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Sample records for group discussions semi-structured

  1. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  2. Summaries of group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    Group discussions following the presentations of reports on the remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay resources are presented. The parameters to be investigated by the remote sensors and the specifications of the sensors are described. Specific sensors for obtaining data on various aspects of the ecology are identified. Recommendations for establishing a data bank and additional efforts to obtain increased understanding of the ecology are submitted.

  3. Group discussion improves lie detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nadav Klein; Nicholas Epley

    2015-01-01

    ... identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions...

  4. Small group discussion: Students perspectives.

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    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran

    2015-08-01

    Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1(st) year medical students of 2014-2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods.

  5. Group discussion improves lie detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-06-16

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a "wisdom-of-crowds" effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the "truth bias"). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment.

  6. Impact of discussion on preferences elicited in a group setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Ruairidh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.

  7. Interteaching: Discussion Group Size and Course Performance

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    Truelove, Jacob C.; Saville, Bryan K.; Van Patten, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have yet to examine whether discussion group size affects student performance in an interteaching-based course. In the current study, we addressed this question by manipulating discussion group size (smaller groups of 2 students vs. larger groups of 4 students) across 2 sections of an undergraduate psychology course. We found no…

  8. Dr. Irvin Yalom Discusses Group Psychotherapy.

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    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1989-01-01

    In this interview, Dr. Irvin Yalom, director of the Adult Psychiatry Clinic at Stanford University School of Medicine, discusses his beginnings as a group psychotherapist, current issues in group work, and the future of group work. (Author/TE)

  9. National GAP Conference 2007-Discussion Groups Report

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    Ratz, Joan M.; Lamb, Berton Lee

    2010-01-01

    We led two discussion groups during the 2007 National GAP Conference. These discussion groups provided information to help develop a survey of National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) data users. One group discussed technical issues, and the second group discussed the use of GAP data for decisionmaking. Themes emerging from the technical issues group included concerns about data quality, need for information on how to use data, and passive data distribution. The decisionmaking discussion included a wide range of topics including the need to understand presentation of information, the need to connect with and understand users of data, the revision of GAP's mission, and the adaptability of products and data. The decisionmaking group also raised concerns regarding technical issues. One conclusion is that a deep commitment to ongoing information transfer and support is a key component of success for the GAP program.

  10. Enhancing Understanding and Interest through Group Discussion

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    Cannon, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Group discussion allows students to learn how to "talk to someone." Through group discussion, students can acquire or refine a broad range of attributes, from basic oratory skills to a more sophisticated development of communicative competence to embracing and valuing dialogic interchange and reflexivity. In this article, the author explains how…

  11. Teaching Organizational Behavior Through Discussion Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Stephen; Hamblin, Anthony C.

    1978-01-01

    An educational experiment in teaching organizational behavior to undergraduates in England is reported, with focus on the value and limitations of a systematic form of discussion-group learning based upon a framework outlined by Fawcett Hill. (LBH)

  12. Group reports. The recommendations proposed by the seven discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1989-01-01

    GROUP 1 — Discussion leader S.H. Sohmer — Organization and the ideal format of a large Flora (over 10,000 species) The Working Group first recognized that there are really two major categories of Flora projects serving quite different needs in the Malesian region: the local/national projects that

  13. Semi-structured Data Extraction and Schema Knowledge Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A semi-structured data extraction method to get the us eful information embedded in a group of relevant web pages and store it with OE M(Object Exchange Model) is proposed. Then, the data mining method is adopted t o discover schema k nowledge implicit in the semi-structured data. This knowledge can make users un derstand the information structure on the web more deeply and thourouly. At the same time, it can also provide a kind of effective schema for the querying of we b information.

  14. Assessing clinical competency: reports from discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnwald, Grant; Stone, Elizabeth; Bristol, David; Fuentealba, Carmen; Hardie, Lizette; Hellyer, Peter; Jaeger, Laurie; Kerwin, Sharon; Kochevar, Deborah; Lissemore, Kerry; Olsen, Christopher; Rogers, Kenita; Sabin, Beth; Swanson, Cliff; Warner, Angeline

    2008-01-01

    This report describes proposed new models for assessment of eight of the nine clinical competencies the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education requires for accreditation. The models were developed by discussion groups at the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges' Clinical Competency Symposium. Clinical competencies and proposed models (in parentheses) are described. Competency 1: comprehensive patient diagnosis (neurologic examination on a dog, clinical reasoning skills); Competency 2: comprehensive treatment planning (concept mapping, computerized case studies); Competency 3: anesthesia, pain management (student portfolio); Competency 4: surgery skills (objective structured clinical examination, cased-based examination, "super dog" model); Competency 5: medicine skills (clinical reasoning and case management, skills checklist); Competency 6: emergency and intensive care case management (computerized case study or scenario); Competency 7: health promotion, disease prevention/biosecurity (360 degrees evaluation, case-based computer simulation); Competency 8: client communications and ethical conduct (Web-based evaluation forms, client survey, communicating with stakeholders, telephone conversation, written scenario-based cases). The report also describes faculty recognition for participating in clinical competency assessments.

  15. Machiavellianism, Discussion Time, and Group Shift

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    Lamm, Helmut; Myers, David G.

    1976-01-01

    Social-emotional and rational-cognitive explanations of group risky shift on choice dilemmas (hypothetical life situations) were evaluated by comparing shift in groups of low Mach (emotional) and high Mach (non-emotional) subjects. Effects of Machiavellian beliefs on social functioning are examined. Group composition was not observed to affect…

  16. Summary of Study Group Session Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between gravitational physiology and calcium metabolism is examined. The role of gravity on the problems of bone response, low gravity environments, calcium in plants, and the potential in animal systems for alterations in nerve and muscle function as variations in extracellular calcium levels occurred are discussed. Innovative materials for experiments on interactions between calcium and gravity, experiments that could utilize ionospheres or calcium-measuring dyes, and specific gravity calcium experiments are also addressed.

  17. The influence of ethnic group composition on focus group discussions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwood, Nan; Ellmers, Theresa; Holley, Jess

    2014-01-01

    ... of importance to them in their own words [2]. They are particularly useful for gaining insight from minority ethnic groups [1, 3] because of their sensitivity to cultural variables [2, 4]. One of the main differences between focus groups and one-to-one interviews is the interaction between participants. Focus group participants can...

  18. [SCAN system--semi-structured interview based on diagnostic criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowski, Tomasz; Kiejna, Andrzej; Hadryś, Tomasz

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the main features of contemporary diagnostic systems which are implemented into the SCAN--modern and semi-structured diagnostic interview. The concepts of further development of the classifications, rationale for operationalized diagnostic criteria and for the divisional approach to mental diagnoses will be in focus. The structure and components of SCAN ver. 2.1 (WHO), i.e. Present State Examination--10th edition, Item Group Checklist, Clinical History Schedule, Glossary of Definitions and computer software with the diagnostic algorithm: I-Shell, as well as rules for a reliable use of diagnostic rating scales, will be discussed within the scope of this paper. The materials and training sets necessary for the learning of proper use of the SCAN, especially training sets for SCAN Training Centers and the Reference Manual--a form of guidebook for SCAN shall be introduced. Finally the paper will present evidence that SCAN is an instrument feasible in different cultural settings. Reliability and validity data of SCAN will also be dealt with indicating that SCAN could be widely used in research studies as well as in everyday clinical practice facilitating more detailed diagnostic approach to a patient.

  19. Simulating social dilemmas: promoting cooperative behavior through imagined group discussion.

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    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    A robust finding in social dilemmas research is that individual group members are more likely to act cooperatively if they are given the chance to discuss the dilemma with one another. The authors investigated whether imagining a group discussion may represent an effective means of increasing cooperative behavior in the absence of the opportunity for direct negotiation among decision makers. Five experiments, utilizing a range of task variants, tested this hypothesis. Participants engaged in a guided simulation of the progressive steps required to reach a cooperative consensus within a group discussion of a social dilemma. Results support the conclusion that imagined group discussion enables conscious processes that parallel those underlying the direct group discussion and is a strategy that can effectively elicit cooperative behavior. The applied potential of imagined group discussion techniques to encourage more socially responsible behavior is discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  20. The Effects of Unstructured Group Discussion on Ethical Judgment

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    Richards, Clinton H.; Alder, G. Stoney

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of shared information and group discussion on ethical judgment when no structure is imposed on the discussion to encourage ethical considerations. Discussants were asked to identify arguments for and against a variety of business behaviors with ethical implications. A group moderator solicited and recorded arguments…

  1. The Effects of Unstructured Group Discussion on Ethical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Clinton H.; Alder, G. Stoney

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of shared information and group discussion on ethical judgment when no structure is imposed on the discussion to encourage ethical considerations. Discussants were asked to identify arguments for and against a variety of business behaviors with ethical implications. A group moderator solicited and recorded arguments…

  2. Learning Physics in Small-Group Discussions--Three Examples

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    Benckert, Sylvia; Pettersson, Sune

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of students learning of physics during group discussions around context-rich problems in introductory physics courses at university level. We present the results from video recordings of student groups solving three different problems. We found that group discussions around physics problems can lead to…

  3. Increasing Social Presence in Online Learning through Small Group Discussions

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    Akcaoglu, Mete; Lee, Eunbae

    2016-01-01

    Social presence is difficult to achieve, but an imperative component of online learning. In this study, we investigated the effect of group size on students' perceptions of social presence in two graduate-level online courses, comparing small group versus whole class discussions. Our results indicated that when in small group discussions, students…

  4. Focus group discussion: a tool for health and medical research.

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    Wong, L P

    2008-03-01

    Focus group discussion is a research methodology in which a small group of participants gather to discuss a specified topic or an issue to generate data. The main characteristic of a focus group is the interaction between the moderator and the group, as well as the interaction between group members. The objective is to give the researcher an understanding of the participants' perspective on the topic in discussion. Focus groups are rapidly gaining popularity in health and medical research. This paper presents a general introduction of the use of focus groups as a research tool within the context of health research, with the intention of promoting its use among researchers in healthcare. A detailed methodology for the conduct of focus groups and analysis of focus group data are discussed. The potentials and limitations of this qualitative research technique are also highlighted.

  5. The group discussion effect: integrative processes and suggestions for implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    One of the most consistent findings in experimental social dilemmas research is the positive effect group discussion has on cooperative behavior. At a time when cooperation and consensus is critical to tackle global problems, ranging from debt to deforestation, understanding the dynamics of group discussion is a pressing need. Unfortunately, research investigating the underlying processes and implementation of the effect has been inconclusive. The authors present a critical review of existing explanations and integrate these perspectives into a single process model of group discussion, providing a more complete theoretical picture of how interrelated factors combine to facilitate discussion-induced cooperation. On the basis of this theoretical analysis, they consider complimentary approaches to the indirect and feasible implementation of group discussion. They argue that such strategies may overcome the barriers to direct discussion observed across a range of groups and organizations.

  6. Situating and Constructing Diversity in Semi-Structured Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele J. McIntosh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although semi-structured interviews (SSIs are used extensively in research, scant attention is given to their diversity, underlying assumptions, construction, and broad applications to qualitative and mixed-method research. In this three-part article, we discuss the following: (a how the SSI is situated historically including its evolution and diversification, (b the principles of constructing SSIs, and (c how SSIs are utilized as a stand-alone research method, and as strategy within a mixed-method design.

  7. Searching for Intertextual Connections in Small Group Text Discussion

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    Chi, Feng-ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the sources for and intentions of intertextuality made by 10 groups of Taiwanese university students in the process of discussing two American stories. Two types of data, small group text discussions and oral interviews, were gathered. The results indicated that participants used diverse sources of intertextual links, and with…

  8. The power of talk : Developing discriminatory group norms through discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Postmes, Tom

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a

  9. The power of talk : Developing discriminatory group norms through discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Postmes, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a

  10. Literature Discussion Groups: The Role of Teacher Talk in Discussing Social Issues

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    Guay, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teacher talk influenced the way issues of race, culture, and disability were addressed in literature discussion groups. Discussions of one teacher with two groups of students, of varying reading levels, were studied. The research questions were: 1) How does the teacher's perspective on the students…

  11. The power of talk: developing discriminatory group norms through discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura G E; Postmes, Tom

    2011-06-01

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a negative societal stereotype (relative to individual rumination in Studies 1 and 3 and alternative discussions in Studies 2 and 3) increases intentions to engage in discrimination against the out-group target of the stereotype. This is mediated by the formation of an in-group norm which supports discrimination (Study 1) and the extent to which the discussion validates the stereotype (Study 2). A fourth study manipulated the extent to which consensus on the negative stereotype was reached through discussion. When the discussion ended in consensus, participants have greater intention to undertake collective action against the stereotyped out-group, mediated by a congruent in-group norm. These results provide evidence that the process by which discussion increases intergroup discrimination is via the formation of discriminatory local group norms. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Visual mining of semi-structured data

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Posada, Jorge; Quartulli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background Vicomtech is visiting CERN to expose their activities and explore possible lines of collaboration. As part of the programme they will be offering a presentation, staged in three parts: Presentation of Vicomtech – Seán Gaines Descriptions of technologies and specialities – Dr. Jorge Posada Details on projects related to the development of visually-based algorithms for intelligent storage, processing, visualization and interaction with Big Data, for massive sources of information. – Dr. Marco Quartulli. The full programme to the visit is here Abstract Mining semi-structured data is fundamental for archive monitoring, understanding and exploitation. Typical analysis systems are based on a three-tiered architecture, in which efficient databases feed highly parallelised application servers that in turn feed client user interfaces. Yet the sharing of analysis, content identification and semantic level summarization tasks among the two bot...

  13. Facilitating Meaningful Discussion Groups in the Primary Grades

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    Moses, Lindsey; Ogden, Meridith; Kelly, Laura Beth

    2015-01-01

    This Teaching Tips describes a yearlong process of facilitating meaningful discussion groups about literature with first-grade students in an urban Title I school. At the beginning of the year, the teacher provided explicit instruction in speaking and listening skills to support students with the social skills needed for thoughtful discussion. She…

  14. Values and Commitments Underlying Discussion. Professional Development on Discussion: Group Images in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Eileen

    The Discussion Development Group (DDG) at Moray House College of Education, Scotland, is a resource center designed as an open learning system to provide inservice training, consultancy support, and resources on classroom discussion. A case study involving 17 teachers and recently conducted by the DDG explored features of process innovation and…

  15. Learning What Works: Promoting Small-Group Discussions

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    DeJarnette, Anna F.; Dao, Jennifer N.; González, Gloriana

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers have designed lessons for students who will be working in groups to discuss and solve a problem. After investing time in constructing an interesting problem, creating strategically designed groups, and introducing the problem carefully, teachers may be left wondering how to help students collaborate to make sense of mathematical…

  16. Analysis of the Characteristics of Discussion Materials that Promote Group Discussion in the Medical Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Hee; Jeon, Woo Taek

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the characteristics of discussion materials that promote student participation in discussions, satisfaction with student instruction, and tutor intervention in the medical humanities. We surveyed 117 premedical students and 7 tutors who attended 4-week group discussions in the medical humanities in 2010. We described the discussion materials using the following 4 characteristics as independent variables: material type, level of understanding, interest, and quantity. Dependent variables were: student participation in the discussion, student instruction satisfaction, and tutor intervention. Correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and crosstab were performed using SPSS 15.0. The correlation between the characteristics of the discussion materials differed by grade. When the books were chosen as the discussion material in the instruction of first-year premedical students, the correlation between level of understanding, interest, and quantity was negative. Higher levels of understanding of the material and interest in the material led to an increase in discussion participation among both first- and second-year premedical students. Higher levels of understanding and interest of the discussion material also increased student satisfaction with the instruction, regardless of grade. Finally, levels of understanding of the material affected the degree of tutor intervention. Tutors intervened more often in discussions with first-year premedical students than with second-year premedical students. Differences in grades and the understanding of the discussion material should be considered when choosing discussion materials. Further study is required to continue the development of the discussion model and improve methods of facilitate discussion among students in the medical humanities.

  17. How Introverts versus Extroverts Approach Small-Group Argumentative Discussions.

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    Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Explored in two studies disparities between how students with different degrees of extroversion and introversion engaged in small-group discussions requiring construction and critique of arguments. Found that extroverted students exhibited a greater tendency to use conflictual discourse, whereas introverted students worked with one another…

  18. Academic Discourse Socialization through Small-Group Discussions

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    Ho, Mei-ching

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the nature of small-group discussion and explores how it fosters oral academic discourse socialization in a TESOL postgraduate course. The participants included four native-English speaking and six non-native English Speaking postgraduate students at a state university in the U.S. The findings revealed that small-group…

  19. Academic Discourse Socialization through Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei-ching

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the nature of small-group discussion and explores how it fosters oral academic discourse socialization in a TESOL postgraduate course. The participants included four native-English speaking and six non-native English Speaking postgraduate students at a state university in the U.S. The findings revealed that small-group…

  20. Extending Students' Mathematical Thinking during Whole-Group Discussions

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    Cengiz, Nesrin; Kline, Kate; Grant, Theresa J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that extending students' mathematical thinking during whole-group discussions is a challenging undertaking. To better understand what extending student thinking looks like and how teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) supports teachers in their efforts to extend student thinking, the teaching of six experienced…

  1. Lexical Bundles: Facilitating University "Talk" in Group Discussions

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    Heng, Chan Swee; Kashiha, Hadi; Tan, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Group discussion forms an integral language experience for most language learners, providing them with an opportunity to express themselves in a naturalistic setting. Multi-word expressions are commonly used and one of them is lexical bundles. Lexical bundles are types of extended collocations that occur more commonly than we expect; they are…

  2. Extending Students' Mathematical Thinking during Whole-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Nesrin; Kline, Kate; Grant, Theresa J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that extending students' mathematical thinking during whole-group discussions is a challenging undertaking. To better understand what extending student thinking looks like and how teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) supports teachers in their efforts to extend student thinking, the teaching of six experienced…

  3. Forming a Turbomachinery Seals Working Group - An Overview and Discussion

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    Proctor, Margaret P.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal to form a Turbomachinery Seals Working Group is discussed. Survey responses regarding the purpose, membership, and meeting frequency are presented as well as the areas of expertise and experience of the respondents. The types of seals used, designed, or sold, current work, and technical challenges of turbomachinery seals, their materials, analysis, geometry, manufacturing, maintenance, testing, and incorporation into engine systems are also presented.

  4. Supervised Group Discussion To Teach Investigation Of An Epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudarssanane M.B

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of investigation of an epidemic was taught to three successive batches of medical students using the data of an actual local outbreak of gastro â€" enteritis. The method used was supervised group discussion using audio â€" visual aids. The objectives achieved about the conduct of the sessions and the suggestions given by the students for improvement have also been highlighted.

  5. Discussions of Fatherhood in Male Batterer Treatment Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Veteläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine how men who have perpetrated violence toward their partners and participated in batterer group talked about being a father and how they perceived their own fatherhood. The discussion in the group was analyzed qualitatively by using the methods of content analysis. In traditional fatherhood, they talked about avoidant, passiveness, distant, indifference, and authoritative controlling ways of acting. These men also created an image of themselves as active and caring fathers, thus including empathy and nurture in the concept of fatherhood. This new fatherhood was considered an achieved goal and an objective for the men as being a father. Talking about fatherhood in these groups is important as fatherhood and relations to children are both an important motivator toward nonviolence.

  6. The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Debbie; Warren, Jim; Price, Kay; Koch, Tina; Pignone, Gino

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the ethical considerations that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists. The use of electronic mail group conversations, as a collaborative data generation method, remains underdeveloped in nursing. Ethical challenges associated with this approach to data generation have only begun to be considered. As receipt of ethics approval for a study titled; 'Describing transition with people who live with chronic illness' we have been challenged by many ethical dilemmas, hence we believe it is timely to share the issues that have confronted the research team. These discussions are essential so we can understand the possibilities for research interaction, communication, and collaboration made possible by advanced information technologies. Our experiences in this study have increased our awareness for ongoing ethical discussions about privacy, confidentiality, consent, accountability and openness underpinning research with human participants when generating data using an electronic mail discussion group. We describe how we work at upholding these ethical principles focusing on informed consent, participant confidentiality and privacy, the participants as threats to themselves and one another, public-private confusion, employees with access, hackers and threats from the researchers. A variety of complex issues arise during cyberspace research that can make the application of traditional ethical standards troublesome. Communication in cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial and sensory components of human interaction, thereby challenging traditional ethical definitions and calling to question some basic assumptions about identity and ones right to keep aspects of it confidential. Nurse researchers are bound by human research ethics protocols; however, the nature of research by electronic mail generates moral issues as well as ethical

  7. Social Network Analysis of an Online Melanoma Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Kathleen T.; McCray, Alexa T.; Safran, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We have developed tools to explore social networks that share information in medical forums to better understand the unmet informational needs of patients and family members facing cancer treatments. We define metrics that demonstrate members discussing interleukin-2 receive a stronger response from the melanoma discussion group than a typical topic. The interleukin-2 network has a different topology than the melanoma network, has a higher density, and its members are more likely to have a higher intimacy level with another member and a lower inquisitiveness level than a typical melanoma user. Members are more likely to join the interleukin-2 network to answer a question than in the melanoma network (probability =.2 ±.05 p-value=.001). Within the melanoma network 20% of the questions posed to the community do not get an answer. In the interleukin-2 network, 1.3% of the questions (one question) do not get a response. PMID:21347134

  8. Audience design through social interaction during group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Shane L; Fay, Nicolas; Maybery, Murray

    2013-01-01

    This paper contrasts two accounts of audience design during multiparty communication: audience design as a strategic individual-level message adjustment or as a non-strategic interaction-level message adjustment. Using a non-interactive communication task, Experiment 1 showed that people distinguish between messages designed for oneself and messages designed for another person; consistent with strategic message design, messages designed for another person/s were longer (number of words) than those designed for oneself. However, audience size did not affect message length (messages designed for different sized audiences were similar in length). Using an interactive communication task Experiment 2 showed that as group size increased so too did communicative effort (number of words exchanged between interlocutors). Consistent with a non-strategic account, as group members were added more social interaction was necessary to coordinate the group's collective situation model. Experiment 3 validates and extends the production measures used in Experiment 1 and 2 using a comprehension task. Taken together, our results indicate that audience design arises as a non-strategic outcome of social interaction during group discussion.

  9. Intelligent assistant for extracting semi-structured web data

    OpenAIRE

    Adžič, Nik

    2016-01-01

    In the revised literature we have not identified any existing approach, which could convert data from semi-structured (websites) or unstructured web sources to the RDF form and consequently integrate into a Linked Data cloud. Therefore, our motivation and objective was to develop intelligent assistant for extracting semi-structured web data. This intelligent assistant should automatically identify and select part of web data, some of those web data should be selected by business user without ...

  10. Online Group Discussion pada Mata Kuliah Teknologi Pembelajaran Fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuberti Yuberti

    2015-10-01

    penawaran akses internet yang menggiurkan demi menarik minat penggunanya. Beberapa fenomena tersebut menunjukkan semakin banyak kalangan yang memanfaatkan internet dan menjadikanya sebagai gaya hidup untuk berintaksi, bersosialisasi, belajar dan mendapatkan informasi. Meluasnya pemanfaatan internet bisa menjadi potensi besar dalam pengembangan pembelajaran dengan sistem online memungkinkan pebelajar untuk mengakses infromasi secara fleksibel tanpa terbatas waktu dan tempat. Diskusi tidak lagi terjadi secara tatap muka, namun dapat terus berlangsung meskipun dalam lingkungan maya. Sebagaimana pelaksanaan metode pembelajaran maya lainnya. Pelaksanaannya diskusi online itu sendiri pada dasarnya mengadopsi dari metode pembelajaran diskusi tatap muka. Kata kunci: online group discussion, teknologi pembelajaran

  11. Groups of Groups: The Role of Group Learning in Building Social Capital. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Bell, Rowena; Falk, Ian

    The Centre for Research and Learning in Regional Australia is investigating the elements of social capital and developing a set of indicators that show when social capital is building. The indicators can be used where groups or organizations with a shared purpose engage in productive interactions that benefit not only the individual member groups…

  12. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-18

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students' eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. This is the first European

  13. Data Collection Methods. Semi-Structured Interviews and Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    like? P5: I usually study in the library. I can’t study in my dorm room because my roommate is always playing video games or playing guitar . It’s...Study. Can’t in dorm rm - rmmate playing vid. games/ guitar . Distracting. Go 4 quiet. M - Usu. trip/length stay? 8 - Depends. stay betw 10...I can’t study in my dorm room because my roommate is always playing video games or his guitar , so it’s too distracting there. So I go to the

  14. Increasing Student Participation in Online Group Discussions via Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions…

  15. Increasing Student Participation in Online Group Discussions via Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions…

  16. A Semi-Structured Document Model for Text Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建武; 陈晓鸥

    2002-01-01

    A semi-structured document has more structured information compared to anordinary document, and the relation among semi-structured documents can be fully utilized. Inorder to take advantage of the structure and link information in a semi-structured document forbetter mining, a structured link vector model (SLVM) is presented in this paper, where a vectorrepresents a document, and vectors' elements are determined by terms, document structure andneighboring documents. Text mining based on SLVM is described in the procedure of K-meansfor briefness and clarity: calculating document similarity and calculating cluster center. Theclustering based on SLVM performs significantly better than that based on a conventional vectorspace model in the experiments, and its F value increases from 0.65-0.73 to 0.82-0.86.

  17. Responding to Financial Reductions Reports from the Discussion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Institutional Management in Higher Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The discussions of participants of a workshop concerning the effects of retrenchment on teaching and research, institutional policies, and institutional operations in European higher educational institutions are summarized. (MSE)

  18. Pretest online discussion groups to augment teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jonathan; Hasbargen, Barbara; Miziniak, Halina

    2010-01-01

    Tests and final examination scores of three semesters of control students in a nursing foundation course were compared with tests and final examination scores of three semesters of participating students. Participating students were offered access to an asynchronous pretest online discussion activity with a faculty e-moderator. While the simplified Bloom's revised taxonomy assisted in creating appropriate preparatory test and final examination questions for pretest online discussion, Salmon's five-stage online method provided direction to the e-moderator on how to encourage students to achieve Bloom's higher-order thinking skills during the pretest online discussions. Statistical analysis showed the pretest online discussion activity had a generally positive impact on tests and final examination scores, when controlling for a number of possible confounding variables, including instructor, cumulative grade point average, age, and credit hours.

  19. The "Us" in Discuss: Grouping in Literature Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes one middle school teacher's use of literature circles using heterogeneous grouping. It begins with a brief rationale for using literature circles in the language arts classroom. Next, it describes techniques to form literature circles. Then, it shares how to build and establish a supportive environment within each group. It…

  20. Puerperal Group A Streptococcal Infections: A Case Series and Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary T. Busowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Puerperal group A streptococcal infections, a major postpartum killer during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, have become (fortunately rare. We describe a cluster of 4 serious peripartum group A streptococcal infections occurring within the past five years at a single medical center. These cases were not epidemiologically linked and serve to illustrate the continuing risk of these potentially fulminant infections.

  1. A Blueprint for Implementing Small-Group Collaborative Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-Jones, Lisa; Proctor, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of the Common Core in many states across the country means we need to explore instructional approaches that promote student language use in order to meet many of the complex linguistic standards that comprise the Common Core. In this Teaching Tip, we provide a blueprint for a 4-week collaborative discussion mini-unit that a second…

  2. Towards a Performance Estimate in Semi-Structured Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas; Iacob, Maria; Haitsma, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Semi-structured processes are business workflows, where the execution of the workflow is not completely controlled by a workflow engine, i.e., an implementation of a formal workflow model. Examples are workflows where actors potentially have interaction with customers reporting the result of the int

  3. Studying Problem Solving through Group Discussion in Chat Rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Kozlova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we use a chat conversations’ corpus to study the process of resolving language problems. Our corpus includes chat conversations which took place between LSP students engaged in correcting errors in their peers’ summaries. The participants worked in groups and used the Windows Messenger program for communication within the group. Their task also included making use of electronic dictionaries and other reference materials. The conversations’ corpus obtained as a result of this exercise was analyzed holistically for possible indicators of each particular stage of the problem solving process. Later these indicators were validated throughout the entire corpus. Each problem solving process was thus represented as a chain of indicators and acceptability was determined for each error correction. The resulting problem solving chains were used to prove our hypotheses concerning internal and external support in text reproduction.

  4. The Effect of Instructional Methods (Lecture-Discussion versus Group Discussion) and Teaching Talent on Teacher Trainees Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutrofin; Degeng, Nyoman Sudana; Ardhana, Wayan; Setyosari, Punaji

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine difference in the effect of instructional methods (lecture-discussion versus group discussion) and teaching talent on teacher trainees student learning outcomes. It was conducted by a quasi-experimental design using the factorialized (2 x 2) version of the nonequivalent control group design. The subjects were…

  5. Determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter

    2015-02-28

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in energy related behaviours in students. The first objective of this explorative study was to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Belgian university students. Secondly, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, seven focus group discussions were conducted consisting of 17 male and 29 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.7 ± 1.6 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Students reported that both physical and sedentary activities were influenced by individual factors (e.g. perceived enjoyment, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, modelling, social support), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, travel time/distance, prices), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' physical activity and sedentary behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, university lifestyle, exams and academic pressure. Recommendations for future physical activity interventions include improving information strategies regarding on-campus sports activities, cheaper and/or more flexible sports subscriptions and formulas, including 'sports time' into the curricula, and providing university bicycles around campus. Students also believed that increasing students' physical activity might decrease their sedentary behaviour at the same time. The recommendations and ideas discussed in this study may facilitate the development of effective and tailored (multilevel) intervention programs aiming to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students.

  6. Effects of Tagcloud-Anchored Group Discussions on Pre-Service Teachers' Collaborative Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Yuan; Xie, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Group discussions are critical for students constructing new understanding and knowledge in both classroom and distance education. Tagclouds can provide an intuitive overview about the group's collective knowledge and could potentially be used as an anchor for group discussions. The effect of using tagclouds as anchors for group discussions was…

  7. Specification and Verification for Semi-Structured Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tree logic, inherited from ambient logic, is introduced as the formal foundation of related programming language and type systems. In this paper, we introduce recursion into such logic system, which can describe the tree data more clearly and concisely. By making a distinction between proposition and predicate, a concise semantics interpretation for our modal logic is given. We also develop a model checking algorithm for the logic without  operator. The correctness of the algorithm is shown. Such work can be seen as the basis of the semi-structured data processing language and more flexible type system.

  8. Group Discussions and Test-Enhanced Learning: Individual Learning Outcomes and Personality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Jonsson, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions…

  9. Group Discussions and Test-Enhanced Learning: Individual Learning Outcomes and Personality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Jonsson, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions…

  10. Semi-structured meshes for axial turbomachinery blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbardella, L.; Sayma, A. I.; Imregun, M.

