WorldWideScience

Sample records for group displayed reduced

  1. Fishualization: a group feedback display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Boertjes, E.M.; Koldijk, S.J.; Wiertz, L.; Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kaptein, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution1 we present a novel psychological intervention that maps human computer activity to a group feedback device on the basis of a combination of various types of unobtrusive, low-level sensors. The goal is to enable employees to gain insights into their working habits, to reduce str

  2. Yuehong Group to Display Its Gorgeous Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Zhejiang Yuehong Holding Group Co.,Ltd.is a group company which covers many areas.With textile as its main business,the company has four textile subcompanies,such as Shaoxing Hongmao Weaving Co.,Ltd.,Shaoxing Shenglong Textile Co.,Ltd.,Shaoxing Yuexin Digital Textile Co.Ltd.and Shaoxing Yuehong Technic Co.,Ltd.Yuehong group also invests on international trading and real estate both of which make a great profit.

  3. Reducing observer metamerism in wide-gamut multiprimary displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David; Fairchild, Mark D.

    2015-03-01

    Emerging electronic display technologies for cinema and television such as LED, OLED, laser and quantum dot are permitting greatly enhanced color gamuts via increasingly narrow-band primary emission spectra. A recent standard adopted for Ultra High Definition television, ITU-R Rec. 2020, promotes RGB primary chromaticities coincident with the spectral locus. As displays trend towards larger gamuts in the traditional 3-primary design, variability in human color sensing is exacerbated. Metameric matches to aim stimuli for one particular observer may yield a notable color mismatch for others, even if all observers are members of a color-normal population. Multiprimary design paradigms may hold value for simultaneously enhancing color gamut and reducing observer metamerism. By carefully selecting primary spectra in systems employing more than 3 emission channels, intentional metameric performance can be controlled. At Rochester Institute of Technology, a prototype multiprimary display has been simulated to minimize observer metamerism and observer variability according to custom indices derived from emerging models for human color vision. The constructed display is further being implemented in observer experiments to validate practical performance and confirm these vision and metamerism models.

  4. Treating student contributions as displays of understanding in group supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The analyses this paper reports come from ongoing research into the interactive establishment of local social order in an educational setting (Day & Kjærbeck 2008, Day & Kjærbeck, in preparation). In focus for this paper are a particular sort of activity in the setting, 'group supervision', whereby...... students working in 'project groups' are to meet with their 'supervisor' to discuss the group's ongoing project, and a particular set of interactive phenomena, namely students' displays of comprehension directed toward the supervisor following his or evaluation of their work. This work is in line...

  5. Reduce volume of head-up display by image stitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Feng; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2016-09-01

    Head-up Display (HUD) is a safety feature for automobile drivers. Although there have been some HUD systems in commercial product already, their images are too small to show assistance information. Another problem, the volume of HUD is too large. We proposed a HUD including micro-projectors, rear-projection screen, microlens array (MLA) and the light source is 28 mm x 14 mm realized a 200 mm x 100 mm image in 3 meters from drivers. We want to use the MLA to reduce the volume by virtual image stitching. We design the HUD's package dimensions is 12 cm x 12 cm x 9 cm. It is able to show speed, map-navigation and night vision information. We used Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) as our image source due to its brighter image output required and the minimum volume occupancy. The MLA is a multi aperture system. The proposed MLA consists of many optical channels each transmitting a segment of the whole field of view. The design of the system provides the stitching of the partial images, so that we can see the whole virtual image.

  6. Treating student contributions as displays of understanding in group supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    the analytic relevance of the talk's embeddedness within a particular sort of institutional activity. With regard to the last point, we will show how the supervisors' construction an evaluation and the work embarked upon by him or her following students' post-evaluation comprehension displays reflexively...... grounds the particular institutional setting. In spite of the particulars of these data, however, we nonetheless maintain that our analyses of them reveal generalities concerning how cognition can be viewed as distributed, situated, activity-bound and embodied....

  7. The Backlight Control System Aimed at Reducing Crosstalk in Autostereoscopic Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yalan; Wang, Yuanqing; Cao, Liqun; Han, Lei; Zhou, Biye; Li, Minggao

    2014-06-01

    In order to realize auto-stereoscopic display, a new directional optic structure was proposed in this article, by providing only a pair of parallax images time-sequentially, aided with the human eye tracking system, a multi-user stereo-parallax 3D displayer with full resolution was invented. Meanwhile, the backlight control system of this displayer based on the simple microcontroller was mainly focused, in view of the crosstalk existed in 3D displays, three effective methods to reduce crosstalk were put forward: reduced lit time ratio of the directional backlight, faster refresh LCD and the application of Kalman prediction interpolation. As the experimental results shows, these methods achieve a good performance in reducing crosstalk, and finally a strong 3D visual effect without loss of resolution is achieved.

  8. Preproduction display R&D facility: a framework for developing flexible display systems reducing the war-fighters' load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenhausern, Frederick; Raupp, Gregory B.

    2004-09-01

    There is an ever increasing need for lightweight, flexible, inexpensive integrated systems encompassing displays, sensors, computers, and other electronics to provide unprecedented information capability to a broad range of war-fighters. During the next few years, a team of experts will be engaged in an intensive development program pursuing a two-pronged goal: (1) to integrate and fabricate reflective and emissive systems such as organic light emitting devices on flexible substrates including plastics, and (2) to develop materials and structural platforms that allow flexible backplane electronics to be integrated with ancillaries and display components, as well as to be mass-produced economically. An underlying theme of this effort continues to be leveraging emerging processing techniques, for example a-Si and poly-Si thin film transistor (TFT) technologies, but also advanced micro-contact pattern transfer techniques for producing low cost product with molecular structures for combined communication and electronic appliances. The initial technology integration target is a 4" diagonal active matrix QVGA display on conformal plastic substrates. These advanced developments will be realized through a unique collaborative effort between the U.S. Army, Arizona State University (ASU) in close collaboration with its academic partners, and industry partners, who are united in our shared commitment to optimize the necessary production technologies for large area/large scale, low cost, cutting-edge display products and state-of-the-art manufacturing capabilities. The newly formed Flexible Display Center (FDC) at Arizona State University provides a one-of-a-kind environment fully dedicated to fulfill the major technical challenges not addressed by display manufacturers producing glass-based flat panel displays.

  9. Utilizing Thermal Mass in Refrigerated Display Cases to Reduce Peak Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The potential to store energy within refrigerated food products presents convenience store and supermarket operators with an opportunity to participate in utility sponsored demand response programs, whereby electricity usage can be shifted or reduced during peak periods. To determine the feasibility of reducing peak demand by shifting the refrigeration load to off-peak times, experimental and analytical analyses were performed. Simulated product, consisting of one-pint containers filled with a 50% ethylene glycol and 50% water solution, were stored in a medium-temperature vertical open refrigerated display case. Product temperature rise as a function of time was determined by turning off the refrigeration to the display case, while product temperature pull-down time was subsequently determined by turning on the refrigeration to the display case. It was found that the thermal mass of the product in a medium-temperature display case was such that during a 2.5 hour period with no refrigeration, the average product temperature increased by 5.5 C. In addition, it took approximately 3.5 hours for the product to recover to its initial temperature after the refrigeration was turned on. Transient heat conduction analyses for one-dimensional objects is in good agreement with the experimental results obtained in this study. From the analysis, it appears that the thermal mass of the stored product in refrigerated display cases is sufficient to allow product temperatures to safely drift for a significant time under reduced refrigeration system operation. Thus, strategies for shifting refrigeration system electrical demand can be developed. The use of an advanced refrigeration system controller that can respond to utility signals can enable demand shifting with minimal impact.

  10. Reducing Display Bottle Cooler Energy Consumption Using PCM As Active Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, Marcel van; de Jong, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The final results of an analytical and experimental study in reducing the energy consumption of a display bottle cooler using Phase Change Material (PCM) as an active thermal storage are presented. The objective of the study was to design and built a 350 dm3 glass door bottle cooler having an appliance energy consumption reduction of over 75% compared to state of the art bottle coolers (2010 figures). Calculation results show that active thermal storage using PCM can be effectively applied to...

  11. The Effects of Alcohol on the Emotional Displays of Whites in Interracial Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Sayette, Michael A.; Levine, John M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Creswell, Kasey G.

    2017-01-01

    Discomfort during interracial interactions is common among Whites in the U.S. and is linked to avoidance of interracial encounters. While the negative consequences of interracial discomfort are well-documented, understanding of its causes is still incomplete. Alcohol consumption has been shown to decrease negative emotions caused by self-presentational concern but increase negative emotions associated with racial prejudice. Using novel behavioral-expressive measures of emotion, we examined the impact of alcohol on displays of discomfort among 92 White individuals interacting in all-White or interracial groups. We used the Facial Action Coding System and comprehensive content-free speech analyses to examine affective and behavioral dynamics during these 36-minute exchanges (7.9 million frames of video data). Among Whites consuming nonalcoholic beverages, those assigned to interracial groups evidenced more facial and speech displays of discomfort than those in all-White groups. In contrast, among intoxicated Whites there were no differences in displays of discomfort between interracial and all-White groups. Results highlight the central role of self-presentational concerns in interracial discomfort and offer new directions for applying theory and methods from emotion science to the examination of intergroup relations. PMID:23356562

  12. The effects of alcohol on the emotional displays of Whites in interracial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Sayette, Michael A; Levine, John M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Creswell, Kasey G

    2013-06-01

    Discomfort during interracial interactions is common among Whites in the U.S. and is linked to avoidance of interracial encounters. While the negative consequences of interracial discomfort are well-documented, understanding of its causes is still incomplete. Alcohol consumption has been shown to decrease negative emotions caused by self-presentational concern but increase negative emotions associated with racial prejudice. Using novel behavioral-expressive measures of emotion, we examined the impact of alcohol on displays of discomfort among 92 White individuals interacting in all-White or interracial groups. We used the Facial Action Coding System and comprehensive content-free speech analyses to examine affective and behavioral dynamics during these 36-min exchanges (7.9 million frames of video data). Among Whites consuming nonalcoholic beverages, those assigned to interracial groups evidenced more facial and speech displays of discomfort than those in all-White groups. In contrast, among intoxicated Whites there were no differences in displays of discomfort between interracial and all-White groups. Results highlight the central role of self-presentational concerns in interracial discomfort and offer new directions for applying theory and methods from emotion science to the examination of intergroup relations.

  13. Reduced complexity MPEG2 video post-processing for HD display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kamran; Li, Huiying; Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents MPEG(2) decoder post-processing for high definition (HD) flat panel displays. The focus is to design efficient post-processing to reduce blocking and ringing artifacts. Standard deblocking modules are improved to obtain a significant load reduction through a new DCT based...... control scheme. Standard deringing modules are enhanced through adaptive thresholding to improve the image quality. The schemes are implemented in a MPEG2 decoder for evaluation. The enhanced deblocking filter results in load reduction with an overall reduction in execution time of 41~46% over the basic...

  14. Some combinatorial models for reduced expressions in Coxeter groups

    CERN Document Server

    Denoncourt, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Stanley's formula for the number of reduced expressions of a permutation regarded as a Coxeter group element raises the question of how to enumerate the reduced expressions of an arbitrary Coxeter group element. We provide a framework for answering this question by constructing combinatorial objects that represent the inversion set and the reduced expressions for an arbitrary Coxeter group element. The framework also provides a formula for the length of an element formed by deleting a generator from a Coxeter group element. Fan and Hagiwara, et al$.$ showed that for certain Coxeter groups, the short-braid avoiding elements characterize those elements that give reduced expressions when any generator is deleted from a reduced expression. We provide a characterization that holds in all Coxeter groups. Lastly, we give applications to the freely braided elements introduced by Green and Losonczy, generalizing some of their results that hold in simply-laced Coxeter groups to the arbitrary Coxeter group setting.

  15. Factor XI-deficient mice display reduced inflammation, coagulopathy, and bacterial growth during listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Deyan; Szaba, Frank M; Kummer, Lawrence W; Johnson, Lawrence L; Tucker, Erik I; Gruber, Andras; Gailani, David; Smiley, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    In mice infected sublethally with Listeria monocytogenes, fibrin is deposited at low levels within hepatic tissue, where it functions protectively by limiting bacterial growth and suppressing hemorrhagic pathology. Here we demonstrate that mice infected with lethal doses of L. monocytogenes produce higher levels of fibrin and display evidence of systemic coagulopathy (i.e., thrombocytopenia, fibrinogen depletion, and elevated levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes). When the hepatic bacterial burden exceeds 1×10(6) CFU, levels of hepatic fibrin correlate with the bacterial burden, which also correlates with levels of hepatic mRNA encoding the hemostatic enzyme factor XI (FXI). Gene-targeted FXI-deficient mice show significantly improved survival upon challenge with high doses of L. monocytogenes and also display reduced levels of hepatic fibrin, decreased evidence of coagulopathy, and diminished cytokine production (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and IL-10). While fibrin limits the bacterial burden during sublethal listeriosis in wild-type mice, FXI-deficient mice display a significantly improved capacity to restrain the bacterial burden during lethal listeriosis despite their reduced fibrin levels. They also show less evidence of hepatic necrosis. In conjunction with suboptimal antibiotic therapy, FXI-specific monoclonal antibody 14E11 improves survival when administered therapeutically to wild-type mice challenged with high doses of L. monocytogenes. Together, these findings demonstrate the utility of murine listeriosis as a model for dissecting qualitative differences between protective and pathological host responses and reveal novel roles for FXI in exacerbating inflammation and pathogen burden during a lethal bacterial infection.

  16. Reducing Deviance Through Youths' Mutual Aid Group Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2016-01-01

    The mutual aid group, as supported by the social worker, emerges to play a vital role in helping group members reduce their deviance or behavioral problem. However, how the collaboration of the group and social worker accomplishes the reduction has remained uncharted. Based on social capital theory, mutual aid and cohesion within the group and social workers' specific aid for the group are likely responsible for the reduction. The test of such hypotheses relies on a two-wave panel survey of the members of 60 mutual aid groups who had deviant behavioral problems, located in Hong Kong, China. These groups had 241 youths completing both initial and 1-year follow-up surveys. Results manifested the direct or unconditional contributions of mutual aid, group cohesion, and social workers' specific aid to reducing deviance. Hence, social workers can enhance the effectiveness of the mutual aid group in reducing youths' deviance.

  17. Neutrophils from Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Display Reduced Chemotaxis to CXCR2 Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Cockx

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD, cystic fibrosis (CF, and chronic obstructive airway disease are characterized by neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs. In CF and chronic obstructive airway disease, improper functioning of neutrophils has been demonstrated. We hypothesized that the pulmonary damage in PCD might be aggravated by abnormal functioning neutrophils either as a primary consequence of the PCD mutation or secondary to chronic inflammation. We analyzed chemotactic responses and chemoattractant receptor expression profiles of peripheral blood neutrophils from 36 patients with PCD, 21 healthy children and 19 healthy adults. We stimulated peripheral blood monocytes from patients and healthy controls and measured CXCL8 and IL-1β production with ELISA. PCD neutrophils displayed reduced migration toward CXCR2 ligands (CXCL5 and CXCL8 in the shape change, microchamber and microslide chemotaxis assays, whereas leukotriene B4 and complement component 5a chemotactic responses were not significantly different. The reduced response to CXCL8 was observed in all subgroups of patients with PCD (displaying either normal ultrastructure, dynein abnormalities or central pair deficiencies and correlated with lung function. CXCR2 was downregulated in about 65% of the PCD patients, suggestive for additional mechanisms causing CXCR2 impairment. After treatment with the TLR ligands lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, PCD monocytes produced more CXCL8 and IL-1β compared to controls. Moreover, PCD monocytes also responded stronger to IL-1β stimulation in terms of CXCL8 production. In conclusion, we revealed a potential link between CXCR2 and its ligand CXCL8 and the pathogenesis of PCD.

  18. Motion transparency arises from perceptual grouping: evidence from luminance and contrast modulation motion displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwan, P W; Johnston, A

    1996-10-01

    What circumstance lead to the perception of global motion transparency? it has been shown that, in paired random dot displays, motion transparency can be abolished if the separation of the dot pairs is sufficiently small. Motion transparency has also been shown to be influenced by high level cognitive cues. Here, we report that the combination of two moving dot stimuli, which separately invoke a percept of transparent motion, gives rise to a non-transparent percept of local rotation. These stimuli were constructed using various different pattern elements, including luminance defined elements and contrast modulations. The results extend and support the view that high-level grouping of local measures of the velocity field can determine whether a motion transparency is perceived or not.

  19. Poisson Morphisms and Reduced Affine Poisson Group Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qi Lin

    2002-01-01

    We establish the concept of a quotient affine Poisson group, and study the reduced Poisson action of the quotient of an affine Poisson group G on the quotient of an affine Poisson G-variety V. The Poisson morphisms (including equivariant cases) between Poisson affine varieties are also discussed.

  20. A newly discovered flavivirus in the yellow fever virus group displays restricted replication in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Agathe M G; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Suen, Willy W; O'Brien, Caitlin A; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall, Roy A

    2016-05-01

    A novel flavivirus, provisionally named Bamaga virus (BgV), was isolated from Culex annulirostris mosquitoes collected from northern Australia. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of the BgV genome revealed it clustered with the yellow fever virus (YFV) group, and was most closely related to Edge Hill virus (EHV), another Australian flavivirus, with 61.9% nucleotide and 63.7% amino acid sequence identity. Antigenic analysis of the envelope and pre-membrane proteins of BgV further revealed epitopes common to EHV, dengue and other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. However, in contrast to these viruses, BgV displayed restricted growth in a range of vertebrate cell lines with no or relatively slow replication in inoculated cultures. There was also restricted BgV replication in virus-challenged mice. Our results indicate that BgV is an evolutionary divergent member of the YFV group of flaviviruses, and represents a novel system to study mechanisms of virus host-restriction and transmission.

  1. Reducibility of quantum representations of mapping class groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Fjelstad, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide a general condition for the reducibility of the Reshetikhin–Turaev quantum representations of the mapping class groups. Namely, for any modular tensor category with a special symmetric Frobenius algebra with a non-trivial genus one partition function, we prove that the qu......In this paper we provide a general condition for the reducibility of the Reshetikhin–Turaev quantum representations of the mapping class groups. Namely, for any modular tensor category with a special symmetric Frobenius algebra with a non-trivial genus one partition function, we prove...... that the quantum representations of all the mapping class groups built from the modular tensor category are reducible. In particular, for SU(N) we get reducibility for certain levels and ranks. For the quantum SU(2) Reshetikhin–Turaev theory we construct a decomposition for all even levels. We conjecture...

  2. Tactile torso display as countermeasure to reduce night vision goggles induced drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Veltman, J.A.; Veen, H.A.H.C. van; Oving, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    The degraded visual infoflllation when hovering with Night Vision Goggles may induce drift that is not noticed by the pilot. We tested the possibilities of counteracting these effects by using a tactile torso display. The display consisted of 64 vibro-tactile elements and presented infoflllation on

  3. Tactile torso display as countermeasure to reduce night vision goggles induced drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Veltman, J.A.; Veen, H.A.H.C. van; Oving, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    The degraded visual infoflllation when hovering with Night Vision Goggles may induce drift that is not noticed by the pilot. We tested the possibilities of counteracting these effects by using a tactile torso display. The display consisted of 64 vibro-tactile elements and presented infoflllation on

  4. 30.2 Digital PWM-driven AMOLED display on flex reducing static power consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genoe, J.; Obata, K.; Ameys, M.; Myny, K.; Ke, T.H.; Nag, M.; Steudel, S.; Schols, S.; Maas, J.; Tripathi, A.; Van Der Steen, J.-L.; Ellis, T.; Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of small-molecule OLED devices increased substantially in recent years, creating opportunities for power-efficient displays, as only light is generated proportional to the subpixel intensity. However, current active matrix OLED (AMOLED) displays on foil do not validate this power-effi

  5. Transposon display supports transpositional activity of elements in species of the saltans group of Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nathalia De Setta; Ana Paula Pimentel Costa; Fabrício Ramon Lopes; Marie-Anne Van Sluys; Cláudia Márcia Aparecida Carareto

    2007-01-01

    Mobilization of two element subfamilies (canonical and O-type) from Drosophila sturtevanti and D. saltans was evaluated for copy number and transposition activity using the transposon display (TD) technique. Pairwise distances between strains regarding the insertion polymorphism profile were estimated. Amplification of the element based on copy number estimates was highly variable among the strains (D. sturtevanti, canonical 20.11, O-type 9.00; D. saltans, canonical 16.4, O-type 12.60 insertions, on average). The larger values obtained by TD compared to our previous data by Southern blotting support the higher sensitivity of TD over Southern analysis for estimating transposable element copy numbers. The higher numbers of the canonical element and the greater divergence in its distribution within the genome of D. sturtevanti (24.8%) compared to the O-type (16.7%), as well as the greater divergence in the distribution of the canonical P element, between the D. sturtevanti (24.8%) and the D. saltans (18.3%) strains, suggest that the canonical element occupies more sites within the D. sturtevanti genome, most probably due to recent transposition activity. These data corroborate the hypothesis that the O-type is the oldest subfamily of elements in the saltans group and suggest that the canonical element is or has been transpositionally active until more recently in D. sturtevanti.

  6. The importance of emotional display rules for employee well-being: A multi-group comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, J.F.; Dam, K. van

    2014-01-01

    'Serving with a smile' has generally been associated with negative effects for employee well-being. The present study investigated whether emotional display rules also relate to positive outcomes by distinguishing demands to suppress negative emotional response (negative display rules) from demands

  7. The importance of emotional display rules for employee well-being : A multi-group comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, Jan Fekke; van Dam, Karen

    2014-01-01

    'Serving with a smile' has generally been associated with negative effects for employee well-being. The present study investigated whether emotional display rules also relate to positive outcomes by distinguishing demands to suppress negative emotional response (negative display rules) from demands

  8. Focus-Group Evaluation of Nutrition Education Displays by Hispanic Adults Who Live in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Delores H.; Munoz, Alejandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the acceptability and effectiveness of visual displays of nutrition educational information for low-income Hispanic adults in the USA and to determine whether this population have different perceptions of the same nutrition education displays or express different needs than low-income Caucasian…

  9. The importance of emotional display rules for employee well-being : A multi-group comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, Jan Fekke; van Dam, Karen

    2014-01-01

    'Serving with a smile' has generally been associated with negative effects for employee well-being. The present study investigated whether emotional display rules also relate to positive outcomes by distinguishing demands to suppress negative emotional response (negative display rules) from demands

  10. Tactile torso display as countermeasure to reduce night vision goggles induced drift

    OpenAIRE

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Veltman, J A; Veen, H.A.H.C. van; Oving, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    The degraded visual infoflllation when hovering with Night Vision Goggles may induce drift that is not noticed by the pilot. We tested the possibilities of counteracting these effects by using a tactile torso display. The display consisted of 64 vibro-tactile elements and presented infoflllation on the desired direction of motion only (simple version), or also included infoflllation on the current motion direction (complex version). The participants flew in a fixed-base helicopter simulator w...

  11. Reducing Social Loafing in Group-Based Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Social loafing in group-based projects is a common problem for college teachers. This problem has received great attention, including a Quick Fix article by Stevens (2007), whose recommendations remain useful today, particularly the mechanism for peer evaluations--a key strategy for reducing social loafing. Since the publication of Stevens's…

  12. Reducing Prejudice With Labels: Shared Group Memberships Attenuate Implicit Bias and Expand Implicit Group Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, W Anthony; Mackie, Diane M; Allen, Thomas J; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2016-02-01

    In three experiments, we used a novel Implicit Association Test procedure to investigate the impact of group memberships on implicit bias and implicit group boundaries. Results from Experiment 1 indicated that categorizing targets using a shared category reduced implicit bias by increasing the extent to which positivity was associated with Blacks. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that shared group membership, but not mere positivity of a group membership, was necessary to reduce implicit bias. Quadruple process model analyses indicated that changes in implicit bias caused by shared group membership are due to changes in the way that targets are evaluated, not to changes in the regulation of evaluative bias. Results from Experiment 3 showed that categorizing Black targets into shared group memberships expanded implicit group boundaries.

  13. Background independent exact renormalization group for conformally reduced gravity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Within the conformally reduced gravity model, where the metric is parametrised by a function f ( ϕ ) of the conformal factor ϕ , we keep dependence on both the background and fluctuation fields, to local potential approximation and O ∂ 2 $$ \\mathcal{O}\\left({\\partial}^2\\right) $$ respectively, making no other approximation. Explicit appearances of the background metric are then dictated by realising a remnant diffeomorphism invariance. The standard non-perturbative Renormalization Group (RG) ...

  14. Enhancement of a PALCoS display efficiency by reducing the influence of different non-desired phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizana, Ángel; Lobato, Laura; Márquez, Andrés; Moreno, Ignacio; Iemmi, Claudio; Campos, Juan

    2011-09-01

    This work presents a study of Parallel Aligned (PA) LCoS displays performance for their use to generate Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs). First, we provide experimental evidences of two different physical phenomena, originated by the electrical addressing schemes used in LCoS displays, which degrade the efficiency of these devices. We refer to the time-fluctuations of the phase and the anamorphic phenomena. Besides, we propose different strategies to diminish the influence of these physical phenomena. First, a methodology based on the minimum Euclidian distance is proposed, leading to the minimization of the time-fluctuations of the phase influence. Second, by applying frequency dependent Look-Up Tables (LUTs) for the phase modulation, we demonstrate how the anamorphic response of the PALCoS display can be notably reduced. Finally, the application of these strategies leads to the best possible PALCoS display configuration in terms of efficiency. To show the significant improvement achieved on the DOEs efficiency, this optimized PALCoS display configuration is tested by experimentally generating diverse DOEs.

  15. Injected phage-displayed-VP28 vaccine reduces shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei mortality by white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Lucero, G; Manoutcharian, K; Hernández-López, J; Ascencio, F

    2016-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen for the global shrimp industry causing mass mortalities with huge economic losses. Recombinant phages are capable of expressing foreign peptides on viral coat surface and act as antigenic peptide carriers bearing a phage-displayed vaccine. In this study, the full-length VP28 protein of WSSV, widely known as potential vaccine against infection in shrimp, was successfully cloned and expressed on M13 filamentous phage. The functionality and efficacy of this vaccine immunogen was demonstrated through immunoassay and in vivo challenge studies. In ELISA assay phage-displayed VP28 was bind to Litopenaeus vannamei immobilized hemocyte in contrast to wild-type M13 phage. Shrimps were injected with 2 × 10(10) cfu animal(-1) single dose of VP28-M13 and M13 once and 48 h later intramuscularly challenged with WSSV to test the efficacy of the vaccine against the infection. All dead challenged shrimps were PCR WSSV-positive. The accumulative mortality of the vaccinated and challenged shrimp groups was significantly lower (36.67%) than the unvaccinated group (66.67%). Individual phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was assayed on 8 and 48 h post-vaccination. No significant difference was found in those immunological parameters among groups at any sampled time evaluated. For the first time, phage display technology was used to express a recombinant vaccine for shrimp. The highest percentage of relative survival in vaccinated shrimp (RPS = 44.99%) suggest that the recombinant phage can be used successfully to display and deliver VP28 for farmed marine crustaceans.

  16. Neurons in Vulnerable Regions of the Alzheimer's Disease Brain Display Reduced ATM Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xuting; Chen, Jianmin; Li, Jiali; Kofler, Julia; Herrup, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a multisystemic disease caused by mutations in the ATM (A-T mutated) gene. It strikes before 5 years of age and leads to dysfunctions in many tissues, including the CNS, where it leads to neurodegeneration, primarily in cerebellum. Alzheimer's disease (AD), by contrast, is a largely sporadic neurodegenerative disorder that rarely strikes before the 7th decade of life with primary neuronal losses in hippocampus, frontal cortex, and certain subcortical nuclei. Despite these differences, we present data supporting the hypothesis that a failure of ATM signaling is involved in the neuronal death in individuals with AD. In both, partially ATM-deficient mice and AD mouse models, neurons show evidence for a loss of ATM. In human AD, three independent indices of reduced ATM function-nuclear translocation of histone deacetylase 4, trimethylation of histone H3, and the presence of cell cycle activity-appear coordinately in neurons in regions where degeneration is prevalent. These same neurons also show reduced ATM protein levels. And though they represent only a fraction of the total neurons in each affected region, their numbers significantly correlate with disease stage. This previously unknown role for the ATM kinase in AD pathogenesis suggests that the failure of ATM function may be an important contributor to the death of neurons in AD individuals.

  17. Radiologists' preferences for digital mammographic display. The International Digital Mammography Development Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, E D; Cole, E B; Major, S; Zong, S; Hemminger, B M; Muller, K E; Johnston, R E; Walsh, R; Conant, E; Fajardo, L L; Feig, S A; Nishikawa, R M; Yaffe, M J; Williams, M B; Aylward, S R

    2000-09-01

    To determine the preferences of radiologists among eight different image processing algorithms applied to digital mammograms obtained for screening and diagnostic imaging tasks. Twenty-eight images representing histologically proved masses or calcifications were obtained by using three clinically available digital mammographic units. Images were processed and printed on film by using manual intensity windowing, histogram-based intensity windowing, mixture model intensity windowing, peripheral equalization, multiscale image contrast amplification (MUSICA), contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization, Trex processing, and unsharp masking. Twelve radiologists compared the processed digital images with screen-film mammograms obtained in the same patient for breast cancer screening and breast lesion diagnosis. For the screening task, screen-film mammograms were preferred to all digital presentations, but the acceptability of images processed with Trex and MUSICA algorithms were not significantly different. All printed digital images were preferred to screen-film radiographs in the diagnosis of masses; mammograms processed with unsharp masking were significantly preferred. For the diagnosis of calcifications, no processed digital mammogram was preferred to screen-film mammograms. When digital mammograms were preferred to screen-film mammograms, radiologists selected different digital processing algorithms for each of three mammographic reading tasks and for different lesion types. Soft-copy display will eventually allow radiologists to select among these options more easily.

  18. Lactobacillus strains belonging to Casei group display various adherence to enterocytes and mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Markowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability of lactobacilli to adhere to the surface of the intestine is an important functional characteristic which can largely determine the effective colonization of the intestinal tract by probiotics. The following study compares the adhesion efficiency of the twenty strains of Lactobacillus genus belonging to Casei group to the Caco-2 cells and gastrointestinal mucus. Material and methods. Twenty isolates of lactobacilli belonging to Casei group were tested. The ability of bacterial cells to adhere to mucus was examined using adhesion assay to gastrointestinal mucus. Obtained results were compared with adhesion efficiency to Caco-2 cells. Phylogenetic relationship between isolates was analysed by rep-PCR. Results. The results showed large differences in adhesion efficiency between strains, as well as differences in the efficiency of adhesion to the intestinal epithelial cells and mucus. Group similarity highlighted by a rep-PCR technique does not correspond with groups of similarity in terms of the characteristics of the ability to adhere to mucus or the epithelial cells of intestinal tract. Conclusions. Strains having a high adhesion efficiency to enterocytes do not always show a high adhesion efficiency to the mucus. This may indicate the presence of different and multiple factors responsible for adhesion efficiency of Lactobacillus group Casei strains to epithelial cells and mucus.

  19. Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Min Su; Kang, Byeong Gyun; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Yoon, Sukin; Lee, Seung Hee [Polymer BIN Fusion Research Center, Department of Polymer Nano-Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ge Zhibing; Rao Linghui; Gauza, Sebastian; Wu, Shin-Tson, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.k, E-mail: swu@creol.ucf.ed [College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2009-12-07

    Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect are emerging due to their submillisecond response time, wide view and simple fabrication process. However, the conventional in-plane switching device exhibits a relatively high operating voltage because the electric fields are restricted in the vicinity of the electrode surface. To overcome this technical barrier, we propose a partitioned wall-shaped electrode configuration so that the induced birefringence is uniform between electrodes throughout the entire cell gap. Consequently, the operating voltage is reduced by {approx} 2.8x with two transistors. The responsible physical mechanisms are explained.

  20. Effects of cleaning agents in reducing microbial load on meat display tables at the Bodija municipal abattoir, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. J. Awosanya,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat display tables have been implicated as one of the sources of meat contamination and a critical control point in food processing. Cleaning and disinfection operations are of great importance within the food processing industries for food safety reasons. The effectiveness of four cleaning agents as treatments for the reduction of microbial contamination of meat display tables used by meat sellers at the Bodija municipal abattoir in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria was assessed within April and October, 2009. The treatments include the use of: 1. Pipe-borne water (27oC; 2. Hot water at 85oC; 3. Pipe-borne water and detergent; 4. Combination of pipe-borne water, detergent and sodium hypochlorite. Swab samples were taken from a 1cm2 area on each wooden table surfaces before and after application of each treatment. They were processed and grown on nutrient agar and MacConkey agar to determine the effects of each treatment on total aerobic and coliform counts in the laboratory. The results revealed that all the four treatments had statistically significant difference (P<0.05 in reducing microbial contamination with treatment 4– combination of pipe-borne water, detergent and sodium hypochlorite having the highest percent reduction in total aerobic and coliform counts (63% and 75% respectively. It is recommended that treatments 3 and 4 should be incorporated into the routine activities of meat sellers before the commencement of daily sales and after, because of their greater effect in reducing coliform than treatments 1 and 2, in order to minimize contamination of meat arising from meat display tables.

  1. Reducing an In-Group Bias in Preschool Children: The Impact of Moral Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Chelsea; Hendrickson, Caroline; Koenig, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    How impressionable are in-group biases in early childhood? Previous research shows that young children display robust preferences for members of their own social group, but also condemn those who harm others. The current study investigates children's evaluations of agents when their group membership and moral behavior conflict. After being…

  2. Reconstruing intolerance: abstract thinking reduces conservatives' prejudice against nonnormative groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luguri, Jamie B; Napier, Jaime L; Dovidio, John F

    2012-07-01

    Myrdal (1944) described the "American dilemma" as the conflict between abstract national values ("liberty and justice for all") and more concrete, everyday prejudices. We leveraged construal-level theory to empirically test Myrdal's proposition that construal level (abstract vs. concrete) can influence prejudice. We measured individual differences in construal level (Study 1) and manipulated construal level (Studies 2 and 3); across these three studies, we found that adopting an abstract mind-set heightened conservatives' tolerance for groups that are perceived as deviating from Judeo-Christian values (gay men, lesbians, Muslims, and atheists). Among participants who adopted a concrete mind-set, conservatives were less tolerant of these nonnormative groups than liberals were, but political orientation did not have a reliable effect on tolerance among participants who adopted an abstract mind-set. Attitudes toward racial out-groups and dominant groups (e.g., Whites, Christians) were unaffected by construal level. In Study 3, we found that the effect of abstract thinking on prejudice was mediated by an increase in concerns about fairness.

  3. Mice Deficient in Oocyte-Specific Oligoadenylate Synthetase-Like Protein OAS1D Display Reduced Fertility†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Ma, Lang; Stein, Paula; Pangas, Stephanie A.; Burns, Kathleen H.; Bai, Yuchen; Schultz, Richard M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2005-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced interferon response is a defense mechanism against viral infection. Upon interferon activation by dsRNA, 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1A) is induced; it binds dsRNA and converts ATP into 2′,5′-linked oligomers of adenosine (called 2-5A), which activate RNase L that in turn degrades viral and cellular RNAs. In a screen to identify oocyte-specific genes, we identified a novel murine cDNA encoding an ovary-specific 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein, OAS1D, which displays 59% identity with OAS1A. OAS1D is predominantly cytoplasmic and is exclusively expressed in growing oocytes and early embryos. Like OAS1A, OAS1D binds the dsRNA mimetic poly(I-C), but unlike OAS1A, it lacks 2′-5′ adenosine linking activity. OAS1D interacts with OAS1A and inhibits the enzymatic activity of OAS1A. Mutant mice lacking OAS1D (Oas1d−/−) display reduced fertility due to defects in ovarian follicle development, decreased efficiency of ovulation, and eggs that are fertilized arrest at the one-cell stage. These effects are exacerbated after activation of the interferon/OAS1A/RNase L pathway by poly(I-C). We propose that OAS1D suppresses the interferon/OAS/RNase L-mediated cellular destruction by interacting with OAS1A during oogenesis and early embryonic development. PMID:15899864

  4. Online referrals one way capitated groups gain efficiencies, reduce errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    An online referral system is just the latest money and time-saving tool in the e-commerce arsenal at Hill Physicians Medical Group. Using a modified version of Healinx Corp.'s secure e-mail messaging platform, Hill is testing a custom-made online referral system at two primary care practices that appear to be helping the practice boost its bottom line under capitation.

  5. Could Visual Impairment in the Pediatric Age Group Be Reduced?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Ceyhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric age is the most important period for preventive eye care services and research. Vision loss in this period could cause a long life without sight and also significant financial and moral losses, in terms of people and society. Rational screening programs may reduce vision loss in childhood and this issue increases the value of the subject. Retinopathy of prematurity, congenital/infantile cataracts and glaucoma, optic nerve and retinal pathologies, refractive errors, amblyopia, and strabismus are the major clinical pictures causing visual loss in childhood. Using the epidemiological data, it could be estimated that every year approximately two to three thousand children suffer an ophthalmologic disease that causes significant visual loss. Regarding the refractive errors and amblyopia, it could be estimated that hundreds of thousands of children need ophthalmological follow-up in the country. For the timely treatment of these pathologies, a couple of short eye examination programs seem more realistic. Childhood vision loss in the country could be reduced, by informing pediatricians and family physicians and by proper guiding of the public opinion. Effective eye screening could be achieved with the implementation of simple methods like red reflex/Brückner test with ophthalmoscopy, or simultaneous (binocular retinoscopy and ophthalmoscopy of both eyes. Screening programs could be spread throughout the country by appropriate training of the physicians in the health institutions of the country. Screening programs will contribute to reduce the rate of visual disability by disseminating ophthalmologic practices throughout the country. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 195-201

  6. Alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor M358R reduces thrombin generation when displayed on the surface of cells expressing tissue factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierczak, Richard F; Pepler, Laura; Bhagirath, Vinai; Liaw, Patricia C; Sheffield, William P

    2014-11-01

    The M358R variant of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (API) is a potent soluble inhibitor of thrombin. Previously we engineered AR-API M358R, a membrane-bound form of this protein and showed that it inhibited exogenous thrombin when expressed on transfected cells lacking tissue factor (TF). To determine the suitability of AR-API M358R for gene transfer to vascular cells to limit thrombogenicity, we tested the ability of AR-API M358R to inhibit endogenous thrombin generated in plasma via co-expression co-expressing it on the surface of cells expressing TF. Transfected AR-API M358R formed inhibitory complexes with thrombin following exposure of recalcified, defibrinated plasma to TF on T24/83 cells, but discontinuously monitored thrombin generation was unaffected. Similarly, AR-API M358R expression did not reduce continuously monitored thrombin generation by T24/83 cell suspensions exposed to recalcified normal plasma in a Thrombogram-Thrombinoscope-type thrombin generation assay (TGA); in contrast, 1 μM hirudin variant 3 or soluble API M358R abolished thrombin generation. Gene transfer of TF to HEK 293 conferred the ability to support TF-dependent thrombin generation on HEK 293 cells. Co-transfection of HEK 293 cells with a 9:1 excess of DNA encoding AR-API M358R to that encoding TF reduced peak thrombin generation approximately 3-fold compared to controls. These in vitro results suggest that surface display of API M358R inhibits thrombin generation when the tethered serpin is expressed in excess of TF, and suggest its potential to limit thrombosis in appropriate vascular beds in animal models.

  7. Long-acting insulin analog detemir displays reduced effects on adipocyte differentiation of human subcutaneous and visceral adipose stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignarelli, A; Perrini, S; Nigro, P; Ficarella, R; Barbaro, M; Peschechera, A; Porro, S; Natalicchio, A; Laviola, L; Puglisi, F; Giorgino, F

    2016-04-01

    Since treatment with insulin detemir results in a lower weight gain compared to human insulin, we investigated whether detemir is associated with lower ability to promote adipogenesis and/or lipogenesis in human adipose stem cells (ASC). Human ASC isolated from both the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were differentiated for 30 days in the presence of human insulin or insulin detemir. Nile Red and Oil-Red-O staining were used to quantify the rate of ASC conversion to adipocytes and lipid accumulation, respectively. mRNA expression levels of early genes, including Fos and Cebpb, as well as of lipogenic and adipogenic genes, were measured at various phases of differentiation by qRT-PCR. Activation of insulin signaling was assessed by immunoblotting. ASC isolated from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue were less differentiated when exposed to insulin detemir compared to human insulin, showing lower rates of adipocyte conversion, reduced triglyceride accumulation, and impaired expression of late-phase adipocyte marker genes, such as Pparg2, Slc2a4, Adipoq, and Cidec. However, no differences in activation of insulin receptor, Akt and Erk and induction of the early genes Fos and Cebpb were observed between insulin detemir and human insulin. Insulin detemir displays reduced induction of the Pparg2 adipocyte master gene and diminished effects on adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis in human subcutaneous and visceral ASC, in spite of normal activation of proximal insulin signaling reactions. These characteristics of insulin detemir may be of potential relevance to its weight-sparing effects observed in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Communication of "Pure" Group-Based Anger Reduces Tendencies Toward Intergroup Conflict Because It Increases Out-Group Empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Bart; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Postmes, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The communication of group-based anger in intergroup conflict is often associated with destructive conflict behavior. However, we show that communicating group-based anger toward the out-group can evoke empathy and thus reduce intergroup conflict. This is because it stresses the value of maintaining

  9. The Communication of "Pure" Group-Based Anger Reduces Tendencies Toward Intergroup Conflict Because It Increases Out-Group Empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Bart; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Postmes, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The communication of group-based anger in intergroup conflict is often associated with destructive conflict behavior. However, we show that communicating group-based anger toward the out-group can evoke empathy and thus reduce intergroup conflict. This is because it stresses the value of maintaining

  10. Reducing resistance to treatment, through group intervention, improves clinical measurements in patients with type 2 diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valinsky, Liora; Mishali, Moshe; Endevelt, Ronit; Preiss, Rachel; Dopelt, Keren; Heymann, Anthony D

    2013-01-01

    .... The Objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of diabetes groups in reducing resistance to treatment and the association between reduced resistance and better management of the disease...

  11. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells display impaired cytotoxic functions and reduced activation in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støy, Sidsel; Dige, Anders; Sandahl, Thomas Damgaard; Laursen, Tea Lund; Buus, Christian; Hokland, Marianne; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2015-02-15

    The dynamics and role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), natural killer (NK) cells, and NKT cells in the life-threatening inflammatory disease alcoholic hepatitis is largely unknown. These cells directly kill infected and damaged cells through, e.g., degranulation and interferon-γ (IFNγ) production, but cause tissue damage if overactivated. They also assist tissue repair via IL-22 production. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the frequency, functionality, and activation state of such cells in alcoholic hepatitis. We analyzed blood samples from 24 severe alcoholic hepatitis patients followed for 30 days after diagnosis. Ten healthy abstinent volunteers and 10 stable abstinent alcoholic cirrhosis patients were controls. Using flow cytometry we assessed cell frequencies, NK cell degranulation capacity following K562 cell stimulation, activation by natural killer group 2 D (NKG2D) expression, and IL-22 and IFNγ production. In alcoholic hepatitis we found a decreased frequency of CTLs compared with healthy controls (P cells (P = 0.089). The NK cell degranulation capacity was reduced by 25% compared with healthy controls (P = 0.02) and by 50% compared with cirrhosis patients (P = 0.04). Accordingly, the NKG2D receptor expression was markedly decreased on NK cells, CTLs, and NKT cells (P cells were doubled compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05, all) but not different from cirrhosis patients. This exploratory study for the first time showed impaired cellular cytotoxicity and activation in alcoholic hepatitis. This is unlikely to cause hepatocyte death but may contribute toward the severe immune incompetence. The results warrant detailed and mechanistic studies. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Haloarchaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles displaying Salmonella SopB antigen reduce bacterial burden when administered with live attenuated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DasSarma, Priya; Negi, Vidya Devi; Balakrishnan, Arjun; Karan, Ram; Barnes, Susan; Ekulona, Folasade; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2014-07-31

    Innovative vaccines against typhoid and other Salmonella diseases that are safe, effective, and inexpensive are urgently needed. In order to address this need, buoyant, self-adjuvating gas vesicle nanoparticles (GVNPs) from the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 were bioengineered to display the highly conserved Salmonella enterica antigen SopB, a secreted inosine phosphate effector protein injected by pathogenic bacteria during infection into the host cell. Two highly conserved sopB gene segments near the 3'-coding region, named sopB4 and B5, were each fused to the gvpC gene, and resulting GVNPs were purified by centrifugally accelerated flotation. Display of SopB4 and B5 antigenic epitopes on GVNPs was established by Western blotting analysis using antisera raised against short synthetic peptides of SopB. Immunostimulatory activities of the SopB4 and B5 nanoparticles were tested by intraperitoneal administration of recombinant GVNPs to BALB/c mice which had been immunized with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 14028 ΔpmrG-HM-D (DV-STM-07), a live attenuated vaccine strain. Proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-9 were significantly induced in mice boosted with SopB5-GVNPs, consistent with a robust Th1 response. After challenge with virulent S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 14028, bacterial burden was found to be diminished in spleen of mice boosted with SopB4-GVNPs and absent or significantly diminished in liver, mesenteric lymph node, and spleen of mice boosted with SopB5-GVNPs, indicating that the C-terminal portions of SopB displayed on GVNPs elicit a protective response to Salmonella infection in mice. SopB antigen-GVNPs were found to be stable at elevated temperatures for extended periods without refrigeration in Halobacterium cells. The results all together show that bioengineered GVNPs are likely to represent a valuable platform for the development of improved vaccines against Salmonella diseases.

