, crouching) and increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens shell and core (NAs and NAc), dorsolateral striatum (DLSt), ventral lateral septum (LSv), central amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), important brain areas generally implicated in the incentive motivation and reward processing. In contrast, olanzapine treatment did not alter c-Fos in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBST) and medial amygdala (MeA), the core brain areas directly involved in the mediation of rat maternal behavior. These findings suggest that olanzapine disrupts rat maternal behavior primarily by suppressing incentive motivation and reward processing via its action on the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems, other limbic and striatal areas, but not by disrupting the core processes involved in the mediation of maternal behavior in particular.

  5. Simulating social dilemmas: promoting cooperative behavior through imagined group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    A robust finding in social dilemmas research is that individual group members are more likely to act cooperatively if they are given the chance to discuss the dilemma with one another. The authors investigated whether imagining a group discussion may represent an effective means of increasing cooperative behavior in the absence of the opportunity for direct negotiation among decision makers. Five experiments, utilizing a range of task variants, tested this hypothesis. Participants engaged in a guided simulation of the progressive steps required to reach a cooperative consensus within a group discussion of a social dilemma. Results support the conclusion that imagined group discussion enables conscious processes that parallel those underlying the direct group discussion and is a strategy that can effectively elicit cooperative behavior. The applied potential of imagined group discussion techniques to encourage more socially responsible behavior is discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  6. How to Group Market Participants? Heterogeneity in Hedging Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.; Irwin, S.H.; Good, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Using a generalized mixture model, we model individual heterogeneity by identifying groups of participants that respond in a similar manner to the determinants of economic behavior. The procedure emphasizes the role of theory as the determinants of behavior are used to simultaneously explain market

  7. Decreasing the Inattentive Behavior of Jordanian Children: A Group Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghlawan, Hasan Y.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Al-Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy of using response cost paired with Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI) to manage the inattentive behavior of 30 students attending third and fourth grade in Jordan. A pretest-posttest control group design was employed to evaluate the efficacy of response cost and DRI. Results showed…

  8. Assessing the Relationships among Delinquent Male Students' Disruptive and Violent Behavior and Staff's Proactive and Reactive Behavior in a Secure Residential Treatment Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozalski, Michael; Drasgow, Erik; Drasgow, Fritz; Yell, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among students' disruptive and violent behavior and staff's use of proactive and reactive strategies in a secure residential treatment center serving delinquent adolescent males. One hundred hours of observational data were collected, and linear regression models were used to explore the…

  9. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Adult-Driven Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention on Disruptive Behaviors in Public School Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaei, Mohammad; Bakhshi, Enayatolah

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism often demonstrate disruptive behaviors during demanding teaching tasks. Language intervention can be particularly difficult as it involves social and communicative areas, which are challenging for this population. The purpose of this study was to compare two intervention conditions, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response…

  10. Targeted gene disruption by use of a group Ⅱ intron (tarqetron)vector in Clostridium acetobutylicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Shao; Shiyuan Hu; Yi Yang; Yang Gu; Jun Chen; Yunliu Yang; Weihong Jiang; Sheng Yang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor: Clostridium acetobutylicum,a gram-positive,anaerobic,spore-forming bacterium,is capable of using a wide variety of carbon sources to produce acetone,butanol and ethanol.To improve solvent productivity of C.acetobutylicum.metabolic engineering is considered as a useful tool in developing strains with industrially desirable characteristics.However,to date,there are few useful methods for genetic manipulation of C.acetobutylicum,especially for gene disruption.To our knowledge,two types of vectors,including non-replicative and replicative integrative plasmids,have been developed for gene-inactivation in C.acetobutylicum.By using non-replicative integrative plasmids,buk and solR genes of C. acetobutylicum were inactivated[1,2].

  11. Biomembrane disruption by silica-core nanoparticles: effect of surface functional group measured using a tethered bilayer lipid membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Quanxuan; Baker, Gregory L; Worden, R Mark

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) have desirable properties that make them well suited for many commercial applications. However, a limited understanding of how ENM's properties influence their molecular interactions with biomembranes hampers efforts to design ENM that are both safe and effective. This paper describes the use of a tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM) to characterize biomembrane disruption by functionalized silica-core nanoparticles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to measure the time trajectory of tBLM resistance following nanoparticle exposure. Statistical analysis of parameters from an exponential resistance decay model was then used to quantify and analyze differences between the impedance profiles of nanoparticles that were unfunctionalized, amine-functionalized, or carboxyl-functionalized. All of the nanoparticles triggered a decrease in membrane resistance, indicating nanoparticle-induced disruption of the tBLM. Hierarchical clustering allowed the potency of nanoparticles for reducing tBLM resistance to be ranked in the order amine>carboxyl~bare silica. Dynamic light scattering analysis revealed that tBLM exposure triggered minor coalescence for bare and amine-functionalized silica nanoparticles but not for carboxyl-functionalized silica nanoparticles. These results indicate that the tBLM method can reproducibly characterize ENM-induced biomembrane disruption and can distinguish the BLM-disruption patterns of nanoparticles that are identical except for their surface functional groups. The method provides insight into mechanisms of molecular interaction involving biomembranes and is suitable for miniaturization and automation for high-throughput applications to help assess the health risk of nanomaterial exposure or identify ENM having a desired mode of interaction with biomembranes. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ranjbar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most prevalent psychotic disorder. In order to cure and prevent the recurrence of this disease, it is necessary to gain more information about remedial methods like Group Cognitive- Behavior Therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the amount of depression on the patients. Methods: This study was experimental and it included both experimental and control group with a pre test. The subjects were selected from patients with mild depression. Their Beck inventory score ranged between 17-20. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. The subjects of experimental group received eight sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Beck depression test was completed by the subjects in three phases before the intervention, after the intervention and one month after that. The data was transferred to SPSS program and analyzed. Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the intervention at Beck tests (P=0.043. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group between the depression score in patients before and after the intervention (p=0.033 and the score of patients before and one month after the intervention (p=0.492. Conclusion: Group Cognitive-Behavioral therapy decreases depression in patients who suffer from mild depression.

  13. Looming Threats and Animacy: Reduced Responsiveness in Youth with Disrupted Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart F; Thornton, Laura C; Leshin, Joseph; Clanton, Roberta; Sinclair, Stephen; Coker-Appiah, Dionne; Meffert, Harma; Hwang, Soonjo; Blair, James R

    2017-08-03

    Theoretical models have implicated amygdala dysfunction in the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs; Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder). Amygdala dysfunction impacts valence evaluation/response selection and emotion attention in youth with DBDs, particularly in those with elevated callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, amygdala responsiveness during social cognition and the responsiveness of the acute threat circuitry (amygdala/periaqueductal gray) in youth with DBDs have been less well-examined, particularly with reference to CU traits. 31 youth with DBDs and 27 typically developing youth (IQ, age and gender-matched) completed a threat paradigm during fMRI where animate and inanimate, threatening and neutral stimuli appeared to loom towards or recede from participants. Reduced responsiveness to threat variables, including visual threats and encroaching stimuli, was observed within acute threat circuitry and temporal, lateral frontal and parietal cortices in youth with DBDs. This reduced responsiveness, at least with respect to the looming variable, was modulated by CU traits. Reduced responsiveness to animacy information was also observed within temporal, lateral frontal and parietal cortices, but not within amygdala. Reduced responsiveness to animacy information as a function of CU traits was observed in PCC, though not within the amygdala. Reduced threat responsiveness may contribute to risk taking and impulsivity in youth with DBDs, particularly those with high levels of CU traits. Future work will need to examine the degree to which this reduced response to animacy is independent of amygdala dysfunction in youth with DBDs and what role PCC might play in the dysfunctional social cognition observed in youth with high levels of CU traits.

  14. Group Development for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Sylvia; Guetzloe, Eleanor

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses effective techniques for teaching students with emotional disturbances and/or behavior disorders in group settings. Three stages of group development are described with specific teaching strategies for each stage identified and related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, including needs for safety and trust, belonging and…

  15. The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group counseling on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of cognitive-behavioral group counseling on stress and self-education. ... This research is a pre-test and post-test experimental design along with the control group. ... Data collection tool is Morgan- Jinks (MJSES) Student Efficacy Scale ...

  16. Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Rae

    2011-01-01

    In organizational behavior and management survey courses, students are likely to maximize certain career-appropriate knowledge when their classroom groups are leadered rather than leaderless. Using leadered groups facilitates the learning of the professional and managerial skills associated with formal leadership while reducing some problematic…

  17. The role of work group in individual sickness absence behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Ari; Tordera, Nuria; Kivimäki, Mika; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of our two-year follow-up study was to examine the effect of the social components of the work group, such as group absence norms and cohesion, on sickness absence behavior among individuals with varying attitudes toward work attendance. The social components were measured using a questionnaire survey and data on sickness absence behavior were collected from the employers' records. The study population consisted of 19,306 Finnish municipal employees working in 1,847 groups (78% women). Multilevel Poisson regression modeling was applied. The direct effects of work group characteristics on sickness absence were mostly insignificant. In contrast, both of the social components of a work group had an indirect impact: The more tolerant the group absence norms (at both individual- and cross-level) and the lower the group cohesion (at the individual level), the more the absence behavior of an individual was influenced by his or her attitude toward work attendance. We conclude that work group moderates the extent to which individuals with a liberal attitude toward work attendance actually engage in sickness absence behavior.

  18. Group Development for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Sylvia; Guetzloe, Eleanor

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses effective techniques for teaching students with emotional disturbances and/or behavior disorders in group settings. Three stages of group development are described with specific teaching strategies for each stage identified and related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, including needs for safety and trust, belonging and…

  19. The Classroom Check-up: A Classwide Teacher Consultation Model for Increasing Praise and Decreasing Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M; Lewis-Palmer, Teri; Merrell, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    School-based consultation typically focuses on individual student problems and on a small number of students rather than on changing the classroom system. The Classroom Check-up (CCU) was developed as a classwide consultation model to address the need for classroom level support while minimizing treatment integrity problems common to school-based consultation. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of the CCU and Visual Performance Feedback on teacher and student behavior. Results indicated that implementation of the CCU plus Visual Performance Feedback increased teacher implementation of classroom management strategies, including increased use of praise, use of behavior specific praise, and decreased use of reprimands. Further, these changes in teacher behavior contributed to decreases in classroom disruptive behavior. The results are encouraging because they suggest that consultation at the classroom level can create meaningful teacher and student behavior change.

  20. Multi-method psycho-educational intervention for preschool children with disruptive behavior: preliminary results at post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, R A; Shelton, T L; Crosswait, C; Moorehouse, M; Fletcher, K; Barrett, S; Jenkins, L; Metevia, L

    2000-03-01

    Annual screenings of preschool children at kindergarten registration identified 158 children having high levels of aggressive, hyperactive, impulsive, and inattentive behavior. These "disruptive" children were randomly assigned to four treatment conditions lasting the kindergarten school year: no treatment, parent training only, full-day treatment classroom only, and the combination of parent training with the classroom treatment. Results showed that parent training produced no significant treatment effects, probably owing largely to poor attendance. The classroom treatment produced improvement in multiple domains: parent ratings of adaptive behavior, teacher ratings of attention, aggression, self-control, and social skills, as well as direct observations of externalizing behavior in the classroom. Neither treatment improved academic achievement skills or parent ratings of home behavior problems, nor were effects evident on any lab measures of attention, impulse control, or mother-child interactions. It is concluded that when parent training is offered at school registration to parents of disruptive children identified through a brief school registration screening, it may not be a useful approach to treating the home and community behavioral problems of such children. The kindergarten classroom intervention was far more effective in reducing the perceived behavioral problems and impaired social skills of these children. Even so, most treatment effects were specific to the school environment and did not affect achievement skills. These findings must be viewed as tentative until follow-up evaluations can be done to determine the long-term outcomes of these interventions.

  1. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  2. The interaction of disrupted type II neuregulin 1 and chronic adolescent stress on adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Taylor, A R; Koenig, J I

    2013-09-26

    The incidence of anxiety, mood, substance abuse disorders and schizophrenia increases during adolescence. Epidemiological evidence confirms that exposure to stress during sensitive periods of development can create vulnerabilities that put genetically predisposed individuals at increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a frequently identified schizophrenia susceptibility gene that has also been associated with the psychotic features of bipolar disorder. Previously, we established that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neurocircuitry. We also found, using a line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)), that genetic disruption of Type II NRG1 results in altered HPA axis function and environmental reactivity. The present studies used the Nrg1(Tn) rats to test whether Type II NRG1 gene disruption and chronic stress exposure during adolescence interact to alter adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors. Male and female Nrg1(Tn) and wild-type rats were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during mid-adolescence and then tested for anxiety-like behavior, cued fear conditioning and basal corticosterone secretion in adulthood. The disruption of Type II NRG1 alone significantly impacts rat anxiety-related behavior by reversing normal sex-related differences and impairs the ability to acquire cued fear conditioning. Sex-specific interactions between genotype and adolescent stress also were identified such that CVS-treated wild-type females exhibited a slight reduction in anxiety-like behavior and basal corticosterone, while CVS-treated Nrg1(Tn) females exhibited a significant increase in cued fear extinction. These studies confirm the importance of Type II NRG1 in anxiety and fear behaviors and point to adolescence as a time when stressful experiences can shape adult behavior and HPA axis function.

  3. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties Retention Among Child Welfare-Involved Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Among children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare investigation, few who manifest emotional and behavioral difficulties actually engage in mental health treatment. The Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders (MFG) has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregiver perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Twenty-five predominantly Black and Hispanic adult (ages 26-57) female caregivers with child welfare services involvement participated in individual, in-depth interviews about their experience with MFGs. Transcribed interview data were thematically coded guided by grounded theory methodology. Emergent themes were subsequently organized into a conceptual framework. Within the overarching influence of child welfare services involvement, specific components of MFGs influencing retention included the quality of interaction among group members, group facilitators' attentive approach with caregivers, supports designed to overcome logistical barriers (i.e., child care, transportation expenses, meals), and perceptions of MFG content and activities as fun and helpful. Caregiver factors, including their mental health and personal characteristics, as well as children's behavior, (i.e., observed changes in behavioral difficulties) were also associated with retention. High acceptability suggest utility for implementing MFGs within settings serving child welfare involved families, with additional modifications to tailor to setting and client features.