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a novel mesh generator for the flow analysis of turbomachinery blades. The proposed method uses a combination of structured and unstructured meshes, the former in the radial direction and the latter in the axial and tangential directions, in order to exploit the fact that blade-like structures are not strongly three-dimensional since the radial variation is usually small. The proposed semi-structured mesh formulation was found to have a number of advantages over its structured counterparts. There is a significant improvement in the smoothness of the grid spacing and also in capturing particular aspects of the blade passage geometry. It was also found that the leading- and trailing-edge regions could be discretized without generating superfluous points in the far field, and that further refinements of the mesh to capture wake and shock effects were relatively easy to implement. The capability of the method is demonstrated in the case of a transonic fan blade for which the steady state flow is predicted using both structured and semi-structured meshes. A totally unstructured mesh is also generated for the same geometry to illustrate the disadvantages of using such an approach for turbomachinery blades. Copyright

  11. discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S. Poznyak

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a version of Robust Stochastic Maximum Principle (RSMP applied to the Minimax Mayer Problem formulated for stochastic differential equations with the control-dependent diffusion term. The parametric families of first and second order adjoint stochastic processes are introduced to construct the corresponding Hamiltonian formalism. The Hamiltonian function used for the construction of the robust optimal control is shown to be equal to the Lebesque integral over a parametric set of the standard stochastic Hamiltonians corresponding to a fixed value of the uncertain parameter. The paper deals with a cost function given at finite horizon and containing the mathematical expectation of a terminal term. A terminal condition, covered by a vector function, is also considered. The optimal control strategies, adapted for available information, for the wide class of uncertain systems given by an stochastic differential equation with unknown parameters from a given compact set, are constructed. This problem belongs to the class of minimax stochastic optimization problems. The proof is based on the recent results obtained for Minimax Mayer Problem with a finite uncertainty set [14,43-45] as well as on the variation results of [53] derived for Stochastic Maximum Principle for nonlinear stochastic systems under complete information. The corresponding discussion of the obtain results concludes this study.

  12. Choosing none of the above: Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  13. Choosing none of the above : Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2008-01-01

    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  14. Group discussions and test-enhanced learning: individual learning outcomes and personality characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Bert

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N?=?98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions benefit learning when compared to test-enhanced learning over time. The results showed that feedback does not seem to have any effect if provid...

  15. The influence of group discussion on performance judgments: rating accuracy, contrast effects, and halo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jerry K; Loveland, James M

    2008-03-01

    The authors investigated the effect of group discussion, such as may occur formally in panel interview scenarios, assessment centers, or 360-degree feedback situations, on judgments of performance. Research on group polarization suggests that the effect of group discussion combined with raters' preexisting impressions of ratees or interviewees should result in an extremitization of impressions. Thus, the authors hypothesized that group discussion would (a) make ratings less accurate, (b) polarize impressions that were already good or poor as reflected by greater contrast effects, and (c) increase positive halo. Results indicated that group discussion resulted in less accurate ratings and greater contrast effects. Additional analyses suggested that group discussion increased positive halo. The authors discuss implications for research on group or panel judgments.

  16. SEMCARE: Multilingual Semantic Search in Semi-Structured Clinical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Pablo; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan; Scherr, Daniel; Daumke, Philipp; Markó, Kornél; Kors, Jan A; van Mulligen, Erik M; Wang, Xinkai; Gonna, Hanney; Behr, Elijah; Honrado, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The vast amount of clinical data in electronic health records constitutes a great potential for secondary use. However, most of this content consists of unstructured or semi-structured texts, which is difficult to process. Several challenges are still pending: medical language idiosyncrasies in different natural languages, and the large variety of medical terminology systems. In this paper we present SEMCARE, a European initiative designed to minimize these problems by providing a multi-lingual platform (English, German, and Dutch) that allows users to express complex queries and obtain relevant search results from clinical texts. SEMCARE is based on a selection of adapted biomedical terminologies, together with Apache UIMA and Apache Solr as open source state-of-the-art natural language pipeline and indexing technologies. SEMCARE has been deployed and is currently being tested at three medical institutions in the UK, Austria, and the Netherlands, showing promising results in a cardiology use case.

  17. The role of support groups in facilitating families in coping with a genetic condition and in discussion of genetic risk information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Gillian; Metcalfe, Alison; Coad, Jane; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-09-01

      Giving children and young people information about genetic conditions and associated risk has been shown to be important to their identity, coping and decision making. Parents, however, find talking to their children difficult, and support from health professionals is often not available to them.   To explore the role of support groups in family coping, and in assisting parents' communication about risk with children in families affected by an inherited genetic condition.   Semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory and informed by models focusing on aspects of family communication.   Affected and unaffected children and their parents, from families affected by one of six genetic conditions, that represent different patterns of inheritance, and variations in age of onset, life expectancy and impact on families.   Parents often sought support they did not receive elsewhere from support groups. They identified benefits, but also potential disadvantages to this involvement. These related to the specific condition and also whether groups were run solely by parents or had professional input. Support groups rarely helped directly with family communication, but attendance often stimulated family discussion, and they provided information that improved parents' confidence in discussing the condition.   Support groups should be seen only as additional to the support offered by health and social care professionals. An increased understanding of the role of support groups in assisting families with genetic conditions has been highlighted, but further work is needed to explore more fully how this may be made more sustainable and far-reaching. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  19. Challenges in the doctor-patient relationship: 12 tips for more effective peer group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hamish

    2015-09-01

    In New Zealand, almost all general practitioners are members of peer groups, which provide opportunities for both clinical discussion and collegial support. This article proposes that peer groups can also be a useful medium for exploring specific challenges within the doctor-patient relationship. However, the peer group culture needs to be receptive to this particular goal. Structured discussion can help peer group members explore interpersonal issues more thoroughly.

  20. The Effect of Small Group Discussion on Cutoff Scores during Standard Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deunk, Marjolein I.; van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Bosker, Roel J.

    2014-01-01

    Standard setting methods, like the Bookmark procedure, are used to assist education experts in formulating performance standards. Small group discussion is meant to help these experts in setting more reliable and valid cutoff scores. This study is an analysis of 15 small group discussions during two standards setting trajectories and their effect…

  1. Relevant Prior Knowledge Moderates the Effect of Elaboration during Small Group Discussion on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…

  2. Promoting Thinking, Problem-Solving and Reasoning during Small Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2011-01-01

    The study reports on the types of questioning strategies teachers use to promote thinking, problem-solving and reasoning during small group discussions. The study also reports on the types of discourses students use to problem-solve and reason during their small group discussions. An audiotape of one class lesson from the three teachers included…

  3. Relevant prior knowledge moderates the effect of elaboration during small group discussion on academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Blankenstein (Floris); D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion

  4. Qualitative Research and Consumer Policy: Focus Group Discussions as a Form of Consumer Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…

  5. Group discussions and test-enhanced learning: individual learning outcomes and personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U; Jonsson, Bert

    2017-02-07

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions benefit learning when compared to test-enhanced learning over time. The results showed that feedback does not seem to have any effect if provided to a discussion group, and that test-enhanced learning leads to better learning than the discussion groups, independent of retention interval. Moreover, we examined whether memory and learning might be influenced by the participants' need for cognition (NFC). The results showed that those scoring high on NFC remembered more than those who scored low. To conclude, testing trumps discussion groups from a learning perspective, and the discussion groups were also the least beneficial learning context for those scoring low on NFC.

  6. A Tentative Study of Agreement among University Freshmen in Oral English Group Discussions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨非

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find out how university freshmen came to an agreement in oral English. There were twenty groups in two classes of freshmen who took part in this activity and got involved in the classroom discussions and after-class communications. The classes were divided into groups of six members. The results of the research showed that while the freshmen got involved in the group discussions, they used social communicative skills to reach a final agreement.

  7. A Tentative Study of Agreement among University Freshmen in Oral English Group Discussions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨非

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find out how university freshmen came to an agreement in oral English. There weretwenty groups in two classes of freshmen who took part in this activity and got involved in the classroom discussions and after-classcommunications. The classes were divided into groups of six members. The results of the research showed that while the freshmen gotinvolved in the group discussions, they used social communicative skills to reach a final agreement.

  8. PERCEIVED RISK WHEN BUYING ONLINE: EVIDENCE FROM A SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iconaru Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain deeper understanding in consumers’ perceptions regarding risk involved when buying online, a semi-structured interview was employed. 30 internet users that have purchased a product or service using the Internet within the last three months were questioned regarding their fears when deciding to buy from an e-commerce web site. The respondents were selected according to a stratified sampling technique. Based on the respondents’ answers but also taking into consideration previous empirical findings, I classify different types of perceived risk into: financial risk, privacy risk, performance risk, delivery risk, time risk, psychological risk and social risk. The results show that Romanian consumers perceive a high degree of risk when conducting an electronic transaction, which could be the reason why Romania has a small e-commerce adoption rate although the internet penetration rate is quite high. Further managerial implications are discussed.

  9. Cutting the Cord: Student-Led Discussion Groups in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, John; McGuinness, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of leaderless group discussions and peer assessment in undergraduate classes to develop teamwork skills and the capacity for independent thought and action students will need on the job. (SK)

  10. Discussing group work in the EFL classroom from a Chinese cultural perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊宇; 张冬瑜

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the EFL teachers, particularly those western teachers, who are teaching in China, to obtain a better understanding of group work by exploring and discussing its use from a Chinese cultural perspective.

  11. Student satisfaction and self-assessment after small group discussion in a medical ethics education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Shin, Jwa-Seop

    2009-09-01

    Small group discussions are useful tools in medical ethics education. We aimed to assess student satisfaction with specific components of a small group discussion and to evaluate student self-assessment of the objectives of education. A structured questionnaire was developed after a literature review and a focus group interview. Components of the small group discussion were categorized by discussion case (self, other), individual activities (self-study, making materials, presentation experience), and group activities (preclass/in-class/postclass/plenary discussion, instructor's comments). The items for student self-assessment were: "To specify ethical issue in actual practice", "To get new knowledge", "To consider doctor's entity", "Empathy to others", "To get multidimensional viewpoint", "Viewpoint change", "To deliver my thought clearly", and "Ability to confront the medical ethics dilemma in the future". After the survey, an in-depth interview was performed to determine the reason behind the students' answers. A total of 121 students responded, for whom overall satisfaction and self-assessment were high. Students reported greater satisfaction with self-case, presentation experience, in-class discussion, and instructor's comments but less satisfaction with self-study before class and postclass discussion. Student self-assessment was highest in the ability to specify an ethical issue and lowest for viewpoint change and self-confidence. After multivariate analysis, higher student self-assessment was associated with greater satisfaction with the small group discussion. To improve the quality of medical ethics education, close investigation and monitoring of each component of the small group discussion and student achievement are essential, as is continuous feedback.

  12. [The Mechanism of Free-Floating Discussion in a Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing Supervisory Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsien-Hsien

    2015-06-01

    Although the free-floating discussion format is widely used in group therapy, the application of this format in the context of supervisory groups has yet to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanisms involved in facilitating and learning the free-floating discussion format in a supervisory group. A phenomenological approach was used to investigate the group content and personal feedback of a psychiatric-nurse supervisory group. The group held on 12 sessions. Each session was conducted once weekly and lasting 150 minutes. The findings identified the functions of free-floating discussions in the context of supervisory groups as: embodied interaction and initiation by handling. Embodied interaction included: reflection on the experience of the other, sense of body, and present action. Initiation by handling included: facilitating the self-narrative, following the lead of the group, and reflecting in accordance with the group. The role of the facilitator is to parallel process rather than to lead in order to produce practical wisdom. Free-floating discussion and self-evidence from initiation by handling has the potential to promote spontaneity, creativity, and self-confidence in clinical practice and to promote deep learning.

  13. Social Skills and Leadership Abilities among Children in Small-Group Literature Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Janine L.

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood educators are attempting to shift from the dominant "recitation" format of discussions found in today's classrooms. This study draws on reader response, and sociocognitive and sociocultural theories to investigate children's perceptions of social skills and leadership moves after participating in small-group discussions of…

  14. Advances and bottlenecks in modelling the greenhouse climate: summary of a group discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seginer, I.; Bakker, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a summary of a group discussion at the symposium 'Models in protected cultivation' held in Wageningen, August 1997. The discussion focused on the reasons for the relatively limited acceptance and application of greenhouse climate models, especially in commercial practice. The discussi

  15. Indian Youth Speak about Tobacco: Results of Focus Group Discussions with School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arima; Arora, Monika; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were conducted as a formative assessment for Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, multicomponent, school-based trial to prevent and control tobacco use among youth in India. Forty-eight FGDs were conducted with students (N…

  16. Using the Self-Consciousness Scale to Predict Student Discussion Group Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, Michael G.; Keller, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    This study used the Self-Consciousness Scale to test the hypothesis that socially anxious people could seek to avoid embarrassment and do poorly in small group discussions as a result. Those people high in private self-consciousness (lacking concern for social evaluation) would participate more in discussions. Findings supported the hypothesis.…

  17. Using Multimodal Presentation Software and Peer Group Discussion in Learning English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-jung

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an application of multimedia in a blended learning environment in which students engaged in multimodal presentations and peer group discussion. Students' presentation files were commented upon by their peers on the discussion board and scored by the researcher, based on questions developed by Levy and Kimber (2009) to apply…

  18. Attitudes and Language Use in Group Discussions on Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar; Folkesson, Anne-Mari

    2016-01-01

    The school systems of many countries have been pervaded by student-centred pedagogy making students' small group discussion a common feature of the classroom practice.However, there is a lack of studies focussing different modes of discussion for the purpose of finding out whether some modes are more beneficial than others. Hence, the aim of this…

  19. Literacy and Technology: Integrating Technology with Small Group, Peer-Led Discussions of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Genya

    2012-01-01

    This review examines research of computer-mediated small group discussion of literature. The goal of this review is to explore several instructional formats for integrating print-based and new literacies skills. First, the theoretical foundations for the shift from teacher-led to student led discussion are outlined. Research exploring ways in…

  20. Learning through Discussions: Comparing the Benefits of Small-Group and Large-Class Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin; Wilson, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on teaching and learning heralds the benefits of discussion for student learner outcomes, especially its ability to improve students' critical thinking skills. Yet, few studies compare the effects of different types of face-to-face discussions on learners. Using student surveys, we analyze the benefits of small-group and large-class…

  1. Social Skills and Leadership Abilities among Children in Small-Group Literature Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Janine L.

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood educators are attempting to shift from the dominant "recitation" format of discussions found in today's classrooms. This study draws on reader response, and sociocognitive and sociocultural theories to investigate children's perceptions of social skills and leadership moves after participating in small-group discussions of…

  2. Gender Issues on the Information Highway: An Analysis of Communication Styles in Electronic Discussion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Paolo

    A study investigated gender differences in language use in electronic mail discussion groups. A review of research on discourse analysis identifies areas in which gender differences are found in interpersonal interaction and language use in general, and how these reflect differences in socialization. Research on electronic discussion groups…

  3. A Glimpse of Interactional Strategies Used in Group Discussion in the EFL Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林美笑

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of literature review, this paper discusses what interactional strategies are in group discussions conducted in the EFL classroom. Two frameworks for interactional strategies are investigated to explore the types of interactional strategies. This aims to shed light upon the analysis of interactional features in face-to-face communication.

  4. Theorising Dyslexic Student Discussion/Action Groups in UK Higher Education: Research in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jenny; Herrington, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This "research in practice" analyses the experience of operating discussion/action groups with dyslexic students in higher education in three British universities which reflects a shift from the practice of developing "support groups" to a more developmental, proactive stance. It does so in the current UK legislative context…

  5. Designing a bone health and soy focus group discussion guide based on the health belief model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focus groups were used to assess the knowledge and skills of women in order to support curricula development. The Health Belief Model was applied to the discussion guide to enhance focus group findings and applications. Constructs related to perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers...

  6. The Effects of L1 and L2 Group Discussions on L2 Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Blake; Evans, Moyra Sweetnam

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of post-reading group discussions in both first (L1) and second (L2) languages on L2 reading comprehension. The participants were fifteen Japanese university students of intermediate-level English. Three cohorts read four English texts and produced individual written recalls. Group 1 (the control…

  7. Using a Facebook Group as a Forum to Distribute, Answer and Discuss Content: Influence on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Blanche W.; Britt, Virginia G.; Beard, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using a Facebook group to increase preservice teachers' knowledge when one was used as a forum to share, answer, and discuss content-related questions in a technology course required for all students seeking teacher licensure. Further, it examined the students' prior use of Facebook groups, how the…

  8. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  9. Talking Mats in a discussion group for people with Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Lisa; Mellgren, Elin; Hartelius, Lena; Ferm, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the function of Talking Mats (TM) in a discussion group for people with Huntington's disease (HD). Four persons with HD and their group leader participated. The group was videotaped during four discussions, two with and two without TM. A mixed method quantitative and qualitative study was implemented by evaluating the conversations using the protocol Effectiveness Framework of Functional Communication by analyzing the number of follow-up questions and by post discussion interviews. The results showed improved effectiveness of communication for all participants and an increased number of follow-up questions, both from the group leader and from some of the participants. All participants and the leader were positive regarding the use of TM but there were also drawbacks. TM could be useful in discussion groups for people with HD. An increased number of follow-up questions when TM is used may lead to a deeper understanding within the group. This study is the first of its kind and more research in the area is needed. [Box: see text].

  10. Health information, credibility, homophily, and influence via the Internet: Web sites versus discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoming; Walther, Joseph B; Pingree, Suzanne; Hawkins, Robert P

    2008-07-01

    Despite concerns about online health information and efforts to improve its credibility, how users evaluate and utilize such information presented in Web sites and online discussion groups may involve different evaluative mechanisms. This study examined credibility and homophily as two underlying mechanisms for social influence with regard to online health information. An original experiment detected that homophily grounded credibility perceptions and drove the persuasive process in both Web sites and online discussion groups. The more homophilous an online health information stimulus was perceived as being, the more likely people were to adopt the advice offered in that particular piece of information.

  11. The Hampstead Clinic at work. Discussions in the Diagnostic Profile Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    Minutes of the Hampstead Clinic's Diagnostic Profile Research Group during a fifteen-month period (1964-1965) are reviewed and discussed. A wide range of topics were considered and discussed, with a special focus on the affective life, object relations, and ego function of atypical children in comparison to the early ego functions and differentiation of normal and neurotic children. These lively clinical and theoretical discussions and their implications for therapeutic work with a wide range of children, demonstrate the multifaceted leadership and contributions of Anna Freud as teacher, clinician, and thinker, and of the Hampstead Clinic as a major center for psychoanalytic studies.

  12. Effects of communication strategy training on EFL students’ performance in small-group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Benson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted with regard to communication strategy training and performance on communicative tasks (Lam, 2009; Nakatani, 2010; Naughton, 2006. This study aims to add to the literature by examining how two strategies, clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation, and two methods of teaching the strategies, affected the interactional sequences and overall group discussion performance of EFL students at a university in Japan. Pre and posttreatment small-group discussions were recorded for assessment, and a stimulated recall interview was administered to determine the participants’ perceptions of their learning and language use. Posttest results reveal that the experimental groups that were taught predetermined phrases aimed at clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation employed such phrases more frequently than the control group. However, this employment of phrases did not lead to higher gains in group discussion skills as the control group enjoyed the largest gains from pre to posttest. The researchers consider the findings in light of previous research, and conclude with recommendations for future research on the topic with special regard to research design.

  13. Tagging Thinking Types in Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Effects on Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellens, T.; Van Keer, H.; De Wever, B.; Valcke, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study focuses on the use of thinking types as a possible way to structure university students' discourse in asynchronous discussion groups and consequently promote their learning. More specifically, the aim of the study is to determine how requiring students to label their contributions by means of De Bono's (1991) thinking hats…

  14. Upper Secondary Students in Group Discussions about Physics and Our Presuppositions of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    In this article we report on a group activity, based on previous work [Hansson & Redfors: 2006b, "Science & Education" (accepted)], in an upper secondary physics class in Sweden. The aim was to engage students in a discussion about which presuppositions that are really necessary for physics. During the activity the students were to decide about…

  15. Examination of Students' Small Groups Discussion in Argumentation Process: Scientific and Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Esra Kabatas; Cevik, Ebru Ezberci

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine processes experienced by students of different achievement levels in small group discussions in argumentation applications conducted in scientific and socio-scientific issues. Case study which is a qualitative research design was used for the study. In this line, a success test including mechanical subjects…

  16. Quantifying the Effect of Discussion Group Membership on Technology Adoption and Farm Profit on Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Thia; Heanue, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Participatory extension, specifically farm discussion groups, has become a very popular form of agricultural extension in Ireland. The purpose of this article is to assess its effectiveness in promoting the adoption of new technologies and improving farm profit. Design/Methodology/Approach: Following a review of the background and theory…

  17. A Framework for Conducting Critical Dialectical Pluralist Focus Group Discussions Using Mixed Research Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Frels, Rebecca K.

    2015-01-01

    Although focus group discussions (FGDs) represent a popular data collection tool for researchers, they contain an extremely serious flaw: FGD researchers have ultimate power over all decisions made at every stage of the research process--from the conceptualization of the research, to the planning of the research study, to the implementation of the…

  18. A High-Leverage Language Teaching Practice: Leading an Open-Ended Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for more practice-based teacher education, this study investigated the way in which two high-performing novice world language teachers, one in Spanish and one in Latin, implemented a high-leverage teaching practice, leading an open-ended group discussion. Observational data revealed a number of constituent micro-practices. The…

  19. Creating Spaces for Critical Transformative Dialogues: Legitimising Discussion Groups as Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Groves, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Focussed dialogue (as lived and living practices) can have a powerful role in renewing professional practice, advancing its sustainability and development as administrative and political systems colonise the practices of teachers and teacher educators. However, participating in discussion groups for many teachers, including those in academia, is…

  20. Communicating for Diversity: Using Teacher Discussion Groups to Transform Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Mare, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    The author argues that in order to create space for authentic multicultural engagement in the face of Eurocentric norms, teachers should form discussion groups that follow five basic guidelines: engage, don't enrage; be comfortable with negative emotion; watch for and change unproductive language; talk about everything; and engage in classroom…

  1. Evaluating Impact of Small-Group Discussion on Learning Utilizing a Classroom Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flosason, Thorhallur O.; McGee, Heather M.; Diener-Ludwig, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Classroom response systems (also referred to as clickers) can enhance learning outcomes and are generally viewed favorably by students and instructors alike. The current study used an alternating treatments design to examine whether discussing questions in small groups before responding to clicker questions during lecture improved accurate…

  2. Talk in the Science Classroom: Using Verbal Behaviour Analysis as a Tool for Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lynne; Booth, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study following on from a curriculum development activity with teachers and children in primary school classrooms, using a framework for group discussion developed by Huthwaite International. The Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University and Huthwaite International worked with teachers from three…

  3. Online Reflective Group Discussion--Connecting First Year Undergraduate Students with Their Third Year Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Annetta K. L.

    2011-01-01

    University professional programs seek to develop students as reflective practitioners. The ability to critically reflect is often assumed to occur along the way. The explicit development of critical reflective skills among students is challenging. This study describes the utilization of online group discussion for critical reflection and provides…

  4. Talking Science: The Research Evidence on the Use of Small Group Discussions in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Judith; Hogarth, Sylvia; Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Robinson, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two systematic reviews of the use and effects of small group discussions in high school science teaching. Ninety-four studies were included in an overview (systematic map) of work in the area, and 24 studies formed the basis of the in-depth reviews. The reviews indicate that there is considerable diversity in the…

  5. Influence of a Teacher's Scaffolding Moves during Child-Led Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadallah, May; Anderson, Richard C.; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim; Miller, Brian W.; Kim, Il-Hee; Kuo, Li-Jen; Dong, Ting; Wu, Xiaoying

    2011-01-01

    The influence of one teacher's scaffolding moves on children's performance in free-flowing child-led small-group discussions was investigated. Three moves were examined: prompting for and praising the use of evidence, asking for clarification, and challenging. Lag sequential analysis was applied to a corpus of over 5,300 speaking turns during 30…

  6. The Influence of Group Discussion on Students' Responses and Confidence during Peer Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Bill J.; Koretsky, Milo D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer instruction is an active-learning pedagogy in which students answer short, conceptually based questions that are interspersed during instruction. A key element is the group discussion that occurs among students between their initial and final answers. This study analyzes student responses during a modified form of peer instruction in two…

  7. Students discussing their mathematical ideas: Group-tests and mind-maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pijls; D. de Kramer

    2008-01-01

    In an explorative research project, teachers experimented with new ideas to make their students discuss (i.e. show, explain, justify and reconstruct their work) their mathematical ideas with each other. Two kind of special tasks were developed: group tests and mind maps. Also, the role of the teache

  8. Quantifying the Effect of Discussion Group Membership on Technology Adoption and Farm Profit on Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Thia; Heanue, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Participatory extension, specifically farm discussion groups, has become a very popular form of agricultural extension in Ireland. The purpose of this article is to assess its effectiveness in promoting the adoption of new technologies and improving farm profit. Design/Methodology/Approach: Following a review of the background and theory…

  9. A High-Leverage Language Teaching Practice: Leading an Open-Ended Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for more practice-based teacher education, this study investigated the way in which two high-performing novice world language teachers, one in Spanish and one in Latin, implemented a high-leverage teaching practice, leading an open-ended group discussion. Observational data revealed a number of constituent micro-practices. The…

  10. Preparing for microbicide trials in Rwanda: Focus group discussions with Rwandan women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Veldhuijzen; J. Nyinawabega; M. Umulisa; B. Kankindi; E. Geubbels; P. Basinga; J. Vyankandondera; J. van de Wijgert

    2006-01-01

    The acceptability and feasibility of microbicide studies and future microbicide use are influenced by existing norms and values regarding sexual and contraceptive behaviour. In preparation for microbicide research in Rwanda, focus group discussions were conducted to assess sexual and contraceptive b

  11. Evaluating Impact of Small-Group Discussion on Learning Utilizing a Classroom Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flosason, Thorhallur O.; McGee, Heather M.; Diener-Ludwig, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Classroom response systems (also referred to as clickers) can enhance learning outcomes and are generally viewed favorably by students and instructors alike. The current study used an alternating treatments design to examine whether discussing questions in small groups before responding to clicker questions during lecture improved accurate…

  12. The Influence of Group Discussion on Students' Responses and Confidence during Peer Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Bill J.; Koretsky, Milo D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer instruction is an active-learning pedagogy in which students answer short, conceptually based questions that are interspersed during instruction. A key element is the group discussion that occurs among students between their initial and final answers. This study analyzes student responses during a modified form of peer instruction in two…

  13. Women's experiences of participation in a pregnancy and postnatal group incorporating yoga and facilitated group discussion: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Frances; Hornibrook, Julie

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a small qualitative research study which explored women's experiences of participation in a pregnancy and postnatal group that incorporated yoga and facilitated discussion. The group is offered through a community based feminist non-government women's health Centre in Northern NSW Australia. The purpose of the research was to explore women's experiences of attending this pregnancy and postnatal group. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to explore women's experiences of attending the group. Fifteen women participated in individual, in-depth face-to-face interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was undertaken to analyse the qualitative data. Six themes were developed, one with 3 subthemes. One theme was labelled as: 'the pregnancy and motherhood journey' and included 3 sub-themes which were labelled: 'preparation for birth', 'connecting with the baby' and 'sharing birth stories.' The other five themes were: 'feminine nurturing safe space', 'watching and learning the mothering', 'building mental health, well-being and connections', the "group like a rock and a seed' and 'different from mainstream'. This research adds to the overall body of knowledge about the value of yoga in pre and postnatal care. It demonstrates the value of sharing birth stories and the strong capacity women have to support one another, bringing benefits of emotional and social well-being, information, resources and support derived from group based models of care. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Teaching medical ethics: problem-based learning or small group discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Akram; Adeli, Seyyed-Hassan; Taziki, Sadegh-Ali; Akbari, Valliollahe; Ghadir, Mohammad-Reza; Moosavi-Movahhed, Seyyed-Majid; Ahangari, Roghayyeh; Sadeghi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Mirzaee, Mohammad-Rahim; Damanpak-Moghaddam, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Lecture is the most common teaching method used in ethics education, while problem-based learning (PBL) and small group discussion (SGD) have been introduced as more useful methods. This study compared these methods in teaching medical ethics. Twenty students (12 female and 8 male) were randomly assigned into two groups. The PBL method was used in one group, and the other group was taught using the SGD method. Twenty-five open-ended questions were used for assessment and at the end of the course, a course evaluation sheet was used to obtain the students' views about the advantages and disadvantages of each teaching method, their level of satisfaction with the course, their interest in attending the sessions, and their opinions regarding the effect of teaching ethics on students' behaviors. The mean score in the PBL group (16.04 ± 1.84) was higher than the SGD group (15.48 ± 2.01). The satisfaction rates in the two groups were 3.00 ± 0.47 and 2.78 ± 0.83 respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Since the mean score and satisfaction rate in the PBL group were higher than the SGD group, the PBL method is recommended for ethics education whenever possible.

  15. Facebook Discussion Groups Provide a Robust Worldwide Platform for Free Pathology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Amer, Sadiq M; Yahia, Nejib Ben; Costa, Felipe D'Almeida; Noatay, Manu; Qiao, Jian-Hua; Rosado, Flavia G; Rosen, Yale; Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Gardner, Jerad M

    2017-05-01

    - Facebook (Menlo Park, California) is one of many online sites that provide potential educational tools for pathologists. We have each founded Facebook groups dedicated to anatomic pathology, in which members can share cases, ask questions, and contribute to discussions. - To report our experiences in founding and maintaining these Facebook groups and to characterize the contributed content. - We circulated a survey among the group founders, then compiled and analyzed the responses. - The groups varied in membership and in the quality of member contribution. Most posts were of pathology cases, although other topics (such as research articles) were also shared. All groups remained active and received posts from users all over the world, although all groups had many noncontributing members and received unwanted messages (which were screened and removed). Most founders were glad they had founded the groups because they provided an opportunity to both teach and learn. - Each analyzed Facebook group had a different character, and some downsides exist, but the groups all provided a no-cost way for pathologists and others across the world to interact online with many colleagues.

  16. Effect of Small Group Discussion in Residency Education Versus Conventional Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tabrizi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:There are various methods of training for medical students in different colleges. Fast knowledge transfer and maximum learning are the main goals of education. Due to the limited time and also high volume of content knowledge during residency, using the best methods of training can play an important role in enhancing the skills of residents. In the current study, small group discussion as a teaching method was compared with the traditional method. Methods:In this cohort study, two groups of residents that had finished a 4-year course of orthopedic residency training programs in Tabriz and Urmia universities of medical sciences was being examined. They were divided in two groups. In order to compare the impact of the training on residents, it was compared with the result of the State Board standardized exam. The number of residents passing the written test and the Objective Structural Clinical Examination (OSCE per year have been identified and compared with the groups under investigation. Results:Fifty-one residents, including 4 women (7.8% and 47 men (92.2%, were studied for this purpose. Success rate for the small group discussion in the written exam was 59.2% and in the OSCE was 24% (95% CI. On the other hand, the success rates for the group who were trained in the traditional way were 37% and 16.6% in the written exam and OSCE, respectively. In both cases the differences were significant. Conclusion:The small group discussion method is an effective method in residency training in surgical fields that increases medical students’ learning abilities compared to traditional methods of education.