  13. The communication of "pure" group-based anger reduces tendencies toward intergroup conflict because it increases out-group empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Bart; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H; Postmes, Tom

    2013-08-01

    The communication of group-based anger in intergroup conflict is often associated with destructive conflict behavior. However, we show that communicating group-based anger toward the out-group can evoke empathy and thus reduce intergroup conflict. This is because it stresses the value of maintaining a positive long-term intergroup relationship, thereby increasing understanding for the situation (in contrast to the communication of the closely related emotion of contempt). Three experiments demonstrate that the communication of group-based anger indeed reduces destructive conflict intentions compared with (a) a control condition (Experiments 1-2), (b) the communication of group-based contempt (Experiment 2), and (c) the communication of a combination of group-based anger and contempt (Experiments 2-3). Moreover, results from all three experiments reveal that empathy mediated the positive effect of communicating "pure" group-based anger. We discuss the implications of these findings for the theory and practice of communicating emotions in intergroup conflicts.

  14. The Structure of Reduced Sudoku Grids and the Sudoku Symmetry Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân K. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Sudoku grid is a constrained Latin square. In this paper a reduced Sudoku grid is described, the properties of which differ, through necessity, from that of a reduced Latin square. The Sudoku symmetry group is presented and applied to determine a mathematical relationship between the number of reduced Sudoku grids and the total number of Sudoku grids for any size. This relationship simplifies the enumeration of Sudoku grids and an example of the use of this method is given.

  15. Dendronized Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups and Their Application for Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tsuda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyimides having dendritic side chains were investigated. The terphenylene diamine monomer having a first-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris(n-dodecyloxy-benzoate and the monomer having a second-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris[-3’,4’,5’-tri(n-dodecyloxybenzyloxy]benzoate were successfully synthesized and the corresponding soluble dendritic polyimides were obtained by polycondensation with conventional tetracarboxylic dianhydride monomers such as benzophenone tertracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA. The two-step polymerizations in NMP that is a general method for the synthesis of soluble polyimides is difficult; however, the expected dendritic polyimides can be obtained in aromatic polar solvents such as m-cresol and pyridine. The solubility of these dendoronized polyimides is characteristic; soluble in common organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene and THF. These dendronized polyimides exhibited high glass transition temperatures and good thermal stability in both air and under nitrogen. Their application as alignment layers for LCDs was investigated, and it was found that these polyimides having dendritic side chains were applicable for the vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays (VAN-LCDs.

  16. Reducing emergency department charting and ordering errors with a room number watermark on the electronic medical record display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2014-10-01

    A survey of Emergency Department (ED) clinicians (ie, physicians, nurses and clinical assistants) at a single hospital in Honolulu, Hawai'i was conducted to assess the frequency of errors in charting, and entering orders on the wrong patient's chart in the electronic medical record (EMR), and clinician opinion was sought on whether a simple watermark of the patient's room number might help reduce the number of these EMR "wrong patient errors." ED clinicians (68 total surveys) were asked if and how often they charted in the wrong patient's chart or entered an order (physicians only) in the wrong patient's chart. Physicians had a combined self-reported average error rate of 1.3%. Mean rate of patient charting errors occurred at 0.5 errors and 0.4 errors per 100 hours, for nurses and clinical assistants, respectively. The majority (81%) of the 68 clinicians surveyed felt that a room number watermark would eliminate most of the wrong patient errors. In conclusion, charting on the wrong patient and order entry on the wrong patient type errors occur with varying frequencies amongst ED clinicians. Nearly all the clinicians believe that a room number watermark might be an effective strategy to reduce these errors.

  17. Reduced operating voltage and grey-to-grey response time in a vertically aligned liquid crystal display using a mixture of two polyimide alignment materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Byeong Hoon; Song, Won Il; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Lee, Gi-Dong; Lee, Seung Hee

    2013-12-01

    We proposed a method to reduce the operating voltage and the grey-to-grey switching time of a vertically aligned liquid crystal display using a mixture of planar and vertical polyimide alignment materials. The surface anchoring energy of the two-polyimide mixture was smaller than that of the pure vertical polyimide and consequently, liquid crystal molecules were easily switched to a planar state with an electric field, resulting in a greater maximum retardation than that of the pure polyimide at the same applied voltage. Rising time was also significantly reduced due to the suppressed optical bouncing effect in the mixed planar polyimide, and the decaying time showed negligible change. With the proposed approach, we can reduce the cell gap to obtain half-wave retardation allowing for faster response time while keeping a low operating voltage.

  18. Living in forest fragments reduces group cohesion in diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) in eastern Madagascar by reducing food patch size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Mitchell T

    2007-04-01

    Forest fragmentation is thought to threaten primate populations, yet the mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. However, fragmentation is known to cause dietary shifts in several primate species, and links between food resource distribution and within-group spatial dynamics are well documented. Thus, fragmentation has the potential to indirectly affect spatial dynamics, and these changes may present additional stresses to fragmented populations. I present the results from a 12-month study of Propithecus diadema at Tsinjoarivo, eastern Madagascar, including two groups in fragments and two in continuous forest. Instantaneous data on activity and spatial position were collected during all-day focal animal follows. Fragment groups had much lower cohesion, being more likely to have no neighbor within 5 and 10 m. For continuous forest groups, cohesion was highest in the rainy season (when food patches are large) and lowest in winter (when the animals rely on small-crowned mistletoes), and the chance of having no neighbor within 5 m was positively correlated with mistletoe consumption. Thus their decreased cohesion in fragment groups is inferred to result from their increased reliance on mistletoes and other small resources, which causes them to spread out among multiple patches. This scenario is consistent with the reduced body mass of subordinate individuals (males and immatures) in fragments, and suggests the occurrence of steeper within-group fitness gradients. Further research is necessary to determine whether these patterns apply to other primates; however, since fragmentation tends to cause the loss of the largest trees, many primates in fragments may lose their largest food resources and undergo similar behavioral shifts.

  19. Data Ellipses, HE Plots and Reduced-Rank Displays for Multivariate Linear Models: SAS Software and Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Friendly

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes graphical methods for multiple-response data within the framework of the multivariate linear model (MLM, aimed at understanding what is being tested in a multivariate test, and how factor/predictor effects are expressed across multiple response measures. In particular, we describe and illustrate a collection of SAS macro programs for: (a Data ellipses and low-rank biplots for multivariate data, (b HE plots, showing the hypothesis and error covariance matrices for a given pair of responses, and a given effect, (c HE plot matrices, showing all pairwise HE plots, and (d low-rank analogs of HE plots, showing all observations, group means, and their relations to the response variables.

  20. Adolescents with clinical type 1 diabetes display reduced red blood cell glucose transporter isoform 1 (GLUT1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Becker, Dorothy J; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2014-11-01

    Type 1 diabetic (T1D) adolescent children on insulin therapy suffer episodes of both hyper- and hypoglycemic episodes. Glucose transporter isoform GLUT1 expressed in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and red blood cells (RBC) compensates for perturbed circulating glucose toward protecting the supply to brain and RBCs. We hypothesized that RBC-GLUT1 concentration, as a surrogate for BBB-GLUT1, is altered in T1D children. To test this hypothesis, we measured RBC-GLUT1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in T1D children (n = 72; mean age 15.3 ± 0.2 yr) and control children (CON; n = 11; mean age 15.6 ± 0.9 yr) after 12 h of euglycemia and during a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp with a nadir blood glucose of ~3.3 mmol/L for 90 min (clamp I) or ~3 mmol/L for 45 min (clamp II). Reduced baseline RBC-GLUT1 was observed in T1D (2.4 ± 0.17 ng/ng membrane protein); vs. CON (4.2 ± 0.61 ng/ng protein) (p increasing during acute hypoglycemia over the durations examined, may demonstrate a vulnerability of impaired RBC glucose transport (serving as a surrogate for BBB), especially in those with the worst control. We speculate that this may contribute to the perturbed cognition seen in T1D adolescents.

  1. On reducibility of mapping class group representations: the SU(N) case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Fjelstad, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A such that the torus partition function Z(A) of the corresponding conformal field theory is non-trivial, implying reducibility of the genus 1 representation of the modular group, then the representation of the genus g mapping class group constructed from C is reducible for every g\\geq 1. We also extend the number...... rational conformal field theories, making use of Frobenius algebras and their representations in modular categories. Given a modular category C, a rational conformal field theory can be constructed from a Frobenius algebra A in C. We show that if C contains a symmetric special Frobenius algebra...

  2. Group A rotavirus and norovirus display sharply distinct seasonal profiles in Belém, northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several viruses have been associated with acute gastroenteritis (AGE, and group A rotavirus (RVA and nor-ovirus (NoV are the most prevalent. This study aimed to assess their prevalence among children hospitalised for diarrhoea during a three-year surveillance study. From May 2008-April 2011, overall positivity rates of 21.6% (628/2904 and 35.4% (171/483 were observed for RVA and NoV, respectively. The seasonality observed indicated distinct patterns when both viruses were compared. This finding may explain why hospitalisation for AGE remains constant throughout the year. Continuous AGE monitoring is needed to better assess the patterns of infection.

  3. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  4. HIV-1 group O integrase displays lower susceptibility to raltegravir and has a different mutational pathway for resistance than HIV-1 group M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Depatureaux

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV-1 group O (HIV-O is a rare HIV-1 variant characterized by a high number of polymorphisms, especially in the integrase gene, e.g. positions L74I, S153A, G163Q and T206S. As HIV-O integrase enzymes have not previously been studied, our aim was to assess the impact of HIV-O integrase polymorphisms on susceptibility to integrase inhibitors and emergence of resistance associated mutations. Viruses and Methods: We cloned and purified integrase proteins from each of HIV-1 Group O clades A (HIV-O/A and B (HIV-O/B, a HIV-O divergent strain (HIV-O/Div, and HIV-1 group M (subtype B, HIV-M/B and characterized these enzymes for susceptibility to integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs in cell-free assays and in tissue culture, in the absence or presence of varying concentrations of several INSTIs. The inhibition constant (Ki and IC50 were calculated and compared for HIV-M and HIV-O integrases. Selections for resistance-related mutations were performed using cord blood mononuclear cells and increasing concentration of INSTIs. Results: HIV-O integrase and viruses were more susceptible to raltegravir (RAL in competitive inhibition assays and in tissue culture than were HIV-M enzymes and viruses, respectively. During selection, we observed different pathways of resistance depending on the drug and clade. Mutations selected in HIV-O can be classified as follows: (1 mutations described for HIV-M such as T97A, Q148R, V151A/I (RAL, T66I, E92Q, E157Q (EVG and M50I, R263K (DTG and (2 signature mutations for HIV-O (i.e. not described in HIV-M F121C (HIV-O/B for RAL, V75I (HIV-O/A for RAL and S153V (HIV-O/A for DTG. Only the HIV-O/Div selected the Q148R mutation for RAL and R263K+M50I for DTG, as previously described for HIV-M. None of the HIV-O viruses selected either N155H or Y143C. The selection of the specific S153V mutation could be explained at the nucleotide level: HIV-O at this position contains an alanine and substitution of alanine to

  5. "Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery?: Response"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Pérez Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A response to Toplak et al: Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery? BMC Genomics 2010, 11:58. Background The genomewide evaluation of genetic epistasis is a computationally demanding task, and a current challenge in Genetics. HFCC (Hypothesis-Free Clinical Cloning is one of the methods that have been suggested for genomewide epistasis analysis. In order to perform an exhaustive search of epistasis, HFCC has implemented several tools and data filters, such as the use of multiple replication groups, and direction of effect and control filters. A recent article has claimed that the use of multiple replication groups (as implemented in HFCC does not reduce the false positive rate, and we hereby try to clarify these issues. Results/Discussion HFCC uses, as an analysis strategy, the possibility of replicating findings in multiple replication groups, in order to select a liberal subset of preliminary results that are above a statistical criterion and consistent in direction of effect. We show that the use of replication groups and the direction filter reduces the false positive rate of a study, although at the expense of lowering the overall power of the study. A post-hoc analysis of these selected signals in the combined sample could then be performed to select the most promising results. Conclusion Replication of results in independent samples is generally used in scientific studies to establish credibility in a finding. Nonetheless, the combined analysis of several datasets is known to be a preferable and more powerful strategy for the selection of top signals. HFCC is a flexible and complete analysis tool, and one of its analysis options combines these two strategies: A preliminary multiple replication group analysis to eliminate inconsistent false positive results, and a post-hoc combined-group analysis to select the top signals.

  6. "Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery?: Response"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A response to Toplak et al: Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery? BMC Genomics 2010, 11:58. Background The genomewide evaluation of genetic epistasis is a computationally demanding task, and a current challenge in Genetics. HFCC (Hypothesis-Free Clinical Cloning) is one of the methods that have been suggested for genomewide epistasis analysis. In order to perform an exhaustive search of epistasis, HFCC has implemented several tools and data filters, such as the use of multiple replication groups, and direction of effect and control filters. A recent article has claimed that the use of multiple replication groups (as implemented in HFCC) does not reduce the false positive rate, and we hereby try to clarify these issues. Results/Discussion HFCC uses, as an analysis strategy, the possibility of replicating findings in multiple replication groups, in order to select a liberal subset of preliminary results that are above a statistical criterion and consistent in direction of effect. We show that the use of replication groups and the direction filter reduces the false positive rate of a study, although at the expense of lowering the overall power of the study. A post-hoc analysis of these selected signals in the combined sample could then be performed to select the most promising results. Conclusion Replication of results in independent samples is generally used in scientific studies to establish credibility in a finding. Nonetheless, the combined analysis of several datasets is known to be a preferable and more powerful strategy for the selection of top signals. HFCC is a flexible and complete analysis tool, and one of its analysis options combines these two strategies: A preliminary multiple replication group analysis to eliminate inconsistent false positive results, and a post-hoc combined-group analysis to select the top signals. PMID:20576100

  7. Surface-Displayed IL-10 by Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Reduces Th1 Responses of RAW264.7 Cells Stimulated with Poly(I:C) or LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ruopeng; Jiang, Yanlong; Yang, Wei; Yang, Wentao; Shi, Shaohua; Shi, Chunwei; Hu, Jingtao; Gu, Wei; Ye, Liping; Zhou, Fangyu; Gong, Qinglong; Han, Wenyu; Yang, Guilian; Wang, Chunfeng

    2016-02-01

    Recently, poly-γ-glutamic acid synthetase A (pgsA) has been applied to display exogenous proteins on the surface of Lactobacillus casei or Lactococcus lactis, which results in a surfacedisplayed component of bacteria. However, the ability of carrying genes encoded by plasmids and the expression efficiency of recombinant bacteria can be somewhat affected by the longer gene length of pgsA (1,143 bp); therefore, a truncated gene, pgsA, was generated based on the characteristics of pgsA by computational analysis. Using murine IL-10 as an exogenous gene, recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum was constructed and the capacity of the surface-displayed protein and functional differences between exogenous proteins expressed by these strains were evaluated. Surface expression of IL-10 on both recombinant bacteria with anchorins and the higher expression levels in L. plantarum-pgsA'-IL-10 were confirmed by western blot assay. Most importantly, up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and the nuclear transcription factor NF-κB p65 in RAW264.7 cells after stimulation with Poly(I:C) or LPS was exacerbated after co-culture with L. plantarum-pgsA. By contrast, IL-10 expressed by these recombinant strains could reduce these factors, and the expression of these factors was associated with recombinant strains that expressed anchorin (especially in L. plantarum-pgsA'-IL-10) and was significantly lower compared with the anchorin-free strains. These findings indicated that exogenous proteins could be successfully displayed on the surface of L. plantarum by pgsA or pgsA', and the expression of recombinant bacteria with pgsA' was superior compared with bacteria with pgsA.

  8. Reducing the memory usage for effective computer-generated hologram calculation using compressed look-up table in full-color holographic display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jia; Wang, Yongtian; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Pan, Yijie; Sun, Zhumei; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Qing; Jiang, Wei

    2013-03-01

    A fast algorithm with low memory usage is proposed to generate the hologram for full-color 3D display based on a compressed look-up table (C-LUT). The C-LUT is described and built to reduce the memory usage and speed up the calculation of the computer-generated hologram (CGH). Numerical simulations and optical experiments are performed to confirm this method, and several other algorithms are compared. The results show that the memory usage of the C-LUT is kept low when number of depth layers of the 3D object is increased, and the time for building the C-LUT is independent of the number of depth layers of the 3D object. The algorithm based on C-LUT is an efficient method for saving memory usage and calculation time, and it is expected that it could be used for realizing real-time and full-color 3D holographic display in the future.

  9. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors reduce excitotoxic injury and may facilitate neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baskys, Andrius; Bayazitov, Ildar; Fang, Liwei

    2005-01-01

    Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist DHPG reduced nerve cell death caused by their exposure to NMDA ("neuroprotective effect") and attenuated NMDA receptor-mediated currents [Blaabjerg, M., Baskys, A., Zimmer, J., Vawter, M. P., 2003b. Changes in hippocampal gene expression aft......GluRs reduces nerve cell susceptibility to excitotoxic injury in a PLC-dependent manner; (2) this reduction is associated with a PLC-dependent depression of excitatory synaptic transmission; and (3) mGluR1 activation may facilitate neurogenesis....

  10. Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demsar Janez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational methods that infer single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP interactions from phenotype data may uncover new biological mechanisms in non-Mendelian diseases. However, practical aspects of such analysis face many problems. Present experimental studies typically use SNP arrays with hundreds of thousands of SNPs but record only hundreds of samples. Candidate SNP pairs inferred by interaction analysis may include a high proportion of false positives. Recently, Gayan et al. (2008 proposed to reduce the number of false positives by combining results of interaction analysis performed on subsets of data (replication groups, rather than analyzing the entire data set directly. If performing as hypothesized, replication groups scoring could improve interaction analysis and also any type of feature ranking and selection procedure in systems biology. Because Gayan et al. do not compare their approach to the standard interaction analysis techniques, we here investigate if replication groups indeed reduce the number of reported false positive interactions. Results A set of simulated and false interaction-imputed experimental SNP data sets were used to compare the inference of SNP-SNP interactions by means of replication groups to the standard approach where the entire data set was directly used to score all candidate SNP pairs. In all our experiments, the inference of interactions from the entire data set (e.g. without using the replication groups reported fewer false positives. Conclusions With respect to the direct scoring approach the utility of replication groups does not reduce false positive rates, and may, depending on the data set, often perform worse.

  11. (-)-Bornyl acetate induces autonomic relaxation and reduces arousal level after visual display terminal work without any influences of task performance in low-dose condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Eri; Fukagawa, Mio; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-04-01

    (-)-Bornyl acetate is the main volatile constituent in numerous conifer oils and has a camphoraceous, pine-needle-like odor. It is frequently used as the conifer needle composition in soap, bath products, room sprays, and pharmaceutical products. However, the psychophysiological effects of (-)-bornyl acetate remained unclear. We investigated the effects of breathing air mixed with (-)-bornyl acetate at different doses (low-dose and high-dose conditions) on the individuals during and after VDT (visual display terminal) work using a visual discrimination task. The amounts of (-)-bornyl acetate through our odorant delivery system for 40 min were 279.4 µg in the low-dose and 716.3 µg in the high-dose (-)-bornyl acetate condition. (-)-Bornyl acetate induced changes of autonomic nervous system for relaxation and reduced arousal level after VDT work without any influences of task performance in low-dose condition, but not in high-dose condition.

  12. Self-development groups reduce medical school stress: a controlled intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stordal Kirsten I

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High stress levels and mental health problems are common among medical students and there is a lack of studies on group interventions that aim to reduce such distress during medical school. Methods A full class of students (n = 129 participated in group sessions during their third year of medical school in Bergen, Norway. The subsequent third-year class (n = 152 acted as control group, in order to create a quasi-experimental design. Two types of group intervention sessions were offered to the first class. One option was self-development groups led by trained group psychotherapists. Alternatively, students could choose discussion groups that focused on themes of special relevance to doctors, led by experienced general practitioners. The intervention comprised of 12 weekly group sessions each lasting 90 minutes. Data were gathered before the intervention (T1, and three months post intervention (T2. Distress was measured using the Perceived Medical School Stress (PMSS and Symptom Check List-5 (SCL-5 assessments. Results The intervention group showed a significant reduction in PMSS over the observation period. The subsequent year control group stayed on the same PMSS levels over the similar period. The intervention was a significant predictor of PMSS reduction in a multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and sex, β = -1.93 (-3.47 to -0.38, P = 0.02. When we analysed the effects of self-development and discussion groups with the control group as reference, self-development group was the only significant predictor of PMSS reduction, β = -2.18 (-4.03 to -0.33, P = 0.02. There was no interaction with gender in our analysis. This implicates no significant difference between men and women concerning the effect of the self-development group. There was no reduction in general mental distress (SCL-5 over this period. Conclusion A three-month follow-up showed that the intervention had a positive effect on perceived medical school

  13. Triclosan can select for an AdeIJK-overexpressing mutant of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 that displays reduced susceptibility to multiple antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Dinesh M; Xu, Wayne; Loewen, Peter C; Zhanel, George G; Kumar, Ayush

    2014-11-01

    In order to determine if triclosan can select for mutants of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 that display reduced susceptibilities to antibiotics, we isolated a triclosan-resistant mutant, A. baumannii AB042, by serial passaging of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 in growth medium supplemented with triclosan. The antimicrobial susceptibility of AB042 was analyzed by the 2-fold serial dilution method. Expression of five different resistance-nodulation-division (RND) pump-encoding genes (adeB, adeG, adeJ, A1S_2818, and A1S_3217), two outer membrane porin-encoding genes (carO and oprD), and the MATE family pump-encoding gene abeM was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT) PCR. A. baumannii AB042 exhibited elevated resistance to multiple antibiotics, including piperacillin-tazobactam, doxycycline, moxifloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefepime, meropenem, doripenem, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in addition to triclosan. Genome sequencing of A. baumannii AB042 revealed a (116)G→V mutation in fabI, the gene encoding the target enzyme for triclosan. Expression analysis of efflux pumps showed overexpression of the AdeIJK pump, and sequencing of adeN, the gene that encodes the repressor of the adeIJK operon, revealed a 73-bp deletion which would cause a premature termination of translation, resulting in an inactive truncated AdeN protein. This work shows that triclosan can select for mutants of A. baumannii that display reduced susceptibilities to multiple antibiotics from chemically distinct classes in addition to triclosan resistance. This multidrug resistance can be explained by the overexpression of the AdeIJK efflux pump.

  14. "Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery?: Response"

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pérez Antonio; Gayán Javier; Ruiz Agustín

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A response to Toplak et al: Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery? BMC Genomics 2010, 11:58. Background The genomewide evaluation of genetic epistasis is a computationally demanding task, and a current challenge in Genetics. HFCC (Hypothesis-Free Clinical Cloning) is one of the methods that have been suggested for genomewide epistasis analysis. In order to perform an exhaustive search of epistasis, HFCC has implemented several tools ...

  15. Immunophenotyping of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) defines multiple sub-groups of germinal centre-like tumours displaying different survival characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John J; Fordham, Sarah; Overman, Lynne; Dignum, Helen; Wood, Katrina; Proctor, Stephen J; Crosier, Stephen; Angus, Brian; Culpin, Rachel E; Mainou-Fowler, Tryfonia

    2009-11-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) forms a heterogeneous collection of aggressive non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in which three principle classes of neoplasia have been defined according to gene expression and immunophenotyping studies. The present investigation sought to examine the immunophenotype of proposed subgroups and relate these to patient survival. A series of 155 DLBCL treated uniformly with anthracycline therapy in clinical trials, were stratified upon the basis of common biomarker expression with combination immunophenotype being related to patient overall survival. Stratification of tumours with respect to combined expression profiles of the three biological markers (CD10, Bcl-6 and MUM-1) revealed six groups showing significant differences in survival (p=0.014). The greatest difference resided between distinct populations of germinal centre (GC) cell tumours; the first being CD10-, Bcl-6+, MUM-1- and the second CD10+ Bcl-6+ MUM-1+ (p=0.002). The former group displayed median survival time of 143 months, the latter only 11 months. A third population of GC tumours (CD10+ Bcl-6+ and MUM-1-) also displayed a relative short median survival (32 months). Of the three groups presenting a non-GC or activated B cell (NGC/ABC) phenotype, only one (CD10-, Bcl-6+ and MUM-1+) presented short-term median survival (27 months) comparable with poor prognosis GC sub-populations. Within the remaining ABC tumour groups (CD10- Bcl-6- MUM-1- and CD10- Bcl-6- MUM-1+) patients presented intermediate median survival times of 54 and 58 months, respectively. Thus, the GC phenotype did not act as a universal indicator of good clinical prognosis, but rather multiple groups of GC tumours were associated with distinct overall survival profiles. Ultimately, the data allowed definition of a predictive algorithm defining three groups predicting poor, intermediate and good clinical prognosis. The first of these comprised two patient sub-populations with GC-like tumours together with one sub

  16. Symmetry breaking in fluid dynamics: Lie group reducible motions for real fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, D.D.

    1976-07-01

    The physics of fluids is based on certain kinematical invariance principles, which refer to coordinate systems, dimensions, and Galilean reference frames. Other, thermodynamic, symmetry principles are introduced by the material description. In the present work, the interplay between these two kinds of invariance principles is used to solve for classes of one-dimensional non-steady isentropic motions of a fluid whose equation of state is of Mie-Gruneisen type. Also, the change in profile and attenuation of weak shock waves in a dissipative medium is studied at the level of Burgers' approximation from the viewpoint of its underlying symmetry structure. The mathematical method of approach is based on the theory of infinitesimal Lie groups. Fluid motions are characterized according to inequivalent subgroups of the full invariance group of the flow description and exact group reducible solutions are presented.

  17. Group Training of Stress Management vs. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Reducing Depression, Anxiety and Perceived Stress Among HIV-Positive Men

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmati Sabet, Akbar; Khalatbari, Javad; Abbas Ghorbani, Maryam; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of group training of stress management with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing depression, anxiety and stress perceived among HIV-positive men. Methods:Inthis semi-experimental study, three groups of HIV-positive men (CBT group, stress management group, and control group) including 15 patients in each group were compared regarding depression, anxiety, and stress using pre-test and post-test tools. Results: Both interventions (CBT and stress ...

  18. Effects of a weight loss program on body composition and the metabolic profile in obese postmenopausal women displaying various obesity phenotypes: a MONET group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normandin, Eve; Doucet, Eric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Brochu, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition, since the metabolic profile may differ greatly from one individual to another. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a 6-month diet-induced weight loss program on body composition and the metabolic profile in obese individuals displaying different obesity phenotypes. Secondary analyses were done on 129 obese (% body fat: 46% ± 4%) postmenopausal women (age: 57 ± 4 years). Outcome measures included body composition, body fat distribution, glucose homeostasis, fasting lipids, and blood pressure. Obesity phenotypes were determined based on lean body mass (LBM) index (LBMI = LBM/height(2)) and visceral fat (VF) accumulation, as follows: 1, lower VF and lower LBMI (n = 35); 2, lower VF and higher LBMI (n = 19); 3, higher VF and lower LBMI (n = 14); and 4, higher VF and higher LBMI (n = 61). All groups had significantly improved measures of body composition after the intervention (P metabolic profile in response to weight loss. Individuals displaying higher VF or higher LBMI at baseline experienced significantly greater decreases for these variables after the intervention.

  19. Is it more effective group relaxation than individual to reduce anxiety in specific phobias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Carretero Román

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation is a standard technique used by nurses to reduce the level of anxiety. It seems that their implementation on a group can bring certain benefits compared with individual relaxation. This outline is intended to raise this hypothesis in caring for individuals diagnosed with specific phobia, by approaching the problem from the cognitive behavioural therapy perspective. In addition, it seeks to evaluate the usefulness of the nurse intervention relaxation to reduce the level of anxiety, in turn comparing the results obtained using an indicator of the scale of results NOC and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. The phobia is a specific entity underdiagnosed, whose prevalence is about 10%. Those affected can live a really limited and debilitating, deteriorating quality of life. The community mental health nurses are in a unique position to participate in the cognitive behavioural therapy through relaxation, which will allow them to reduce the level of anxiety when people establish contact with the phobic stimulus. Methodology: quasi-experimental study in specific phobia diagnosed, 20 to 40 years old adults attending for the first time to the mental health facility derived from primary care. Both the control group as the pilot will be treated by conducted cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy individualized according to the therapeutic protocol MSC, except in terms of relaxation, which in the experimental group will be conducted at the group level. The effectiveness of treatment will be assessed with the Hamilton anxiety scale and the likert type scale of outcome indicators NOC "stress level" with 3 measurements, before starting, immediately after completing the sessions of relaxation and three months later, checking the decline in the average level of anxiety.

  20. Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing self-stigma in Japanese psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotsu, Sakie; Horikawa, Naoshi; Emura, Rina; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Nagao, Ayako; Ogata, Akiko; Hiejima, Shigeto; Hosomi, Jun

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that the stigma surrounding mental illness may be greater in Japan than elsewhere. However, few Japanese studies have focused on self-stigma (the internalization of social stigma), and few interventions to reduce self-stigma exist. To remedy this deficiency, we evaluated the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing self-stigma and examined the relationship between cognitive restructuring and self-stigma. We administered a 10-session group CBT program to 46 Japanese outpatients with anxiety and depressive symptoms (36 men, 10 women; mean age=38.57 years, SD=8.33; 20 diagnosed with mood disorders; 24 with neurotic, stress-related, or somatoform disorders; and 2 with other disorders). A pretest-posttest design was used to examine the relationship between cognitive restructuring and self-stigma. Outcomes were measured using the Japanese versions of the Devaluation-Discrimination Scale, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory State-Form, and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale. Participants exhibited significant improvements in depression, anxiety, and maladjusted cognitive bias and reductions in self-stigma. Cognitive bias was significantly correlated with self-stigma. Group CBT is effective in improving both emotional symptoms and self-stigma in outpatients with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Reduction in self-stigma plays a mediating role in alleviating emotional symptoms and improving cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel reduced-complexity group detection structure in MIMO frequency selective fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper a novel reduced complexity detection method named modified symbol flipping method is introduced and its advantages on reducing the burden of the calculations at the receiver compared to the optimum maximum likelihood detection method on multiple input- multiple output frequency selective fading channels are explained. The initial concept of the symbol flipping method is derived from a preliminary detection scheme named bit flipping which was introduced in [1]. The detection structure employed in this paper is ing, detection, and cancellation. On the detection stage, the proposed method is employed and the results are compared to the group maximum likelihood detection scheme proposed in [2]. Simulation results show that a 6 dB performance gain can be achieved at the expense of a slight increase in complexity in comparison with the conventional symbol flipping scheme. © 2010 Crown.

  2. Reduced Dynamics from the Unitary Group to Some Flag Manifolds : Interacting Matrix Riccati Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we treat the time evolution of unitary elements in the N level system and consider the reduced dynamics from the unitary group U(N) to flag manifolds of the second type (in our terminology). Then we derive a set of differential equations of matrix Riccati types interacting with one another and present an important problem on a nonlinear superposition formula that the Riccati equation satisfies. Our result is a natural generalization of the paper {\\bf Chaturvedi et al} (arXiv : 0706.0964 [quant-ph]).

  3. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen;

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti...... with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier...

  4. Projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.

    1998-08-01

    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  5. A New Strategy to Reduce Influenza Escape: Detecting Therapeutic Targets Constituted of Invariance Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity of the different flu species is a real public health problem worldwide. To combat this scourge, we established a method to detect drug targets, reducing the possibility of escape. Besides being able to attach a drug candidate, these targets should have the main characteristic of being part of an essential viral function. The invariance groups that are sets of residues bearing an essential function can be detected genetically. They consist of invariant and synthetic lethal residues (interdependent residues not varying or slightly varying when together. We analyzed an alignment of more than 10,000 hemagglutinin sequences of influenza to detect six invariance groups, close in space, and on the protein surface. In parallel we identified five potential pockets on the surface of hemagglutinin. By combining these results, three potential binding sites were determined that are composed of invariance groups located respectively in the vestigial esterase domain, in the bottom of the stem and in the fusion area. The latter target is constituted of residues involved in the spring-loaded mechanism, an essential step in the fusion process. We propose a model describing how this potential target could block the reorganization of the hemagglutinin HA2 secondary structure and prevent viral entry into the host cell.

  6. With a little help from my cross-group friend: reducing anxiety in intergroup contexts through cross-group friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Tropp, Linda R

    2008-11-01

    The authors induced cross-group friendship between Latinos/as and Whites to test the effects of cross-group friendship on anxiety in intergroup contexts. Cross-group friendship led to decreases in cortisol reactivity (a hormonal correlate of stress; W. R. Lovallo & T. L. Thomas, 2000) over 3 friendship meetings among participants high in race-based rejection sensitivity (R. Mendoza-Denton, G. Downey, V. J. Purdie, A. Davis, & J. Pietrzak, 2002) and participants high in implicit prejudice (A. G. Greenwald, B. A. Nosek, & M. R. Banaji, 2003). Cross-group partners' prior intergroup contact moderated the relationship between race-based rejection sensitivity and cortisol reactivity. Following the manipulation, participants kept daily diaries of their experiences in an ethnically diverse setting. Implicitly prejudiced participants initiated more intergroup interactions during the diary period after making a cross-group friend. Participants who had made a cross-group friend reported lower anxious mood during the diary period, which compensated for greater anxious mood among participants high in race-based rejection sensitivity. These findings provide experimental evidence that cross-group friendship is beneficial for people who are likely to experience anxiety in intergroup contexts. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Renormalization group analysis of reduced magnetohydrodynamics with application to subgrid modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcope, D. W.; Sudan, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    The technique for obtaining a subgrid model for Navier-Stokes turbulence, based on renormalization group analysis (RNG), is extended to the reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMND) equations. It is shown that a RNG treatment of the Alfven turbulence supported by the RMHD equations leads to effective values of the viscosity and resistivity at large scales, k yields 0, dependent on the amplitude of turbulence. The effective viscosity and resistivity become independent of the molecular quantities when the RNG analysis is augmented by the Kolmogorov argument for energy cascade. A self-contained system of equations is derived for the range of scales, k = 0-K, where K = pi/Delta is the maximum wave number for a grid size Delta. Differential operators, whose coefficients depend upon the amplitudes of the large-scale quantities, represent in this system the resistive and viscous dissipation.

  8. [Impulsivity-focused Group Intervention to reduce Binge Eating Episodes in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder - A Group Training Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Skoda, Eva-Maria; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2016-11-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is an eating disorder where cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) could already show reliable efficacy. Relying on basic research, CBT interventions which especially focus on impulsivity could be effective, because binge eating episodes represent highly impulsive eating behaviour. For this reason, we developed a treatment concept about an impulsivity-focused behavioural group intervention for patients with BED, called IMPULS. The efficacy of IMPULS is currently investigated in a randomised controlled trial 1. IMPULS is drafted as a weekly group training programme with 5-6 participants per group. The essential interventions are food-related cue exposure with response prevention and the development of self-control strategies. These interventions are adapted onto the impulsivity concept from conventional treatment of addictive disorders and BED. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Surface grafting of carboxylic groups onto thermoplastic polyurethanes to reduce cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, P., E-mail: palves@eq.uc.pt [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, P. [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal); Kaiser, Jean-Pierre [EMPA, St. Gallen, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Salk, Natalie [Mikrofertigung – Micro Engineering, Fraunhofer IFAM, Wiener Strasse 12, D-288359 Bremen (Germany); Bruinink, Arie [EMPA, St. Gallen, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Sousa, Hermínio C. de; Gil, M.H. [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    The interaction of polymers with other materials is an important issue, being their surface properties clearly crucial. For some important polymer applications, their surfaces have to be modified. Surface modification aims to tailor the surface characteristics of a material for a specific application without affecting its bulk properties. Materials can be surface modified by using biological, chemical or physical methods. The aim of this work was to improve the reactivity of the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) material (Elastollan{sup ®}) surface and to make its surface cell repellent by grafting carboxylic groups onto its surface. Two TPU materials were studied: a polyether-based TPU and a polyester-based TPU. The grafting efficiency was evaluated by contact angle measurements and by analytical determination of the COOH groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the membranes surface was performed as well as cell adhesion tests. It was proved that the surfaces of the TPUs membranes were successfully modified and that cell adhesion was remarkably reduced.

  10. The Wobbler mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS displays hippocampal hyperexcitability, and reduced number of interneurons, but no presynaptic vesicle release impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina D Thielsen

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease. It is a fatal degenerative disease, best recognized for its debilitating neuromuscular effects. ALS however also induces cognitive impairments in as many as 50% of affected individuals. Moreover, many ALS patients demonstrate cortical hyperexcitability, which has been shown to precede the onset of clinical symptoms. The wobbler mouse is a model of ALS, and like ALS patients the wobbler mouse displays cortical hyperexcitability. Here we investigated if the neocortical aberrations of the wobbler mouse also occur in the hippocampus. Consequently, we performed extracellular field excitatory postsynaptic potential recordings in the CA1 region of the hippocampus on acute brain slices from symptomatic (P45-P60 and presymptomatic (P17-P21 wobbler mice. Significant increased excitation of hippocampal synapses was revealed by leftward shifted input/output-curves in both symptomatic and presymptomatic wobbler mice, and substantiated by population spike occurrence analyses, demonstrating that the increased synaptic excitation precedes the onset of visible phenotypic symptoms in the mouse. Synaptic facilitation tested by paired-pulse facilitation and trains in wobbler and control mice showed no differences, suggesting the absence of presynaptic defects. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that symptomatic wobbler mice have a lower number of parvalbumin positive interneurons when compared to controls and presymptomatic mice. This study reveals that the wobbler mouse model of ALS exhibits hippocampal hyperexcitability. We suggest that the hyperexcitability could be caused by increased excitatory synaptic transmission and a concomitant reduced inhibition due to a decreased number of parvalbumin positive interneurons. Thus we substantiate that wobbler brain impairments are not confined to the motor cortex, but extend to the hippocampus. Importantly, we have revealed more

  11. Interdependent Group Contingency and Mystery Motivators to Reduce Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly A.; Theodore, Lea A.; Aloiso, Danielle; Alric-Edwards, Jolie M.; Hughes, Tammy L.

    2007-01-01

    Children exhibiting challenging and disruptive behaviors can require teachers to spend a substantial amount of time on classroom management. Disruptive behaviors in the classroom impact the learning process by taking time away from academic instruction. Further, preschoolers who are disruptive are more likely to continue displaying problematic…

  12. A reduced number of mtSNPs saturates mitochondrial DNA haplotype diversity of worldwide population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Amigo, Jorge

    2010-05-03

    The high levels of variation characterising the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule are due ultimately to its high average mutation rate; moreover, mtDNA variation is deeply structured in different populations and ethnic groups. There is growing interest in selecting a reduced number of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) that account for the maximum level of discrimination power in a given population. Applications of the selected mtSNP panel range from anthropologic and medical studies to forensic genetic casework. This study proposes a new simulation-based method that explores the ability of different mtSNP panels to yield the maximum levels of discrimination power. The method explores subsets of mtSNPs of different sizes randomly chosen from a preselected panel of mtSNPs based on frequency. More than 2,000 complete genomes representing three main continental human population groups (Africa, Europe, and Asia) and two admixed populations ("African-Americans" and "Hispanics") were collected from GenBank and the literature, and were used as training sets. Haplotype diversity was measured for each combination of mtSNP and compared with existing mtSNP panels available in the literature. The data indicates that only a reduced number of mtSNPs ranging from six to 22 are needed to account for 95% of the maximum haplotype diversity of a given population sample. However, only a small proportion of the best mtSNPs are shared between populations, indicating that there is not a perfect set of "universal" mtSNPs suitable for all population contexts. The discrimination power provided by these mtSNPs is much higher than the power of the mtSNP panels proposed in the literature to date. Some mtSNP combinations also yield high diversity values in admixed populations. The proposed computational approach for exploring combinations of mtSNPs that optimise the discrimination power of a given set of mtSNPs is more efficient than previous empirical approaches. In contrast to

  13. Role of oxygen functional groups in reduced graphene oxide for lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhavana; Kumar, Niranjan; Panda, Kalpataru; Kanan, Vigneshwaran; Joshi, Shailesh; Visoly-Fisher, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Functionalized and fully characterized graphene-based lubricant additives are potential 2D materials for energy-efficient tribological applications in machine elements, especially at macroscopic contacts. Two different reduced graphene oxide (rGO) derivatives, terminated by hydroxyl and epoxy-hydroxyl groups, were prepared and blended with two different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG) for tribological investigation. Epoxy-hydroxyl-terminated rGO dispersed in PEG showed significantly smaller values of the friction coefficient. In this condition, PEG chains intercalate between the functionalized graphene sheets, and shear can take place between the PEG and rGO sheets. However, the friction coefficient was unaffected when hydroxyl-terminated rGO was coupled with PEG. This can be explained by the strong coupling between graphene sheets through hydroxyl units, causing the interaction of PEG with the rGO to be non- effective for lubrication. On the other hand, antiwear properties of hydroxyl-terminated rGO were significantly enhanced compared to epoxy-hydroxyl functionalized rGO due to the integrity of graphene sheet clusters. PMID:28344337

  14. Ceftibuten-containing agar plate for detecting group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Chitose; Kimura, Kouji; Doyama, Yo; Miyazaki, Akira; Morimoto, Makiko; Banno, Hirotsugu; Nagano, Noriyuki; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2015-08-01

    Penicillins remain first-line agents for treatment of group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae; GBS) infections; however, several reports have confirmed the existence of GBS with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS). Because no selective agar plates for detection of PRGBS are available to date, in this investigation, we developed the selective agar plate for detection of PRGBS. We used 19 genetically well-confirmed PRGBS isolates and 38 penicillin-susceptible GBS isolates identified in Japan. For preparation of trial PRGBS-selective agar plates, we added 1 of antimicrobial agents (among oxacillin, ceftizoxime, and ceftibuten) to a well-established GBS-selective agar plate. Among 12 trial PRGBS-selective agar plates, Muller-Hinton agar containing 128 μg/mL ceftibuten with 5% sheep blood, 8 μg/mL gentamicin, and 12 μg/mL nalidixic acid was the most appropriate selective agar for PRGBS, showing 100% sensitivity and 81.6% specificity. In cases of potential nosocomial spread of PRGBS, the selective agar plate could be useful and reliable.

  15. The Effect of Group Cognitive Therapy on Reducing Depression in the Female Patients with Severe Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Mohammadi Heris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high prevalence of mental health problems among psychiatric patients with severe obsessivecompulsive disorder is depression that is one of the methods of non-pharmacological treatment of group cognitive therapy. In this study, the effect of cognitive therapy in reducing depression of female patients suffering from severe obsessive-compulsive disorder examined. Methods: In this study, patients were randomly divided into control and experimental groups and both groups were tested by Beck Depression Inventory before the intervention (second revision. The experimental group participated in ten sessions of cognitive therapy while the control group received no intervention. At the end of the intervention, both groups were evaluated by the test. Results: The data obtained using dependent and independent T test were evaluated. A positive impact in the cognitive therapy group showed decreased depression. Conclusion: The method of group cognitive therapy is effective in reducing depression in patients with severe obsessive-compulsive.

  16. Food fortification to reduce vitamin A deficiency: International Vitamin A Consultative Group recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dary, Omar; Mora, Jose O

    2002-09-01

    In developed countries, food fortification has proven an effective and low-cost way to increase the micronutrient supply and reduce the consequences of micronutrient deficiencies. It has been rarely used in the developing world, but general conclusions can be drawn. The biological efficacy, but not the effectiveness, of fortifying oil and hydrogenated oil products as well as cereal flours and meals with vitamin A has been shown. Sugar has been fortified with vitamin A in Central American countries for years, and biological efficacy and program effectiveness are well established. Efficacy of fortifying monosodium glutamate with vitamin A was demonstrated but a program has not been established. Fortification with vitamin A in the developing world should satisfy certain elements for success. a) A potential food matrix (a food regularly consumed, produced by a few centralized factories, without sensorial changes compared with the nonfortified equivalent, and nutrient remains bioavailable and in a sufficient amount) is required. b) Fortified foods should provide at least 15% of the recommended daily intakes for the target group (e.g., individuals consuming the lowest amount of the fortified food). c) Voluntary fortification of processed foods should be regulated to prevent excessive consumption of vitamin A. d) Neighboring countries should harmonize technical standards, facilitate compliance and minimize conflicts over global trade laws. e) A practical monitoring system should be instituted. f) Social marketing activities should be permanent and aimed at industry, government and consumers. g) Food fortification should be combined with other strategies (e.g., supplementation) to reach those not adequately covered by fortification alone. Infants and small children, whose dietary habits differ from those of adults, require special attention. Fortification of food commodities is a very attractive and economic way to prevent and control vitamin A deficiency. Effective food

  17. Gauging the feasibility of cost-sharing and medical student interest groups to reduce interview costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Bryan A; Wilson, Taylor A; Bell, Randy S; Ashley, William W; Barrow, Daniel L; Wolfe, Stacey Quintero

    2014-11-01

    Indirect costs of the interview tour can be prohibitive. The authors sought to assess the desire of interviewees to mitigate these costs through ideas such as sharing hotel rooms and transportation, willingness to stay with local students, and the preferred modality to coordinate this collaboration. A survey link was posted on the Uncle Harvey website and the Facebook profile page of fourth-year medical students from 6 different medical schools shortly after the 2014 match day. There were a total of 156 respondents to the survey. The majority of the respondents were postinterview medical students (65.4%), but preinterview medical students (28.2%) and current residents (6.4%) also responded to the survey. Most respondents were pursuing a field other than neurosurgery (75.0%) and expressed a desire to share a hotel room and/or transportation (77.4%) as well as stay in the dorm room of a medical student at the program in which they are interviewing (70.0%). Students going into neurosurgery were significantly more likely to be interested in sharing hotel/transportation (89.2% neurosurgery vs 72.8% nonneurosurgery; p = 0.040) and in staying in the dorm room of a local student when on interviews (85.0% neurosurgery vs 57.1% nonneurosurgery; p = 0.040) than those going into other specialties. Among postinterview students, communication was preferred to be by private, email identification-only chat room. Given neurosurgery resident candidates' interest in collaborating to reduce interview costs, consideration should be given to creating a system that could allow students to coordinate cost sharing between interviewees. Moreover, interviewees should be connected to local students from neurosurgery interest groups as a resource.