  4. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties Retention Among Child Welfare–Involved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2013-01-01

    Among children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare investigation, few who manifest emotional and behavioral difficulties actually engage in mental health treatment. The Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders (MFG) has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregiver perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods Twenty-five predominantly Black and Hispanic adult (ages 26–57) female caregivers with child welfare services involvement participated in individual, in-depth interviews about their experience with MFGs. Transcribed interview data were thematically coded guided by grounded theory methodology. Emergent themes were subsequently organized into a conceptual framework. Results Within the overarching influence of child welfare services involvement, specific components of MFGs influencing retention included the quality of interaction among group members, group facilitators’ attentive approach with caregivers, supports designed to overcome logistical barriers (i.e., child care, transportation expenses, meals), and perceptions of MFG content and activities as fun and helpful. Caregiver factors, including their mental health and personal characteristics, as well as children’s behavior, (i.e., observed changes in behavioral difficulties) were also associated with retention. Conclusions High acceptability suggest utility for implementing MFGs within settings serving child welfare involved families, with additional modifications to tailor to setting and client features. PMID:26527856

  5. Beaked Whale Group Deep Dive Behavior from Passive Acoustic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Beaked Whale Group Deep Dive Behavior from Passive...Research Organisation P.O. Box AB-20714 Marsh Harbour Abaco, Bahamas phone: (242) 366-4155 fax: (242) 366-4155 email: dclaridge...N000141512649 LONG-TERM GOALS While a significant body of knowledge regarding individual beaked whale behavior at depth has been established in the

  6. The neurogenetics of group behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdya, Pavan; Schneider, Jonathan; Levine, Joel D

    2017-01-01

    Organisms rarely act in isolation. Their decisions and movements are often heavily influenced by direct and indirect interactions with conspecifics. For example, we each represent a single node within a social network of family and friends, and an even larger network of strangers. This group membership can affect our opinions and actions. Similarly, when in a crowd, we often coordinate our movements with others like fish in a school, or birds in a flock. Contributions of the group to individual behaviors are observed across a wide variety of taxa but their biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. With the advent of powerful computational tools as well as the unparalleled genetic accessibility and surprisingly rich social life of Drosophila melanogaster, researchers now have a unique opportunity to investigate molecular and neuronal determinants of group behavior. Conserved mechanisms and/or selective pressures in D. melanogaster can likely inform a much wider phylogenetic scale. Here, we highlight two examples to illustrate how quantitative and genetic tools can be combined to uncover mechanisms of two group behaviors in D. melanogaster: social network formation and collective behavior. Lastly, we discuss future challenges towards a full understanding how coordinated brain activity across many individuals gives rise to the behavioral patterns of animal societies. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. A Randomized Trial of the Self-Management Training and Regulation Strategy (STARS): A Selective Intervention for Students with Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    To attain academic goals, school personnel must effectively manage 20% of students who engage in the disruptive behaviors that interrupt instruction, create teacher stress, and contribute to poor student outcomes. Without effective strategies, school personnel often respond to disruptive students with ineffective authoritarian tactics,…

  8. A Randomized Trial of the Self-Management Training and Regulation Strategy (STARS): A Selective Intervention for Students with Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    To attain academic goals, school personnel must effectively manage 20% of students who engage in the disruptive behaviors that interrupt instruction, create teacher stress, and contribute to poor student outcomes. Without effective strategies, school personnel often respond to disruptive students with ineffective authoritarian tactics,…

  9. Management behavior, group climate and performance appraisal at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderlink, G.; Clark, L. P.; Bernstein, W. M.; Burke, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The relationships among manager behavior, group climate and managerial effectiveness are examined. Survey data were collected from 435 GM14-15 managers and their subordinates at NASA concerning management practices and perceptions of the group environment. Performance ratings of managers were obtained from their superiors. The results strongly supported a causal model in which subordinates' climate perceptions mediate the effects of manager behavior on performance. That is, the development of group climate provides the process through which the effects of manager practices may be understood. Analyses also revealed that the function performed by a manager and his group (e.g., research) influenced the specific nature of the causal dynamics. Some implications of the results for management training and development are discussed.

  10. Dynamical behavior of price forecasting in structures of group correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Kim, Kyungsik

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the prediction of the future prices from the structures and the networks of the companies in special financial groups. After the financial group network has been constructed from the value of the high cross-correlation, each company in a group is simulated and analyzed how it buys or sells stock is anaylzed and how it makes rational investments is forecasted. In the shortmemory behavior rather than the long-memory behavior, each company among a group can make a rational investment decision by using a stochastic evolution rule in the financial network. In particular, we simulate and analyze the investment situation in connection with the empirical data and the simulated result.

  11. Prenatal ethanol exposure disrupts intraneocortical circuitry, cortical gene expression, and behavior in a mouse model of FASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shawa, Hani; Abbott, Charles W; Huffman, Kelly J

    2013-11-27

    In utero ethanol exposure from a mother's consumption of alcoholic beverages impacts brain and cognitive development, creating a range of deficits in the child (Levitt, 1998; Lebel et al., 2012). Children diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are often born with facial dysmorphology and may exhibit cognitive, behavioral, and motor deficits from ethanol-related neurobiological damage in early development. Prenatal ethanol exposure (PrEE) is the number one cause of preventable mental and intellectual dysfunction globally, therefore the neurobiological underpinnings warrant systematic research. We document novel anatomical and gene expression abnormalities in the neocortex of newborn mice exposed to ethanol in utero. This is the first study to demonstrate large-scale changes in intraneocortical connections and disruption of normal patterns of neocortical gene expression in any prenatal ethanol exposure animal model. Neuroanatomical defects and abnormal neocortical RZRβ, Id2, and Cadherin8 expression patterns are observed in PrEE newborns, and abnormal behavior is present in 20-d-old PrEE mice. The vast network of neocortical connections is responsible for high-level sensory and motor processing as well as complex cognitive thought and behavior in humans. Disruptions to this network from PrEE-related changes in gene expression may underlie some of the cognitive-behavioral phenotypes observed in children with FASD.

  12. Accounting for Heterogeneity in Hedging Behavior: Comparing & Evaluating Grouping Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.; Irwin, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Heterogeneity, i.e., the notion that individuals respond differently to economic stimuli, can have profound consequences for the interpretation of behavior and the formulation of agricultural policy. This paper compares and evaluates three grouping techniques that can be used to account for

  13. Evaluation of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramham, Jessica; Young, Susan; Bickerdike, Alison; Spain, Deborah; McCartan, Denise; Xenitidis, Kiriakos

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A brief cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention was designed to treat comorbid anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem and self-efficacy in adults with ADHD. It was hypothesised that participants would gain knowledge about ADHD, experience a reduction in comorbid symptoms, and benefit from the supportive aspect of group…

  14. Unintended Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Consequences of Group Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Wayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogical strategies can be thought of as a set of stimuli placed in students' environment to influence their cognition, affect, and behavior. The design of strategies such as group assignments and a comprehensive understanding of their consequences for students should then include an analysis of all three of these elements and the…

  15. THE IMPACT OF BOUND STELLAR ORBITS AND GENERAL RELATIVITY ON THE TEMPORAL BEHAVIOR OF TIDAL DISRUPTION FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Lixin; Escala, Andres [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Coppi, Paolo, E-mail: lixin.dai@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We have carried out general relativistic particle simulations of stars tidally disrupted by massive black holes. When a star is disrupted in a bound orbit with moderate eccentricity instead of a parabolic orbit, the temporal behavior of the resulting stellar debris changes qualitatively. The debris is initially all bound, returning to pericenter in a short time about the original stellar orbital timescale. The resulting fallback rate can thus be much higher than the Eddington rate. Furthermore, if the star is disrupted close to the hole, in a regime where general relativity is important, the stellar and debris orbits display general relativistic precession. Apsidal precession can make the debris stream cross itself after several orbits, likely leading to fast debris energy dissipation. If the star is disrupted in an inclined orbit around a spinning hole, nodal precession reduces the probability of self-intersection, and circularization may take many dynamical timescales, delaying the onset of flare activity. An examination of the particle dynamics suggests that quasi-periodic flares with short durations, produced when the center of the tidal stream passes pericenter, may occur in the early-time light curve. The late-time light curve may still show power-law behavior which is generic to disk accretion processes. The detection triggers for future surveys should be extended to capture such 'non-standard' short-term flaring activity before the event enters the asymptotic decay phase, as this activity is likely to be more sensitive to physical parameters such as the black hole spin.

  16. Incremental Benefits of a Daily Report Card Intervention over Time for Youth with Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Julie Sarno; Holdaway, Alex S.; Zoromski, Allison K.; Evans, Steven W.; Himawan, Lina K.; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Murphy, Caroline E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the percentage of children who respond positively to a daily report card (DRC) intervention and the extent to which students achieve incremental benefits with each month of intervention in a general education classroom. Participants were 66 children (87% male) with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or disruptive behavior…

  17. Temporal Relations in Daily-Reported Maternal Mood and Disruptive Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Curtis, Lori J.

    2004-01-01

    Examined temporal relations between maternal mood and disruptive child behaviour using daily assessments of 30 mother-child dyads carried out over 8 consecutive weeks (623 pooled observations). Pooled time-series analyses showed synchronous fluctuation in child behaviour and maternal distress. Time-lagged models showed temporal relations between…

  18. Effects of Antecedent Variables on Disruptive Behavior and Accurate Responding in Young Children in Outpatient Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelter, Eric W.; Wacker, David P.; Call, Nathan A.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Kopelman, Todd; Gardner, Andrew W.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of manipulations of task variables on inaccurate responding and disruption were investigated with 3 children who engaged in noncompliance. With 2 children in an outpatient clinic, task directives were first manipulated to identify directives that guided accurate responding; then, additional dimensions of the task were manipulated to…

  19. Behavioral effects of low, acute doses of morphine in nontolerant groups of rats in an open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiørring, E; Hecht, A

    1979-06-28

    Groups of eight rats were treated with low, acute doses of morphine (2, 3.5, and 5 mg/kg body weight) or a corresponding volume of isotonic NaCl solution. The formation of groups, certain other features of social interaction, plus some individual items were recorded. Morphine induced an increase in the frequency of group formations without disruption of grooming and rearing patterns. The total picture of morphine-induced behavior changes at the dose levels used might be characterized as a polyactivation (or a varied stimulation); different from the selective stimulation reported for d-amphetamine.

  20. Command Control Group Behaviors. Objective 1. A Methodology for and Identification of Command Control Group Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    recordings were DD I JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED i SECUPITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (K4hen Data Entered) ’Ii...numbers of per- sonnet and 2weapons we now have at our disposal. The command and control (C ) process is one such factor where deficiencies invite...OBSERVATIONAL TASKS Position Codes: 01 10 S1 02 20 S2 03 Brigade 3 30 S3 04 40 S4 05 50 XO 06 60 Entire Group 07 70 Commander (71-"A" Co, 72-"B" Co, 73 -"C" Co

  1. Reciprocal Relationships between Parenting Behavior and Disruptive Psychopathology from Childhood through Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Pardini, Dustin A.; Loeber, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that child behaviors influence parenting behaviors, and specifically that unpleasant child behaviors coerce parents to discontinue engaging in appropriate discipline. This study examined reciprocal relationships between parenting behaviors (supervision, communication, involvement, timid discipline and harsh punishment)…

  2. Membrane Vesicles of Group B Streptococcus Disrupt Feto-Maternal Barrier Leading to Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surve, Manalee Vishnu; Anil, Anjali; Kamath, Kshama Ganesh; Bhutda, Smita; Sthanam, Lakshmi Kavitha; Pradhan, Arpan; Srivastava, Rohit; Basu, Bhakti; Dutta, Suryendu; Sen, Shamik; Modi, Deepak; Banerjee, Anirban

    2016-09-01

    Infection of the genitourinary tract with Group B Streptococcus (GBS), an opportunistic gram positive pathogen, is associated with premature rupture of amniotic membrane and preterm birth. In this work, we demonstrate that GBS produces membrane vesicles (MVs) in a serotype independent manner. These MVs are loaded with virulence factors including extracellular matrix degrading proteases and pore forming toxins. Mice chorio-decidual membranes challenged with MVs ex vivo resulted in extensive collagen degradation leading to loss of stiffness and mechanical weakening. MVs when instilled vaginally are capable of anterograde transport in mouse reproductive tract. Intra-amniotic injections of GBS MVs in mice led to upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation mimicking features of chorio-amnionitis; it also led to apoptosis in the chorio-decidual tissue. Instillation of MVs in the amniotic sac also resulted in intrauterine fetal death and preterm delivery. Our findings suggest that GBS MVs can independently orchestrate events at the feto-maternal interface causing chorio-amnionitis and membrane damage leading to preterm birth or fetal death.

  3. Effects of a group rational-emotive behavior therapy program on the Type A behavior pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; Botha, H C

    1996-06-01

    A sample of 44 male Type A insurance representatives, selected by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 22) and a delayed treatment control group (n = 22). The treatment group participated in 9 weekly sessions of group Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy and were followed up after 10 weeks. After the control period, the delayed treatment control group received the same treatment program. Repeated measurements were obtained by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, Jenkins Activity Survey, Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, and Type A Cognitive Questionnaire. Self and spouse/friend ratings of Type A behavior were obtained by means of the Bortner Rating Scale. Analysis indicated that, compared to the control condition, the therapy significantly reduced the intensity of Type A behavior and its time urgency component. These improvements were maintained at follow-up and were accompanied by self-reports of significant positive changes in Type A behavior and irrational beliefs.

  4. Disinfection of titanium dioxide nanotubes using super-oxidized water decrease bacterial viability without disrupting osteoblast behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltrán-Partida, Ernesto [Department of Biomaterials, Dental Materials and Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Dentistry Mexicali, Autonomous University of Baja California, Av. Zotoluca and Chinampas St., 21040 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Department of Corrosion and Materials, Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez and Normal St., 21280 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Valdez-Salas, Benjamín, E-mail: benval@uabc.edu.mx [Department of Corrosion and Materials, Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez and Normal St., 21280 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Escamilla, Alan; Curiel, Mario [Department of Corrosion and Materials, Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez and Normal St., 21280 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Valdez-Salas, Ernesto [Ixchel Medical Centre, Av. Bravo y Obregón, 21000 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Nedev, Nicola [Department of Corrosion and Materials, Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez and Normal St., 21280 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Bastidas, Jose M. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes (NTs) on Ti6Al4V alloy were synthesized by anodization using a commercially available super-oxidized water (SOW). The NT surfaces were sterilized by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and disinfected using SOW. The adhesion and cellular morphology of pig periosteal osteoblast (PPO) cells and the behavior of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) cultured on the sterilized and disinfected surfaces were investigated. A non-anodized Ti6Al4V disc sterilized by UV irradiation (without SOW) was used as control. The results of this study reveal that the adhesion, morphology and filopodia development of PPO cells in NTs are dramatically improved, suggesting that SOW cleaning may not disrupt the benefits obtained by NTs. Significantly decreased bacterial viability in NTs after cleaning with SOW and comparing with non-cleaned NTs was seen. The results suggest that UV and SOW could be a recommendable method for implant sterilization and disinfection without altering osteoblast behavior while decreasing bacterial viability. - Highlights: • The effect of super-oxidized water cleaning was studied on Ti6Al4V nanotubes. • Super oxidized-water cleaning caused a decline in S. aureus viability. • Osteoblast behavior was not disrupted after super-oxidized water disinfection. • Super-oxidized water is suggested as a cleaning protocol for TiO{sub 2} nanotubes.

  5. Group selection as behavioral adaptation to systematic risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixun Zhang

    Full Text Available Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form "groups", even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution-selection with correlated reproductive risk-that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon.

  6. Group choice: the ideal free distribution of human social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, J R; Baum, W M

    2001-07-01

    Group choice refers to the distribution of group members between two choice alternatives over time. The ideal free distribution (IFD), an optimal foraging model from behavioral ecology, predicts that the ratio of foragers at two resource sites should equal the ratio of obtained resources, a prediction that is formally analogous to the matching law of individual choice, except that group choice is a social phenomenon. Two experiments investigated the usefulness of IFD analyses of human group choice and individual-based explanations that might account for the group-level events. Instead of nonhuman animals foraging at two sites for resources, a group of humans chose blue and red cards to receive points that could earn cash prizes. The groups chose blue and red cards in ratios in positive relation to the ratios of points associated with the cards. When group choice ratios and point ratios were plotted on logarithmic coordinates and fitted with regression lines, the slopes (i.e., sensitivity measures) approached 1.0 but tended to fall short of it (i.e., undermatching), with little bias and little unaccounted for variance. These experiments demonstrate that an IFD analysis of group choice is possible and useful, and suggest that group choice may be explained by the individual members' tendency to optimize reinforcement.