  17. An online monogenic diabetes discussion group: supporting families and fueling new research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Marie E; Carmody, David; Philipson, Louis H; Greeley, Siri Atma W

    2015-11-01

    Many online support groups are available for patients with rare disorders, but scant evidence is available on how effectively such groups provide useful information or valuable psychosocial support to their participants. It is also unclear to what extent physicians and researchers may learn more about these disorders by participating in such groups. To formally assess the utility of the Kovler Monogenic Diabetes Registry online discussion group for patients and families affected by KATP channel-related monogenic neonatal diabetes in providing psychosocial and informational support and in identifying concerns unique to patients with this rare form of diabetes. We qualitatively analyzed all 1,410 messages from the online group that consisted of 64 participants affected by KATP channel monogenic diabetes and 11 researchers. We utilized the Social Behavior Support Code to assign each message to a support category and deductive thematic analysis to identify discussion topics addressed by each message. 44% of messages provided/requested informational support, whereas 31.4% of the messages contained psychosocial/emotional support. The most popular topics of postings to the forums were diabetes treatment (503 messages) and neurodevelopmental concerns (472 messages). Participation in the discussion led researchers to modify survey instruments and design new studies focusing on specific topics of concern, such as sleep. We demonstrate that an online support group for a monogenic form of diabetes is an effective informational tool that also provides psychosocial support. Participation by researchers and care providers can inform future research directions and highlight issues of patient concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Malaysian cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction: focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, W Y; Wong, Y L; Zulkifli, S N; Tan, H M

    2002-12-01

    This qualitative study aimed to examine cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction (ED) utilizing focus group discussion. Six focus groups consisting of 66 men, 45-70-y-old were conducted-two Malay groups (n=18), two Chinese groups (n=25) and two Indian groups (n=23). Participants were purposely recruited from the general public on a voluntary basis with informed consent. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analysis software ATLASti. The Malay and Chinese traditional remedies for preventing or treating ED are commonly recognized among all races. Many have a negative perception of someone with ED. Malay and Chinese men tended to blame their wife for their problem and thought that the problem might lead to extra-marital affairs, unlike the Indian men who attributed their condition to fate. Malays would prefer traditional medicine for the problem. The Chinese felt they would be more comfortable with a male doctor whilst this is not so with the Malays or Indians. Almost all prefer the doctor to initiate discussion on sexual issues related to their medical condition. There is a need for doctors to consider cultural perspectives in a multicultural society as a lack of understanding of this often contributes to an inadequate consultation.

  19. Qualitative research methods in drug abuse research: discussing the potential use of focus group in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Carlini-Cotrim

    1996-01-01

    Descreve-se e discute-se o grupo focal, método qualitativo de coleta de dados de ampla aplicação na Saúde Pública. Especial ênfase é conferida às potencialidades do uso do grupo focal em investigações, na área de abuso de drogas.The focus group, a qualitative research method useful for Public Health investigation, is described and discussed. The potential application of the focus group method in drug abuse research in Brazil is emphasized.

  20. Making Space to Sensemake: Epistemic Distancing in Small Group Physics Discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Conlin, Luke D

    2015-01-01

    Students in inquiry science classrooms face an essential tension between sharing new ideas and critically evaluating those ideas. Both sides of this tension pose affective risks that can discourage further discussion, such as the embarrassment of having an idea rejected. This paper presents a close discourse analysis of three groups of undergraduate physics students in their first discussions of the semester, detailing how they navigate these tensions to create a safe space to make sense of physics together. A central finding is that students and instructors alike rely on a common discursive resource, epistemic distancing, to protect affect while beginning to engage with ideas in productive ways. The groups differ in how soon, how often, and how deeply they engage in figuring out mechanisms together, and these differences can be explained, in part, by differences in how they epistemically distance themselves from their claims. Implications for research include the importance of considering the coupled dynamic...

  1. Traditional male circumcision in Uganda: a qualitative focus group discussion analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sabet Sarvestani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The growing body of evidence attesting to the effectiveness of clinical male circumcision in the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission is prompting the majority of sub-Saharan African governments to move towards the adoption of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. Even though it is recommended to consider collaboration with traditional male circumcision (TMC providers when planning for VMMC, there is limited knowledge available about the TMC landscape and traditional beliefs. METHODOLOGY AND MAIN FINDINGS: During 2010-11 over 25 focus group discussions (FGDs were held with clan leaders, traditional cutters, and their assistants to understand the practice of TMC in four ethnic groups in Uganda. Cultural significance and cost were among the primary reasons cited for preferring TMC over VMMC. Ethnic groups in western Uganda circumcised boys at younger ages and encountered lower rates of TMC related adverse events compared to ethnic groups in eastern Uganda. Cutting styles and post-cut care also differed among the four groups. The use of a single razor blade per candidate instead of the traditional knife was identified as an important and recent change. Participants in the focus groups expressed interest in learning about methods to reduce adverse events. CONCLUSION: This work reaffirmed the strong cultural significance of TMC within Ugandan ethnic groups. Outcomes suggest that there is an opportunity to evaluate the involvement of local communities that still perform TMC in the national VMMC roll-out plan by devising safer, more effective procedures through innovative approaches.

  2. Adding to the mix: Students use of Facebook groups and blackboard discussion forums in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Kent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of the use of Facebook in learning and teaching in higher education. Facebook was used as a venue for online discussion to support the existing Learning Management System (in this case Blackboard in the unit Internet Collaboration and Organisation as part of the Internet Communications degree taught fully online through Open Universities Australia (OUA. Students’ posts to both Facebook and the Blackboard discussion forum were analysed for content, length, and when throughout the study period they were posted. This is significant as much of the previous work in this area has relied on students self-reporting, rather than direct observation of student behaviour. These results were then compared to earlier instances of the same unit that ran within the previous twelve months, one fully online with OUA only using the Blackboard discussion group, and a second taught at Curtin University with both blended learning for students at the University’s Bentley campus as well as fully online for external students, that utilised both Blackboard and Facebook. The results show that Facebook greatly increases the level of student activity in online discussions, both absolutely and in the level of sustained activity across the unit’s study period. Facebook groups also had a different pattern of content from Blackboard. In Blackboard discussion is more focused on the set unit learning content, in Facebook students were using the groups to discuss administration and assignments and also bring in additional material from outside the units set learning materials. Facebook posts, while more sustained over the semester, were shorter in length. This study found that the addition of a Facebook discussion forum does not noticeably impact on the use of Blackboard’s discussion forum, but rather adds a new dimension to the mix of online interaction. The paper concludes that there is value in using both of these forums for student

  3. Patients' views on improving sickle cell disease management in primary care: focus group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuburi, Ghida; Phekoo, Karen J; Okoye, Nv Ogo; Anie, Kofie; Green, Stuart A; Nkohkwo, Asaah; Ojeer, Patrick; Ndive, Comfort; Banarsee, Ricky; Oni, Lola; Majeed, Azeem

    2012-12-01

    To assess sickle cell disease (SCD) patient and carer perspectives on the primary care services related to SCD that they receive from their general practitioner (GP). A focus group discussion was used to elicit the views of patients about the quality of care they receive from their primary health-care providers and what they thought was the role of primary care in SCD management. The focus group discussion was video recorded. The recording was then examined by the project team and recurring themes were identified. A comparison was made with notes made by two scribes also present at the discussion. Sickle Cell Society in Brent, UK. Ten participants with SCD or caring for someone with SCD from Northwest London, UK. Patients' perceptions about the primary care services they received, and a list of key themes and suggestions. Patients and carers often bypassed GPs for acute problems but felt that GPs had an important role to play around repeat prescriptions and general health care. These service users believed SCD is often ignored and deemed unimportant by GPs. Participants wanted the health service to support primary health-care providers to improve their knowledge and understanding of SCD. Key themes and suggestions from this focus group have been used to help develop an educational intervention for general practice services that will be used to improve SCD management in primary care.

  4. Reclaiming the Maiden: Use of Archetypes in a 6-Week Women's Empowerment Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese; Hofsess, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a 6-week, semi-structured group counseling experience for university women students (undergraduate and graduate) from diverse backgrounds exploring archetypes and using group empowerment skills. Theoretical perspectives on women's empowerment groups and the use of archetypes in counseling are discussed as…

  5. Reclaiming the Maiden: Use of Archetypes in a 6-Week Women's Empowerment Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese; Hofsess, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a 6-week, semi-structured group counseling experience for university women students (undergraduate and graduate) from diverse backgrounds exploring archetypes and using group empowerment skills. Theoretical perspectives on women's empowerment groups and the use of archetypes in counseling are discussed as…

  6. Observing real-world groups in the virtual field: The analysis of online discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, David C

    2016-09-01

    This article sets out to establish the naturalistic study of online social communication as a substantive topic in social psychology and to discuss the challenges of developing methods for a formal analysis of the structural and interactional features of message threads on discussion forums. I begin by outlining the essential features of online communication and specifically discussion forum data, and the important ways in which they depart from spoken conversation. I describe the handful of attempts to devise systematic analytic techniques for adapting methods such as conversation and discourse analysis to the study of online discussion. I then present a case study of a thread from the popular UK parenting forum Mumsnet which presents a number of challenges for existing methods, and examine some of the interactive phenomena typical of forums. Finally, I consider ways in which membership categorization analysis and social identity theory can complement one another in the exploration of both group processes and the rhetorical deployment of identities as dynamic phenomena in online discussion.

  7. Qualitative findings from focus group discussions on hand hygiene compliance among health care workers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Sharon; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-10-01

    It is accepted by hospital clinical governance that every clinician's "duty of care" includes hand hygiene, yet globally, health care workers (HCWs) continue to struggle with compliance. Focus group discussions were conducted to explore HCWs' barriers to hand hygiene in Vietnam. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs from 6 public hospitals across Hanoi, Vietnam. Discussions included participants' experiences with and perceptions concerning hand hygiene. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and then translated into English. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 investigators. Expressed frustration with high workload, limited access to hand hygiene solutions, and complicated guidelines that are difficult to interpret in overcrowded settings were considered by participants to be bona fide reasons for noncompliance. No participant acknowledged hand hygiene as a duty of care practice for her or his patients. Justification for noncompliance was the observation that visitors did not perform hand hygiene. HCWs did acknowledge a personal duty of care when hand hygiene was perceived to benefit her or his own health, and then neither workload or environmental challenges influenced compliance. Limited resources in Vietnam are amplified by overcrowded conditions and dual bed occupancy. Yet without a systematic systemic duty of care to patient safety, changes to guidelines and resources might not immediately improve compliance. Thus, introducing routine hand hygiene must start with education programs focusing on duty of care. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Small Student-Led Discussion Groups as an Adjunct to a Course in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents data related to student involvement in biweekly student-led discussion groups in an undergraduate abnormal psychology course. Evaluates the degree to which students felt they benefited from discussion groups composed of similar and dissimilar students. (Author/AV)

  9. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Sara; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2016-02-15

    As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health.

  10. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  11. Two recommendations to the Teaching of EFL Extensive Reading: Group Discussion and Suitable Reading Material Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉

    2008-01-01

    <正>This paper is going to review the way in which EFL extensive reading is usually taught at mainly college level in China; and then make two recommendations in terms of classroom activity and the selection of extensive reading material for the purpose of trying to get students better involved in classroom activity, and to arouse their interest in reading. Group discussion and suitable reading material selection are suggested to be adopted in the traditional extensive reading class to improve the classroom atmosphere and the teaching & learning effects.

  12. Human dimensions in bedside teaching: focus group discussions of teachers and learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Subha; Orlander, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    Clinical teaching has moved from the bedside to conference rooms; many reasons are described for this shift. Yet, essential clinical skills, professionalism, and humanistic patient interactions are best taught at the bedside. Clinical teaching has moved from the bedside to conference rooms; many reasons are described for this decline. This study explored perceptions of teachers and learners on the value of bedside teaching and the humanistic dimensions of bedside interactions that make it imperative to shift clinical teaching back to the bedside. Focus group methodology was used to explore teacher and learner opinions. Four teacher groups consisted of (a) Chief Residents, (b) Residency Program Directors, (c) skilled bedside teachers, and (d) a convenience group of other Department of Medicine faculty at Boston University School of Medicine. Six learner groups consisted 2 each of 3rd-year students, PGY1 medicine residents, and PGY2 medicine residents. Each discussion lasted 60 to 90 minutes. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods. Teachers and learners shared several opinions on bedside teaching, particularly around humanistic aspects of bedside interactions. The key themes that emerged included (a) patient involvement in discussions, (b) teachers as role models of humanism, (c) preserving learner autonomy, (d) direct observation and feedback of learners at the bedside, (e) interactions with challenging patients, and (e) admitting limitations. Within these themes, participants noted some behaviors best avoided at the bedside. Teachers and learners regard the bedside as a valuable venue in which to learn core values of medicine. They proposed many strategies to preserve these humanistic values and improve bedside teaching. These strategies are essential for true patient-centered care.

  13. Activities in a social networking-based discussion group by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Lina; Liu, Na; Wang, Xiangping; Zhang, Rongchun; Liu, Zhiguo; Liang, Shuhui; Yao, Shaowei; Tao, Qin; Jia, Hui; Pan, Yanglin; Guo, Xuegang

    2017-10-01

    Online social networking is increasingly being used among medical practitioners. However, few studies have evaluated its use in therapeutic endoscopy. Here, we aimed to analyze the shared topics and activities of a group of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) doctors in a social networking-based endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography discussion group (EDG). Six ERCP trainers working in Xijing Hospital and 48 graduated endoscopists who had finished ERCP training in the same hospital were invited to join in EDG. All group members were informed not to divulge any private information of patients when using EDG. The activities of group members on EDG were retrospectively extracted. The individual data of the graduated endoscopists were collected by a questionnaire. From June 2014 to May 2015, 6924 messages were posted on EDG, half of which were ERCP related. In total, 214 ERCP-related topics were shared, which could be categorized into three types: sharing experience/cases (52.3%), asking questions (38.3%), and sharing literatures/advances (9.3%). Among the 48 graduated endoscopists, 21 had a low case volume of less than 50 per year and 27 had a high volume case volume of 50 or more. High-volume graduated endoscopists posted more ERCP-related messages (P=0.008) and shared more discussion topics (P=0.003) compared with low-volume graduated endoscopists. A survey showed that EDG was useful for graduated endoscopists in ERCP performance and management of post-ERCP complications, etc. A wide range of ERCP-related topics were shared on the social networking-based EDG. The ERCP-related behaviors on EDG were more active in graduated endoscopists with an ERCP case volume of more than 50 per year.

  14. Stakeholders' Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions.

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    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    Full Text Available An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana.Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data.There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service.Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved.

  15. Equine Welfare Assessment: Exploration of British Stakeholder Attitudes Using Focus-Group Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horseman, Susan V; Hockenhull, Jo; Buller, Henry; Mullan, Siobhan; Barr, Alistair R S; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    The equine industry in Great Britain has not been subject to the same pressures as the farming industry to engage with welfare assessment, but this may change as concern about equine welfare increases. Stakeholder attitudes toward welfare assessment may impact the implementation of welfare assessment practices. Focus-group discussions regarding welfare assessment were conducted with 6 equine stakeholder groups: leisure horse owners (caregivers; n = 4), grooms (n = 5), veterinary surgeons (n = 3), welfare scientists (n = 4), welfare charity workers (n = 5), and professional riders (n = 4). Three themes emerged from the discussions: (a) Participants predominantly interpreted welfare assessment as a means of identifying and correcting poor welfare in an immediate way; (b) participants believed that horse welfare varied over time; and (c) attributes of the assessor were viewed as an important consideration for equine welfare assessment. The views of equine industry members give insight into the value welfare assessments may have to the industry and how equine welfare assessment approaches can achieve credibility within the industry and increase the positive impact of welfare assessments on equine welfare.

  16. Conceptual Level Design of Semi-structured Database System: Graph-semantic Based Approach

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    Anirban Sarkar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper has proposed a Graph – semantic based conceptual model for semi-structured database system, called GOOSSDM, to conceptualize the different facets of such system in object oriented paradigm. The model defines a set of graph based formal constructs, variety of relationship types with participation constraints and rich set of graphical notations to specify the conceptual level design of semi-structured database system. The proposed design approach facilitates modeling of irregular, heterogeneous, hierarchical and non-hierarchical semi-structured data at the conceptual level. Moreover, the proposed GOOSSDM is capable to model XML document at conceptual level with the facility of document-centric design, ordering and disjunction characteristic. A rule based transformation mechanism of GOOSSDM schema into the equivalent XML Schema Definition (XSD also has been proposed in this paper. The concepts of the proposed conceptual model have been implemented using Generic Modeling Environment (GME.

  17. Exploration and Practice of Improving College Students’Speaking Com-petence through Group Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jin-zhong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of English teaching is not only to make the students learn new words and grammar, answer multiple- choice questions to get good scores, but also to enhance the students’abilities of the integrated application of English, speaking and listen⁃ing in particular. The ultimate goal of learning English is to use English to communicate with others in the future jobs and real life. However, the non-English majors have great trouble speaking English in class and in real life. Such ways as Socratic dialogues, cause analysis and questionnaire are used to investigate the reasons. In order to improve speaking ability, group discussion is used in class. In consequence, the students have more interest, motivation, courage and confidence in speaking English. Meanwhile, they have also established the concept of using what they learned in class, in practical work and real life.

  18. Which Cognitive Processes Support Learning during Small-Group Discussion? The Role of Providing Explanations and Listening to Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    Seventy students participated in an experiment to measure the effects of either providing explanations or listening during small group discussions on recall of related subject-matter studied after the discussion. They watched a video of a small group discussing a problem. In the first experimental condition, the video was stopped at various points…

  19. Which cognitive processes support learning during small-group discussion? The role of providing explanations and listening to others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Blankenstein (Floris); D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSeventy students participated in an experiment to measure the effects of either providing explanations or listening during small group discussions on recall of related subject-matter studied after the discussion. They watched a video of a small group discussing a problem. In the first

  20. Factors influencing food choices of adolescents: findings from focus-group discussions with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, D; Story, M; Perry, C; Casey, M A

    1999-08-01

    To assess adolescents' perceptions about factors influencing their food choices and eating behaviors. Data were collected in focus-group discussions. The study population included 141 adolescents in 7th and 10th grade from 2 urban schools in St Paul, Minn, who participated in 21 focus groups. Data were analyzed using qualitative research methodology, specifically, the constant comparative method. Factors perceived as influencing food choices included hunger and food cravings, appeal of food, time considerations of adolescents and parents, convenience of food, food availability, parental influence on eating behaviors (including the culture or religion of the family), benefits of foods (including health), situation-specific factors, mood, body image, habit, cost, media, and vegetarian beliefs. Major barriers to eating more fruits, vegetables, and dairy products and eating fewer high-fat foods included a lack of sense of urgency about personal health in relation to other concerns, and taste preferences for other foods. Suggestions for helping adolescents eat a more healthful diet include making healthful food taste and look better, limiting the availability of unhealthful options, making healthful food more available and convenient, teaching children good eating habits at an early age, and changing social norms to make it "cool" to eat healthfully. The findings suggest that if programs to improve adolescent nutrition are to be effective, they need to address a broad range of factors, in particular environmental factors (e.g., the increased availability and promotion of appealing, convenient foods within homes schools, and restaurants).

  1. Teacher Identity and the Marketizised Society. Discursive Constructions in Teachers’ Discussion Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Irisdotter Aldenmyr

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the latest decennium, there have been several and gradual changes in the Swedish and other European school systems. The steering system has become more decentralized and the entire school system is now a part of the freedom of trade. Schools are competing with each other and this has, according to previous research, an effect on how teachers think about, and carry out their everyday activities (Gerwitz et al. 1995; Irisdotter 2006. How teachers think about themselves, their students and the educational task is of great importance for the social climate of the classroom and, in the longer run, society in general. The current study dicusses how teachers‘ identities and self-understandings are influenced by the marketization of society. The material analysed consists of group discussions in three different teacher groups in compulsory school in Sweden. Questions raised are: Can teachers work within the context of marketization and yet relate to it with an attitude of self-awareness and critical reflection? And how can teachers deal with both traditional teacher values and progressive, democratic values that may be in conflict with the conditions of a marketizised school system?

  2. Communication of geohazard risks by focus group discussions in the Mount Cameroon area, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Marmol, M.-A.; Suh Atanga, M. Bi; Njome, S.; Mafany Teke, G.; Jacobs, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    The inappropriate translation of scientific information of geohazard (volcanic, landslide and crater lake outgassing) risks to any local population leaves people with incongruent views of the real dangers. Initial workshops organized under the supervision of the VLIR-OI (Flemish Interuniversity Council - Own Initiatives) members have led to the deployment of billboards as requested and drawn up by the locals. The VLIR-OI project has also organized focus group discussions (FGD) with the local stakeholders to find out in various cities, the state of preparedness, the response to emergency situations, the recovery from the emergency and the mitigation. Researchers have preferred open discussion with the local population and its representatives in order to elicit information that otherwise might not be found on a structured questionnaire. FGD provide a meaningful interactive opportunity to collect information and reflection on a wide range of input. The method provides an insight into problems that require a solution through a process of discovering the meaning attributed to certain events or issues. In this research four cardinal points as preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation (Fothergill, 1996) guided the FGD. The population (i.e. local town councils) were constituted by a mix of chiefs, engineers, technicians and civil servants and government officials. In all the three city councils concerned, the engineers in charge complained about the lack of strategic planning, and about the missing of an elaborated strategy for disasters. They are aware of the existence of an organigram in the "Département de l'Action Civile" in Yaounde but never received any "strategic" document. Therefore inappropriate actions might be taken by the municipalities themselves. Fortunately all people interrogated at the FDG always mentioned solidarity in any event. Fothergill, 1996, Gender, Risk, and Disasters, Intern. Jour. of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, vol.14, n°1, 33-56

  3. Defibrillation beliefs of rural nurses: focus group discussions guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, T A; Mosel Williams, L; Mummery, K

    2005-01-01

    The endorsement of the chain of survival concept and early defibrillation has challenged health professionals to reconsider their beliefs about how they respond to in-hospital resuscitation. In the rural context, where 24 hour coverage is not available nurse-initiated defibrillation is expected. Despite literature and policy change in Australia to allow nurses to initiate defibrillation, there is no current research that uses a systemic theoretical approach to investigate the specific beliefs of nurses and their use of defibrillators. The purpose of this study was to elicit a beginning understanding of the defibrillation beliefs of rural nurses. This research used focus groups within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior to describe the defibrillation beliefs of rural registered nurses. The sites selected for this study were two acute care hospitals in rural Australia (RRMA Classification). Each of these hospitals was in located 'other rural areas' (RRMA Classification) in separate towns and had 25 and 30 beds. The study sample consisted of 10 females and two males. Focus group questions were designed to elicit salient beliefs within the theoretical framework. Three constructs of behavioral, normative and control beliefs guided the development of the question and analysis of the discussions. In accordance with the authors of the theoretical framework, content analysis was used to analyse the data from the study. Two behavioral beliefs, four control beliefs and four normative belief categories were elicited. Two behavioral beliefs categories emerged from the open-ended question: 'What, if any are the advantages of you being able to use a defibrillator?' Participants were congruent when discussing the advantages of nurses initiating defibrillation. The two categories were 'quicker response times' (15 responses) and 'increased success with resuscitation' (8 responses). Participants were asked to identify any events that might influence their decision to use

  4. Efficient Frequent Pattern Mining Techniques of Semi Structured data: a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena A Deshpande, R.S. Prasad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Semi-structured data are a huge amount of complexand heterogeneous data sets.Such models capturedata that are not intentionally structured, but arestructured heterogeneously. These databasesevolve so quickly like run time report generated byERPs, World-Wide Web with its HTML pages, textfiles, bibliographies, various logs generated etc.These huge and varied becomedifficultto retrieverelevant information User is often interestedinintegrating various formats (like in biomedical datatext, image or structured that are generally realizedas files, and also wants to access them in anintegrated fashion.Users not only query the data tofind a particular piece ofinformation, but he is alsokeen in knowing better understanding of the query.Because of this variety, semi-structured DBs do notcome with a conceptual schema. To make thesedatabases more accessible to users a rich conceptualmodel is needed. Traditional retrieving techniquesare not directly applied on these databases.Unfortunately the tools and methodologies used forRDBMS do not give efficient results and so fail tobridge the gap. Henceefficient andscalablemethods for mining the semi-structured data isneeded, via discovering rule or patterns from thehuge semi-structured databases. These databasesare modelled by trees and graphs.

  5. Start Time and Duration Distribution Estimation in Semi-Structured Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas; Iacob, Maria-Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Semi-structured processes are business workflows, where the execution of the workflow is not completely controlled by a workflow engine, i.e., an implementation of a formal workflow model. Examples are workflows where actors potentially have interaction with customers reporting the result of the int

  6. Start time and duration distribution estimation in semi-structured processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas; Iacob, Maria-Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Semi-structured processes are business workflows, where the execution of the workflow is not completely controlled by a workflow engine, i.e., an implementation of a formal workflow model. Examples are workflows where actors potentially have interaction with customers reporting the result of the int

  7. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol

    2017-06-09

    Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and

  8. Images of Environmental Management: Competing Metaphors in Focus Group Discussions of Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2012-04-01

    In managing environmental problems, several countries have chosen the management by objectives (MBO) approach. This paper investigates how focus group participants from the Swedish environmental administration used metaphors to describe the mode of organization needed to attain environmental objectives. Such analysis can shed light on how an MBO system is perceived by actors and how it works in practice. Although the Swedish government intended to stimulate broad-based cooperation among many actors, participants often saw themselves as located at a certain "level," i.e., "higher" or "lower," in the MBO system—that is, their conceptions corresponded to a traditional, hierarchical interpretation of MBO. Prepositions such as "in" and "out" contributed to feelings of inclusion and exclusion on the part of MBO actors. However, horizontal metaphors merged with vertical ones, indicating ongoing competition for the right to interpret how the system of environmental objectives should best be managed. The paper concludes that any organization applying MBO could benefit from discussing alternate ways of talking and thinking about its constituent "levels."

  9. Barriers to asymptomatic screening and other STD services for adolescents and young adults: focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leone Peter A

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major public health problem among young people and can lead to the spread of HIV. Previous studies have primarily addressed barriers to STD care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of our study was to identify perceptions about existing barriers to and ideal services for STDs, especially asymptomatic screening, among young people in a southeastern community. Methods Eight focus group discussions including 53 White, African American, and Latino youth (age 14–24 were conducted. Results Perceived barriers to care included lack of knowledge of STDs and available services, cost, shame associated with seeking services, long clinic waiting times, discrimination, and urethral specimen collection methods. Perceived features of ideal STD services included locations close to familiar places, extended hours, and urine-based screening. Television was perceived as the most effective route of disseminating STD information. Conclusions Further research is warranted to evaluate improving convenience, efficiency, and privacy of existing services; adding urine-based screening and new services closer to neighborhoods; and using mass media to disseminate STD information as strategies to increase STD screening.

  10. [Adaptation of peer evaluation to small group discussion (SGD) and its validity for summative evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Sone, Tomomichi; Yanada, Kazuo; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Kurio, Wasako; Nishikawa, Tomoe; Yamamoto, Yumi; Maeda, Sadaaki

    2012-01-01

    We adopted peer evaluation (mutual evaluation between students) for small group discussion (SGD) among first graders. The peer evaluation criteria were 5 grade scales for 5 fields: "preparation," "remark," "listening," "activeness," and "role." A comparison with tutor evaluation clarified the validity of peer evaluation for summative evaluation. Although the average of peer evaluation (4.2 (4.0-4.4)) was higher than that of tutor evaluation (3.8 (3.7-4.1)) (p=0.0601, Mann-Whitney U test), the value of the correlation coefficient between peer evaluation and summative evaluation of SGD (average 0.35 (0.12-0.54)) was almost the same as that of the coefficient between tutor evaluation and summative evaluation of SGD (average 0.36 (0.24-0.42)) (p=0.6761, Mann-Whitney U test). Principal component analysis showed that the tutor could not evaluate "remark" and "listening" independently, while students evaluate "listening" independently from other evaluation criteria. The combination of peer and tutor evaluation may be multilateral evaluation for SGD. The questionnaire about peer evaluation for students showed that they recognized the value of peer evaluation and favorably accepted its use.

  11. Factors Influencing Iranian Untrained EFL Raters' Rating Group Oral Discussion Tasks: A Mixed Methods Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasimeh Nouhi Jadesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a mixed methods design, the present study attempted to identify the factors influencing Iranian untrained EFL raters in rating group oral discussion tasks. To fulfil this aim, 16 language learners of varying proficiency levels were selected and randomly assigned to groups of four and performed a group discussion task. Thirty two untrained raters were also selected based on their volunteer participations. They listened to the audio files of the group discussions and assigned a score of one to six to each language learners based on their own judgments. They also provided comments on each language learners’ performance pointing to why they assigned such scores. The researchers had an interview with the raters after the rating session as well. The quantitative phase investigated whether linguistic features of accuracy, fluency, complexity and amount of talk were attended to by the raters in terms of having any relationship to the scores the raters assigned. Speech rate as an index of fluency and amount of talk turned out to be significantly correlated with the scores. Of more importance was the qualitative phase with the aim of identifying other factors that may account for the scores. The comments provided by the raters on each score and the interviews were codified based on Content Analysis (CA approach. It was found that the raters attend not only to the linguistic features in rating oral group discussions, but they are also sensitive to the interactional features like the roles the participants take in groups tasks and the overall interaction patterns of the groups. The findings of this study may shed light on group oral assessment in terms of training the raters rating group oral tests and developing rating scales specific for group oral assessment. Persian Abstract:پژوهش حاضر، با بهره گیری از روش تحقیق ترکیبی به بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر ارزیابان آموزش ندیده

  12. Investigating the purpose of an online discussion group for health professionals: a case example from forensic occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Crystal; Duncan, Edward A S

    2013-07-03

    Thousands of health-related online discussion groups are active world-wide however, very little is known about the purpose and usefulness of such groups. In 2003 an online discussion group called 'forensic occupational therapy' was established in the United Kingdom. This group was examined to gain an understanding of the purpose and use of online discussion groups for health professionals who may be practically and geographically isolated from others in similar areas of practice. Following a case study design, descriptive characteristics on members' locations and number of posts were collected from the forensic occupational therapy online discussion group. Eight years of posts (2003-2011) were examined using a theoretical thematic analysis process to identify and describe the purposes for which members were using the group. Members from 20 countries contributed to the discussion group; the vast majority of posts being from members in the United Kingdom. Activity within the group was consistently high for the first five years however, activity within the group declined in the final three years. Six purposes for which members use the online discussion group were identified: seeking and giving advice, networking, requesting and sharing material resources, service development, defining the role of occupational therapists, and student learning. Findings suggest that health professionals in specialized and often isolated areas of practice are keen to connect with colleagues and learn from each other's experiences. The main purposes for which the online discussion group was used could be summarized as communication, information sharing and networking; though activity within the group declined significantly during the last three years of the data collection period. This raises questions about the sustainability of online discussion groups within the rapidly developing social media environment.