  18. Phonon transport in silicon nanowires: The reduced group velocity and surface-roughness scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liyan; Li, Baowen; Li, Wu

    2016-09-01

    Using a linear-scaling Kubo simulation approach, we have quantitatively investigated the effects of confinement and surface roughness on phonon transport in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as thick as 55 nm in diameter R . The confinement effect leads to significant reduction of phonon group velocity v in SiNWs compared to bulk silicon except at extremely low phonon frequencies f , which very likely persists in SiNWs several hundreds of nanometers thick, suggesting the inapplicability of bulk properties, including anharmonic phonon scattering, to SiNWs. For instance, the velocity can be reduced by more than 30% for phonons with f >4.5 THz in 55-nm-thick nanowires. In rough SiNWs Casimir's limit, which is valid in confined macroscopic systems, can underestimate the surface scattering by more than one order of magnitude. For a roughness profile with Lorentzian correlation characterized by root-mean-square roughness σ and correlation length Lr, the frequency-dependent phonon diffusivity D follows power-law dependences D ∝Rασ-βLrγ , where α ˜2 and β ˜1 . On average, γ increases from 0 to 0.5 as R /σ increases. The mean free path and the phonon lifetime essentially follow the same power-law dependences. These dependences are in striking contrast to Casimir's limit, i.e., D ˜v R /3 , and manifest the dominant role of the change in the number of atoms due to roughness. The thermal conductivity κ can vary by one order of magnitude with varying σ and Lr in SiNWs, and increasing σ and shortening Lr can efficiently lower κ below Casimir's limit by one order of magnitude. Our work provides different insights to understand the ultralow thermal conductivity of SiNWs reported experimentally and guidance to manipulate κ via surface roughness engineering.

  19. Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Rick

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

  20. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Depression and Obsessive Rumination among Women under Methadone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S taimory

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was an attempt to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy in reducing depression and obsessive rumination among women under methadone treatment. Method: A quasi-experimental research design along with pretest-posttest design and a control group were employed to conduct this study. Considering inclusion criteria, a total of 24 female substance abusers who were under methadone treatment were selected from Omide Farda and Javeneh Sabz clinics in Mashhad via purposive sampling method. The experimental group received eight training sessions of mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy, while the control group did not receive any intervention. Two scales, namely obsessive rumination scale and Beck’s depression questionnaire were used for data collection purposes. Results: Results of analysis of covariance showed that mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy has reduced obsessive rumination and depression scores. Conclusion: Mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy can be included in intervention programs for substance abusers.

  1. Panoramic projection avionics displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanash, Michael H.

    2003-09-01

    Avionics projection displays are entering production in advanced tactical aircraft. Early adopters of this technology in the avionics community used projection displays to replace or upgrade earlier units incorporating direct-view CRT or AMLCD devices. Typical motivation for these upgrades were the alleviation of performance, cost and display device availability concerns. In these systems, the upgraded (projection) displays were one-for-one form / fit replacements for the earlier units. As projection technology has matured, this situation has begun to evolve. The Lockheed-Martin F-35 is the first program in which the cockpit has been specifically designed to take advantage of one of the more unique capabilities of rear projection display technology, namely the ability to replace multiple small screens with a single large conformal viewing surface in the form of a panoramic display. Other programs are expected to follow, since the panoramic formats enable increased mission effectiveness, reduced cost and greater information transfer to the pilot. Some of the advantages and technical challenges associated with panoramic projection displays for avionics applications are described below.

  2. Long-term AICAR administration reduces metabolic disturbances and lowers blood pressure in rats displaying features of the insulin resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Esben S; Jessen, Niels; Pold, Rasmus; Ledet, Thomas; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Pedersen, Steen B; Pedersen, Oluf; Schmitz, Ole; Lund, Sten

    2002-07-01

    The insulin resistance syndrome is characterized by several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic chemical activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by the adenosine analog 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta -D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) has been shown to augment insulin action, upregulate mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscles, and decrease the content of intra-abdominal fat. Furthermore, acute AICAR exposure has been found to reduce sterol and fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes incubated in vitro as well as suppress endogenous glucose production in rats under euglycemic clamp conditions. To investigate whether chronic AICAR administration, in addition to the beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, is capable of improving other phenotypes associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats (n = 6) exhibiting insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension were subcutaneously injected with AICAR (0.5 mg/g body wt) daily for 7 weeks. Obese control rats were either pair-fed (PF) (n = 6) or ad libitum-fed (AL) (n = 6). Lean Zucker rats (fa/-) (n = 8) served as a reference group. AICAR administration significantly reduced plasma triglyceride levels (P < 0.01 for AICAR vs. AL, and P = 0.05 for AICAR vs. PF) and free fatty acids (P < 0.01 for AICAR vs. AL, and P < 0.05 for AICAR vs. PF) and increased HDL cholesterol levels (P < 0.01 for AICAR vs. AL and PF). AICAR treatment also lowered systolic blood pressure by 14.6 +/- 4.3 mmHg (P < 0.05), and AICAR-treated animals exhibited a tendency toward decreased intra-abdominal fat content. Furthermore, AICAR administration normalized the oral glucose tolerance test and decreased fasting concentrations of glucose and insulin close to the level of the lean animals. Finally, in line with previous findings, AICAR treatment was also found to enhance GLUT4 protein expression and to increase maximally insulin-stimulated glucose transport in primarily white fast-twitch muscles. Our

  3. Fuzzy peer groups for reducing mixed gaussian-impulse noise from color images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Samuel; Gregori, Valentín; Hervas, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    The peer group of an image pixel is a pixel similarity-based concept which has been successfully used to devise image denoising methods. However, since it is difficult to define the pixel similarity in a crisp way, we propose to represent this similarity in fuzzy terms. In this paper, we introduce the fuzzy peer group concept, which extends the peer group concept in the fuzzy setting. A fuzzy peer group will be defined as a fuzzy set that takes a peer group as support set and where the membership degree of each peer group member will be given by its fuzzy similarity with respect to the pixel under processing. The fuzzy peer group of each image pixel will be determined by means of a novel fuzzy logic-based procedure. We use the fuzzy peer group concept to design a two-step color image filter cascading a fuzzy rule-based switching impulse noise filter by a fuzzy average filtering over the fuzzy peer group. Both steps use the same fuzzy peer group, which leads to computational savings. The proposed filter is able to efficiently suppress both Gaussian noise and impulse noise, as well as mixed Gaussian-impulse noise. Experimental results are provided to show that the proposed filter achieves a promising performance.

  4. Group Contingencies, Randomization of Reinforcers, and Criteria for Reinforcement, Self-Monitoring, and Peer Feedback on Reducing Inappropriate Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Brenda Anne; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has demonstrated the effectiveness of interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies on reducing inappropriate classroom behavior. Several investigators have focused on the addition of self-monitoring and peer feedback to these interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies in order to further improve…

  5. New Ways of Seeing and Being: Evaluating an Acceptance and Mindfulness Group for Parents of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities Who Display Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Caroline; Gill, Freya; Gore, Nick; Brady, Serena

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents findings from an acceptance and commitment therapy-based intervention for family carers of children who have an intellectual/developmental disability and display high levels of challenging behaviour. The parent well-being workshops consist of two workshops incorporating acceptance and mindfulness-based exercises and…

  6. An intervention to reduce HIV risk behavior of substance-using men who have sex with men: a two-group randomized trial with a nonrandomized third group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Mansergh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Substance use during sex is associated with sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, and MSM continue to be the group at highest risk for incident HIV in the United States. The objective of this study is to test the efficacy of a group-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce risk behavior of substance-using MSM, compared to a randomized attention-control group and a nonrandomized standard HIV-testing group. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants (n = 1,686 were enrolled in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco and randomized to a cognitive-behavioral intervention or attention-control comparison. The nonrandomized group received standard HIV counseling and testing. Intervention group participants received six 2-h group sessions focused on reducing substance use and sexual risk behavior. Attention-control group participants received six 2-h group sessions of videos and discussion of MSM community issues unrelated to substance use, sexual risk, and HIV/AIDS. All three groups received HIV counseling and testing at baseline. The sample reported high-risk behavior during the past 3 mo prior to their baseline visit: 67% reported unprotected anal sex, and 77% reported substance use during their most recent anal sex encounter with a nonprimary partner. The three groups significantly (p0.05 from each other at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Outcomes for the 2-arm comparisons were not significantly different at 12-mo follow-up (e.g., unprotected anal sex, odds ratio = 1.14, confidence interval = 0.86-1.51, nor at earlier time points. Similar results were found for each outcome variable in both 2- and 3-arm comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: These results for reducing sexual risk behavior of substance-using MSM are consistent with results of intervention trials for other populations, which collectively suggest critical challenges for the field of HIV behavioral interventions. Several mechanisms may contribute to

  7. The Role of Communication and Cohesion in Reducing Social Loafing in Group Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examines previously untested variables that influence social loafing in professional and technical communication group projects by determining the influence of communication quality and task cohesion on social loafing. A set-up factors model, which included group size, peer review, project scope, and method of team formation, was also…

  8. A Comparative Study of Group Contingencies and Randomized Reinforcers to Reduce Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation employed an alternating treatments design to (1) examine the efficacy of group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior, and (2) compare the effects of independent, interdependent, and dependent group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior in adolescent males identified with serious emotional…

  9. Utilizing Mutual Aid in Reducing Adolescent Substance Use and Developing Group Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogro-Wilson, Cristina; Letendre, Joan; Toi, Hiroki; Bryan, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of mutual aid groups for high school students. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was applied to 242 adolescents, where every other adolescent was assigned to the intervention or the control condition. The study evaluated the influence of implementing mutual aid groups in decreasing perceived risk…

  10. The Role of Communication and Cohesion in Reducing Social Loafing in Group Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examines previously untested variables that influence social loafing in professional and technical communication group projects by determining the influence of communication quality and task cohesion on social loafing. A set-up factors model, which included group size, peer review, project scope, and method of team formation, was also…

  11. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  12. Influence of Low Molecular Weight Fractions of Humic Substances on Their Reducing Capacities and Distribution of Redox Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Jiang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Humic substances (HS) are redox-active organic compounds and their reducing capacities depend on molecule structure and distribution of redox functional groups (RFG). During dialysis experiments, initial HS were separated into low molecular weight fractions (LMWF, molecular weight dialysis device were calculated for initial HA, retentate and LMWF in native and reduced state, and result suggests that releasing of LMWF leads to production and explosion of RFG. LWMF have great fluorescence intensities for protein-like fluorophores and humic acids-like fluorophores (quinone-like functional groups), where quinonoid π-π* transition is responsible for the great reducing capacities of LMWF. The 3,500 Da molecules (0.25 nm diameter) of HS are capable of stimulating transformation of redox-active metals or potential pollutants trapped in soil micropores (< 2 nm diameter). A development of relationship between reducing capacity and Ex / Em position provides a possibility to predicate relative reducing capacities of HS in treated raw water sample.

  13. The effect of varying carboxylic-group content in reduced graphene oxides on the anticorrosive properties of PMMA/reduced graphene oxide composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present comparative studies on the effect of varying the carboxylic-group content of thermally reduced graphene oxides (TRGs on the anticorrosive properties of as-prepared poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA/TRG composite (PTC coatings. TRGs were formed from graphene oxide (GO by thermal exfoliation. The as-prepared TRGs were then characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Subsequently, the PTC materials were prepared via a UV-curing process and then characterized using FTIR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. PTC coatings containing TRGs with a higher carboxylic-group content exhibited better corrosion protection of a cold-rolled steel electrode that those with a lower carboxylic-group content. This is because the well-dispersed TRG with a higher carboxylic-group content embedded in the PMMA matrix effectively enhances the oxygen barrier properties of the PTC. This conclusion was supported by gas permeability analysis.

  14. Cognitive-behavior intervention group counseling manual for reducing adolescents’ career indecision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datu, Jesus Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current manual is purported to provide an empirical guide in facilitating a group intervention that will address career indecision among adolescents. It utilized Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as the major framework of the treatment protocol. Prior to the group facilitation, prospective members will be screened through an interview and Career Decision Profile. It consists of six sessions (one and a half hour every session which will be executed on a weekly basis. With the intention of modifying negative beliefs that the members hold about themselves in relation to career decision-making, specific activities and processing procedures were charted each session that ranged from individual cognitive exercises to dyadic behavioral role-plays. Each session will be monitored by the group counselor via group case notes to properly document therapeutic encounters which is essential in achieving the intended outcomes. At the end of the group intervention, members will be assessed through group feedback and administering of Career Decision Profile to look at the positive changes on their levels of capabilities to make career decisions.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dental unit waterlines can be divided in two distinct groups, including one displaying phenotypes similar to isolates from cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam eOuellet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays broad genetic diversity, giving it an astonishing capacity to adapt to a variety of environments and to infect a wide range of hosts. While many P. aeruginosa isolates of various origins have been analyzed, isolates from cystic fibrosis patients have received the most attention. Less is known about the genetic and phenotypic diversity of P. aeruginosa isolates that colonize other environments where flourishing biofilms can be found. In the present study, 29 P. aeruginosa isolates from dental unit waterlines and cystic fibrosis patients were collected and their genetic and phenotypes profiles were compared to determine whether environmental and clinical isolates are related. The isolates were first classified using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD method. This made it possible to distribute the isolates into one clinical cluster and two environmental clusters. The isolates in the environmental cluster that were genetically closer to the clinical cluster also displayed phenotypes similar to the clinical isolates. The isolates from the second environmental cluster displayed opposite phenotypes, particularly an increased capacity to form biofilms. The isolates in this cluster were also the only ones harboring genes that encoded specific epimerases involved in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, which could explain their increased ability to form biofilms. In conclusion, the isolates from the dental unit waterlines could be distributed into two clusters, with some of the environmental isolates resembled the clinical isolates.

  16. Invariant Differential Operators for Non-Compact Lie Groups: the Reduced SU(4,4) Multiplets

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrev, V K

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of the non-compact algebras $su(n,n)$. Earlier were given the main multiplets of indecomposable elementary representations for $n\\leq 4$, and the reduced ones for $n=2,3$. Here we give all reduced multiplets containing physically relevant representations including the minimal ones for $n=4$. Due to the recently established parabolic relations the results are valid also for the algebras $sl(8,\\mathbb{R})$ and $su^*(8)$ with suitably chosen maximal parabolic subalgebras.

  17. Invariant differential operators for non-compact Lie groups: the reduced SU(3,3) multiplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrev, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of the non-compact algebras su( n, n). Earlier were given the main multiplets of indecomposable elementary representations for n ≤ 4, and the reduced ones for n = 2. Here we give all reduced multiplets containing physically relevant representations including the minimal ones for the algebra su(3, 3). Due to the recently established parabolic relations the results are valid also for the algebra sl(6, ℝ) with suitably chosen maximal parabolic subalgebra.

  18. On reducibility of mapping class group representations: the SU(N) case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Fjelstad, Jens

    2010-01-01

    rational conformal field theories, making use of Frobenius algebras and their representations in modular categories. Given a modular category C, a rational conformal field theory can be constructed from a Frobenius algebra A in C. We show that if C contains a symmetric special Frobenius algebra...... of examples where we can show reducibility significantly by establishing the existence of algebras with the required properties using methods developed by Fuchs, Runkel and Schweigert. As a result we show that the quantum representations are reducible in the SU(N) case, N>2, for all levels k\\in \\mathbb...

  19. Vaccination against foot and mouth disease reduces virus transmission in groups of calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Dekker, A.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of vaccination during an epidemic of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is not to induce clinical protection, but to reduce virus transmission. Since no quantitative data were available on the effectiveness of vaccination in cattle, we investigated whether a single vaccination against FMD could re

  20. Group Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Rompa, David; Cage, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial show that a behavioral intervention grounded in social cognitive theory reduces unprotected sexual behaviors among men and women living with HIV infection, with the greatest reductions in HIV transmission risk behaviors occurring with non-HIV-positive sex partners. In this article, the authors describe the…

  1. Reducing Children's Implicit Racial Bias through Exposure to Positive Out-Group Exemplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Antonya M.; Steele, Jennifer R.; Baron, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Studies with adults suggest that implicit preferences favoring White versus Black individuals can be reduced through exposure to positive Black exemplars. However, it remains unclear whether developmental differences exist in the capacity for these biases to be changed. This study included 369 children and examined whether their implicit racial…

  2. Influence of low molecular weight fractions of humic substances on reducing capacities and distribution of redox functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Jiang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Humic substances (HS) are redox-active organic compounds and their reducing capacities depend on their molecule structure and distribution of redox functional groups (RFG). During dialysis experiments, bulk humic acids (HA) were separated into low molecular weight fractions (LMWF) and retentate. LMWF account for only 2% of the total organic carbon content of HA molecules, however, their reducing capacities are up to 33 times greater than either those of the bulk HA or retentate. Furthermore, the total reducing capacity of the bulk HA accounts for less than 15% of the total reducing capacity of bulk HA, retentate and LMWF combined, suggesting that releasing of LMWF cannot reduce the number of RFG. RFG are neither in fixed amounts nor in uniformly distributed in bulk HA. LWMF have great fluorescence intensities for humic-like fluorophores (quinone-like functional groups), where quinonoid π-π* transition is responsible for the great reducing capacities of LMWF, and protein-like fluorophores. The 3,500 Da molecules (1.25 nm diameter) of HS could stimulate transformation of redox-active metals or potential pollutants trapped in soil micropores (< 2 nm diameter). A development of relationship between reducing capacity and Ex/Em position provides a possibility to predicate relative reducing capacities of HS in environmental samples.

  3. Can sharing experiences in groups reduce the burden of living with diabetes, regardless of glycaemic control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Christensen, Mette; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hommel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Aims To test whether patients with Type 1 diabetes would join support groups and benefit by improving psychosocial functioning, regardless of their HbA1c levels. Methods A pre-post test with follow-up after 6 and 12 months was conducted as a concurrent mixed-method study. The convenience sample...

  4. Group Treatment of Foster Children to Reduce Separation Conflicts Associated with Placement Breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sally E.

    1990-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that placement stability for foster children would improve if they received help in resolving separation conflicts with their biological families from a group treatment program under the leadership of the child's caseworker. Important lacks in agency practice were revealed. (BB)

  5. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Md Abul kalam; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform display architecture to display multiple language digits and general mathematical expressions with higher accuracy and simplicity by using a 18-segment display, which is an improvement over the 16 segment display.

  6. Women With Addictions Report Reduced Anxiety After Group Music Therapy: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke S. Diestelkamp

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Roughly six million females in the USA abuse or are addicted to alcohol. Women are more likely than men to report depression and anxiety as triggers for substance use and relapse, which emphasizes the importance of therapies designed to help women mitigate anxiety.Research supporting music therapy (MT with women with addictions is scarce. In this quasi-experimental investigation, we hoped to learn: (1 What percentage of women with addictive disorders in a 45-minute group MT session will report pre-session anxiety?; and (2 of these, what percentage will report a palpable reduction in their post-session anxiety? We used a single group design: Participants self-reported anxiety before and after each session.Study participants were 53 women in a gender-specific residential program. Voluntary group MT sessions were held twice weekly for 9 weeks. Four MT methods were used: Composition, Receptive (Listening, Improvisation, and Re-Creative (Performing. Of 53 first-session surveys, 39 (73.6% indicated pre-session anxiety. Of these, 33 (84.6% showed a reduction in post-session anxiety. A sign test confirmed an overall reduction in anxiety.Outcomes may have been related to interventions, group cohesion, or other factors. The absence of a comparison group prevents suppositions of causality. Nonetheless, the results present a compelling case for the use of MT with women with anxiety. Because of the link between trauma and addictive disorders, we encourage exploration of the role and benefits of MT within trauma-informed models of addiction treatment.

  7. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  8. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  9. Reducing Societal Obesity: Establishing a Separate Exercise Model through Studies of Group Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Puterbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 50 years has brought attention to high and increasing levels of human obesity in most of the industrialized world. The medical profession has noticed, has evaluated, and has developed models for studying, preventing, and reversing obesity. The current model prescribes activity in specific quantities such as days, minutes, heart rates, and footfalls. Although decreased levels of activity have come from changes revolving around built environments and social networks, the existing medical model to lower body weights by increasing activity remains individually prescriptive. It is not working. The study of societal obesity precludes the individual and must involve group behavioral studies. Such studies necessitate acquiring separate tools and, therefore, require a significant change in the evaluation and treatment of obesity. Finding groups with common activities and lower levels of obesity would allow the development of new models of land use and encourage active lifestyles through shared interests.

  10. Women With Addictions Report Reduced Anxiety After Group Music Therapy: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diestelkamp, Wiebke S.; Susan C. Gardstrom

    2013-01-01

    Roughly six million females in the USA abuse or are addicted to alcohol. Women are more likely than men to report depression and anxiety as triggers for substance use and relapse, which emphasizes the importance of therapies designed to help women mitigate anxiety.Research supporting music therapy (MT) with women with addictions is scarce. In this quasi-experimental investigation, we hoped to learn: (1) What percentage of women with addictive disorders in a 45-minute group MT session will rep...

  11. Investigating the Influence of Group Therapy with Logo Therapy Approach in Reducing Depression in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Sharifi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to investigate the Influence of group therapy with logo therapy approach in reducing depression in patients with colorectal cancer in Hazrat-e-Rasoul Hospital. The research method was quasiexperimental design with pre-test, post-test, control group and follow-up (2 months. The study population included all patients with colorectal cancer in Tehran and referred samples to Hazrat-e-Rasoul Hospital in the second 6 months of the year 2015. The sample consisted of 30 patients with colorectal cancer (45 to 65 years old who were selected for sampling and randomly divided into two Control and Experimental groups (15 people. The tool was Beck Depression questionnaire that consists of 21 questions that was conducted in three stages. The intervention included logo therapy package in group method that it was in held in 10 sessions of 2 hours, 2 sessions per a week for experimental group and there was no intervention in the control group. To analyze the data, and inferential findings, descriptive statistic and the one-way ANCOVA, two-way and repeated measures test was used, respectively. The results of investigating data showed that intervention with logo therapy approach was effective on reducing depression in patients with colorectal cancer and the results of follow-up analysis showed effect lasting over time. So, this method can be used to reduce depression in patients with colorectal cancer.

  12. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Group Therapy in Reducing Negative Automatic Thoughts and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mehdipour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive group therapy (MBCT in reducing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes in cancer patients. Methods The study was an applied and quasi-experimental research conducted by pre- and post-testing. The sample consisted of 30 cancer patients selected by purposive sampling and randomly placed in the control and the experimental group (15 individuals per group. The members of both groups filled out the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ and the dysfunctional attitudes scale (DAS-26 at the pre- and the post-test stage. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA tests. Results The results indicated that MBCT significantly reduced negative automatic thoughts (F = 126.15, P < 0.01 and dysfunctional attitudes (F = 179.53, P < 0.01 in the experimental group at the post-test stage in comparison to the control group. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it is essential that therapeutic centers and support forums related to patients with refractory disorders use MBCT in their programs for reducing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes.

  13. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces asthma in a group of children from the Caguas municipality of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jessica; Fernández, Mariola; García Fragoso, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is the preferred method of infant nutrition. Its role in preventing childhood asthma is controversial. Determine whether breastfeeding protects against the development of bronchial asthma in children. A survey was answered by parents of children less than 18 years of age attending a Pediatric clinic at Cidra, Puerto Rico from July to December 2008. A group of 175 mothers were included in the study. The mean age was 28 years (range 14-50). The mean age of the children was 5 years. There was family history of asthma in 64% of the families. The prevalence of asthma in these children was 50%. Sixty-six percent of the mother's breastfed but only 27% did it exclusively. Children who were exclusively breastfed had a lower prevalence of asthma and milk protein allergy. This study correlates with literature reports linking exclusive breastfeeding to a reduction in asthma and other allergic diseases.

  14. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  15. Reduced Plasmodium Parasite Burden Associates with CD38+ CD4+ T Cells Displaying Cytolytic Potential and Impaired IFN-γ Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burel, Julie G.; Apte, Simon H.; Groves, Penny L.; Klein, Kerenaftali; McCarthy, James S.; Doolan, Denise L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a unique resource of samples from a controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) study, we identified a novel population of CD4+ T cells whose frequency in the peripheral blood was inversely correlated with parasite burden following P. falciparum infection. These CD4+ T cells expressed the multifunctional ectoenzyme CD38 and had unique features that distinguished them from other CD4+ T cells. Specifically, their phenotype was associated with proliferation, activation and cytotoxic potential as well as significantly impaired production of IFN-γ and other cytokines and reduced basal levels of activated STAT1. A CD38+ CD4+ T cell population with similar features was identified in healthy uninfected individuals, at lower frequency. CD38+ CD4+ T cells could be generated in vitro from CD38- CD4+ T cells after antigenic or mitogenic stimulation. This is the first report of a population of CD38+ CD4+ T cells with a cytotoxic phenotype and markedly impaired IFN-γ capacity in humans. The expansion of this CD38+ CD4+ T population following infection and its significant association with reduced blood-stage parasite burden is consistent with an important functional role for these cells in protective immunity to malaria in humans. Their ubiquitous presence in humans suggests that they may have a broad role in host-pathogen defense. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov clinical trial numbers ACTRN12612000814875, ACTRN12613000565741 and ACTRN12613001040752 PMID:27662621

  16. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  17. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  18. Long-term AICAR administration reduces metabolic disturbances and lowers blood pressure in rats displaying features of the insulin resistance syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Esben Selmer; Jessen, Niels; Pold, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    clamp conditions. To investigate whether chronic AICAR administration, in addition to the beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, is capable of improving other phenotypes associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats (n = 6) exhibiting insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia......The insulin resistance syndrome is characterized by several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic chemical activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by the adenosine analog 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta -D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) has been shown to augment insulin action......, upregulate mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscles, and decrease the content of intra-abdominal fat. Furthermore, acute AICAR exposure has been found to reduce sterol and fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes incubated in vitro as well as suppress endogenous glucose production in rats under euglycemic...

  19. Genetic switch to hypervirulence reduces colonization phenotypes of the globally disseminated group A streptococcus M1T1 clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Andrew; Pence, Morgan A; Timmer, Anjuli M; Osvath, Sarah R; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Walker, Mark J; Nizet, Victor

    2010-07-01

    The recent resurgence of invasive group A streptococcal disease has been paralleled by the emergence of the M1T1 clone. Recently, invasive disease initiation has been linked to mutations in the covR/S 2-component regulator. We investigated whether a fitness cost is associated with the covS mutation that counterbalances hypervirulence. Wild-type M1T1 group A Streptococcus and an isogenic covS-mutant strain derived from animal passage were compared for adherence to human laryngeal epithelial cells, human keratinocytes, or fibronectin; biofilm formation; and binding to intact mouse skin. Targeted mutagenesis of capsule expression of both strains was performed for analysis of its unique contribution to the observed phenotypes. The covS-mutant bacteria showed reduced capacity to bind to epithelial cell layers as a consequence of increased capsule expression. The covS-mutant strain also had reduced capacity to bind fibronectin and to form biofilms on plastic and epithelial cell layers. A defect in skin adherence of the covS-mutant strain was demonstrated in a murine model. Reduced colonization capacity provides a potential explanation for why the covS mutation, which confers hypervirulence, has not become fixed in the globally disseminated M1T1 group A Streptococcus clone, but rather may arise anew under innate immune selection in individual patients.

  20. Grouping of amino acids and recognition of protein structurally conserved regions by reduced alphabets of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sequence alignment is a common method for finding protein structurally conserved/similar regions. However, sequence alignment is often not accurate if sequence identities between to-be-aligned se- quences are less than 30%. This is because that for these sequences, different residues may play similar structural roles and they are incorrectly aligned during the sequence alignment using substitu- tion matrix consisting of 20 types of residues. Based on the similarity of physicochemical features, residues can be clustered into a few groups. Using such simplified alphabets, the complexity of protein sequences is reduced and at the same time the key information encoded in the sequences remains. As a result, the accuracy of sequence alignment might be improved if the residues are properly clustered. Here, by using a database of aligned protein structures (DAPS), a new clustering method based on the substitution scores is proposed for the grouping of residues, and substitution matrices of residues at different levels of simplification are constructed. The validity of the reduced alphabets is confirmed by relative entropy analysis. The reduced alphabets are applied to recognition of protein structurally conserved/similar regions by sequence alignment. The results indicate that the accuracy or efficiency of sequence alignment can be improved with the optimal reduced alphabet with N around 9.

  1. Grouping of amino acids and recognition of protein structurally conserved regions by reduced alphabets of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; WANG Wei

    2007-01-01

    Sequence alignment is a common method for finding protein structurally conserved/similar regions.However, sequence alignment is often not accurate if sequence identities between to-be-aligned sequences are less than 30%. This is because that for these sequences, different residues may play similar structural roles and they are incorrectly aligned during the sequence alignment using substitution matrix consisting of 20 types of residues. Based on the similarity of physicochemical features,residues can be clustered into a few groups. Using such simplified alphabets, the complexity of protein sequences is reduced and at the same time the key information encoded in the sequences remains. As a result, the accuracy of sequence alignment might be improved if the residues are properly clustered.Here, by using a database of aligned protein structures (DAPS), a new clustering method based on the substitution scores is proposed for the grouping of residues, and substitution matrices of residues at different levels of simplification are constructed. The validity of the reduced alphabets is confirmed by relative entropy analysis. The reduced alphabets are applied to recognition of protein structurally conserved/similar regions by sequence alignment. The results indicate that the accuracy or efficiency of sequence alignment can be improved with the optimal reduced alphabet with N around 9.

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy Reduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Life in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinia, Anousha; Meyer, Antonia; Bruegger, Viviane; Hatz, Florian; Nowak, Karolina; Taub, Ethan; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Fuhr, Peter; Gschwandtner, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare a cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBT) with a health enhancement program (HEP) for stress reduction and the impact on quality of life (QoL) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Method: Thirty patients with PD participated in the study: 16 received CBT including stress-reducing elements and 14 took part in a HEP. The two groups did not differ significantly in their baseline demographic characteristics. The patients in both groups underwent weekly sessions of 2 h duration for 9 weeks. The Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire with 39 items (PDQ-39), the Burden Questionnaire for Parkinson’s Disease (translated from the original German: Belastungsfragebogen für Parkinsonpatienten (BELA) and the Disease-Related Questionnaire [Fragebogen zur krankheitsbezogenen Kommunikation (FKK)] were used for assessment. Ratings were completed at baseline and after 9 weeks (immediately after the last treatment session). Results: The patients in the CBT group achieved significantly better BELA, FKK and PDQ-39 scores (p < 0.05). Subscale analysis revealed that the scores on the BELA subscales “emotional well-being” and “somatic motor function” contributed significantly to stress reduction (p < 0.05). The FKK revealed significant improvement in social skills in the CBT group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy appears to be an effective way for patients with PD to lessen stress and improve their quality of life. PMID:28101066

  3. C57Bl/6 N mice on a western diet display reduced intestinal and hepatic cholesterol levels despite a plasma hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmarchelier Charles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestine and liver greatly contribute to whole body lipid, cholesterol and phospholipid metabolism but to which extent cholesterol and phospholipid handling in these tissues is affected by high fat Western-style obesogenic diets remains to be determined. Methods We therefore measured cholesterol and phospholipid concentration in intestine and liver and quantified fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion in C57Bl/6 N mice fed for 12 weeks either a cholesterol-free high carbohydrate control diet or a high fat Western diet containing 0.03% (w/w cholesterol. To identify the underlying mechanisms of dietary adaptations in intestine and liver, changes in gene expression were assessed by microarray and qPCR profiling, respectively. Results Mice on Western diet showed increased plasma cholesterol levels, associated with the higher dietary cholesterol supply, yet, significantly reduced cholesterol levels were found in intestine and liver. Transcript profiling revealed evidence that expression of numerous genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake via LDL, but also in phospholipid metabolism, underwent compensatory regulations in both tissues. Alterations in glycerophospholipid metabolism were confirmed at the metabolite level by phospolipid profiling via mass spectrometry. Conclusions Our findings suggest that intestine and liver react to a high dietary fat intake by an activation of de novo cholesterol synthesis and other cholesterol-saving mechanisms, as well as with major changes in phospholipid metabolism, to accommodate to the fat load.

  4. Rapid display of radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Moore, Stephen M.; Whitman, Robert A.; Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Karlsson, L. M.; Monsees, Thomas L.; Hassen, Gregory L.; David, Timothy C.

    1991-07-01

    The requirements for the rapid display of radiographic images exceed the capabilities of widely available display, computer, and communications technologies. Computed radiography captures data with a resolution of about four megapixels. Large-format displays are available that can present over four megapixels. One megapixel displays are practical for use in combination with large-format displays and in areas where the viewing task does not require primary diagnosis. This paper describes an electronic radiology system that approximates the highest quality systems, but through the use of several interesting techniques allows the possibility of its widespread installation throughout hospitals. The techniques used can be grouped under three major system concepts: a local, high-speed image server, one or more physician's workstations each with one or more high-performance auxiliary displays specialized to the radiology viewing task, and dedicated, high-speed communication links between the server and the displays. This approach is enhanced by the use of a progressive transmission scheme to decrease the latency for viewing four megapixel images. The system includes an image server with storage for over 600 4-megapixel images and a high-speed link. A subsampled megapixel image is fetched from disk and transmitted to the display in about one second followed by the full resolution 4-megapixel image in about 2.5 seconds. Other system components include a megapixel display with a 6-megapixel display memory space and frame-rate update of image roam, zoom, and contrast. Plans for clinical use are presented.

  5. Reducing sore throat following laryngeal mask airway insertion: comparing lidocaine gel, saline, and washing mouth with the control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehryar Taghavi Gilani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Laryngeal mask airway is still accompanied by complications such as sore throat. In this study, effects of three methods of reducing postoperative sore throat were compared with the control group. METHODS: 240 patients with ASA I, II candidates for cataract surgery were randomly divided into four same groups. No supplementary method was used in the control group. In the second, third and fourth groups, lidocaine gel, washing cuff before insertion, and washing mouth before removing laryngeal mask airway were applied, respectively. Anesthesia induction was done with fentanyl, atracurium, and propofol and maintained with propofol infusion. The incidence of sore throat was evaluated during the recovery, 3-4 h later and after 24 h using verbal analog scale. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance and chi-square using SPSS V11.5. RESULTS: Age, gender, duration of surgery and cuff pressure were the same in all the four groups. Incidence of sore throat at recovery room was highest in the control group (43.3% and lowest in the washing mouth group (25%. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between these four groups (recovery, p = 0.30; discharge, p = 0.31; examination, p = 0.52. In this study, increased duration of operation had a significant relationship with the incidence of sore throat (p = 0.041. CONCLUSION: Sore throat is a common postoperative problem, but no special method has been found completely efficient yet. In this study, cuff washing, lidocaine gel, and mouth washing before removing laryngeal mask airway were not helpful for sore throat.

  6. [Reducing sore throat following laryngeal mask airway insertion: comparing lidocaine gel, saline, and washing mouth with the control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Miri Soleimani, Iman; Razavi, Majid; Salehi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal mask airway is still accompanied by complications such as sore throat. In this study, effects of three methods of reducing postoperative sore throat were compared with the control group. 240 patients with ASA I, II candidates for cataract surgery were randomly divided into four same groups. No supplementary method was used in the control group. In the second, third and fourth groups, lidocaine gel, washing cuff before insertion, and washing mouth before removing laryngeal mask airway were applied, respectively. Anesthesia induction was done with fentanyl, atracurium, and propofol and maintained with propofol infusion. The incidence of sore throat was evaluated during the recovery, 3-4h later and after 24h using verbal analog scale. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance and chi-square using SPSS V11.5. Age, gender, duration of surgery and cuff pressure were the same in all the four groups. Incidence of sore throat at recovery room was highest in the control group (43.3%) and lowest in the washing mouth group (25%). However, no significant statistical difference was observed between these four groups (recovery, p=0.30; discharge, p=0.31; examination, p=0.52). In this study, increased duration of operation had a significant relationship with the incidence of sore throat (p=0.041). Sore throat is a common postoperative problem, but no special method has been found completely efficient yet. In this study, cuff washing, lidocaine gel, and mouth washing before removing laryngeal mask airway were not helpful for sore throat. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing sore throat following laryngeal mask airway insertion: comparing lidocaine gel, saline, and washing mouth with the control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Miri Soleimani, Iman; Razavi, Majid; Salehi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal mask airway is still accompanied by complications such as sore throat. In this study, effects of three methods of reducing postoperative sore throat were compared with the control group. 240 patients with ASA I, II candidates for cataract surgery were randomly divided into four same groups. No supplementary method was used in the control group. In the second, third and fourth groups, lidocaine gel, washing cuff before insertion, and washing mouth before removing laryngeal mask airway were applied, respectively. Anesthesia induction was done with fentanyl, atracurium, and propofol and maintained with propofol infusion. The incidence of sore throat was evaluated during the recovery, 3-4h later and after 24h using verbal analog scale. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance and chi-square using SPSS V11.5. Age, gender, duration of surgery and cuff pressure were the same in all the four groups. Incidence of sore throat at recovery room was highest in the control group (43.3%) and lowest in the washing mouth group (25%). However, no significant statistical difference was observed between these four groups (recovery, p=0.30; discharge, p=0.31; examination, p=0.52). In this study, increased duration of operation had a significant relationship with the incidence of sore throat (p=0.041). Sore throat is a common postoperative problem, but no special method has been found completely efficient yet. In this study, cuff washing, lidocaine gel, and mouth washing before removing laryngeal mask airway were not helpful for sore throat. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Military display market segment: helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-09-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  9. Enacting cultural interests: how intergroup contact reduces prejudice by sparking interest in an out-group's culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Tiffany N; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-10-01

    In the present research, we examined the hypothesis that cues of social connectedness to a member of another social group can spark interest in the group's culture, and that such interest, when freely enacted, contributes to reductions in intergroup prejudice. In two pilot studies and Experiment 1, we found that extant and desired cross-group friendships and cues of social connectedness to an out-group member predicted increased interest in the target group's culture. In Experiments 2 and 3, we manipulated cues of social connectedness between non-Latino American participants and a Latino American (i.e., Mexican American) peer and whether participants freely worked with this peer on a Mexican cultural task. This experience reduced the participants' implicit bias against Latinos, an effect that was mediated by increased cultural engagement, and, 6 months later in an unrelated context, improved intergroup outcomes (e.g., interest in interacting with Mexican Americans; Experiment 4). The Discussion section addresses the inter- and intragroup benefits of policies that encourage people to express and share diverse cultural interests in mainstream settings.

  10. Data Display Markup Language (DDML) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Moreover, the tendency of T&E is towards a plug-and-play-like data acquisition system that requires standard languages and modules for data displays...Telemetry Group DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK January 2017 Prepared by Telemetry Group

  11. Tactile display with dielectric multilayer elastomer actuatorsq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysek, Marc; Lotz, Peter; Schlaak, Helmut F.

    2009-03-01

    Tactile perception is the human sensation of surface textures through the vibrations generated by stroking a finger over the surface. The skin responds to several distributed physical quantities. Perhaps the most important are high-frequency vibrations, pressure distributions (static shape) and thermal properties. The integration of tactile displays in man-machine interfaces promises a more intuitive handling. For this reason many tactile displays are developed using different technologies. We present several state-of-the-art tactile displays based on different types of dielectric elastomer actuators to clarify the advantages of our matrix display based on multilayer technology. Using this technology perpendicular and hexagonal arrays of actuator elements (tactile stimulators) can be integrated into a PDMS substrate. Element diameters down to 1 mm allow stimuli at the range of the human two-point-discrimination threshold. Driving the elements by column and row addressing enables various stimulation patterns with a reduced number of feeding lines. The transient analysis determines charging times of the capacitive actuators depending on actuator geometry and material parameters. This is very important to ensure an adequate dynamic characteristic of the actuators to stimulate the human skin by vibrations. The suitability of multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators for actuation in tactile displays has been determined. Beside the realization of a static tactile display - where multilayer DEA are integrated as drives for movable contact pins - we focus on the direct use of DEA as a vibrotactile display. Finally, we present the scenario and achieved results of a recognition threshold test. Even relative low voltages in the range of 800 V generate vibrations with 100% recognition ratio within the group of participants. Furthermore, the frequency dependent characteristic of the determined recognition threshold confirms with established literature.

  12. Reducing children's aggressive and oppositional behaviors in the schools: Preliminary results on the effectiveness of a social-cognitive group intervention program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); C.M.G. Meesters (Cor); M. Vincken (Manon); A. Eijkelenboom (Anneke)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the effects of a social-cognitive group intervention program for children with oppositional and aggressive behaviors. Forty-two children aged between 9 and 12 years who clearly displayed behavior problems at school were treated with this program. A cross-over design

  13. A group of patients with Marfan's syndrome, who have finger and toe contractures, displays tendons' alterations upon an ultrasound examination: are these features common among classical Marfan patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Daniela; Pratelli, Elisa; Torricelli, Elena; Sofi, Francesco; Abbate, Rosanna; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Gensini, GianFranco; Pepe, Guglielmina

    2016-08-01

    The involvement of the musculoskeletal system with other mild pleiotropic manifestations represents a clinical criterion, called "systemic features," to d iagnose Marfan's syndrome. We aimed to investigate the features of the hands and feet redressable contractures present in a group of Marfan patients. In 13 patients with previously diagnosed Marfan's syndrome, an accurate clinical examination was performed. In particular the characterization of the musculoskeletal system by visual analogic scale to measure muscle pain (VAS) and muscle strength (MRC system) was carried out; the Beighton scale score was used to evaluate the articular hypermobility. Ultrasound examination (US) was performed to detect deep-superficial flexor tendons and extensor tendons of both hands, and the short and long flexor and extensor tendons of the fingers and toes in static and dynamic positions. The ImageJ program was adopted to measure a profile of tendon echo-intensity. A reduction of the thickness of all tendons was detected by US in our patients; the VAS and Beighton scale scores were in normal ranges. The profile of tendon echo-intensity showed different textural details in all Marfan patients. This study provides evidence for other contractures' localization, and for altered findings of the tendons in patients with Marfan syndrome and finger/toe contractures. These changes may be associated with structural modifications in connective tissue.

  14. Efficacy of group psychotherapy to reduce depressive symptoms among HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelhoch, Seth; Medoff, Deborah R; Oyeniyi, Gloria

    2007-10-01

    Depressed mood is highly prevalent among HIV-infected individuals. Some but not all studies have found group psychotherapy to be efficacious in this population. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blinded, randomized controlled trials to examine efficacy of group psychotherapy treatment among HIV infected with depressive symptoms. We used PubMed, the Cochrane database, and a search of bibliographies to find controlled clinical trials with random assignment to group psychotherapy or control condition among HIV infected patients with depressive symptoms. The principal measure of effect size was the standard difference between means on validated depression inventories. We identified 8 studies that included 665 subjects: 5 used cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 2 used supportive therapy, and 1 used coping effectiveness training. Three of the 8 studies reported significant effects. The pooled effect size from the random effects model was 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-0.53) representing a moderate effect. Heterogeneity of effect was not found to be significant (p = 0.69; I(2) = 0%). Studies reporting use of group CBT had a pooled effect size from the random effects model of 0.37 (95% CI: 0.18-0.56) and was significant. Studies reporting the use of group supportive psychotherapy had a pooled effect size from the random effects model 0.58 (95% CI: -0.05-1.22) and was nonsignificant. The results of this study suggest that group psychotherapy is efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms among, HIV-infected individuals. Of note, women were nearly absent from all studies. Future studies should be directed at addressing this disparity.