  7. GROUP GUIDANCE SERVICES MANAGEMENT OF BEHAVIORAL TECHNIC HOMEWORK MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhri A M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This simple paper describes the implementation of management guidance service groups using the model home visits behavioral techniques (behavior technic homework. The ideas outlined in this paper are intended to add insight for counselors in the management of the implementation of counseling services group that carried out effectively. This simple paper is expected to be used as reference studies in theoretical matters relating to the management guidance services group, for counselors to students both need guidance services and those who passively as they face various problems difficulties martial jar and obstacles in the achievement of learning , In general, this study aims to provide insight in particular in the development of social skills for students, especially the ability to communicate with the participants of the service (students more While specifically to encourage the development of feelings, thoughts, perceptions, insights and attitudes that support embodiments behavior Iebih creative and effective in improving communication skills both verbal and non-verbal for students. Keyword: counselor, counseling, group, student

  8. The Japanese Quail as an avian model for testing endocrine disrupting chemicals: endocrine and behavioral end points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.; Henry, K.; Humphries, E.; Henry, P.F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Birds have extremely varied reproductive strategies. As such, the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can greatly differ across avian species. Precocial species, such as Japanese quail appear to be most sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, particularly sexual differentiation. A great deal is known about the ontogeny of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) relative to endocrine, neuro-endocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction. Therefore, this species provides an excellent model for understanding effects of EDCs on reproductive biology with exposure at specific stages of the life cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to conduct a 1- or 2- generation experiment with positive or negative control chemicals and to determine changes in selected end points. Japanese quail embryos were exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB; positive control) in a 2-generation design or to fadrozole (FAD; negative control) in a 1-generation design. Embryonic EB treatment resulted in significant reductions (p< 0.5) in hen day production (90.2 vs 54.1; control vs EB, resp.) and fertility (85.3 vs 33.4%, control vs EB, resp.). Males showed sharply reduced courtship and mating behaviors as well as increased lag time (26 vs 148 sec; control vs EB) in behavioral tests. Fadrozole exposure resulted in reduced hatchability of fertile eggs, particularly at higher doses. There were no significant effects on courtship and mating behavior of males although males showed an increased lag time in their responses, nally, a behavioral test for studying motor and fear responses in young chicks was used; chicks exposed to an estrogenic pesticide (methoxychlor) showed some deficits. In summary, the use of appropriate and reliable end points that are responsive to endocrine disruption are critical for assessment of EDCs. Supported in part by EPA grant R826134.

  9. Neonatal disruption of serine racemase causes schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities in adulthood: clinical rescue by d-serine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Hagiwara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: D-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor, is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SRR. Given the role of D-serine in both neurodevelopment and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we examined whether neonatal disruption of D-serine synthesis by SRR inhibition could induce behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia, in later life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Neonatal mice (7-9 days were injected with vehicle or phenazine methosulfate (Met-Phen: 3 mg/kg/day, an SRR inhibitor. Behavioral evaluations, such as spontaneous locomotion, novel object recognition test (NORT, and prepulse inhibition (PPI were performed at juvenile (5-6 weeks old and adult (10-12 weeks old stages. In addition, we tested the effects of D-serine on PPI deficits in adult mice after neonatal Met-Phen exposure. Finally, we assessed whether D-serine could prevent the onset of schizophrenia-like behavior in these mice. Neonatal Met-Phen treatment reduced D-serine levels in the brain, 24 hours after the final dose. Additionally, this treatment caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms in juveniles and to schizophrenia in adults. A single dose of D-serine improved PPI deficits in adult mice. Interestingly, chronic administration of D-serine (900 mg/kg/day from P35 to P70 significantly prevented the onset of PPI deficits after neonatal Met-Phen exposure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that disruption of D-serine synthesis during developmental stages leads to behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms and schizophrenia, in later life. Furthermore, early pharmacological intervention with D-serine may prevent the onset of psychosis in adult.

  10. Which dimension of parenting predicts the change of callous unemotional traits in children with disruptive behavior disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Lai, Elisa; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Righini, Elisabetta; Masi, Gabriele

    2016-08-01

    Several studies suggested that in addition to child-driven factors (i.e., temperamental style), parenting behavior can, at least in part, influence the maintenance of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in children; however, more information is needed to distinguish which styles (negative parenting or lack of positive parenting) predict increased levels of CU traits. The aim of the present treatment study was to examine which components of parenting are longitudinally associated with levels of CU traits in children with a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. The current study examined cross-lagged reciprocal effects models between positive and negative parenting practices, and the levels of child CU traits over three time points, including both positive and negative dimensions of parenting in the same model. Participants were 126 Italian children with diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder), 113 boys and 13 girls, 110 Caucasian, 48 with conduct disorder, and 78 with oppositional defiant disorder, treated with a multi-component intervention, based on cognitive behavioral principles and practices. Participants were all 9-10 years of age at the beginning of the study, and were followed-up until the age of 11-12 years (24 months in total, the first 12 under treatment) using parent report (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire and Child Behavior Check List) and child report (Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits) measures. No significant cross-lagged path was found between negative parenting and CU traits; these two variables were also unrelated when positive parenting was considered in the same model. In contrast, reciprocal effects between positive parenting and CU were found: higher levels of positive parenting predicted lower levels of CU traits. The current findings suggest that the positive dimension of parenting may need to be targeted in the treatment of DBD children with higher CU traits. Copyright © 2016

  11. Why the Prevention of Aggressive Disruptive Behaviors in Middle School Must Begin in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer-Chase, Marlene; Rhodes, Warren A.; Kellam, Sheppard G.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that the course and malleability of maladaptive behaviors are partly rooted in early aggressive behaviors occurring in poorly managed classrooms. Encourages teacher education training programs incorporate classroom management training. Concludes that the nature and severity of aggressive behaviors in middle school depend on effective…

  12. Teacher Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large research base grounded in behavioral theory for strategies to increase appropriate behavior and prevent or decrease inappropriate behavior in the classroom, a systematic review of multi-component universal classroom management research is necessary to establish the effects of teachers' universal classroom management approaches.…

  13. Disrupted light-dark cycle abolishes circadian expression of peripheral clock genes without inducing behavioral arrhythmicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Higo-Yamamoto, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Saori; Yasumoto, Yuki

    2015-03-06

    The environmental light-dark (LD) cycle entrains the central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of mammals. The present study examined the effects of disrupted LD cycles on peripheral clocks in mice housed under a normal 12 h light-12 h dark cycle (LD 12:12) or an ultradian LD 3:3 cycle. Drinking behavior seemed to be free-running with a long period (26.03 h) under ultradian LD 3:3 cycles, in addition to light-induced direct suppression (masking effect). Core body temperature completely lost robust circadian rhythm and acquired a 6-h rhythm with a low amplitude under LD 3:3. Robust circadian expression of Per1, Per2, Clock and Bmal1 mRNAs was similarly flattened to intermediate levels in the liver, heart and white adipose tissue under LD 3:3. Robust circadian expression of Rev-erbα mRNA was completely damped in these tissues. Circadian expression of Dbp, a clock-controlled gene, was also disrupted in these tissues from mice housed under LD 3:3. The aberrant LD cycle seemed to induce the loss of circadian gene expression at the level of transcription, because rhythmic pre-mRNA expression of these genes was also abolished under LD 3:3. In addition to the direct effect of the aberrant LD cycle, abolished systemic time cues such as those of plasma corticosterone and body temperature might be involved in the disrupted expression of these circadian genes under LD 3:3. Our findings suggest that disrupted environmental LD cycles abolish the normal oscillation of peripheral clocks and induce internal desynchrony in mammals.

  14. Classification of group behaviors in social media via social behavior grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Getoor, Lise; Smith, Marc

    2014-06-01

    The increasing use of online collaboration and information sharing in the last decade has resulted in explosion of criminal and anti-social activities in online communities. Detection of such behaviors are of interest to commercial enterprises who want to guard themselves from cyber criminals, and the military intelligence analysts who desire to detect and counteract cyberwars waged by adversarial states and organizations. The most challenging behaviors to detect are those involving multiple individuals who share actions and roles in the hostile activities and individually appear benign. To detect these behaviors, the theories of group behaviors and interactions must be developed. In this paper we describe our exploration of the data from collaborative social platform to categorize the behaviors of multiple individuals. We applied graph matching algorithms to explore consistent social interactions. Our research led us to a conclusion that complex collaborative behaviors can be modeled and detected using a concept of group behavior grammars, in a manner analogous to natural language processing. These grammars capture constraints on how people take on roles in virtual environments, form groups, and interact over time, providing the building blocks for scalable and accurate multi-entity interaction analysis and social behavior hypothesis testing.

  15. Beaked Whale Group Deep Dive Behavior from Passive Acoustic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Beaked Whale Group Deep Dive Behavior from Passive...described explicitly, beaked whales are one of the cetacean taxa more sensitive to use of Navy sonar (Moretti et al., 2014; Tyack et al., 2011). Despite...their vulnerability, Blainville’s beaked whale , Mesoplodon densirostris (Md), are routinely detected year-round on the AUTEC range, coincident with

  16. Group cohesion in cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube-Schiff, Marlene; Suvak, Michael K; Antony, Martin M; Bieling, Peter J; McCabe, Randi E

    2007-04-01

    Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for Social Phobia is effective in both group and individual formats. However, the impact of group processes on treatment efficacy remains relatively unexplored. In this study we examined group cohesion ratings made by individuals at the midpoint and endpoint of CBT groups for social phobia. Symptom measures were also completed at the beginning and end of treatment. We found that cohesion ratings significantly increased over the course of the group and were associated with improvement over time in social anxiety symptoms, as well as improvement on measures of general anxiety, depression, and functional impairment. In conclusion, findings are consistent with the idea that changes in group cohesion are related to social anxiety symptom reduction and, therefore, speak to the importance of nonspecific therapeutic factors in treatment outcome.

  17. Observational templates of star cluster disruption. The stellar group NGC 1901 in front of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, G; Villanova, S; Bidin, C M; le de Marcos, C F; Baumgardt, H; Solivella, G; Carraro, Giovanni; Marcos, Raul de la Fuente; Villanova, Sandro; Bidin, Christian Moni; Marcos, Carlos de le Fuente; Baumgardt, Holger; Solivella, Gladys

    2007-01-01

    Observations indicate that present-day star formation in the Milky Way disk takes place in stellar ensembles or clusters rather than in isolation. Bound, long lived stellar groups are known as open clusters. They gradually lose stars and in their final evolutionary stages they are severely disrupted leaving an open cluster remnant made of a few stars. In this paper, we study in detail the stellar content and kinematics of the poorly populated star cluster NGC1901. This object appears projected against the Large Magellanic Cloud. The aim of the present work is to derive the current evolutionary status, binary fraction, age and mass of this stellar group. These are fundamental quantities to compare with those from N-body models in order to study the most general topic of star cluster evolution and dissolution.The analysis is performed using wide-field photometry in the UBVI pass-band, proper motions from the UCAC.2 catalog, and 3 epochs of high resolution spectroscopy, as well as results from extensive N-body c...

  18. Use of a Daily Report Card in an Intervention Package Involving Home-School Communication to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBel, Teresa J.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Britner, Preston A.; Simonsen, Brandi

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a daily report card in an intervention package involving home-school communication to decrease disruptive behavior in preschoolers was investigated. A sample of four preschool-aged children in two classrooms served as participants. Teachers rated behavior three times daily for each participant using a daily report card.…

  19. An Analysis of Training, Generalization, and Maintenance Effects of Primary Care Triple P for Parents of Preschool-Aged Children with Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Cynthia L.; Sanders, Matthew R.; Lutzker, John R.; Prinz, Ronald J.; Shapiro, Cheri; Whitaker, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    A brief primary care intervention for parents of preschool-aged children with disruptive behavior was assessed using a multiple probe design. Primary Care Triple P, a four session behavioral intervention was sequentially introduced within a multiple probe format to each of 9 families to a total of 10 children aged between 3 and 7 years (males = 4,…

  20. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure and Whisker Clipping Disrupt Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Play Behavior in Adolescent Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylyn Waddell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ethanol exposure can result in social deficits in humans and animals, including altered social interaction and poor communication. Rats exposed to ethanol prenatally show reduced play fighting, and a combination of prenatal ethanol exposure and neonatal whisker clipping further reduces play fighting compared with ethanol exposure alone. In this study, we explored whether expression of hedonic ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs correlated with the number of playful attacks by ethanol-exposed rats, rats subjected to postnatal sensory deprivation by whisker clipping or both compared to control animals. In normally developing rats, hedonic USVs precede such interactions and correlate with the number of play interactions exhibited in dyads. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet or a control diet. After birth, male and female pups from each litter were randomly assigned to the whisker-clipped or non-whisker-clipped condition. Animals underwent a social interaction test with a normally developing play partner during early or late-adolescence. USVs were recorded during play. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduced both play and hedonic USVs in early adolescence compared to control rats and persistently reduced social play. Interestingly, ethanol exposure, whisker clipping and the combination abolished the significant correlation between hedonic USVs and social play detected in control rats in early adolescence. This relationship remained disrupted in late adolescence only in rats subjected to both prenatal ethanol and whisker clipping. Thus, both insults more persistently disrupted the relationship between social communication and social play.

  1. Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…

  2. Designing Schools to Meet the Needs of Students Who Exhibit Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. Ron

    1996-01-01

    Two elementary schools were studied over two years of a schoolwide program to improve service delivery to students with behavior problems. Program components included an advisory committee, schoolwide organizational practices, schoolwide classroom management intervention, and individual behavioral interventions. Target students displayed improved…

  3. Teacher Instruction as a Predictor for Student Engagement and Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Terrance M.; Hirn, Regina G.; Alter, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Effective instruction is a critical predictor of student achievement. As students with exceptionalities such as emotional and behavioral disorders and learning disabilities, who typically struggle with academic achievement, spend increasing amounts of general education settings, the need for precise instructional behaviors becomes more imperative.…

  4. Acute maternal alcohol consumption disrupts behavioral state organization in the near-term fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Morssink, LP; Van der Schee, T; Visser, GHA

    1998-01-01

    Disturbed sleep regulation is often observed in neonates of women who drank heavily during pregnancy. It is unknown if (and how) an occasional drink affects fetal sleeping behavior. In 28 near-term pregnant women we examined the effects on fetal behavioral state organization of two glasses of wine (

  5. High-Mobility Group Box 1 Disrupts Metabolic Function with Cigarette Smoke Exposure in a Ceramide-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. Taylor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously found that cigarette smoke disrupts metabolic function, in part, by increasing muscle ceramide accrual. To further our understanding of this, we sought to determine the role of the cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, which is increased with smoke exposure, in smoke-induced muscle metabolic perturbations. To test this theory, we determined HMGB1 from lungs of human smokers, as well as from lung cells from mice exposed to cigarette smoke. We also treated cells and mice directly with HMGB1, in the presence or absence of myriocin, an inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in ceramide biosynthesis. Outcomes included assessments of insulin resistance and muscle mitochondrial function. HMGB1 was significantly increased in both human lungs and rodent alveolar macrophages. Further testing revealed that HMGB1 treatment elicited a widespread increase in ceramide species and reduction in myotube mitochondrial respiration, an increase in reactive oxygen species, and reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of ceramide biosynthesis with myriocin was protective. In mice, by comparing treatments of HMGB1 injections with or without myriocin, we found that HMGB1 injections resulted in increased muscle ceramides, especially C16 and C24, which were necessary for reduced muscle mitochondrial respiration and compromised insulin and glucose tolerance. In conclusion, HMGB1 may be a necessary intermediate in the ceramide-dependent metabolic consequences of cigarette smoke exposure.