  13. Investigating the purpose of an online discussion group for health professionals: a case example from forensic occupational therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Thousands of health-related online discussion groups are active world-wide however, very little is known about the purpose and usefulness of such groups. In 2003 an online discussion group called ‘forensic occupational therapy’ was established in the United Kingdom. This group was examined to gain an understanding of the purpose and use of online discussion groups for health professionals who may be practically and geographically isolated from others in similar areas of practice. Methods Following a case study design, descriptive characteristics on members’ locations and number of posts were collected from the forensic occupational therapy online discussion group. Eight years of posts (2003–2011) were examined using a theoretical thematic analysis process to identify and describe the purposes for which members were using the group. Results Members from 20 countries contributed to the discussion group; the vast majority of posts being from members in the United Kingdom. Activity within the group was consistently high for the first five years however, activity within the group declined in the final three years. Six purposes for which members use the online discussion group were identified: seeking and giving advice, networking, requesting and sharing material resources, service development, defining the role of occupational therapists, and student learning. Conclusions Findings suggest that health professionals in specialized and often isolated areas of practice are keen to connect with colleagues and learn from each other’s experiences. The main purposes for which the online discussion group was used could be summarized as communication, information sharing and networking; though activity within the group declined significantly during the last three years of the data collection period. This raises questions about the sustainability of online discussion groups within the rapidly developing social media environment. PMID:23822895

  14. Exploring Reflective Teaching through Informed Journal Keeping and Blog Group Discussion in the Teaching Practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insuasty Edgar Alirio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the findings of a study which examined how student teachers could be empowered as more reflective practitioners through journal keeping and blog group discussions. It was carried out with six student teachers who developed their practicum over six months. Data were collected through journals, blogs, metaphors, conferences and a questionnaire. The results demonstrated that student teachers enriched their perceptions about what reflective teaching implied. Furthermore, journal keeping was approached as an informed process by virtue of which student- teachers could go beyond the descriptive documentation of what happened in their classes. Their journal entries also revealed reflective references, most of which were mainly focused on evaluating teaching, diagnosing and solving problems. Este artículo reporta los resultados de un estudio que examinó cómo se podía potenciar los practicantes como docentes más reflexivos a través del uso de diarios y discusiones mediante blogs. En el estudio participaron seis practicantes, quienes desarrollaron sus prácticas durante seis meses. Los datos se recogieron a través de diarios, blogs, metáforas, conferencias y cuestionarios. Los resultados demostraron que los practicantes enriquecieron sus percepciones acerca de lo que significa la enseñanza reflexiva. Por otra parte, el diligenciamiento del diario, el cual se hizo como un proceso informado, les permitió ir más allá de una etapa descriptiva y enfocarse en la evaluación del proceso de enseñanza, la identificación y solución de los problemas que surgieron en la clase.

  15. In-Class Reflective Group Discussion as a Strategy for the Development of Students as Evolving Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Annetta Kit Lam

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine perceptions of three cohorts of third year undergraduate students (n = 65) on in-class reflective group discussion as a critical reflective approach for evolving professionals. Reflective group discussions were embedded into a final year course within the University of Queensland Bachelor of Oral…

  16. Talking while Computing in Groups: The Not-so-Private Functions of Computational Private Speech in Mathematical Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, William; Moschkovich, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Students often voice computations during group discussions of mathematics problems. Yet, this type of private speech has received little attention from mathematics educators or researchers. In this article, we use excerpts from middle school students' group mathematical discussions to illustrate and describe "computational private…

  17. Talking while Computing in Groups: The Not-so-Private Functions of Computational Private Speech in Mathematical Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, William; Moschkovich, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Students often voice computations during group discussions of mathematics problems. Yet, this type of private speech has received little attention from mathematics educators or researchers. In this article, we use excerpts from middle school students' group mathematical discussions to illustrate and describe "computational private…

  18. Qualitative assessment of student-teacher communication using focus group discussion in a Dental College in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The communication between faculty and students is a vital component of optimal facilitation of knowledge and learning. Various factors influence this dynamic. Aim: To assess communication levels between students and teachers in a dental college scenario via focus group discussion. Materials and Methods: The focus group discussion consisted of 10 groups; 5 groups representing the teachers, and 5 groups representing the students. Each group consisted of 6 participants. Hence there were a total of 30 teacher and 30 student participants. Focus group discussion was conducted for each of the groups for 30–45 min duration in the presence of a moderator and a note-taker. Open-ended questions were put across by the moderator to initiate and continue the discussions. The hand-written data taken by the note-taker were transcribed onto a computer on the same day of the discussion. Based on the transcription, domains were created for the student and teacher groups. Results: The issues raised by both the teacher and student groups in this focus group discussion were broadly classified into the following themes: (1 Past versus current scenario, (2 attitudes toward communication and learning, (3 hindrances to effective communication, and (4 potential solutions. Conclusions: Focus group discussion exposed many differences in the perceptions of teachers and students to communication. Each group, however, felt that bridging the teacher-student communication barrier was crucial to improve the teaching-learning experience. Many constructive solutions were provided by both the groups which can help to improve the quality of teaching-learning experience resulting in better quality of education.

  19. The Influence of Collaborative Group Work on Students' Development of Critical Thinking: The Teacher's Role in Facilitating Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis Chun-Lok; To, Helen; Leung, Kit

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the incorporation of group work in a teaching intervention can effectively foster students' critical thinking skills. Building upon Kuhn's critical thinking model, the research involved comparison of pretest and post-test results for 140 secondary four (10th grade) students in Hong Kong on two…

  20. Elaboration during Problem-Based Group Discussion: Effects on Recall for High and Low Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    Although elaboration has been investigated frequently, there is little evidence for the beneficial effect of elaboration in problem-based learning. A controlled experiment tested the effect of elaboration during problem-based discussion on recall. Sixty-seven students observed a video-recorded, problem-based discussion. In one experimental…

  1. Patient advisory groups in practice improvement: sample case presentation with a discussion of best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Kurt B; Bender, Robert O; Bruce, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Using patient advisory groups can affect practice changes and create a patient-centric focus for a primary care practice. A successful patient advisory group has been developed for our primary care clinics. Utilizing this group, we have implemented practice improvement changes that have had a significant impact in patient care. This will be demonstrated in a case presentation involving the implementation of depression care managers at our practice sites. We will review key "best practices," as defined by the group, regarding size, composition, and meeting frequency that can be used for the development of a clinical patient advisory group.

  2. Comparison of effect between group discussion and educational booklet on Iranian nursing students' attitude and practice toward patient privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Faraji, Mona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects between group discussion and educational booklet on nursing students' attitude and practice toward patient privacy in Iran. A two-group, pre-test and post-test design study was conducted in 2015. The study was conducted on 60 nursing students in Kashan, Iran who were randomly allocated into two groups to be trained on patient privacy either through group discussion or by an educational booklet. The students' attitude and practice was assessed before and after the education using a questionnaire and a checklist. Data analysis was performed through paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and independent samples t-tests. Before the intervention, no significant difference was found between the group designated to group discussion and that designated to the educational booklet in the mean overall score of attitude (P=0.303) and practice (P=0.493) toward patient privacy. After the intervention, the mean attitude score significantly increased in the two groups (P=0.001). Moreover, the students' practice score increased in the discussion group while it did not significantly change in the booklet group (P=0.001). Both methods were effective on the students' attitude; however, the educational booklet did not affect their practice toward patient privacy. Group discussion can effectively improve the students' attitude and practice toward patient privacy.

  3. Comparison of effect between group discussion and educational booklet on Iranian nursing students’ attitude and practice toward patient privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study aimed to compare the effects between group discussion and educational booklet on nursing students’ attitude and practice toward patient privacy in Iran. Methods A two-group, pre-test and post-test design study was conducted in 2015. The study was conducted on 60 nursing students in Kashan, Iran who were randomly allocated into two groups to be trained on patient privacy either through group discussion or by an educational booklet. The students’ attitude and practice was assessed before and after the education using a questionnaire and a checklist. Data analysis was performed through paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and independent samples t-tests. Results Before the intervention, no significant difference was found between the group designated to group discussion and that designated to the educational booklet in the mean overall score of attitude (P=0.303 and practice (P=0.493 toward patient privacy. After the intervention, the mean attitude score significantly increased in the two groups (P=0.001. Moreover, the students’ practice score increased in the discussion group while it did not significantly change in the booklet group (P=0.001. Conclusion Both methods were effective on the students’ attitude; however, the educational booklet did not affect their practice toward patient privacy. Group discussion can effectively improve the students’ attitude and practice toward patient privacy.

  4. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  5. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  6. Sex, Pregnancy and Contraception: A Report of Focus Group Discussions with Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugland, Barbara W.; Wilder, Kathleen J.; Chandra, Anita

    Findings in this report summarize the first phase of a larger, multi-year study that is combining qualitative and quantitative methods to outline a conceptual framework to guide future demographic/fertility research, pregnancy prevention programs and policies. Twelve focus groups--involving a multiculturally representative group of male and female…

  7. NETMARK: A Schema-less Extension for Relational Databases for Managing Semi-structured Data Dynamically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.; Tran, Peter B.

    2003-01-01

    Object-Relational database management system is an integrated hybrid cooperative approach to combine the best practices of both the relational model utilizing SQL queries and the object-oriented, semantic paradigm for supporting complex data creation. In this paper, a highly scalable, information on demand database framework, called NETMARK, is introduced. NETMARK takes advantages of the Oracle 8i object-relational database using physical addresses data types for very efficient keyword search of records spanning across both context and content. NETMARK was originally developed in early 2000 as a research and development prototype to solve the vast amounts of unstructured and semi-structured documents existing within NASA enterprises. Today, NETMARK is a flexible, high-throughput open database framework for managing, storing, and searching unstructured or semi-structured arbitrary hierarchal models, such as XML and HTML.

  8. Building Large Collections of Chinese and English Medical Terms from Semi-Structured and Encyclopedia Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Xu; Yining Wang; Jian-Tao Sun; Jianwen Zhang; Junichi Tsujii; Eric Chang

    2013-01-01

    To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large...

  9. Comparative study of problem based learning versus structured group discussion in teaching pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveesh M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: PBL and SGD are effective small group methods for teaching undergraduate medical students. However learning outcome with PBL is better than SGD. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1877-1880

  10. The critical value of focus group discussions in research with women living with HIV in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Stevens, Patricia E

    2010-05-01

    This article is based on a critical ethnography about HIV and gender-based issues of power and violence conducted in Malawi in 2008. In all, 72 women living with HIV were recruited from four antiretroviral treatment clinics, three rural and one urban, to participate in 12 focus groups. Informed by a postcolonial feminist perspective, we analyze the process and products of these focus groups to interrogate their capacity to facilitate collective engagement with the social and structural realities confronting women in a resource-limited, highly AIDS-affected country. We present exemplars to show how women together created collective narratives to mobilize individuals to action. Findings indicate that focus groups can be used innovatively to benefit both the research and the participants, not only as a critical method of inquiry with marginalized groups but also as a forum in which validating dialogue, mutual support, and exchange of strategic information can generate transformative change to improve women's lives.

  11. Facilitating dental student reflections: using mentor groups to discuss clinical experiences and personal development

    OpenAIRE

    Koole, Sebastiaan; Christiaens, Véronique; Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the consensus on the importance of reflection for dental professionals, a lack of understanding remains about how students and clinicians should develop their ability to reflect. The aim of this study was to investigate dental students’ and mentors’ perceptions of mentor groups as an instructional method to facilitate students’ reflection in terms of the strategy’s learning potential, role of the mentor, group dynamics, and feasibility. At Ghent University in Belgium, third- and fourt...

  12. [A discussion on setting up target age group for immunization against leptospirosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, J T; Wang, S S; Lan, W L

    1995-08-01

    This paper presented the lesson of setting up a false immunization priority age group for leptospirosis which failed to prevent the leptospirosis outbreak. Our experience was that in the rice paddy field type endemic area the priority age group for the vaccination against leptopirosis should be 15 to 34 year olds followed by 35 years old or above. There was no preventive effect in the vaccination for the children 14 years old or yaunger, to our observation.

  13. Using Facebook Groups to Encourage Science Discussions in a Large-Enrollment Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; McGinnis, Gene; Bryant, Dana; Cole, Megan; Kovacs, Jennifer; Stovall, Kyndra; Lee, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This case study reports the instructional development, impact, and lessons learned regarding the use of Facebook as an educational tool within a large enrollment Biology class at Spelman College (Atlanta, GA). We describe the use of this social networking site to (a) engage students in active scientific discussions, (b) build community within the…

  14. Students' Evaluation of Google Hangouts through a Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies.…

  15. Children's Behaviors and Emotions in Small-Group Argumentative Discussion: Explore the Influence of Big Five Personality Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting

    2009-01-01

    The assessment and structure of personality traits and small group learning during classroom discussions are both research fields that have undergone fast development in the past few decades. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between individual personality characteristics and performance in discussions, especially with…

  16. Effectiveness of interactive discussion group in suicide risk assessment among general nurses in Taiwan: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yi-Yin; Yeh, Mei Chang; Huang, Lian-Hua; Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Been

    2014-11-01

    The evidence of suicide prevention training for nurses is scarce. Strategies to enhance general nurses' ability in suicide risk assessment are critical to develop effective training programs in general medical settings. This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of an interactive discussion group in a suicide prevention training program for general nurses. In this randomized study with two groups of pre-post study design, the sample was recruited from the Medical, Surgical, and Emergency/Intensive Care Sectors of a 2000-bed general hospital via stratified randomization. Among the 111 nurses, 57 participants randomly assigned to the control group received a two-hour baseline suicide gatekeeper lecture, and 54 participants assigning to the experimental group received an additional five-hour group discussion about suicide risk assessment skills. Using a case vignette, the nurses discussed and assessed suicide risk factors specified in a 10-item Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale during a group discussion intervention. The findings revealed that the nurses achieved significant and consistent improvements of risk identification and assessment after the intervention without influencing their mental health status for assessing suicide risks. The result suggested an effective approach of interactive group discussion for facilitating critical thinking and learning suicide risk assessment skills among general nurses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cultural Ways of Constructing Knowledge: The Role of Identities in Online Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Learning scientists and the CSCL community have argued that knowledge construction is a process of collective thinking; a process that is simultaneously personal and social that requires group cognition. However, while CSCL researchers have investigated situated knowledge in the process of collective thinking, little work has been done to fully…

  18. Social Influence in Online Health Discussions: An Evaluation of Online Graduate Student Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin Kay

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a field experimental design assessing online support groups testing hypotheses derived from the social identification model of deindividuation effects (SIDE; Lea & Spears, 1992) and social information processing theory (SIP; Walther, 1992). Specifically, it is predicted that individuals in an online support…

  19. An Annotated Bibliography of Materials Designed and Organized for Adult Use in Discussion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, John W.

    This first annotated bibliography of materials designed and organized for adult use in disucssion groups includes both book and nonbook material. Areas dealt with are: art, censorship, change, child guidance, communication, crime, democracy, economics, education, evolution, food, foreign affairs, forgetting, generation gap, gold, good and evil,…

  20. Cultural Ways of Constructing Knowledge: The Role of Identities in Online Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Learning scientists and the CSCL community have argued that knowledge construction is a process of collective thinking; a process that is simultaneously personal and social that requires group cognition. However, while CSCL researchers have investigated situated knowledge in the process of collective thinking, little work has been done to fully…

  1. Making Foundational Assumptions Transparent: Framing the Discussion about Group Communication and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Renee A.; Seibold, David R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors seek to augment Dean Hewes's (1986, 1996) intriguing bracketing and admirable larger effort to "return to basic theorizing in the study of group communication" by making transparent the foundational, and debatable, assumptions that underlie those models. Although these assumptions are addressed indirectly by Hewes, the…

  2. Making Meaning with Friends: Exploring the Function, Direction and Tone of Small Group Discussions of Literature in Elementary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The merits of decentralized small groups has been questioned in literature and by practicing teachers; thus this study shows the academic and identity work children do as they attempt to make meaning in these spaces. This study explores the affordances and drawbacks of decentralized small group discussion contexts in a multiage (3rd/4th) grade…

  3. Examining the Impact of Novel Pre-activity Tasks on Macroskills: The Case of Group Discussion on Writing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of most researchers in the field of second and foreign language teaching is lessening the problems and eliminating the hinders on the way of learning a language. Writing is considered as one of the most challenging and complicated tasks for learners to perform particularly when they have to write in a second or foreign language. Numerous studies were done on the importance of the pre-writing stage and activities which are directly and indirectly related to the theme of the writing. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to examine the effects of group discussion as a pre- activity task on writing ability. To this aim, 27 Iranian EFL learners, who were at the same level –intermediate- studying at Shokuh and Safir Institutes, Birjand, Iran were chosen randomly. Two groups- one control and one experimental group- were studied. In control group the conventional method was used in teaching writing, while in experimental group, group discussion pre-activity task was administered. After 16 sessions, the obtained data of the pretests and posttests was analyzed by SPSS software. According to the results, researcher strongly concluded that group discussion has no significant effect on writing ability of Iranian intermediate learners. This study can help teachers and syllabus designers in choosing and applying an effective pre-activity task. Keywords: writing ability, pre-activity task, group discussion, EFL learners

  4. Phases and Changes: Using I Ching as a Source of Generative Metaphors in Teaching Small Group Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, G. Richard; Chang, Hui-Ching

    1992-01-01

    This essay describes the use of I Ching hexagrams as a focus to improve the ability of college student groups to evolve creative solutions and improve decision-making skills. The philosophy of I Ching is briefly explained, and examples are given of hexagram interpretations which are applicable to group discussion and problem solving. (DB)

  5. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie

    1999-01-01

    discussions with community pharmacists in the capital area Reykjavík and rural areas were employed to answer the research question: How has the pharmacists' societal role evolved after the legislation and what are the implications for pharmacy practice? The results showed firstly that the public image......, the results showed that the pharmacists have difficulties reconciling their technical paradigm with a legislative and professional will specifying customer and patient focus. This study describes the challenges of a new legislation with a market focus for community pharmacists whose education emphasized...... technical skills. This account of the changes in the drug distribution system in Iceland highlights some of the implications for pharmacists internationally....

  6. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie

    1999-01-01

    New legislation went into effect in Iceland in March 1996 making it the first Nordic country to liberate their drug distribution system. The term liberalization implies the abolishment of the professional monopoly in that ownership was not tied to the pharmacy profession anymore. Focus group disc...... technical skills. This account of the changes in the drug distribution system in Iceland highlights some of the implications for pharmacists internationally....

  7. Effectiveness of group discussions and commitment in improving cleaning behaviour of shared sanitation users in Kampala, Uganda slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwebaze, Innocent K; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Access to and use of hygienic shared sanitation facilities is fundamental in reducing the high risk of diseases such as diarrhoea and respiratory infections. We evaluated the effectiveness of group discussions and commitment in improving the cleaning behaviour of shared sanitation users in three urban slums in Kampala, Uganda. The study follows the risk, attitudes, norms, abilities and self-regulation (RANAS) model of behaviour change and some factors of the social dilemma theory. A pre-versus post-intervention survey was conducted in three slums of Kampala, Uganda, between December 2012 and September 2013. From the pre-intervention findings, users of dirty sanitation facilities were randomly assigned to discussions, discussions + commitment and control interventions. The interventions were implemented for 3 months with the aim of improving cleaning behaviour. This paper provides an analysis of 119 respondents who belonged to the intervention discussion-only (n = 38), discussions + commitment (n = 41) and the control (no intervention, n = 40) groups. Compared to the control, discussions and discussions + commitment significantly improved shared toilet users' cleaning behaviour. The rate of improvement was observed through behavioural determinants such as cleaning obligation, cleaning ease, cleaning approval and affective beliefs. Our study findings show that group discussions and commitment interventions derived from RANAS model of behaviour change are effective in improving the shared sanitation users' cleaning behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Morgall, J M

    1999-01-01

    New legislation went into effect in Iceland in March 1996 making it the first Nordic country to liberate their drug distribution system. The term liberalization implies the abolishment of the professional monopoly in that ownership was not tied to the pharmacy profession anymore. Focus group...... and the self-image of the pharmacist has changed in the short time since the legislative change. The pharmacists generally said that their patient contact is deteriorating due to the discount wars, the rural pharmacists being more optimistic, and believing in a future competition based on quality. Secondly...

  9. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Afandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions

  10. Students’ Evaluation of Google Hangouts Through A Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko KOBAYASHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies. After the activity, students responded to a survey to evaluate the ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts. Qualitative data were also collected through the survey to examine their overall learning experience. The results indicated that Google Hangouts is a useful instructional tool, but not easy to use. Although technical problems occurred during the conference, the activity provided valuable experiences for both U.S. and Japanese students. The study provides suggestions for how Google Hangouts can be integrated into online classrooms based on the findings.

  11. Hydroxyl groups in nonmetamict chevkinite-(Ce):a crystal chemical discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhuming; Franz Pertlik; Michel Fleck

    2008-01-01

    The minerals of chevkinite group were commonly considered to be anhydrous minerals. The infrared absorption spectrum of natural nonmetamict chevkinite-(Ce) from the aegirine-alkali granite, Mianning, Sichuan Province, China, exhibited two broad peaks in the 3600-2800 cm-1 region owing to the OH stretching. The corresponding H2O content required for the charge balance in formula was 1.27%. The O-H ··· O bond lengths maight cover from 0.2658 to 0.2794 nm by the correlated OH stretching energies. An electrostatic charge balance for chevkinite-(Ce) based on the assigned site-population from chemical data was calculated without the hydrogen contribution. The resulting empirical bond-valence sum on O6, O8, O2, O3, O5, and O4 ranged from 1.73 to 1.95 vu. The partial substitution of O by OH may occur in four atom sites: O6, O2, O4, and O5. The small differences in the bond-valence sums between the supposed donors and acceptors may mean a mixed donor/acceptor role of the involved oxygen atoms. The IR spectral features between 3394 and 3035 cm-1 consisted of various hydrous species at different structural sites and orientations. The OH groups in the chevkinite-(Ce) appeared to be involved in local charge imbalance in the structure and to be present when the mineral crystallized hydrothermally.

  12. Discussion on Group Learning%浅谈小组合作学习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳萍

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely used in many countries in the world a kind of creative teaching theory and strategy. Refers to two or more than twostudents or groups,in order to achieve a common purpose in action are matched with each other.%合作学习是目前世界上许多国家普遍采用的一种富有创意的教学理论与方略,是指两个或两个以上的学生或群体,为了达到共同的目的而在行动上相互配合的过程。

  13. Multiplicity: discussion points from the Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry multiplicity expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alan; Fletcher, Chrissie; Atkinson, Gary; Channon, Eddie; Douiri, Abdel; Jaki, Thomas; Maca, Jeff; Morgan, David; Roger, James Henry; Terrill, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Committee of Health and Medicinal Products issued a concept paper on the need to review the points to consider document on multiplicity issues in clinical trials. In preparation for the release of the updated guidance document, Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry held a one-day expert group meeting in January 2013. Topics debated included multiplicity and the drug development process, the usefulness and limitations of newly developed strategies to deal with multiplicity, multiplicity issues arising from interim decisions and multiregional development, and the need for simultaneous confidence intervals (CIs) corresponding to multiple test procedures. A clear message from the meeting was that multiplicity adjustments need to be considered when the intention is to make a formal statement about efficacy or safety based on hypothesis tests. Statisticians have a key role when designing studies to assess what adjustment really means in the context of the research being conducted. More thought during the planning phase needs to be given to multiplicity adjustments for secondary endpoints given these are increasing in importance in differentiating products in the market place. No consensus was reached on the role of simultaneous CIs in the context of superiority trials. It was argued that unadjusted intervals should be employed as the primary purpose of the intervals is estimation, while the purpose of hypothesis testing is to formally establish an effect. The opposing view was that CIs should correspond to the test decision whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Media Memories in Focus Group Discussions - Methodological Reflections Instancing the Global Media Generations Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Hug

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medienereignisse wie auch die Einführung und Verbreitung neuer Medientechnologien und Formate bringen mannigfaltige Wege des „Eintretens von Medien ins Leben“ mit sich. Im Projekt Globale Mediengenerationen (GMG wurden Medienerinnerungen aus der Kindheit im Kontext von Gruppendiskussionen am Beispiel dreier Generationen aus verschiedenen Ländern aller Kontinente untersucht. Dabei wurden medienbezogene Wissensbestände von drei Alterskohorten globaler Generationen analysiert. Der Artikel diskutiert methodologische Aspekte des Projekts und komplexe und selektive Prozesse des Erinnerns vergangener Ereignisse. Er untersucht Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede des GMG-Ansatzes mit dem dokumentarischen Ansatz von Ralf Bohnsack, die beide in der Wissenssoziologie von Karl Mannheim verwurzelt sind. Darüber hinaus wird Medialität als basale methodologische Kategorie in Erwägung gezogen, nicht nur im Hinblick auf die Klärung begrifflicher Grundlagen, sondern auch als inhärente Dimension von Forschungsprozessen. Media events in general and the introduction and divulgence of new media technologies and formats in particular implicate various (new ways of “media entering life.” In the Global Media Generations (GMG research project, articulation of individuals’ memories of childhood experiences with the media was afforded by context of focus groups of three generations in different countries of six continents. In this project media related knowledge segments of different age cohorts have been analyzed and interpreted. The article deals with methodological questions of the project and complex processes of ‘remembering’ past events. It explores commonalities and differences of the GMG approach with Ralf Bohnsack’s documentary approach, both rooted in the sociology of knowledge of Karl Mannheim. Furthermore, mediality is taken into consideration as a basic methodological category, which means that it is perceived not only as subject matter to

  15. Assessment of Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Mobile ‎Phone ‎Addiction Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR classified mobile phone addiction disorder under ‎‎"impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified". This study surveyed the ‎diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR for the diagnosis of mobile phone ‎addiction in correspondence with Iranian society and culture.‎Method: Two hundred fifty students of Tehran universities were entered into this ‎descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. Quota sampling method ‎was used. At first, semi- structured clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-‎TR was performed for all the cases, and another specialist re-evaluated the ‎interviews. Data were analyzed using content validity, inter-scorer reliability (Kappa coefficient and test-retest via SPSS18 software.Results: The content validity of the semi- structured clinical interview matched the ‎DSM –IV-TR criteria for behavioral addiction. Moreover, their content was ‎appropriate, and two items, including "SMS pathological use" and "High ‎monthly cost of using the mobile phone” were added to promote its validity. ‎Internal reliability (Kappa and test –retest reliability were 0.55 and r = 0.4 ‎‎(p<0. 01 respectively.‎Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that semi- structured diagnostic criteria of ‎DSM-IV-TR are valid and reliable for diagnosing mobile phone addiction, ‎and this instrument is an effective tool to diagnose this disorder.‎

  16. The use of semi-structured interviews for the characterisation of farmer irrigation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Mijic, Ana; Brozović, Nicholas; Sinha, Rajiv

    2016-05-01

    For the development of sustainable and realistic water security, generating information on the behaviours, characteristics, and drivers of users, as well as on the resource itself, is essential. In this paper we present a methodology for collecting qualitative and quantitative data on water use practices through semi-structured interviews. This approach facilitates the collection of detailed information on actors' decisions in a convenient and cost-effective manner. Semi-structured interviews are organised around a topic guide, which helps lead the conversation in a standardised way while allowing sufficient opportunity for relevant issues to emerge. In addition, they can be used to obtain certain types of quantitative data. While not as accurate as direct measurements, they can provide useful information on local practices and users' insights. We present an application of the methodology on farmer water use in two districts in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. By means of 100 farmer interviews, information was collected on various aspects of irrigation practices, including irrigation water volumes, irrigation cost, water source, and their spatial variability. Statistical analyses of the information, along with data visualisation, are also presented, indicating a significant variation in irrigation practices both within and between districts. Our application shows that semi-structured interviews are an effective and efficient method of collecting both qualitative and quantitative information for the assessment of drivers, behaviours, and their outcomes in a data-scarce region. The collection of this type of data could significantly improve insights on water resources, leading to more realistic management options and increased water security in the future.

  17. Perspectives on Positioning, Interaction, and Learning in Small-Group Discussion: Possibilities for Extending the Analytic Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Julie M.; Wilson, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    In this forum piece, we respond to Karin Due's study of social dynamics in groups of students in physics class and gender issues that play out in this context. We discuss two threads that appear in Due's paper: one pertains to patterns of talk within groups and how these patterns open up possibilities for learning, the other pertains to…

  18. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  19. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  20. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  1. Video Modeling of Cooperative Discussion Group Behaviors with Students with Learning Disabilities in a Secondary Content-area Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-mediated instructional strategies such as cooperative learning are commonly used in general education classrooms in secondary schools; however, students with disabilities often lack the group interaction and discussion skills necessary to fully benefit from evidence-based interventions. The present study used a multiple baseline across…

  2. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  3. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  4. Educational Outcomes of Small-Group Discussion Versus Traditional Lecture Format in Dental Students' Learning and Skills Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge.

  5. Assessment of Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Mobile Phone Addiction Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Sepahbodi, Ghazal; BabaReisi, Mohammad; Sajedi, Sahar; Farshchi, Mojtaba; KhodaKarami, Rasul; Hatami Kasvaee, Vahid

    2016-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) classified mobile phone addiction disorder under "impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified". This study surveyed the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR for the diagnosis of mobile phone addiction in correspondence with Iranian society and culture. Two hundred fifty students of Tehran universities were entered into this descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. Quota sampling method was used. At first, semi- structured clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-TR) was performed for all the cases, and another specialist reevaluated the interviews. Data were analyzed using content validity, inter-scorer reliability (Kappa coefficient) and test-retest via SPSS18 software. The content validity of the semi- structured clinical interview matched the DSM-IV-TR criteria for behavioral addiction. Moreover, their content was appropriate, and two items, including "SMS pathological use" and "High monthly cost of using the mobile phone" were added to promote its validity. Internal reliability (Kappa) and test-retest reliability were 0.55 and r = 0.4 (pmobile phone addiction, and this instrument is an effective tool to diagnose this disorder.

  6. Fuzzy Optimum Model of Semi-Structural Decision for Lectotype Optimization of Offshore Platforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守煜; 伏广涛; 王建明; 刘刚

    2001-01-01

    In the process of concept design of offshore platforms, it is necessary to select the best from feasible alternatives through comparison and filter. The criterion set, used to evaluate and select the satisfying alternative, consists of many qualitative and quantitative factors. Therefore, the selection is a problem of multicriteria and semi-structural decision-making. Different from traditional methods in semi-structural decision-making, a new framework and methodology is presented in this paper for evaluation of offshore platform alternatives. First, the criterion set is established for the evaluation of alternatives. Next, the approach is studied to construct the relative membership degree matrix, in which both qualitative and quantitative factors are consistent with the uniform calculating standard. And then a new weight-assessing method is developed for calculation of the weights based on the relative membership degree matrix.Finally, a multi-hierarchy fuzzy optimum model is adopted to select the satisfying offshore platform alternative. A case study shows that the new framework and methodology are scientific, reasonable and easy to use in practice.