  15. Piloting a Coping Skills Group Intervention to Reduce Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Patients Awaiting Kidney or Liver Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Julie Anne; Miner, Dee; Remtulla, Tasneem; Miller, Janet; Zanussi, Lauren W

    2017-02-01

    The authors evaluated the use of a coping skills group (CSG) therapy intervention to decrease depression and anxiety and increase healthy coping skills in a population of kidney and liver transplant candidates. The study, using a pre-posttest design, piloted a CSG with a convenience sample of 41 consenting participants on a waiting list or in workup for kidney or liver transplant. Two transplant social workers led five eight-week closed psychoeducational groups. Coping skills, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were assessed preintervention, postintervention, and at follow-up one month later. Results suggest that the CSG group created significant changes in some coping areas, such as decreasing the use of denial and self-blame and increasing the use of acceptance, religion, and instrumental supports. In this study, instrumental supports are strategies such as seeking assistance, finding information, or asking for advice about what to do. The effects on instrumental supports did not sustain at the one-month follow-up. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly reduced, and these changes were sustained at one-month follow-up. This study supports the use of a group-based psychosocial intervention for the pretransplant population and will be most relevant to social workers practicing in the transplant field. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  16. A Genetic Switch to Hypervirulence Reduces Colonization Phenotypes of the Globally Disseminated Group A Streptococcus M1T1 Clone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Andrew; Pence, Morgan A.; Timmer, Anjuli M.; Osvath, Sarah R.; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Walker, Mark J.; Nizet, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Background The recent resurgence of invasive group A streptococcal disease has been paralleled by the emergence of the M1T1 clone. Recently, invasive disease initiation to has been linked to mutations in the covR/S two-compnent regulator. Here we investigate if a fitness cost is associated with covS mutation that counterbalances hypervirulence. Methods Wild-type M1T1 GAS and an isogenic covS mutant derived from animal passage were compared for adherence to human laryngeal epithelial cells, keratinocytes or fibronectin, biofilm formation, and binding to intact mouse skin. Targeted mutagenesis of capsule expression from both strains was performed for analysis of its unique contribution to the observed phenotypes. Results The covS mutant bacteria showed reduced capacity to bind to epithelial cell layers as a consequence of increased capsule expression. The covS mutant strain also had reduced capacity to bind fibronectin and to form biofilms on plastic and epithelial cell layers. A defect in skin adherence of the covS mutant strain was demonstrated in a murine model. Conclusions Reduced colonization capacity provides a potential explanation as to why the covS mutation conferring hypervirulence has not become fixed in the globally-disseminated M1T1 GAS clone, but rather may arise anew under innate immune selection in individual patients. PMID:20507231

  17. Method to Reduce Muscle Fatigue During Transcutaneous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation in Major Knee and Ankle Muscle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayenko, Dimitry G; Nguyen, Robert; Hirabayashi, Tomoyo; Popovic, Milos R; Masani, Kei

    2015-09-01

    A critical limitation with transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation as a rehabilitative approach is the rapid onset of muscle fatigue during repeated contractions. We have developed a method called spatially distributed sequential stimulation (SDSS) to reduce muscle fatigue by distributing the center of electrical field over a wide area within a single stimulation site, using an array of surface electrodes. To extend the previous findings and to prove feasibility of the method by exploring the fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS for lower limb muscle groups in the able-bodied population, as well as in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). SDSS was delivered through 4 active electrodes applied to the knee extensors and flexors, plantarflexors, and dorsiflexors, sending a stimulation pulse to each electrode one after another with 90° phase shift between successive electrodes. Isometric ankle torque was measured during fatiguing stimulations using SDSS and conventional single active electrode stimulation lasting 2 minutes. We demonstrated greater fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS compared with the conventional protocol, as revealed by larger values of fatigue index and/or torque peak mean in all muscles except knee flexors of able-bodied individuals, and in all muscles tested in individuals with SCI. Our study has revealed improvements in fatigue tolerance during transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation using SDSS, a stimulation strategy that alternates activation of subcompartments of muscles. The SDSS protocol can provide greater stimulation times with less decrement in mechanical output compared with the conventional protocol. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Ethyl pyruvate reduces myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury by inhibiting high mobility group box 1 protein in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaorong; Cui, Bo; Zhou, Xiaoya; Xu, Changwu; Lu, Zhibing; Jiang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) plays an important role in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ethyl pyruvate (EP), a potent reactive oxygen species scavenger, has been reported to inhibit myocardial apoptosis and reduce myocardial I/R injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which EP reduces myocardial I/R injury in rats. Anesthetized male rats were once treated with EP (50 mg/kg, i.p.) before ischemia, and then subjected to ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 4 h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and infarct size were measured. HMGB1 expression was assessed by immunoblotting. The results showed that pretreatment of EP (50 mg/kg) could significantly reduce the infarct size and the levels of LDH and CK after 4 h reperfusion (all PR. The present study suggested that ethyl pyruvate could attenuate myocardial I/R injury by inhibiting HMGB1 expression.

  19. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ruckmongathan

    2003-08-01

    Quality of image in a display depends on the contrast, colour, resolution and the number of gray shades. A large number of gray shades is necessary to display images without any contour lines. These contours are due to limited number of gray shades in the display causing abrupt changes in grayness of the image, while the original image has a gradual change in brightness. Amplitude modulation has the capability to display a large number of gray shades with minimum number of time intervals [1,2]. This paper will cover the underlying principle of amplitude modulation, some variants and its extension to multi-line addressing. Other techniques for displaying gray shades in passive matrix displays are reviewed for the sake of comparison.

  20. Reducing health disparities through a culturally centered mentorship program for minority faculty: the Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, Vanessa Lopez; Baca, Catherine; Verney, Steven P; Venner, Kamilla; Parker, Tassy; Wallerstein, Nina

    2009-08-01

    Ethnic minority faculty members are vastly underrepresented in academia. Yet, the presence of these individuals in academic institutions is crucial, particularly because their professional endeavors often target issues of health disparities. One promising way to attract and retain ethnic minority faculty is to provide them with formal mentorship. This report describes a culturally centered mentorship program, the Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG, 2003-2007), at the University of New Mexico (UNM) that trained a cadre of minority researchers dedicated to reducing health disparities associated with substance abuse. The SARG was based at UNM's School of Medicine's Institute for Public Health, in partnership with the UNM's Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions. The program consisted of regular research meetings, collaboration with the Community Advisory Board, monthly symposia with renowned professionals, pilot projects, and conference support. The authors collected data on mentee research productivity as outcomes and conducted separate mentee and mentor focus-group interviews to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the SARG program. The SARG yielded positive outcomes as evidenced by mentee increase in grant submissions, publications, and professional presentations. Focus-group qualitative data highlighted program and institutional barriers as well as successes that surfaced during the program. Based on this evaluation, a Culturally Centered Mentorship Model (CCMM) emerged. The CCMM can help counter institutional challenges by valuing culture, community service, and community-based participatory research to support the recruitment and advancement of ethnic minority faculty members in academia.

  1. Theoretical Analysis of a Self-Replicator With Reduced Template Inhibition Based on an Informational Leaving Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigan, Erwan; Mattelaer, Henri-Philippe; Herdewijn, Piet

    2016-03-01

    The first non-enzymatic self-replicating systems, as proposed by von Kiedrowski (Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 25(10):932-935, 1986) and Orgel (Nature 327(6120):346-347, 1987), gave rise to the analytical background still used today to describe artificial replicators. What separates a self-replicating from an autocatalytic system is the ability to pass on structural information (Orgel, Nature 358(6383):203-209, 1992). Utilising molecular information, nucleic acids were the first choice as prototypical examples. But early self-replicators showed parabolic over exponential growth due to the strongly bound template duplex after template-directed ligation of substrates. We propose a self-replicating scheme with a weakly bound template duplex, using an informational leaving group. Such a scheme is inspired by the role of tRNA as leaving group and information carrier during protein synthesis, and is based on our previous experience with nucleotide chemistry. We analyse theoretically this scheme and compare it to the classical minimal replicator model. We show that for an example hexanucleotide template mirroring that is used by von Kiedrowski (Bioorganic chemistry frontiers, 1993) for the analysis of the classical minimal replicator, the proposed scheme is expected to result in higher template self-replication rate. The proposed self-replicating scheme based on an informational leaving group is expected to outperform the classical minimal replicator because of a weaker template duplex bonding, resulting in reduced template inhibition.

  2. Cysteine analogs with a free thiol group promote fertilization by reducing disulfide bonds in the zona pellucida of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Toru; Horikoshi, Yuka; Nakao, Satohiro; Sakoh, Kazuhito; Ishizuka, Yuta; Tsutsumi, Aki; Fukumoto, Kiyoko; Kondo, Tomoko; Haruguchi, Yukie; Takeshita, Yumi; Nakamuta, Yuko; Tsuchiyama, Shuuji; Nakagata, Naomi

    2015-04-01

    Archives of cryopreserved sperm harvested from genetically engineered mice, in mouse resource centers, are a readily accessible genetic resource for the scientific community. We previously reported that exposure of oocytes to reduced glutathione (GSH) greatly improves the fertilization rate of frozen-thawed mouse sperm. Application of GSH to in vitro fertilization techniques is widely accepted as a standard protocol to produce sufficient numbers of mice from cryopreserved sperm. However, the detailed mechanism of the enhancement of fertilization mediated by GSH in vitro is not fully understood. Here we focused on the chemical by determining the effects of its amino acid constituents and cysteine analogs on the fertilization of oocytes by frozen-thawed sperm. Furthermore, we determined the stability of these compounds in aqueous solution. We show here that l-cysteine (l-Cys), d-cysteine (d-Cys), or N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) increased the rate of fertilization when added to the medium but did not adversely affect embryo development in vitro or in vivo. The levels of thiol groups of proteins in the zona pellucida (ZP) and the expansion of the ZP were increased by l-Cys, d-Cys, and NAC. These effects were abrogated by the methylation of the thiol group of l-Cys. NAC was the most stable of these compounds in the fertilization medium at 4°C. These results suggest that the thiol groups of cysteine analogs markedly enhance the fertilization rate of mouse oocytes.

  3. Effect of Thai banana (Musa AA group) in reducing accumulation of oxidation end products in UVB-irradiated mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerach, Nontaphat; Yakaew, Swanya; Phimnuan, Preeyawass; Soimee, Wichuda; Nakyai, Wongnapa; Luangbudnark, Witoo; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2017-03-01

    Chronic UVB exposure causes skin disorders and cancer through DNA strand breaks and oxidation of numerous functional groups of proteins and lipids in the skin. In this study, we investigated the effects of Thai banana (Musa AA group, "Khai," and Musa ABB group, "Namwa") on the prevention of UVB-induced skin damage when fed to male ICR mice. Mice were orally fed banana (Khai or Namwa) fruit pulps at dose of 1mg/g body weight/day for 12weeks. The shaved backs of the mice were irradiated with UVB for 12weeks. The intensity dose of UVB-exposure was increased from 54mJ/cm(2)/exposure at week 1 to 126mJ/cm(2)/exposure at week 12. A significant increase in skin thickness, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation end products, and expression of MMP-1 was observed in UVB-irradiated mouse skin. A reduction in the accumulation of oxidation end products was found in the skin of UVB-irradiated mice receiving Khai. This occurred in conjunction with a reduction in MMP-1 expression, inhibition of epidermal thickening, and induction of γ-GCS expression. The dietary intake of Khai prevented skin damage from chronic UVB exposure by increased γ-GCS expression and reduced oxidation end products included carbonyls, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Community-based suicide prevention through group activity for the elderly successfully reduced the high suicide rate for females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Naoki; Ono, Yutaka; Sakashita, Tomoe; Takenoshita, Yuka; Taguchi, Manabu; Takizawa, Tohru; Miura, Reiko; Kumagai, Keiko

    2005-06-01

    The lack of social support is the most common risk factor for late-life suicide. Few previous community-based interventions against the lack of social relationships reduced suicide. This study aims to evaluate outcomes of a community-based prevention program against suicide amongst the elderly in rural Japan. During 1995-2002, the program based on population strategy including group activity, psychoeducation and self-assessment of depression but no screening for depression, was implemented for elderly residents in Yuri town, Japan (5-year average population 6817; 5-year average suicide rate [> or =65 years old] 291.4/10(5)). Changes in the relative risk of suicide for individuals (> or =65 years old) before and after the 8-year implementation were estimated by the incidence rate ratio (IRR), using a quasi-experimental design with a neighboring reference, Chokai town, Japan (5-year average population 8136; 5-year average suicide rate [> or =65 years old] 216.5/10(5)). The risk of elderly females in Yuri completing suicide was reduced by 76% (age-adjusted IRR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10-0.58), while there was no change in the risks for Yuri's elderly males and both Chokai's elderly males and females. General loglinear analysis estimated a ratio of the female IRR in Yuri to that in its Akita prefecture of 0.35 (95% CI, 0.14-0.84), showing that the reduction of the risk in the intervention area was greater than a historical trend. A community-based suicide prevention through a group intervention designed to increase knowledge and to cultivate social relationships would be effective for elderly females but not males.

  5. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  6. Reducing bumblefoot lesions in a group of captive Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus with the use of environmental enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Reisfeld

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Captive penguins are prone to pododermatitis (bumblefoot lesions due to sedentary habits, changes in normal activity patterns, prolonged time on hard and abrasive surfaces, and less time swimming in the water. Environmental enrichment allows the use of creative and ingenious techniques that aim to keep the captive animals occupied by increasing the range and the diversity of behavioral opportunities always respecting the ethological needs of the species. The main goal of this work was to use environmental enrichment techniques to reduce pododermatitis in a group of captive penguins. Five captive Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus that were showing bumblefoot lesions were followed during this project. To monitor the lesions, all animals were physically restraint 3 times a week over a period of 12 weeks. Environmental enrichment was introduced daily in the water with the goal of enhancing their time in the water for one extra hour daily. The results demonstrate that in a twelve weeks period, four animals showed significant reduction of the lesions in both feet and in two animals the lesions were completely healed. With these results we can conclude that aquatic environmental enrichment allowed this group of penguins to spend more time in the water, favoring the reduction of the bumblefoot lesions.

  7. The renormalization-group flux of the conformally reduced quantum gravity; Der Renormierungsgruppen-Fluss der konform-reduzierten Quantengravitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, Holger

    2010-12-17

    We analyze the conceptual role of background independence in the application of the effective average action to quantum gravity. Insisting on a background independent nonperturbative renormalization group (RG) flow the coarse graining operation must be defined in terms of an unspecified variable metric since no rigid metric of a fixed background spacetime is available. This leads to an extra field dependence in the functional RG equation and a significantly different RG ow in comparison to the standard flow equation with a rigid metric in the mode cutoff. The background independent RG flow can possess a non-Gaussian fixed point, for instance, even though the corresponding standard one does not. We demonstrate the importance of this universal, essentially kinematical effect by computing the RG flow of Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG) in the ''conformally reduced'' theory which discards all degrees of freedom contained in the metric except the conformal one. The conformally reduced Einstein-Hilbert approximation has exactly the same qualitative properties as in the full Einstein-Hilbert truncation. In particular it possesses the non-Gaussian fixed point which is necessary for asymptotic safety. Without the extra field dependence the resulting RG flow is that of a simple {phi}{sup 4}-theory. We employ the Local Potential Approximation for the conformal factor to generalize the RG flow on an infinite dimensional theory space. Again we find a Gaussian as well as a non-Gaussian fixed point which provides further evidence for the viability of the asymptotic safety scenario. The analog of the invariant cubic in the curvature which spoils perturbative renormalizability is seen to be unproblematic for the asymptotic safety of the conformally reduced theory. The scaling fields and dimensions of both fixed points are obtained explicitly and possible implications for the predictivity of the theory are discussed. Since the RG flow depends on the topology of the

  8. Design and Development of Functionally Effective Human-Machine Interfaces for Firing Room Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This project involves creating software for support equipment used on the Space l aunch System (SLS). The goal is to create applications and displays that will be used to remotely operate equipment from the firing room and will continue to support the SLS launch vehicle to the extent of its program. These displays include design practices that help to convey information effectively, such as minimizing distractions at normal operating state and displaying intentional distractions during a warning or alarm state. The general practice for creating an operator display is to reduce the detail of unimportant aspects of the display and promote focus on data and dynamic information. These practices include using minimalist design, using muted tones for background colors, using a standard font at a readable text size, displaying alarms visible for Immediate attention, grouping data logically, and displaying data appropriately varying on the type of data. Users of these displays are more likely to stay focused on operating for longer periods by using design practices that reduce eye strain and fatigue. Effective operator displays will improve safety by reducing human errors during operation, which will help prevent catastrophic accidents. This report entails the details of my work on developing remote displays for the Hypergolics ground system. Before developing a prototype display, the design and requirements of the system are outlined and compiled into a document. Then each subsystem has schematic representations drawn tha.t meet the specifications detailed in the document. The schematics are then used as the outline to create display representations of each subsystem. Each display is first tested individually. Then the displays are integrated with a prototype of the master system, and they are tested in a simulated environment then retested in the real environment. Extensive testing is important to ensure the displays function reliably as intended.

  9. Design and Development of Functionally Effective Human-Machine Interfaces for Firing Room Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This project involves creating software for support equipment used on the Space Launch System (SLS). The goal is to create applications and displays that will be used to remotely operate equipment from the firing room and will continue to support the SLS launch vehicle to the extent of its program. These displays include design practices that help to convey information effectively, such as minimizing distractions at normal operating state and displaying intentional distractions during a warning or alarm state. The general practice for creating an operator display is to reduce the detail of unimportant aspects of the display and promote focus on data and dynamic information. These practices include using minimalist design, using muted tones for background colors, using a standard font at a readable text size, displaying alarms visible for immediate attention, grouping data logically, and displaying data appropriately varying on the type of data. Users of these displays are more likely to stay focused on operating for longer periods by using design practices that reduce eye strain and fatigue. Effective operator displays will improve safety by reducing human errors during operation, which will help prevent catastrophic accidents. This report entails the details of my work on developing remote displays for the Hypergolic fuel servicing system. Before developing a prototype display, the design and requirements of the system are outlined and compiled into a document. Then each subsystem has schematic representations drawn that meet the specifications detailed in the document. The schematics are then used as the outline to create display representations of each subsystem. Each display is first tested individually. Then the displays are integrated with a prototype of the master system, and they are tested in a simulated environment then retested in the real environment. Extensive testing is important to ensure the displays function reliably as intended.

  10. Multiple Family Groups to reduce child disruptive behavior difficulties: moderating effects of child welfare status on child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil

    2015-08-01

    Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7-11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6-month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system.

  11. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  12. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  13. The application of reduced absorption cross section on the identification of the compounds with similar function-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Zuo, Jian; Mu, Kai-jun; Zhang, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Liang-liang; Zhang, Lei-wei; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2013-08-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy is a powerful tool for materials investigation. The low frequency vibrations were usually investigated by means of absorption coefficient regardless of the refractive index. It leads to the disregard of some inherent low-frequency vibrational information of the chemical compounds. Moreover, due to the scattering inside the sample, there are some distortions of the absorption features, so that the absorption dependent material identification is not valid enough. Here, a statistical parameter named reduced absorption cross section (RACS) is introduced. This can not only help us investigate the molecular dynamics but also distinguish one chemical compound with another which has similar function-groups. Experiments are carried out on L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine and the different mass ratios of their mixtures as an example of the application of RACS. The results come out that the RACS spectrum of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine reserve the spectral fingerprint information of absorption spectrum. The log plot of RACSs of the two amino acids show power-law behavior σR(~ν) ~ (ν~α), and there is a linear relation between the wavenumber and the RACS in the double logarithmic plot. The exponents α, at the same time, are the slopes of the RACS curves in the double logarithmic plot. The big differences of the exponents α between the two amino acids and their mixtures can be seen visually from the slopes of the RACS curves. So we can use RACS analytical method to distinguish some complex compounds with similar function-groups and mixtures from another which has similar absorption peaks in THz region.

  14. Wearable and augmented reality displays using MEMS and SLMs

    OpenAIRE

    Ürey, Hakan; Ulusoy, Erdem; Akşit, Kaan; Hossein, Amir; Niaki, Ghanbari

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, we present the various types of 3D displays, head-mounted projection displays and wearable displays developed in our group using MEMS scanners, compact RGB laser light sources, and spatial light modulators.

  15. Wearable and augmented reality displays using MEMS and SLMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Hakan; Ulusoy, Erdem; Kazempourradi, Seyedmahdi M. K.; Mengu, Deniz; Olcer, Selim; Holmstrom, Sven T.

    2016-03-01

    In this talk, we present the various types of 3D displays, head-mounted projection displays and wearable displays developed in our group using MEMS scanners, compact RGB laser light sources, and spatial light modulators.

  16. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices - a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ritin; Rolley, John X; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals' point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet.

  17. Identifying barriers to healthcare to reduce health disparity in Zuni Indians using focus group conducted by community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vallabh O; Ghahate, Donica M; Bobelu, Jeanette; Sandy, Phillip; Newman, Sara; Helitzer, Deborah L; Faber, Thomas; Zager, Philip

    2014-02-01

    The Zuni Pueblo is home to an economically disadvantaged population, which faces a public health challenge from the interrelated epidemics of obesity, diabetes and kidney disease. Efforts to decrease the impact of these epidemics have been complicated by historical, economic and cultural barriers, which may limit healthcare utilization. The NIH supported Zuni Health Initiative (ZHI) conducted a study to identify barriers to healthcare in the Zuni Pueblo. Community health representatives (CHRs) led 14 one-hour focus group sessions at which a total of 112 people participated posed unique questions that took into account the Zuni culture to elicit information on perceived barriers to healthcare. Audiotapes were translated and transcribed by bilingual ZHI staff. We reduced the text to thematic categories, constructed a coding dictionary and inserted the text into NVivo 9 program. We identified nine themes emerged regarding the barriers experienced in receiving healthcare and adhering to medical advice. These included distance; transportation; embarrassment; relating to healthcare professionals; navigating the medical system; awareness of available resources; waiting times; adhering to medication; and incentives in health promotion. In conclusion the implementation of culturally appropriate community-based health promotion programs and preventive screening techniques will improve access to healthcare and diminish health disparities. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  19. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  20. Book Display as Adult Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew S.

    1997-01-01

    Defines book display as an adult service as choosing and positioning adult books from the library collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access, including contrasting missions, genre grouping, weeding, problems, and dimensions. (Author/LRW)

  1. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ...... be obtained by shining light from the backside of the workpiece. When there is no light from the backside, the front surface seems totally untouched. This was achieved by laser ablation with ultra-short pulses.......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  2. A Study of Effectiveness of Group Forgiveness Therapy in Reducing Aggression among 11-13 Year Old Male Adolescents in City of Dezful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sanai Zaker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of group forgiveness therapy in reducing aggression among 11 – 13 year old boys. Methods: This semi experimental study (pretest-posttest design with control group was conducted on 30 students who scored high on Aggression Questionnaire. The sample was selected through cluster sampling assignment and participants were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received forgiveness counseling via twelve group sessions of 1 hour duration each. During this period no intervention was given to the control group. Data was analyzed using Kolmogrov-Smironov, Levene F test, and t-test for independent and dependent groups. Results: Statistical analysis, using independent t test for between-group comparison, showed that compared to the control group, aggression both physical and verbal, anger, and hostility in the experimental group significantly decreased. Also result of dependent t test for within-group comparison showed that aggression and its dimensions were significantly decreased after implementing independent variable. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that group forgiveness therapy can significantly reduce aggression.

  3. Polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  4. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  5. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  6. Laser-based displays: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappan, Kishore V; Erden, Erdem; Urey, Hakan

    2010-09-01

    After the invention of lasers, in the past 50 years progress made in laser-based display technology has been very promising, with commercial products awaiting release to the mass market. Compact laser systems, such as edge-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and optically pumped semiconductor lasers, are suitable candidates for laser-based displays. Laser speckle is an important concern, as it degrades image quality. Typically, one or multiple speckle reduction techniques are employed in laser displays to reduce speckle contrast. Likewise, laser safety issues need to be carefully evaluated in designing laser displays under different usage scenarios. Laser beam shaping using refractive and diffractive components is an integral part of laser displays, and the requirements depend on the source specifications, modulation technique, and the scanning method being employed in the display. A variety of laser-based displays have been reported, and many products such as pico projectors and laser televisions are commercially available already.

  7. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  8. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress among Young People with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…

  9. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress among Young People with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…

  10. Functional Assessment Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Children’s Challenging Behaviors: Exploratory Study of Group Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Fettig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of group parent training on children’s challenging behaviors in home settings. Eight parents of young children with challenging behaviors were trained in a large group setting on using functional assessment to design interventions that fit the strengths and needs of individual families. The training included information sharing and collaborating with parents on designing functional-assessment based interventions. An Interrupted Time Series Design was used to examine the effects of large group training by comparing parent and child behaviors prior to intervention with behaviors after the intervention. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measures ANOVA. The results indicated that group training increased parents’ ability to implement functional assessment based strategies and these strategies resulted in a significant reduction in children’s challenging behaviors. Furthermore, parent implementation of functional assessment based strategies and children’s decreased levels of challenging behaviors were maintained after the completion of the intervention.

  11. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, Ko; Spenkelink, Gerd P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  12. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  13. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  14. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  15. Preparation and Anti-wear and Friction-reducing Properties of Barium Borate Modified with Dodecoxyl Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Xiaojun; Li Fenfang; Zhou Maolin

    2007-01-01

    A novel lubricating oil additive dodecoxyl barium borate was synthesized.The product was characterized by FTIR,elemental analysis,thermo-gravimetric analysis(TGA),and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Four-ball tests showed that the addition of a certain concentration of the additive to rapeseed oil could effectively increase both the load-carrying capacity(PB value),resistance to wear,and friction-reducing abilities.SEM observations confirmed that the additive could result in a reduced diameter of the wear scar.

  16. Defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 242,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within Service weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil- commercial markets.

  17. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  18. Social familiarity reduces reaction times and enhances survival of group-living predatory mites under the risk of predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Andreas Strodl

    Full Text Available Social familiarity, which is based on the ability to recognise familiar conspecific individuals following prior association, may affect all major life activities of group-living animals such as foraging, reproduction and anti-predator behaviours. A scarcely experimentally tested explanation why social familiarity is beneficial for group-living animals is provided by limited attention theory. Limited attention theory postulates that focusing on a given task, such as inspection and assessment of unfamiliar group members, has cognitive and associated physiological and behavioural costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks, such as anti-predator vigilance and response. Accordingly, we hypothesised that social familiarity enhances the anti-predator success of group-living predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, confronted with an intraguild predator, the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni.We videotaped and analysed the response of two P. persimilis larvae, held in familiar or unfamiliar pairs, to attacks by a gravid A. andersoni female, using the behavioural analyses software EthoVision Pro®. Familiar larvae were more frequently close together, reacted more quickly to predator attacks, survived more predator encounters and survived longer than unfamiliar larvae.In line with the predictions of limited attention theory, we suggest that social familiarity improves anti-predator behaviours because it allows prey to shift attention to other tasks rather than group member assessment.

  19. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  20. Warring arthropod societies: Social spider colonies can delay annihilation by predatory ants via reduced apparency and increased group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Carl N; Wright, Colin M; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2015-10-01

    Sociality provides individuals with benefits via collective foraging and anti-predator defense. One of the costs of living in large groups, however, is increased apparency to natural enemies. Here, we test how the individual-level and collective traits of spider societies can increase the risk of discovery and death by predatory ants. We transplanted colonies of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola into a habitat dense with one of their top predators, the pugnacious ant Anoplolepis custodiens. With three different experiments, we test how colony-wide survivorship in a predator-dense habitat can be altered by colony apparency (i.e., the presence of a capture web), group size, and group composition (i.e., the proportion of bold and shy personality types present). We also test how spiders' social context (i.e., living solitarily vs. among conspecifics) modifies their behaviour toward ants in their capture web. Colonies with capture webs intact were discovered by predatory ants on average 25% faster than colonies with the capture web removed, and all discovered colonies eventually collapsed and succumbed to predation. However, the lag time from discovery by ants to colony collapse was greater for colonies containing more individuals. The composition of individual personality types in the group had no influence on survivorship. Spiders in a social group were more likely to approach ants caught in their web than were isolated spiders. Isolated spiders were more likely to attack a safe prey item (a moth) than they were to attack ants and were more likely to retreat from ants after contact than they were after contact with moths. Together, our data suggest that the physical structures produced by large animal societies can increase their apparency to natural enemies, though larger groups can facilitate a longer lag time between discovery and demise. Lastly, the interaction between spiders and predatory ants seems to depend on the social context in which spiders reside

  1. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys With a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G. van Manen; P.J.M. Prins; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was presented

  2. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys With a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, T.G.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was

  3. Prejudiced interactions: implicit racial bias reduces predictive simulation during joint action with an out-group avatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Christensen, Andrea; Giese, Martin A; Taubert, Nick; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria; Candidi, Matteo

    2015-02-17

    During social interactions people automatically apply stereotypes in order to rapidly categorize others. Racial differences are among the most powerful cues that drive these categorizations and modulate our emotional and cognitive reactivity to others. We investigated whether implicit racial bias may also shape hand kinematics during the execution of realistic joint actions with virtual in- and out-group partners. Caucasian participants were required to perform synchronous imitative or complementary reach-to-grasp movements with avatars that had different skin color (white and black) but showed identical action kinematics. Results demonstrate that stronger visuo-motor interference (indexed here as hand kinematics differences between complementary and imitative actions) emerged: i) when participants were required to predict the partner's action goal in order to on-line adapt their own movements accordingly; ii) during interactions with the in-group partner, indicating the partner's racial membership modulates interactive behaviors. Importantly, the in-group/out-group effect positively correlated with the implicit racial bias of each participant. Thus visuo-motor interference during joint action, likely reflecting predictive embodied simulation of the partner's movements, is affected by cultural inter-individual differences.

  4. Ancestral kinship patterns substantially reduce the negative effect of increasing group size on incentives for public goods provision

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes Rusch

    2015-01-01

    Phenomena like meat sharing in hunter-gatherers, self-sacrifice in intergroup conflicts, and voluntary contribution to public goods provision in laboratory experiments have led to the development of numerous theories on the evolution of altruistic in-group beneficial behavior in humans. Many of these theories abstract away from the effects of kinship on the incentives for public goods provision, though. Here, it is investigated analytically how genetic relatedness changes the incentive struct...

  5. The mitochondrial genome of Paraspadella gotoi is highly reduced and reveals that chaetognaths are a sister-group to protostomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Vanjani, Rohit G.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-05-01

    We report the first complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence from a member of the phylum Chaetognatha (arrow worms). The Paraspadella gotoi mtDNA is highly unusual, missing 23 of the genes commonly found in animal mtDNAs, including atp6, which has otherwise been found universally to be present. Its 14 genes are unusually arranged into two groups, one on each strand. One group is punctuated by numerous non-coding intergenic nucleotides, while the other group is tightly packed, having no non-coding nucleotides, leading to speculation that there are two transcription units with differing modes of expression. The phylogenetic position of the Chaetognatha within the Metazoa has long been uncertain, with conflicting or equivocal results from various morphological analyses and rRNA sequence comparisons. Comparisons here of amino acid sequences from mitochondrially encoded proteins gives a single most parsimonious tree that supports a position of Chaetognatha as sister to the protostomes studied here. From this, one can more clearly interpret the patterns of evolution of various developmental features, especially regarding the embryological fate of the blastopore.

  6. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad...... categories of display types are proposed. The problems involved in specification and invention of a supervisory display are analysed and conclusions from these problems are made. It is concluded that the design method proposed provides a framework for the progress of the display design and is useful in pin......-pointing the actual problems. The method was useful in reducing the number of existing displays that could fulfil the requirements of the supervision task. The method provided at the same time a framework for dealing with the problems involved in inventing new displays based on structured analysis. However...

  7. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... with the rapidly evolving positioning techniques, a new category of position-dependent, map-based services to be introduced. The report consists of the following parts: Part I: Categorization of handheld devices, Part II: Cartographic design for small-display devices, Part III: Study on the GiMoDig Client ? Portal...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  8. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  9. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for HUD...properties over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  10. Military display performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  11. Raster graphics display library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  12. High mobility group A1 protein expression reduces the sensitivity of colon and thyroid cancer cells to antineoplastic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Daniela; Mussnich, Paula; Rosa, Roberta; Bianco, Roberto; Tortora, Giampaolo; Fusco, Alfredo

    2014-11-20

    Development of resistance to conventional drugs and novel biological agents often impair long-term chemotherapy. HMGA gene overexpression is often associated with antineoplastic drug resistance and reduced survival. Inhibition of HMGA expression in thyroid cancer cells reduces levels of ATM protein, the main cellular sensor of DNA damage, and enhances cellular sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. HMGA1 overexpression promotes chemoresistance to gemcitabine in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through an Akt-dependent mechanism. To elucidate the role of HMGA1 proteins in chemoresistance we analyzed resistance to conventional drugs and targeted therapies of human colon carcinoma cells (GEO) that are sensitive to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor cetuximab, and express minimal levels of HMGA1 and cetuximab-resistant (GEO CR) cells expressing high HMGA1 protein levels. GEO CR cells were less sensitive than GEO cells to cetuximab and 5-fluorouracil. GEO CR cells silenced for HMGA1 expression were more susceptible than empty vector-transfected cells to the drugs' cytotoxicity. Similar results were obtained with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells expressing or not HMGA1 proteins, treated with doxorubicin or the HDAC inhibitor LBH589. Finally, HMGA1 overexpression promoted the DNA-damage response and stimulated Akt phosphorylation and prosurvival signaling. Our findings suggest that the blockage of HMGA1 expression is a promising approach to enhance cancer cell chemosensitivity, since it could increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to antineoplastic drugs by inhibiting the survival signal and DNA damage repair pathways.

  13. Challenging emotional prejudice by changing self-concept: priming independent self-construal reduces racial in-group bias in neural responses to other’s pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Liu, Yi; Wu, Xinhuai; Han, Shihui

    2015-01-01

    Humans show stronger empathy for in-group compared with out-group members’ suffering and help in-group members more than out-group members. Moreover, the in-group bias in empathy and parochial altruism tend to be more salient in collectivistic than individualistic cultures. This work tested the hypothesis that modifying self-construals, which differentiate between collectivistic and individualistic cultural orientations, affects in-group bias in empathy for perceived own-race vs other-race pain. By scanning adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found stronger neural activities in the mid-cingulate, left insula and supplementary motor area (SMA) in response to racial in-group compared with out-group members’ pain after participants had been primed with interdependent self-construals. However, the racial in-group bias in neural responses to others’ pain in the left SMA, mid-cingulate cortex and insula was significantly reduced by priming independent self-construals. Our findings suggest that shifting an individual’s self-construal leads to changes of his/her racial in-group bias in neural responses to others’ suffering. PMID:25605968

  14. Challenging emotional prejudice by changing self-concept: priming independent self-construal reduces racial in-group bias in neural responses to other's pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenbo; Wu, Bing; Liu, Yi; Wu, Xinhuai; Han, Shihui

    2015-09-01

    Humans show stronger empathy for in-group compared with out-group members' suffering and help in-group members more than out-group members. Moreover, the in-group bias in empathy and parochial altruism tend to be more salient in collectivistic than individualistic cultures. This work tested the hypothesis that modifying self-construals, which differentiate between collectivistic and individualistic cultural orientations, affects in-group bias in empathy for perceived own-race vs other-race pain. By scanning adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found stronger neural activities in the mid-cingulate, left insula and supplementary motor area (SMA) in response to racial in-group compared with out-group members' pain after participants had been primed with interdependent self-construals. However, the racial in-group bias in neural responses to others' pain in the left SMA, mid-cingulate cortex and insula was significantly reduced by priming independent self-construals. Our findings suggest that shifting an individual's self-construal leads to changes of his/her racial in-group bias in neural responses to others' suffering.

  15. Identification of obstetric targets for reducing cesarean section rate using the Robson Ten Group Classification in a tertiary level hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triunfo, Stefania; Ferrazzani, Sergio; Lanzone, Antonio; Scambia, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Due to continuous rise of cesarean section (CS) rate in recent decades to analyze this trend using Robson Ten Group Classification System (RTGCS) and identify the main contributor of the CS rate in an Italian tertiary level hospital. A total of 17,886 deliveries in six (1998, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2010, 2011) of a 13-year period was analyzed using RTGCS. From 1998 to 2011 a rising CS birth rate from 38.7 to 43.7 per 100 births was calculated (pcesarean (VBAC) could help to mitigate further increases in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reducing the Grade Disparities between American Indians and Euro-American Students in Introduction to Psychology through Small-Group, Peer-Mentored, Supplemental Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris Alan; Berlin, Anna; Hanrahan, Jeanne; Lewis, James; Johnson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental instruction (SI) is a small-group, peer-mentored programme which is compatible with the learning preferences of American Indian students. We tested the hypothesis that SI is a compensatory strategy that reduces the differences in the grades earned in introduction to psychology by Euro-American and American Indian students. The sample…

  17. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and gene......Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms...... and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54...... in trajectories for treatment planning will be discussed. The findings in the present study stress the importance of long-term follow-up studies in evidencebased reserch....

  18. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

  19. The Ultimate Display

    CERN Document Server

    Fluke, C J

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical images and datasets are increasingly high-resolution and multi-dimensional. The vast majority of astronomers perform all of their visualisation and analysis tasks on low-resolution, two-dimensional desktop monitors. If there were no technological barriers to designing the ultimate stereoscopic display for astronomy, what would it look like? What capabilities would we require of our compute hardware to drive it? And are existing technologies even close to providing a true 3D experience that is compatible with the depth resolution of human stereoscopic vision? We consider the CAVE2 (an 80 Megapixel, hybrid 2D and 3D virtual reality environment directly integrated with a 100 Tflop/s GPU-powered supercomputer) and the Oculus Rift (a low- cost, head-mounted display) as examples at opposite financial ends of the immersive display spectrum.

  20. 三极小型场发射显示器的半圆组阴栅结构优化制作%Optimization Fabrication for Semicircle-Group Cathode-Grid Structure with Triode Small-Sized Field Emission Display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉魁; 王凤歌; 刘兴辉; 曾凡光

    2013-01-01

    对钠钙平板玻璃进行切割形成后封装面板.结合高效的丝网印刷技术,在后封装面板上制作了半圆组阴栅结构.烧结的银浆层用于形成导电电极组中的双长条电极,而固化的绝缘浆料则用于构成绝缘层.碳纳米管直接制备在长条电极的表面,呈现双半圆形状,用于进行电子发射.栅极则是固定在碳纳米管阴极的上方,栅极和阴极之间依靠栅极基底而相互隔离.测试结果表明,应用半圆组阴栅结构,能够进一步降低阴极-栅极之间的电容效应,提高碳纳米管的电子发射能力,并增强三极场发射显示器的驱动灵活性.以碳纳米管作为阴极材料,进行了三极结构小型场发射显示器的研制.该三极显示器具有良好的场致发射特性,高的发光亮度以及优良的发光图像均匀度,其开启场强约为2.12 V/μm,且制作成本低廉.%Rear packaging face-plate was fabricated with the cut soda lime flat panel glass.With high effective screen-printing technique,the semicircle-group cathode-grid structure was developed on the rear packaging face-plate surface.The sintered silver slurry layer was used to form the double long-bar electrodes of the conducting electrode group in the semicircle-group cathode-grid structure,and the insulation layer was fabricated using the solidified insulation slurry.On the long-bar electrodes surface,the carbon nanotube cathodes with double semicircle shape were prepared,which was used to emit lots of electrons.The grid was fixed on carbon nanotube cathode of the rear packaging face-plate,and the grid substrate was adopted to separate the grid and the cathode.From the measure results,with the fabricated semicircle-group cathode-grid structure,the capacity effect between the cathode and the grid would be further reduced,the electron emission ability of carbon nanotube cathode could be improved,and the operation flexibility of whole field emission display prototype was also enhanced

  1. When do we confuse self and other in action memory? Reduced false memories of self-performance after observing actions by an out-group versus in-group actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel eLindner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Observing another person performing an action can lead to a false memory of having performed the action oneself—the observation-inflation effect. In the experimental paradigm, participants first perform or do not perform simple actions, and then observe another person perform some of these actions. The observation-inflation effect is found when participants later remember performing actions that they have merely observed. In this case, self and other are confused in action memory.We examined social conditions of this self-other confusion when remembering actions, specifically whether the effect depends on the observed actor’s group membership. In our experiment, we manipulated group membership based on physical appearance, specifically complexion of the hands. Fair-skinned participants observed either an in-group (i.e., fair-skinned or an out-group (i.e., dark-skinned actor. Our results revealed that the observed actor’s group membership moderated the observation-inflation effect: False memories were significantly reduced when the actor was from the out-group (vs. in-group. We found no difference to a control condition in which the actor wore black gloves, suggesting that distinctiveness of perceptual or sensory features alone (due to the out-group member’s dark skin is not critical. We discuss these findings in light of social-neuroscience studies demonstrating the impact of an observed person's group membership on motor simulation. Overall, our findings suggest that action memory can be affected by a ubiquitous feature of people’s social perception, that is, group-based social categorization of others.

  2. Tangles of type $E_n$ and a reducibility criterion for the Cohen-Wales representation of the Artin group of type $E_6$

    CERN Document Server

    Levaillant, Claire I

    2011-01-01

    We introduce tangles of type $E_n$ and construct a representation of the Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebra (BMW algebra) of type $E_6$. As a representation of the Artin group of type $E_6$, this representation is equivalent to the faithful Cohen-Wales representation of type $E_6$ that was used to show the linearity of the Artin group of type $E_6$. We find a reducibility criterion for this representation and complex values of the parameters for which the algebra is not semisimple.

  3. Virtual Auditory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    timbre , intensity, distance, room modeling, radio communication Virtual Environments Handbook Chapter 4 Virtual Auditory Displays Russell D... musical note “A” as a pure sinusoid, there will be 440 condensations and rarefactions per second. The distance between two adjacent condensations or...and complexity are pitch, loudness, and timbre respectively. This distinction between physical and perceptual measures of sound properties is an

  4. Virtual acoustic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  5. Efficacy and safety of oral rehydration solution with reduced osmolarity in adults with cholera: a randomised double-blind clinical trial. CHOICE study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, N H; Majumder, R N; Fuchs, G J

    1999-07-24

    The effects of oral rehydration solution (ORS) with reduced osmolarity on children with acute watery diarrhoea are known, but little is known about the effects of such ORS on adults with cholera. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of an ORS with reduced osmolarity with that of standard WHO ORS in adults with cholera. We undertook a double-blind, controlled clinical trial in adults with severe cholera at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Our primary outcomes were mean stool output in the 24 h after randomisation, proportion of patients who needed unscheduled intravenous therapy, and proportion of patients with biochemical hyponatraemia 24 h after randomisation. 147 patients received ORS with reduced osmolarity and 153 received standard WHO ORS. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of main outcome variables: mean initial 24 h and total stool output (reduced osmolarity vs standard WHO ORS 212 [SE 8] vs 207 [8] and 284 [13] vs 273 [13] g/kg respectively), duration of diarrhoea (46 [1.5] vs 43 [1.5]). The proportion of patients vomiting during the first 24 h and the proportion who received unscheduled intravenous infusion during the first 24 h was similar between groups. More patients on reduced osmolarity ORS than on standard WHO ORS developed hyponatraemia during the first 24 h, defined as serum sodium concentration below 130 mmol/L (29 of 142 vs 16 of 150; odds ratio 2.1 [95% CI 1.1-4.1]). However, all hyponatraemic patients in both groups were symptom-free and the proportion of patients with serum sodium concentration below 125 mmol/L was similar between groups. There was no difference in clinical outcome between cholera patients treated with reduced osmolarity ORS solution and those treated with standard WHO ORS. The risk of increased incidence of symptom-free hyponatraemia in patients with cholera treated with an ORS with reduced osmolarity should be further assessed by meta-analysis. The

  6. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways...... of supporting such behavior, we implemented a gesture controlled multiuser game with four pausing techniques. We evaluated them in a field study analyzing 704 users and found that our pausing techniques were eagerly explored, but rarely used with the intention to pause the game. Our study shows...... that interactions with public displays are considerably intermissive, and that users mostly interrupt interaction to socialize and mainly approach public displays in groups. We conclude that, as a typical characteristic of public display interaction, interruptions deserve consideration. However, manual pause modes...

  7. X-1 on display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft on display at an Open House at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit or High-Speed Flight Research Station hangar on South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California. (The precise date of the photo is uncertain, but it is probably before 1948.) The instrumentation that was carried aboard the aircraft to gather data is on display. The aircraft data was recorded on oscillograph film that was read, calibrated, and converted into meaningful parameters for the engineers to evaluate from each research flight. In the background of the photo are several early U.S. jets. These include several Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars, which were used as chase planes on X-1 flights; two Bell P-59 Airacomets, the first U.S. jet pursuit aircraft (fighter in later parlance); and a prototype Republic XP-84 Thunderjet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for eXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant

  8. Can mixed-species groups reduce individual parasite load? A field test with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Dargent

    Full Text Available Predation and parasitism are two of the most important sources of mortality in nature. By forming groups, individuals can gain protection against predators but may increase their risk of being infected with contagious parasites. Animals might resolve this conflict by forming mixed-species groups thereby reducing the costs associated with parasites through a relative decrease in available hosts. We tested this hypothesis in a system with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta and their host-specific monogenean ectoparasites (Gyrodactylus spp. in Trinidad. Fish from three different rivers were sampled from single and mixed-species groups, measured and scanned for Gyrodactylus. The presence and abundance of Gyrodactylus were lower when fish of both species were part of mixed-species groups relative to single-species groups. This is consistent with the hypothesis that mixed-species groups provide a level of protection against contagious parasites. We discuss the importance of potentially confounding factors such as salinity and individual fish size.