  6. High-Mobility Group Box 1 Disrupts Metabolic Function with Cigarette Smoke Exposure in a Ceramide-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Oliver J.; Thatcher, Mikayla O.; Carr, Sheryl T.; Gibbs, Jonathan L.; Trumbull, Annie M.; Harrison, Mitchell E.; Winden, Duane R.; Pearson, Mackenzie J.; Tippetts, Trevor S.; Holland, William L.; Reynolds, Paul R.; Bikman, Benjamin T.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously found that cigarette smoke disrupts metabolic function, in part, by increasing muscle ceramide accrual. To further our understanding of this, we sought to determine the role of the cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which is increased with smoke exposure, in smoke-induced muscle metabolic perturbations. To test this theory, we determined HMGB1 from lungs of human smokers, as well as from lung cells from mice exposed to cigarette smoke. We also treated cells and mice directly with HMGB1, in the presence or absence of myriocin, an inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in ceramide biosynthesis. Outcomes included assessments of insulin resistance and muscle mitochondrial function. HMGB1 was significantly increased in both human lungs and rodent alveolar macrophages. Further testing revealed that HMGB1 treatment elicited a widespread increase in ceramide species and reduction in myotube mitochondrial respiration, an increase in reactive oxygen species, and reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of ceramide biosynthesis with myriocin was protective. In mice, by comparing treatments of HMGB1 injections with or without myriocin, we found that HMGB1 injections resulted in increased muscle ceramides, especially C16 and C24, which were necessary for reduced muscle mitochondrial respiration and compromised insulin and glucose tolerance. In conclusion, HMGB1 may be a necessary intermediate in the ceramide-dependent metabolic consequences of cigarette smoke exposure. PMID:28531105

  7. Verbal and nonverbal behavior of ability-grouped dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Carter, Glenda

    In this study we describe the social interactions of ability-grouped dyads as they constructed knowledge of balance concepts to elucidate the relationship between interactions and conceptual growth. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 30 fifth-grade students were recorded as they completed three activities related to balance. These student interactions were examined within a framework of social cognition. For each dyad, characteristics of ability-grouped dyads were identified. Results revealed that high-achieving students effectively used prior experiences, maintained focus on the learning task, and were able to manipulate the equipment effectively to construct knowledge. Low-achieving students exhibited off-task behavior, lacked a metacognitive framework for organizing the learning tasks, centered on irrelevant features of the equipment, and were unable to use language effectively to mediate learning. Within low-high student dyads, high-achieving students typically modeled thinking processes and strategies for manipulating equipment. In addition, they focused the low-achieving students on the components of the tasks while verbally monitoring their progress, thus enabling low students to identify the critical features necessary for concept construction. These results highlighted the differences that students have in the use of language and tools. Low students' inefficient use of tools has implications for the ways science teachers structure lessons and group students for laboratory work.Received: 8 March 1993; Revised: 6 January 1994;

  8. Social Status and Aggressive and Disruptive Behavior in Girls: Individual, Group, and Classroom Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, David B.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have found distinct subtypes of aggressive youth, marked by either high social status or social marginalization, and that various measures of status differentially associate with aggression. The majority of these studies, however, focused on boys, adolescents, and/or relational aggression in girls. The current research examined how…

  9. Sustained, fade-out or sleeper effects? A systematic review and meta-analysis of parenting interventions for disruptive child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aar, Jolien; Leijten, Patty; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2017-02-01

    Parenting interventions are known to reduce disruptive child behavior immediately post intervention. But it is largely unknown how reduced disruptive behavior develops in the months and years after the intervention. The present systematic review and multilevel meta-analysis examines whether improvements in disruptive child behavior after parenting intervention are maintained (i.e., sustained effects), fall back (i.e., fade-out effects), or increase further (i.e., sleeper effects). We identified 40 randomized controlled trials with follow-up assessments (up to three years) that generated 91 effect sizes. Mean effect size of post-intervention change was d=0.01, 95% CI [-0.05, 0.07], p=0.78. This lack of change suggests that parenting interventions lead to sustained effects on disruptive behavior. However, there was heterogeneity within and between trials, indicating that some interventions, or interventions under certain circumstances do show fade-out or sleeper effects. None of the moderators tested (i.e., length of follow-up and initial intervention success) explained this heterogeneity. We conclude that parenting interventions generally lead to sustained reductions in disruptive child behavior, at least until three year after intervention. Better understanding is needed of when and why sustainability is stronger in some cases than in others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peer victimization and subsequent disruptive behavior in school: The protective functions of anger regulation coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynak, Ovgü; Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy; Jaggi, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is linked to adjustment problems in youth, including aggressive behavior, yet not all victimized youth are aggressive. The present study investigated whether youth's anger regulation coping might attenuate the positive association between peer victimization and subsequent aggressive behavior. Longitudinal data from 485 7(th)-grade students (55% female, mean age = 12.84 years) and their teachers were collected in the fall and six months later. Teacher ratings of youth aggressive behavior at follow-up were the primary outcome, with statistical adjustments for baseline aggressive behavior and demographics. Results from multilevel models showed significant interactive effects of baseline anger regulation and peer victimization on residualized teacher-rated aggressive behaviors that were consistent with the hypothesis that anger regulation played a protective role: under high levels of peer victimization, youth with higher levels of anger regulation displayed lower levels of aggressive behavior than their counterparts with lower levels of anger regulation. These findings suggest that targeting and improving students' ability to regulate their anger may be protective in the face of peer victimization and reduce subsequent aggressive behavior.

  11. Female Moth Calling and Flight Behavior Are Altered Hours Following Pheromone Autodetection: Possible Implications for Practical Management with Mating Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Stelinski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female moths are known to detect their own sex pheromone—a phenomenon called “autodetection”. Autodetection has various effects on female moth behavior, including altering natural circadian rhythm of calling behavior, inducing flight, and in some cases causing aggregations of conspecifics. A proposed hypothesis for the possible evolutionary benefits of autodetection is its possible role as a spacing mechanism to reduce female-female competition. Here, we explore autodetection in two species of tortricids (Grapholita molesta (Busck and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris. We find that females of both species not only “autodetect,” but that learning (change in behavior following experience occurs, which affects behavior for at least 24 hours after pheromone pre-exposure. Specifically, female calling in both species is advanced at least 24 hours, but not 5 days, following pheromone pre-exposure. Also, the propensity of female moths to initiate flight and the duration of flights, as quantified by a laboratory flight mill, were advanced in pre-exposed females as compared with controls. Pheromone pre-exposure did not affect the proportion of mated moths when they were confined with males in small enclosures over 24 hours in laboratory assays. We discuss the possible implications of these results with respect to management of these known pest species with the use of pheromone-based mating disruption.

  12. Genetic evidence for patrilocal mating behavior among Neandertal groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena

    2011-01-01

    individuals stem from three different maternal lineages, accounting for seven, four, and one individual(s), respectively. Using a Y-chromosome assay to confirm the morphological determination of sex for each individual, we found that, although the three adult males carried the same mtDNA lineage, each...... of the three adult females carried different mtDNA lineages. These findings provide evidence to indicate that Neandertal groups not only were small and characterized by low genetic diversity but also were likely to have practiced patrilocal mating behavior....

  13. Harsh Parenting As a Potential Mediator of the Association Between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Disruptive Behavior in Families With Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Henry, David; Kestler, Jacqueline; Nieto, Ricardo; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2016-07-01

    Young children living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are often also exposed to harsh parenting. Both forms of violence increase children's risk for clinically significant disruptive behavior, which can place them on a developmental trajectory associated with serious psychological impairment later in life. Although it is hypothesized that IPV behaviors may spillover into harsh parenting, and thereby influence risk for disruptive behavior, relatively little is known about these processes in families with young children. The current study examines the overlap of the quality and frequency of psychological and physical forms of IPV and harsh parenting, and tests whether harsh parenting mediates the relationship between IPV and child disruptive behavior in a diverse cross-sectional sample of 81 children ages 4 to 6 years. Results suggest that mothers reporting a greater occurrence of psychologically aggressive IPV (e.g., yelling, name-calling) more often engage in psychological and physical aggression toward their children (odds ratios [ORs] = 4.6-9.9). Mothers reporting a greater occurrence of IPV in the form of physical assault more often engage in mild to more severe forms of physical punishment with potential harm to the child (ORs = 3.8-5.0). Psychological and physical forms of IPV and harsh parenting all significantly correlated with maternal reports of child disruptive behavior (r = .29-.40). Psychological harsh parenting partially mediated the association between psychological IPV and child disruptive behavior. However, a significant direct effect of psychological IPV on preschool children's disruptive behavior remained. Implications for child welfare policy and practice and intervention, including the need for increased awareness of the negative impact of psychological IPV on young children, are discussed.

  14. Manifestations of disruptive behavior and perturbation. Behavior in normal populations of 4 and 17 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This current paper shows the results of a research whose aim was to identify highprobability cases showing externalizing behaviors in the normal population, a crosssection study was designed with a sample of 444 participants, who were given the SNAPIV (Swanson, Nolan & Pelham, 1983). The results showed differences in the Information provided by each one of the sources (parents and teachers) as well as the presence of behaviors with high-risk probability, which may be intervened in the sch...

  15. Disruption of exploratory and habituation behavior in mice with mutation of DISC1: an ethologically based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J; Desbonnet, L; Clarke, N; Waddington, J L; O'Tuathaigh, C M P

    2012-07-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is a gene that has been functionally linked with neurodevelopmental processes and structural plasticity in the brain. Clinical genetic investigations have implicated DISC1 as a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia and related psychoses. Studies using mutant mouse models of DISC1 gene function have demonstrated schizophrenia-related anatomical and behavioral endophenotypes. In the present study, ethologically based assessment of exploratory and habituation behavior in the open field was conducted in DISC1 (L100P), wild-type (WT), heterozygous (HET), and homozygous (HOM) mutant mice of both sexes. Ethological assessment was conducted in an open-field environment to explore specific topographies of murine exploratory behavior across the extended course of interaction from initial exploration through subsequent habituation (the ethogram). During initial exploration, HET and HOM DISC1 mutants evidenced increased levels of locomotion and rearing to wall compared with WT. A HOM-specific increase in total rearing and a HET-specific increase in sifting behavior and reduction in rearing seated were also observed. Over subsequent habituation, locomotion, sniffing, total rearing, rearing to wall, rearing free, and rearing seated were increased in HET and HOM mutants vs. WT. Overall, grooming was increased in HOM relative to other genotypes. HET mice displayed a selective decrease in habituation of sifting behavior. These data demonstrate impairment in both initial exploratory and habituation of exploration in a novel environment in mice with mutation of DISC1. This is discussed in the context of the functional role of the gene vis à vis a schizophrenia phenotype as well as the value of ethologically based approaches to behavioral phenotyping.

  16. Disruptions in aromatase expression in the brain, reproductive behavior, and secondary sexual characteristics in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) induced by tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Wu, Peng; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-05-01

    Although bioaccumulation of tributyltin (TBT) in fish has been confirmed, information on possible effects of TBT on reproductive system of fish is still relatively scarce, particularly at environmentally relevant levels. To evaluate the adverse effects and intrinsic toxicological properties of TBT in male fish, we studied aromatase gene expression in the brain, sex steroid contents, primary and secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive behavior in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to tributyltin chloride at the nominal concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 ng/L for 28 days in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay demonstrated that treatment with 50 ng/L TBT caused an increase in systemic levels of testosterone of male guppies. Gonopodial index, which showed a positive correlation with testosterone levels, was elevated in the 5 ng/L and 50 ng/L TBT treated groups. Real-time PCR revealed that TBT exposure had inhibiting effects on expression of two isoforms of guppy aromatase in the brain, and these changes at the molecular levels were associated with a disturbance of reproductive behavior of the individuals, as measured by decreases in frequencies of posturing, sigmoid display, and chase activities when males were paired with females. This study provides the first evidence that TBT can cause abnormalities of secondary sexual characteristics in teleosts and that suppression of reproductive behavior in teleosts by TBT is due to its endocrine-disrupting action as an aromatase inhibitor targeting the nervous system.

  17. Prior Exposure to Interpersonal Violence and Long-term Treatment Response for Boys with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Kolko, David J.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Insana, Salvatore P.

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is common in children with a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and increases the risk for greater DBD symptom severity, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and neuroendocrine disruption. Thus, IPV may make it difficult to change symptom trajectories for families receiving DBD interventions given these relationships. The current study examined whether IPV prior to receiving treatment for a DBD predicted trajectories of a variety of associated outcomes, specifically DBD symptoms, CU traits, and cortisol concentrations. Boys with a DBD diagnosis (N = 66; age range = 6-11 years; 54.5% of whom experienced IPV prior to treatment) of either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder participated in a randomized clinical trial and were assessed 3 years following treatment. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that prior IPV predicted smaller rates of change in DBD symptoms, CU traits, and cortisol trajectories, indicating less benefit from intervention. The effect size magnitudes of IPV were large for each outcome (d = 0.88 – 1.07). These results suggest that IPV is a predictor of the long-term treatment response for boys with a DBD. Including trauma-focused components into existing DBD interventions may be worth testing to improve treatment effectiveness for boys with a prior history of IPV. PMID:25270151

  18. A Behavioral Framework for Managing Massive Airline Flight Disruptions through Crisis Management, Organization Development, and Organization Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tulinda Deegan

    In this study the researcher provides a behavioral framework for managing massive airline flight disruptions (MAFD) in the United States. Under conditions of MAFD, multiple flights are disrupted throughout the airline's route network, customer service is negatively affected, additional costs are created for airlines, and governments intervene. This study is different from other studies relating to MAFD that have focused on the operational, technical, economic, financial, and customer service impacts. The researcher argues that airlines could improve the management of events that led to MAFD by applying the principles of crisis management where the entire organization is mobilized, rather than one department, adapting organization development (OD) interventions to implement change and organization learning (OL) processes to create culture of innovation, resulting in sustainable improvement in customer service, cost reductions, and mitigation of government intervention. At the intersection of crisis management, OD, and OL, the researcher has developed a new conceptual framework that enhances the resiliency of individuals and organizations in responding to unexpected-yet-recurring crises (e.g., MAFD) that impact operations. The researcher has adapted and augmented Lalonde's framework for managing crises through OD interventions by including OL processes. The OD interventions, coupled with OL, provide a framework for airline leaders to manage more effectively events that result in MAFD with the goal of improving passenger satisfaction, reducing costs, and preventing further government intervention. Further research is warranted to apply this conceptual framework to unexpected-yet-recurring crises that affect operations in other industries.