  7. Using standardized patient with immediate feedback and group discussion to teach interpersonal and communication skills to advanced practice nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Esther Ching-Lan; Chen, Shiah-Lian; Chao, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yueh-Chih

    2013-06-01

    Interpersonal and communication skills (IPCS) are essential for advanced practice nursing (APN) in our increasingly complex healthcare system. The Standardized Patient (SP) is a promising innovative pedagogy in medical and healthcare education; however, its effectiveness for teaching IPCS to graduate nursing students remains unclear. We examined the effectiveness of using SP with SP feedback and group discussion to teach IPCS in graduate nursing education. Randomized-controlled study. First-year APN students in Taiwan. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental (SP assessments with SP feedback and group discussion) or control (SP assessments only) group. There were two outcome indicators: IPCS and student learning satisfaction (SLS). The IPCS were assessed before and after the study in interviews with the SPs. SLS was measured when the study ended. All participants expressed high SLS (94.44%) and showed significant (p ≤ 0.025) improvements on IPCS total scores, interviewing, and counseling. However, there were no significant differences between groups. Qualitative feedback from encounters with SPs is described. Using SPs to teach IPCS to APN students produced a high SLS. The students learned and significantly improved their IPCS by interviewing SPs, but future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of SP feedback and group discussions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Children with Autism Understand Indirect Speech Acts: Evidence from a Semi-Structured Act-Out Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissine, Mikhail; Cano-Chervel, Julie; Carlier, Sophie; De Brabanter, Philippe; Ducenne, Lesley; Pairon, Marie-Charlotte; Deconinck, Nicolas; Delvenne, Véronique; Leybaert, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often said to present a global pragmatic impairment. However, there is some observational evidence that context-based comprehension of indirect requests may be preserved in autism. In order to provide experimental confirmation to this hypothesis, indirect speech act comprehension was tested in a group of 15 children with autism between 7 and 12 years and a group of 20 typically developing children between 2:7 and 3:6 years. The aim of the study was to determine whether children with autism can display genuinely contextual understanding of indirect requests. The experiment consisted of a three-pronged semi-structured task involving Mr Potato Head. In the first phase a declarative sentence was uttered by one adult as an instruction to put a garment on a Mr Potato Head toy; in the second the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by another speaker; in the third phase the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by the first speaker. Children with autism complied with the indirect request in the first phase and demonstrated the capacity to inhibit the directive interpretation in phases 2 and 3. TD children had some difficulty in understanding the indirect instruction in phase 1. These results call for a more nuanced view of pragmatic dysfunction in autism.

  9. Comparison the Effect of Student-Based Group Discussion and Lecture Methods Teaching on Midwifery Student\\'s Learning Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghapour SA.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: True learning needs the utilization of proper teaching methods leading to students’ interests in the learning activities to gain useful learning experiences. Therefore, it is needed to reform the traditional teaching methods and to use new student-focused methods by the educational systems.  The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the student-focused group discussion method and lecture method on the learning level in the Midwifery students. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 72 third-semester Midwifery bachelor students of Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch, were selected via census method to participate in the theoretical clinical pregnancy course presented as lecture and group discussion methods in 2014. The final test was done after the end of the training courses. And, material durability test was done 8 weeks after the end of the course sessions. Data was analyzed, using SPSS 16 software and Wilcoxon Non-parametric Test. Findings: There was a significant difference between the mean scores of all the sessions conducted through lecture method (45.00±8.00 and group discussion method (57.00±10.00; p=0.0001. There was a significant difference in the material durability after 8 weeks between the mean scores of lecture (24.50±13.90 and group discussion (35.10±13.10 methods (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Standard student-focused group discussion training affects the midwifery students’ learning more than the lecture method does and there is higher information durability.  

  10. Who is the competent physics student? A study of students' positions and social interaction in small-group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-06-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students. The analysis was based on gender theory viewing gender both as a process and a discourse. Specifically discursive psychology analysis was used to examine how students position themselves and their peers within discourses of physics and gender. The results of the study reveal how images of physics and of "skilled physics student" were constructed in the context of the interviews. These discourses were reconstructed in the students' discussions and their social interactions within groups. Traditional gendered positions were reconstructed, for example with boys positioned as more competent in physics than girls. These positions were however also resisted and challenged.

  11. Fit Minded College Edition Pilot Study: Can a Magazine-Based Discussion Group Improve Physical Activity in Female College Freshmen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitteri, Katelyn; Huberty, Jennifer; Ehlers, Diane; Bruening, Meg

    Initial efficacy of a magazine-based discussion group for improving physical activity (PA), self-worth, and eating behaviors in female college freshmen. Randomized control trial. A large university in southwestern United States. Thirty-seven female college freshmen were randomized to the intervention (n = 17) and control groups (n = 20) in September 2013. Participants completed an 8-week magazine-based discussion group program, Fit Minded College Edition, adapted from Fit Minded, a previously tested theory-based intervention. Education on PA, self-worth, and nutrition was provided using excerpts from women's health magazines. Participants also had access to a Web site with supplementary health and wellness material. The control group did not attend meetings or have access to the Web site but received the magazines. Interventions focusing on concepts of self-worth with less focus on weight and appearance may promote long term PA participation and healthy eating behaviors in college women. Self-reported PA, global self-worth, knowledge self-worth, self-efficacy, social support, eating behaviors (ie, fruit/veggie/junk food/sugar-sweetened beverage consumption), satisfaction, and Web site usage. Mean age of participants was 18.11 (SD = 0.32) years. Time × Intervention effects were observed for PA minutes per week (Partial η = 0.34), knowledge self-worth (Partial η = 0.02), and daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (Partial η = 0.17) (P < .05), with the intervention group reporting greater increases in PA and knowledge self-worth and greater decreases in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. A magazine-based discussion group may provide a promising platform to improve health behaviors in female college freshmen.

  12. Development and preliminary validation of a semi-structured interview for the screening of law enforcement candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, J G; Scogin, F R; Vipperman, R K

    1999-01-01

    A standard practice among most law enforcement agencies is to include psychological screening in the selection of job candidates. Although the use of personality tests in predicting job performance of law enforcement officers has received empirical support (e.g., the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Inwald Personality Inventory), there is a conspicuous absence of data regarding the reliability and validity of interview procedures. The present study represents the first step in the development of a standardized, semi-structured interview for use in the screening of law enforcement personnel. This interview, the Law Enforcement Candidate Interview, was constructed using content areas drawn from measures used in the screening of law enforcement personnel (e.g., Inwald Personality Inventory) and assessment of personality functioning (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders). This interview was then administered by two doctoral students to a group of law enforcement academy cadets (n=34). A modest degree of inter-rater reliability was achieved, although internal consistency was somewhat lacking. Interview scores were correlated with measures of academy performance (final grade-point average and peer and supervisor ranking of academy performance). Results of these analyses suggest the LECI is a modest predictor of academy performance. Potential uses of the LECI and future research indications are outlined. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as "individual publications"). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, Paltmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group.

  14. [The semi-structured interview: at the border of public health and anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Geneviève

    2010-09-01

    The interview is the tool for data collection the most used in the context of research conducted in health sciences, human sciences and social sciences. After completing some generalities about the different types of interviews, the focus is on semi-structured interview during its various stages including the processing and data analysis, this from the return of a lived experience of research in work on the border of the field of public health and that of anthropology. If this approach and contextualized the semistructured interview may a priori appear specific, the reader interested in the development of qualitative research in a humanistic perspective and the implementation of multidisciplinary strategies to ascertain its universal character.

  15. A Semi-Structured Tailoring-Driven Approach for ERP Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdou Janati Idrissi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely reported that selecting an inappropriate system is a major reason for ERP implementation failures. The selection of an ERP system is therefore critical. While the number of papers related to ERP implementation is substantial, ERP evaluation and selection approaches have received few attention. Motivated by the adaptation concept of the ERP systems, we propose in this paper a semi-structured approach for ERP system selection that has a more holistic focus by simultaneously evaluating candidate products according to both functional and non-functional requirements and considering the anticipated fitness of ERP solutions after the optimal resolution, within limited resources, of a set of the identified mismatches. The approach consists of an iterative selection process and an evaluation methodology that combines a 0-1 linear programming model to determine functional measurement metrics with MACBETH cardinal scales to elaborate multi-criteria performance expressions.

  16. Combining Dual Scaling with Semi-Structured Interviews to Interpret Rating Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Childs

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dual scaling, a variation of multidimensional scaling, can reveal the dimensions underlying scores, such as raters' judgments. This study illustrates the use of a dual scaling analysis with semi-structured interviews of raters to investigate the differences among the raters as captured by the dimensions. Thirty applications to a one-year post-Bachelor's degree teacher education program were rated by nine teacher educators. Eight of the raters were subsequently interviewed about how they rated the responses. A three-dimensional model was found to explain most of the variance in the ratings for two of the questions and a two-dimensional model was most interpretable for the third question. The interviews suggested that the dimensions reflected, in addition to differences in raters' stringency, differences in their beliefs about their roles as raters and about the types of insights that were required of applicants.

  17. Building large collections of Chinese and English medical terms from semi-structured and encyclopedia websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yining; Sun, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Jianwen; Tsujii, Junichi; Chang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R) is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S)), Object Recall (R(O)), and Surface Head recall (R(H)). We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems), 89,591 (Medications) and 25,107 (Tests) terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems), 101,025 (Medications), and 15,032 (Tests) terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.

  18. Building large collections of Chinese and English medical terms from semi-structured and encyclopedia websites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc. and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S, Object Recall (R(O, and Surface Head recall (R(H. We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems, 89,591 (Medications and 25,107 (Tests terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems, 101,025 (Medications, and 15,032 (Tests terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.

  19. Gay-Straight Alliances as settings to discuss health topics: individual and group factors associated with substance use, mental health, and sexual health discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V P; Heck, N C; Yoshikawa, H; Calzo, J P

    2017-06-01

    Sexual minority (e.g. lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning; LGBQ) and gender minority (e.g. transgender) youth experience myriad health risks. Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based settings where they may have opportunities to discuss substance use, mental health, and sexual health issues in ways that are safe and tailored to their experiences. Attention to these topics in GSAs could aid in developing programming for these settings. Among 295 youth from 33 Massachusetts high-school GSAs (69% LGBQ, 68% cisgender female, 68% White, Mage = 16.06), we examined how often youth discussed these topics within their GSA and identified factors associated with having more of these discussions. Youth and GSAs as a whole varied in their frequency of discussing these topics. Youth who accessed more information/resources in the GSA and did more advocacy more frequently engaged in discussions around substance use, mental health and sexual health. Youth who reported greater victimization more often discussed substance use and mental health, but not sexual health. Finally, GSAs whose members collectively reported greater victimization more frequently discussed these topics. These findings can assist the development of health programming to be delivered within GSAs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Selective traditions in group discussions: teachers' views about good science and the possible obstacles when encountering a new topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Sund, Per

    2016-11-01

    There is an ongoing discussion about what content that should be taught in science education and there are different views among teachers about what represent good science content. However, teachers are not isolated individuals making their own interpretations, but are part of institutionalised systems building on patterns in the selection of teaching goals and content. Earlier research shows that teachers teach in alignment with different selective traditions, which can be understood as well-developed teaching habits. Individual teachers seem to develop their personal habits on the basis of the contextual situations created by earlier generations of teachers. In order to find out which content teachers find representative for science education, we asked nine teachers to take part in group interviews to talk about what they value as "good" science content. The participants were grouped according to their selective traditions expressed in earlier studies. The method was used to dynamically explore, challenge and highlight teachers' views. The starting point for the group discussions is national tests in science. In Sweden, national tests in biology, physics and chemistry were introduced in secondary school science (year 9) in 2009. One overarching aim of these tests is to support the implementation of the science curricula and to include for example knowledge about socio-scientific issues (SSI). The content of the tests can consequently be seen as important for teachers to consider. The findings show that `resistance' to including SSI is not just an issue for individual teachers. As individuals teachers can create many kinds of obstacles, but still be interested in integrating SSI in their science teaching. However, in group discussions the teachers tend to collectively adopt the scientific rational discourse. This discourse is what joins them and creates their common identity as science teachers. In turn, they seek to free scientific knowledge from social knowledge

  1. Randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy compared to a discussion group for co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M; Kangas, M; Perini, S

    2016-03-01

    Co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults is associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes and poorer response to psychological and pharmacological treatments in older adults. However, there is a paucity of research focused on testing the efficacy of the co-morbid treatment of anxiety and depression in older adults using psychological interventions. Accordingly, the primary objective of the current study was to test the effects of a group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) program in treating co-morbid anxiety and depression in a sample of older age adults. A total of 133 community-dwelling participants aged ⩾60 years (mean age = 67.35, s.d. = 5.44, male = 59) with both an anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder, as assessed on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule (ADIS), were randomly allocated to an 11-week CBT group or discussion group. Participants with Mini-Mental State Examination scores group × time interaction effects emerged at post-treatment only for diagnostic severity of the primary disorder, mean severity of all anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and all disorders, and recovery rates on primary disorder. Group CBT produced faster and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression on diagnostic severity and recovery rates compared to an active control in older adults.

  2. 小组讨论及研讨会总结%Summary of Working Group Discussion and the Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This composition collects the discussion conclusions of each group during the seminar.Each group discussion has a topic,and each group sends an expert giving a speech in the summary meeting to report the outcome of the discussion.All of the outcomes put forward the direction and methods in the development of industrialised housing in Chongqing,and also set up a basis for the work of the next stage of this project.%文章汇集了研讨会小组讨论的各组总结,每小组有一个论题,并由一名相关专家在讨论总结会上发言,报告本小组的讨论成果。这些讨论成果指出了在重庆开展住宅产业化的方向和途径,为项目下一步工作的开展奠定了良好的基础。此外,还包括研讨会的总结,提出了重庆实施住宅产业化的具体意见。

  3. EFEKTIVITAS METODE BUZZ GROUP DISCUSSION UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PERILAKU PEMBERANTASAN SARANG NYAMUK IBU-IBU PKK KELURAHAN SRAGEN TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfah Nuristia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD adalah penyakit menular yang berbahaya yang dapat menimbulkan kematian dalam waktu singkat dan sering menimbulkan wabah serta kepanikan masyarakat. Pemberian informasi tentang pemberantasan sarang nyamuk (PSN dengan metode Buzz Group Discussion diharapkan dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan dan merubah perilaku masyarakat menjadi lebih baik yang diharapkan dapat dilakukan oleh kader PKK sehingga dapat ditularkan kepada masyarakat lain. Jenis penelitian ini bersifat Quasi eksperimental. Subjek dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok eksperimen sebanyak 18 orang diberi metode buzz group disscussion dan kelompok kontrol sebanyak 18 orang diberi metode ceramah. Hasil uji perbedaan posttest perilaku antara kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol didapatkan dengan p value sebesar 0,000 lebih kecil dari 0,05 dan diperoleh nilai rata-rata post test kelompok sebesar 6,555 sedangkan pada kelompok kontrol diperoleh hasil post test dengan rata-rata sebesar  4,27, lebih kecil dari rata-rata posttesteksperimen. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa metode Buzz Group Discussion efektif dalam meningkatkan perilaku pemberantasan sarang nyamuk pada Ibu PKK di kelurahan Sragen Tengah, Kabupaten Sragen

  4. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Gregori M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manuela De Gregori,1-3,* Valeria Scotti,4,* Annalisa De Silvestri,4 Moreno Curti,4 Guido Fanelli,2,5,6 Massimo Allegri,2,5,6 Michael E Schatman,2,7 1Pain Therapy Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 2Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research Group, Parma, Italy; 3Young Against Pain Group, Parma, Italy; 4Center for Scientific Documentation and Biometry Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 5Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, Italy; 6Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy Service, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy; 7US Pain Foundation, Bellevue, WA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as “individual publications”. For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists, we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%, discussed

  5. A semi-structured, phenomenologically oriented psychiatric interview: Descriptive congruens in assessing anomalous subjective experience and mental status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Parnas, Josef Stefan Stanislaw

    2012-01-01

    the interrater congruens between experienced clinicians with a semi structured, phenomenologically oriented psychopathological interview assessing anomalous self-experience and mental status. Method: Seventeen inpatients were interviewed by one of the raters, with both raters were present. The interview......, phenomenological-oriented semi-structured interview. Limitations: The major limitation of the study is a relatively small sample size, conditioned by the time-consuming nature of the individual interviews. Second, we should have included a measurement of reliability in a less experiencedrecently EASE......-introduced rater, since it is that kind of researchers that are typically enrolled for the empirical data collections....

  6. Editorial research and the publication process in biomedicine and health: Report from the Esteve Foundation Discussion Group, December 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušić, Ana; Malički, Mario; von Elm, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that there are more than twenty thousand biomedical journals in the world, research into the work of editors and publication process in biomedical and health care journals is rare. In December 2012, the Esteve Foundation, a non-profit scientific institution that fosters progress in pharmacotherapy by means of scientific communication and discussion organized a discussion group of 7 editors and/or experts in peer review biomedical publishing. They presented findings of past editorial research, discussed the lack of competitive funding schemes and specialized journals for dissemination of editorial research, and reported on the great diversity of misconduct and conflict of interest policies, as well as adherence to reporting guidelines. Furthermore, they reported on the reluctance of editors to investigate allegations of misconduct or increase the level of data sharing in health research. In the end, they concluded that if editors are to remain gatekeepers of scientific knowledge they should reaffirm their focus on the integrity of the scientific record and completeness of the data they publish. Additionally, more research should be undertaken to understand why many journals are not adhering to editorial standards, and what obstacles editors face when engaging in editorial research.

  7. 'Will I be able to have a baby?' Results from online focus group discussions with childhood cancer survivors in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, J; Jervaeus, A; Lampic, C; Eriksson, L E; Widmark, C; Armuand, G M; Malmros, J; Marshall Heyman, M; Wettergren, L

    2014-12-01

    What do adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer think about the risk of being infertile? The potential infertility, as well as the experience of having had cancer, affects well-being, intimate relationships and the desire to have children in the future. Many childhood cancer survivors want to have children and worry about possible infertility. For this qualitative study with a cross-sectional design, data were collected through 39 online focus group discussions during 2013. Cancer survivors previously treated for selected diagnoses were identified from The Swedish Childhood Cancer Register (16-24 years old at inclusion, ≥5 years after diagnosis) and approached regarding study participation. Online focus group discussions of mixed sex (n = 133) were performed on a chat platform in real time. Texts from the group discussions were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the main category Is it possible to have a baby? including five generic categories: Risk of infertility affects well-being, Dealing with possible infertility, Disclosure of possible infertility is a challenge, Issues related to heredity and Parenthood may be affected. The risk of infertility was described as having a negative impact on well-being and intimate relationships. Furthermore, the participants described hesitation about becoming a parent due to perceived or anticipated physical and psychological consequences of having had cancer. Given the sensitive topic of the study, the response rate (36%) is considered acceptable. The sample included participants who varied with regard to received fertility-related information, current fertility status and concerns related to the risk of being infertile. The results may be transferred to similar contexts with other groups of patients of childbearing age and a risk of impaired fertility due to disease. The findings imply that achieving parenthood, whether or not with biological children, is an area that

  8. Exploring views on long term rehabilitation for people with stroke in a developing country: findings from focus group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of long term rehabilitation for people with stroke is increasingly evident, yet it is not known whether such services can be materialised in countries with limited community resources. In this study, we explored the perception of rehabilitation professionals and people with stroke towards long term stroke rehabilitation services and potential approaches to enable provision of these services. Views from providers and users are important in ensuring whatever strategies developed for long term stroke rehabilitations are feasible and acceptable. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted involving 15 rehabilitation professionals and eight long term stroke survivors. All recorded conversations were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the principles of qualitative research. Results Both groups agreed that people with stroke may benefit from more rehabilitation compared to the amount of rehabilitation services presently provided. Views regarding the unavailability of long term rehabilitation services due to multi-factorial barriers were recognised. The groups also highlighted the urgent need for the establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres. Family-assisted home therapy was viewed as a potential approach to continued rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors, given careful planning to overcome several family-related issues. Conclusions Barriers to the provision of long term stroke rehabilitation services are multi-factorial. Establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres and training family members to conduct home-based therapy are two potential strategies to enable the continuation of rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors. PMID:24606911

  9. Building and Using Object-Oriented Frameworks for Semi-Structures Domains: The Sales Promotion Domain as Example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dalebout; J. van Hillegersberg (Jos); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractObject-oriented (00) frameworks are considered an important step forward in developing software applications efficiently. Success of frameworks has however predominantly been limited to structured domains.This paper describes a method for developing 00 domainframeworks for semi-structure

  10. Situational awareness for unmanned ground vehicles in semi-structured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnus; Stevens, Mark R.

    2002-07-01

    Situational Awareness (SA) is a critical component of effective autonomous vehicles, reducing operator workload and allowing an operator to command multiple vehicles or simultaneously perform other tasks. Our Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME) provides SA for mobile robots in semi-structured scenes, such as parking lots and city streets. SESAME autonomously builds volumetric models for scene analysis. For example, a SES-AME equipped robot can build a low-resolution 3-D model of a row of cars, then approach a specific car and build a high-resolution model from a few stereo snapshots. The model can be used onboard to determine the type of car and locate its license plate, or the model can be segmented out and sent back to an operator who can view it from different viewpoints. As new views of the scene are obtained, the model is updated and changes are tracked (such as cars arriving or departing). Since the robot's position must be accurately known, SESAME also has automated techniques for deter-mining the position and orientation of the camera (and hence, robot) with respect to existing maps. This paper presents an overview of the SESAME architecture and algorithms, including our model generation algorithm.

  11. Autism spectrum disorder detection from semi-structured and unstructured medical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianbo; Holtz, Chester; Smith, Tristram; Luo, Jiebo

    2017-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that significantly impairs patients' ability to perform normal social interaction and communication. Moreover, the diagnosis procedure of ASD is highly time-consuming, labor-intensive, and requires extensive expertise. Although there exists no known cure for ASD, there is consensus among clinicians regarding the importance of early intervention for the recovery of ASD patients. Therefore, to benefit autism patients by enhancing their access to treatments such as early intervention, we aim to develop a robust machine learning-based system for autism detection by using Natural Language Processing techniques based on information extracted from medical forms of potential ASD patients. Our detecting framework involves converting semi-structured and unstructured medical forms into digital format, preprocessing, learning document representation, and finally, classification. Testing results are evaluated against the ground truth set by expert clinicians and the proposed system achieve a 83.4% accuracy and 91.1% recall, which is very promising. The proposed ASD detection framework could significantly simplify and shorten the procedure of ASD diagnosis.

  12. The lay user perspective on the quality of pharmaceuticals, drug therapy and pharmacy services--results of focus group discussions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    : The lay perspective emphasizes a definite split between lay and expert views on the value and quality of pharmaceuticals, drug therapy and pharmacy services, as well as in their assessment of risk. Participants voiced spontaneous criticism of the roles of both physicians and pharmacists in drug therapy......BACKGROUND: This article presents the results of a study on quality of pharmacy services and perceived risk of pharmaceuticals. The results presented here are part of a multi-study evaluation of major changes in drug distribution in Iceland. OBJECTIVES: This sub-study addressed the question: what...... is the lay user perspective on pharmaceuticals and pharmacy services, including their perception of risk? METHODS: To answer this question, seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in Iceland following new drug distribution legislation in 1996. RESULTS...

  13. The Colombian conference of bishops and its participation in peace negotiations with insurgent groups: origins and discussions (1982-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristancho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the most representative academic works about the participation of the Colombian Bishops’ Conference in negotiations with insurgent groups during the eighties, focusing on their perspective about their vision of peace. In that sense, this paper analyses how the Colombian clergy adapted to the national reality their perspective of peace, identifying the main debates and the wide variety of answers, focusing on two main issues: the relevance of establishing a relationship between the need to address social issues with the overcoming of violence and the participation of bishops and priests in the talks with the insurgency. As a result of these discussions, the Colombian Catholic Church gained greater unity in action on peace and conflict.

  14. Survey and online discussion groups to develop a patient-rated outcome measure on acceptability of treatment response in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, Selina K; Thomas, Kim S; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Leighton, Paul; Yong, Adrian Sw; Batchelor, Jonathan M

    2014-06-14

    Vitiligo is a chronic depigmenting skin disorder which affects around 0.5-1% of the world's population. The outcome measures used most commonly in trials to judge treatment success focus on repigmentation. Patient-reported outcome measures of treatment success are rarely used, although recommendations have been made for their inclusion in vitiligo trials. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity of a new patient-reported outcome measure of treatment response, for use in future trials and clinical practice. An online survey to gather initial views on what constitutes treatment success for people with vitiligo or their parents/carers, followed by online discussion groups with patients to reach consensus on what constitutes treatment success for individuals with vitiligo, and how this can be assessed in the context of trials. Participants were recruited from an existing database of vitiligo patients and through posts on the social network sites Facebook and Twitter. A total of 202 survey responses were received, of which 37 were excluded and 165 analysed. Three main themes emerged as important in assessing treatment response: a) the match between vitiligo and normal skin (how well it blends in); b) how noticeable the vitiligo is and c) a reduction in the size of the white patches. The majority of respondents said they would consider 80% or more repigmentation to be a worthwhile treatment response after 9 months of treatment. Three online discussion groups involving 12 participants led to consensus that treatment success is best measured by asking patients how noticeable their vitiligo is after treatment. This was judged to be best answered using a 5-point Likert scale, on which a score of 4 or 5 represents treatment success. This study represents the first step in developing a patient reported measure of treatment success in vitiligo trials. Further work is now needed to assess its construct validity and responsiveness to change.

  15. [Development of clinical trial education program for pharmaceutical science students through small group discussion and role-playing using protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imakyure, Osamu; Shuto, Hideki; Nishikawa, Fumi; Hagiwara, Yoshifuka; Inoue, Sachiko; Koyanagi, Taeko; Hirakawa, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2010-08-01

    The acquirement of basic knowledge of clinical trials and professional attitude in their practices is a general instructional objective in the Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education. Unfortunately, the previous program of clinical trial education was not effective in the acquirement of a professional attitude in their practices. Then, we developed the new clinical trial education program using protocol through small group discussion (SGD) and roll-playing. Our program consists of 7 steps of practical training. In step 1, the students find some problems after presentation of the protocol including case and prescription. In step 2, they analyse the extracted problems and share the information obtained in SGD. In steps 3 and 5, five clinical case scenarios are presented to the students and they discuss which case is suitable for entry to the clinical trial or which case corresponds to the discontinuance criteria in the present designed protocol. In steps 4 and 6, the roll-playing is performed by teachers and students as doctors and clinical research coordinators (CRC) respectively. Further, we conducted a trial practice based on this program for the students. In the student's self-evaluation into five grades, the average score of the skill acquisition level in each step was 3.8-4.7 grade. Our clinical trial education program could be effective in educating the candidates for CRC or clinical pharmacists.

  16. Joint attention at 10 months of age in infant-mother dyads: contrasting free toy-play with semi-structured toy-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Vera; Martins, Carla; Osório, Ana; Martins, Eva Costa; Soares, Isabel

    2013-02-01

    Fifty-two 10-month-olds and their mothers were observed in free toy-play and semi-structured toy-play for assessing joint attention capabilities. Mothers exhibited more bids for joint attention during semi-structured toy-play. Infants' response to maternal behaviors and their bids for initiating joint attention were higher during free toy-play.

  17. The modern Russian teacher: Studying awareness with the use of the semi-structured interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyushin, Leonid S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on the ideas of Humanistic-Existential Psychology, a positive approach to personal growth, and modern educational concepts concerning the dynamics of professional and social identity in the stratum of secondary and primary school teachers. The goal of the study is to get an objective picture of the professional and personal changes among Russian teachers under the conditions of school modernization. We offer a detailed model of the semi-structured interview with modern teachers, in combination with observation. The interview consists of 63 questions divided into 9 topics, and deals with issues related to what their professional activities mean to the teachers; the teachers’ evaluation of professional dynamics; their attitude toward various aspects of professional life; and their general world outlook and values. We also briefly describe a pre-interview “warm-up” strategy. This stage of the research resulted in the successful pilot use of the research methodology, and data sufficient to evaluate the initial trends of the analysis of all the data. The study’s main conclusions concern the observation technique, which offers a significant increase in the potential of the interview method, mainly through providing the ability to interpret non-verbal reactions, the level of openness, and the teacher’s trust in the dialogue. Moreover, we must note that, when we asked teachers to answer complicated written questions, their answers, judgments, and arguments varied greatly, regardless of their professional and personal characteristics (employment history, qualification category, the subject they teach, type of school, etc.

  18. Semi-structured interview is a reliable and feasible tool for selection of doctors for general practice specialist training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksen, Jesper; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Kjær, Niels Kristian

    2013-01-01

    In order to optimise the selection process for admission to specialist training in family medicine, we developed a new design for structured applications and selection interviews. The design contains semi-structured interviews, which combine individualised elements from the applications with stan...... with standardised behaviour-based questions. This paper describes the design of the tool, and offers reflections concerning its acceptability, reliability and feasibility....

  19. Teacher-student co-construction processes in biology: Strategies for developing mental models in large group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Oviedo, Maria Cecilia

    The aim of this study was to describe co-construction processes in large group discussions. Co-construction, as used here, is a process by which the teacher and the students work together to construct and evaluate mental models of a target concept. Data were collected for an in-depth case study of a single teacher instructing middle school students with an innovative curriculum on human respiration. Data came from transcripts of video taped lessons, drawings, and pre- and post-test scores. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted. In the quantitative analysis, differences in gains between one and two standard deviations in size were found between the pre- and post-test scores indicating that the students increased their understanding about human respiration. In the qualitative analysis, a generative exploratory method followed by a convergent coded method was conducted to examine teacher-student interaction patterns. The aim of this part was to determine how learning occurred by attempting to connect dialogue patterns with underlying cognitive processes. The main outcome of the study is a hypothesized model containing four layers of nested teaching strategies. Listed from large to small time scales these are: the Macro Cycle, the Co-construction Modes, the Micro Cycle, and the Teaching Tactics. The most intensive analysis focused on identifying and articulating the Co-construction Modes---Accretion Mode, Disconfirmation Mode, Modification Mode, Evolution Mode, and Competition Mode---and their relations to the other levels of the model. These modes can either describe the construction and evaluation of individual model elements or of entire models giving a total of ten modes. The frequency of these co-construction modes was then determined by coding, twenty-six hours of transcripts. The most frequent modes were the Accretion Mode and the Disconfirmation Mode. The teacher's and the students' contributions to the co-construction process were also examined

  20. Life Cycle Leadership Theory vs. Theory on the Phases of Small Group Discussion: Comparisons, Contrasts, and Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Charles Thomas, Jr.

    The work of Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard on life-cycle leadership was compared and contrasted to three studies on group phase theories. The studies on group phases were conducted by Robert Bales and Fred Strodtbeck in 1951, Thomas Scheidel and Laura Crowell in 1964, and B. Aubrey Fisher in 1970. The two theoretical approaches were found to…

  1. A Multiple Group Measurement Model of Children's Reports of Parental Socioeconomic Status. Discussion Papers No. 531-78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Robert D.; Mason, William M.

    An important class of applications of measurement error or constrained factor analytic models consists of comparing models for several populations. In such cases, it is appropriate to make explicit statistical tests of model similarity across groups and to constrain some parameters of the models to be equal across groups using a priori substantive…

  2. When Scientific Knowledge, Daily Life Experience, Epistemological and Social Considerations Intersect: Students' Argumentation in Group Discussions on a Socio-scientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albe, Virginie

    2008-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues in class have been proposed in an effort to democratise science in society. A micro-ethnographic approach has been used to explore how students elaborate arguments on a socio-scientific controversy in the context of small group discussions. Several processes of group argumentation have been identified. Students’ arguments were elaborated from scientific data, common ideas and epistemological and strategic considerations. Students’ social interactions influenced the patterns of argumentation elaborated within the group discussions. Implications of this study for the teaching of socio-scientific issues in class are discussed.

  3. Agricultural producers’ groups in the Czech Republic: introductory review and discussion of the problem area economic performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vavřina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Each company is surrounded by the micro- and macro-environment affecting also its economic performance. These factors are not only individual accounting entries, but also analytical inputs as the internal company processes, management of costs or short-term financial decisions and specifically in the case of agriculture within the EU also the public subsidy schemes implemented through the EU Common Agricultural Policy. Groups of agricultural producers are created as a response to current market dynamics and the opportunity for each agricultural enterprise regardless the size. In this paper, the basis for agricultural cooperation is provided, traditional economic performance measures are presented and their applicability on the sample of agricultural producers’ groups and wholesale entities is empirically verified. Wholesale entities are analysed by its business activity and performance features to consider whether they are suitable peer group for comparing economic performance of examined agricultural producers’ group. Since the economic performance of agricultural producers’ groups directly affects the economic performance of all participating entities, and vice versa, their economic performance measurement may involve specific constraints. According to the structure and characteristics of agricultural producers’ groups may be inferred that whilst the common performance measurement techniques are applicable on the majority of companies, agricultural producers’ groups represent specific entities and therefore need adjusted performance measurement approach.