  9. Can mixed-species groups reduce individual parasite load? A field test with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargent, Felipe; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Scott, Marilyn E; Ramnarine, Indar; Fussmann, Gregor F

    2013-01-01

    Predation and parasitism are two of the most important sources of mortality in nature. By forming groups, individuals can gain protection against predators but may increase their risk of being infected with contagious parasites. Animals might resolve this conflict by forming mixed-species groups thereby reducing the costs associated with parasites through a relative decrease in available hosts. We tested this hypothesis in a system with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta) and their host-specific monogenean ectoparasites (Gyrodactylus spp.) in Trinidad. Fish from three different rivers were sampled from single and mixed-species groups, measured and scanned for Gyrodactylus. The presence and abundance of Gyrodactylus were lower when fish of both species were part of mixed-species groups relative to single-species groups. This is consistent with the hypothesis that mixed-species groups provide a level of protection against contagious parasites. We discuss the importance of potentially confounding factors such as salinity and individual fish size.

  10. Lowering of the firing voltage and reducing of the discharge delay time in alternating current plasma display panels by a discontinuous spin-coated LaB6 film on the MgO protective layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Deng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A spin coated LaB6 discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB6 powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB6/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB6. Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.

  11. Lowering of the firing voltage and reducing of the discharge delay time in alternating current plasma display panels by a discontinuous spin-coated LaB{sub 6} film on the MgO protective layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jiang, E-mail: dj78291@163.com [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zeng, Baoqing [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zhongshan Institute, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 528402 zhongshan (China); Wang, Xiaoju; Lin, Zulun; Qi, Kangcheng; Cao, Guichuan [School of Opto-electronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China)

    2014-03-15

    A spin coated LaB{sub 6} discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB{sub 6} powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB{sub 6}/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB{sub 6.} Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.

  12. Local Control With Reduced-Dose Radiotherapy for Low-Risk Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group D9602 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breneman, John, E-mail: john.breneman@uchealth.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cincinnati and Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Meza, Jane [Department of Biostatistics, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Public Health, Omaha, NE (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Raney, R. Beverly [Children' s Cancer Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Children' s Ambulatory Blood and Cancer Center, Dell Children' s Medical Center of Central Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wolden, Suzanne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, RI (United States); Rodeberg, David A. [Department of Surgery, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Meyer, William [Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Walterhouse, David [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children' s Memorial Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Hawkins, Douglas S. [Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children' s Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of reduced-dose radiotherapy on local control in children with low-risk rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated in the Children's Oncology Group D9602 study. Methods and Materials: Patients with low-risk RMS were nonrandomly assigned to receive radiotherapy doses dependent on the completeness of surgical resection of the primary tumor (clinical group) and the presence of involved regional lymph nodes. After resection, most patients with microscopic residual and uninvolved nodes received 36 Gy, those with involved nodes received 41.4 to 50.4 Gy, and those with orbital primary tumors received 45 Gy. All patients received vincristine and dactinomycin, with cyclophosphamide added for patient subsets with a higher risk of relapse in Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group III and IV studies. Results: Three hundred forty-two patients were eligible for analysis; 172 received radiotherapy as part of their treatment. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure was 15% in patients with microscopic involved margins when cyclophosphamide was not part of the treatment regimen and 0% when cyclophosphamide was included. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure was 14% in patients with orbital tumors. Protocol-specified omission of radiotherapy in girls with Group IIA vaginal tumors (n = 5) resulted in three failures for this group. Conclusions: In comparison with Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group III and IV results, reduced-dose radiotherapy does not compromise local control for patients with microscopic tumor after surgical resection or with orbital primary tumors when cyclophosphamide is added to the treatment program. Girls with unresected nonbladder genitourinary tumors require radiotherapy for postsurgical residual tumor for optimal local control to be achieved.

  13. Reducing substance involvement in college students: a three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial of a computer-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoff, Adriana de Oliveira; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of alcohol and other drug use is high among college students. Reducing their consumption will likely be beneficial for society as a whole. Computer and web-based interventions are promising for providing behaviorally based information. The present study compared the efficacy of three interventions (computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIc], non-computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIi], and screening only [control]) in college students in Curitiba, Brazil. A convenience sample of 458 students scored moderate and high risk on the ASSIST. They were then randomized into the three arms of the randomized controlled trial (ASSIST/MBIc, ASSIST/MBIi [interview], and assessment-only [control]) and assessed at baseline and 3 months later. The ASSIST involvement scores decreased at follow-up compared with baseline in the three groups, suggesting that any intervention is better than no intervention. For alcohol, the specific involvement scores decreased to a low level of risk in the three groups and the MBIc group showed a positive outcome compared with control, and the scores for each question were reduced in the two intervention groups compared to baseline. For tobacco, involvement scores decreased in the three groups, but they maintained moderate risk. For marijuana, a small positive effect was observed in the ASSIST/MBIi and control groups. The ASSIST/MBIc may be a good alternative to interview interventions because it is easy to administer, students frequently use such computer-based technologies, and individually tailored content can be delivered in the absence of a counselor.

  14. Image Descriptors for Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    hypothetical televison display. The viewing distance is 4 picture heights, and the bandwidth limitation has been set by the U.S. Monochrome Standards...significantly influence the power spectrum over most of the video frequency range. A large dc component and a small random component provide another scene... influences . It was Illuminated with natural light to a brightness of over 300 ft-L. The high brightness levels were chosen so as to nearly reproduce the

  15. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  16. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Intervention Program to Reduce Hypertension Prevalence Among Adults: Results of a Quasiexperimental Study With Control Group in the Region of Sousse, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Jihene; Maatoug, Jihene; Harrabi, Imed; Ben Fredj, Sihem; Dendana, Emna; Ghannem, Hassen

    2016-03-01

    High blood pressure is preventable and is directly related to lifestyle habits such as an unbalanced diet, low levels of physical activity, and tobacco use. This quasiexperimental study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year community intervention targeting healthy lifestyle promotion in reducing hypertension prevalence among adults. A quasiexperimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a 3-year intervention for healthy lifestyle that was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in a community of adults in the region of Sousse in Tunisia. The population study was randomly selected in both intervention and control groups at pre-assessment and post-assessment. After considering a type 1 error α of 5%, a type 2 error β of 20%, and a change in the prevalence of various risk factors of 6% between pre-intervention and post-intervention, the sample size was fixed to 2,000 adults in intervention and control areas. The intervention group was composed of 940 and 1,001 adults, and the control group was composed of 940 and 976, respectively, at pre-assessment and post-assessment. The prevalence of hypertension decreased in the intervention group globally from 37.3% to 33.7% but not significantly (p = 0.1). In the control group, this proportion increased from 31.1% to 33.4% without significant difference (p = 0.28). In the intervention group, after stratification for age, a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in the prevalence of hypertension was observed for participants younger than 40 years old: it decreased from 22.8% to 16.2%. In the control group, it increased from 14% to 15.4% (p = 0.52). In intervention group, a significant decrease of the hypertension from 31.4% to 26% (p = 0.03) was observed among nonobese participants after stratification for weight status. No significant change was observed in the control group. This study showed the feasibility and effectiveness of a community-based intervention to reduce the prevalence of hypertension in the context

  17. Oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 to reduce Group B Streptococcus colonization in pregnant women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming; Chang, Yin-Yi; Chang, Wei-Chun; Lin, Hung-Chih; Wang, Mei-Hung; Lin, Wu-Chou; Chiu, Tsan-Hung

    2016-08-01

    This study is to examine the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 taken orally before bedtime on Group B Streptococcus (GBS)-positive pregnant women with respect to becoming GBS negative. In total, 110 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation who were diagnosed by GBS culture as being GBS positive for both vaginal and rectal GBS colonization were randomly assigned to be orally treated with two placebo capsules or two probiotic capsules (containing L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14) before bedtime until delivery. All women were tested for vaginal and rectal GBS colonization again by GBS culture on admission for delivery. Of the 110 participants, 99 completed the study (49 in the probiotic group and 50 in the placebo group). The GBS colonization results changed from positive to negative in 21 women in the probiotic group (42.9%) and in nine women in the placebo group (18.0%) during this period (Chi-square p=0.007). Oral probiotic containing L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 could reduce the vaginal and rectal GBS colonization rate in pregnant women. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Dexamethasone As Prophylaxis! is it Effective in Reducing Postoperative Extubation Blues in Paediatric Age Group? A RetrospectiveReview of 331 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Patra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of steroids for different airway morbidities is common. This retrospective analysis was aimed at justifying the use of dexamethasone in preventing postoperative airway morbidities during extubation in paediatric age group. Recorded data of all paediatric surgeries in a particular institute was analyzed for incidences of post extubation airway problems in patients who received dexamethasone and compared with those who did not receive any steroid perioperatively. Three hundred and thirty one patients were considered out of which 226 received intravenous dex-amethasone preoperatively, and 105 did not receive any steroids peri-operatively. Out of 52 children (15.7% who had post-extubation airway problems, only 14 (6.1% belonged to the dexamethasone group while 38 (36.1% be-longed to the non-dexa group. The difference noted in the incidence between the two groups was statistically signifi-cant (p< 0.05.There was no significant incidence of any systemic adverse effects while a large number of children developed severe perianal and vulval pruritus immediately after the bolus dexamethasone injection. There was no significant difference in the incidence of subglottic or supraglottic airway morbidities when compared between both the groups. In conclusion, a single bolus preoperative intravenous dose of dexamethasone, in paediatric patients, is of immense help in reducing the airway morbidities faced at the time of extubation in the post operative period.

  19. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  20. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  1. An Ai Chi-based aquatic group improves balance and reduces falls in community-dwelling adults: A pilot observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Dinh, Tammy; Hewitt, Melissa; Piper, Ross; Thwaites, Claire

    2016-11-01

    Falls are associated with morbidity, loss of independence, and mortality. While land-based group exercise and Tai Chi programs reduce the risk of falls, aquatic therapy may allow patients to complete balance exercises with less pain and fear of falling; however, limited data exist. The objective of the study was to pilot the implementation of an aquatic group based on Ai Chi principles (Aquabalance) and to evaluate the safety, intervention acceptability, and intervention effect sizes. Pilot observational cohort study. Forty-two outpatients underwent a single 45-minute weekly group aquatic Ai Chi-based session for eight weeks (Aquabalance). Safety was monitored using organizational reporting systems. Patient attendance, satisfaction, and self-reported falls were also recorded. Balance measures included the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Four Square Step Test (FSST), and the unilateral Step Tests. Forty-two patients completed the program. It was feasible to deliver Aquabalance, as evidenced by the median (IQR) attendance rate of 8.0 (7.8, 8.0) out of 8. No adverse events occurred and participants reported high satisfaction levels. Improvements were noted on the TUG, 10-meter walk test, the Functional Reach Test, the FSST, and the unilateral step tests (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients defined as high falls risk reduced from 38% to 21%. The study was limited by its small sample size, single-center nature, and the absence of a control group. Aquabalance was safe, well-attended, and acceptable to participants. A randomized controlled assessor-blinded trial is required.

  2. Ergonomic concerns with lightbar guidance displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ima, C S; Mann, D D

    2004-05-01

    This article reviews some ergonomic factors associated with agricultural guidance displays. Any technology or management decision that improves the efficiency of an agricultural operation can be considered an aspect of precision farming. Agricultural guidance displays are one such tool because they help to reduce guidance error (i.e., skipping and overlapping of implements within the field), which result in improper application of crop inputs at increased cost. Although each of the guidance displays currently available functions using a different principle, their key objective is to communicate useful guidance information to the operator of the agricultural machine. The case with which the operator obtains the required information depends on a number of ergonomic factors, such as color perceptibility, flash rate, attentional demand, display size, viewing distance, and height of placement of the display in the cab. Ergonomics can be defined as the application of knowledge to create a safe, comfortable, and effective work environment. Consequently, it is critical to consider ergonomics when designing guidance displays or when locating a display in the tractor cab. Without considering ergonomics, it is unlikely that the efficiency of the human-machine system can be optimized.

  3. Potential improvements for dual directional view displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jonathan; Parry Jones, Lesley; Gass, Paul; Imai, Akira; Takatani, Tomoo; Yabuta, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Dual directional view (DDV) displays show different images to different viewers. For example, the driver of a car looking at a central DDV display could view navigation information, while the passenger, looking from a different angle, could be watching a movie. This technology, which has now established itself on the dashboards of high-end Jaguar, Mercedes, and Range Rover cars, is manufactured by Sharp Corporation using a well-known parallax barrier technique. Unfortunately parallax barriers are associated with an inevitable drop in brightness compared with a single view display. A parallax barrier-based DDV display typically has less than half the transmission of a single view display. Here we present a solution to these problems via the use of a combined microlens and parallax barrier system, which can not only boost the brightness by 55% from a parallax barrier-only system but increase the head freedom by 25% and reduce crosstalk also. However, the use of microlenses (which must be positioned between the polarizers of the LCD) can adversely affect the contrast ratio of the display. Careful choice of the LCD mode is therefore required in order to create a DDV display that is both high in brightness and contrast ratio. The use of a single-domain vertically aligned nematic (VAN) liquid crystal (LC) mode, together with a microlens plus parallax barrier system can achieve this with a contrast ratio of 1700∶1 measured at 30° to normal incidence.

  4. Evolution of Chemical Diversity in a Group of Non-Reduced Polyketide Gene Clusters: Using Phylogenetics to Inform the Search for Novel Fungal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Throckmorton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal polyketides are a diverse class of natural products, or secondary metabolites (SMs, with a wide range of bioactivities often associated with toxicity. Here, we focus on a group of non-reducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs in the fungal phylum Ascomycota that lack a thioesterase domain for product release, group V. Although widespread in ascomycete taxa, this group of NR-PKSs is notably absent in the mycotoxigenic genus Fusarium and, surprisingly, found in genera not known for their secondary metabolite production (e.g., the mycorrhizal genus Oidiodendron, the powdery mildew genus Blumeria, and the causative agent of white-nose syndrome in bats, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. This group of NR-PKSs, in association with the other enzymes encoded by their gene clusters, produces a variety of different chemical classes including naphthacenediones, anthraquinones, benzophenones, grisandienes, and diphenyl ethers. We discuss the modification of and transitions between these chemical classes, the requisite enzymes, and the evolution of the SM gene clusters that encode them. Integrating this information, we predict the likely products of related but uncharacterized SM clusters, and we speculate upon the utility of these classes of SMs as virulence factors or chemical defenses to various plant, animal, and insect pathogens, as well as mutualistic fungi.

  5. Precarious manhood and displays of physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Vandello, Joseph A; Burnaford, Rochelle M; Weaver, Jonathan R; Arzu Wasti, S

    2009-05-01

    The results of three experiments demonstrate that physically aggressive displays are part of men's cultural script for restoring threatened gender status. In Studies 1 and 2, challenges to men's gender status elicited heightened physically aggressive displays, including punching a pad with greater force and selecting an aggressive boxing activity over a nonaggressive puzzle activity. Study 3 established that a public display of aggressive readiness reduced men's anxiety-related cognitions in the wake of a gender threat. This suggests that aggressive displays may function to downregulate negative affect when manhood has been threatened. The discussion considers past research on gender and physical aggression in light of the authors' thesis that manhood, relative to womanhood, is culturally defined as a precarious status that must be actively, even aggressively, defended.

  6. Fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Daniel Aaron; Melikov, Rustamzhon; Conkar, Deniz; Nur Firat-Karalar, Elif; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2016-11-01

    The usage time of displays (e.g., TVs, mobile phones, etc) is in general shorter than their functional life time, which worsens the electronic waste (e-waste) problem around the world. The integration of biomaterials into electronics can help to reduce the e-waste problem. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs to use as a backlight source for liquid crystal (LC) displays for the first time. We express and purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and monomeric Cherry protein (mCherry), and afterward we integrate these proteins as a wavelength-converter on a blue LED chip. The protein-integrated backlight exhibits a high luminous efficacy of 248 lm/Wopt and the area of the gamut covers 80% of the NTSC color gamut. The resultant colors and objects in the image on the display can be well observed and distinguished. Therefore, fluorescent proteins show promise for display applications.

  7. Latest development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Pan; Zheng, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zheng, Hua-Dong; Zeng, Chao; Yu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Tao; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies.

  8. Military market for flat panel displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1997-07-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of primary military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, color capability and night vision imaging system capability. A select grouping of funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted cockpit kits, and form-fit-function upgrades are taken into account. It is the intent of this paper to provide an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a timely reference to insure meeting DoD requirements for flat-panel displays on schedule and in a cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct view displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 157,000. Helmet/head mounted displays will add substantially to this total. The vanishing vendor syndrome for older display technologies is becoming a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently just leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil-commercial markets.

  9. The efficacy of a brief intervention in reducing hazardous drinking in working age men in Russia: the HIM (Health for Izhevsk men individually randomised parallel group exploratory trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Elizabeth

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Russia has particularly low life expectancy for an industrialised country, with mortality at working ages having fluctuated dramatically over the past few decades, particularly among men. Alcohol has been identified as the most likely cause of these temporal variations. One approach to reducing the alcohol problem in Russia is 'brief interventions' which seek to change views of the personal acceptability of excessive drinking and to encourage self-directed behaviour change. Very few studies to evaluate the efficacy of brief interventions in Russia have been conducted. Motivational Interviewing (MI is a person-centred counselling style which can be adapted to brief interventions in which help is offered in thinking through behaviour in the context of values and goals, to decide whether change is needed, and if so, how it may best be achieved. Methods This paper reports on an individually randomised two-armed parallel group exploratory trial. The primary hypothesis is that a brief adaptation of MI will be effective in reducing self-reported hazardous and harmful drinking at 3 months. Participants were drawn from the Izhevsk Family Study II, with eligibility determined based on proxy reports of hazardous and harmful drinking in the past year. All participants underwent a health check, with MI subsequently delivered to those in the intervention arm. Signed consent was obtained from those in the intervention arm only at this point. Both groups were then invited for 3 and 12 month follow ups. The control group did not receive any additional intervention. Results 441 men were randomised. Of these 61 did not have a health check leaving 190 in each trial arm. Follow up at 3 months was high (97% of those having a health check, and very similar in the two trial arms (183 in the intervention and 187 in the control. No significant differences were detected between the randomised groups in either the primary or the secondary outcomes at

  10. Are tiled display walls needed for astronomy?

    CERN Document Server

    Meade, Bernard F; Manos, Steven; Sinnott, Richard O

    2014-01-01

    Clustering commodity displays into a Tiled Display Wall (TDW) provides a cost-effective way to create an extremely high resolution display, capable of approaching the image sizes now gen- erated by modern astronomical instruments. Astronomers face the challenge of inspecting single large images, many similar images simultaneously, and heterogeneous but related content. Many research institutions have constructed TDWs on the basis that they will improve the scientific outcomes of astronomical imagery. We test this concept by presenting sample images to astronomers and non- astronomers using a standard desktop display (SDD) and a TDW. These samples include standard English words, wide field galaxy surveys and nebulae mosaics from the Hubble telescope. These experiments show that TDWs provide a better environment for searching for small targets in large images than SDDs. It also shows that astronomers tend to be better at searching images for targets than non-astronomers, both groups are generally better when em...

  11. Perception of Spatial Features with Stereoscopic Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-24

    aniseikonia (differences in retinal image size in the two eyes) are of little significance because only monocular perception of the display is required for...perception as a result of such factors as aniseikonia , uncor- rected refractive errors, or phorias results in reduced stereopsis. However, because

  12. Advanced manufacturing technologies on color plasma displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsui, Keiichi

    2000-06-01

    The mass production of the color plasma display started from 1996. However, since the price of the panel is still expensive, PDPs are not in widespread use at home. It is necessary to develop the new and low-cost manufacturing technologies to reduce the price of the panel. This paper describes some of the features of new fabrication technologies of PDPs.

  13. Dosage Effects of Neuromuscular Training Intervention to Reduce Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Female Athletes: Meta-and Sub-group Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although a series of meta-analysis demonstrated neuromuscular training (NMT) is an effective intervention to reduce anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in female athletes, the potential existence of a dosage effect remains unknown. Objective To systematically review previously published clinical trials and evaluate potential dosage effects of NMT for ACL injury reduction in female athletes. Design Meta- and Sub-group analyses Setting The key words “knee”, “anterior cruciate ligament”, “ACL”, “prospective”, “neuromuscular”, “training”, “female”, and “prevention” were utilized in PubMed and EBSCO host for studies published between 1995 and May 2012. Participants Inclusion criteria set for studies in the current analysis were: 1) recruited female athletes as subjects, 2) documented the number of ACL injuries, 3) employed a NMT intervention aimed to reduce ACL injuries, 4) had a control group, 5) used a prospective control trial design and 6) provided NMT session duration and frequency information. Main outcome measures The number of ACL injuries and female athletes in each group (control and intervention) were compared based on duration, frequency, and volume of NMT through odds ratio (OR). Results A total of 14 studies were reviewed. Analyses that compared the number of ACL injuries with short versus long NMT duration showed greater ACL injury reduction in female athletes who were in the long NMT duration (OR:0.35, 95%CI: 0.23, 0.53, p=0.001) than the short NMT duration (OR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.41, 0.90, p=0.013) group. Analysis that compared single versus multi NMT frequency indicated greater ACL injury reduction in multi NMT frequency (OR: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.23, 0.53, p=0.001) compared to single NMT frequency (OR: 0.62, 95%CI:0.41, 0.94, p=0.024). Combining the duration and frequency of NMT programs, an inverse dose-response association emerged among low (OR: 0.66, 95%CI: 0.43, 0.99, p=0.045), moderate (OR: 0.46, 95%CI: 0.21, 1

  14. Interactive 3D display simulator for autostereoscopic smart pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Yeong-Seon; Lee, Ho-Dong; Park, Min-Chul; Son, Jung-Young; Park, Gwi-Tae

    2012-06-01

    There is growing interest of displaying 3D images on a smart pad for entertainments and information services. Designing and realizing various types of 3D displays on the smart pad is not easy for costs and given time. Software simulation can be an alternative method to save and shorten the development. In this paper, we propose a 3D display simulator for autostereoscopic smart pad. It simulates light intensity of each view and crosstalk for smart pad display panels. Designers of 3D display for smart pad can interactively simulate many kinds of autostereoscopic displays interactively by changing parameters required for panel design. Crosstalk to reduce leakage of one eye's image into the image of the other eye, and light intensity for computing visual comfort zone are important factors in designing autostereoscopic display for smart pad. Interaction enables intuitive designs. This paper describes an interactive 3D display simulator for autostereoscopic smart pad.

  15. Large-scale autostereoscopic outdoor display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitterer, Jörg; Fidler, Franz; Saint Julien-Wallsee, Ferdinand; Schmid, Gerhard; Gartner, Wolfgang; Leeb, Walter; Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    State-of-the-art autostereoscopic displays are often limited in size, effective brightness, number of 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances, all of which are mandatory requirements for large-scale outdoor displays. Conventional autostereoscopic indoor concepts like lenticular lenses or parallax barriers cannot simply be adapted for these screens due to the inherent loss of effective resolution and brightness, which would reduce both image quality and sunlight readability. We have developed a modular autostereoscopic multi-view laser display concept with sunlight readable effective brightness, theoretically up to several thousand 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances of up to 60 meters. For proof-of-concept purposes a prototype display with two pixels was realized. Due to various manufacturing tolerances each individual pixel has slightly different optical properties, and hence the 3D image quality of the display has to be calculated stochastically. In this paper we present the corresponding stochastic model, we evaluate the simulation and measurement results of the prototype display, and we calculate the achievable autostereoscopic image quality to be expected for our concept.

  16. Dual redundant display in bubble canopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ken; Niemczyk, James

    2010-04-01

    Today's cockpit integrator, whether for state of the art military fast jet, or piston powered general aviation, is striving to utilize all available panel space for AMLCD based displays to enhance situational awareness and increase safety. The benefits of a glass cockpit have been well studied and documented. The technology used to create these glass cockpits, however, is driven by commercial AMLCD demand which far outstrips the combined worldwide avionics requirements. In order to satisfy the wide variety of human factors and environmental requirements, large area displays have been developed to maximize the usable display area while also providing necessary redundancy in case of failure. The AMLCD has been optimized for extremely wide viewing angles driven by the flat panel TV market. In some cockpit applications, wide viewing cones are desired. In bubble canopy cockpits, however, narrow viewing cones are desired to reduce canopy reflections. American Panel Corporation has developed AMLCD displays that maximize viewing area, provide redundancy, while also providing a very narrow viewing cone even though commercial AMLCD technology is employed suitable for high performance AMLCD Displays. This paper investigates both the large area display architecture with several available options to solve redundancy as well as beam steering techniques to also limit canopy reflections.

  17. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  18. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  19. Endomorphin 1[psi] and endomorphin 2[psi], endomorphins analogues containing a reduced (CH2NH) amide bond between Tyr1 and Pro2, display partial agonist potency but significant antinociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian-Yu; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Ding-Jian; Feng, Yun; Long, Yuan; Wang, Peng; Wang, Rui

    2005-07-22

    Endomorphin 1 (EM1) and endomorphin 2 (EM2) are highly potent and selective mu-opioid receptor agonists and have significant antinociceptive action. In the mu-selective pocket of endomorphins (EMs), Pro2 residue is a spacer and directs the Tyr1 and Trp3/Phe3 side chains into the required orientation. The present work was designed to substitute the peptide bond between Tyr1 and Pro2 of EMs with a reduced (CH2NH) bond and study the agonist potency and antinociception of EM1[psi] (Tyr[psi(CH2NH)]Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2) and EM2[psi] (Tyr[psi(CH2NH)]Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2). Both EM1[psi] and EM2[psi] are partial mu opioid receptor agonists showing significant loss of agonist potency in GPI assay. However, EMs[psi] exhibited potent supraspinal antinociceptive action in vivo. In the mice tail-flick test, EMs[psi] (1, 5, 10 nmol/mouse, i.c.v.) produced potent and short-lasting antinociception in a dose-dependent and naloxone (1 mg/kg) reversed manner. At the highest dose of 10 nmol, the effect of EM2[psi] was prolonged and more significant than that of EM2. In the rat model of formalin injection induced inflammatory pain, EMs[psi] (0.1, 1, 10 nmol/rat, i.c.v.), like EMs, exerted transient but not dose-dependent antinociception. These results suggested that in the mu-selective pocket of EMs, the rigid conformation induced by the peptide bond between Tyr1 and Pro2 is essential to regulate their agonist properties at the mu opioid receptors. However, the increased conformational flexibility induced by the reduced (CH2NH) bond made less influence on their antinociception.

  20. Transient inhibition of ROR-γt therapeutically limits intestinal inflammation by reducing TH17 cells and preserving group 3 innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, David R; Hepworth, Matthew R; Wang, Xinxin; Mackley, Emma C; Halford, Emily E; Dutton, Emma E; Marriott, Clare L; Brucklacher-Waldert, Verena; Veldhoen, Marc; Kelsen, Judith; Baldassano, Robert N; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2016-03-01

    RAR-related orphan receptor-γt (ROR-γt) directs differentiation of proinflammatory T helper 17 (TH17) cells and is a potential therapeutic target in chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, ROR-γt-dependent group 3 innate lymphoid cells ILC3s provide essential immunity and tissue protection in the intestine, suggesting that targeting ROR-γt could also result in impaired host defense after infection or enhanced tissue damage. Here, we demonstrate that transient chemical inhibition of ROR-γt in mice selectively reduces cytokine production from TH17 but not ILCs in the context of intestinal infection with Citrobacter rodentium, resulting in preserved innate immunity. Temporal deletion of Rorc (encoding ROR-γt) in mature ILCs also did not impair cytokine response in the steady state or during infection. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of ROR-γt provided therapeutic benefit in mouse models of intestinal inflammation and reduced the frequency of TH17 cells but not ILCs isolated from primary intestinal samples of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Collectively, these results reveal differential requirements for ROR-γt in the maintenance of TH17 cell and ILC3 responses and suggest that transient inhibition of ROR-γt is a safe and effective therapeutic approach during intestinal inflammation.

  1. The ultra-slow NAT2*6A haplotype is associated with reduced higher cognitive functions in an elderly study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinski, Silvia; Getzmann, Stephan; Gajewski, Patrick D; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Hengstler, Jan G; Falkenstein, Michael; Golka, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype is associated with age-related declines in basic sensory hearing functions. However, the possible modulatory role of NAT2 for higher cognitive functions has not yet been studied. We tested auditory goal-directed behavior and attentional control in 120 NAT2 genotyped subjects (63-88 years), using an auditory distraction paradigm in which participants responded to the duration of long and short tone stimuli. We studied involuntary shifts in attention to task-irrelevant deviant stimuli and applied event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine which cognitive subprocesses are affected by NAT2 status on a neurophysiological level. Relative to the standard stimuli, deviant stimuli decreased performance in the recently described ultra-slow acetylators (NAT2*6A and *7B): The increase in error-corrected reaction times (a combined measure of response speed and accuracy) in ultra-slow acetylators (254 ms increase) was more than twice as high as in the rapid acetylator reference group (111 ms increase; p < 0.01). The increase was still higher than in the other slow acetylators (149 ms increase, p < 0.05). In addition, clear differences were found in the ERP results: Ultra-slow acetylators showed deficits specifically in the automatic detection of changes in the acoustic environment as evidenced by reduced mismatch negativity (MMN, p < 0.005 compared to rapid acetylators). Refocussing of attention after a distracting event was also impaired in the ultra-slow acetylators as evidenced by a reduced re-orienting negativity (RON, p < 0.01 compared to rapid acetylators). In conclusion, the ultra-slow acetylation status was associated with reduced higher cognitive functions.

  2. Oil defect detection of electrowetting display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hou-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, transparent display is an emerging topic in display technologies. Apply in many fields just like mobile device, shopping or advertising window, and etc. Electrowetting Display (EWD) is one kind of potential transparent display technology advantages of high transmittance, fast response time, high contrast and rich color with pigment based oil system. In mass production process of Electrowetting Display, oil defects should be found by Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) detection system. It is useful in determination of panel defects for quality control. According to the research of our group, we proposed a mechanism of AOI detection system detecting the different kinds of oil defects. This mechanism can detect different kinds of oil defect caused by oil overflow or material deteriorated after oil coating or driving. We had experiment our mechanism with a 6-inch Electrowetting Display panel from ITRI, using an Epson V750 scanner with 1200 dpi resolution. Two AOI algorithms were developed, which were high speed method and high precision method. In high precision method, oil jumping or non-recovered can be detected successfully. This mechanism of AOI detection system can be used to evaluate the oil uniformity in EWD panel process. In the future, our AOI detection system can be used in quality control of panel manufacturing for mass production.

  3. Data Display in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Verdinelli PsyD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual displays help in the presentation of inferences and conclusions and represent ways of organizing, summarizing, simplifying, or transforming data. Data displays such as matrices and networks are often utilized to enhance data analysis and are more commonly seen in quantitative than in qualitative studies. This study reviewed the data displays used by three prestigious qualitative research journals within a period of three years. The findings include the types of displays used in these qualitative journals, the frequency of use, and the purposes for using visual displays as opposed to presenting data in text.

  4. Recreational music-making: an integrative group intervention for reducing burnout and improving mood states in first year associate degree nursing students: insights and economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, Barry B; Snyder, Cherie; Bruhn, Karl T; Liebfreid, Fran; Stevens, Christine K; Westengard, James; Umbach, Paul O

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of providing exemplary undergraduate nursing education cannot be underestimated in an era when burnout and negative mood states predictably lead to alarming rates of academic as well as career attrition. While the multi-dimensional nature of this complex issue has been extensively elucidated, few rational strategies exist to reverse a disheartening trend recognizable early in the educational process that subsequently threatens to undermine the future viability of quality healthcare. This controlled prospective crossover study examined the impact of a 6-session Recreational Music-making (RMM) protocol on burnout and mood dimensions as well as Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in first year associate level nursing students. A total of 75 first year associate degree nursing students from Allegany College of Maryland (ACM) participated in a 6-session RMM protocol focusing on group support and stress reduction utilizing a specific group drumming protocol. Burnout and mood dimensions were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Profile of Mood States respectively. Statistically significant reductions of multiple burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD scores were noted. Potential annual cost savings for the typical associate degree nursing program (16,800 dollars) and acute care hospital (322,000 dollars) were projected by an independent economic analysis firm. A cost-effective 6-session RMM protocol reduces burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD in associate degree nursing students.

  5. Decision aid on breast cancer screening reduces attendance rate: results of a large-scale, randomized, controlled study by the DECIDEO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourmaud, Aurelie; Soler-Michel, Patricia; Oriol, Mathieu; Regnier, Véronique; Tinquaut, Fabien; Nourissat, Alice; Bremond, Alain; Moumjid, Nora; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-03-15

    Controversies regarding the benefits of breast cancer screening programs have led to the promotion of new strategies taking into account individual preferences, such as decision aid. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a decision aid leaflet on the participation of women invited to participate in a national breast cancer screening program. This Randomized, multicentre, controlled trial. Women aged 50 to 74 years, were randomly assigned to receive either a decision aid or the usual invitation letter. Primary outcome was the participation rate 12 months after the invitation. 16 000 women were randomized and 15 844 included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The participation rate in the intervention group was 40.25% (3174/7885 women) compared with 42.13% (3353/7959) in the control group (p = 0.02). Previous attendance for screening (RR = 6.24; [95%IC: 5.75-6.77]; p aid reduced the participation rate. The decision aid activate the decision making process of women toward non-attendance to screening. These results show the importance of promoting informed patient choices, especially when those choices cannot be anticipated.

  6. The effectiveness of a group-based acceptance and commitment additive therapy on rehabilitation of female outpatients with chronic headache: preliminary findings reducing 3 dimensions of headache impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo'tamedi, Hadi; Rezaiemaram, Payman; Tavallaie, Abaas

    2012-01-01

    Examine whether acceptance and commitment additive therapy is effective in reducing the experience of sensory pain, disability, and affective distress because of chronic headache in a sample of outpatient Iranian females. Chronic headaches have a striking impact on sufferers in terms of pain, disability, and affective distress. Although several Acceptance and Commitment Therapy outcome studies for chronic pain have been conducted, their findings cannot be completely generalized to chronic headaches because headache-related treatment outcome studies have a different emphasis in both provision and outcomes. Moreover, the possible role of Iranian social and cultural contexts and of gender-consistent issues involved in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy outcomes deserve consideration. This study used a randomized pretest-post-test control group design. The sample was selected from consecutive female outpatients with chronic headache, attending and/or referred to a headache clinic in a governmental hospital from April 2011 to June 2011. In total, 80 female outpatients were interviewed, and after implementing inclusion/exclusion criteria, thirty females were considered eligible to participate in the study. Half (n = 15) were randomly selected to participate in the treatment group. Four participants of this group failed to complete the treatment sessions (n = 11). The Acceptance and Commitment Therapy group received the medical treatment as usual and 8 sessions of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. The other half (n = 15) served as the control group that received only medical treatment as usual. The short form of McGill pain questionnaire, the migraine disability assessment scale, and the trait subscale of the state-trait anxiety inventory were administered, which operationalized 3 dimensions of impact of chronic headache, sensory pain, disability, and emotional distress, respectively, to explore the impact of recurrent headache episodes. Pretest and post

  7. Unique interactive projection display screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  8. An intervention for reducing secondary traumatization and improving professional self-efficacy in well baby clinic nurses following war and terror: a random control group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Rony; Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Due to the terror and war-related situation in Israel, well baby clinic nurses dealing with a large number of traumatized and highly distressed infants, toddlers and their parents have become overwhelmed. (1) Assess the level of secondary traumatization, including lack of compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue of well baby clinic nurses living under chronic threat of war and terror. (2) Assess the efficacy of an intervention aimed at providing well baby clinic nurses with psycho-educational knowledge pertaining to stress and trauma in infants, young children and parents. This intervention provides the nurses with screening tools for identifying children and parents at risk of developing stress-related problems and equips them with stress management techniques. Quasi-random control trial. The intervention took place in Israel, in war (North) and terror (South) affected areas. Ninety well baby clinic nurses from the most war and terror affected areas in Israel were approached, 42 were randomly assigned the experimental intervention and 38 served as a waiting list group. The intervention was comprised of 12 weekly 6-h sessions. Each session included theoretical knowledge, experiential exercises based on the nurses' work or personal life experience, and the learning of skills accompanied by homework assignments. Participants were assessed on self-report measures of secondary traumatization, professional self-efficacy, hope, sense of mastery and self-esteem before and after the intervention. (1) Well baby clinic nurses were found to have elevated secondary traumatization levels. (2) Compared to the waiting list group, the intervention group improved significantly on the professional self-efficacy measure as well as reducing the level of secondary traumatization. Furthermore, improvement on all secondary traumatization measures covaried with the improvement on the professional self-efficacy assessments. Based on additional informal reports, the

  9. Bright color reflective displays with interlayer reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Stephen; Geisow, Adrian; Rudin, John; Taphouse, Tim

    2011-08-01

    A good solution to the reflective display of color has been a major challenge for the display industry, with very limited color gamuts demonstrated to date. Conventional side-by-side red, green and blue color filters waste two-thirds of incident light. The alternative of stacking cyan, magenta and yellow layers is also challenging -- a 10% loss per layer compounds to nearly 50% overall. Here we demonstrate an architecture that interleaves absorbing-to-clear shutters with matched wavelength selective reflectors. This increases color gamut by reducing losses and more cleanly separating the color channels, and gives much wider choice of electro-optic colorants.

  10. Displaying of Details in Subvoxel Accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文立; 陈天洲; 等

    1996-01-01

    Under the volume segmentation in voxel space,a lot of details,some fine and thin objects,are ignored.In order to accurately display these details,this paper has developed a methodology for volume segmentation in subvoxel space.In the subvoxel space,most of the “bridges”between adjacent layers are broken down.Based on the subvoxel space,an automatic segmentation algorithm reserving details is discussed.After segmentation,volume data in subvoxel space are reduced to original voxel space.Thus,the details with width of only one or several voxels are extracted and displayed.

  11. The heparan sulphate deficient Hspg2 exon 3 null mouse displays reduced deposition of TGF-β1 in skin compared to C57BL/6 wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Cindy; Smith, Susan M; Melrose, James

    2016-06-01

    This was an observational study where we examined the role of perlecan HS on the deposition of TGF-β1 in C57BL/6 and Hspg2(∆3-/∆3-) perlecan exon 3 null mouse skin. Despite its obvious importance in skin repair and tissue homeostasis no definitive studies have immunolocalised TGF-β1 in skin in WT or Hspg2(∆3-/∆3-) perlecan exon 3 null mice. Vertical parasagittal murine dorsal skin from 3, 6 and 12 week old C57BL/6 and Hspg2(∆3-/∆3-) mice were fixed in neutral buffered formalin, paraffin embedded and 4 μm sections stained with Mayers haematoxylin and eosin (H & E). TGF-β1 was immunolocalised using a rabbit polyclonal antibody, heat retrieval and the Envision NovaRED detection system. Immunolocalisation of TGF-β1 differed markedly in C57BL/6 and Hspg2(∆3-/∆3-) mouse skin, ablation of exon 3 of Hspg2 resulted in a very severe reduction in the deposition of TGF-β1 in skin 3-12 weeks postnatally. The reduced deposition of TGF-β1 observed in the present study would be expected to impact detrimentally on the remodelling and healing capacity of skin in mutant mice compounding on the poor wound-healing properties already reported for perlecan exon 3 null mice due to an inability to signal with FGF-2 and promote angiogenic repair processes. TGF-β1 also has cell mediated effects in tissue homeostasis and matrix stabilisation a reduction in TGF-β1 deposition would therefore be expected to detrimentally impact on skin homeostasis in the perlecan mutant mice.

  12. A Displayer of Stellar Hydrodynamics Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, José Antonio Escartín; Senz, Domingo García

    The graphics display tool that we present here was originally developed to meet the needs of the Astronomy and Astrophysics group at the UPC (GAA). At present, it is used to display the plots obtained from hydrodynamic simulations using the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) method. It is, however, a generic program that can be used for other multidimensional hydrodynamic methods. The application combines the most widely used features of other programs (most of them commercial) such as GnuPlot, Surfer, Grapher, IDL, Voxler, etc.

  13. The design of electronic map displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive analysis of a pilot's navigation task and describes an experiment comparing a new map display that employs the principle of visual momentum with the two traditional approaches, track-up and north-up. The data show that the advantage of a track-up alignment is its congruence with the egocentered forward view; however, the inconsistency of the rotating display hinders development of a cognitive map. The stability of a north-up alignment aids the acquisition of a cognitive map, but there is a cost associated with the mental rotation of the display to a track-up alignment for tasks involving the ego-centered forward view. The data also show that the visual momentum design captures the benefits and reduces the costs associated with the two traditional approaches.

  14. Issues in defense training systems immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, Philip

    2006-05-01

    Display technology for DOD immersive projector-based flight training systems are at a crossroads as CRT technology slowly disappears from the market place. From the DOD perspective, emerging technologies arrive poorly matched to satisfy training needs. The DOD represents a minority voice in the marketplace. Current issues include: Satisfying requirements for black level, brightness and contrast ratio, Establishing standard metrics for resolution, system performance and reliability, Obtaining maintainability and self-calibration in multi-channel arrays, Reducing screen cross-reflection in wrap-around immersive display arrays. Laser, DLP, and LCOS projector systems are compared for their current acceptance and problems in defense flight training systems. General requirements of visual display systems are discussed and contrasted for flight trainers for low flyers (helicopters) high flyers (tactical aircraft) in real-time immersive, networked systems. FLIR and NVG simulation techniques are described.

  15. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  16. Mobile display technologies: Past developments, present technologies, and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    It has been thirty years since the first active matrix (AM) flat panel display (FPD) was industrialized for portable televisions (TVs) in 1984. The AM FPD has become a dominant electronic display technology widely used from mobile displays to large TVs. The development of AM FPDs for mobile displays has significantly changed our lives by enabling new applications, such as notebook personal computers (PCs), smartphones and tablet PCs. In the future, the role of mobile displays will become even more important, since mobile displays are the live interface for the world of mobile communications in the era of ubiquitous networks. Various developments are being conducted to improve visual performance, reduce power consumption and add new functionality. At the same time, innovative display concepts and novel manufacturing technologies are being investigated to create new values.

  17. High performance visual display for HENP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    McGuigan, M; Spiletic, J; Fine, V; Nevski, P

    2001-01-01

    A high end visual display for High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) detectors is necessary because of the sheer size and complexity of the detector. For BNL this display will be of special interest because of STAR and ATLAS. To load, rotate, query, and debug simulation code with a modern detector simply takes too long even on a powerful work station. To visualize the HENP detectors with maximal performance we have developed software with the following characteristics. We develop a visual display of HENP detectors on BNL multiprocessor visualization server at multiple level of detail. We work with general and generic detector framework consistent with ROOT, GAUDI etc, to avoid conflicting with the many graphic development groups associated with specific detectors like STAR and ATLAS. We develop advanced OpenGL features such as transparency and polarized stereoscopy. We enable collaborative viewing of detector and events by directly running the analysis in BNL stereoscopic theatre. We construct enhanced interactiv...

  18. Miniature information displays: primary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-04-01

    Positioned to replace current liquid crystal display technology in many applications, miniature information displays have evolved to provide several truly portable platforms for the world's growing personal computing and communication needs. The technology and functionality of handheld computer and communicator systems has finally surpassed many of the standards that were originally established for desktop systems. In these new consumer electronics, performance, display size, packaging, power consumption, and cost have always been limiting factors for fabricating genuinely portable devices. The rapidly growing miniature information display manufacturing industry is making it possible to bring a wide range of highly anticipated new products to new markets.

  19. Colorimetric evaluation of display performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Bogdan B.

    2001-08-01

    The development of information techniques, using new technologies, physical phenomena and coding schemes, enables new application areas to be benefited form the introduction of displays. The full utilization of the visual perception of a human operator, requires the color coding process to be implemented. The evolution of displays, from achromatic (B&W) and monochromatic, to multicolor and full-color, enhances the possibilities of information coding, creating however a need for the quantitative methods of display parameter assessment. Quantitative assessment of color displays, restricted to photometric measurements of their parameters, is an estimate leading to considerable errors. Therefore, the measurements of a display's color properties have to be based on spectral measurements of the display and its elements. The quantitative assessment of the display system parameters should be made using colorimetric systems like CIE1931, CIE1976 LAB or LUV. In the paper, the constraints on the measurement method selection for the color display evaluation are discussed and the relations between their qualitative assessment and the ergonomic conditions of their application are also presented. The paper presents the examples of using LUV colorimetric system and color difference (Delta) E in the optimization of color liquid crystal displays.

  20. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  1. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritin Fernandez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods: Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results: Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion: Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions: Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet.