  19. Astrocyte-specific disruption of SynCAM1 signaling results in ADHD-like behavioral manifestations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula S Sandau

    Full Text Available SynCAM1 is an adhesion molecule involved in synaptic differentiation and organization. SynCAM1 is also expressed in astroglial cells where it mediates astrocyte-to astrocyte and glial-neuronal adhesive communication. In astrocytes, SynCAM1 is functionally linked to erbB4 receptors, which are involved in the control of both neuronal/glial development and mature neuronal and glial function. Here we report that mice carrying a dominant-negative form of SynCAM1 specifically targeted to astrocytes (termed GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice exhibit disrupted diurnal locomotor activity with enhanced and more frequent episodes of activity than control littermates during the day (when the animals are normally sleeping accompanied by shorter periods of rest. GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice also display high levels of basal activity in the dark period (the rodent's awake/active time that are attenuated by the psychostimulant D,L-amphetamine, and reduced anxiety levels in response to both avoidable and unavoidable provoking stimuli. These results indicate that disruption of SynCAM1-dependent astroglial function results in behavioral abnormalities similar to those described in animals model of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD, and suggest a hitherto unappreciated contribution of glial cells to the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  20. Phenotypic and behavioral variability within Angelman Syndrome group with UPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridman Cintia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Angelman syndrome (AS (developmental delay, mental retardation, speech impairment, ataxia, outbursts of laughter, seizures can result either from a 15q11-q13 deletion, or from paternal uniparental disomy (UPD, imprinting, or UBE3A mutations. We describe here the phenotypic and behavioral variability detected in eight UPD patients out of a group of 58 AS patients studied. All of them presented developmental delay, mental retardation, ataxia, speech impairment, and frequent drooling. Only one had microcephaly, whereas in two of them the OFC (head circumference was above the 98th percentile. The weight of all patients was above the 50th percentile, and in three of them the height was above the 90th percentile. Three were able to say a few words and to communicate by gestures. Two patients presented hyperphagia, and three presented skin picking, common features in the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS. Four patients (4/7 had wide-spaced teeth. Five presented seizures, and two others did not manifest frequent laughter. One patient was very different from the others, as he showed a better understanding and abilities to communicate, to play video games and to draw. We suggest here that there seems to be an extreme phenotypic and behavioral variability within the UPD group, and that both typical patients and those with mental retardation, language impairment, happy disposition, and hyperactivity should be tested for AS.

  1. Characteristics of children with juvenile bipolar disorder or disruptive behavior disorders and negative mood: can they be distinguished in the clinical setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Doerfler, Leonard A

    2012-11-01

    Because of continuing controversy over distinguishing juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD) from disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) in the clinical setting, we investigated whether referred children with a DBD and a negative mood component could be differentiated from those diagnosed with JBD. The distinction is important because treatments differ. In this single-site sample, 96 children with non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity DBD and depression were compared with 27 JBD children and 187 psychiatric comparison children on measures assessing behavior, functional impairment, symptom severity, psychopathology, and comorbid psychiatric diagnosis. Few differences were found between children with DBD and depression and those with JBD on measures of conduct problems, oppositionality, aggression, hostility, and psychopathology. More functional impairment was found in the JBD group who also had higher rates of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorders, and suicidality than the other groups. These results do not support the specificity of aggression as a defining criterion for JBD and clinicians assessing such patients also should consider complex DBDs with an associated depressive component in the differential diagnosis. Children with JBD must be specifically assessed for comorbid developmental trauma, substance abuse, and suicidality. The association between JBD and PTSD needs further investigation in clinical research.

  2. A Novel Human CAMK2A Mutation Disrupts Dendritic Morphology and Synaptic Transmission, and Causes ASD-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jason R; Wang, Xiaohan; Perfitt, Tyler L; Parrish, Walker P; Shonesy, Brian C; Marks, Christian R; Mortlock, Douglas P; Nakagawa, Terunaga; Sutcliffe, James S; Colbran, Roger J

    2017-02-22

    Characterizing the functional impact of novel mutations linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provides a deeper mechanistic understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Here we show that a de novo Glu183 to Val (E183V) mutation in the CaMKIIα catalytic domain, identified in a proband diagnosed with ASD, decreases both CaMKIIα substrate phosphorylation and regulatory autophosphorylation, and that the mutated kinase acts in a dominant-negative manner to reduce CaMKIIα-WT autophosphorylation. The E183V mutation also reduces CaMKIIα binding to established ASD-linked proteins, such as Shank3 and subunits of l-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors, and increases CaMKIIα turnover in intact cells. In cultured neurons, the E183V mutation reduces CaMKIIα targeting to dendritic spines. Moreover, neuronal expression of CaMKIIα-E183V increases dendritic arborization and decreases both dendritic spine density and excitatory synaptic transmission. Mice with a knock-in CaMKIIα-E183V mutation have lower total forebrain CaMKIIα levels, with reduced targeting to synaptic subcellular fractions. The CaMKIIα-E183V mice also display aberrant behavioral phenotypes, including hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, and increased repetitive behaviors. Together, these data suggest that CaMKIIα plays a previously unappreciated role in ASD-related synaptic and behavioral phenotypes.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Many autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-linked mutations disrupt the function of synaptic proteins, but no single gene accounts for >1% of total ASD cases. The molecular networks and mechanisms that couple the primary deficits caused by these individual mutations to core behavioral symptoms of ASD remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first characterization of a mutation in the gene encoding CaMKIIα linked to a specific neuropsychiatric disorder. Our findings demonstrate that this ASD-linked de novo CAMK2A mutation disrupts multiple CaMKII functions

  3. Mouse Behavior on ISS: The Emergence of a Distinctive, Organized Group Circling Behavior Unique to Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Solomides, P.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.

    2017-01-01

    As interest in long duration effects of space habitation increases, understanding the behavior of model organisms living within the habitats engineered to fly them is vital for designing, validating, and interpreting future spaceflight studies. Only a handful of papers have previously reported behavior of mice and rats in the weightless environment of space (Andreev-Andrievskiy, et al., 2013; Cancedda et al., 2012; Ronca et al., 2008). The Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation Mission (Rodent Research-1; RR1) utilized the Rodent Habitat (RH) developed at NASA Ames Research Center to fly mice on the ISS. Ten adult (16-week-old) female C57BL6J mice were launched on September 21st, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, and spent 37 days in flight. Here we report group behavioral phenotypes of the RR1 Flight (FLT) and environment-matched Ground Control (GC) mice in the RH during this long duration flight. Video was recorded for 34 days on the ISS, permitting daily assessments of overall health and well being of the mice, and providing a valuable repository for detailed behavioral analysis. As compared to GC mice, RR1 FLT mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploration, self- and allogrooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Overall activity was greater in FLT as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior, including organized circling or race-tracking behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight following a common developmental sequence, comprising the primary dark cycle activity of FLT mice. Circling participation by individual mice persisted throughout the mission. Analysis of group behavior over mission days revealed recruitment of mice into the group phenotype, coupled with decreasing numbers of collisions between circling mice. This analysis provides insights into the behavior of mice in microgravity, and clear evidence for the emergence of a distinctive

  4. Disrupted reinforcement learning and maladaptive behavior in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse: a high-density event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechtel, Pia; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2013-05-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with psychopathology, particularly major depressive disorder (MDD), and high-risk behaviors. Despite the epidemiological data available, the mechanisms underlying these maladaptive outcomes remain poorly understood. We examined whether a history of CSA, particularly in conjunction with a past episode of MDD, is associated with behavioral and neural dysfunction in reinforcement learning, and whether such dysfunction is linked to maladaptive behavior. Participants completed a clinical evaluation and a probabilistic reinforcement task while 128-channel event-related potentials were recorded. Academic setting; participants recruited from the community. Fifteen women with a history of CSA and remitted MDD (CSA + rMDD), 16 women with remitted MDD with no history of CSA (rMDD), and 18 healthy women (controls). Three or more episodes of coerced sexual contact (mean [SD] duration, 3.00 [2.20] years) between the ages of 7 and 12 years by at least 1 male perpetrator. Participants' preference for choosing the most rewarded stimulus and avoiding the most punished stimulus was evaluated. The feedback-related negativity and error-related negativity-hypothesized to reflect activation in the anterior cingulate cortex-were used as electrophysiological indices of reinforcement learning. No group differences emerged in the acquisition of reinforcement contingencies. In trials requiring participants to rely partially or exclusively on previously rewarded information, the CSA + rMDD group showed (1) lower accuracy (relative to both controls and the rMDD group), (2) blunted electrophysiological differentiation between correct and incorrect responses (relative to controls), and (3) increased activation in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (relative to the rMDD group). A history of CSA was not associated with impairments in avoiding the most punished stimulus. Self-harm and suicidal behaviors correlated with poorer performance of

  5. Affects, agency, and self-regulation: complexity theory in the treatment of children with anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    In an increasingly unsettled and violent world, with swelling numbers of children who are abused, abandoned, or neglected, emotionally if not physically, and an increasing population of aggressive preschool children with anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders who cannot be contained in ordinary settings, psychoanalysts can make a contribution. Early intervention is essential. In very early childhood, new procedural memories for interacting with others and for regulating affects can be formed more easily than they can ever be again. Intervention should aim toward helping the child develop a sense of agency, establish moral standards, assume self-responsibility, and attain the capacity for emotional regulation. The principles of complex dynamic systems can inform psychoanalytic treatment strategies, as demonstrated with five children whose cases are presented.

  6. Clinical usefulness of the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule in the diagnosis of DBD and ADHD in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunte, Tessa L; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Matthys, Walter

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of a semi-structured diagnostic parent interview, i.e., the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule (K-DBDS), in preschool children. For Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), to define symptoms two coding methods were compared, i.e., one based on the threshold "often" and the other based on the frequency of behaviors in combination with the presence of clinical concern. For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), to define symptoms, two coding methods were compared, i.e., one with and one without consideration of pervasiveness across contexts. Participants were referred preschool children with externalizing behavioral problems (N = 193; 83% male) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 58; 71% male). The referred children were given a diagnosis of either ODD/CD (N = 39), or ADHD (N = 58) or comorbid ODD/CD+ADHD (N = 57) or no diagnosis (N = 39) based on best-estimate diagnosis. Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analyses showed that a cutoff score of four ODD symptoms using "often" as the threshold for frequency of behaviors led to a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 93%; the coding method which included the frequency of behaviors yielded a sensitivity of 56% and a specificity of 100%. For ADHD, a clinical cutoff score of five symptoms without the pervasiveness criterion yielded a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 98%; when the pervasiveness criterion was included sensitivity was 77% and specificity 98%. In the clinical assessment of ODD and ADHD in preschool children, the K-DBDS may be used with ODD symptom definition based on the threshold "often" and ADHD pervasiveness across contexts not included.

  7. Development of mimetic analogs of pyrokinin-like neuropeptides to disrupt pest insect physiology/behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrokinin (FXPRLamide) neuropeptides regulate a variety of critical processes and behaviors in insects, though they are unsuitable as tools to arthropod endocrinologists and/or as pest management agents due to sub-optimal biostability and/or bioavailability characteristics. Peptidomimetic analogs c...

  8. Status epilepticus during early development disrupts sexual behavior in adult female rats: recovery with sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery.

  9. "It does affect me” Disruptive behaviors in preadolescents directly and indirectly abused at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Aggressive and delinquent behaviors in preadolescents may be indicators of problems suffered at home from direct child abuse by one or both parents or indirect abuse, such as exposure to domestic violence. A total of 532 Italian preadolescents recruited in their schools took part in this study. They

  10. Disruptive Behavior: An Empirical Evaluation of School Misconduct and Market Accountability. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg; Carr, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Opponents of school choice argue that private schools are not "accountable" because they are not subject to detailed oversight by a regulatory bureaucracy. They claim private school employees can be expected to engage in abusive and criminal behavior more frequently. School choice supporters respond that parents hold private schools…

  11. Management of Disruptive and Off-Task Behaviors: Selected Resources. Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Sandra Schweighart; Ingersoll, Gary M.

    In this collection of annotated references on the subject of classroom management, preference was given to primary research studies or articles about such research, and, with the exception of a few fundamental articles, is limited to studies published in the last decade. Classroom management is defined as the maintenance of on-task behavior or the…

  12. Ethnic differences in problem perception : Immigrant mothers in a parenting intervention to reduce disruptive child behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Matthys, W.

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care—a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problema

  13. Use of Coaching and Behavior Support Planning for Students with Disruptive Behavior within a Universal Classroom Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Ze; Newcomer, Lori; King, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Even with the use of effective universal classroom management practices, some students will need additional behavioral supports. However, to translate implementation of new strategies into the classroom, professional development programs need to be adaptive to the complexities teachers face in providing instruction and managing classroom behaviors…

  14. Use of Coaching and Behavior Support Planning for Students with Disruptive Behavior within a Universal Classroom Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Ze; Newcomer, Lori; King, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Even with the use of effective universal classroom management practices, some students will need additional behavioral supports. However, to translate implementation of new strategies into the classroom, professional development programs need to be adaptive to the complexities teachers face in providing instruction and managing classroom behaviors…

  15. Brief parent-child group therapy for childhood anxiety disorders: a developmental perspective on cognitive-behavioral group treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Amitay, Galit; Rosental, Batya; Toren, Paz

    2010-01-01

    The use of cognitive-behavioral group psychotherapy in treating childhood anxiety disorders has become widespread. This paper examines the dynamic processes underlying cognitive-behavioral group treatment for children with anxiety disorders and for their parents, with particular focus on the process of separation-individuation. Both children and their parents were empowered through processes of sub-grouping and thus helped to differentiate and separate. We consider this parallel dynamic process an important factor that can enhance cognitive-behavioral treatment.

  16. Disinfection of titanium dioxide nanotubes using super-oxidized water decrease bacterial viability without disrupting osteoblast behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Partida, Ernesto; Valdez-Salas, Benjamín; Escamilla, Alan; Curiel, Mario; Valdez-Salas, Ernesto; Nedev, Nicola; Bastidas, Jose M

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes (NTs) on Ti6Al4V alloy were synthesized by anodization using a commercially available super-oxidized water (SOW). The NT surfaces were sterilized by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and disinfected using SOW. The adhesion and cellular morphology of pig periosteal osteoblast (PPO) cells and the behavior of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) cultured on the sterilized and disinfected surfaces were investigated. A non-anodized Ti6Al4V disc sterilized by UV irradiation (without SOW) was used as control. The results of this study reveal that the adhesion, morphology and filopodia development of PPO cells in NTs are dramatically improved, suggesting that SOW cleaning may not disrupt the benefits obtained by NTs. Significantly decreased bacterial viability in NTs after cleaning with SOW and comparing with non-cleaned NTs was seen. The results suggest that UV and SOW could be a recommendable method for implant sterilization and disinfection without altering osteoblast behavior while decreasing bacterial viability.

  17. Efficacy of a multimodal treatment for disruptive behavior disorders in children and adolescents: focus on internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Paciello, Marinella; Lenzi, Francesca; Muratori, Pietro; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Lochman, John E; Muratori, Filippo

    2014-11-30

    Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are among the most common reasons for youth referrals to mental health clinics. Aim of this study is to compare short and medium term efficacy of a multimodal treatment program (MTP), compared to community care (treatment-as-usual, TAU). The sample included 135 youths with DBDs (113 males, age range 9-15 years, mean age 12±2.5 years) were assigned either to a MTP (n=64), or addressed to community care for a TAU (n=71). Outcome measures were the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). All subjects were assessed at the baseline (T0), after 1-year treatment (T1) and after a 2-year follow-up (T2). Compared with patients receiving TAU, youths in the MTP showed, both at T1 and T2, significantly lower scores on CBCL Externalizing Scale, Internalizing Scale, Anxious/Depressed, Social Problems, and Aggressive Behavior, and higher scores at the C-GAS. Improvement in Internalizing Scales was particularly evident, with a shift from the clinical to the non-clinical range. Rate of use of mental health services and scholastic failure were reduced in the MTP. It is suggested that the improvement of the Internalizing symptoms is a crucial component of the therapeutic process in this MTP.