  4. The Effect of Education-Based Intervention Using Small Group Discussion in Empowering Adolescent Girls to Prevent Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemehsadat Seyed Nematollah Roshan

    2014-10-01

    Results: At baseline, independent T-test showed no significant difference between the two groups in the perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and self efficacy, all of which could be regarded as empowerment process components (P>0.05. However, significant differences were observed after intervention. Also, the paired T-test showed a significant difference before and after the intervention in the test group in means of the perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, self efficacy and, in the grand scheme, adolescent girls' empowerment (P

  5. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Final briefing: Cost working group discussion session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The economic factors involved in the design and utilization of the space station are investigated. Topics include the economic benefits associated with research and production, the orbit transfer vehicle, and satellite servicing. Program costs and design options are examined. The possibilities of financing from the private sector are discussed.

  6. A Semi-Structured MODFLOW-USG Model to Evaluate Local Water Sources to Wells for Decision Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Daniel T; Fienen, Michael N; Reeves, Howard W; Langevin, Christian D

    2016-07-01

    In order to better represent the configuration of the stream network and simulate local groundwater-surface water interactions, a version of MODFLOW with refined spacing in the topmost layer was applied to a Lake Michigan Basin (LMB) regional groundwater-flow model developed by the U.S. Geological. Regional MODFLOW models commonly use coarse grids over large areas; this coarse spacing precludes model application to local management issues (e.g., surface-water depletion by wells) without recourse to labor-intensive inset models. Implementation of an unstructured formulation within the MODFLOW framework (MODFLOW-USG) allows application of regional models to address local problems. A "semi-structured" approach (uniform lateral spacing within layers, different lateral spacing among layers) was tested using the LMB regional model. The parent 20-layer model with uniform 5000-foot (1524-m) lateral spacing was converted to 4 layers with 500-foot (152-m) spacing in the top glacial (Quaternary) layer, where surface water features are located, overlying coarser resolution layers representing deeper deposits. This semi-structured version of the LMB model reproduces regional flow conditions, whereas the finer resolution in the top layer improves the accuracy of the simulated response of surface water to shallow wells. One application of the semi-structured LMB model is to provide statistical measures of the correlation between modeled inputs and the simulated amount of water that wells derive from local surface water. The relations identified in this paper serve as the basis for metamodels to predict (with uncertainty) surface-water depletion in response to shallow pumping within and potentially beyond the modeled area, see Fienen et al. (2015a).

  7. Uruguayan secondary school students speak up about tobacco: results from focus group discussions in and around Montevideo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin; Harrell, Melissa; Springer, Andrew; Medina, José; Martinez, Lucía; Perry, Cheryl; Estol, Diego

    2017-07-01

    This qualitative research study investigated intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors that shape young adolescent tobacco use behaviors in Uruguay. Focus groups were conducted in the summer of 2012 and fall of 2013 in four secondary schools in Montevideo, Uruguay, including two private schools and two public schools. A total of four focus groups were led in each school, composed of 4-6 students each, 16 focus groups in total. Data analysis utilized NVivo software and included deductive and inductive content analysis. Overwhelmingly, students reported that the onset of smoking occurred in the second year of secondary school. The primary intrapersonal factors that were found to be universal among respondents identified that smoking was a performance in groups, to garner attention from their peers. Students interviewed most often stated that the greatest interpersonal factors for smoking were to look older, as a rite of passage, and for group membership. Environmental factors cited most often indicate that they smoked during unsupervised time, either at night or around the short Uruguayan school day. Focus group interviews revealed that adolescents had easy access to cigarettes for purchase through small family owned grocery stores, even though laws exist preventing the sale of cigarettes to minors. Few differences were cited between strata related to cigarette use in adolescents. The differences that do exist are most apparent across gender, though there were a few observed differences when stratified by public and private school. Findings from this study indicate that key factors across ecological levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental) should be taken into consideration when designing tobacco prevention programs for youth in Uruguay. A multiple-component approach which addresses risk factors at all of these levels, implemented in schools, may be particularly well-suited to this setting.

  8. Positioning of Fifth Grade Students in Small-Group Settings: Naming Participation in Discussion-Based Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Ingrid S.

    2010-01-01

    Through the lens of Schegloff's (1996) Action Theory, this study examined the dynamics of four groups of fifth-grade students as they learned to talk about academic mathematical reasoning over the course of a school year using Freeze Frame Analysis (Leander & Rowe, 2006) to help map "talking spaces" and Critical Discourse Analysis to understand…

  9. Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

  10. From Social Exclusion to Supported Inclusion: Adults with Intellectual Disability Discuss Their Lived Experiences of a Structured Social Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J.; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Methods: Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived…

  11. Who Is the Competent Physics Student? A Study of Students' Positions and Social Interaction in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students.…

  12. When Scientific Knowledge, Daily Life Experience, Epistemological and Social Considerations Intersect: Students' Argumentation in Group Discussions on a Socio-Scientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albe, Virginie

    2008-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues in class have been proposed in an effort to democratise science in society. A micro-ethnographic approach has been used to explore how students elaborate arguments on a socio-scientific controversy in the context of small group discussions. Several processes of group argumentation have been identified. Students' arguments…

  13. Who Is the Competent Physics Student? A Study of Students' Positions and Social Interaction in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students.…

  14. A discussion group program enhances the conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteroy-Kelly, Marcy A

    2007-01-01

    It has been well-established that discussion groups enhance student learning in large lecture courses. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of a discussion group program on the development of conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course. In the discussion group, students worked on problems based on topics discussed in lecture. The program was evaluated using three assessment tools. First, student responses to pre- and posttests were analyzed. The test question asked the students to demonstrate the relationships between 10 different but related terms. Use of a concept map to link the terms indicated an advanced level of conceptual reasoning skills. There was a 13.8% increase in the use of concept maps from pre- to posttest. Second, the students took a Likert-type survey to determine the perceived impact of the program on their conceptual reasoning skills. Many of the students felt that the program helped them understand and use the main course concepts to logically solve problems. Finally, average exam grades increased as the semester progressed. The average final grade in the course was 75%. Students enrolled in the course the previous year (where the lecture component of the course did not assess or reflect student learning in the discussion group) had an average final grade of 69%. The results of this study demonstrate that the discussion group program improves the conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course.

  15. Identification of mistakes and their correction by a small group discussion as a revision exercise at the end of a teaching module in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Sridhar, M G; Soundravally, R; Setiya, Sajita; Babu, M Sathish; Niranjan, G

    2014-01-01

    Graduate medical students often get less opportunity for clarifying their doubts and to reinforce their concepts after lecture classes. The Medical Council of India (MCI) encourages group discussions among students. We evaluated the effect of identifying mistakes in a given set of wrong statements and their correction by a small group discussion by graduate medical students as a revision exercise. At the end of a module, a pre-test consisting of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) was conducted. Later, a set of incorrect statements related to the topic was given to the students and they were asked to identify the mistakes and correct them in a small group discussion. The effects on low, medium and high achievers were evaluated by a post-test and delayed post-tests with the same set of MCQs. The mean post-test marks were significantly higher among all the three groups compared to the pre-test marks. The gain from the small group discussion was equal among low, medium and high achievers. The gain from the exercise was retained among low, medium and high achievers after 15 days. Identification of mistakes in statements and their correction by a small group discussion is an effective, but unconventional revision exercise in biochemistry. Copyright 2014, NMJI.

  16. Online Focus Group Discussion is a Valid and Feasible Mode When Investigating Sensitive Topics Among Young Persons With a Cancer Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Lena; Eriksson, Lars E; Nilsson, Jenny; Jervaeus, Anna; Lampic, Claudia

    2016-05-09

    Clinical research often lacks participants of young age. Adding to the small amount of scientific studies that focus on the population entering adulthood, there are also difficulties to recruit them. To overcome this, there is a need to develop and scientifically evaluate modes for data collection that are suitable for adolescents and young adults. With this in mind we performed 39 online focus group discussions among young survivors of childhood cancer to explore thoughts and experiences around dating, being intimate with someone, and having children. The aim of the study was to evaluate online focus group discussions as a mode for data collection on sensitive issues among young persons with a cancer experience. One hundred thirty-three young persons (16-25 years) previously diagnosed with cancer, participated in 39 synchronous online focus group discussions (response rate 134/369, 36%). The mode of administration was evaluated by analyzing participant characteristics and interactions during discussions, as well as group members' evaluations of the discussions. Persons diagnosed with central nervous tumors (n=30, 27%) participated to a lower extent than those with other cancer types (n=103, 39%; χ 2= 4.89, P=.03). The participants described various health impairments that correspond to what would be expected among cancer survivors including neuropsychiatric conditions and writing disabilities. Even though participants were interested in others' experiences, sexual issues needed more probing by the moderators than did fertility-related issues. Group evaluations revealed that participants appreciated communicating on the suggested topics and thought that it was easier to discuss sex when it was possible to be anonymous toward other group members. Online focus group discussions, with anonymous participation, are suggested to be a feasible and valid mode for collecting sensitive data among young persons with a cancer experience.

  17. Review: Ralf Bohnsack, Aglaja Przyborski & Burkhard Schäffer (Eds. (2010. Das Gruppendiskussionsverfahren in der Forschungspraxis [The Group Discussion Technique in Research Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Schmidt-Pfister

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This edited volume comprises a range of studies that have employed a group discussion technique in combination with a specific strategy for reconstructive social research—the so-called documentary method. The latter is an empirical research strategy based on the meta-theoretical premises of the praxeological sociology of knowledge, as developed by Ralf BOHNSACK. It seeks to access practice in a more appropriate manner, namely by differentiating between various dimensions of knowledge and sociality. It holds that habitual collective orientations, in particular, are best accessed through group discussions. Thus this book does not address the group discussion technique in general, as might be expected from the title. Instead, it presents various contributions from researchers interpreting transcripts of group discussions according to the documentary method. The chapters are grouped into three main sections, representing different frameworks of practice and habitual orientation: childhood, adolescence, and organizational or societal context. A fourth section includes chapters on further, potentially useful ways of employing this particular technique and approach, as well as a chapter on teaching it in a meaningful way. Each chapter is structured in the same way: introduction to the research field and focus; methodological discussion; exemplary interpretation of group discussions; and concluding remarks. Whilst the transcripts referred to by the authors are very helpfully presented in the chapters, there is a lack of methodological reflection on the group discussion technique itself, which, as mentioned above, is only evaluated in regard to the documentary method. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110225

  18. Formulation of questions followed by small group discussion as a revision exercise at the end of a teaching module in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby, Zachariah; Koner, Bidhan Chandra; Sridhar, M G; Nandeesha, H; Renuka, P; Setia, Sajita; Kumaran, S Senthil; Asmathulla, S

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate medical students get fewer opportunities to clarify their doubts and to reinforce their understanding of concepts after lecture classes. There is no information available in the literature that addresses the question of usefulness of prior formulation of questions followed by small group discussion by undergraduate medical students as a revision exercise. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effect of formulation of objective type short answer questions by undergraduate medical students followed by small group discussion on the answers of the questions prepared as a revision exercise on their understanding of the topic "amino acid metabolism" and the retention of the gain after 15 days. At the end of a regular teaching module on the topic of amino acid metabolism, undergraduate medical students were asked to prepare 16 objective type short answer questions on the various aspects of the topic as homework. Small group discussions involving 12-14 students in each group and lasting one hour were conducted on the questions and answers prepared by them in the presence of a faculty member. The effects on low, medium, and high achievers were evaluated with multiple choice questions by pre-test and post-tests before and after the group discussion. Formulation of questions was highly effective in improving understanding on the topic for all the students. The overall mean post-test scores after the formulation of questions (12.6) and after the small group discussion that followed (14.7) were significantly higher than the mean pre-test score (8.5). For high achievers, the gain from formulation of questions was higher than the gain from small group discussion. Small group discussion was highly effective for all students. The gain from small group discussion was higher among the low and medium achievers in comparison with the high achievers. The gain from the exercise was retained among the low, medium, and high achievers after 15 days. In conclusion

  19. Retention of allied health professionals in rural New South Wales: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane Sheila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uneven distribution of the medical workforce is globally recognised, with widespread rural health workforce shortages. There has been substantial research on factors affecting recruitment and retention of rural doctors, but little has been done to establish the motives and conditions that encourage allied health professionals to practice rurally. This study aims to identify aspects of recruitment and retention of rural allied health professionals using qualitative methodology. Methods Six focus groups were conducted across rural NSW and analysed thematically using a grounded theory approach. The thirty allied health professionals participating in the focus groups were purposively sampled to represent a range of geographic locations, allied health professions, gender, age, and public or private work sectors. Results Five major themes emerged: personal factors; workload and type of work; continuing professional development (CPD; the impact of management; and career progression. ‘Pull factors’ favouring rural practice included: attraction to rural lifestyle; married or having family in the area; low cost of living; rural origin; personal engagement in the community; advanced work roles; a broad variety of challenging clinical work; and making a difference. ‘Push factors’ discouraging rural practice included: lack of employment opportunities for spouses; perceived inadequate quality of secondary schools; age related issues (retirement, desire for younger peer social interaction, and intention to travel; limited opportunity for career advancement; unmanageable workloads; and inadequate access to CPD. Having competent clinical managers mitigated the general frustration with health service management related to inappropriate service models and insufficient or inequitably distributed resources. Failure to fill vacant positions was of particular concern and frustration with the lack of CPD access was strongly represented by

  20. Discussion on thermal dynamical-vacuum group deoxidization%热力--真空组合除氧的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德宁

    2015-01-01

    针对油田注汽锅炉水处理现在采用的真空——化学除氧法时,加化学药品来提高除氧效果致使蒸汽含盐量升高,影响蒸汽的品质,影响锅炉的寿命这一问题。本文探讨即能保证除氧效果又保证蒸汽的品质,延长锅炉的寿命,同时又降低生产成本的除氧方法。%According to the chemical deoxidization method - vacuum treatment of steam injection boiler in oil field water , the addition of chemicals to improve the removal effect of salinity resulted in increase of saltness in steam, steam quality, affect the service life of the boiler this problem. This paper discusses that can guarantee the removal effect and ensure the steam quality, prolongs the service life of the boiler, and reduce the production cost of deoxidization method.

  1. Students' exposure and career aspirations in ecology: A study using semi-structured interviews to gain knowledge of public school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Heather C.

    Ecology as a field is dominated by white males, McCarter (2003) has noted that women and minorities are underrepresented in the discipline of ecology across the United States. The contribution of this research is to assess and quantify, in a scientific manner, students' exposure, and career aspirations towards ecology; 226 student responses were coded from semi-structured interviews. The main objectives of this study, using student interviews, were the following: (1) assess the importance of exposure to ecology and ecological related topics to: gender, ethnicity, region, grades in science, grades in non-science, grade level, and interest in ecology career. (2) determine if early exposure to ecology (i.e. gained in high school) and ecological related topics is related to an increased interest of students continuing in an ecologically related field and (3) assess if high school students who have been involved in more outdoor related activities such as camping, hiking, hunting, and/or fishing, will be more likely to be interested in an ecological career. Overall, the results indicated that students interviewed for this study generally responded in a positive manner, and were generally interested in ecology. Some students were even interested in pursuing a career in ecology. The study revealed significant differences in the exposure of ecology between school locations, girls and boys, and whites and non-whites. The results of this research and avenues for future research are discussed.

  2. The Effect of Group Discussion on the Quality of Life and HbA1c Levels of Adolescents With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Mohamad; Memarian, Robabe; Mohammadi, Esa

    2014-08-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome and the most common endocrine disorder in childhood and adolescence. Diabetes occurs at any age but the highest outbreak is during ten to 15 years of age and 75% of the cases are diagnosed at the age 18. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a group discussion on the quality of life (QOL) and glycosylated hemoglobin A (HbA1c) levels of adolescents with diabetes. This quasi-experimental study was performed on 56 adolescents with diabetes who were referred to Golabchi Diabetes Center in Kashan, Iran. After obtaining written informed consent from the patients, blood sample was drawn for measuring sugar and HbA1c levels. The participants completed the questionnaire regarding the QOL. Patients were randomly allocated to four groups. All the groups attended similar group discussion sessions, which were conducted according to the guidance of diabetic specialists. The groups' members followed the discussed instructions for four months. Then, another questionnaire was completed and blood sugar and HbA1c levels were measured again. The results were compared by paired-samples t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. After the group discussion sessions, in 56% of the patients the HbA1c levels (8.45 ± 1.35 and 6.98 ± 0.89 before and after intervention, respectively) and QOL were improved significantly. The mean age of these patients was 14.75 ± 1.80 years and the mean of daily insulin injection was 35.70 ± 13.42 units. Sharing experiences trough group discussions and receiving instructive feedbacks can improve the QOL and metabolic status of adolescents with diabetes.

  3. A Multi-disciplinary Approach to Interactive Information Retrieval upon Semi-structured Data Sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boscarino, C.

    2009-01-01

    The so called logic and probabilistic views on IR can be reconciled by a unifying framework for IIR. I present a proposal for a PhD research according to a multidisciplinary perspective and I discuss some of its consequences for IR as a discipline.

  4. 高校网站群建设与管理探讨%Discussion on University Website Group Construction and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗南

    2015-01-01

    The construction and management of the University''s existing websites has brought a series of problems. The con-struction of the website group system, can avoid a group of websites bring about various drawbacks. This paper discusses the solutions of university website group construction and management.%高校现有网站的建设和管理带来了一系列问题,建设网站群系统,可以避免一群网站所带来的各种弊端.文章探讨了高校网站群建设与管理的解决方案.

  5. Use of Modified SOAP Notes and Peer-Led Small-Group Discussion in a Medical Physiology Course: Addressing the Hidden Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Jonathan; Hansen, Penelope A.; Nelson, Loren

    2006-01-01

    Peer leading of small-group discussion of cases; use of modified subjective, objective, assessment of physiology (SOAP) notes; and opportunities for self-assessment were introduced into a Medical Physiology course to increase students' awareness and practice of professional behaviors. These changes arose from faculty members' understanding of the…

  6. Examining the Effects of Text Genre and Structure on Fourth-and Fifth-Grade Students' High-Level Comprehension as Evidenced in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyi; Murphy, P. Karen; Firetto, Carla M.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a rich literature on the role of text genre and structure on students' literal comprehension, more research is needed regarding the role of these text features on students' high-level comprehension as evidenced in their small-group discussions. As such, the present study examined the effects of text genre (i.e., narrative and…

  7. Perceptions of women, nurses, midwives and doctors about the use of video during birth to improve quality of care : focus group discussions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lonkhuijzen, L.; Groenewout, M.; Schreuder, A.; Zeeman, G.; Scherpbier, A.; Aukes, L.; van den Berg, P.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: van Lonkhuijzen L, Groenewout M, Schreuder A, Zeeman G, Scherpbier A, Aukes L, van den Berg P. Perceptions of women, nurses, midwives and doctors about the use of video during birth to improve quality of care: focus group discussions. BJOG 2011; DOI:10.1111/j.1471-0528.201

  8. Designing Transferable Skills Inventory for Assessing Students Using Group Discussion: A Case Study of First Year Electrical and Electronics Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejaswani, K.; Madhuri, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    Employability skills among engineering graduates have been a concern due to their inability to perform on a professional platform to the employer's expected level. As they are higher cognitive skills, they are to be nurtured during the graduation period. Keeping this in view, group discussions are identified as one of the methods to elicit…

  9. A semi-structured MODFLOW-USG model to evaluate local water sources to wells for decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Reeves, Howard W.; Langevin, Christian D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better represent the configuration of the stream network and simulate local groundwater-surface water interactions, a version of MODFLOW with refined spacing in the topmost layer was applied to a Lake Michigan Basin (LMB) regional groundwater-flow model developed by the U.S. Geological. Regional MODFLOW models commonly use coarse grids over large areas; this coarse spacing precludes model application to local management issues (e.g., surface-water depletion by wells) without recourse to labor-intensive inset models. Implementation of an unstructured formulation within the MODFLOW framework (MODFLOW-USG) allows application of regional models to address local problems. A “semi-structured” approach (uniform lateral spacing within layers, different lateral spacing among layers) was tested using the LMB regional model. The parent 20-layer model with uniform 5000-foot (1524-m) lateral spacing was converted to 4 layers with 500-foot (152-m) spacing in the top glacial (Quaternary) layer, where surface water features are located, overlying coarser resolution layers representing deeper deposits. This semi-structured version of the LMB model reproduces regional flow conditions, whereas the finer resolution in the top layer improves the accuracy of the simulated response of surface water to shallow wells. One application of the semi-structured LMB model is to provide statistical measures of the correlation between modeled inputs and the simulated amount of water that wells derive from local surface water. The relations identified in this paper serve as the basis for metamodels to predict (with uncertainty) surface-water depletion in response to shallow pumping within and potentially beyond the modeled area, see Fienen et al. (2015a).

  10. Basic life support skill improvement with newly designed renewal programme: cluster randomised study of small-group-discussion method versus practice-while-watching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ji Ung; Lee, Tae Rim; Kang, Mun Ju; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2014-12-01

    For the basic life support (BLS) renewal course, we have devised a new educational programme entitled a small-group-discussion (SGD) programme using personalised video-based debriefing. We compared the efficacy in BLS skill improvement of the SGD programme with the currently used practice-while-watching (PWW) programme, which uses a standardised education video. This was a prospective, cluster randomised study, conducted in a single centre, over 6 months from May 2009 to October 2009. Training was performed in two groups of participants, each group with a different renewal education programme. The efficacy of the programmes was compared using the modified Cardiff test and skill-reporting manikins. Results from 2169 participants were analysed: 1061 in the SGD programme group and 1108 in the PWW programme group. There were no differences between groups on the pretest, either in compression or non-compression skills. However, on the post-test, the SGD programme gave better results for both compression skills and non-compression skills. The new SGD renewal programme is more effective than the PWW programme for improving skills in BLS renewal training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Bilingual asynchronous online discussion groups: design and delivery of an eLearning distance study module for nurse academics in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Mai, Van Anh Thi; Gray, Genevieve

    2012-04-01

    The advent of eLearning has seen online discussion forums widely used in both undergraduate and postgraduate nursing education. This paper reports an Australian university experience of design, delivery and redevelopment of a distance education module developed for Vietnamese nurse academics. The teaching experience of Vietnamese nurse academics is mixed and frequently limited. It was decided that the distance module should attempt to utilise the experience of senior Vietnamese nurse academics - asynchronous online discussion groups were used to facilitate this. Online discussion occurred in both Vietnamese and English and was moderated by an Australian academic working alongside a Vietnamese translator. This paper will discuss the design of an online learning environment for foreign correspondents, the resources and translation required to maximise the success of asynchronous online discussion groups, as well as the rationale of delivering complex content in a foreign language. While specifically addressing the first iteration of the first distance module designed, this paper will also address subsequent changes made for the second iteration of the module and comment on their success. While a translator is clearly a key component of success, the elements of simplicity and clarity combined with supportive online moderation must not be overlooked.

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Decrease Job Burnout in First-Year Internal Medicine Residents Using a Facilitated Discussion Group Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Jonathan A; Fallar, Robert; Korenstein, Deborah

    2016-05-01

    Background Burnout is common in internal medicine (IM) trainees and is associated with depression and suboptimal patient care. Facilitated group discussion reduces burnout among practicing clinicians. Objective We hypothesized that this type of intervention would reduce incident burnout among first-year IM residents. Methods Between June 2013 and May 2014, participants from a convenience sample of 51 incoming IM residents were randomly assigned (in groups of 3) to the intervention or a control. Twice-monthly theme-based discussion sessions (18 total) led by expert facilitators were held for intervention groups. Surveys were administered at study onset and completion. Demographic and personal characteristics were collected. Burnout and burnout domains were the primary outcomes. Following convention, we defined burnout as a high emotional exhaustion or depersonalization score on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results All 51 eligible residents participated; 39 (76%) completed both surveys. Initial burnout prevalence (10 of 21 [48%] versus 7 of 17 [41%], P = .69), incidence of burnout at year end (9 of 11 [82%] versus 5 of 10 [50%], P = .18), and secondary outcomes were similar in intervention and control arms. More residents in the intervention group had high year-end depersonalization scores (18 of 21 [86%] versus 9 of 17 [53%], P = .04). Many intervention residents revealed that sessions did not truly free them from clinical or educational responsibilities. Conclusions A facilitated group discussion intervention did not decrease burnout in resident physicians. Future discussion-based interventions for reducing resident burnout should be voluntary and effectively free participants from clinical duties.

  13. HPV vaccine decision making in pediatric primary care: a semi-structured interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feemster Kristen A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite national recommendations, as of 2009 human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination rates were low with Methods Between March and June, 2010, we conducted qualitative interviews with 20 adolescent-mother-clinician triads (60 individual interviews directly after a preventive visit with the initial HPV vaccine due. Interviews followed a guide based on published HPV literature, involved 9 practices, and continued until saturation of the primary themes was achieved. Purposive sampling balanced adolescent ages and practice type (urban resident teaching versus non-teaching. Using a modified grounded theory approach, we analyzed data with NVivo8 software both within and across triads to generate primary themes. Results The study population was comprised of 20 mothers (12 Black, 9 Conclusions Programs to improve HPV vaccine delivery in primary care should focus on promoting effective parent-clinician communication. Research is needed to evaluate strategies to help clinicians engage reluctant parents and passive teens in discussion and measure the impact of distinct clinician decision making approaches on HPV vaccine delivery.

  14. Implementation status of self-assessment/peer-group discussion program: a bottom-up approach of monitoring/supervision in improving quality of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, K K; Bhuju, G B; Karkee, S B; Prasad, R R; Shrestha, N; Shrestha, A D; Das, P L; Chataut, B D; Shrestha, A; Suvedi, B K

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring/supervision is an essential component for improving the quality of health services including rational use of medicines. A new bottom-up approach of monitoring/supervision consisting of self-assessment/ peer-group discussion was found to be effective in improving prescribing practices. The new strategy significantly improved the prescribing practices based on standard treatment guidelines. The government has implemented it as a Program in primary health care services of Nepal. This article aims to share the implementation status of the self-assessment/peer-group discussion Program for improving the prescribing practices of common health problems and availability of drugs in the district health system. Concurrent mixed research design was applied for data collection. The data were collected at different levels of health care system using in-depth interviews, participatory observations and documentary analysis. The Management Division, Department of Health Services implemented the Program in 2009-10 and the PHC Revitalization Division, DoHs is the implementation division since 2010-11. The Program comprised revision of participant's and trainer's manuals, training of trainers and prescribers, finalisation of health conditions and indicators, distribution of carbon copy prescription pads, and conduction of peer-group discussions.The Program was implemented in number of districts. The government made the policy decision to implement the Program for monitoring prescribing practices and the availability of free drugs in districts. However, it has covered only few districts and needs escalation to cover all 75 districts of the country.

  15. The Influence of Setting on Findings Produced in Qualitative Health Research: A Comparison between Face-to-Face and Online Discussion Groups about HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guendalina Graffigna

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors focus their analysis in this article on online focus groups (FGs, in an attempt to describe how the setting shapes the conversational features of the discussion and influences data construction. Starting from a review of current dominant viewpoints, they compare face-to-face discussion groups with different formats of online FGs about AIDS, from a discourse analysis perspective. They conducted 2 face-to-face FGs, 2 chats, 2 forums, and 2 forums+plus+chat involving 64 participants aged 18 to 25 and living in Italy. Their findings seem not only to confirm the hypothesis of a general difference between a face-to-face discussion setting and an Internet-mediated one but also reveal differences among the forms of online FG, in terms of both the thematic articulation of discourse and the conversational and relational characteristics of group exchange, suggesting that exchanges on HIV/AIDS are characterized by the setting. This characterization seems to be important for situating the choice of tool, according to research objectives, and for better defining the technical aspects of the research project.

  16. Frontalunterricht oder interaktive Gruppenarbeit? Ein Vergleich des Lernerfolgs und der studentischen Evaluation für das Fach Biochemie [Didactic lecture or interactive group discussion? A comparison of the learning success and the student evaluation in biochemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kadmon, Martina; Harter, Cordula; Schellberg, Dieter; Möltner, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    ...: A total of 421 second-year students were randomized into two groups: The control group was taught in a traditional lecture-like format, whereas the study group dealt with the same topic in an interactive group discussion...

  17. 浅谈中国的团购网站及其发展%Discussion on the situation and development of group-buying websites in china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左倪娜

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, group-buying websites have sprung up like bamboo shoots after a spring shower. Group-buying has a great influence on people' s life and become a hot issue on our daily life. This paper analyzed and discussed the current situation of group-buying websites of China, the existing problem and its development perspective.%近年来,团购网站犹如雨后春笋不断涌现,“团购”活动影响着人们生活,成为人们关注和讨论的热点问题。文章对中国团购网站的现状、存在的问题以及团购网站的发展前景进行分析和探讨。

  18. Potential of semi-structural and non-structural adaptation strategies to reduce future flood risk: case study for the Meuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Poussin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk throughout Europe has increased in the last few decades, and is projected to increase further owing to continued development in flood-prone areas and climate change. In recent years, studies have shown that adequate undertaking of semi-structural and non-structural measures can considerably decrease the costs of floods for households. However, there is little insight into how such measures can decrease the risk beyond the local level, now and in the future. To gain such insights, a modelling framework using the Damagescanner model with land-use and inundation maps for 2000 and 2030 was developed and applied to the Meuse river basin, in the region of Limburg, in the southeast of the Netherlands. The research suggests that annual flood risk may increase by up to 185% by 2030 compared with 2000, as a result of combined land-use and climate changes. The independent contributions of climate change and land-use change to the simulated increase are 108% and 37%, respectively. The risk-reduction capacity of the implementation of spatial zoning measures, which are meant to limit and regulate developments in flood-prone areas, is between 25% and 45%. Mitigation factors applied to assess the potential impact of three mitigation strategies (dry-proofing, wet-proofing, and the combination of dry- and wet-proofing in residential areas show that these strategies have a risk-reduction capacity of between 21% and 40%, depending on their rate of implementation. Combining spatial zoning and mitigation measures could reduce the total increase in risk by up to 60%. Policy implications of these results are discussed. They focus on the undertaking of effective mitigation measures, and possible ways to increase their implementation by households.