  2. A naturally occurring mutation in ropB suppresses SpeB expression and reduces M1T1 group A streptococcal systemic virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hollands

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of group A streptococcus (GAS have noted an inverse relationship between SpeB expression and invasive disease. However, the role of SpeB in the course of infection is still unclear. In this study we utilize a SpeB-negative M1T1 clinical isolate, 5628, with a naturally occurring mutation in the gene encoding the regulator RopB, to elucidate the role of RopB and SpeB in systemic virulence. Allelic exchange mutagenesis was used to replace the mutated ropB allele in 5628 with the intact allele from the well characterized isolate 5448. The inverse allelic exchange was also performed to replace the intact ropB in 5448 with the mutated allele from 5628. An intact ropB was found to be essential for SpeB expression. While the ropB mutation was shown to have no effect on hemolysis of RBC's, extracellular DNase activity or survival in the presence of neutrophils, strains with the mutated ropB allele were less virulent in murine systemic models of infection. An isogenic SpeB knockout strain containing an intact RopB showed similarly reduced virulence. Microarray analysis found genes of the SpeB operon to be the primary target of RopB regulation. These data show that an intact RopB and efficient SpeB production are necessary for systemic infection with GAS.

  3. Flexible daylight memory displays EASL DMD: a new approach toward displays for cockpit and soldier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Borre; Kamfjord, Thor G.; Fossum, Richard; Fagerberg, Ragnar

    2000-08-01

    The Norwegian based company PolyDisplayR ASA, in collaboration with the Norwegian Army Material Command and SINTEF, has refined, developed and shown with color and black/white technology demonstrators an electrically addressed Smectic A reflective LCD technology featuring: (1) Good contrast, all-round viewing angle and readability under all light conditions (no wash-out in direct sunlight). (2) Infinite memory -- image remains without power -- very low power consumption, no or very low radiation ('silent display') and narrow band updating. (3) Clear, sharp and flicker-free images. (4) Large number of gray tones and colors possible. (5) Simple construction and production -- reduced cost, higher yield, more robust and environmentally friendly. (6) Possibility for lighter, more robust and flexible displays based on plastic substrates. The results and future implementation possibilities for cockpit and soldier-system displays are discussed.

  4. Updated defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD installed base for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 313,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within future weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern, especially flat panel, display technologies being developed to replace older, especially cathode ray tube, technology for civil-commercial markets. Total DoD display needs (FPD, HMD) are some 427,000.

  5. CERN students display their work

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The first poster session by students working on the LHC experiments, organised by the LPCC, was a great success. Showcasing the talents of over a hundred young physicists from all over the world, it was an opportunity for everyone at CERN to check out the wide range of research work being done by the new generation of physicists at CERN.   At 5.30 p.m. on Wednesday 23 March, the first poster session by CERN students took place in Restaurant No.1, where no fewer than 87 posters went on public display. The students were split into 8 groups according to their research field* and all were on hand to answer the questions of an inquisitive audience. TH Department's Michelangelo Mangano, who is head of the LHC Physics Centre at CERN (LPCC) and is responsible for the initiative, confirms that nothing was left to chance, even the choice of date: "We wanted to make the most of the general enthusiasm around the winter conferences and the meeting of the LHC Experiments Committee to present the stud...

  6. Citizenship displayed by disabled people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Prado Carlino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.

  7. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  8. Three-dimensional display technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain's power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies.

  9. Electrically operated magnetic switch designed to display reduced leakage inductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Edward G.

    1994-01-01

    An electrically operated magnetic switch is disclosed herein for use in opening and closing a circuit between two terminals depending upon the voltage across these terminals. The switch so disclosed is comprised of a ferrite core in the shape of a toroid having opposing ends and opposite inner and outer sides and an arrangement of electrically conductive components defining at least one current flow path which makes a number of turns around the core. This arrangement of components includes a first plurality of electrically conducive rigid rods parallel with and located outside the outer side of the core and a second plurality of electrically conductive rigid rods parallel with and located inside the inner side of the core. The arrangement also includes means for electrically connecting these rods together so that the define the current flow path. In one embodiment, this latter means uses rigid cross-tab means. In another, preferred embodiment, printed circuits on rigid dielectric substrates located on opposite ends of the core are utilized to interconnect the rods together.

  10. Reducing Lag in Virtual Displays Using Multiple Model Adaptive Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    time varying behavior. Kleinman [4] proposed an optimal control model for human performance in a closed loop. This model interprets human perception as a...Washington, D. C: NASA, 1963. 3. Arthur , Kevin W., Kellogg, S. Booth, Colin Ware, Evaluating 3D Task Performance for Fish Tank Virtual Worlds," ACM...of Describing Behavior," Human Factors, volume 19, number 4,1977. 13. Kozak, J. J., P. A. Hancock, E. J. Arthur , S. T. Chrysler, "Transfer of Training

  11. Three-dimensional scene capturing for the virtual reality display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingsheng; Sang, Xinzhu; Guo, Nan; Chen, Duo; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    A virtual reality shooting and display system based on multiple degrees of freedom camera is designed and demonstrated. Three-dimensional scene display and the wide angle display can be achieved easily and quickly through the construction with the proposed system. The range of the viewing scene can be broaden with the image stitching process, and the display in the demonstrated system can achieve the effect of wide angle for applications of image mosaic. In the meantime, the system can realize 3D scene display, which can effectively reduce the complexity of the 3D scene generation, and provide a foundation for adding interactive characteristics for the 3D scene in the future. The system includes an adjustable bracket, computer software, and a virtual reality device. Multiple degrees of freedom of the adjustable bracket are developed to obtain 3D scene source images and mosaic source images easily. 5 degrees of freedom are realized, including rotation, lifting, translation, convergence and pitching. To realize the generation and display of three-dimensional scenes, two cameras are adjusted into a parallel state. With the process of image distortion eliminating and calibration, the image is transferred to the virtual reality device for display. In order to realize wide angle display, the cameras are adjusted into "V" type. The preprocessing includes image matching and fusion to realize image stitching. The mosaic image is transferred for virtual reality display with its image reading and display functions. The wide angle 3D scene display is realized by adjusting different states.

  12. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  13. Speckle analysis in laser scanning display system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Chang; Wei Huang; Fugui Yang; Hai Ming; Jianping Xie

    2009-01-01

    The theory of speckle formation in laser scanning display system is established based on the averaging effect of eye response as laser beam scanning through an eye resolution spot.It is analyzed that speckle reduction can be obtained by averaging states of speckle during scanning.The theoretical results show that a smaller correlation length of screen surface and the narrowing of laser beam in scanning direction can reduce speckle contrast for this system.

  14. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  15. Modern Display Technologies for Airborne Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    from the sulphonic acid group and achieved operating life of greater than 10’ cycles with over 3 years shelf-life. The switching speed was rather slow...pitch. In spite of all this ordering, however, liquid crystals are clearly liquid, flowing readily with quite low viscosity . Consequently the...solids and is the basis of most optical effects used in displays. Other physical properties, such as electrical conductivity, elasticity, viscosity

  16. Comparison of group vs self-directed music interventions to reduce chemotherapy-related distress and cognitive appraisal: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Lin, Mei-Feng

    2017-08-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine effects of group music intervention and self-directed music intervention on anxiety, depression, and cognitive appraisal among women with breast cancer. A quasi-experimental design randomly assigned 60 women undergoing chemotherapy to 3 groups: group music intervention, self-directed music intervention, or a control group. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale were administered before, after the 8-week interventions, and at 3-month follow-up. Of the 52 women completing the study, results indicated that group music intervention had a significant (p cognitive avoidance compared to the other two groups at 3-month follow-up. Group music intervention can be considered an effective supportive care in alleviating the chemotherapy-related distress and enhancing cognition modification of women with breast cancer. Further research is needed to determine the role of cognitive appraisal in the illness trajectory.

  17. Extending a scatterplot for displaying group structure in multivariate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    covariance matrices. ... In risk management, for example, a financial institution ... biplot is related to a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) performed for ..... plants by using biplots, American Institute for Chemical Engineering Journal, ...

  18. Student displays of academic competence in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Elisabeth Dalby

    multimodal methods for displaying academic competence, specifically in group projects requiring the students to construct a physical object. In such situations, language, writing and formulating are not oriented to as relevant resources for displaying academic competence. Lastly, the study finds...... competence and the physical object as the main product of the students' project....

  19. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlamp, Michael C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2011-09-27

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  20. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shimon; Schlam, Michael C; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2014-03-25

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit tight of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  1. Let's Erase the Stigma (LETS): A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of Adolescent-Led School Groups Intended to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murman, Nicole M.; Buckingham, Kyla C. E.; Fontilea, Philippe; Villanueva, Robert; Leventhal, Bennett; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reducing mental illness stigma in youth is an important societal goal, but much of the existing literature focuses on knowledge enhancement strategies. These alone may not be sufficient to enhance empathy, change fundamental attitudes, or reduce social distance. Objective: To evaluate a youth-initiated, discussion- and empathy-based…

  2. Let's Erase the Stigma (LETS): A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of Adolescent-Led School Groups Intended to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murman, Nicole M.; Buckingham, Kyla C. E.; Fontilea, Philippe; Villanueva, Robert; Leventhal, Bennett; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reducing mental illness stigma in youth is an important societal goal, but much of the existing literature focuses on knowledge enhancement strategies. These alone may not be sufficient to enhance empathy, change fundamental attitudes, or reduce social distance. Objective: To evaluate a youth-initiated, discussion- and empathy-based…

  3. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays - Deprecated

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is up-to-date but newer better data can be retrieved at: https://data.energystar.gov/dataset/ENERGY-STAR-Certified-Displays/xsyb-v8gs Certified models...

  5. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  6. Ultraminiature, Micropower Multipurpose Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High information content electronic displays remain the most difficult element of the human-machine interface to effectively miniaturize. Mobile applications need a...

  7. A multi-viewer tiled autostereoscopic virtual reality display

    KAUST Repository

    Kooima, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the value of autostereoscopy for 3D displays in public contexts, we pursue the goal of large-scale, high-resolution, immersive virtual reality using lenticular displays. Our contributions include the scalable tiling of lenticular displays to large fields of view and the use of GPU image interleaving and application optimization for real-time performance. In this context, we examine several ways to improve group-viewing by combining user tracking with multi-view displays. Copyright © 2010 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  8. Effective color design for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    2002-06-01

    Visual communication is a key aspect of human-computer interaction, which contributes to the satisfaction of user and application needs. For effective design of presentations on computer displays, color should be used in conjunction with the other visual variables. The general needs of graphic user interfaces are discussed, followed by five specific tasks with differing criteria for display color specification - advertising, text, information, visualization and imaging.

  9. Performance studies of electrochromic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Ciprian; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    The idea of having flexible, very thin, light, low power and even low cost display devices implemented using new materials and technologies is very exciting. Nowadays we can talk about more than just concepts, such devices exist, and they are part of an emerging concept: FOLAE (Flexible Organic and Large Area Electronics). Among the advantages of electrochromic devices are the low power consumption (they are non-emissive, i.e. passive) and the aspect like ink on paper with good viewing angle. Some studies are still necessary for further development, before proper performances are met and the functional behavior can be predicted. This paper presents the results of the research activity conducted to develop electric characterization platform for the organic electronics display devices, especially electrochromic displays, to permit a thorough study. The hardware part of platform permits the measuring of different electric and optical parameters. Charging/discharging a display element presents high interest for optimal driving circuitry. In this sense, the corresponding waveforms are presented. The contrast of the display is also measured for different operation conditions as driving voltage levels and duration. The effect of temperature on electrical and optical parameters (contrast) of the display will be also presented.

  10. Optimization of lens shape for autostereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping; An, Shu; Ma, Jianshe

    2016-10-01

    The three-dimensional(3D) displays based on binocular parallax have drawn increasingly interests. The light splitting element, which presents separate images to the viewer's left and right eyes, plays an important part in the auto-stereoscopic display. Lenticular lenses are widely used as the light splitting elements. However, the crosstalk resulted from the unsatisfied splitting may reduce the 3D experience. It was determined that the most suitable cross sectional shape for lenticular lenses is elliptical. Firstly, the formula of the surface is derived based on the ellipse expression and the requirement of the 3D display system, that is y2+0.5651x2 - 303.4768=0. Secondly, one axial source and 4 off-axial sources placed at the heights of 2.5mm, 5mm, 7.5mm and 8mm are used to analyze the beam splitting quality of the cylindrical and elliptical lens element, respectively. The spot of elliptical lens is smaller which means a better beam splitting quality. Thirdly, Monte Carlo Non-Sequential Ray tracing algorithm is used to simulate the luminance distribution on the viewing plane, the narrower width of vertical stripes means that the aberration is suppressed. Finally, the shape of elliptical can reduce the processing difficulty with the 10μm minimum step width. In a word, the optimization of the surface has a significant effect on the improvement of stereoscopic depth and the reduction of ghost images.

  11. Twice Weekly Fluticasone Propionate Added To Emollient Maintenance Treatment To Reduce Risk Of Relapse In Atopic Dermatitis: Randomised, Double Blind, Parallel Group Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Berth-Jones; Robert J. Damstra; Stefan Golsch; John K. Livden; Oliver Van Hooteghem; Fulvio Allegra; Christine A. Parker

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate, cream and ointment, applied twice weekly in addition to maintenance treatment with emollients, in reducing the risk of relapse...

  12. Writing next-generation display photomasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Tor; Wahlsten, Mikael; Park, Youngjin

    2016-10-01

    Recent years have seen a fast technical development within the display area. Displays get ever higher pixel density and the pixels get smaller. Current displays have over 800 PPI and market forces will eventually drive for densities of 2000 PPI or higher. The transistor backplanes also get more complex. OLED displays require 4-7 transistors per pixel instead of the typical 1-2 transistors used for LCDs, and they are significantly more sensitive to errors. New large-area maskwriters have been developed for masks used in high volume production of screens for state-of-theart smartphones. Redesigned laser optics with higher NA and lower aberrations improve resolution and CD uniformity and reduce mura effects. The number of beams has been increased to maintain the throughput despite the higher writing resolution. OLED displays are highly sensitive to placement errors and registration in the writers has been improved. To verify the registration of produced masks a separate metrology system has been developed. The metrology system is self-calibrated to high accuracy. The calibration is repeatable across machines and sites using Z-correction. The repeatability of the coordinate system makes it possible to standardize the coordinate system across an entire supply chain or indeed across the entire industry. In-house metrology is a commercial necessity for high-end mask shop, but also the users of the masks, the panel makers, would benefit from having in-house metrology. It would act as the reference for their mask suppliers, give better predictive and post mortem diagnostic power for the panel process, and the metrology could be used to characterize and improve the entire production loop from data to panel.

  13. Cognitive Cost of Using Augmented Reality Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Ssin, Seung Youb; ElSayed, Neven A M; Dorrian, Jillian; Webb, David P; Walsh, James A; Simon, Timothy M; Irlitti, Andrew; Smith, Ross T; Kohler, Mark; Thomas, Bruce H

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the results of two cognitive load studies comparing three augmented reality display technologies: spatial augmented reality, the optical see-through Microsoft HoloLens, and the video see-through Samsung Gear VR. In particular, the two experiments focused on isolating the cognitive load cost of receiving instructions for a button-pressing procedural task. The studies employed a self-assessment cognitive load methodology, as well as an additional dual-task cognitive load methodology. The results showed that spatial augmented reality led to increased performance and reduced cognitive load. Additionally, it was discovered that a limited field of view can introduce increased cognitive load requirements. The findings suggest that some of the inherent restrictions of head-mounted displays materialize as increased user cognitive load.

  14. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  15. Reducing menopausal symptoms for women during the menopause transition using group education in a primary health care setting-a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindner, Lena; Strömme, Gunilla; Nordeman, Lena; Hange, Dominique; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Rembeck, Gun

    2017-04-01

    Women's physical and mental ill-health shows a marked increase during menopause, which usually occurs between 45 and 55 years of age. Mental illness and somatic symptoms are common causes of long-term sick leave. Women suffer from a lack of knowledge about the menopause transition and its associated symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate whether group education for women in primary health care (PHC) about the menopause transition can improve their physical and mental ill-health. This randomized controlled study was conducted in PHC and aimed to evaluate a group education programme for women aged 45-55 years, around the menopause transition. A total of 131 women were randomized to group education or no intervention. The group intervention included two education sessions with topics related to menopause. They answered two questionnaires at baseline and at four-month follow-up: the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Change in MRS and MADRS scores over the four months. The intervention group experienced a slight reduction in symptoms while the control group mostly experienced the opposite. This study showed that it was feasible to implement group education on menopause for women aged 45-55 years. NTC02852811. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening peptide mimotopes of blood group B carbohydrate antigen using phage display peptide library%随机十二肽噬菌体展示文库筛选血型B抗原模拟多肽的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李许锋; 罗敏; 邹建军; 岑东芝; 何克菲; 张积仁

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To screen peptide mimotopes of blood group B carbohydrate antigen with high affinity for blood group B monoclonal antibody which can replace carbohydrate antigen using a phage display peptide library, and find a new tool for application of blood group B carbohydrate antigen. METHODS: A 12-mer phage peptide library was screened for 3 rounds by using a blood group B monoclonal antibody as target protein according to such a procedure as “adsorbing,eluting and amplification”, and positive clones were selected randomly,confirmed by sandwich ELISA, single strand DNA was extracted from these positive clones and sequenced, and the mimic peptides were deduced by the DNA sequence. RESULTS: After 3 rounds of effective bio-panning, two major mimic peptides with high affinity for target protein were obtained, one peptide sequence was TKNMLSLPVGPG,the other one was HSLKHTQMSYSS. CONCLUSION: The resuits shows that the motif identified through a 12- mer phage display peptide library can be mimiced and may be a substitute for blood group B antigen.%目的:筛选出替代血型B抗原的模拟多肽,用多肽抗原替代糖类抗原.方法:抗血型B抗原的单克隆抗体作为固相筛选靶分子,对随机十二肽噬菌体展示文库进行生物淘选(bio-panning),经包被-结合-洗脱-扩增等循环3轮,对筛选的克隆ELISA鉴定,并通过剂量依赖实验验证其结合特异性.最后提取DNA测序,确定模拟肽氨基酸序列.结果:3轮筛选结束,得到2个亲和力较强的十二肽序列TKNMLSL-PVGPG和HSLKHTQMSYSS.结论:经过生物筛选得到模拟多肽序列,利用噬菌体展示技术筛选糖类抗原的模拟肽具有可行性,为糖类抗原的研究提供一种新思路.

  17. The VLT Real Time Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, T.; Brighton, A.; Biereichel, P.

    The VLT Real-Time Display (RTD) software was developed in order to support image display in real-time, providing a tool for users to display video like images from a camera or detector as fast as possible on an X-Server. The RTD software is implemented as a package providing a Tcl/Tk image widget written in C++ and an independent image handling library and can be used as a building block, adding display capabilities to dedicated VLT control applications. The RTD widget provides basic image display functionality like: panning, zooming, color scaling, colormaps, intensity changes, pixel query, overlaying of line graphics. A large set of assisting widgets, e.g., colorbar, zoom window, spectrum plot are provided to enable the building of image applications. The support for real-time is provided by an RTD image event mechanism used for camera or detector subsystems to pass images to the RTD widget. Image data are passed efficiently via shared memory. This paper describes the architecture of the RTD software and summarizes the features provided by RTD.

  18. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  19. A multilayer display augmented by alternating layers of lenticular sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hironobu

    2014-03-01

    A multilayer display is an autostereoscopic display constructed by stacking multiple layers of LC (liquid crystal) panels on top of a light source. It is capable of delivering smooth, continuous, and position-dependent images to viewers within a prescribed viewing zone. However, the images thus delivered may contain artifacts, which are inconsistent with real 3D scenes. For example, objects occluding one another may fuse together, or get obscured in the delivered images. To reduce such artifacts, it is often necessary to narrow the viewing zone. Using a directional rather than a uniform light source is one way to mitigate this problem. In this work, we present another solution to the problem. We propose an integrated architecture of multilayer and lenticular displays, where multiple LC panels are sandwiched between pairs of lenticular sheets. By associating a pair of lenticular sheets with a LC panel, each pixel in the panel is transformed into a view-dependent pixel, which is visible only from a particular viewing direction. Since all pixels in the integrated architecture are view-dependent, the display is partitioned into several sub-displays, each of which corresponds to a narrow viewing zone. The partitioning of display will reduce the possibility that the artifacts are noticeable in the delivered images. We will show several simulation results confirming that the proposed extension of multilayer display can deliver more plausible images than conventional multilayer display.

  20. BES Monitoring & Displaying System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MengWANG; BingyunZHANG; 等

    2001-01-01

    BES1 Monitoring & Displaying System(BESMDS)is projected to monitor and display the running status of DAQ and Slow Control systems of BES through the Web for worldwide accessing.It provides a real-time remote means of monitoring as well as an approach to study the environmental influence upon physical data taking.The system collects real-time data separately from BES online subsystems by network sockets and stores the data into a database.People can access the system through its web site.which retrieves data on request from the database and can display results in dynamically created images.Its web address in http:// besmds,ihep.ac.cn/

  1. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  2. Computational multi-projection display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seokil; Park, Soon-Gi; Lee, Chang-Kun; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-04-18

    A computational multi-projection display is proposed by employing a multi-projection system combining with compressive light field displays. By modulating the intensity of light rays from a spatial light modulator inside a single projector, the proposed system can offer several compact views to observer. Since light rays are spread to all directions, the system can provide flexible positioning of viewpoints without stacking projectors in vertical direction. Also, if the system is constructed properly, it is possible to generate view images with inter-pupillary gap and satisfy the super multi-view condition. We explain the principle of the proposed system and verify its feasibility with simulations and experimental results.

  3. Display standards for commercial flight decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Larry S.; Penn, Cecil W.

    1994-06-01

    SAE display standards are used as guidelines for certifying commercial airborne electronic displays. The SAE document generation structure and approval process is described. The SAE committees that generate display standards are described. Three SAE documents covering flat panel displays (AS-8034, ARP-4256, and ARP-4260) are discussed with their current status. Head-Up Display documents are also in work.

  4. Can a Targeted, Group-Based CBT Intervention Reduce Depression and Anxiety and Improve Self-Concept in Primary-Age Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Cunningham, Enda

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the impact of a 10 session, group-based, early-intervention cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme (Cool Connections) on anxiety, depression and self-concept in nine 8-11 year old pupils in Northern Ireland. The intervention was facilitated by a teacher, education welfare officer and two classroom assistants, with…

  5. Stress management reduces intraindividual cortisol variability, while not impacting other measures of cortisol rhythm, in a group of women at risk for breast cancer☆,☆☆,★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannes, Timothy S.; Dolan, Emily; Albano, Denise; Ceballos, Rachel M.; McGregor, Bonnie A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The stress hormone cortisol exhibits a diurnal rhythm throughout the day, as well as within person variability. Recent statistical approaches allow for the estimation of intraindividual cortisol variability (“ICV”) and a greater ICV has been observed in some mood disorders (major depression, remitted bipolar disorder); however, ICV has not been examined following stress management. In this secondary analyses of an efficacious randomized clinical trial, we examine how ICV may change after cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) among healthy stressed women at risk for breast cancer. Second, we concurrently compare other calculations of cortisol that may change following CBSM. Methods Multilevel modeling (MLM) was applied to estimate ICV and to test for a group by time interaction from baseline, post-intervention, to 1 month following CBSM. Forty-four women were randomized to the CBSM; 47 to the comparison group; mean age of the entire group was 44.2 (SD = 10.27). Results After controlling for relevant covariates, a significant time by group interaction emerged (β estimate = −.070; p < .05), such that CBSM participants demonstrated a lower ICV following CBSM compared to the comparison group. The interaction for cortisol slope and cortisol output (area under the curve) approached significance (β estimates = −.10 and −.062, respectively; p's < .08), while other cortisol outcomes tested were not significantly changed following CBSM. Conclusion ICV may represent a novel index of cortisol dysregulation that is impacted by CBSM and may represent a more malleable within-person calculation than other, widely applied cortisol outcomes. Future research should examine these relationships in larger samples, and examine ICV and health outcomes. PMID:26526317

  6. Reducing depressive symptoms after the Great East Japan Earthquake in older survivors through group exercise participation and regular walking: a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Taishi; Sasaki, Yuri; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Sato, Yukihiro; Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake have an increased risk of depressive symptoms. We sought to examine whether participation in group exercise and regular walking could mitigate the worsening of depressive symptoms among older survivors. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Our baseline survey was conducted in August 2010, ∼7 months prior to the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, among people aged 65 or older residing in Iwanuma City, Japan, which suffered significant damage in the disaster. A 3-year follow-up survey was conducted in 2013. Participants 3567 older survivors responded to the questionnaires predisaster and postdisaster. Primary outcome measures Change in depressive symptoms was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results From predisaster to postdisaster, the mean change in GDS score increased by 0.1 point (95% CI −0.003 to 0.207). During the same interval, the frequency of group exercise participation and daily walking time also increased by 1.9 days/year and 1.3 min/day, respectively. After adjusting for all covariates, including personal experiences of disaster, we found that increases in the frequency of group exercise participation (B=−0.139, β=−0.049, p=0.003) and daily walking time (B=−0.087, β=−0.034, p=0.054) were associated with lower GDS scores. Interactions between housing damage and changes in group exercise participation (B=0.103, β=0.034, p=0.063) and changes in walking habit (B=0.095, β=0.033, p=0.070) were marginally significant, meaning that the protective effects tended to be attenuated among survivors reporting more extensive housing damage. Conclusions Participation in group exercises or regular walking may mitigate the worsening of depressive symptoms among older survivors who have experienced natural disaster. PMID:28258173

  7. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  8. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  9. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  10. Verbal Modification via Visual Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Edmun B.; Wallace-Childers, La Donna

    1977-01-01

    The inability of foreign language students to produce acceptable approximations of new vowel sounds initiated a study to devise a real-time visual display system whereby the students could match vowel production to a visual pedagogical model. The system used amateur radio equipment and a standard oscilloscope. (CHK)

  11. Colour displays for categorical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbey, C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Toh, V.F.K.; Gray, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method for identifying a set of colours for displaying 2D and 3D categorical images when the categories are unordered labels. The principle is to find maximally distinct sets of colours. We either generate colours sequentially, to maximize the dissimilarity or distance between a new col

  12. Autostereoscopic display with eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Takao; Hoon, Kyung; Ha, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung-Sik; Son, Jung-Young

    2002-05-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking having wide viewing zone and bright image was fabricated. The image of display is projected to retinal through several optical components. We calculated optical system for wider viewing zone by using Inverse-Ray Trace Method. The viewing zone of first model is 155mm (theoretical value: 161mm). We could widen viewing zone by controlling paraxial radius of curvature of spherical mirror, the distance between lenses and so on. The viewing zone of second model is 208mm. We used two spherical mirrors to obtain twice brightness. We applied eye-tracking system to the display system. Eye recognition is based on neural network card based on ZICS technology. We fabricated Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking. We measured viewing zone based on illumination area. The viewing zone was 206mm, which was close to theoretical value. We could get twice brightness also. We could see 3D image according to position without headgear.

  13. Crystal ball single event display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Allgower, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.; Alyea, J. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

    1997-10-15

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about {pi}{sup o}`s and {eta}`s formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer.

  14. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  15. Information retrieval and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  16. Content-dependent block noise reduction for mobile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Hee; Lee, Yoon-Gyoo; Kim, Han-Eol; Kim, Choon-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Number of pixels on mobile displays is rapidly increasing. Recently, mobile displays with more than one million pixels have been introduced into markets. However, most of multimedia contents to be displayed on mobile displays have much smaller pixel counts. For example, number of pixels for a T-DMB(terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting) sequence is 320x240. When enlargement is applied to input sequence, perceived image quality would be degraded. Increase in visibility of block noise is one of the major reasons for image quality degradation on mobile displays. This paper presents a simple and computationally efficient method to reduce visibility of block noise on enlarged multimedia sequences. In proposed method, a simple low pass filtering is selectively applied to the pixels of block noises for reduction of block noise visibility as well as faithful reproduction of image details.

  17. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  18. What is a Visual Object? Evidence from the Reduced Interference of Grouping in Multiple Object Tracking for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee de-Wit

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objects offer a critical unit with which we can organise our experience of the world. However, whilst their influence on perception and cognition may be fundamental, understanding how objects are constructed from sensory input remains a key challenge for vision research and psychology in general. A potential window into the means by which objects are constructed in the visual system is offered by the influence that they have on the allocation of attention. In Multiple Object Tracking (MOT, for example, attention is automatically allocated to whole objects, even when this interferes with the tracking of the parts of these objects. In this study we demonstrate that this default tendency to track whole objects is reduced in children with Autisim Spectrum Disorders (ASD. This result both validates the use of MOT as a window into how objects are generated in the visual system and highlights how the reduced bias towards more global processing in ASD could influence further stages of cognition by altering the way in which attention selects information for further processing.

  19. Management of excessive gingival display: Lip repositioning technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Sthapak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lips form the frame of a smile and define the esthetic zone. Excessive gingival display during smile is often referred to as "gummy smile". A successful management of excessive gingival display with lip repositioning procedure has shown excellent results. The procedure involves removing a strip of partial thickness mucosa from maxillary vestibule, then suturing it back to the lip mucosa at the level of mucogingival junction. This technique results in restricted muscle pull and a narrow vestibule, thereby reducing the gingival display. In this case gummy smile was treated by modification of Rubinstein and Kostianovsky′s surgical lip repositioning technique which resulted in a harmonious smile.

  20. Effect of ACE inhibitor trandolapril on life expectancy of patients with reduced left-ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study Group. Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, C; Køber, L

    1999-01-01

    be in terms of an increase in life expectancy, but this approach has not previously been possible because of limited data on long-term outcome. We aimed to calculate the effect of trandolapril on life expectancy with follow-up data from the Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) Study. METHODS: The TRACE...... they had been followed up for a minimum of 6 years. We estimated life expectancy as median lifetime, which was the time for 50% of the patients to have died. Change in life expectancy is expressed as change in median lifetime. Analysis was by intention to treat. FINDINGS: The life expectancy of patients......-blind treatment; continued use of trandolapril was recommended at study closure. INTERPRETATION: In patients with severely reduced left-ventricular function, long-term treatment with an ACE inhibitor during the critical period after myocardial infarction is associated with a substantial increase in life...

  1. Displays for future intermediate UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak

    2008-04-01

    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  2. Characterization of the rotating display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, J W; Fahey, F H; Harkness, B A; Eggli, D F; Balseiro, J; Ziessman, H A

    1988-09-01

    The rotating display is a useful method for reviewing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. This study evaluated the requirements for a subjectively pleasing and useful implementation of this technique. Twelve SPECT data sets were modified and viewed by several observers who recorded the minimum framing rates for apparent smooth rotation, 3D effect, effects of image size, and other parameters. The results showed that a minimum of 16 frames was needed for a useful display. Smaller image sizes and more frames were preferred. The recommended minimal framing rate for a 64-frame study is 16-17 frames per second and for a 32-frame study, 12-13 frames per second. Other enhancements also were useful.

  3. Interactive display of polygonal data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, P.M.

    1977-10-01

    Interactive computer graphics is an excellent approach to many types of applications. It is an exciting method of doing geographic analysis when desiring to rapidly examine existing geographically related data or to display specially prepared data and base maps for publication. One such program is the interactive thematic mapping system called CARTE, which combines polygonal base maps with statistical data to produce shaded maps using a variety of shading symbolisms on a variety of output devices. A polygonal base map is one where geographic entities are described by points, lines, or polygons. It is combined with geocoded data to produce special subject or thematic maps. Shading symbolisms include texture shading for areas, varying widths for lines, and scaled symbols for points. Output devices include refresh and storage CRTs and auxiliary Calcomp or COM hardcopy. The system is designed to aid in the quick display of spatial data and in detailed map design.

  4. Game engines and immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  5. Proof nets for display logic

    CERN Document Server

    Moot, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.

  6. Modern Display Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    conventional tubes, LSI circuitry offers the possibility of correcting some of the deficiencies in electron-optic perform- ance and may lead to acceptable...certain ceramic materials such as PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) can be utilized for display applications. PLZT is transparent in the visible...consuming power (3.8.12). 3.8.4.2 State of development, Magnetic particles have been made of polyethylene with powdered Strontium ferrite as a filler

  7. Striations in Plasma Display Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ji-Ting; CAO Jing; MIAO Jin-Song

    2005-01-01

    @@ The phenomenon of striation has been investigated experimentally in a macroscopic ac-plasma display panel (PDP). The relationship between the characteristics of striation and the operation conditions including voltage, frequency, rib, and electrode configuration, etc is obtained experimentally. The origin of the striations is considered to be the ionization waves in the transient positive column near the dielectric surface in the anode area during the discharge, and the perturbation is caused by resonance kinetic effects in inert gas.

  8. Control-display mapping in brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlings, Marieke E; van Erp, Jan B F; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Blankertz, Benjamin; Werkhoven, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) employ differences in brain responses to attended and ignored stimuli. When using a tactile ERP-BCI for navigation, mapping is required between navigation directions on a visual display and unambiguously corresponding tactile stimuli (tactors) from a tactile control device: control-display mapping (CDM). We investigated the effect of congruent (both display and control horizontal or both vertical) and incongruent (vertical display, horizontal control) CDMs on task performance, the ERP and potential BCI performance. Ten participants attended to a target (determined via CDM), in a stream of sequentially vibrating tactors. We show that congruent CDM yields best task performance, enhanced the P300 and results in increased estimated BCI performance. This suggests a reduced availability of attentional resources when operating an ERP-BCI with incongruent CDM. Additionally, we found an enhanced N2 for incongruent CDM, which indicates a conflict between visual display and tactile control orientations. Incongruency in control-display mapping reduces task performance. In this study, brain responses, task and system performance are related to (in)congruent mapping of command options and the corresponding stimuli in a brain-computer interface (BCI). Directional congruency reduces task errors, increases available attentional resources, improves BCI performance and thus facilitates human-computer interaction.

  9. Multiview synthesis for autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Gökçe.; Bhaskaran, Vasudev

    2013-09-01

    Autostereoscopic (AS) displays spatially multiplex multiple views, providing a more immersive experience by enabling users to view the content from different angles without the need of 3D glasses. Multiple views could be captured from multiple cameras at different orientations, however this could be expensive, time consuming and not applicable to some applications. The goal of multiview synthesis in this paper is to generate multiple views from a stereo image pair and disparity map by using various video processing techniques including depth/disparity map processing, initial view interpolation, inpainting and post-processing. We specifically emphasize the need for disparity processing when there is no depth information is available that is associated with the 2D data and we propose a segmentation based disparity processing algorithm to improve disparity map. Furthermore we extend the texture based 2D inpainting algorithm to 3D and further improve the hole-filling performance of view synthesis. The benefit of each step of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with comparison to state of the art algorithms in terms of visual quality and PSNR metric. Our system is evaluated in an end-to-end multi view synthesis framework where only stereo image pair is provided as input to the system and 8 views are outputted and displayed in 8-view Alioscopy AS display.

  10. Visual display requirements: on standards and their users

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2005-01-01

    A new ISO standard for visual displays: "Ergonomic requirements and measurement techniques for electronic visual displays" is soon to be released as a Draft International Standard. The core of the new standard is the part with generic ergonomic requirements for visual displays. Three parts of the standard describe three types of measurements: electro-optical ones, to be used in general; user performance test methods, for innovative displays for which no electro-optical methods exist; and field assessment methods, to be used outside of the laboratory, under the conditions of use at the workplace. The last part of the standard describes five compliance routes and procedures for five different display technologies and contexts of use. A number of choices and problems that standard writers have to face are mentioned. Should a visual display standard be written primarily for young users, with mostly a high visual acuity and in possession of their full accommodative power, wanting to use tiny hand-held displays featuring very small characters ? Or should the standard be focused on the elderly, with their reduction in visual faculties, barring the use of small characters that may irritate or disable such older users ? The question how to put human factors principles in standards sometimes seems a battle between idealists and realists. It therefore is important to strike a balance between different attitudes, backgrounds and interests in a standards writing committee - as indeed happens in ISO/TC 159/SC 4/WG 2, "Visual Display Requirements". The author is convener of this Working Group.

  11. Core/shell-type nanorods of Tb{sup 3+}-doped LaPO{sub 4}, modified with amine groups, revealing reduced cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runowski, Marcin [Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Dąbrowska, Krystyna [Polish Academy of Sciences, Bacteriophage Laboratory, Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy (Poland); Grzyb, Tomasz [Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Miernikiewicz, Paulina [Polish Academy of Sciences, Bacteriophage Laboratory, Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy (Poland); Lis, Stefan, E-mail: blis@amu.edu.pl [Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland)

    2013-11-15

    A simple co-precipitation reaction between Ln{sup 3+} cations (Ln = lanthanide) and phosphate ions in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), including post-treatment under hydrothermal conditions, leads to the formation of Tb{sup 3+}-doped LaPO{sub 4} crystalline nanorods. The nanoparticles obtained can be successfully coated with amorphous and porous silica, forming core/shell-type nanorods. Both products reveal intensive green luminescence under UV lamp irradiation. The surface of the core/shell-type product can also be modified with –NH{sub 2} groups via silylation procedure, using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as a modifier. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy confirm the desired structure and needle-like shape of the products synthesized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area measurements by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method reveal a successful surface modification with amine groups of the core/shell-type nanoparticles prepared. The nanomaterials synthesized exhibit green luminescence characteristic of Tb{sup 3+} ions, as solid powders and aqueous colloids, examined by spectrofluorometry. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies reveal different degree toxicity of the products. LaPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+}@SiO{sub 2}@NH{sub 2} exhibits the smallest toxicity against B16F0 mouse melanoma cancer cells and human skin microvascular endothelial cell lines, in contrast to the most toxic LaPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+}@SiO{sub 2}.Graphical Abstract.

  12. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Romeu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twentythree healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1 a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics; 2 aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics; 3 resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min; and 4 a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises; totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (-10.83 ± 2.13 vs. -2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009, 20th min (-11.26 ± 2.13 vs. -3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009 and 30th min of recovery (-10.87 ± 2.39 vs. -0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004. A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion.

  13. After-effects of TFT-LCD display polarity and display colour on the detection of low-contrast objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel

    2010-07-01

    Participants performed a word-non-word discrimination task within a car control display emulated on a thin film transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT-LCD). The task simulated an information read-out from a TFT-LCD-based instrument panel. Subsequently, participants performed a low-contrast object detection task that simulated the detection of objects during night-time driving. In experiment 1, words/non-words were presented black-on-white (positive polarity) or white-on-black (negative polarity). In experiments 2 and 3, display colour was additionally manipulated. A positive polarity advantage in the discrimination task was consistently observed. In contrast, positive displays interfered more than negative displays with subsequent detection. The detrimental after-effect of positive polarity displays was strong with white and blue, reduced with amber and absent with red displays. Subjective measures showed a preference for blue over red, but a slight advantage for amber over blue. Implications for TFT-LCD design are derived from the results. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: When using TFT-LCDs as car instrument panels, positive polarity red TFT-LCDs are very likely to lead to good instrument readability while at the same time minimising - relative to other colours - the negative effects of an illuminated display on low-contrast object detection during night-time driving.

  14. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  15. Reducing time delay in the thrombolysis of myocardial infarction: an internal quality improvement project. ARIAM Project Group. Analisis del Retraso en Infarto Agudo de Miocardio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, P J; Felices, F; Segura, J; Vera, A; Rodriguez, J J

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to improve thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction by reducing the "door-to-needle" time in a 285-bed university hospital in Spain. A quality management approach was used involving all the relevant staff. Target standard was set at 35 minutes. Baseline data, intervention effect, and continuous monitoring were analyzed using x control charts. Analysis of baseline data showed a wide out-of-control variation and 72 minutes' average delay. Cause analysis revealed organizational and clinical problems that were subjected to intervention. Postintervention data showed a stable process, with an average of 30 minutes. Continuous monitoring showed further improvement in average time and predictable variation. The template of the current control chart has an average of 26 minutes. Quality management methods, particularly staff involvement in problem analysis and intervention design, and the use of control charts were useful to understand, solve, and continuously monitor an important clinical problem whose existence was evident only after it was measured.

  16. The challenge of reducing scientific complexity for different target groups (without losing the essence) - experiences from interdisciplinary audio-visual media production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The Climate Media Factory originates from an interdisciplinary media lab run by the Film and Television University "Konrad Wolf" Potsdam-Babelsberg (HFF) and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). Climate scientists, authors, producers and media scholars work together to develop media products on climate change and sustainability. We strive towards communicating scientific content via different media platforms reconciling the communication needs of scientists and the audience's need to understand the complexity of topics that are relevant in their everyday life. By presenting four audio-visual examples, that have been designed for very different target groups, we show (i) the interdisciplinary challenges during the production process and the lessons learnt and (ii) possibilities to reach the required degree of simplification without the need for dumbing down the content. "We know enough about climate change" is a short animated film that was produced for the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) for training programs and conferences on adaptation in the target countries including Indonesia, Tunisia and Mexico. "Earthbook" is a short animation produced for "The Year of Science" to raise awareness for the topics of sustainability among digital natives. "What is Climate Engineering?". Produced for the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) the film is meant for an informed and interested public. "Wimmelwelt Energie!" is a prototype of an iPad application for children from 4-6 years of age to help them learn about different forms of energy and related greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Gestures to Intuitively Control Large Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; Vet, van der P.E.; Rauwerda, H.; Breit, T.; Nijholt, A.; Sales Dias, M.; Gibet, S.; Wanderley, M.W.; Bastos, R.

    2009-01-01

    Large displays are highly suited to support discussions in empirical science. Such displays can display project results on a large digital surface to feed the discussion. This paper describes our approach to closely involve multidisciplinary omics scientists in the design of an intuitive display con

  18. 27 CFR 6.55 - Display service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Distribution Service § 6.55 Display service. Industry member reimbursements to retailers for setting up product or other displays constitutes paying the retailer for rendering a display service within the meaning... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Display service. 6.55...

  19. An adapted, four-week mind-body skills group for medical students: reducing stress, increasing mindfulness, and enhancing self-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Jeffrey M; Toohey, Michael J; Pearce, Michelle J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known stress of medical school, including adverse consequences for mental and behavioral health, there is little consensus about how to best intervene in a way that accommodates students׳ intense training demands, interest in science, and desire to avoid being stigmatized. The objective of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and initial effectiveness of an adapted, four-week stress management and self-care workshop for medical students, which was based on the science and practice of mind-body medicine. The current study used a prospective, observational, and mixed methods design, with pretest and posttest evaluations. Participants (n = 44) included medical and physician-scientist (MD/PhD) students from a large, southeastern medical school. Feasibility was assessed by rates of workshop enrollment and completion. Acceptability was assessed using qualitative ratings and open-ended responses that queried perceived value of the workshop. Quantitative outcomes included students׳ ratings of stress and mindfulness using validated self-report surveys. Enrollment progressively increased from 6 to 15 to 23 students per workshop in 2007, 2009, and 2011, respectively. Of the 44 enrolled students, 36 (82%) completed the workshop, indicating that the four-session extracurricular format was feasible for most students. Students reported that the workshop was acceptable, stating that it helped them cope more skillfully with the stress and emotional challenges of medical school, and helped increase self-care behaviors, such as exercise, sleep, and engaging in social support. Students also reported a 32% decrease in perceived stress (P stress and mindfulness were significantly correlated (r = -0.42; P = .01). Together, these findings suggest that a brief, voluntary mind-body skills workshop specifically adapted for medical students is feasible, acceptable, and effective for reducing stress, increasing mindfulness, and enhancing

  20. Depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia associated with reduced ferritin and hepcidin and elevated soluble transferrin receptors in a multiethnic group of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated deficiency. Hemoglobin was higher in white children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.

  1. Effect of Doll Injection Display on Pain Intensity due to Intramuscular Injection in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Irani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pains caused by the invasive actions such as intramuscular injection lead to the physical and mental tensions in the children. Therefore, such pains should be given relief. One of the main priorities in the nursing is to notice methods that reduce pains due to the invasive actions in the children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of injection displayed on a doll on the pain intensity due to the intramuscular injection in the preschool children. Materials & Methods: In the randomized controlled clinical trial, 62 kids aged between 4 and 6 years with pharyngitis were studied in the clinic of the health network of Khalil-abad Township in 2015. The intramuscular injection of penicillin 6.3.3 was administrated for the kids. The subjects, selected by simple lottery, were divided into two groups including experimental and control groups (n=31 per group. Data was collected using a demographic characteristic collecting form and Oucher standard pain assessment tool. In experimental group, the kid watching, one intramuscular injection was displayed on a doll by a nurse; then, the kid underwent an intramuscular injection. In control group, the routine injection method was done. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Mann-Whitney, independent T, and Chi-square tests. Findings: Mean pain intensity after injection in experimental group (3.22±0.90 was significantly lower than control group (4.19±0.83; p<0.001. Conclusion: The injection displayed on a doll before the intramuscular injection might lead to pain reduction in the preschool kids.

  2. Healthcare Costs Reduced After Incorporating the Results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 Trial into Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Michelle M; Glass, Katherine E; Hayek, Joe; Wehr, Allison; Phillips, Gary; Terando, Alicia; Agnese, Doreen M

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of our study was to quantitate the changes in axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), frozen section (FS), and the impact on costs after the publication of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial. We compared axillary nodal management and cost data in breast cancer patients who met Z0011 criteria and were treated with lumpectomy and sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) biopsy from 2007 to July 2013. Of 800 patients, 67 (13.5%) and 34 (12.5%) patients in the pre- and post-Z0011 era had 1-2 positive SLN. ALND decreased from 78% to 21% (p < 0.001) after publication of Z0011. The mean overall cost of SLN biopsy was $41,059 per patient, while SLN biopsy with completion ALND was $50,999 (p < 0.001). Intraoperative FS use decreased from 95% to 66% (p = 0.015). Omitting the FS decreased mean costs from $4,319 to $2,036. The application of Z0011 resulted in an overall mean cost savings of $571,653 from 2011 to July 2013. ACOSOG Z0011 significantly impacted axillary management resulting in a 20% reduction in the mean overall cost per patient by omitting ALND. In these patients, intraoperative FS analysis had poor sensitivity (56%) and doubled the cost of pathologic examination. Fewer ALND and intraoperative FS were performed after the publication of ACOSOG Z0011. Eliminating FS and ALND in patients who met Z0011 criteria, results in significant cost savings.