  18. Unethical for the sake of the group: risk of social exclusion and pro-group unethical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thau, Stefan; Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Pitesa, Marko; Mitchell, Marie S; Pillutla, Madan M

    2015-01-01

    This research tested the idea that the risk of exclusion from one's group motivates group members to engage in unethical behaviors that secure better outcomes for the group (pro-group unethical behaviors). We theorized that this effect occurs because those at risk of exclusion seek to improve their inclusionary status by engaging in unethical behaviors that benefit the group; we tested this assumption by examining how the effect of exclusion risk on pro-group unethical behavior varies as a function of group members' need for inclusion. A 2-wave field study conducted among a diverse sample of employees working in groups (Study 1) and a constructive replication using a laboratory experiment (Study 2) provided converging evidence for the theory. Study 1 found that perceived risk of exclusion from one's workgroup predicted employees' engagement in pro-group unethical behaviors, but only when employees have a high (not low) need for inclusion. In Study 2, compared to low risk of exclusion from a group, high risk of exclusion led to more pro-group (but not pro-self) unethical behaviors, but only for participants with a high (not low) need for inclusion. We discuss implications for theory and the management of unethical behaviors in organizations.

  19. Preventing Disruptive Behavior via Classroom Management: Validating the Color Wheel System in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tiffany L; Skinner, Christopher H; Skinner, Amy L; Cazzell, Samantha; Aspiranti, Kathleen B; Moore, Tara; Coleman, MariBeth

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that installing a classroom management system known as the Color Wheel reduced inappropriate behaviors and increased on-task behavior in second- and fourth-grade classrooms; however, no systematic studies of the Color Wheel had been disseminated targeting pre-school or kindergarten participants. To enhance our understanding of the Color Wheel System (CWS) as a prevention system, a multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel on inappropriate vocalizations (IVs) in three general education kindergarten classrooms. Partial-interval time-sampling was used to record classwide IVs, which were operationally defined as any comment or vocal noise that was not solicited by the teacher. Time series graphs and effect size calculations suggest that the CWS caused immediate, large, and sustained decreases in IVs across the three classrooms. Teacher acceptability and interview data also supported the CWS. Implications related to prevention are discussed and directions for future research are provided. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Disruption of the neuregulin 1 gene in the rat alters HPA axis activity and behavioral responses to environmental stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Taylor, A R; Markham, J A; Geurts, A M; Kanaskie, B Z; Koenig, J I

    2011-08-03

    Exposure to stress can result in an increased risk for psychiatric disorders, especially among genetically predisposed individuals. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and is also associated with psychotic bipolar disorder. In the rat, the neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus show strong expression of Nrg1 mRNA. In patients with schizophrenia, a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' region of NRG1 interacts with psychosocial stress to affect reactivity to expressed emotion. However, there is virtually no information on the role of NRG1 in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, and whether the protein is expressed in the paraventricular nucleus is unknown. The present studies utilize a unique line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)) generated by gene trapping with the Sleeping Beauty transposon. We first established that the Nrg1(Tn) rats displayed reduced expression of both the mRNA and protein corresponding to the Type II NRG1 isoform. After confirming, using wild type animals, that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the neurocircuitry involved in regulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to environmental stimuli, the Nrg1(Tn) rats were then used to test the hypothesis that altered expression of Type II NRG1 disrupts stress regulation and reactivity. In support of this hypothesis, Nrg1(Tn) rats have disrupted basal and acute stress recovery corticosterone secretion, differential changes in expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the pituitary, paraventricular nucleus and hippocampus, and a failure to habituate to an open field. Together, these findings point to NRG1 as a potential novel regulator of neuroendocrine responses to stress as well as behavioral reactivity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-02-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected. © 2015 Medical Research Council. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  3. Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Safavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although pharmacotherapy with atypical antipsychotics is common in child psychiatry, there has been little research on this issue. To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders comorbid with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Randomized clinical trial conducted in a university-affiliated child psychiatry clinic in southwest Iran. Forty 3-6-year-old children, diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with ADHD, were randomized to an 8-week trial of treatment with risperidone or aripiprazole (20 patients in each group. Assessment was performed by Conners′ rating scale-revised and clinical global impressions scale, before treatment, and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Mean scores between the two groups were compared by analysis of variance and independent and paired t-test. Mean scores of Conners rating scales were not different between two groups in any steps of evaluation. Both groups had significantly reduced scores in week 2 of treatment (P = 0.00, with no significant change in subsequent measurements. Rates of improvement, mean increase in weight (P = 0.894, and mean change in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.671 were not significantly different between two groups. Mean serum prolactin showed a significant increase in risperidone group (P = 0.00. Both risperidone and aripiprazole were equally effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and relatively safe, but high rates of side effects suggest the cautious use of these drugs in children.

  4. Risk of Hyperprolactinemia and Sexual Side Effects in Males 10-20 Years Old Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Disruptive Behavior Disorder and Treated with Risperidone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Tenback, Diederik; van Harten, Peter N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term treatment effects of risperidone on prolactin levels and prolactin-related side effects in pubertal boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Method: Physical healthy 10-20-year-old males with

  5. Predicting Onset of Cannabis Use in Early Adolescence: The Interrelation Between High-Intensity Pleasure and Disruptive Behavior. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.E.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: increased knowledge about the mechanisms by which some individuals are at risk for early onset of cannabis use might contribute to the improvement of prevention efforts. We focus on the roles of early-adolescent high-intensity pleasure, disruptive behavior, and their interplay in the pred

  6. Predicting onset of cannabis use in early adolescence: the interrelation between high-intensity pleasure and disruptive behavior: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.E.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Increased knowledge about the mechanisms by which some individuals are at risk for early onset of cannabis use might contribute to the improvement of prevention efforts. We focus on the roles of early-adolescent high-intensity pleasure, disruptive behavior, and their interplay in the pred

  7. Predicting onset of cannabis use in early adolescence : the interrelation between high-intensity pleasure and disruptive behavior. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.E.; van Lier, P.A.; Vollebergh, W.A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased knowledge about the mechanisms by which some individuals are at risk for early onset of cannabis use might contribute to the improvement of prevention efforts. We focus on the roles of early-adolescent high-intensity pleasure, disruptive behavior, and their interplay in the pred

  8. Examining the Effects of Teacher and Self-Evaluation of Disruptive Behavior via School-Home Notes for Two Young Children in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Prodan, Tana; Condit, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    This study replicates and extends previous research in the area of managing the disruptive classroom behavior of young children. The effectiveness of teacher and self-evaluation through school-home notes was explored. A combination self-evaluation and school-home note procedure was implemented with two kindergarten boys. A single-subject reversal…

  9. The Implementation of a Video-Enhanced Aikido-Based School Violence Prevention Training Program To Reduce Disruptive and Assaultive Behaviors among Severely Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Andrew J.

    The martial art of Aikido was used as an intervention with 15 middle and high school students with severe emotional disturbances in an alternative educational setting. Students with an extensive history of violently disruptive and assaultive behaviors were trained for 12 weeks in this nonviolent Japanese martial art in order to achieve the…

  10. The influence of classroom aggression and classroom climate on aggressive-disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Powers, C J

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4,179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5-8), this study examined the impact of 2 important features of the classroom context--aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of Grade 1. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  11. Methodology for Naturalistic Observation of Therapist Behavior in Group Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Leslie Bloch

    This paper presents a research method derived from the functional analysis of behavior currently common among operant behavior therapists. Naturalistic observation, the method used, encompasses behavioral-level description of events, systematic observation and recording by means of codes, assessment of inter-judge reliability, as well as targeting…

  12. Planning for Bioterrorism. Behavioral & Mental Health Responses to Weapons of Mass Destruction & Mass Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-16

    that had to be stationary that did air sampling, concentration, and then literally using smart tickets, or ELISA-based antibody antigen assays , were...exposed to a nerve agent. Then the entire group felt they were exposed and all came in to the emergency room. It was a phenomenal event. I remember Cam ...TODAY PREVENTS DEAD DUCK TOMORROW 40 9 Appendix 3 Disaster Responses: Nuclear, Natural, & Human-Made Evelyn J. Bromet 40 .ccu~u -CUC c(D c co~0.0 1- 0

  13. DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOUR AMONGST DOCTORS, MYTH OR REALITY?

    OpenAIRE

    Avtar Singh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Disruptive behavior in a medical setting is defined as objectionable or offensive interpersonal behavior that leads to disruption of professional activities in the workplace. 1 It has been observed that majority of doctors do not show disruptive behavior in their day today conduct and only few doctors are identified for their disruptive behavior . Special commi ttee on professional conduct and ethics defines disruptive behavio...

  14. [Behavior of vaginal trichomoniasis in a group of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Cirer, Alina Izquierdo; Pérez, Carlos Sarría; Ramos, Idalia Sariego; Nodarse, Jorge Fraga

    2003-01-01

    275 adolescents aged 10-19 receiving attention at the infantojuvenile department of pregnancy interruption and of sexually transmitted infections of "Ramón Gonzalez Coro" and "Eusebio Hernández" Gynecoobstetric Teaching Hospitals, both in Havana City, were studied from August, 1999, to September, 2000, aimed at knowing the behavior of the infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis in this population group. The results yielded 18.1 % of positivity to parasitosis. It was proved by the calculation of relative risk that the adolescents that had an active or past infection due to Trichomonas vaginalis have more possibilities of getting an infection produced by human Papilomavirus than those without this condition. It was demonstrated that 78 (28.3 %) of the total of patients examined had some type of lesion in the uterine cervix. Some risk factors as non using condon, having multiple sexual partners and the early beginning of sexual relations, which may facilitate the adquisition of this parasitosis in a population so vulnerable as the adolescents, were made known.

  15. Sexual experience does not compensate for the disruptive effects of zinc sulfate--lesioning of the main olfactory epithelium on sexual behavior in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthieu; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2006-10-01

    Recent studies point to an important role for the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) in regulating sexual behavior in male mice. We asked whether sexual experience could compensate for the disruptive effects of lesioning the MOE on sexual behavior in male mice. Male mice, which were either sexually naive or experienced, received an intranasal irrigation of either a zinc sulfate solution to destroy the MOE or saline. Sexual behavior in mating tests with an estrous female was completely abolished in zinc sulfate-treated male mice regardless of whether subjects were sexually experienced or not before the treatment. Furthermore, zinc sulfate treatment clearly disrupted olfactory investigation of both volatile and nonvolatile odors. Destruction of the MOE by zinc sulfate treatment was confirmed by a significant reduction in the expression of Fos protein in the main olfactory bulb following exposure to estrous female urine. By contrast, vomeronasal function did not seem to be affected by zinc sulfate treatment: nasal application of estrous female urine induced similar levels of Fos protein in the mitral and granule cells of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of zinc sulfate- and saline-treated males. Likewise, the expression of soybean agglutinin, which stains the axons of vomeronasal organ neurons projecting to the glomerular layer of the AOB, was similar in zinc sulfate- and saline-treated male mice. These results show that the main olfactory system is essential for the expression of sexual behavior in male mice and that sexual experience does not overcome the disruptive effects of MOE lesioning on this behavior.

  16. Brief report: Examining children's disruptive behavior in the wake of trauma - A two-piece growth curve model before and after a school shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, C K Fred; Miller, Kimberly A; Eddy, J Mark

    2015-10-01

    School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Disruption of Celf6, a Gene Identified by Translational Profiling of Serotonergic Neurons, Results in Autism-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Joseph D.; Maloney, Susan E.; Wozniak, David F.; Rieger, Michael A.; Sonnenblick, Lisa; Coppola, Giovanni; Mahieu, Nathaniel G.; Zhang, Juliet; Cai, Jinlu; Patti, Gary J.; Abrahams, Brett S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    The immense molecular diversity of neurons challenges our ability to understand the genetic and cellular etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Leveraging knowledge from neurobiology may help parse the genetic complexity: identifying genes important for a circuit that mediates a particular symptom of a disease may help identify polymorphisms that contribute to risk for the disease as a whole. The serotonergic system has long been suspected in disorders that have symptoms of repetitive behaviors and resistance to change, including autism. We generated a bacTRAP mouse line to permit translational profiling of serotonergic neurons. From this, we identified several thousand serotonergic-cell expressed transcripts, of which 174 were highly enriched, including all known markers of these cells. Analysis of common variants near the corresponding genes in the AGRE collection implicated the RNA binding protein CELF6 in autism risk. Screening for rare variants in CELF6 identified an inherited premature stop codon in one of the probands. Subsequent disruption of Celf6 in mice resulted in animals exhibiting resistance to change and decreased ultrasonic vocalization as well as abnormal levels of serotonin in the brain. This work provides a reproducible and accurate method to profile serotonergic neurons under a variety of conditions and suggests a novel paradigm for gaining information on the etiology of psychiatric disorders. PMID:23407934

  18. An investigation of the generalizability and dependability of direct behavior rating single item scales (DBR-SIS) to measure academic engagement and disruptive behavior of middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafouleas, Sandra M; Briesch, Amy M; Riley-Tillman, T Chris; Christ, Theodore J; Black, Anne C; Kilgus, Stephen P

    2010-06-01

    A total of 4 raters, including 2 teachers and 2 research assistants, used Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales (DBR-SIS) to measure the academic engagement and disruptive behavior of 7 middle school students across multiple occasions. Generalizability study results for the full model revealed modest to large magnitudes of variance associated with persons (students), occasions of measurement (day), and associated interactions. However, an unexpectedly low proportion of the variance in DBR data was attributable to the facet of rater, as well as a negligible variance component for the facet of rating occasion nested within day (10-min interval within a class period). Results of a reduced model and subsequent decision studies specific to individual rater and rater type (research assistant and teacher) suggested degree of reliability-like estimates differed substantially depending on rater. Overall, findings supported previous recommendations that in the absence of estimates of rater reliability and firm recommendations regarding rater training, ratings obtained from DBR-SIS, and subsequent analyses, be conducted within rater. Additionally, results suggested that when selecting a teacher rater, the person most likely to substantially interact with target students during the specified observation period may be the best choice.