  19. Barriers to administering non-oral formulations in a paediatric population: A semi-structured interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Rebecca; Batchelor, Hannah; Stirling, Heather; Marriott, John

    2016-01-30

    There is a paucity of research exploring barriers to non-oral medicines administration in paediatric patients; however, these undoubtedly influence medicines adherence. Studies conducted with healthcare professionals have identified various issues with the administration and acceptance of non-oral medicines and devices (Venables et al., 2012; Walsh et al., 2015). EMA (2014) guidelines specify that formulation teams should demonstrate 'acceptability' of paediatric formulations when developing pharmaceutical formulations. Semi-structured interviews exploring barriers to administering non-oral medicines were conducted with young persons and the parents/legal guardians of children (0-17 years) with chronic conditions at the University Hospital of Coventry and Warwickshire, UK. 90 children prescribed a total of 148 non-oral medicines were recruited to the study; 88 barriers to administering non-oral medicines were reported. The most commonly reported barriers were: poor acceptance of face mask/difficulties with spacer for inhaled formulations (38% of reports); disliking parenteral/preferring alternative formulations (38% of reports); greasy texture of topical preparations; difficulty with administering an ocular ointment and the large dose volume of a nasal preparation. Formulation teams should consider the use of child-friendly, age-appropriate designs to improve usability and acceptance, thus medicines adherence. These findings should be used to inform future development of non-oral formulations and devices, suitable in terms of safety, efficacy and acceptability to paediatric patients.

  20. Discuss on the Operation Mode of Group Purchase Websites in our country%我国团购网站的运营模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向红

    2012-01-01

    互联网技术的快速发展,催生了许多新的电子商务运营模式,团购网站的兴起,OTO的普及,使得网上团购成为时下最流行的购物方式,团购网站带给消费者更低的价格,更自由、更个性化的商品或服务,大量的消费者喜爱团购也给商家和团购网站带来了极大的名气和快速增长的销量,但网络团购异常繁荣的背后也隐藏着若干问题。本文探讨我国团购网站的运营模式,分析目前存在的问题,并提出解决问题的建议对策。%The rapid development of Internet technology,has spawned a lot of new e-commerce operation mode,group purchase websites arisen,the popularity of OTO,making online group purchase became the most popular way of shopping,group purchase websites bring lower prices,more free and more personalized commodity or service for consumers,many consumers'group purchase has also brought great fame and the rapid growth of sales for merchants and group purchase websites,but the network group purchase abnormal prosperous backside hidden problems.This paper discusses group purchase websites operating mode in our country,the analysis of the existing problems,and put forward suggestions and countermeasures to solve the problems.

  1. Why aren't women choosing STEM academic jobs? Observations from a small-group discussion at the 2016 American Society for Microbiology annual meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Elizabeth M

    2017-03-01

    This commentary summarizes a small-group discussion that recently occurred at the American Society for Microbiology annual general meeting, ASM Microbe, in Boston, Massachusetts, on 16-20 June 2016, on the topic 'why are so few women choosing to become academics?' Specifically, the discussion focused on asking what the actual and perceived barriers to academic STEM careers women face, and possible solutions to address them which would make women more likely to seek out academic careers. The conclusions reached suggest that, despite improvement in recent years, women and minorities still face complex barriers to STEM academic careers, and further research is needed to determine the best solutions to this problem. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Patient-based outcome analysis is important to determine the success of total knee arthroplasty: result of a focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharia B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Balaji Zacharia, Manu Paul, Mohammed Thanveeruddin Sherule Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India Background: Total knee replacement (TKR results in an excellent outcome in terms of pain relief. The reporting of outcomes was traditionally focused on implant survivorship and objective outcomes such as range of motion, knee stability, and radiographic alignment. However, patients and doctors had differing perceptions of all domains of outcome, especially subjective quality of life domains such as emotions and social functioning. In this study, we tried to find out the expectations of Indian patients regarding TKR and assess the level of satisfaction among our patients from their view point using focus group discussion (FGD, and whether these expectations have an impact on outcomes and patient satisfaction. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India, in November 2014. Patients between the ages 60 and 65 years who met inclusion criteria were selected. A total of 50 patients were selected for FGDs. Among them, 42 patients participated in FGD. The remaining eight did not appear for the discussion. A total of four FGD sessions were conducted. Results and discussion: It was found that there is a discrepancy between the satisfaction levels of patient and surgeon. There is a difference in satisfaction level achieved depending on socioeconomic, geographic, and cultural characteristics. Conclusion: Newer methods of TKR outcome assessment combining radiological outcome, surgeon-based assessment, and patient satisfaction based on their socioeconomic status and cultural characteristics should be developed for different populations. Keywords: focus group discussion, total knee arthroplasty, patient-specific objectives

  3. Fall risk awareness and safety precautions taken by older community-dwelling women and men--a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Pohl

    Full Text Available Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women's and men's understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls.A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively.Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one's fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was "Safety precautions through fall risk awareness". Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts.The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples' conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes.

  4. Natural resources as an area of protection in LCA - outcomes of the discussion by the working group on resources within the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonderegger, T.; Fantke, Peter; Dewulf, J.

    2016-01-01

    The topic of resources as an area of protection (AoP) in life cycle assessment (LCA) is being discussed within an expert group under the umbrella of the Life Cycle Initiative by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC......). The AoP ‘Natural Resources’ is neither well defined nor agreed upon. Furthermore, there is currently no life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method available that is able to consist ently assess impacts at midpoint and endpoint level across different resource categories (minerals/metals and fossil fuels...

  5. Discussion on Application of Hydroxyl Group Control to Special Glass Production%浅析-OH控制在特种玻璃生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈发伟

    2012-01-01

    主要介绍了玻璃中羟基含量对玻璃性能的影响,以及高档电子玻璃生产中羟基控制的重要意义,同时分析了空气助燃的窑炉和纯氧窖炉中影响玻璃液羟基含量的因素,并综述了实际生产中调整玻璃液中羟基含量的重要手段。%The effect of hydroxyl group content on glass performance and the significance of hydroxyl group control for production of high grade electronic glass were discussed in details. The influence factors of hydroxyl concentration in glass melt in both air and pure-oxygen combustion furnaces were analyzed The important measures in practical production for controlling hydroxyl concentration in glass melt were reviewed.

  6. ClimateQUAL® and Thinklets: Using ClimateQUAL® with Group Support Systems to Facilitate Discussion and Set Priorities for Organizational Change at Criss Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hillyer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article discusses a series of actions taken by the Criss Library at the University of Nebraska at Omaha to implement organizational change, using the ClimateQUAL® survey and facilitated discussions with ThinkTank™ group decision software. The library had experienced significant changes over a five-year period, with a renovation of the facility and three reorganizations resulting in a 50% staff turnover. Recognizing the strain that years of construction and personnel changes had placed on the organization, there was a desire to uncover the mood of the employees and reveal the issues behind low morale, uneasiness, and fear.Methods – In November 2009, the library conducted a ClimateQUAL® survey to develop a baseline to assess the effectiveness of any changes. After the results were distributed to library faculty and staff, a series of two-hour facilitated discussions was held to gather opinions and ideas for solutions using thinkLets, a pattern language for reasoning toward a goal. The group support system ThinkTank™ software was loaded onto computers, and employees were able to add their ideas anonymously during the sessions. Finally, 12 employees (29% completed a four-question survey on their perceptions of the facilitated discussions.Results – The facilitated discussions returned 76 sub-themes in 12 categories: staffing and scheduling issues, staff unity/teamwork, communication, goodwill/morale, accountability, decision-making, policy issues, skills and training, leadership, ergonomics/physical work environment, respect, and bullying. An advisory team culled the 76 sub-themes into 40 improvement strategies. Five were implemented immediately, and the remaining 35 were scheduled to be presented to the faculty and staff via an online survey. Participants’ perceptions of the facilitated discussions were mixed. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported that they did not feel safe speaking out about issues, most

  7. Focusing on SSI's risk and radiation protection criteria. A report based on discussions in focus groups in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [BMD Research (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    The project was a result of the authority's continued work on the 1998 regulations on protection of human health and the environment in final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The idea behind the project, to involve persons from the municipalities participating in SKB's site selection investigation in focus group discussions, was that the questions and points of views that emerged in the discussions could serve as a basis for the authority's work of producing general guidelines associated with the regulations. The finished report would then be handed over to an expert group at the authority which answered or commented on the issues raised, and made a report on this to the participating municipalities Oskarshamn and Oesthammar. The result of discussions in two focus groups in Oskarshamn municipality and two in Oesthammar municipality in October 2002 is presented here, together with a presentation of the project's purpose and organisation. The results are presented in three main sections. The first concentrates on radiation and radioactivity since the task in the discussion groups was to attempt to clarify the issues and problems observed in this area in order to contribute to the authority's work of developing the general guidelines. The second section, on understanding of concepts, measurement, risk and safety, illustrates that the frequently asked and 'simple' knowledge related questions are only the tip of the iceberg where many of the participants have also thought about the more complex contexts and the fundamental problems in the risk and safety analysis, its validity and use. The third section of the report focuses primarily on content and information aspects. It provides a number of ideas about how information on current problems and important issues can be improved, how knowledge can be deepened in the site selection municipalities and how working methods in the process can be developed. The report mainly

  8. Evaluation of factors influencing on non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life in Bushehr Port using focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherafat Akaberian

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-exclusive breast feeding in the early years of life is one of the most important factors in growth and development of infants. Therefore, exclusive breast feeding is recommended during the first six months of life. For determining the effective factors of non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life, we used focus group discussion by participation of 60 mothers who had an infant under 6 months age and enjoyed non-exclusive breast feeding. Mothers divided into eight groups considering their occupation and number of child. All groups reported scanty of mother’s milk, mother’s occupation, mother’s illness, mother’s comfort, wrong beliefs, infant’s illness, doctors and health care providers recommendations, infant’s dependency to feeding bottle and pacifiers as the most frequent factors in using nonexclusive breast feeding. All mothers believed that health care centers, relatives and older members of family, books and pamphlets, mass media, physicians were their effective sources of awareness and promotion of exclusive breast feeding. Considering the presented ideas in all groups, it is realized that mothers during their pregnancy have sparse information about exclusive breast feeding and because of lack of enough essential training, some socio – cultural beliefs affects non-exclusive breast feeding. Mass media and especial training programs should be implemented to promote exclusive breast feeding in Bushehr Port.

  9. An exploration of computer-simulated evolution and small group discussion on pre-service science teachers' perceptions of evolutionary concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ronald Douglas

    The primary goal of this study was to explore how the use of a computer simulation of basic evolutionary processes, in combination with small-group discussions, affected Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' perspectives of basic evolutionary concepts. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in a case study approach with 19 pre-service Intermediate/Senior science teachers at an Ontario university. Several sub-goals were explored. The first sub-goal was to assess Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' current conceptions of evolution. The results indicated that approximately two-thirds of the participants had a poor understanding of basic evolutionary concepts, with only 2 of the 19 participants demonstrating a strong comprehension. These results were found to be very similar to comparable samples of subjects from other research. The second sub-goal was to explore the relationships among Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' understanding of contemporary evolutionary concepts, their perspectives of the nature of science, and their intentions to teach evolutionary concepts in the classroom. Participants' knowledge of evolutionary concepts was found to be associated strongly with their intentions to teach evolution by natural selection (r = .42). However, knowledge of evolutionary concepts was not found to be associated with any particular science epistemology perspective. The third sub-goal was to analyze and to interpret the small-group discussions as members interacted with the simulation. The simulation was found to be highly engaging and a very effective method of encouraging participants to speculate, question, discuss and learn about important evolutionary concepts. Analyses of the discussions revealed that the simulation evoked a wide array of correct conceptions as well as misconceptions. The fourth sub-goal was to assess the extent to which creating a lesson plan on the topic of natural selection could affect

  10. Challenges for achieving safe and effective radical cure of Plasmodium vivax: a round table discussion of the APMEN Vivax Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriemer, Kamala; Ley, Benedikt; Bobogare, Albino; Dysoley, Lek; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Pasaribu, Ayodhia P; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Jambert, Elodie; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Commons, Robert; Auburn, Sarah; Marfurt, Jutta; Devine, Angela; Aktaruzzaman, Mohammad M; Sohel, Nayeem; Namgay, Rinzin; Drukpa, Tobgyel; Sharma, Surender Nath; Sarawati, Elvieda; Samad, Iriani; Theodora, Minerva; Nambanya, Simone; Ounekham, Sonesay; Mudin, Rose Nanti Binti; Da Thakur, Garib; Makita, Leo Sora; Deray, Raffy; Lee, Sang-Eun; Boaz, Leonard; Danansuriya, Manjula N; Mudiyanselage, Santha D; Chinanonwait, Nipon; Kitchakarn, Suravadee; Nausien, Johnny; Naket, Esau; Duc, Thang Ngo; Do Manh, Ha; Hong, Young S; Cheng, Qin; Richards, Jack S; Kusriastuti, Rita; Satyagraha, Ari; Noviyanti, Rintis; Ding, Xavier C; Khan, Wasif Ali; Swe Phru, Ching; Guoding, Zhu; Qi, Gao; Kaneko, Akira; Miotto, Olivo; Nguitragool, Wang; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Battle, Katherine; Howes, Rosalind E; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Duparc, Stephan; Bhowmick, Ipsita Pal; Kenangalem, Enny; Bibit, Jo-Anne; Barry, Alyssa; Sintasath, David; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra; Sibley, Carol H; McCarthy, James; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Baird, J Kevin; Price, Ric N

    2017-04-05

    The delivery of safe and effective radical cure for Plasmodium vivax is one of the greatest challenges for achieving malaria elimination from the Asia-Pacific by 2030. During the annual meeting of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network Vivax Working Group in October 2016, a round table discussion was held to discuss the programmatic issues hindering the widespread use of primaquine (PQ) radical cure. Participants included 73 representatives from 16 partner countries and 33 institutional partners and other research institutes. In this meeting report, the key discussion points are presented and grouped into five themes: (i) current barriers for glucose-6-phosphate deficiency (G6PD) testing prior to PQ radical cure, (ii) necessary properties of G6PD tests for wide scale deployment, (iii) the promotion of G6PD testing, (iv) improving adherence to PQ regimens and (v) the challenges for future tafenoquine (TQ) roll out. Robust point of care (PoC) G6PD tests are needed, which are suitable and cost-effective for clinical settings with limited infrastructure. An affordable and competitive test price is needed, accompanied by sustainable funding for the product with appropriate training of healthcare staff, and robust quality control and assurance processes. In the absence of quantitative PoC G6PD tests, G6PD status can be gauged with qualitative diagnostics, however none of the available tests is currently sensitive enough to guide TQ treatment. TQ introduction will require overcoming additional challenges including the management of severely and intermediately G6PD deficient individuals. Robust strategies are needed to ensure that effective treatment practices can be deployed widely, and these should ensure that the caveats are outweighed by  the benefits of radical cure for both the patients and the community. Widespread access to quality controlled G6PD testing will be critical.

  11. Perceptions of an ideal point-of-care test for sexually transmitted infections--a qualitative study of focus group discussions with medical providers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Hsieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A point-of-care test (POCT for sexually transmitted infections (STIs, which offers immediate diagnosis resulting in patients receiving diagnosis and treatment in a single visit, has the ability to address some of the STI control needs. However, needs assessment from STI experts and end users about currently available STI POCTs and their future new development has not been evaluated since World Health Organization Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diagnostics Initiative was formed over 15 years ago. Therefore, our objective was to explore the perceptions of the ideal types of STI POCT for use in health care settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A qualitative study, encompassing eight focus groups, was conducted from March 2008 through April 2009. Participants included 6 STD clinic directors, 63 clinicians, and 7 public health/laboratory/epidemiology professionals in the STI field. Discussion topics included currently available POCT, perceived barriers to using POCT in clinics, priority STI for the development of new POCT, and characteristics of the ideal POCT. All discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes raised as barriers for current POCT included complexity, long time frames of the so-called "rapid" test, multiple time-driven steps, requiring laboratory technician, difficulty in reading result, interruption of workflow, unreliability, and invasiveness. Chlamydia trachomatis was identified as the priority organism for development of a new STI POCT. Themes indicated for the ideal POCT included rapid turnaround (up to 20 minutes, ease of use, non-invasive, accurate (preferred sensitivity and specificity in the range of high 90s, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA-waived, user-friendly (for both patients and staff, compact, durable, and sturdy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Focus group discussions with STI experts and professionals highlighted chlamydia as the top priority pathogen for POCT development, and

  12. [Practical nursing training in the University School of Nursing of the Community of Madrid. Opinion of students and health professionals. Qualitative study with discussion groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Andrés, Cristina; Alameda Cuesta, Almudena; Albéniz Lizarraga, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    In the nursing schools, the contrast between what is taught in the classrooms and what is practiced at the health care centers usually creates a great deal of confusion on the part of the students. The objective of this research is to ascertain the opinion of the students and of the professionals at the health care centers where they are doing their training with regard thereto in order to detect their problems and see what differences exist between primary and specialized care. This research was conducted throughout the first half of 2000 employing qualitative methodology, by means of four discussion groups comprised of students, former students, primary care training advisors and nursing professionals at the hospitals where the students of the school in question are doing their nursing training. The initial involvement employed was indirect. The comments of the nursing students and of their training advisors with regard to the practice nursing during the diploma studies reveal dissatisfaction on the part of both of these groups. In all of the groups point out anxiety as the leading factor involved in their teaching as well as learning activities and during professional training. The lack of identification as a group of professionals seems to be related to the lack of recognition on the part of the others, the demand for a degree being granted for their college studies and for the setting up of specialities would contribute to their social recognition and, as a result thereof, to their identification as a professional group. Until a solution is provided to the anxiety which the nursing professionals feel with regard to their professional practice, which they pass on to their students during nursing training, it will not be possible to achieve a higher degree of satisfaction with nursing training experiences either on the part of the training advisors or on the part of the students.

  13. The use of semi-structured interviews for collection of qualitative and quantitative data in hydrological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Mijic, Ana; Brozovic, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    To build an accurate, robust understanding of the environment, it is important to not only collect information describing its physical characteristics, but also the drivers which influence it. As environmental change, from increasing CO2 levels to decreasing water levels, is often heavily influenced by human activity, gathering information on anthropogenic as well as environmental variables is extremely important. This can mean collecting qualitative, as well as quantitative information. In reality studies are often bound by financial and time constraints, limiting the depth and detail of the research. It is up to the researcher to determine what the best methodology to answer the research questions is likely to be. Here we present a methodology of collecting qualitative and quantitative information in tandem for hydrological studies through the use of semi-structured interviews. This is applied to a case study in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, North India, one of the most intensely irrigated areas of the world. Here, decreasing water levels exacerbated by unchecked water abstraction, an expanding population and government subsidies, have put the long term resilience of the farming population in doubt. Through random selection of study locations, combined with convenience sampling of the participants therein, we show how the data collected can provide valuable insight into the drivers which have led to the current water scenario. We also show how reliable quantitative information can, using the same methodology, be effectively and efficiently extracted for modelling purposes, which along with developing an understanding of the characteristics of the environment is vital in coming up with realistic and sustainable solutions for water resource management in the future.

  14. Manifestations of Differential Cultural Capital in a University Classroom: Views from Classroom Observations and Focus Group Discussions in a South African University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmore Mutekwe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based predominantly on Pierre Bourdieu’s social and cultural reproduction theory, particularly his notions of cultural capital and symbolic violence, this paper explores how first year post graduate Diploma in Higher Education (PGDHE university students from diverse socio-linguistic backgrounds differ in the levels at which they understand and express themselves in classroom activities. The paper’s thesis is that the diverse nature of South African classrooms presents a number of challenges not only for students but also for educators in terms of the use of English as a medium of instruction or the language for learning and teaching (LOLT. Owing to the fact that the South African Language in Education Policy (LiEP of 1997 empowers both learners and educators in schools to use any of the eleven South African official languages as a LOLT wherever that is reasonably possible, students whose English backgrounds were deficient in enculturating them in the use of English as a learning tool often encounter challenges in expressing their ideas in the classroom, whether in writing or in oral presentations. The discussion is anchored in the data elicited through two data collection methods, lesson observations in a Diploma in Higher Education, Research class composed of students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and through focus group discussion sessions with 40 multi-ethnic Diploma in Higher Education students from the same classroom. The data management and analysis for this study was done thematically, with views emerging from the observations and focus group discussions being clustered into superordinate themes for convenience of the discussion of the findings. The findings of this study were that students from affluent socio-economic backgrounds who enter university with a rich and relevant English linguistic capital, values and attitudes enjoy an enormous advantage compared to their counterparts whose social class and linguistic

  15. Gauging the gaps in student problem-solving skills: assessment of individual and group use of problem-solving strategies using online discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William L; Mitchell, Steven M; Osgood, Marcy P

    2008-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted help to groups and to individual students. This method of assessing performance has a high interrater reliability, and senior students, with training, can serve as reliable graders. We have been able to measure improvements in many students' problem-solving strategies, but, not unexpectedly, there is a population of students who consistently apply the same failing strategy when there is no faculty intervention. This new methodology provides an effective tool to direct faculty to constructively intercede in this area of student development.

  16. 基于关系数据库的半结构化XML数据组织技术%Semi-structured XM L data organization technology based on relational database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹叡; 吴玲达; 崔亮

    2014-01-01

    There are many XML data organization and management technologies .XML data ,data schemata ,and semi-structu-red XML data features were described ,the XML database and XML data storage methods were introduced ,main XML data organiza-tion strategies in the relational database were discussed .The semi-structured XML encoding was divided into the order encoding , the path encoding ,the hybrid encoding and the update-supporting extend encoding based on the encoding mechanism .The semi-structured encoding technology was analyzed and summarized .The XML data organization technology development tendency was prospected ,and the foundation for further XML data organization technology research was provided .%XM L数据的组织和管理存在多种方法。描述XM L数据、模式以及半结构化XM L数据特点,介绍XM L数据库与XM L数据存储方法,讨论XM L数据在关系数据库中的组织策略;基于编码机制,将半结构化XM L 编码分成次序编码、路径编码、混合编码和支持更新的扩展编码,分析总结半结构化XM L数据编码技术,展望XM L数据组织技术的发展趋势,为进一步进行XM L数据组织技术研究提供基础。

  17. Aiming to be a breastfeeding mother in a neonatal intensive care unit and at home: a thematic analysis of peer-support group discussion in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niela-Vilén, Hannakaisa; Axelin, Anna; Melender, Hanna-Leena; Salanterä, Sanna

    2015-10-01

    Preterm infants are usually breastfed less than full-term infants, and successful breastfeeding requires a supportive environment and special efforts from their mothers. A breastfeeding peer-support group, utilising social media, was developed for these mothers in order to support them in this challenge. Mothers were able to discuss breastfeeding and share experiences. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants based on the postings in peer-support group discussions in social media. The actively participating mothers (n = 22) had given birth <35 gestational weeks. They were recruited from one university hospital in Finland. The social media postings (n = 305) were analysed using thematic analysis. A description of the process of breastfeeding a preterm infant from the point of view of a mother was created. The process consisted of three main themes: the breastfeeding paradox in hospital, the 'reality check' of breastfeeding at home and the breastfeeding experience as part of being a mother. The mothers encountered paradoxical elements in the support received in hospital; discharge was promoted at the expense of breastfeeding and pumping breast milk was emphasised over breastfeeding. After the infant's discharge, the over-optimistic expectations of mothers often met with reality - mothers did not have the knowledge or skills to manage breastfeeding at home. Successful breastfeeding was an empowering experience for the mothers, whereas unsuccessful breastfeeding induced feelings of disappointment. Therefore, the mothers of preterm infants need evidence-based breastfeeding counselling and systematic support in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and at home. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Medical Students' Attitudes Toward Non-Adherent Patients Before and After a Simulated Patient-Role Activity and Small-Group Discussion: Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelPrete, Angela; Giordano, Christin; Castiglioni, Analia; Hernandez, Caridad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study seeks to explore whether the documented decline in medical student empathy can be prevented or slowed using simulated patient-role activities and small-group discussions about the patient experience of living with a chronic illness. Methods First-year students (M1, n = 118) at the University of Central Florida College of Medicine (UCFCOM) participated in a simulated patient-role activity resembling the experience of a patient with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The activity included taking daily "medication," participating in moderate exercise, and maintaining a low carbohydrate diet. At the end of the simulated patient-role activity, students took part in a small-group discussion about their experiences. Students completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: Student Version (JSPE:S) before and after the activity. Additionally, fourth-year students (M4) at UCFCOM completed the JSPE:S to serve as the control, as this class completed the curriculum without any simulated patient-role activities. Results A total of 86 responses out of 118 possible M1 participants (73% response rate) were received. Of these, 62 surveys were completed and were therefore used for statistical analysis. A dependent sample t-test revealed no statistically significant increase on pre-activity (M = 111.15, SD = 8.56) and post-activity (M = 111.38, SD = 9.12) empathy scores (p = .78). A positive correlation was revealed to exist between pre- and post-activity empathy scores (r = 0.72, p students, our findings suggest that on a short-term scale, empathy levels were not affected by the activity.

  19. Do we have a moral responsibility to compensate for vulnerable groups? A discussion on the right to health for LGBT people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2016-11-26

    Vulnerability is a broad concept widely addressed in recent scholarly literature. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are among the vulnerable populations with significant disadvantages related to health and the social determinants of health. Medical ethics discourse tackles vulnerability from philosophical and political perspectives. LGBT people experience several disadvantages from both perspectives. This article aims to justify the right to health for LGBT people and their particular claims regarding healthcare because they belong to a vulnerable group. Rawls' theory of justice and Norman Daniels' normal functioning approach will be discussed in this context. Despite the fact that the right to health can be justified by Daniels' normal functioning approach, there is still a theoretical gap in justifying the right to health for particular vulnerable populations such as LGBT peopleand discussing society's duty to compensate for these disadvantages. In search of solid theoretical grounds for the justification of the right to health for LGBT people, the present author takes the opportunity to utilize Daniels' flexible definition of normal functioning to show that normal functioning not only varies by age but also by different states of human existence, including sexual orientation and gender identity, and to propose replacing the life span approach with normal states of human existence.

  20. Patient-based outcome analysis is important to determine the success of total knee arthroplasty: result of a focus group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Balaji; Paul, Manu; Thanveeruddin Sherule, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) results in an excellent outcome in terms of pain relief. The reporting of outcomes was traditionally focused on implant survivorship and objective outcomes such as range of motion, knee stability, and radiographic alignment. However, patients and doctors had differing perceptions of all domains of outcome, especially subjective quality of life domains such as emotions and social functioning. In this study, we tried to find out the expectations of Indian patients regarding TKR and assess the level of satisfaction among our patients from their view point using focus group discussion (FGD), and whether these expectations have an impact on outcomes and patient satisfaction. This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India, in November 2014. Patients between the ages 60 and 65 years who met inclusion criteria were selected. A total of 50 patients were selected for FGDs. Among them, 42 patients participated in FGD. The remaining eight did not appear for the discussion. A total of four FGD sessions were conducted. It was found that there is a discrepancy between the satisfaction levels of patient and surgeon. There is a difference in satisfaction level achieved depending on socioeconomic, geographic, and cultural characteristics. Newer methods of TKR outcome assessment combining radiological outcome, surgeon-based assessment, and patient satisfaction based on their socioeconomic status and cultural characteristics should be developed for different populations.

  1. Participatory rural appraisal approaches: an overview and an exemplary application of focus group discussion in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Uddin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Different tools and techniques of participatory approaches are the basic way of conducting qualitative research especially in the field of applied social science. Focus Group Discussion (FGD is one of the main Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA technique often used in combination with others to achieve desired goals. Considering this concept, this paper attempts to review the PRA approach and then application of FGD, in combination with matrix scoring and ranking to identify problems and causes of climate change along with possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. A group of 20 students at post graduate level under the faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture at Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany those from different corner of the world was considered as target people of the study. The results concluded that “unpredictable weather events” was ranked as the present outstanding visible climate change problem caused by “human activities”. However, it was noted that if alternative renewable energy sources are exploited, this could contribute to solving the present climate change problem. This finding might have the good reference for the policy makers in the same line not only for developing countries but also for developed countries.

  2. Review of the Effects of Housing Place on Individual and Social Development and Academic Success of University Students by Focus Group Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal ARLI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Students who are entitled to get into a university in our country usually live with their families. However, when a student gets into a university which is far away or when it is difficult to go and return, one of the problems which their family has to solve is housing. Housing place alternatives might be government owned hostel, private hostel or houses for rent. The young student who has lived with their family until that age may find themselves in a different environment. This life might make the young people gain socialization, sense of responsibility and sharing, being able to manage their lives in the community - and it might also make them gain qualifications like being able to make discrimination between good and bad. The basic objective of this research is to identify the effects of housing place on individual and social development. The research has been applied to the students of Kocaeli University, Karamürsel Vocational High School . For the research, five focus group discussions have been carried out, each of which is formed of 8 participants and one assistant. In the study which was carried out based on question and answer, 3 general to special questions were directed . Group members have been formed of students who stay in house and hostel also students who stay with their own family. Maximum diversity sampling has been executed. According to the results, it appears that most essential contributions of staying in a hostel are mainly information sharing, growing mature, learning about recognizing human beings, being able to make discrimination between good and bad, learning about trusting, learning about making more moderate spending, and being able to make decisions freely. Besides, participants stated that any type of environment was available for studying both in governmental hostel and in housing environment, and studying in groups increases their successes.

  3. 析基于博弈论的网络团购问题%Discussion on Online Group-buying Based on Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟微微

    2011-01-01

    作为新时代的产物,网络团购深受消费者与商家的喜欢。消费者通过网络平台自发组团与商家进行交易,亦或通过各类网站申请成为会员,直接参团购买。但就是这种改变传统的商业模式引发当前的种种质疑。文章通过博弈理论,分析网络团购的问题关键,并进一步探讨解决问题的方法,以促进网络团购的健康发展。%Online group-buying,which is the product of this new era,has been deeply loved by both consumers as well as businesses.Through the platform of network,the consumer can either voluntarily join the buying group and together they trade with the businesses or he(or she) can apply for the membership of some website and directly deal with the businesses.However,it is this kind of business-customer mode,which changes the traditional way of buying,that causes series of problems.This paper attempts to analyze the key issue of online group-buying on the basis of game theory and discuss further solutions to the issue,trying to promote its healthy development in the future.