  3. Review of Defense Display Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Programs Flat Panel Autostereoscopic N-perspective 3D High Definition DMD Digital Projector Light Piping & Quantum Cavity Displays Solid State Laser...Megapixel Displays • Size Commonality • 67 % Weight Reduction • > 200 sq. in. per Display 20-20 Vision Simulators True 3D , sparse symbols Foldable Display...megapixel 2D and True 3D Display Technology 25M & T3D FY02-FY06 New service thrusts

  4. Recent Trend in Development of Olfactory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Yasuyuki

    An olfactory display is a device that generates scented air with desired concentration of aroma, and delivers it to the user's olfactory organ. In this article, the nature of olfaction is briefly described from the view point of how to configure olfactory displays. Next, component technologies to compose olfactory displays, i.e., making scents and delivering scents, are categorized. Several existing olfactory display systems are introduced to show the current status of research and development of olfactory displays.

  5. On the dependence of information display quality requirements upon human characteristics and pilot/automatics relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilckens, V.

    1972-01-01

    Present information display concepts for pilot landing guidance are outlined considering manual control as well as substitution of man by fully competent automatics. Display improvements are achieved by compressing the distributed indicators into an accumulative display and thus reducing information scanning. Complete integration of quantitative indications, outer loop information, and real world display in a pictorial information channel geometry constitutes an interface with human ability to differentiate and integrate for optimal manual control of the aircraft.

  6. Real use or "real cool": adolescents speak out about displayed alcohol references on social networking websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Briner, Leslie R; Williams, Amanda; Walker, Leslie; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2009-10-01

    Adolescents frequently display alcohol references on social networking Websites (SNSs). We conducted focus groups to determine adolescents' interpretations of these displayed alcohol references. Regardless of whether displayed alcohol references represent actual use, adolescents typically interpret these references as representing actual use and acknowledge their potential influence on peer behavior.

  7. Cockpit Displays to Support Hazard Awareness in Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Carbonari, Ron; Merwin, Dave; Morphew, Ephimia; OBrien, Janelle V.

    1997-01-01

    Three experiments are described which each examine different aspects of the formatting and integration of cockpit displays of traffic information to support pilots in traffic avoidance planning. The first two experiments compared two-dimensional (coplanar) with three-dimensional (perspective) versions of a cockpit display of traffic information. In Experiment 1, 30 certified flight instructors flew a series of traffic conflict detection and avoidance maneuvers around an intruder aircraft, sometimes in the presence of a second intruder. The results revealed an advantage for the coplanar display, particularly when there was vertical intruder behavior. In Experiment 2, 17 instructors flew with the coplanar and perspective formats when weather information was either overlaid or displayed separately. Again performance was best with the coplanar display, particularly when the weather data were overlaid. The results of both experiments are also discussed in ten-ns of the traffic maneuver stereotypes exhibited by the pilots. Experiment 3 examined the benefits of the two different predictor elements used in the coplanar displays of Experiments 1 and 2. The study was carried out in a multitask context. These elements were both found to improve safety (reduce actual and predicted conflicts) and to reduce workload, although the different elements affected workload in different ways. Neither predictor element imposed a cost to concurrent task performance.

  8. Research of 3D display using anamorphic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Honda, Toshio

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the auto-stereoscopic display which can reconstruct more reality and viewer friendly 3-D image by increasing the number of parallaxes and giving motion parallax horizontally. It is difficult to increase number of parallaxes to give motion parallax to the 3-D image without reducing the resolution, because the resolution of display device is insufficient. The magnification and the image formation position can be selected independently in horizontal direction and the vertical direction by projecting between the display device and the 3-D image with the anamorphic optics. The anamorphic optics is an optics system with different magnification in horizontal direction and the vertical direction. It consists of the combination of cylindrical lenses with different focal length. By using this optics, even if we use a dynamic display such as liquid crystal display (LCD), it is possible to display the realistic 3-D image having motion parallax. Motion parallax is obtained by assuming width of the single parallax at the viewing position to be about the same size as the pupil diameter of viewer. In addition, because the focus depth of the 3-D image is deep in this method, conflict of accommodation and convergence is small, and natural 3-D image can be displayed.

  9. Optical display for radar sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  10. Simulated monitor display for CCTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Two computer programs have been developed which generate a two-dimensional graphic perspective of the video output produced by a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera. Both programs were primarily written to produce a graphic display simulating the field-of-view (FOV) of a perimeter assessment system as seen on a CCTV monitor. The original program was developed for use on a Tektronix 4054 desktop computer; however, the usefulness of this graphic display program led to the development of a similar program for a Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer. After entry of various input parameters, such as, camera lens and orientation, the programs automatically calculate and graphically plot the locations of various items, e.g., fences, an assessment zone, running men, and intrusion detection sensors. Numerous special effects can be generated to simulate such things as roads, interior walls, or sides of buildings. Other objects can be digitized and entered into permanent memory similar to the running men. With this type of simulated monitor perspective, proposed camera locations with respect to fences and a particular assessment zone can be rapidly evaluated without the costly time delays and expenditures associated with field evaluation.

  11. Future of photorefractive based holographic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, P.-A.; Bablumian, A.; Voorakaranam, R.; Christenson, C.; Lemieux, D.; Thomas, J.; Norwood, R. A.; Yamamoto, M.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2010-02-01

    The very first demonstration of our refreshable holographic display based on photorefractive polymer was published in Nature early 20081. Based on the unique properties of a new organic photorefractive material and the holographic stereography technique, this display addressed a gap between large static holograms printed in permanent media (photopolymers) and small real time holographic systems like the MIT holovideo. Applications range from medical imaging to refreshable maps and advertisement. Here we are presenting several technical solutions for improving the performance parameters of the initial display from an optical point of view. Full color holograms can be generated thanks to angular multiplexing, the recording time can be reduced from minutes to seconds with a pulsed laser, and full parallax hologram can be recorded in a reasonable time thanks to parallel writing. We also discuss the future of such a display and the possibility of video rate.

  12. Can a cognitive-behavioral group-therapy training program for the treatment of child sexual abuse reduce levels of burnout and job-strain in trainees? initial evidence of a brazilian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Figueiredo Damásio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the extent to which a professional training program of an evidence-based intervention for the treatment of child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse could reduce strain and burnout levels in trainees. Participants were 30 psychologists, 19 of whom composed the experimental group (G1 and 11 the comparison group (G2. Data collection occurred before and after the training. The results showed that the ‘work demand’ increased for G1 and remained stable for G2, whereas the ‘control at work’ remained stable for G1 while decreasing for G2. Regarding burnout levels, there was a decrease in depersonalization and stabilization in the levels of emotional exhaustion and reduced professional efficacy for G1, whereas for G2, all the burnout indicators significantly increased. These results partially support the perspective that the training program would have an indirect protective effect on the occupational psychopathology levels of the trainees.

  13. The effect of rubber flooring on displaying stereotypies in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostović, Mario; Menčik, Sven; Kabalin, Anamaria Ekert; Gračner, Gordana Gregurić; Vučemilo, Marija; Matković, Kristina; Vukičević, Tajana Trbojević; Grahovac, Jurica; Pavičić, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of rubber mats in service unit on displaying stereotypies in gilts. Four 28-day production cycles in all seasons were observed. Each cycle included 28 gilts housed in gestation stalls with slatted concrete floor, which was covered with adjusted mats for 14 gilts (experimental group), while the remaining 14 gilts served as controls. Display of stereotypies and other behaviours observed, mat manipulation and postural behaviours were estimated by direct 1-hour observation of gilts at 2-minute intervals after morning feed supply on days 1, 8, 15 and 28 of each cycle. During the study period, displaying stereotypies was significantly less frequent (P 0.05 all) between the frequency of displaying stereotypies and the frequency of lying and other postures observed, as well as between the stereotypy display and the air temperature. There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05 all) between the frequency of mat manipulation and displaying stereotypies in total or its particular forms, suggesting that the less pronounced stereotypy display in experimental gilts may have been influenced by factors other than those observed in the present study.

  14. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...... the research taking place in the biology laboratory. This should promote contribu-tions to the grid, and thereby mediate the appropriation of the grid technology. GridOrbit visualizes the activity in the grid, shows information about the different active projects, and supports a messaging functionality where...... people comment on projects. Our work explores the usage of interactive technologies as enablers for the appropriation of an otherwise invisible infrastructure....

  15. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  16. The effectiveness of group-based comprehensive risk-reduction and abstinence education interventions to prevent or reduce the risk of adolescent pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus, and sexually transmitted infections: two systematic reviews for the Guide to Community Preventive Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Helen B; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Elder, Randy; Mercer, Shawna L; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Jacob, Verughese; Wethington, Holly R; Kirby, Doug; Elliston, Donna B; Griffith, Matt; Chuke, Stella O; Briss, Susan C; Ericksen, Irene; Galbraith, Jennifer S; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Johnson, Robert L; Kraft, Joan M; Noar, Seth M; Romero, Lisa M; Santelli, John

    2012-03-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health problems in the U.S. Implementing group-based interventions that address the sexual behavior of adolescents may reduce the incidence of pregnancy, HIV, and other STIs in this group. Methods for conducting systematic reviews from the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of two strategies for group-based behavioral interventions for adolescents: (1) comprehensive risk reduction and (2) abstinence education on preventing pregnancy, HIV, and other STIs. Effectiveness of these interventions was determined by reductions in sexual risk behaviors, pregnancy, HIV, and other STIs and increases in protective sexual behaviors. The literature search identified 6579 citations for comprehensive risk reduction and abstinence education. Of these, 66 studies of comprehensive risk reduction and 23 studies of abstinence education assessed the effects of group-based interventions that address the sexual behavior of adolescents, and were included in the respective reviews. Meta-analyses were conducted for each strategy on the seven key outcomes identified by the coordination team-current sexual activity; frequency of sexual activity; number of sex partners; frequency of unprotected sexual activity; use of protection (condoms and/or hormonal contraception); pregnancy; and STIs. The results of these meta-analyses for comprehensive risk reduction showed favorable effects for all of the outcomes reviewed. For abstinence education, the meta-analysis showed a small number of studies, with inconsistent findings across studies that varied by study design and follow-up time, leading to considerable uncertainty around effect estimates. Based on these findings, group-based comprehensive risk reduction was found to be an effective strategy to reduce adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and STIs. No conclusions could be drawn on the

  17. ProPath Display Process Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This API displays an overview of the process including the description, goals, associated roles (linked to their detailed information). It also displays all of the...

  18. Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic...

  19. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display...

  20. OZ: An Innovative Primary Flight Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...

  1. SOLIDFELIX: a transportable 3D static volume display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Kreft, Alexander; Wörden, Henrik Tom

    2009-02-01

    Flat 2D screens cannot display complex 3D structures without the usage of different slices of the 3D model. Volumetric displays like the "FELIX 3D-Displays" can solve the problem. They provide space-filling images and are characterized by "multi-viewer" and "all-round view" capabilities without requiring cumbersome goggles. In the past many scientists tried to develop similar 3D displays. Our paper includes an overview from 1912 up to today. During several years of investigations on swept volume displays within the "FELIX 3D-Projekt" we learned about some significant disadvantages of rotating screens, for example hidden zones. For this reason the FELIX-Team started investigations also in the area of static volume displays. Within three years of research on our 3D static volume display at a normal high school in Germany we were able to achieve considerable results despite minor funding resources within this non-commercial group. Core element of our setup is the display volume which consists of a cubic transparent material (crystal, glass, or polymers doped with special ions, mainly from the rare earth group or other fluorescent materials). We focused our investigations on one frequency, two step upconversion (OFTS-UC) and two frequency, two step upconversion (TFTSUC) with IR-Lasers as excitation source. Our main interest was both to find an appropriate material and an appropriate doping for the display volume. Early experiments were carried out with CaF2 and YLiF4 crystals doped with 0.5 mol% Er3+-ions which were excited in order to create a volumetric pixel (voxel). In addition to that the crystals are limited to a very small size which is the reason why we later investigated on heavy metal fluoride glasses which are easier to produce in large sizes. Currently we are using a ZBLAN glass belonging to the mentioned group and making it possible to increase both the display volume and the brightness of the images significantly. Although, our display is currently

  2. Long-Term Testosterone Therapy Improves Cardiometabolic Function and Reduces Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Men with Hypogonadism: A Real-Life Observational Registry Study Setting Comparing Treated and Untreated (Control) Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M; Haider, Ahmad; Haider, Karim Sultan; Doros, Gheorghe; Saad, Farid

    2017-09-01

    patient satisfaction. Mortality related to CV disease was significantly reduced in the T-group.

  3. Basic Perception in Head-worn Augmented Reality Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    case the Sony Glasstron PLM -50, enabled the mask that reduced transmittance of the light entering from the environment. Two binocular displays showed...Glasstron. This Glasstron model used a similar LCD mask as described for the PLM -50. The maximum transparency was specified as 80%, and the loss of

  4. Tactile displays for navigation and orientation : perception and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van

    2007-01-01

    Perceiving and understanding information of, for example, a visual navigation display may be difficult for people with a visual challenge or in situations where the user's visual sense and cognitive resources are heavily loaded. Developing information presentation schemes that reduce the threat of o

  5. Emerging Large-Screen Display Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    1255, Santa Clara, CA. 25. Williams, R. D., and F. Garcia, 1988, "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System," Society for Information...K. Miyaji, 1989, " 3D Display using Laser and Moving Screen, Japan Display 1989, Paper P3-5. 27. Sterling, R. D., R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C

  6. Liquid crystal displays for aircraft engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko L. F.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Operating conditions for liquid-crystal displays of aircraft instruments have been examined. Requirements to engineering of a liquid-crystal display for operation in severe environment have been formulated. The implementation options for liquid-crystal matrix illumination have been analyzed in order to ensure the sufficient brightness depending on external illumination of a display screen.

  7. Microfluidics for electronic paper-like displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Hayes, Robert A.; Jin, Mingliang; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Pengfei; van den Berg, Albert; Zhou, Guofu

    2014-01-01

    Displays are ubiquitous in modern life, and there is a growing need to develop active, full color, video-rate reflective displays that perform well in high-light conditions. The core of display technology is to generate or manipulate light in the visible wavelength. Colored fluids or fluids with

  8. Reconfigurable Full-Page Braille Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Electrically actuated braille display cells of proposed type arrayed together to form full-page braille displays. Like other braille display cells, these provide changeable patterns of bumps driven by digitally recorded text stored on magnetic tapes or in solid-state electronic memories. Proposed cells contain electrorheological fluid. Viscosity of such fluid increases in strong electrostatic field.

  9. 27 CFR 6.83 - Product displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industry member of giving or selling product displays to a retailer does not constitute a means to induce... costs are excluded. (2) All product displays must bear conspicuous and substantial advertising matter on... address of the retailer may appear on the product displays. (3) The giving or selling of such...

  10. Use of a Data-Linked Weather Information Display and Effects on Pilot Navigation Decision Making in a Piloted Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.; Novacek, Paul F.; Burgess, Malcolm A.; Heck, Michael L.; Stokes, Alan F.

    2001-01-01

    This study provides recommendations to the FAA and to prospective manufacturers based on an exploration of the effects of data link weather displays upon pilot decision performance. An experiment was conducted with twenty-four current instrument rated pilots who were divided into two equal groups and presented with a challenging but realistic flight scenario involving weather containing significant embedded convective activity. All flights were flown in a full-mission simulation facility within instrument meteorological conditions. The inflight weather display depicted NexRad images, graphical METARs and textual METARs. The objective was to investigate the potential for misuse of a weather display, and incorporate recommendations for the design and use of these displays. The primary conclusion of the study found that the inflight weather display did not improve weather avoidance decision making. Some of the reasons to support this finding include: the pilot's inability to easily perceive their proximity to the storms, increased workload and difficulty in deciphering METAR textual data. The compelling nature of a graphical weather display caused many pilots to reduce their reliance on corroborating weather information from other sources. Minor changes to the weather display could improve the ability of a pilot to make better decisions on hazard avoidance.

  11. Leveraging network connectivity for quality assurance of clinical display monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The VA Midwest Health Care Network, VISN 23, is one of 21 veteran integrated health service networks (VISN) under the Department of Veterans Affairs. There are approximately 300,000 imaging studies generated per year and currently more than 14,000 picture archiving and communication system (PACS) users in VISN 23. Biomedical Engineering Services within VISN 23 coordinates the provision of medical technology support. One emerging technology leverages network connectivity as a method of calibrating and continuously monitoring clinical display monitors in support of PACS. Utilizing a continuous calibration monitoring system, clinical displays can be identified as out of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) compliance through a centralized server. The technical group can receive immediate notification via e-mail and respond proactively. Previously, this problem could go unnoticed until the next scheduled preventive maintenance was performed. This system utilizes simple network management protocols (SNMP) and simple mail transfer protocols (SMTP) across a wide area network for real-time alerts from a centralized location. This central server supports and monitors approximately 320 clinical displays deployed across five states. Over the past three years of implementation in VISN 23, the remote calibration and monitoring capability has allowed for more efficient support of clinical displays and has enhanced patient safety by ensuring a consistent display of images on these clinical displays.

  12. ATLAS 13 TeV event displays - 2017 Summer Conferences

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Summer 2017: The ATLAS collaboration released an impressive number of results using data collected at 13 TeV. Some of the corresponding event displays are grouped here for media and press. The reference to the conference note is given in the caption. Read more on ATLAS results with the links provided below.

  13. An Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of Primary Display Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpo, Ernest U; McEntee, Mark F

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to complete a full evaluation of the new EIZO RX850 liquid crystal display and compare it to two currently used medical displays in Australia (EIZO GS510 and Barco MDCG 5121). The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 18 Quality Control test pattern was used to assess the performance of three high-resolution primary medical displays: EIZO RX850, EIZO GS510, and Barco MDCG 5121. A Konica Minolta spectroradiometer (CS-2000) was used to assess luminance response, non-uniformity, veiling glare, and color uniformity. Qualitative evaluation of noise was also performed. Seven breast lesions were displayed on each monitor and photographed with a calibrated 5.5-MP Olympus E-1 digital SLR camera. ImageJ software was used to sample pixel information from each lesion and surrounding background to calculate their conspicuity index on each of the displays. All monitor fulfilled all AAPM acceptance criteria. The performance characteristics for EIZO RX850, Barco MDCG 5121, and EIZO GS510 respectively were as follows: maximum luminance (490, 500.5, and 413 cd/m(2)), minimum luminance (0.724, 1.170, and 0.92 cd/m(2)), contrast ratio (675:1, 428:1, 449:1), just-noticeable difference index (635, 622, 609), non-uniformity (20, 5.92, and 8.5 %), veiling glare (GR = 2465.6, 720.4, 1249.8), and color uniformity (Δu'v' = +0.003, +0.002, +0.002). All monitors demonstrated low noise levels. The conspicuity index (χ) of the lesions was slightly higher in the EIZO RX850 display. All medical displays fulfilled AAPM performance criteria, and performance characteristics of EIZO RX850 are equal to or better than those of the Barco MDCG 5121 and EIZO GS510 displays.

  14. Group I intron ribozymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Group I intron ribozymes constitute one of the main classes of ribozymes and have been a particularly important model in the discovery of key concepts in RNA biology as well as in the development of new methods. Compared to other ribozyme classes, group I intron ribozymes display considerable......, the intronic products of these pathways have the potential to integrate into targets and to form various types of circular RNA molecules. Thus, group I intron ribozymes and associated elements found within group I introns is a rich source of biological phenomena. This chapter provides a strategy and protocols...... for initial characterization of new group I intron ribozymes....

  15. Microspheres in Plasma Display Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Filling small bubbles of molten glass with gases is just as difficult as it sounds, but the technical staff at NASA is not known to shy away from a difficult task. When Microsphere Systems, Inc. (MSI), of Ypsilanti, Michigan, and Imaging Systems Technology, Inc. (IST), of Toledo, Ohio, were trying to push the limits of plasma displays but were having difficulty with the designs, NASA s Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) assembled key personnel at Glenn Research Center and Ohio State University for a brainstorming session to come up with a solution for the companies. They needed a system that could produce hollow, glass micro-sized spheres (microspheres) that could be filled with a variety of gasses. But the extremely high temperature required to force the micro-sized glass bubbles to form at the tip of a metal nozzle resulted in severe discoloration of the microspheres. After countless experiments on various glass-metal combinations, they had turned to the GMCI for help. NASA experts in advanced metals, ceramics, and glass concluded that a new design approach was necessary. The team determined that what was needed was a phosphate glass composition that would remain transparent, and they went to work on a solution. Six weeks later, using the design tips from the NASA team, Tim Henderson, president of MSI, had designed a new system in which all surfaces in contact with the molten glass would be ceramic instead of metal. Meanwhile, IST was able to complete a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and supply a potential customer with samples of the microspheres for evaluation as filler materials for high-performance insulations.

  16. Military display market segment: wearable and portable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2003-09-01

    The military display market (MDM) is analyzed in terms of one of its segments, wearable and portable displays. Wearable and portable displays are those embedded in gear worn or carried by warfighters. Categories include hand-mobile (direct-view and monocular/binocular), palm-held, head/helmet-mounted, body-strapped, knee-attached, lap-born, neck-lanyard, and pocket/backpack-stowed. Some 62 fielded and developmental display sizes are identified in this wearable/portable MDM segment. Parameters requiring special consideration, such as weight, luminance ranges, light emission, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are summarized and compared. Ruggedized commercial versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted; and a number of custom displays are also found in this MDM category. Display sizes having aggregate quantities of 5,000 units or greater or having 2 or more program applications are identified. Wearable and portable displays are also analyzed by technology (LCD, LED, CRT, OLED and plasma). The technical specifications and program history of several high-profile military programs are discussed to provide a systems context for some representative displays and their function. As of August 2002 our defense-wide military display market study has documented 438,882 total display units distributed across 1,163 display sizes and 438 weapon systems. Wearable and portable displays account for 202,593 displays (46% of total DoD) yet comprise just 62 sizes (5% of total DoD) in 120 weapons systems (27% of total DoD). Some 66% of these wearable and portable applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, there is an accelerating trend towards higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  17. MEPR versus EEPR valves in open supermarket refrigerated display cabinets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, A.; Bansal, P.K. [Auckland Univ, (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the comparative experimental field performance of mechanical evaporator pressure regulating valves (MEPR) and electronic evaporator pressure regulating valves (EEPR) under the identical operating conditions of supermarket open multi-deck refrigerated display cabinets. The main goal of the supermarket refrigeration system design is to keep the displayed product at the required constant temperature, while minimising the cooling load to increase the overall energy efficiency of the system. Field tests have shown that the electronic evaporator pressure valve has a significant effect on improving the cabinet temperature and reducing the rate of frost formation on the evaporator coils with subsequent improvements in the air curtain strength. (author)

  18. The long-term outcome of reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation from a matched related or unrelated donor, or haploidentical family donor in patients with leukemia: a retrospective analysis of data from the China RIC Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang-Lin; Zheng-Dong; Qiao, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Jian-Min; Huang-He; Liang, Ying-Min; Wu, De-Pei; Chen, Bao-An; Bai-Hai; Shi, Bao-Fu; Sun, Wan-Jun; Qiao, Jun-Xiao; Guo, Mei; Qiao, Jian-Hui; Sun, Qi-Yun; Hu, Kai-Xun; Huang, Ya-Jing; Zuo, Hong-Li; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Ai, Hui-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    This study compared 6-year follow-up data from patients undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) transplantation with an HLA-matched related donor (MRD), an HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD), or an HLA-haploidentical donor (HID) for leukemia. Four hundred and twenty-seven patients from the China RIC Cooperative Group were enrolled, including 301 in the MRD, 79 in the HID, and 47 in the MUD groups. The conditioning regimen involved fludarabine combined with anti-lymphocyte globulin and cyclophosphamide. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was administered using cyclosporin A (CsA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Four hundred and nineteen patients achieved stable donor chimerism. The incidence of stage II-IV acute GVHD in the HID group was 44.3 %, significantly higher than that in the MRD (23.6 %) and MUD (19.1 %) groups. The 1-year transplantation-related mortality (TRM) rates were 44.3, 17.6, and 21.3, respectively. Event-free survival (EFS) at 6 years in the HID group was 36.7 %, significantly lower than that of the MRD and MUD groups (59.1 and 66.0 %, P  0.05), respectively. RIC transplantation with MRD and MUD had similar outcome in leukemia which is better than that with HID. RIC transplantation with HID had lower relapsed with higher TRM and GVHD rate, particularly in advanced leukemias. RIC transplantation with MRD and MUD had similar outcomes in leukemia and they were better than those with HID. RIC transplantation with HID had a lower relapse rate but higher TRM and GVHD rates, particularly in cases of advanced leukemia.

  19. To what extent do high-intensity statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in each of the four statin benefit groups identified by the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines? A VOYAGER meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Björn W; Palmer, Michael K; Nicholls, Stephen J; Lundman, Pia; Barter, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines identify four patient groups who benefit from moderate- or high-intensity statin treatment; those with: 1) atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD); 2) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥190 mg/dl; 3) diabetes; or 4) a 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5%. High-intensity statins, anticipated to reduce LDL-C by ≥50%, were identified as rosuvastatin 20-40 mg and atorvastatin 40-80 mg. Individual patient data (32,258) from the VOYAGER database of 37 studies were used to calculate least-squares mean (LSM) percentage change in LDL-C during 8496 patient exposures to rosuvastatin 20-40 mg, and atorvastatin 40-80 mg in the four patient benefit groups. LSM percentage reductions in LDL-C with rosuvastatin 20 and 40 mg were greater than with atorvastatin 40 mg, overall and in each statin benefit group, and with rosuvastatin 40 mg were greater than with atorvastatin 80 mg overall and in three of the four benefit groups (all p < 0.05). For example, in the ASCVD group, 40%, 59%, 57% and 71% of patients treated with atorvastatin 40 mg, atorvastatin 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 mg and rosuvastatin 40 mg, respectively, had a ≥50% reduction in LDL-C. The choice and dose of statin have an impact both on the percentage LDL-C reduction and achievement of ≥50% reduction in LDL-C, overall and within each of the four statin benefit groups outlined by the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines. This may be of importance for clinicians in their choice of treatment for individual patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential effects of head-mounted displays on visual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schega, Lutz; Hamacher, Daniel; Erfuth, Sandra; Behrens-Baumann, Wolfgang; Reupsch, Juliane; Hoffmann, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Head-mounted displays (HMDs) virtually augment the visual world to aid visual task completion. Three types of HMDs were compared [look around (LA); optical see-through with organic light emitting diodes and virtual retinal display] to determine whether LA, leaving the observer functionally monocular, is inferior. Response times and error rates were determined for a combined visual search and Go-NoGo task. The costs of switching between displays were assessed separately. Finally, HMD effects on basic visual functions were quantified. Effects of HMDs on visual search and Go-NoGo task were small, but for LA display-switching costs for the Go-NoGo-task the effects were pronounced. Basic visual functions were most affected for LA (reduced visual acuity and visual field sensitivity, inaccurate vergence movements and absent stereo-vision). LA involved comparatively high switching costs for the Go-NoGo task, which might indicate reduced processing of external control cues. Reduced basic visual functions are a likely cause of this effect.

  1. Influencing user behaviour with energy information display systems for intelligent homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, G.; Newborough, M. [Energy Academy, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland EH14 4AS, (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-01

    This paper considers the design of energy consumption displays from a theoretical standpoint in relation to user-appliance interactions in the home. It presents the main options for display position and discusses what detailed information to display in order to promote energy saving. To guide the designer in making decisions regarding the merits of displaying appliance-specific information (ASI) and grouped appliance information (GAI) around the home, classifications are presented of appliance-associated micro-behaviours and appliance control to end-use relationships. A hybrid display approach is suggested as a most effective solution. (Author)

  2. Flight simulator evaluation of a novel flight instrument display to minimize the risks of spatial disorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, M G; Durnford, S J; Groh, S L; Jones, H D; Higdon, A A; Estrada, A; Alvarez, E A

    1998-08-01

    Spatial disorientation (SD) in flight remains a major source of attrition. Many SD accidents would occur regardless of the instrument display in use, since the aircrew are simply not looking at the instruments. However, there are a number of accidents which might be amenable to improved instrument displays. In an attempt to improve maintenance and reattainment of correct orientation with a reduced cognitive workload, a novel instrument display has been developed. This paper describes an assessment of the display in a UH-60 helicopter flight simulator. This study tested the hypothesis that during instrument flight and recovery from unusual attitudes, the novel display permits a more accurate maintenance and reestablishment of flight parameters than the standard flight instruments. There were 16 male aviators who flew a simulated instrument flight profile and recovery from unusual attitudes using both the standard flight instruments and the novel display. The two display formats were tested both with and without a secondary task. When compared with the standard instruments, both control of flight parameters and recovery from unusual attitudes were significantly improved when using the novel display. Analysis of the secondary task scores showed that cognitive workload was reduced when using the novel display compared with the standard instruments. Results from all aspects of the assessment indicated benefits of the new display. Future testing should be carried out during real flight, and the display should be further developed to be used in a head-up or helmet-mounted device.

  3. Development of scanning holographic display using MEMS SLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-10-01

    Holography is an ideal three-dimensional (3D) display technique, because it produces 3D images that naturally satisfy human 3D perception including physiological and psychological factors. However, its electronic implementation is quite challenging because ultra-high resolution is required for display devices to provide sufficient screen size and viewing zone. We have developed holographic display techniques to enlarge the screen size and the viewing zone by use of microelectromechanical systems spatial light modulators (MEMS-SLMs). Because MEMS-SLMs can generate hologram patterns at a high frame rate, the time-multiplexing technique is utilized to virtually increase the resolution. Three kinds of scanning systems have been combined with MEMS-SLMs; the screen scanning system, the viewing-zone scanning system, and the 360-degree scanning system. The screen scanning system reduces the hologram size to enlarge the viewing zone and the reduced hologram patterns are scanned on the screen to increase the screen size: the color display system with a screen size of 6.2 in. and a viewing zone angle of 11° was demonstrated. The viewing-zone scanning system increases the screen size and the reduced viewing zone is scanned to enlarge the viewing zone: a screen size of 2.0 in. and a viewing zone angle of 40° were achieved. The two-channel system increased the screen size to 7.4 in. The 360-degree scanning increases the screen size and the reduced viewing zone is scanned circularly: the display system having a flat screen with a diameter of 100 mm was demonstrated, which generates 3D images viewed from any direction around the flat screen.

  4. Digital interface for high-resolution displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, David J.; Gorenflo, Ronald L.

    1999-08-01

    Commercial display interfaces are currently transitioning from analog to digital. Although this transition is in the very early stages, the military needs to begin planning their own transition to digital. There are many problems with the analog interface in high-resolution display systems that are solved by changing to a digital interface. Also, display system cost can be lower with a digital interface to a high resolution display. Battelle is under contract with DARPA to develop an advanced Display Interface (ADI) to replace the analog RGB interfaces currently used in high definition workstation displays. The goal is to create a standard digital display interface for military applications that is based on emerging commercial standards. Support for military application- specific functionality is addressed, including display test and control. The main challenges to implementing a digital display interface are described, along with approaches to address the problems. Conceptual ADI architectures are described and contrasted. The current and emerging commercial standards for digital display interfaces are reviewed in detail. Finally, the tasks required to complete the ADI effort are outlined and described.

  5. Diverter - Perspectives on the integration and display of flight critical information using an expert system and menu-driven displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Frederick M.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system prototype, called Diverter, was developed which evaluates, integrates, and displays flight plan recommendations to the pilot during the planning of an inflight diversion. The system integrates information from many sources to provide a comprehensive description of the flight planning alternatives available to the pilot. Diverter evaluates all applicable constraints to arrive at a flight plan to make efficient use of manpower, fuel, and time. The use of an expert system automates much of the integration and evaluation of variables impacting the flight. The use of hierarchical menu-driven displays and direct manipulation interface techniques may reduce workload.

  6. Effect of Oculus Rift head mounted display on postural stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epure, Paula; Gheorghe, Cristina; Nissen, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how a HMD-experienced virtual environment influences physical balance of six balance-impaired adults 59-69 years-of-age, when compared to a control group of eight non-balance-impaired adults, 18-28 years-of-age. The setup included a Microsoft Kinect and a bespoke balance board...... controlling a Virtual Reality skiing game. Two tests were conducted: full-vision versus blindfolded and HMD versus monitor display. Results indicate five of the six balance-impaired adults and six of the eight non-balance-impaired adults showed higher degree of postural stability while using a monitor display...

  7. A compact electroactive polymer actuator suitable for refreshable Braille display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kailiang; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Minren; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Q. M.

    2007-04-01

    The large strain, high elastic modulus, and easy processing of P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) electrostrictive terpolymer make it very attractive to replace low strain piezoceramics and piezopolymers in many applications with much improved performance. In this paper, a compact polymer actuator is developed utilizing the electrostrictive terpolymer, which is suitable for full page Braille Display and graphic display. Key issues related to the reliability of electroactive polymers used in the compact actuators and for the mass fabrication of these polymer actuators are investigated. Making use of a recently developed conductive polymer, a screen printing deposition method was developed which enables direct deposition very thin conductive polymer electrode layer (Braille actuator was designed and fabricated with these terpolymer films wound on a spring core. The test results demonstrate that the EAP Braille actuator meets all the functional requirements of actuators for refreshable full Braille display, which offers compact size, reduced cost and weight.

  8. Perceived image quality assessment for color images on mobile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyesung; Kim, Choon-Woo

    2015-01-01

    With increase in size and resolution of mobile displays and advances in embedded processors for image enhancement, perceived quality of images on mobile displays has been drastically improved. This paper presents a quantitative method to evaluate perceived image quality of color images on mobile displays. Three image quality attributes, colorfulness, contrast and brightness, are chosen to represent perceived image quality. Image quality assessment models are constructed based on results of human visual experiments. In this paper, three phase human visual experiments are designed to achieve credible outcomes while reducing time and resources needed for visual experiments. Values of parameters of image quality assessment models are estimated based on results from human visual experiments. Performances of different image quality assessment models are compared.

  9. Laser-driven polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte-black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 200 milliwatt green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the DLP chip, the optomechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  10. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  11. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  12. Parallel large data visualization with display walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Luiz; Vo, Huy T.; Krüger, Jens; Silva, Cláudio T.; Comba, João L. D.

    2012-01-01

    While there exist popular software tools that leverage the power of arrays of tiled high resolution displays, they usually require either the use of a particular API or significant programming effort to be properly configured. We present PVW (Parallel Visualization using display Walls), a framework that uses display walls for scientific visualization, requiring minimum labor in setup, programming and configuration. PVW works as a plug-in to pipeline-based visualization software, and allows users to migrate existing visualizations designed for a single-workstation, single-display setup to a large tiled display running on a distributed machine. Our framework is also extensible, allowing different APIs and algorithms to be made display wall-aware with minimum effort.

  13. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  14. Low Temperature Water–gas Shift: Differences in Oxidation States Observed with Partially Reduced Pt/MnOX and Pt/CeOX Catalysts Yield Differences in OH Group Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, M.; Jacobs, G; Graham, U; Azzam, K; Linganiso, L; Davis, B

    2010-01-01

    The Pt-ceria synergy may be described as the dehydrogenation of formate formed on the surface of the partially reducible oxide (PRO), ceria, by Pt across the interface, with H{sub 2}O participating in the transition state. However, due to the rising costs of rare earth oxides like ceria, replacement by a less expensive partially reducible oxide, like manganese oxide, is desirable. In this contribution, a comparison between Pt/ceria and Pt/manganese oxide catalysts possessing comparable Pt dispersions reveals that there are significant differences and certain similarities in the nature of the two Pt/PRO catalysts. With ceria, partial reduction involves reduction of the oxide surface shell, with Ce{sup 3+} at the surface and Ce{sup 4+} in the bulk. In the case of manganese oxide, partial reduction results in a mixture of Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+}, with Mn{sup 2+} located at the surface. With Pt/CeO{sub X}, a high density of defect-associated bridging OH groups react with CO to yield a high density of the formate intermediate. With Pt/MnO{sub X}, the fraction of reactive OH groups is low and much lower formate band intensities result upon CO adsorption; moreover, there is a greater fraction of OH groups that are essentially unreactive. Thus, much lower CO conversion rates are observed with Pt/MnO{sub X} during low temperature water-gas shift. As with ceria, increasing the Pt loading facilitates partial reduction of MnO{sub X} to lower temperature, indicating metal-oxide interactions should be taken into account.

  15. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  16. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-03

    on openStack create menu "CSHMD" set the menuitems of "CSHMD" to "(Main Menu; References;-; Definitions;Display Criteria;Display Formats;Display Modes...34Macintosh" then put ":" into dirSep else put "V’ into dirSep put stackPathO&"Resource"&dirSep into gResPath put 0 into gXRef end openStack on

  17. Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Eric

    2000-03-01

    In the "Future Directions for Astronomical Image Displav" project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) evolved our existing image display program into fully extensible. cross-platform image display software. We also devised messaging software to support integration of image display into astronomical analysis systems. Finally, we migrated our software from reliance on Unix and the X Window System to a platform-independent architecture that utilizes the cross-platform Tcl/Tk technology.

  18. A modular display system for insect behavioral neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Michael B; Dickinson, Michael H

    2008-01-30

    Flying insects exhibit stunning behavioral repertoires that are largely mediated by the visual control of flight. For this reason, presenting a controlled visual environment to tethered insects has been and continues to be a powerful tool for studying the sensory control of complex behaviors. To create an easily controlled, scalable, and customizable visual stimulus, we have designed a modular system, based on panels composed of an 8 x 8 array of individual LEDs, that may be connected together to 'tile' an experimental environment with controllable displays. The panels have been designed to be extremely bright, with the added flexibility of individual-pixel brightness control, allowing experimentation over a broad range of behaviorally relevant conditions. Patterns to be displayed may be designed using custom software, downloaded to a controller board, and displayed on the individually addressed panels via a rapid communication interface. The panels are controlled by a microprocessor-based display controller which, for most experiments, will not require a computer in the loop, greatly reducing the experimental infrastructure. This technology allows an experimenter to build and program a visual arena with a customized geometry in a matter of hours. To demonstrate the utility of this system, we present results from experiments with tethered Drosophila melanogaster: (1) in a cylindrical arena composed of 44 panels, used to test the contrast dependence of object orientation behavior, and (2) above a 30-panel floor display, used to examine the effects of ground motion on orientation during flight.

  19. A computer graphics display technique for the examination of aircraft design data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talcott, N. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An interactive computer graphics technique has been developed for quickly sorting and interpreting large amounts of aerodynamic data. It utilizes a graphic representation rather than numbers. The geometry package represents the vehicle as a set of panels. These panels are ordered in groups of ascending values (e.g., equilibrium temperatures). The groups are then displayed successively on a CRT building up to the complete vehicle. A zoom feature allows for displaying only the panels with values between certain limits. The addition of color allows a one-time display thus eliminating the need for a display build up.

  20. Proximity and physical navigation in collaborative work with a multi-touch wall-display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Multi-touch, wall-sized displays afford new forms of collaboration. Yet, most data on collaboration with multi-touch displays come from tabletop settings, where users often sit and where space is a limited resource. We study how two-person groups navigate in relation to a 2.8m!1.2m multi......-touch display with 24.8 megapixels and to each other when solving a sensemaking task on a document collection. The results show that users physically navigate to shift fluently among different parts of the display and between parallel and joint group work....

  1. Refreshable Braille Displays Using EAP Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators..

  2. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-04-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  3. PENGARUH DISPLAY PRODUK PADA KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Melati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision. 

  4. New ultraportable display technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-08-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies rooted in the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates. Customized diffraction grating and optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation allow the elimination of many lenses and systems-level components. The MicroDisplay Corporation's miniature integrated information display technology is rapidly leading to many new defense and commercial applications. There are no moving parts in MicroDisplay substrates, and the fabrication of the color generating gratings, already part of the CMOS circuit fabrication process, is effectively cost and manufacturing process-free. The entire suite of the MicroDisplay Corporation's technologies was devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display systems with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass and head mounted displays, pagers and Personal Communication Services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are among the may target commercial markets for MicroDisplay technology. Defense applications range from Maintenance and Repair support, to night-vision systems, to portable projectors for mobile command and control centers.

  5. Testing Instrument for Flight-Simulator Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Displays for flight-training simulators rapidly aligned with aid of integrated optical instrument. Calibrations and tests such as aligning boresight of display with respect to user's eyes, checking and adjusting display horizon, checking image sharpness, measuring illuminance of displayed scenes, and measuring distance of optical focus of scene performed with single unit. New instrument combines all measurement devices in single, compact, integrated unit. Requires just one initial setup. Employs laser and produces narrow, collimated beam for greater measurement accuracy. Uses only one moving part, double right prism, to position laser beam.

  6. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Karl

    2003-03-01

    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  7. Framework for effective use of multiple displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Kimber, Don; Zhao, Frank; Huang, Jeffrey

    2005-10-01

    Meeting environments, such as conference rooms, executive briefing centers, and exhibition spaces, are now commonly equipped with multiple displays, and will become increasingly display-rich in the future. Existing authoring/presentation tools such as PowerPoint, however, provide little support for effective utilization of multiple displays. Even using advanced multi-display enabled multimedia presentation tools, the task of assigning material to displays is tedious and distracts presenters from focusing on content. This paper describes a framework for automatically assigning presentation material to displays, based on a model of the quality of views of audience members. The framework is based on a model of visual fidelity which takes into account presentation content, audience members' locations, the limited resolution of human eyes, and display location, orientation, size, resolution, and frame rate. The model can be used to determine presentation material placement based on average or worst case audience member view quality, and to warn about material that would be illegible. By integrating this framework with a previous system for multi-display presentation [PreAuthor, others], we created a tool that accepts PowerPoint and/or other media input files, and automatically generates a layout of material onto displays for each state of the presentation. The tool also provides an interface allowing the presenter to modify the automatically generated layout before or during the actual presentation. This paper discusses the framework, possible application scenarios, examples of the system behavior, and our experience with system use.

  8. Pengaruh Display Produk pada Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Melati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision.

  9. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B; Samuel, A M

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Disp...

  10. Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Barry G.; Schwarz, Adam J.

    2000-03-01

    A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide: * Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them * An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm * An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology * An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date * A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems * A comprehensive bibliography Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.

  11. Evolving mobile robots able to display collective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Gianluca; Nolfi, Stefano; Parisi, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    We present a set of experiments in which simulated robots are evolved for the ability to aggregate and move together toward a light target. By developing and using quantitative indexes that capture the structural properties of the emerged formations, we show that evolved individuals display interesting behavioral patterns in which groups of robots act as a single unit. Moreover, evolved groups of robots with identical controllers display primitive forms of situated specialization and play different behavioral functions within the group according to the circumstances. Overall, the results presented in the article demonstrate that evolutionary techniques, by exploiting the self-organizing behavioral properties that emerge from the interactions between the robots and between the robots and the environment, are a powerful method for synthesizing collective behavior.

  12. Light field display and 3D image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwane, Toru

    2016-06-01

    Light field optics and its applications become rather popular in these days. With light field optics or light field thesis, real 3D space can be described in 2D plane as 4D data, which we call as light field data. This process can be divided in two procedures. First, real3D scene is optically reduced with imaging lens. Second, this optically reduced 3D image is encoded into light field data. In later procedure we can say that 3D information is encoded onto a plane as 2D data by lens array plate. This transformation is reversible and acquired light field data can be decoded again into 3D image with the arrayed lens plate. "Refocusing" (focusing image on your favorite point after taking a picture), light-field camera's most popular function, is some kind of sectioning process from encoded 3D data (light field data) to 2D image. In this paper at first I show our actual light field camera and our 3D display using acquired and computer-simulated light field data, on which real 3D image is reconstructed. In second I explain our data processing method whose arithmetic operation is performed not in Fourier domain but in real domain. Then our 3D display system is characterized by a few features; reconstructed image is of finer resolutions than density of arrayed lenses and it is not necessary to adjust lens array plate to flat display on which light field data is displayed.

  13. Characteristics of the autostereoscopic three-dimensional LED display based on diffractive optical elements sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping; An, Pengli; Ma, Jianshe; An, Shu; Cao, Liangcai

    2016-10-01

    Research on the characteristic of the autostereoscopic LED display (ALEDD) using DOEs sheet is of prime importance to the widely application of the (ALEDD). In this paper, the effects caused by the assembling errors between the LED display and DOEs sheet are theoretically and experimentally analyzed. The results show that, the tolerance assembling errors are | Δ z |autostereoscopic three-dimensional LED display system to reduce the crosstalk and improve the quality of 3D perception.