  19. Does Patient Race/Ethnicity Influence Physician Decision-Making for Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Disruptive Behavior Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ann F; Taylor, Robin; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Liu, Yi Hui; Wong, Sarina

    2015-06-01

    Race/ethnic disparities in utilization of children's mental health care have been well documented and are particularly concerning given the long-term risks of untreated mental health problems (Institute of Medicine, 2003; Kessler et al. Am J Psychiatry 152:10026-1032, 1995). Research investigating the higher rates of unmet need among race/ethnic minority youths has focused primarily on policy, fiscal, and individual child or family factors that can influence service access and use. Alternatively, this study examines provider behavior as a potential influence on race/ethnic disparities in mental health care. The goal of the study was to examine whether patient (family) race/ethnicity influences physician diagnostic and treatment decision-making for childhood disruptive behavior problems. The study utilized an internet-based video vignette with corresponding survey of 371 randomly selected physicians from across the USA representing specialties likely to treat these patients (pediatricians, family physicians, general and child psychiatrists). Participants viewed a video vignette in which only race/ethnicity of the mother randomly varied (non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and African American) and then responded to questions about diagnosis and recommended treatments. Physicians assigned diagnoses such as oppositional defiant disorder (48 %) and attention deficit disorder (63 %) to the child, but there were no differences in diagnosis based on race/ethnicity. The majority of respondents recommended psychosocial treatment (98 %) and/or psychoactive medication treatment (60 %), but there were no significant differences based on race/ethnicity. Thus, in this study using mock patient stimuli and controlling for other factors, such as insurance coverage, we did not find major differences in physician diagnostic or treatment decision-making based on patient race/ethnicity.

  20. Disrupted Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Uldam, Julie

    While projects of governance by transparency have become widespread over the past decades, theyare usually investigated and theorized in isolation from the wider field of visibility and surveillancein which they are embedded. Building on theories of governance, visibility and surveillance...... appearances become challenged through disruptive disclosures in mediaenvironments characterized by multiple levels of visibility, with companies both observing andbeing observed by civil society groups that criticize them; (c) why and how the mobilization aroundtransparency and ensuing practices...... of surveillance produce new forms of governing, potentiallywidening the space of manoeuvring for corporations....

  1. Peer Groups, Social Identity, and Children's Bullying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Amanda L.; Nesdale, Drew

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on social identity theory, this study explored the impact of the peer group on childhood bullying. Participants were 351 students, aged 8 to 13 years. Involvement in bullying, friendship group membership, norms of particular groups, and intra-group positions (prototypical vs. peripheral) were determined using peer reports. Results revealed…

  2. The effect of group composition and age on social behavior and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerevik, G; Jensen, M B; Bøe, K E

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were homogeneous and 3 groups were heterogeneous (including 6 young and 6 old calves). The 9.8 mx9.5 m large experimental pen had 4 separate lying areas as well as a feeding area. Behavior and subgrouping were recorded on d 1, 7, and 14 after grouping, and calves were weighed before and after the experimental period of 14 d. Analysis of the effect of group composition on behavior and weight gain included young calves in heterogeneous groups and calves in homogeneous groups within the same age range at grouping (30 to 42 d). Irrespective of group composition, time spent feeding and lying increased, whereas time spent active decreased from d 1 to 7. In homogeneous groups, calves were more explorative on d 1 after grouping. Finally, calves in homogeneous groups had a higher average daily weight gain than calves in heterogeneous groups. Analysis of the effect of age included young and old calves of heterogeneous groups. Young calves were less explorative than old calves. Young calves were more active than old calves on d 1 but less active on d 7. Time spent lying and lying alone increased over time. More displacements from the feed manger were performed by old calves than by young calves. An analysis including all calves in both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups showed that when lying, calves were evenly distributed on the 4 lying areas and formed subgroups of on average 3 calves. In conclusion, age heterogeneity leads to increased competition, which may have a negative influence on the young calves' performance.

  3. Confronting the disruptive physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, B J

    1997-01-01

    Ignoring disruptive behavior is no longer an option in today's changing health care environment. Competition and managed care have caused more organizations to deal with the disruptive physician, rather than look the other way as many did in years past. But it's not an easy task, possibly the toughest of your management career. How should you confront a disruptive physician? By having clearly stated expectations for physician behavior and policies in place for dealing with problem physicians, organizations have a context from which to address the situation.

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy: Applications with Adolescents Who Are Cognitively Impaired and Sexually Acting Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Scott F.; Fontenelle, Scuddy F., III

    1995-01-01

    Measured the effect of cognitive-behavioral group therapy used to decrease inappropriate sexual behaviors among male adolescents in a residential treatment program who are mildly and moderately cognitively impaired. Findings indicated that with adolescents who are cognitively impaired, group and cognitive-behavioral approaches that specifically…

  5. Using mobile health technology to improve behavioral skill implementation through homework in evidence-based parenting intervention for disruptive behavior disorders in youth: study protocol for intervention development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Isham, Andrew; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) (oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD)) are prevalent, costly, and oftentimes chronic psychiatric disorders of childhood. Evidence-based interventions that focus on assisting parents to utilize effective skills to modify children's problematic behaviors are first-line interventions for the treatment of DBDs. Although efficacious, the effects of these interventions are often attenuated by poor implementation of the skills learned during treatment by parents, often referred to as between-session homework. The multiple family group (MFG) model is an evidence-based, skills-based intervention model for the treatment of DBDs in school-age youth residing in urban, socio-economically disadvantaged communities. While data suggest benefits of MFG on DBD behaviors, similar to other skill-based interventions, the effects of MFG are mitigated by the poor homework implementation, despite considerable efforts to support parents in homework implementation. This paper focuses on the study protocol for the development and preliminary evaluation of a theory-based, smartphone mobile health (mHealth) application (My MFG) to support homework implementation by parents participating in MFG. This paper describes a study design proposal that begins with a theoretical model, uses iterative design processes to develop My MFG to support homework implementation in MFG through a series of pilot studies, and a small-scale pilot randomised controlled trial to determine if the intervention can demonstrate change (preliminary efficacy) of My MFG in outpatient mental health settings in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. This preliminary study aims to understand the implementation of mHealth methods to improve the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions in routine outpatient mental health care settings for youth with disruptive behavior and their families. Developing methods to augment the benefits of evidence

  6. Do weight loss and adherence cluster within behavioral treatment groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Weight loss programs are often conducted in a group format, but it is unclear whether weight losses or adherence cluster within treatment group and whether characteristics of the group (e.g., size or homogeneity) affect outcomes. We examined these questions within Look AHEAD, a multicente...

  7. Mutations in AKAP5 disrupt dendritic signaling complexes and lead to electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weisenhaus

    Full Text Available AKAP5 (also referred to as AKAP150 in rodents and AKAP79 in humans is a scaffolding protein that is highly expressed in neurons and targets a variety of signaling molecules to dendritic membranes. AKAP5 interacts with PKA holoenzymes containing RIIalpha or RIIbeta as well as calcineurin (PP2B, PKC, calmodulin, adenylyl cyclase type V/VI, L-type calcium channels, and beta-adrenergic receptors. AKAP5 has also been shown to interact with members of the MAGUK family of PSD-scaffolding proteins including PSD95 and SAP97 and target signaling molecules to receptors and ion channels in the postsynaptic density (PSD. We created two lines of AKAP5 mutant mice: a knockout of AKAP5 (KO and a mutant that lacks the PKA binding domain of AKAP5 (D36. We find that PKA is delocalized in both the hippocampus and striatum of KO and D36 mice indicating that other neural AKAPs cannot compensate for the loss of PKA binding to AKAP5. In AKAP5 mutant mice, a significant fraction of PKA becomes localized to dendritic shafts and this correlates with increased binding to microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP2. Electrophysiological and behavioral analysis demonstrated more severe deficits in both synaptic plasticity and operant learning in the D36 mice compared with the complete KO animals. Our results indicate that the targeting of calcineurin or other binding partners of AKAP5 in the absence of the balancing kinase, PKA, leads to a disruption of synaptic plasticity and results in learning and memory defects.

  8. Longitudinal associations between maternal disrupted representations, maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment: a comparison between full-term and preterm dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R A S; Hoffenkamp, H N; Tooten, A; Braeken, J; Vingerhoets, A J J M; van Bakel, H J A

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study examined whether or not a mother's representations of her infant were more often disrupted after premature childbirth. Furthermore, the study examined if different components of maternal interactive behavior mediated the relation between maternal disrupted representations and infant attachment. The participants were mothers of full-term (n = 75), moderately preterm (n = 68) and very preterm infants (n = 67). Maternal representations were assessed by the Working Model of the Child Interview at 6 months post-partum. Maternal interactive behavior was evaluated at 6 and 24 months post-partum, using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Care Research Network mother-infant observation scales. Infant attachment was observed at 24 months post-partum and was coded by the Attachment Q-Set. The results reveal that a premature childbirth does not necessarily generate disrupted maternal representations of the infant. Furthermore, maternal interactive behavior appears to be an important mechanism through which maternal representations influence the development of infant attachment in full-term and preterm infants. Early assessment of maternal representations can identify mother-infant dyads at risk, in full-term and preterm samples.

  9. Small Group/Seminar Format for Teaching Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethe, John W.; Griffin, Phillip T.

    1981-01-01

    The design and implementation of the revised format of the freshman behavioral science course at Tulane University School of Medicine is described. The methods of evaluation utilized and the data from the first class of medical students to participate in the new curriculum are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  10. Behavioral Constructs and Mammography in Five Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Susan L.; Rakowski, William; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    Intention, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and subjective norms are key constructs of health behavior theories; their predictive validity for cancer screening has not been ascertained in multiethnic populations. Participants were 1,463 African American, Chinese, Filipina, Latina, and White women aged 40 to 74…

  11. Teaching Behavior Management Skills to Parents: The Group Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Dennis R.; Kaufman, Kenneth F.

    This paper discusses the effects of and the need for training of parents of disturbed children. The authors have trained over 1200 parents in 68 parent training courses. They have offered 16 different types of programs to the parents of hyperactive, learning disabled, autistic or otherwise behavior-disordered children ranging in age from…

  12. Multicultural Leader Behaviors in Ethnically Mixed Task Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-15

    Deficit, difference, and bicultural models of Afro-American behavior. Harvard Educational Review, 1971, 41, (2), 137-157. Vasconcellos, J. La raza ...cosmica (4th ed.). Mexico, D.F.: Espasa-Calpe Mexicana, S. A., 1976. Zea, L. Dependencia y liberacion en la cultura latinoamericana. Mexico, D.F

  13. Intragroup and intergroup evaluation effects on group behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branscombe, NR; Spears, R; Ellemers, N; Doosje, B

    2002-01-01

    Groups differ in the prestige they are accorded by outgroups, and individuals differ in how much respect they receive from their group. The authors orthogonally varied both types of social evaluation-intergroup and intragroup-to assess their joint effects on reward allocations and the amount of tune

  14. Determinants of Customers Behavior in Online Group Buying Markets of the Western Balkans Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anida Zahirovic Suhonjic

    2014-01-01

    The field of this research is a specific part of electronic commerce called group buying on the Internet or online group buying in terms of theoretical assumptions and key determinants of customers behavior in online group buying. The basic theoretical concepts of customers decision making in online group buying are analyzed: social exchange theory, equity theory and heuristic model. The basic characteristics of competitive environment are established and customer behavior in online group buy...

  15. The development of collective personality: the ontogenetic drivers of behavioral variation across groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Bengston

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the past decade, the study of personality has become a topic on the frontier of behavioral ecology. However, most studies have focused on exploring inter-individual behavioral variation in solitary animals, and few account for the role that social interactions may have on the development of an individual’s personality. Moreover, a social group may exhibit collective personality: an emergent behavioral phenotype displayed at the group-level, which is not necessarily the sum or average of individual personalities within that group. The social environment, in many cases, can determine group success, which then influences the relative success of all the individuals in that group. In addition, group-level personality may itself evolve, subject to the same selection pressures as individual-level behavioral variation, when the group is a unit under selection. Therefore, we reason that understanding how collective personalities emerge and change over time will be imperative to understanding individual- and group-level behavioral evolution.Personality is considered to be fixed over an individual’s lifetime. However, behavior may shift throughout development, particularly during adolescence. Therefore, juvenile behavior should not be compared with adult behavior when assessing personality. Similarly, as conditions within a group and/or the local environment can shift, group behavior may similarly fluctuate as it matures. We discuss potential within-group factors, such as group initiation, group maturation, genetic make-up of the group, and the internal social environment, and external factors, such as well as how local environment may play a role in generating group-level personalities. There are a variety of studies that explore group development or quantify group personality, but few that integrate both processes. Therefore, we conclude by discussing potential ways to evaluate development of collective personality, and propose several focal

  16. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaastra, Geraldina F; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined) that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use). Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs) for 24 within-subjects design (WSD) and 76 single-subject design (SSD) studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08), with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82) and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61). Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates' behavioral and academic outcomes.

  17. Exposures of zebrafish through diet to three environmentally relevant mixtures of PAHs produce behavioral disruptions in unexposed F1 and F2 descendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignet, Caroline; Joassard, Lucette; Lyphout, Laura; Guionnet, Tiphaine; Goubeau, Manon; Le Menach, Karyn; Brion, François; Kah, Olivier; Chung, Bon-Chu; Budzinski, Hélène; Bégout, Marie-Laure; Cousin, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    The release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment has increased very substantially over the last decades. PAHs are hydrophobic molecules which can accumulate in high concentrations in sediments acting then as major secondary sources. Fish contamination can occur through contact or residence nearby sediments or though dietary exposure. In this study, we analyzed certain physiological traits in unexposed fish (F1) issued from parents (F0) exposed through diet to three PAH mixtures at similar and environmentally relevant concentrations but differing in their compositions. For each mixture, no morphological differences were observed between concentrations. An increase in locomotor activity was observed in larvae issued from fish exposed to the highest concentration of a pyrolytic (PY) mixture. On the contrary, a decrease in locomotor activity was observed in larvae issued from heavy oil mixture (HO). In the case of the third mixture, light oil (LO), a reduction of the diurnal activity was observed during the setup of larval activity. Behavioral disruptions persisted in F1-PY juveniles and in their offspring (F2). Endocrine disruption was analyzed using cyp19a1b:GFP transgenic line and revealed disruptions in PY and LO offspring. Since no PAH metabolites were dosed in larvae, these findings suggest possible underlying mechanisms such as altered parental signaling molecule and/or hormone transferred in the gametes, eventually leading to early imprinting. Taken together, these results indicate that physiological disruptions are observed in offspring of fish exposed to PAH mixtures through diet.

  18. Effects of Methylphenidate and Behavior Modification on the Social and Academic Behavior of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: The Moderating Role of Callous/Unemotional Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Carrey, Normand J.; Willoughby, Michael T.; King, Sara; Andrade, Brendan F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether response to behavior modification with and without methylphenidate differed for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct problems (CP) depending on the presence of callous/unemotional (CU) traits. Participants were 37 children ages 7 to 12, including 19 with ADHD/CP-only and 18 with…

  19. Behavioral responses in structured populations pave the way to group optimality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    An unresolved controversy regarding social behaviors is exemplified when natural selection might lead to behaviors that maximize fitness at the social-group level but are costly at the individual level. Except for the special case of groups of clones, we do not have a general understanding of how and when group-optimal behaviors evolve, especially when the behaviors in question are flexible. To address this question, we develop a general model that integrates behavioral plasticity in social interactions with the action of natural selection in structured populations. We find that group-optimal behaviors can evolve, even without clonal groups, if individuals exhibit appropriate behavioral responses to each other's actions. The evolution of such behavioral responses, in turn, is predicated on the nature of the proximate behavioral mechanisms. We model a particular class of proximate mechanisms, prosocial preferences, and find that such preferences evolve to sustain maximum group benefit under certain levels of relatedness and certain ecological conditions. Thus, our model demonstrates the fundamental interplay between behavioral responses and relatedness in determining the course of social evolution. We also highlight the crucial role of proximate mechanisms such as prosocial preferences in the evolution of behavioral responses and in facilitating evolutionary transitions in individuality.