  14. Comparison of lidocaine, metoclopramide, and flurbiprofen axetil for reducing pain on injection of propofol in Japanese adult surgical patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshitaka; Itakura, Michiyo

    2008-02-01

    Pain on injection is a recognized adverse event (AE) of propofol administration for the induction of general anesthesia. Pretreatment with lidocaine, metoclopramide, or flurbiprofen axetil has been reported to be effective in reducing propofol-induced pain. However, no studies comparing the efficacy of these 3 drugs for preventing pain on injection of propofol have been identified. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of lidocaine, metoclopramide, and flurbiprofen axetil for reducing pain on injection of propofol in Japanese adult surgical patients. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at the Department of Anesthesiology, Ushiku Aiwa General Hospital, Ibaraki, Japan. Japanese patients scheduled to undergo elective surgery were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patients were randomized into 4 groups to receive IV lidocaine 40 mg, metoclopramide 10 mg, flurbiprofen axetil 50 mg, or placebo (saline), preceded by venous occlusion with a rubber tourniquet for 2 minutes, and followed by the administration of propofol 0.5 mg/kg into the largest vein of the hand through a 20-gauge IV cannula. Immediately after the administration of propofol, an investigator blinded to treatment interviewed each patient on injection-site pain. Responses were scored on a 4-point verbal rating scale (0 = none, 1 = mild pain, 2 = moderate pain, and 3 = severe pain). Incidence and intensity of pain (as assessed by mean pain scores) were determined in each of the 4 study groups. AEs at the injection site (eg, pain, edema, wheal, inflammation), extrapyramidal disturbance, and symptoms or signs associated with gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration were assessed by the study investigator for 24 hours following surgery using spontaneous reporting and patient interview. A total of 100 patients (54 women, 46 men) aged 22 to 65 years were enrolled in the study. The patients' mean (SD) age was 42 (12) years. Their mean (SD) height

  15. Effects of display geometry and pixel structure on stereo display usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkens, Edwin; Roberts, John W.

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of stereo imagery is the creation of the perception (in the human viewer) of a 3-D world, for purposes such as entertainment, visualization, education, and allowing people to better learn about and control the world about them. Human perception of 3-D is based upon a combination of many cues from the senses, as well as internal mental templates and expectations. In a stereo presentation, if some of the 3-D cues are inconsistent with others, the perceptual system receives conflicting information, and seeks to find a consistent interpretation. In cases of severe conflict, 3-D perception of the scene may be totally disrupted or highly inaccurate. Even if the user is able to perceive a consistent 3-D view, the effort required to resolve conflicts may reduce the sense of realism and the enjoyment of viewing, and may contribute to fatigue, eyestrain, and headache. Many experienced users of stereo imagery have learned to ignore a certain degree of image inconsistency, and can derive considerable pleasure from viewing even significantly inconsistent stereo images. Unfortunately, novice users generally do not have this ability, and while they may not be able to verbally explain what's wrong with a stereo image, they may comment that it gives them a headache, or that something's not quite right about it, or that they have trouble seeing the depth. Worse, a novice user may conclude that the problems with this image are characteristic of all stereo images, and decide (and tell others) that stereo is not worthwhile. Since the field of display can greatly benefit from the development of a large user base (to provide money to support manufacturers and future technology development, and to draw the interest of content providers), it is important that every effort be made to make sure that novice users have a pleasant viewing experience, with stereo views that have a high degree of consistency in their 3-D cues. Even experienced users have varying degrees of tolerance

  16. Crosstalk reduction in multi-view autostereoscopic three-dimensional display based on lenticular sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang Li; Qionghua Wang; Yuhong Tao; Dahai Li; Aihong Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ A method to reduce crosstalk in multi-view autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) displays based on the lenticular sheet is proposed. Correcting the luminance values of each parallax image displayed on the display screen is employed. We analyze the causes of crosstalk. We deduce the formulas of crosstalk reduction according to the relationship between crosstalk coefficients of each parallax image observed through the lenticular sheet, luminance values of each parallax image displayed on the display screen, and luminance values of each parallax image observed through the lenticular sheet at each viewing position. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.%A method to reduce crosstalk in multi-view autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) displays based on the lenticular sheet is proposed. Correcting the luminance values of each parallax image displayed on the display screen is employed. We analyze the causes of crosstalk. We deduce the formulas of crosstalk reduction according to the relationship between crosstalk coefficients of each parallax image observed through the lenticular sheet, luminance values of each parallax image displayed on the display screen, and luminance values of each parallax image observed through the lenticular sheet at each viewing position. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. A far-view intensive care unit monitoring display enables faster triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görges, Matthias; Kück, Kai; Koch, Sven H; Agutter, Jim; Westenskow, Dwayne R

    2011-01-01

    Although nurses perform the majority of the clinical tasks in an intensive care unit, current patient monitors were not designed to support a nurse's workflow. Nurses constantly triage patients, deciding which patient is currently in the most need of care. To make this decision, nurses must observe the patient's vital signs and therapeutic device information from multiple sources. To obtain this information, they often have to enter the patient's room. This study addresses 3 hypotheses. Information provided by far-view monitoring displays (1) reduces the amount of time to determine which patient needs care first, (2) increases the accuracy of assigning priority to the right patient, and (3) reduces nurses mental workload. We developed 2 far-view displays to be read from a distance of 3 to 5 m without entering the patient's room. Both display vital signs, trends, alarms, infusion pump status, and therapy support indicators. To evaluate the displays, nurses were asked to use the displays to decide which of 2 patients required their attention first. They made 60 decisions: 20 with each far-view display and 20 decisions with a standard patient monitor next to an infusion pump. Sixteen nurses (median age of 27.5 years with 2.75 years of experience) participated in the study. Using the 2 far-view displays, nurses more accurately and rapidly identified stable patients and syringe pumps that were nearly empty. Median decision times were 11.3 and 12.4 seconds for the 2 far-view displays and 17.2 seconds for the control display. The 2 far-view displays reduced median decision-making times by 4.8 to 5.9 seconds, increased accuracy in assignment of priority in 2 of 7 patient conditions, and reduced nurses' frustration with the triaging task. In a clinical setting, the proposed far-view display might reduce nurses' mental workload and thereby increase patient safety.

  18. The treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy with clindamycin to reduce the risk of infection-related preterm birth: a response to the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology guideline group's clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Ronald F; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Larsson, Per G; Jørgensen, Jan S

    2017-02-01

    Preterm birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Infection/inflammation is responsible for a significant percentage of preterm birth, particularly at early gestations. A recent clinical recommendation by a guidelines group of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology advised against the use of clindamycin for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy to reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm birth based on lack of evidence of efficacy. We believe that the evidence for the use of clindamycin for this indication is robust and that this recommendation was reached erroneously on the basis of flawed inclusion criteria: the inclusion of an unpublished study with poorly diagnosed bacterial vaginosis and the exclusion of an important pivotal study on the use of clindamycin in early pregnancy for the prevention of preterm birth. Had these errors been corrected, the conclusions would have been different. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Display Developer for Firing Room Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The firing room at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is responsible for all NASA human spaceflight launch operations, therefore it is vital that all displays within the firing room be properly tested, up-to-date, and user-friendly during a launch. The Ground Main Propulsion System (GMPS) requires a number of remote displays for Vehicle Integration and Launch (VIL) Operations at KSC. My project is to develop remote displays for the GMPS using the Display Services and Framework (DSF) editor. These remote displays will be based on model images provided by GMPS through PowerPoint. Using the DSF editor, the PowerPoint images can be recreated with active buttons associated with the correct Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs). These displays will be documented in the Software Requirements and Design Specifications (SRDS) at the 90% GMPS Design Review. In the future, these remote displays will be available for other developers to improve, edit, or add on to so that the display may be incorporated into the firing room to be used for launches.

  20. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways of supp...

  1. Additive and subtractive transparent depth displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Image fusion is the generally preferred method to combine two or more images for visual display on a single screen. We demonstrate that perceptual image separation may be preferable over perceptual image fusion for the combined display of enhanced and synthetic imagery. In this context image separat

  2. Assessment of OLED displays for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Emily A; Jiang, Haomiao; Vildavski, Vladimir; Farrell, Joyce E; Norcia, Anthony M

    2013-10-23

    Vision researchers rely on visual display technology for the presentation of stimuli to human and nonhuman observers. Verifying that the desired and displayed visual patterns match along dimensions such as luminance, spectrum, and spatial and temporal frequency is an essential part of developing controlled experiments. With cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) becoming virtually unavailable on the commercial market, it is useful to determine the characteristics of newly available displays based on organic light emitting diode (OLED) panels to determine how well they may serve to produce visual stimuli. This report describes a series of measurements summarizing the properties of images displayed on two commercially available OLED displays: the Sony Trimaster EL BVM-F250 and PVM-2541. The results show that the OLED displays have large contrast ratios, wide color gamuts, and precise, well-behaved temporal responses. Correct adjustment of the settings on both models produced luminance nonlinearities that were well predicted by a power function ("gamma correction"). Both displays have adjustable pixel independence and can be set to have little to no spatial pixel interactions. OLED displays appear to be a suitable, or even preferable, option for many vision research applications.

  3. Teacher Portfolios: Displaying the Art of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    A portfolio can convey a teacher's beliefs, knowledge and skills. An artist uses a portfolio to display artistic talent, and a teacher can use his or her portfolio to display teaching talent and teaching style. A teacher's portfolio may be used to obtain new employment, to document teaching accomplishments in order to receive a promotion or tenure…

  4. Methods for Selecting Phage Display Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Acevedo, Ricardo; Diez, Paula; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Maria; Degano, Rosa Maria; Ibarrola, Nieves; Gongora, Rafael; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The selection process aims sequential enrichment of phage antibody display library in clones that recognize the target of interest or antigen as the library undergoes successive rounds of selection. In this review, selection methods most commonly used for phage display antibody libraries have been comprehensively described.

  5. A simplified procedure for antibody engineering by yeast surface display: Coupling display levels and target binding by ribosomal skipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeschik, Julius; Hinz, Steffen C; Könning, Doreen; Pirzer, Thomas; Becker, Stefan; Zielonka, Stefan; Kolmar, Harald

    2017-02-01

    Yeast surface display is a valuable, widely used method for protein engineering. However, current yeast display applications rely on the staining of epitope tags in order to verify full-length presentation of the protein of interest on the cell surface. We aimed at developing a modified yeast display approach that relies on ribosomal skipping, thereby enabling the translation of two proteins from one open reading frame and, in that manner, generating an intracellular fluorescence signal. This improved setup is based on a 2A sequence that is encoded between the protein to be displayed and a gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP). The intracellular GFP fluorescence signal of yeast cells correlates with full-length protein presentation and omits the need for the immunofluorescence detection of epitope tags. For method validation, shark-derived IgNAR variable domains (vNAR) were subjected to affinity maturation using the 2A-GFP system. Yeast library screening of full-length vNAR variants which were detected via GFP expression yielded the same high-affinity binder that had previously been isolated by our group using the conventional epitope tag-based display format. The presented method obviates the need for additional immunofluorescence cell staining, offering an easy and cost-friendly alternative to conventional epitope tag detections.

  6. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  7. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  8. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, George E. (Ames, IA); Struve, Walter S. (Ames, IA); Homer, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  9. Extraction and Analysis of Display Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Chris; Moye, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The Display Audit Suite is an integrated package of software tools that partly automates the detection of Portable Computer System (PCS) Display errors. [PCS is a lap top computer used onboard the International Space Station (ISS).] The need for automation stems from the large quantity of PCS displays (6,000+, with 1,000,000+ lines of command and telemetry data). The Display Audit Suite includes data-extraction tools, automatic error detection tools, and database tools for generating analysis spread sheets. These spread sheets allow engineers to more easily identify many different kinds of possible errors. The Suite supports over 40 independent analyses, 16 NASA Tech Briefs, November 2008 and complements formal testing by being comprehensive (all displays can be checked) and by revealing errors that are difficult to detect via test. In addition, the Suite can be run early in the development cycle to find and correct errors in advance of testing.

  10. 2D/3D switchable displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  11. Exploiting the Cognitive and Social Benefits of Physically Large Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    interface components, including buttons on the toolbar. They have also chosen to display only three columns of the inbox , the sender , the subject, and... mail message in the Microsoft Outlook e- mail client for three and a half minutes. The seven subject lines remained visible in the inbox for the...spatially reorganized regions of the original e- mail client window to reduce the screen space used by this task. The user has reconstructed relevant

  12. Design of PH sensor signal acquisition and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Huifa; Zhang, Quanzhu; Deng, Yonghong

    2017-06-01

    With the continuous development of sensor manufacturing technology, how to better deal with the signal is particularly important. PH value of the sensor voltage generated by the signal as a signal, through the MCU acquisition A / D conversion, and ultimately through the digital display of its PH value. The system uses hardware and software to achieve the results obtained with the high-precision PH meter to strive to improve the accuracy and reduce error.

  13. Crosstalk in stereoscopic displays: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andrew J.

    2012-10-01

    Crosstalk, also known as ghosting or leakage, is a primary factor in determining the image quality of stereoscopic three dimensional (3D) displays. In a stereoscopic display, a separate perspective view is presented to each of the observer's two eyes in order to experience a 3D image with depth sensation. When crosstalk is present in a stereoscopic display, each eye will see a combination of the image intended for that eye, and some of the image intended for the other eye-making the image look doubled or ghosted. High levels of crosstalk can make stereoscopic images hard to fuse and lack fidelity, so it is important to achieve low levels of crosstalk in the development of high-quality stereoscopic displays. Descriptive and mathematical definitions of these terms are formalized and summarized. The mechanisms by which crosstalk occurs in different stereoscopic display technologies are also reviewed, including micropol 3D liquid crystal displays (LCDs), autostereoscopic (lenticular and parallax barrier), polarized projection, anaglyph, and time-sequential 3D on LCDs, plasma display panels and cathode ray tubes. Crosstalk reduction and crosstalk cancellation are also discussed along with methods of measuring and simulating crosstalk.

  14. Touch sensitive electrorheological fluid based tactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul

    2005-12-01

    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5 × 5 tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Force responses of the tactile display array have been measured while a probe was moved across the upper surface. The purpose of this was to simulate the action of touch performed by human finger. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. The performance of the tactile display is durable and repeatable. The touch sensitivity of this ER fluid based tactile display array has also been investigated in this research. The results show that it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display's surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  15. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  16. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  17. Phage display for the generation of antibodies for proteome research, diagnostics and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmann, Thomas; Meyer, Torsten; Schütte, Mark; Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael

    2011-01-10

    Twenty years after its development, antibody phage display using filamentous bacteriophage represents the most successful in vitro antibody selection technology. Initially, its development was encouraged by the unique possibility of directly generating recombinant human antibodies for therapy. Today, antibody phage display has been developed as a robust technology offering great potential for automation. Generation of monospecific binders provides a valuable tool for proteome research, leading to highly enhanced throughput and reduced costs. This review presents the phage display technology, application areas of antibodies in research, diagnostics and therapy and the use of antibody phage display for these applications.

  18. Phage Display for the Generation of Antibodies for Proteome Research, Diagnostics and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hust

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after its development, antibody phage display using filamentous bacteriophage represents the most successful in vitro antibody selection technology. Initially, its development was encouraged by the unique possibility of directly generating recombinant human antibodies for therapy. Today, antibody phage display has been developed as a robust technology offering great potential for automation. Generation of monospecific binders provides a valuable tool for proteome research, leading to highly enhanced throughput and reduced costs. This review presents the phage display technology, application areas of antibodies in research, diagnostics and therapy and the use of antibody phage display for these applications.

  19. Optimal Backlight Modulation With Crosstalk Control in Stereoscopic Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Liangbao; Shu, Xiao; Cheng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Crosstalk between the left-eye and right-eye images is one of the main artifacts affecting the visual quality of stereoscopic liquid crystal display (LCD) systems. In this paper, a novel technique, called Optimal Backlight Modulation (OBM), is proposed to reduce crosstalk by taking the advantage....... A simple closed-form approximation of the optimization problem can be easily employed and solved in real time on LCD control hardware. Simulation results show that the proposed OBM algorithm provides the same or higher luminance while reducing the crosstalk by 60% compared with the other tested methods....

  20. Memory effect in ac plasma displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlenk, K.; Obuchowicz, E.

    1993-10-01

    The bistable or `memory' mode of operation of an ac plasma display panel is presented. The difference between dc and ac plasma panel operation from the point of view of memory function is discussed. The graphic ac plasma display with thin film Cr-Cu-Cr electrodes was developed in OBREP and its basic parameters are described. It consists of 36 X 59 picture elements, its outer dimensions are: 76 X 52 mm2 and the screen size is: 49 X 30 mm2. The different dielectric glass materials were applied as dielectric layers and the influence of the properties of these materials on display parameters and memory function was investigated.

  1. Embedded systems for controlling LED matrix displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghescu, Cristina; Drumea, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    LED matrix displays are a common presence in everyday life - they can be found in trains, buses, tramways, office information tables or outdoor media. The structure of the display unit is similar for all these devices, a matrix of light emitting diodes coupled between row and column lines, but there are many options for the display controller that switches these lines. Present paper analyzes different types of embedded systems that can control the LED matrix, based on single board computers, on microcontrollers with different peripheral devices or with programmable logic devices like field programmable gate arrays with implemented soft processor cores. Scalability, easiness of implementation and costs are analyzed for all proposed solutions.

  2. Non-recombinant display of the B subunit of the heat labile toxin of Escherichia coli on wild type and mutant spores of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isticato, Rachele; Sirec, Teja; Treppiccione, Lucia; Maurano, Francesco; De Felice, Maurilio; Rossi, Mauro; Ricca, Ezio

    2013-10-29

    Mucosal infections are a major global health problem and it is generally accepted that mucosal vaccination strategies, able to block infection at their entry site, would be preferable with respect to other prevention approaches. However, there are still relatively few mucosal vaccines available, mainly because of the lack of efficient delivery systems and of mucosal adjuvants. Recombinant bacterial spores displaying a heterologous antigen have been shown to induce protective immune responses and, therefore, proposed as a mucosal delivery system. A non-recombinant approach has been recently developed and tested to display antigens and enzymes. We report that the binding subunit of the heat-labile toxin (LTB) of Escherichia coli efficiently adsorbed on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spores. When nasally administered to groups of mice, spore-adsorbed LTB was able to induce a specific immune response with the production of serum IgG, fecal sIgA and of IFN-γ in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of the immunized animals. Dot blotting experiments showed that the non-recombinant approach was more efficient than the recombinant system in displaying LTB and that the efficiency of display could be further increased by using mutant spores with an altered surface. In addition, immunofluorescence microscopy experiments showed that only when displayed on the spore surface by the non-recombinant approach LTB was found in its native, pentameric form. Our results indicate that non-recombinant spores displaying LTB pentamers can be administered by the nasal route to induce a Th1-biased, specific immune response. Mutant spores with an altered coat are more efficient than wild type spores in adsorbing the antigen, allowing the use of a reduced number of spores in immunization procedures. Efficiency of display, ability to display the native form of the antigen and to induce a specific immune response propose this non-recombinant delivery system as a powerful mucosal vaccine

  3. Display depth analyses with the wave aberration for the auto-stereoscopic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Chen, Duo; Chen, Zhidong; Zhang, Wanlu; Yan, Binbin; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-07-01

    Because the aberration severely affects the display performances of the auto-stereoscopic 3D display, the diffraction theory is used to analyze the diffraction field distribution and the display depth through aberration analysis. Based on the proposed method, the display depth of central and marginal reconstructed images is discussed. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analyses. Increasing the viewing distance or decreasing the lens aperture can improve the display depth. Different viewing distances and the LCD with two lens-arrays are used to verify the conclusion.

  4. A holographic display system based on DMD using LED as light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping; Cheng, Bingchao; Cao, Wenbo; Ma, Jianshe; Cao, Liangcai

    2016-09-01

    Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD) is an important tool in holographic display owning high-speed refresh rate and good diffraction efficiency. However, the reconstruction light source has great impact to image quality. A new holographic display system based on DMD for using light-emitting diodes (LEDs), is proposed in this paper. LEDs are chosen as light source to replace the laser, since it can reduce the speckle noise effectively, which is caused by both temporal and spatial coherence of laser. In order to solve the problem using LED as DMD holographic display light source, the characteristics of DMD as the display device for holographic displays are studied. An aspheric collimator for LED is used to improve the optical efficiency. A spatial filter is used to improve the coherence. The experimental results show that this lighting system has a good display quality.

  5. ICU nurses' evaluations of integrated information displays on user satisfaction and perceived mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sven H; Westenskow, Dwayne; Weir, Charlene; Agutter, Jim; Haar, Maral; Görges, Matthias; Liu, David; Staggers, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Consolidated information from multiple sources (patient monitors, electronic medical records, infusion pumps, ventilators, medication references) may improve nurses' work and patient safety. Objective. Two hypotheses were tested, that integrated information displays (a) improve nurses' satisfaction and (b) lower perceived mental workload. Methods. In a counter-balanced, repeated measures design (integrated vs. traditional display) 12 ICU nurses performed realistic tasks using both display types. Results. Nurses' user interaction satisfaction was higher with the integrated display and it received more positive comments. Nurses' mean perceived mental workload scores were also lower, having significant differences in effort and frustration dimensions. A lower mental workload may reduce errors and improve treatment times. Integrated information displays have great promise, but technological factors such as bidirectional device communication must be addressed if these displays are to achieve their potential for improving patient safety.

  6. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and facilitate high-quality light field or glasses-free 3D image synthesis. In this paper, we introduce a new multi-mode compressive display architecture that supports switching between 3D and high dynamic range (HDR) modes as well as a new super-resolution mode. The proposed hardware consists of readily-available components and is driven by a novel splitting algorithm that computes the pixel states from a target high-resolution image. In effect, the display pixels present a compressed representation of the target image that is perceived as a single, high resolution image. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  7. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase II program Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) proposes to design and build an autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) LCD based aircraft cockpit display...

  8. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an extravehicular activity (EVA) information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to advance development of a new...

  9. Night Vision Device and Cockpit Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Night Vision Device and Cockpit Display labevaluates night vision devices and certifies them for use in the fleet. Lab functions supported include: Analysis of...

  10. Emerging Technologies of Liquid Crystal Displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sin-Doo Lee; Chang-Jae Yu; Jae-Hong Park; Min-Sik Jung

    2003-01-01

    The general features and the emerging technologies of liquid crystal displays are described from the viewpoints of wide viewing and fast response technologies. The device applications of liquid crystals for optical communications are also described.

  11. White constancy method for mobile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Ji Young; Park, Hyun Hee; Jang, Seul Ki; Lee, Jae Hyang; Kim, Jong Ho; Yi, Ji Young; Lee, Min Woo

    2014-03-01

    In these days, consumer's needs for image quality of mobile devices are increasing as smartphone is widely used. For example, colors may be perceived differently when displayed contents under different illuminants. Displayed white in incandescent lamp is perceived as bluish, while same content in LED light is perceived as yellowish. When changed in perceived white under illuminant environment, image quality would be degraded. Objective of the proposed white constancy method is restricted to maintain consistent output colors regardless of the illuminants utilized. Human visual experiments are performed to analyze viewers'perceptual constancy. Participants are asked to choose the displayed white in a variety of illuminants. Relationship between the illuminants and the selected colors with white are modeled by mapping function based on the results of human visual experiments. White constancy values for image control are determined on the predesigned functions. Experimental results indicate that propsed method yields better image quality by keeping the display white.

  12. Bioadsorption strategies with yeast molecular display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Molecular display techniques using microbial cell surfaces have been widely developed in the past twenty years, and are useful tools as whole cell catalysts for various applications such as bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensing, and the screening system of protein libraries. Furthermore, different types of microbial cells among eukaryotic and prokaryotic strains have been investigated for their use in surface display technologies. Recently, several kinds of protein-displaying yeasts have been utilized as bioadsorbents in this platform technology. In particular, these trials have successfully expanded the possibility of applications to metal binding, affinity purification, and receptor-ligand interaction by using the yeast cell surface. In this mini review, we describe the general principles of molecular display technology using yeast cells and its applications, with a particular focus on bioadsorption.

  13. [Review of visual display system in flight simulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guang-hui; Wei, Shao-ning

    2003-06-01

    Visual display system is the key part and plays a very important role in flight simulators and flight training devices. The developing history of visual display system is recalled and the principle and characters of some visual display systems including collimated display systems and back-projected collimated display systems are described. The future directions of visual display systems are analyzed.

  14. Tiled large-screen three-dimensional display consisting of frameless multi-view display modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Yasuhiro; Tokoro, Masayuki; Hirabayashi, Kenji

    2014-03-24

    To realize large-screen three-dimensional (3D) displays, frameless multi-view display modules are arranged two-dimensionally. This paper proposes a multi-view display module in which a multi-view flat-panel display is projected onto a screen of the module to provide a frameless screen. The display module consists of a multi-view flat-panel display, an imaging lens, an aperture, a screen lens, and a vertical diffuser. Prototype display modules were constructed having a screen size of 27.3 in., a 3D resolution of 320 × 200, and 144 viewpoints. Four modules were tiled vertically to provide a screen size of 62.4 in. Distortions in the screen imaging and viewpoint generation were corrected.

  15. Routing and advanced display technologies within STOMPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittu, Ranjeev; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.; McCune, Justin

    1998-08-01

    This paper will discuss research conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory in the area of automated routing, advanced 3D displays and novel interface techniques for interacting with those displays. This research has culminated in the development of the strike optimized mission planing module (STOMPM). The STOMPM testbed incorporates new technologies/results in the aforementioned areas to address the deficiencies in current systems and advance the state of the art in military planing systems.

  16. Beacon data acquisition and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogmo, David G.; Black, Billy D.

    1991-01-01

    A system for transmitting aircraft beacon information received by a secondary surveillance radar through telephone lines to a remote display includes a digitizer connected to the radar for preparing a serial file of data records containing position and identification information of the beacons detected by each sweep of the radar. This information is transmitted through the telephone lines to a remote computer where it is displayed.

  17. Multiple male traits interact: attractive bower decorations facilitate attractive behavioural displays in satin bowerbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricelli, Gail L; Uy, J Albert C; Borgia, Gerald

    2003-11-22

    Sexually selected male courtship displays often involve multiple behavioural and physical traits, but little is known about the function of different traits in mate choice. Here, we examine female courtship behaviours to learn how male traits interact to influence female mating decisions. In satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus), successful males give highly aggressive, intense behavioural displays without startling females. Males do this by modulating their displays in response to female crouching, which signals the display intensity that females will tolerate without being startled. Females typically visit multiple males for multiple courtships before choosing a mate, and females show differing tolerance for intense displays during their first courtship with each male. We test three hypotheses that may explain this: (i) familiarity with the courting male; (ii) the order of the courtship in mate-searching; and (iii) the attractiveness of the courting male. We found that females are more tolerant of intense displays during first courtships with attractive males; this increased female tolerance may allow attractive males to give higher intensity courtship displays that further enhance their attractiveness. We then examined why this is so, finding evidence that females are less likely to be startled by males with better physical displays (bower decorations), and this reduced startling then contributes to male courtship success. This role of physical displays in facilitating behavioural displays suggests a novel mechanism by which multiple physical and behavioural traits may influence female choice.

  18. Preliminary Discussion on reducing the hidden birth dangers in Senile Birth Group based on the“Individual Two Children”Policy%降低“单独二孩”高龄群体生育隐患的初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖秋华; 潘华峰

    2015-01-01

    文章总结了高龄妇女生育存在母婴健康风险大、人工辅助生殖技术异化、家庭经济负担沉重、家庭教育困难等隐患,认为可从端正群众的生育观念、建立人工辅助生殖技术正确认识观、建立新型家庭福利制度、发挥中医药特色生育保健服务职能等方面构建高龄妇女优质生育保障服务体系,呼吁社会关注高龄生育群体,降低二次生育隐患,维护“单独二孩”政策受益群体的权益。%This paper summarizes that the elderly women exist hidden perils of childbearing ,such as the health risks between mother and child,the alienation in ART,the economic burden in family ,difficulties in family education and so on.It puts forward some ideas to construct the reproductive system with high quality in senile birth group,for examples,to correct the attitudes of the masses on giving birth to a child,to set up the correct understanding of ART,to set up the new family welfare system,and play the service function of Chinese medicine on the characteristics of reproductive health care.Senile birth group is calling for social attention to reduce the hidden dangers in the second birth.The main beneficiaries of the policy should be protected.

  19. A new type of multiview display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurk, Silvio; Kuhlmey, Mathias; de la Barré, René

    2015-03-01

    The common architecture of multi-view autostereoscopic displays assigns a nominal viewing distance. The design affects the convergence of the visible rays at a nominal viewing distance where diamond shaped viewing zones are created. In contrast to this approach, the authors present a new design strategy departing from the geometric relations of common 3D display designs. They show that a beam emitted from a sub-pixel should be rendered with an individual camera direction determined by an algorithm. This algorithm also uses, besides the parameters of the display design, the desired viewing distance and the allowed increments of the camera angle. This enables very flexible designs of autostereoscopic displays. The main difference from the common multiview display is that its design approach enables a continued viewing zone without the usually diamond shaped sweet spots. The algorithm for controlling the rendering and the multiplexing is generic, as well as for integral and multiview design approaches using an image splitter raster. The paper introduces it for autostereoscopic displays with horizontal parallax.

  20. Methodologies for the evaluation of CRT displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackman, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of experiments that have been conducted by the Human Factors Research Branch for the purpose of developing objective methods that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of cathode ray tube (CRT) generated displays in improving reactor operator performance. The results of this work can provide a basis for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to objectively evaluate specific licensee-developed display designs. The following methods have been developed: (1) Psychophysics - short exposure of static display types were presented to subjects who were tasked to report status of a given parameter; (2) Multidimensional Rating Scale - paper and pencil instrument employed by subjects to rate the features of a display type across a variety of psychological dimensions; (3) Checklist Evaluation - a paper and pencil instrument employed by subjects to assess particular display types according to a set of human engineering criteria; (4) Noninteractive Evaluation - a formal experiment where the subjects were requested to identify dynamic simulated transients using various display types; and (5) Interactive Evaluation - similar to the noninteractive, but the subjects interacted with the simulator using a touch screen to mitigate transient events.

  1. [Peptide phage display in biotechnology and biomedicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmicheva, G A; Belyavskaya, V A

    2016-07-01

    To date peptide phage display is one of the most common combinatorial methods used for identifying specific peptide ligands. Phage display peptide libraries containing billions different clones successfully used for selection of ligands with high affinity and selectivity toward wide range of targets including individual proteins, bacteria, viruses, spores, different kind of cancer cells and variety of nonorganic targets (metals, alloys, semiconductors etc.) Success of using filamentous phage in phage display technologies relays on the robustness of phage particles and a possibility to genetically modify its DNA to construct new phage variants with novel properties. In this review we are discussing characteristics of the most known non-commercial peptide phage display libraries of different formats (landscape libraries in particular) and their successful applications in several fields of biotechnology and biomedicine: discovery of peptides with diagnostic values against different pathogens, discovery and using of peptides recognizing cancer cells, trends in using of phage display technologies in human interactome studies, application of phage display technologies in construction of novel nano materials.

  2. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmers Lex ACJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N = 454: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (N = 454: no intervention. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief

  3. Autonomic Nervous System Responses Can Reveal Visual Fatigue Induced by 3D Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Chul Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that viewing 3D displays may induce greater visual fatigue than viewing 2D displays. Whether viewing 3D displays can evoke measureable emotional responses, however, is uncertain. In the present study, we examined autonomic nervous system responses in subjects viewing 2D or 3D displays. Autonomic responses were quantified in each subject by heart rate, galvanic skin response, and skin temperature. Viewers of both 2D and 3D displays showed strong positive correlations with heart rate, which indicated little differences between groups. In contrast, galvanic skin response and skin temperature showed weak positive correlations with average difference between viewing 2D and 3D. We suggest that galvanic skin response and skin temperature can be used to measure and compare autonomic nervous responses in subjects viewing 2D and 3D displays.

  4. Monocular display unit for 3D display with correct depth perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Hosomi, Takashi

    2009-11-01

    A study of virtual-reality system has been popular and its technology has been applied to medical engineering, educational engineering, a CAD/CAM system and so on. The 3D imaging display system has two types in the presentation method; one is a 3-D display system using a special glasses and the other is the monitor system requiring no special glasses. A liquid crystal display (LCD) recently comes into common use. It is possible for this display unit to provide the same size of displaying area as the image screen on the panel. A display system requiring no special glasses is useful for a 3D TV monitor, but this system has demerit such that the size of a monitor restricts the visual field for displaying images. Thus the conventional display can show only one screen, but it is impossible to enlarge the size of a screen, for example twice. To enlarge the display area, the authors have developed an enlarging method of display area using a mirror. Our extension method enables the observers to show the virtual image plane and to enlarge a screen area twice. In the developed display unit, we made use of an image separating technique using polarized glasses, a parallax barrier or a lenticular lens screen for 3D imaging. The mirror can generate the virtual image plane and it enlarges a screen area twice. Meanwhile the 3D display system using special glasses can also display virtual images over a wide area. In this paper, we present a monocular 3D vision system with accommodation mechanism, which is useful function for perceiving depth.

  5. Scream-embrace displays in wild black-horned capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica

    2008-06-01

    Reintroduction of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) into their social group in captivity can elicit sirena screams and embraces. Captive scream-embrace displays are male biased, and females never perform sirena screams. One hypothesis is that scream-embrace displays serve a tension-reduction or reconciliatory function between males with conflicting interests. Alternatively, these displays may function to maintain strong affiliative bonds between friendly male dyads. Scream and/or embrace displays in wild Brazilian black-horned capuchins were analyzed for social and ecological contexts, behavioral components, and individuals involved. Seventy-two displays were observed during the 199-day study period. Among the 66 displays for which both members could be identified by sex, there were 42 occurrences of male-male dyads, 17 of male-female dyads, and seven of female-female dyads. Scream-embrace dyads were male-male pairs significantly more often than expected from group membership, and the alpha male was the only male to engage in scream-embrace displays with females. Female-female pairs did embrace, but never emitted sirena screams. Displays most commonly occurred in "reunion" contexts, primarily the reuniting of subgroups after hours or days out of contact, but also after intergroup encounters, and across groups in "intergroup" displays. Displays were rare, but socially contagious, and subgroup reunions could elicit multiple displays in rapid succession. Although the occurrence of screams and embraces was positively correlated, both behaviors also occurred independently, and their functions may be different. Male sirena screams may be honest advertisements of united alliances, directed toward a third party, whereas the embrace may be a risky affiliative signal, directed primarily within the dyad.

  6. Dynamic lens and monovision 3D displays to improve viewer comfort

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Paul V; Kim, Joowan; Saunter, Christopher D; Love, Gordon D; Banks, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) displays provide an additional sense of depth compared to non-stereoscopic displays by sending slightly different images to the two eyes. But conventional S3D displays do not reproduce all natural depth cues. In particular, focus cues are incorrect causing mismatches between accommodation and vergence: The eyes must accommodate to the display screen to create sharp retinal images even when binocular disparity drives the eyes to converge to other distances. This mismatch causes visual discomfort and reduces visual performance. We propose and assess two new techniques that are designed to reduce the vergence-accommodation conflict and thereby decrease discomfort and increase visual performance. These techniques are much simpler to implement than previous conflict-reducing techniques.

  7. Preparation of Panel and Charged Particles for Electrophoretic Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Suk; Park, Jin Woo; Park, Lee Soon; Lee, Jung Kyung; Han, Yoon Soo; Kwon, Younghwan

    Studies on the formulation of photosensitive paste for transparent soft mold press (TSMP) method have been performed. With the optimum formulation of the photosensitive paste the box-type barrier rib with good flexibility and high solvent resistance was fabricated, suitable for the panel material of the electrophoretic display. Cationically-charged white particles were prepared by using TiO2 nanoparticles, silane coupling agent with amino groups, dispersant and acetic acid. The cationically charged TiO2 particles exhibited 74.09 mV of zeta potential and 3.11 × 10-5 cm2/Vs of mobility. Electrophoretic display fabricated with the charged TiO2 particles exhibited 10 V of low driving voltage and maximum contrast ratio (5.3/1) at 30 V.

  8. Presentation of Various Tactile Sensations Using Micro-Needle Electrotactile Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Mayuko; Kitamura, Norihide; Tanaka, Kohei; Miki, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Tactile displays provoke tactile sensations by artificially stimulating tactile receptors. While many types of tactile displays have been developed, electrotactile displays that exploit electric stimulation can be designed to be thin, light, flexible and thus, wearable. However, the high voltages required to stimulate tactile receptors and limited varieties of possible sensations pose problems. In our previous work, we developed an electrotactile display using a micro-needle electrode array that can drastically reduce the required voltage by penetrating through the high-impedance stratum corneum painlessly, but displaying various tactile sensations was still a challenge. In this work, we demonstrate presentation of tactile sensation of different roughness to the subjects, which is enabled by the arrangement of the electrodes; the needle electrodes are on the fingertip and the ground electrode is on the fingernail. With this arrangement, the display can stimulate the tactile receptors that are located not only in the shallow regions of the finger but also those in the deep regions. It was experimentally revealed that the required voltage was further reduced compared to previous devices and that the roughness presented by the display was controlled by the pulse frequency and the switching time, or the stimulation flow rate. The proposed electrotactile display is readily applicable as a new wearable haptic device for advanced information communication technology.

  9. Identifying Suitable Projection Parameters and Display Configurations for Mobile True-3D Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Marcos; Hildebrandt, Dale; Subramanian, Sriram; Irani, Pourang

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We present a two-part exploration on mobile true-3D displays, i.e. displaying volumetric 3D content in mid-air. We first identify and study the parameters of a mobile true-3D projection, in terms of the projection's distance to the phone, angle to the phone, display volume and position within the display. We identify suitable parameters and constraints, which we propose as requirements for developing mobile true-3D systems. We build on the first outcomes to explore met...

  10. Polarity effect in electrovibration for tactile display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Kurt A; Nammi, Krishnakant; Agarwal, Abhishek K; Tyler, Mitchell E; Haase, Steven J; Beebe, David J

    2006-10-01

    Electrovibration is the tactile sensation of an alternating potential between the human body and a smooth conducing surface when the skin slides over the surface and where the current is too small to stimulate sensory nerves directly. It has been proposed as a high-density tactile display method, for example to display pictographic information to persons who are blind. Previous models for the electrovibration transduction mechanism are based on a parallel-plate capacitor in which the electrostatic force is insensitive to polarity. We present experimental data showing that electrovibratory perceptual sensitivity to positive pulses is less than that for negative or biphasic pulses and propose that this disparity may be due to the asymmetric electrical properties of human skin. We furthermore propose using negative pulses for insulated tactile displays based on electrovibration because their sensory thresholds were found to be more stable than for waveforms incorporating positive pulses.

  11. Optical scanning holography for stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jung-Ping; Wen, Hsuan-Hsuan

    2016-10-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a scanning-type digital holographic recording technique. One of OSH's most important properties is that the OSH can record an incoherent hologram, which is free of speckle and thus is suitable for the applications of holographic display. The recording time of a scanning hologram is proportional to the sampling resolution. Hence the viewing angle as well as the resolution of a scanning hologram is limited for avoid too long recording. As a result, the viewing angle is not large enough for optical display. To solve this problem, we recorded two scanning holograms at different viewing angles. The two holograms are synthesized to a single stereoscopic hologram with two main viewing angles. In displaying, two views at the two main viewing angles are reconstructed. Because both views contain full-depth-resolved 3D scenes, the problem of accommodation conflict in conventional stereogram is avoided.

  12. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Angela; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer the intensity, phase, wavefront, Poynting vector, and orbital angular momentum density of unknown optical fields. This measurement technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator (liquid crystal display), a Fourier transforming lens and detector (CCD or photo-diode). Such a diagnostic tool is extremely relevant to the real-time analysis of solid-state and fibre laser systems as well as mode division multiplexing as an emerging technology in optical communication.

  13. Interacting on and around Large Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Anders

    of content that reside outside the display boundaries, taking advantage of users’ perceived location of off-screen content. Off-Limits was found to provide significant benefits over touch-based interaction. The results show that an extension of interactions beyond the boundaries of the display can increase......), a previously successfully text entry method for touch- and pen-based input, to work as a technique for mid-air text entry. With a text entry rate of 20.6 WPM after 10 sessions of text entry, the mid-air WGK provided faster text entry rates than previously evaluated methods for mid-air text entry. An improved....... To improve understanding of the differences between input modalities for large displays, the mid-air WGK was compared to a touch-based functionally equivalent WGK. The touch-based keyboard was found to be significantly faster than the mid-air WGK, indicating that touch based interaction may be preferable...

  14. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  15. Dendritic Cells from Aged Subjects Display Enhanced Inflammatory Responses to Chlamydophila pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CPn is a common respiratory pathogen that causes a chronic and persistent airway infection. The elderly display an increased susceptibility and severity to this infection. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs are the initiators and regulators of immune responses. Therefore, we investigated the role of DCs in the age-associated increased CPn infection in vitro in humans. Though the expression of activation markers was comparable between the two age groups, DCs from aged subjects secreted enhanced levels of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and CXCL-10 in response to CPn. In contrast, the secretion of IL-10 and innate interferons, IFN-α and IFN-λ, was severely impaired in DCs from aged donors. The increased activation of DCs from aged subjects to CPn also resulted in enhanced proliferation of CD4 and CD8 T cells in a DC-T coculture. Furthermore, T cells primed with CPn-stimulated DCs from aged subjects secreted increased levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-10 compared to DCs obtained from young subjects. In summary, DCs from the elderly displayed enhanced inflammatory response to CPn which may result in airway remodeling and increase the susceptibility of the elderly to respiratory diseases such as asthma.

  16. Touch displays: the effects of palm rejection technology on productivity, comfort, biomechanics and positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Matt J; Malige, Ajith; Fujimoto, Jeffrey; Rempel, David M

    2013-01-01

    Direct touch displays can improve the human-computer experience and productivity; however, the higher hand locations may increase shoulder fatigue. Palm rejection (PR) technology may reduce shoulder loads by allowing the palms to rest on the display and increase productivity by registering the touched content and fingertips through the palms rather than shoulders. The effects of PR were evaluated by having participants perform touch tasks while posture and reaction force on the display were measured. Enabling PR, during which the subjects could place the palms on the display (but were not required to), resulted in increased wrist extension, force applied to the display and productivity, and less discomfort, but had no effect on the self-selected positioning of the display. Participants did not deliberately place their palms on the display; therefore, there was no reduction in shoulder load and the increased productivity was not due to improved hand registration. The increased productivity may have been due to reduced interruptions from palm contacts or reduced motor control demands.

  17. Interpretation and display of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It important to properly collect, code, clean and edit the data before interpreting and displaying the research results. Computers play a major role in different phases of research starting from conceptual, design and planning, data collection, data analysis and research publication phases. The main objective of data display is to summarize the characteristics of a data and to make the data more comprehensible and meaningful. Usually data is presented depending upon the type of data in different tables and graphs. This will enable not only to understand the data behaviour, but also useful in choosing the different statistical tests to be applied.

  18. Variable parallax barrier spacing in autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seon Kyu; Khym, Sungwon; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2016-07-01

    In general, multi-view autostereoscopic displays can only provide autostereoscopic images with little crosstalk at the optimum viewing distance (OVD) in the depth direction, limiting the mobility of viewers. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of increasing viewer mobility in the depth direction by varying the distance separating the parallax barrier and the display. Computer simulations and experiments were conducted to verify changes in the OVD resulting from the application of the proposed method. The results showed that the proposed method is effective at changing the OVD with respect to changes in the viewing distance. Therefore this method minimizes changes in the 3D image quality due to the viewer's depth location.

  19. Perceptual transparency in neon color spreading displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz

    2002-08-01

    In neon color spreading displays, both a color illusion and perceptual transparency can be seen. In this study, we investigated the color conditions for the perception of transparency in such displays. It was found that the data are very well accounted for by a generalization of Metelli's (1970) episcotister model of balanced perceptual transparency to tristimulus values. This additive model correctly predicted which combinations of colors would lead to optimal impressions of transparency. Color combinations deviating slightly from the additive model also looked transparent, but less convincingly so.

  20. A Study on Large Display Panel Design for the Countermeasures against Team Errors within the Main Control Room of APR-1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The personal aspect of human errors has been mainly overcome by virtue of the education and training. However, in the system aspect, the education and training system needs to be reconsidered for more effective reduction of human errors affected from various systems hazards. Traditionally the education and training systems are mainly not focused on team skills such as communication, situational awareness, and coordination, etc. but individual knowledge, skill, and attitude. However, the team factor is one of the crucial issues to reduce the human errors in most industries. In this study, we identify the emerging types of team errors, especially, in digitalized control room of nuclear power plants such as the APR-1400 main control room. Most works in nuclear industry are to be performed by a team of more than two persons. Even though the individual errors can be detected and recovered by the qualified others and/or the well trained team, it is rather seldom that the errors by team could be easily detected and properly recovered by the team itself. Note that the team is defined as two or more people who are appropriately interacting with each other, and the team is a dependent aggregate, which accomplishes a valuable goal. Team error is one of the typical organizational errors that may occur during performing operations in nuclear power plants. The large display panel is a representative feature of digitalized control room. As a group-view display, the large display panel provides plant overview to the operators. However, in terms of team performance and team errors, the large display panel is on a discussion board still because the large display panel was designed just a concept of passive display. In this study, we will propose revised large display panel which is integrated with several alternative interfaces against feasible team errors.