  20. Social Skills Instruction for Students At Risk for Antisocial Behavior: The Effects of Small-Group Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen L.; Wehby, Joseph; Menzies, Holly M.; Doukas, Georgia L.; Munton, Sarah M.; Gregg, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the effectiveness of a 10-week social skills instruction program for seven students (ages 8-9) at risk for antisocial behavior who were unresponsive to a schoolwide primary intervention program. Results indicated lasting decreases in both disruptive behaviors in the classroom and negative social interactions on the playground.…

  1. Divergence in the ovipositional behavior of the Papilio glaucus group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo J. Mercader; J. Mark Scriber

    2008-01-01

    This study contrasts the ovipositional profiles of four members of the Papiliog laucus group, P. glaucus, P. multicaudatus, P. canadensis, and P. rutulus. We used seven choice oviposition bioassays containing leaves from hosts in seven plant families utilized by members of the P. glaucus group. Specifically, we contrast the overall ovipositional profiles of these species and their acceptance of a host in a novel plant family (Populus tremuloides:Salicaceae) and a host in a putatively ancestral host plant family (Liriodendron tulipifera:Magnoliaceae). Significant differences were observed between the ovipositional profiles of P.glaucus and P. multicaudatus relative to each other and to P. canadensis and P. rutulus. Incontrast, no significant differences were observed between the ovipositional profiles of P.canadensis and P. rutulus, which were also the only species that accepted P. tremuloides.Unlike the acceptance of P. tremuloides, the acceptance of L. tulipifera was present throughout the group despite the inability of the larvae of most species in the group to utilize this host. These results support the prediction of the "hierarchical threshold model" that ancestral host plants are likely to be retained in the ovipositional hierarchy while novel hosts should only be accepted by derived populations.

  2. Ferromagnetic behavior of formyl-group-carrying stable thioaminyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yozo; Nakamura, Shogo; Teki, Yoshio

    2003-10-17

    Four formyl-group-carrying thioaminyl radicals were generated, and one radical could be isolated as radical crystals. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of the isolated radical showed a ferromagnetic regular linear-chain interaction of 2J/k(B) = 3.2 K, which was explained in terms of the X-ray crystallographic results.

  3. The Influence of Group Size on Children's Competitive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Nicholson, Catherine; Waite, Angela; Roy, Rosanne; Simpson, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that children would compete more playing competitive games in tetrads than in dyads. Found that male target children competed more in tetrads than in dyads; female target children did not show different levels of competition based on group size. Based on a global measure of smiling, the emotional atmosphere was less positive in…

  4. PARENT AND PEER GROUP PRESSURES TOWARD DEVIANT STUDENT BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILL, ROBERT B.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS PROJECT WAS TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE FOLLOWING FOUR FACTORS, SIMULTANEOUSLY AND SEPARATELY, AFFECT THE RATES OF CHEATING AMONG 10TH GRADE STUDENTS--(1) INDIVIDUAL ROLE ADAPTATIONS, (2) PEER GROUP INFLUENCE, (3) SOCIAL CONTEXT, AND (4) FAMILY INFLUENCE. A PARADIGM (MERTON'S) THAT RELATES INDIVIDUAL ANOMIA, SOCIAL…

  5. The type F6 neurotoxin gene cluster locus of group II clostridium botulinum has evolved by successive disruption of two different ancestral precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Andrew T; Stringer, Sandra C; Webb, Martin D; Peck, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    Genome sequences of five different Group II (nonproteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type F6 strains were compared at a 50-kb locus containing the neurotoxin gene cluster. A clonal origin for these strains is indicated by the fact that sequences were identical except for strain Eklund 202F, with 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and a 15-bp deletion. The essential topB gene encoding topoisomerase III was found to have been split by the apparent insertion of 34.4 kb of foreign DNA (in a similar manner to that in Group II C. botulinum type E where the rarA gene has been disrupted by a neurotoxin gene cluster). The foreign DNA, which includes the intact 13.6-kb type F6 neurotoxin gene cluster, bears not only a newly introduced topB gene but also two nonfunctional botulinum neurotoxin gene remnants, a type B and a type E. This observation combined with the discovery of bacteriophage integrase genes and IS4 elements suggest that several rounds of recombination/horizontal gene transfer have occurred at this locus. The simplest explanation for the current genotype is that the ancestral bacterium, a Group II C. botulinum type B strain, received DNA firstly from a strain containing a type E neurotoxin gene cluster, then from a strain containing a type F6 neurotoxin gene cluster. Each event disrupted the previously functional neurotoxin gene. This degree of successive recombination at one hot spot is without precedent in C. botulinum, and it is also the first description of a Group II C. botulinum genome containing more than one neurotoxin gene sequence.

  6. Job Search and the Theory of Planned Behavior: Minority-Majority Group Differences in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.; Taris, Toon W.; van der Flier, Henk

    2004-01-01

    The labor market in many Western countries increasingly diversifies. However, little is known about job search behavior of ''non-traditional'' applicants such as ethnic minorities. This study investigated minority-majority group differences in the predictors of job search behavior, using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985). Data were…

  7. Adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol intake and impairs fear extinction in adulthood: Possible role of disrupted noradrenergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, M J; Chappell, A E; Carter, E; Weiner, J L

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress.

  8. Applying OWA operator to model group behaviors in uncertain QFD

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    It is a crucial step to derive the priority order of design requirements (DRs) from customer requirements (CRs) in quality function deployment (QFD). However, it is not straightforward to prioritize DRs due to two types of uncertainties: human subjective perception and user variability. This paper proposes an OWA based group decision-making approach to uncertain QFD with an application to a flexible manufacturing system design. The proposed model performs computations solely based on the orde...

  9. Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Group Therapy on Insomnia Symptoms in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abollahi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12. The experimental group was participated in eight sessions of cognitive behavior therapy, while the control group received no intervention. Research tools include the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index that completed by both participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t-test. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the performance of cognitive behavioral therapy may improve symptoms and reduce the severity of insomnia in the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective on symptoms of insomnia in students.

  10. Influence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders on Academic Performance and School Functions of Youths with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Yu; Huang, Wei-Lieh; Kao, Wei-Chih; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-02-06

    Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) are associated with negative school outcomes. The study aimed to examine the impact of ADHD and ODD/CD on various school functions. 395 youths with ADHD (244 with ADHD + ODD/CD and 151 with ADHD only) and 156 controls received semi-structured psychiatric interviews. School functions were assessed and compared between each group with a multiple-level model. The results showed that youths with ADHD had poorer performance across different domains of school functioning. Youths with ADHD + ODD/CD had more behavioral problems but similar academic performance than those with ADHD only. The multiple linear regression models revealed that ADHD impaired academic performance while ODD/CD aggravated behavioral problems. Our findings imply that comorbid ODD/CD may specifically contribute to social difficulties in youths with ADHD. Measures of early detection and intervention for ODD/CD should be conducted to prevent adverse outcomes.

  11. Behavioral Mediators of Weight Loss in Two Group-Based Behavioral Interventions in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Schlaff, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding the mechanisms by which behavioral interventions exert their effects is important. Purpose: To examine behavioral mediators of weight loss in a sample of older adults participating in an evidence-based physical activity (PA) or nutrition intervention. Methods: Participants (n = 46) were randomized to a 12-week,…

  12. Parenting beliefs and behaviors in northern and southern groups of Italian mothers of young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, M H; Cote, L R; Venuti, P

    2001-12-01

    Similarities and differences in northern and southern Italian mothers' social and didactic parenting beliefs and behaviors, and relations between their beliefs and behaviors, are reported. Both groups of mothers reported that they engaged more in social than didactic interactions with their infants, whereas in actuality both groups engaged in didactic behaviors with their infants for longer periods of time than they engaged in social behaviors. In addition, northern mothers engaged in more social interactions with their infants than did southern mothers. No correlations between beliefs and behaviors emerged in either group. These data speak to issues of intracultural variation and cross-cultural similarities in family psychology and parenting, belief-behavior relations in parenting, and the importance of methodology (parental report or observation) in the study of parenting and family functioning.

  13. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Witt, Melissa Guerrero; Tam, Leona

    2005-06-01

    The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions.

  14. 破坏性行为障碍儿童的行为和情绪问题%Behavioral and emotional problems of children with disruptive behavior disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷音; 罗学荣; 韦臻; 管冰清; 袁秀洪; 宁志军; 丁军; 杨伟

    2010-01-01

    [目的] 了解具有破坏性行为障碍(disruptive behavior disorder,DBD)儿童的情绪和行为问题,为临床诊治提供参考依据. [方法]对来自湖南省中小学生心理健康状况流行病学调查研究中的全部对象进行DSM-IV诊断,其中符合DBD诊断标准的对象及对照组由父母填写Achenbach儿童行为量表,儿童自己填写儿童焦虑性情绪障碍筛查量表和儿童抑郁障碍自评量表.最后得到完整资料1 918人(单纯DBD组499人、DBD共病组420人和对照组999人).[结果]在CBCL各分量表中DBD儿童得分与正常儿童相比,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05);DBD共病组在社交问题、注意问题、违纪问题、性问题、外化问题等方面得分显著高于单纯DBD组,而学校情况、社交总分显著低于单纯DBD组.焦虑抑郁量表中只有社交恐怖因子DBD组与对照组比较差异有统计学意义;除抑郁总分因子,DBD共病组患者与单纯DBD组相比,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05). [结论] DBD患儿存在显著的行为和情绪问题,社会能力差;DBD共患组的社交和外化性行为及情绪问题更为突出.

  15. Sulfite disrupts brain mitochondrial energy homeostasis and induces mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening via thiol group modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grings, Mateus; Moura, Alana P; Amaral, Alexandre U; Parmeggiani, Belisa; Gasparotto, Juciano; Moreira, José C F; Gelain, Daniel P; Wyse, Angela T S; Wajner, Moacir; Leipnitz, Guilhian

    2014-09-01

    Sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency is biochemically characterized by the accumulation of sulfite, thiosulfate and S-sulfocysteine in tissues and biological fluids of the affected patients. The main clinical symptoms include severe neurological dysfunction and brain abnormalities, whose pathophysiology is still unknown. The present study investigated the in vitro effects of sulfite and thiosulfate on mitochondrial homeostasis in rat brain mitochondria. It was verified that sulfite per se, but not thiosulfate, decreased state 3, CCCP-stimulated state and respiratory control ratio in mitochondria respiring with glutamate plus malate. In line with this, we found that sulfite inhibited the activities of glutamate and malate (MDH) dehydrogenases. In addition, sulfite decreased the activity of a commercial solution of MDH, that was prevented by antioxidants and dithiothreitol. Sulfite also induced mitochondrial swelling and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca(2+) retention capacity, NAD(P)H pool and cytochrome c immunocontent when Ca(2+) was present in the medium. These alterations were prevented by ruthenium red, cyclosporine A (CsA) and ADP, supporting the involvement of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in these effects. We further observed that N-ethylmaleimide prevented the sulfite-elicited swelling and that sulfite decreased free thiol group content in brain mitochondria. These findings indicate that sulfite acts directly on MPT pore containing thiol groups. Finally, we verified that sulfite reduced cell viability in cerebral cortex slices and that this effect was prevented by CsA. Therefore, it may be presumed that disturbance of mitochondrial energy homeostasis and MPT induced by sulfite could be involved in the neuronal damage characteristic of SO deficiency.

  16. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kacar Basaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that evaluate effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for treatment for panic disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in the national and international databases. The articles that were not therapy effectiveness studies, and group therapies that not based on cognitive behavioral approach were eliminated. The remaining 19 studies that were met the criteria were introduced in terms of method, therapy characteristics and results. The results of the studies showed that cognitive behavioral group therapies have similar efficacy with individual cognitive behavioral therapy on panic disorder symptoms (panic attacks frequency, the level of agoraphobia etc. and comorbid disorders (depression, anxiety sensitivity. However, cognitive behavioral group therapy is more cost-effective. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 79-94

  17. Oncolytic Group B Adenovirus Enadenotucirev Mediates Non-apoptotic Cell Death with Membrane Disruption and Release of Inflammatory Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Dyer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Enadenotucirev (EnAd is a chimeric group B adenovirus isolated by bioselection from a library of adenovirus serotypes. It replicates selectively in and kills a diverse range of carcinoma cells, shows effective anticancer activity in preclinical systems, and is currently undergoing phase I/II clinical trials. EnAd kills cells more quickly than type 5 adenovirus, and speed of cytotoxicity is dose dependent. The EnAd death pathway does not involve p53, is predominantly caspase independent, and appears to involve a rapid fall in cellular ATP. Infected cells show early loss of membrane integrity; increased exposure of calreticulin; extracellular release of ATP, HSP70, and HMGB1; and influx of calcium. The virus also causes an obvious single membrane blister reminiscent of ischemic cell death by oncosis. In human tumor biopsies maintained in ex vivo culture, EnAd mediated release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-6, and HMGB1. In accordance with this, EnAd-infected tumor cells showed potent stimulation of dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells in a mixed tumor-leukocyte reaction in vitro. Whereas many viruses have evolved for efficient propagation with minimal inflammation, bioselection of EnAd for rapid killing has yielded a virus with a short life cycle that combines potent cytotoxicity with a proinflammatory mechanism of cell death.

  18. Early life stress disrupts social behavior and prefrontal cortex parvalbumin interneurons at an earlier time-point in females than in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Freedom H; Ganguly, Prabarna; Potter, David N; Chartoff, Elena H; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2014-04-30

    Early life stress exposure (ELS) yields risk for psychiatric disorders that might occur though a population-specific mechanism that impacts prefrontal cortical development. Sex differences in ELS effects are largely unknown and are also essential to understand social and cognitive development. ELS can cause dysfunction within parvalbumin (PVB)-containing inhibitory interneurons in the prefrontal cortex and in several prefrontal cortex-mediated behaviors including social interaction. Social behavior deficits are often the earliest observed changes in psychiatric disorders, therefore the time-course and causation of social interaction deficits after ELS are important to determine. PVB interneuron dysfunction can disrupt social behavior, and has been correlated in males with elevated markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, such as cyclooxygenase-2 after ELS. Here, we measured the effects of maternal separation ELS on social interaction behaviors in males and females. Prefrontal cortex PVB and cyclooxygenase-2 were also measured in juveniles and adolescents using Western blots. ELS led to social interaction alterations earlier in females than males. Sexually dimorphic behavioral changes were consistent with prefrontal cortex PVB loss after ELS. PVB levels were decreased in ELS-exposed juvenile females, while males exposed to ELS do not display parvalbumin decreases until adolescence. Early behavioral and PVB changes in females did not appear to be mediated through cyclooxygenase-2, since levels were not affected in ELS females. Therefore, these data suggest that ELS affects males and females differently and with distinct developmental profiles.

  19. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldina F Gaastra

    Full Text Available Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use. Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs for 24 within-subjects design (WSD and 76 single-subject design (SSD studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08, with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82 and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61. Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates' behavioral and academic outcomes.

  20. The Influence of Family and Teacher Factors on Early Disruptive School Behaviors: A Latent Profile Transition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Sarah J.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The kindergarten year plays an important role in establishing children's academic, social, and behavioral adjustment. Early identification of children who experience difficulties with the kindergarten transition is crucial to prevent continued behavioral and emotional problems. Family and school predictors of these early behavioral patterns can…