  4. 基于EVA视角下的报业集团绩效评价%Discussion on the Performance Evaluation of Press Group Based on EVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新星

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, China’s press industry is developing rapidly. At the same time of developing the traditional business, some press groups explore the cross-regional, cross-industrial, multi-faceted and multi-level development on the basis of their own resources. Their development level is being affected by mar⁃ket factors more and more obviously.But the traditional financial performance evaluation system based on the income, profit, net assets yield and others can not meet the needs of the modern press group ’s multi level gover⁃nance structure and diversification management . Taking the Economic Value Added (EVA) as the break⁃through point, this paper has done a preliminary discussion on the method and system of performance evaluation of press groups .%近年来,我国报业发展迅猛,一些报业集团在坚持发展传统主业的同时,依托自身资源优势进行了跨地区、跨行业、多方位、多层次的发展探索,其发展程度、发展水平受市场因素的影响也越来越明显。而传统的收入、利润、净资产收益率等财务绩效评价体系已满足不了现代报业集团多层级结构治理和多元化经营需要。本文以经济增加值(EVA)为切入点,对报业集团的绩效评价方法、体系进行了初步探讨。

  5. Insights of health district managers on the implementation of primary health care outreach teams in Johannesburg, South Africa: a descriptive study with focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shabir; Derese, Anselme; Peersman, Wim

    2017-01-21

    Primary health care (PHC) outreach teams are part of a policy of PHC re-engineering in South Africa. It attempts to move the deployment of community health workers (CHWs) from vertical programmes into an integrated generalised team-based approach to care for defined populations in municipal wards. There has little evaluation of PHC outreach teams. Managers' insights are anecdotal. This is descriptive qualitative study with focus group discussions with health district managers of Johannesburg, the largest city in South Africa. This was conducted in a sequence of three meetings with questions around implementation, human resources, and integrated PHC teamwork. There was a thematic content analysis of validated transcripts using the framework method. There were two major themes: leadership-management challenges and human resource challenges. Whilst there was some positive sentiment, leadership-management challenges loomed large: poor leadership and planning with an under-resourced centralised approach, poor communications both within the service and with community, concerns with its impact on current services and resistance to change, and poor integration, both with other streams of PHC re-engineering and current district programmes. Discussion by managers on human resources was mostly on the plight of CHWs and calls for formalisation of CHWs functioning and training and nurse challenges with inappropriate planning and deployment of the team structure, with brief mention of the extended team. Whilst there is positive sentiment towards intent of the PHC outreach team, programme managers in Johannesburg were critical of management of the programme in their health district. Whilst the objective of PHC reform is people-centred health care, its implementation struggles with a centralising tendency amongst managers in the health service in South Africa. Managers in Johannesburg advocated for decentralisation. The implementation of PHC outreach teams is also limited by

  6. Rodas de conversa sobre o trabalho na rua: discutindo saúde mental Conversation groups on outreach work: discussing mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Rios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo narra uma experiência de ensino com agentes comunitários de saúde em uma unidade do Programa de Saúde da Família da periferia de São Paulo. Com o objetivo de discutir temas de Saúde Mental relevantes para o trabalho cotidiano desses profissionais, criou-se um espaço de aprendizagem e construção de sentido para esses agentes. Em grupos de encontro quinzenais com uma psiquiatra e cerca de 20 agentes, discutiam-se casos clínicos e situações de vida e trabalho a partir dos quais era possível aprender conceitos básicos de Saúde Mental e pensar o papel e a identidade desses profissionais na comunidade. Ao final de um ano de experiência, avaliou-se que tal atividade é fundamental como apoio para o desenvolvimento do trabalho desses profissionais, e para o aprendizado de como lidar com aspectos subjetivos próprios e dos usuários, especialmente na periferia de grandes centros urbanos.This article describes a teaching experience with health community agents in a Family Health Program unit. In order to discuss important everyday mental health themes, a space for these agents was created, intended for learning and building up senses. Groups of 20 agents and a psychiatrist met every two weeks, to discuss clinical cases, and life and work situations which helped apprehend basic Mental Health concepts and to reflect on the role and identity of these professionals in the community. After one year, this activity was considered fundamental to support the work developed by the agents and to help them learn how to deal with their and the users' subjective aspects, especially in the periphery of large urban centers.

  7. Understanding the impact of subsidizing artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs in the retail sector--results from focus group discussions in rural Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah V Kedenge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in the potential of private sector subsidies to increase availability and affordability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs for malaria treatment. A cluster randomized trial of such subsidies was conducted in 3 districts in Kenya, comprising provision of subsidized packs of paediatric ACT to retail outlets, training of retail staff, and community awareness activities. The results demonstrated a substantial increase in ACT availability and coverage, though patient counselling and adherence were suboptimal. We conducted a qualitative study in order to understand why these successes and limitations occurred. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted, 9 with retailers and 9 with caregivers, to document experiences with the intervention. Respondents were positive about intervention components, praising the focused retailer training, affordable pricing, strong promotional activities, dispensing job aids, and consumer friendly packaging, which are likely to have contributed to the positive access and coverage outcomes observed. However, many retailers still did not stock ACT, due to insufficient supplies, lack of capital and staff turnover. Advice to caregivers was poor due to insufficient time, and poor recall of instructions. Adherence by caregivers to dosing guidelines was sub-optimal, because of a wish to save tablets for other episodes, doses being required at night, stopping treatment when the child felt better, and the number and bitter taste of the tablets. Caregivers used a number of strategies to obtain paediatric ACT for older age groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has highlighted that important components of a successful ACT subsidy intervention are regular retailer training, affordable pricing, a reliable supply chain and community mobilization emphasizing patient adherence and when to seek further care.

  8. Anemia and its determinants among women of reproductive age of a slum in Kolkata: A focus group discussion among health workers in a slum of Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aparajita; Sarkar, Kaushik; Chowdhury, Ranadip; Ray, Arindam; Shahbabu, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among women of reproductive age. Progress toward reducing the burden of anemia has been little despite efforts through decades. We conducted this study to unearth the microlevel determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age. This qualitative study was conducted in Urban Health Centre (UHC), Chetla. A focus group discussion was held among all the eight health staffs, who were involved in reproductive and child health-related service delivery under UHC, Chetla. A thematic analysis of the transcript was performed. We found that socioeconomic factors like poverty and social neglect, diet and nutrition related factors, lack of personal hygiene, and worm infestation contributed to the burden of anemia, and this was reinforced by factors related to service delivery, such as lack of supply of drugs and supplements, and inadequate training of health workers as well as poor media accountability. Because of easy reversibility and implementation, health service delivery-related issues should be addressed closely through monitoring and evaluation and appropriate and timely action should be taken to improve the effectiveness of the services.

  9. Factors Affecting Pre-Service Teachers' Participation in Asynchronous Discussion: The Case of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Alice; Faghih, Esmail; Marandi, Seyyedeh Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a qualitative small-scale exploratory study which examined the factors influencing 32 Iranian pre-service language teachers' participation in online asynchronous text-based discussion forums. By adopting a multiple case study design and analysing data gathered through semi-structured interviews and participants' online…

  10. [Life project of a group of adolescents based on the theory of Paulo Freire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Cristina Peres; Cocco, Maria Inês Monteiro

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to get to know the life project of a group of adolescents at a Basic Health Unit in Marilia-SP. A qualitative research was carried out through semi-structured interviews and group meetings, using the educational group technique with participant observation from the focus of Paulo Freire's theory. Throughout group discussions, three questions arose: what is being an adolescent; what is being healthy and what is the adolescent's life project. These themes were analyzed from the focus of Minayo. The analysis indicated that the adolescents have a life project, in spite of the characteristic difficulties of the socioeconomic conditions they belong to, a fact they perceive. The practice of Freire's ideals enhanced dialogue between the researcher and the group, pointing out that this is one way for a true critical reflection of the identified problems, providing adolescents with a means for making others aware and fighting for their life project.

  11. General discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The general discussion focuses on some aspects that are of overarching relevance for all the preceding chapters. The fi rst subject that is discussed is the relationship between systems theory and the philosophy of science. After a short summary of the principles of system science and the

  12. Discussion of Several Properties on Leibniz-affine Group%Leibniz 仿射群若干性质的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾辉

    2015-01-01

    首先引入了Leibniz仿射群的概念;然后给出了G -仿射群是Leibniz仿射群的一个充要条件,得到了Leibniz仿射群上Leibniz张量和Leibniz括号的具体表达式;最后得到了Leibniz仿射群及其子流形与Leibniz左作用的相关性质。%The concept of Leibniz-affine group was introduced firstly,then a necessary and sufficient condition of a G-affine group being a Leibniz-affine group was given. And the concrete expressions of Leibniz tensor and Leibniz bracket on the Leibniz-affine group were obtained. Finally,some properties about Leibniz-affine group, its submanifolds and Leibniz-left action were proved.

  13. Effect of using an audience response system on learning environment, motivation and long-term retention, during case-discussions in a large group of undergraduate veterinary clinical pharmacology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Michèle; Vrins, André; Harvey, Denis

    2009-12-01

    Teaching methods that provide an opportunity for individual engagement and focussed feedback are required to create an active learning environment for case-based teaching in large groups. A prospective observational controlled study was conducted to evaluate whether the use of an audience response system (ARS) would promote an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups, have an impact on student motivation and improve long-term retention. Group A (N = 83) participated in large group case discussions where student participation was voluntary, while for group B (N = 86) an ARS was used. Data collection methods included student and teacher surveys, student focus group interviews, independent observations and 1-year post-course testing. Results indicated that the use of an ARS provided an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups by favouring engagement, observation and critical reflection and by increasing student and teacher motivation. Although final exam results were significantly improved in group B, long-term retention was not significantly different between groups. It was concluded that ARS use significantly improved the learning experience associated with case-based discussions in a large group of undergraduate students.

  14. Concerns and expectations about returning to work with low back pain: identifying themes from focus groups and semi-structured interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang

    2005-11-15

    Studies of occupational low back pain (OLBP) have shown that return to work after injury is influenced by workers' concerns and expectations; however, these theoretical constructs have not been explored. The specific aim of this study was to identify themes related to self-efficacy and outcome expectancy for returning to work using qualitative research methods. Twenty-eight individuals who recently returned to work (work (n = 23) were referred by their physiotherapists and interviewed to provide more immediate accounts of their concerns and experiences. Notes and recordings from both sources were searched for utterances describing beliefs about self-efficacy or outcome expectancy for returning to work. Two primary self-efficacy constructs emerged: self-efficacy for resuming physical activity and self-efficacy for resuming work. Self-efficacy for resuming physical activity included 8 sub-domains: lift, carry, sit, stand, push/pull, bend, climb, and reach. Self-efficacy for resuming work included 3 sub-domains: pain control, obtaining help, and meeting job demands. Outcome expectancy included four sub-domains: financial/job security, re-injury, workplace support, and self-image. Hesitation to return to work after OLBP involves not only concerns about pain and re-injury, but also the perceived ability to perform physical tasks, meet role expectations, obtain workplace support, and maintain job security.

  15. "The group facilitates everything": meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assigned to health education groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Lucas Pereira; de Campos, Edemilson Antunes

    2014-01-01

    to interpret the meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assign to health education groups. ethnographic study conducted with Hyperdia groups of a healthcare unit with 26 informants, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and having participated in the groups for at least three years. Participant observation, social characterization, discussion groups and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed through the thematic coding technique. four thematic categories emerged: ease of access to the service and healthcare workers; guidance on diabetes; participation in groups and the experience of diabetes; and sharing knowledge and experiences. The most relevant aspect of this study is the social use the informants in relation to the Hyperdia groups under study. the studied groups are agents producing senses and meanings concerning the process of becoming ill and the means of social navigation within the official health system. We expect this study to contribute to the actions of healthcare workers coordinating these groups given the observation of the cultural universe of these individuals seeking professional care in the various public health care services.

  16. "The group facilitates everything": meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assigned to health education groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pereira de Melo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to interpret the meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assign to health education groups.METHOD: ethnographic study conducted with Hyperdia groups of a healthcare unit with 26 informants, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and having participated in the groups for at least three years. Participant observation, social characterization, discussion groups and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed through the thematic coding technique.RESULTS: four thematic categories emerged: ease of access to the service and healthcare workers; guidance on diabetes; participation in groups and the experience of diabetes; and sharing knowledge and experiences. The most relevant aspect of this study is the social use the informants in relation to the Hyperdia groups under study.CONCLUSION: the studied groups are agents producing senses and meanings concerning the process of becoming ill and the means of social navigation within the official health system. We expect this study to contribute to the actions of healthcare workers coordinating these groups given the observation of the cultural universe of these individuals seeking professional care in the various public health care services.

  17. RISK IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EXTENSION PROGRAMMING - RESULTS OF FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS WITH DAIRY AND GREEN INDUSTRY MANAGERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera; Harsh, Stephen B.; Mugera, Amin W.

    2003-01-01

    Employees are both a source of risk and means of addressing risk, and good employee management practices can increase risk resilience. Forty green industry managers and 22 dairy managers discussed personnel issues related to their industry. Influx of Hispanic labor has changed personnel management and the focus of risk management.

  18. Gauging the Gaps in Student Problem-Solving Skills: Assessment of Individual and Group Use of Problem-Solving Strategies Using Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William L.; Mitchell, Steven M.; Osgood, Marcy P.

    2008-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted…

  19. Using Group Discussion with Taiwan's EFL College Students: A Comparison of Comprehension Instruction for Book Club, Literature Circles, and Instructional Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fu-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The research presented here involved a one-semester study; during this period of time, reading comprehension instruction representing three major discussion-centered approaches (Book Club, BC; Literature Circles, LC; Instructional Conversations, IC) was designed and implemented. The effectiveness of the three experimental approaches and one…

  20. How the Teacher Decide the Style of Group Discussion in Accordance with the Textbook%老师怎样根据课文的内容确定小组研讨的方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳

    2012-01-01

      本文简要论述了小组合作学习的优势,并在此基础上探讨了教师如何根据课文内容确定小组研讨的方式%  Based on the elaboration of the advantages of group cooperative learning, this paper discusses how the teacher de-cide the style of group discussion in accordance with textbook.

  1. 病案分组讨论教学法在临床心电图带教中的应用%Application of Medical Record Group Discussion Teaching Method in the Clinical Electrocardiogram Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂花

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the application of medical record group discussion teaching method in the clinical electro-cardiogram teaching. Methods 200 cases of school students majoring in clinic in 2014 were selected as the research ob-jects, and divided into two groups with 100 cases in each according to the admission number, the traditional group adopted the teaching model mainly in analysis and explanation of class medical record, the discussion group adopted medical record group discussion teaching model, and the final grades and students' evaluation of teaching model of the two groups were observed. Results The operation ability and medical record analysis ability in the traditional group were lower than those in the discussion group and the comparison between groups had statistical significance, P0.05);100名学生对该病案讨论模式的平均肯定率为92.3%。结论在临床心电图教学中应用病案分组讨论方式可增加学生对该学科自主学习意识,提升对心电图的了解与掌握,减少该学科学生期末的挂科率,有效增加临床学生对心电图的全面掌握和对疾病判断思维的培养。

  2. 医院集团财务集中管理探讨%Discussion into the Centralization of Financial Management of Hospital Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗庆华

    2015-01-01

    In order to configure the hospital asset rationally, exert the advantage of group and enhance the efficiency of capital operations, the financial management of hospital group must be centralized. The advantages of centralization of financial management were analyzed. The feasible schemes for centralization of financial management of hospital group were put forward. The attentive questions in the course of centralization of financial management were pointed out.%医院集团财务集中管理能更合理地配置医院资产、发挥集团优势及提高资本运营效率。该文分析财务集中管理的优点,提出医院集团财务集中管理的切实可行的实施方案,指出实行财务集中管理中应注意的问题。

  3. Characterizing Communication Networks in a Web-Based Classroom: Cognitive Styles and Linguistic Behavior of Self-Organizing Groups in Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellone-Smith, Pamela; Jablokow, Kathryn; Friedel, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explore the cognitive style profiles and linguistic patterns of self-organizing groups within a web-based graduate education course to determine how cognitive preferences and individual behaviors influence the patterns of information exchange and the formation of communication hierarchies in an online classroom. Network analysis…

  4. What is CCZN-armalcolite? A crystal-chemical discussion and an ad-hoc incursion in the crichtonite-minerals group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril Sabau

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The status of CCZN-armalcolite, commonly still believed to be a variety of armalcolite s.s., is questionable in view of partial evidence suggesting that it would represent a distinct phase, as initially claimed by its discoverers. Because of the rarity of the mineral, combined with its habitual small grain-size, no successful structural investigation could be undertaken so far. Therefore we attempted a chemical overview of existing and original data pertaining to CCZN-armalcolite. With the view of systematizing structure-composition relationships, we analyzed the topology of large cations – bearing close-packed oxides, while extending the nomenclature in use in order to accommodate further topologies. By using relevant chemical plots, a fair compositional match between CCZN-armalcolite and the crichtonite group minerals was demonstrated, as well as a chemical incompatibility with armalcolite. Stoichiometric crichtonite compositions and matching optical properties allowed identification of at least part of “CCZN-armalcolites” with the mineral loveringite of the crichtonite group. A detailed inspection of structure-composition relationships in crichtonites allowed an insight in their trends and range of chemical variation, as well as a comparison between them and a group of “CCZN-armalcolites” slightly differing from known crichtonites. These “CCZN-armalcolites” departing from normal chemical trends in crichtonites either represent an ordered variety of non-stoichiometric crichtonite or a new group of close-packed oxides. Their composition clustering around formula AM16O30 is temptingly consistent with an hypothetical structure intermediate between magnetoplumbites and crichtonites, based on close-packed stacking of layers made up by triangular clusters of octahedra, stuffed with large cations. A model of such a structure, not encountered so far in minerals, is outlined, displaying a hexagonal symmetry P , with a ≈ 7.45Å and c

  5. Discussion on Human Resource Management of Medical Group%集团型医疗机构人力资源管理的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林平平

    2016-01-01

    在现行医疗制度改革形势下,为使医疗资源被最大化利用,各医疗机构进行集团化的整合已成为新型的组织模式,随之医疗集团的人力资源管理也必须进行相应的改革创新。本文以台州恩泽医疗中心(集团)为例,介绍了医疗集团人力资源统一管理的实践探索,并由此带来的作用以及存在的一些难点问题。%Under the environment of current medical system reform, in order to maximize the use of medical resources, group integration of medical institutions has become a new organization model. Therefore, human resource management of the medical group should also have corresponding reform and innovation. This paper takes Taizhou Enze Medical Center (Group) as an example and introduces the exploration and practice of unified human resources management, the effect of management and some existing difficult problems.

  6. 浅议陕西煤化集团并购重组工作%Discussion of mergers and acquisitions work in Shaanxi Coal and Chemical Industry Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹贵武

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the main methods of mergers and acquisitions work , summarized the experiences of mergers and acquisitions work and analyzed the effects of mergers and acquisitions work during the development process of Shaanxi Coal and Chemical Industry Group .%介绍了陕煤化集团在发展过程中,实施并购重组工作的主要做法,总结了开展并购重组工作经验,并以具体实例说明了集团实施并购重组工作的效果。

  7. How to capture patients’ concerns and related changes: Comparing the MYCaW questionnaire, semi-structured interview and a priority list of outcome areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann; Johannessen, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the capacity of the MYCaW questionnaire, a priority list of concerns covered by validated questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews to identify patients’ personalized concerns and related changes. Design In a pragmatic trial on the effectiveness of energy healing...... as rehabilitation after colorectal cancer, a sub-sample of 31 participants completed the MYCaW questionnaire and the priority list and were interviewed before, during and after the treatment period. Setting Treatments were provided in healers’ clinics in Denmark. Main outcome measures For each participant...... experience with the treatment, while concerns stated in interviews and the priority list remained stable throughout the study; (2) emotional concerns were reported more often in interviews than in MYCaW, physical concerns were predominant in MYCaW, and quality of life was marked as a primary concern most...

  8. Scaling Out and Evaluation of OBSecAn, an Automated Section Annotator for Semi-Structured Clinical Documents, on a Large VA Clinical Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Le-Thuy T; Divita, Guy; Redd, Andrew; Carter, Marjorie E; Samore, Matthew; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2015-01-01

    "Identifying and labeling" (annotating) sections improves the effectiveness of extracting information stored in the free text of clinical documents. OBSecAn, an automated ontology-based section annotator, was developed to identify and label sections of semi-structured clinical documents from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). In the first step, the algorithm reads and parses the document to obtain and store information regarding sections into a structure that supports the hierarchy of sections. The second stage detects and makes correction to errors in the parsed structure. The third stage produces the section annotation output using the final parsed tree. In this study, we present the OBSecAn method and its scale to a million document corpus and evaluate its performance in identifying family history sections. We identify high yield sections for this use case from note titles such as primary care and demonstrate a median rate of 99% in correctly identifying a family history section.

  9. 基于视知觉理论的建筑群体表情初探%Brief Discussion on Building Group Expression Based on Visual Perception Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 张伟

    2012-01-01

      According to disorderly and repetitive City Scape under the context of current urban construction, this paper Consider the thought of ‘building group' as the media of Architectural design and Architectural design.On this basis,it puts forward the concept of ‘building group expression’and make preliminary inquiry to it according to the visual perception gestalt theory, hoping to research the important role of it in shaping city style and feature from a new perspective.%  针对当前城市建设背景下中千城一面、杂乱无章的城市面貌,该文提出以“建筑群体”思想作为连接建筑设计与城市规划的中间层次,在此基础上提出“建筑群体表情”的概念,并根据视知觉完形理论对其进行了初步的探究,希望从新的角度思考其在塑造城市风貌方面的的重要作用。

  10. 基于半结构特征分割的 Web数据挖掘算法%Web Data Mining Algorithm Based on Semi Structure Feature Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽萍

    2015-01-01

    提出一种基于半结构特征分割的Web数据挖掘算法。进行Web热点数据的信息流信号模型构建,对Web热点信息流进行包络特征分解,为了提高数据挖掘的纯度和抗干扰性能,采用前馈调制滤波器进行数据干扰滤波,采用半结构特征分割进行Web热点数据的特征提取,实现数据挖掘算法改进。仿真结果表明,采用该算法能提高对Web数据特征的检测性性能,数据挖掘中受到的旁瓣干扰较小,挖掘精度较高,性能优于传统算法。%A Web data mining algorithm based on semi structure feature segmentation is proposed .The information stream signal model of Web hot date is constructed and the characteristic erwelope decomposition of Web hot information stream is finished ,in order to improve the purity of data mining and the anti‐interference performance by feedforward filter modulation data interference filter ,using semi structural feature segmentation for web hot number according to feature extraction . The data mining algorithm is realized . Simulation results show that the new algorithm can improve the detection capability of characteristics of Web data , data mining has little sidelobe interference ,mining precision is high ,performance is better than traditional algorithm .

  11. Panel discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Author Given

    1975-01-01

    Panel discussion: summation and future projections. Introductory remarks by panelists followed by questions and comments from the floor. Panelists: Dr. Joseph Barnea (former director of Resources and Transport for the United Nations; energy consultant to the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)); the Honorable Clyde F. Bel, Jr. (member of the Louisiana House of Representatives representing District 90 and New Orleans); Dr. David Lombard (acting chief of the Advanced Systems Branch of the Division of Geothermal Energy Research and Technology, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)); Fred C. Repper (vice-president of Central Power and Light Company in Corpus Christi, Texas); Dr. Hans Suter (environmental consultant in Corpus Christi, Texas; environmental columnist for the Corpus Christi Caller Times). Session chairman: Herbert Woodson.

  12. Discussion on the Group Cooperation in the Efficient Classroom%浅谈高效课堂中的小组合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琴; 刘爱枝

    2014-01-01

    改变学生学习方式是新一轮基础教育课程改革的核心,而合作学习是课改倡导的重要学习方式之一。让学生的行为、认知、情感参与到小组合作中来,使合作学习具有实效。%Changing students’learning style is the core of a new round of basic education curriculum reform, and cooperative learning is one of the important study way that curriculum reform advocates. Let the students’ behavior, cognition, emotion involved in the group work, make the cooperative learning results.

  13. Discussion on Connection Group of Three-phase Transformer%浅谈三相变压器的连接组别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于红

    2013-01-01

    三相变压器的联结组是三相变压器的难点问题之一,通过三相变压器绕组的联结,进一步的说明了三相变压器的联结组及其简单的判定方法---时钟序数表示法,最后对标准联结组进行了详细的说明。%The connection symbol is one of the difficult problems of three-phase transformer, through the connection of the three-phase transformer winding, the paper further illustrates the connection symbol and simple methods---clock ordinal notation of three-phase transformer, finally carries on the detailed instructions for standard connection group.

  14. Discussion on stable increase of foreign trade of Datong Coal Mine Group%同煤集团稳定外贸增长初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓龙

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by the slow development of international economy,the spread of global economic crisis and the protectionism of international trade,the export of state-owned trade enterprises has been blocked seriously and the trade environment has been continually worsening.How to keep the stable increase of foreign trade business in such complex and severe environment was discussed from ac-tively utilizing preferential policies and actively expanding trade scope,and so on.%受世界经济放缓、全球金融危机蔓延以及国际贸易保护主义等不利因素影响,国有外贸企业出口严重受阻,贸易环境不断恶化。从积极争取利用优惠政策、积极拓展业务种类等方面探讨了在复杂和严峻的外贸形势下,如何保持外贸业务的稳定增长。

  15. Discussion on Comprehensive Budget Management of Group Enterprise%浅谈集团企业的全面预算管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖兴

    2011-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, our business has got rapid development, especially for large enterprise groups, there are nearly 30 enterprises list in top 500 global corporations. However, besides the number and size, the management level of enterprises still has a certain gap with international multinational corporations. This article describes related budget management theories and models in detail and proposes the improvement suggestions to the problems.%改革开放以来,我们企业得到了高速发展,特别是大型集团企业,目前已有将近30家栖身世界500强.但除了人数和规模以外,企业的综合管理水平还与国际跨国企业有一定差距.文章对企业通过全面预算的相关理论和模式管理进行了详细梳理,并就其中存在的问题给出了整改建议.

  16. Discussion on higher vocational college website group construction and management%浅谈高职院校网站群的建设和管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪喜琴

    2012-01-01

    随着学校网站数量的不断增加,如何有效地组织和管理这些网站及其海量信息,已成为众多学校领导及信息主管所关心的问题,分析了当前高职院校网站的现状,提出了用Webplus技术建设与管理网站群的思路,它不仅方便了管理员的统一管理,而且提高了系统的安全性、稳定性、可扩展性、易使用性、美观性,同时也降低了网站的总体建设成本,是提升网站管理与绩效的有效手段.%With the increasing number of school website, how to effectively organize and manage the site as well as the mass of information, has become a large number of school leadership and information director concerns, this article analyzes the current higher vocational institute website present situation, put forward to use webplus technology to construction and management of website group train of thought, it is not only convenient for the administrator of the unified management, and to improve the system security, stability, scalability, usability, aesthetics, but also reduces the overall cost of website construction, is to promote the site management and performance of the effective means.

  17. Benefits of Group Singing for People with Eating Disorders: Preliminary Findings from a Non-Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metaxia Pavlakou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the possible benefits of participation in group singing for people with eating disorders in a non-clinical context. The creation of a group singing workshop for women that exhibited disordered eating provided the opportunity to explore the participants’ experiences as perceived by them. A qualitative approach utilizing a semi-structured interview was employed to explore in depth the women’s perceptions regarding the group singing workshop. A thematic analysis of the data identified four main categories concerning the benefits of group singing for the population under study. The theoretical model of Sears (1968 of the processes in music therapy and its application on anorexic clients (Parente 1989 informed the discussion of the empirical findings.

  18. The Making of discussion groups in a combined process of internal evaluation of safety culture; La realizacion de grupos de discuion en un proceso combinado de evaluacion interna de cultura de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, S.; Buedo, J. L.; La Salabarnada, E.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the design and evaluation of safety culture conducted in the Cofrentes nuclear plant. The process has combined the use of different methodologies and techniques and has allowed the participation of different internal and external stake holders. For internal assessment discussion groups were conducted. These groups, which were designed and analyzed by the CIEMAT, were led by employees from different levels of Cofrentes.

  19. Virtual Team and Trust Relationship: Focus Group Interviews in Multimedia Super Corridor Status Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norizah Aripin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the trust relationship in virtual teams in Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC status companies. The study used qualitative method that is phenomenology approach through focus group interviews. In-depth interview were also used with semi-structured and openended questions. The interviews involved six staffs at different position in virtual team (two team leaders, and four team members. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to the thematic analysis. Results showed that dimensions on virtual team trust relationship including interpersonal communication, personality, team members size, face-to-face meeting needs, safety information when discussing face-to-face in public places, and difficulty to recall interaction via video conferencing with other team members.

  20. The Use of Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Edmund deS.; And Others

    Research on the use of discussion in adult education has been largely concerned with comparing it with the use of other instructional techniques and with measuring opinion change. Many studies, such as Kurt Lewin's study of food habits, have compared the effectiveness of group discussion as contrasted with lecture in changing opinions and…

  1. Assessment of personality-related levels of functioning: A pilot study of clinical assessment of the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning based on a semi-structured interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Simonsen, Sebastian; Nemery, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    was to test the Clinical Assessment of the Level of Personality Functioning Scale [CALF], a semi-structured clinical interview, designed to assess the Level of Personality Functioning Scale of the DSM-5 (Section III) by applying strategies similar to what characterizes assessments in clinical practice...

  2. Reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for the assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adult psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

    2016-08-30

    Despite growing recognition that the symptoms and functional impairments of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) persist into adulthood, only a few psychometrically sound diagnostic measures have been developed for the assessment of ADHD in adults, and none have been validated for use in a broad treatment-seeking psychiatric sample. The current study presents the reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for ADHD, which was administered to 1194 adults presenting to an outpatient psychiatric practice. The module showed excellent internal consistency and interrater reliability, good convergent and discriminant validity (as indexed by relatively high correlations with self-report measures of ADHD and ADHD-related constructs and little or no correlation with other, non-ADHD symptom domains), and good construct validity (as indexed by significantly higher rates of psychosocial impairment and self-reported family history of ADHD in individuals who meet criteria for an ADHD diagnosis). This instrument is thus a reliable and valid diagnostic tool for the detection of ADHD in adults presenting for psychiatric evaluation and treatment.

  3. The Increased of Activity and Content Reading Understanding Ability Through Problem Based Learning in Technique Discussion Group-Peningkatan Aktivitas dan Kemampuan Memahami Isi Bacaan Melalui Pembelajaran Berbasis Masalah dengan Teknik Diskusi Kelompok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakobus Paluru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this research is to improve students’ learning activities and the ability to understand the information in the text. The results showed that the ability to understand written information students has increased after gaining experience learning through problem-based strategy with group discussion techniques. The increase is due to the emergence of motivation and the interest of students who constructed through problem-based learning strategies with group discussion techniques. The increase in activity caused by the adjustment of learning to students’ needs related to the topic of reading materials used in teaching and habits and learning styles that is performed by the students.Key Words: learning, the content of text, group discussion Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan aktivitas belajar dan kemampuan siswa dalam memahami informasi yang ada dalam bacaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan memahami informasi tertulis siswa telah meningkat setelah mendapatkan pengalaman belajar melalui strategi berbasis masalah dengan teknik diskusi kelompok. Terjadinya peningkatan aktivitas disebabkan munculnya motivasi dan minat siswa yang dibangun melalui strategi pembelajaran berbasis masalah dengan teknik diskusi kelompok. Peningkatan aktivitas disebabkan adanya penyesuaian pembelajaran dengan kebutuhan siswa yang berkaitan dengan topik materi bacaan yang digunakan dalam pembelajaran dan kebiasaan serta gaya belajar yang dilakukan oleh siswa.Kata kunci: pembelajaran, isi bacaan, diskusi kelompok

  4. Staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in quality improvement: a focus group discussion study at two hospital settings in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, Helena; Mazzocato, Pamela; Glaser, Daniel; Keller, Christina; Unbeck, Maria

    2017-06-06

    To explore healthcare staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in improvement efforts. Two focus group discussions were performed. Two settings were included: a rheumatology department and an orthopaedic section both situated in Sweden. Healthcare staff and managers (n=13) from the two settings. Two workshops were performed, one at each setting. Workshops were initiated by a short introduction to simulation modelling. Results from the respective simulation model were then presented and discussed in the following focus group discussion. Categories from the content analysis are presented according to the following research questions: how and when simulation modelling can assist healthcare improvement? Regarding how, the participants mentioned that simulation modelling could act as a tool for support and a way to visualise problems, potential solutions and their effects. Regarding when, simulation modelling could be used both locally and by management, as well as a pedagogical tool to develop and test innovative ideas and to involve everyone in the improvement work. Its potential as an information and communication tool and as an instrument for pedagogic work within healthcare improvement render a broader application and value of simulation modelling than previously reported. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Writing a Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sue; And Others

    A unit used in an Australian school to teach English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students how to write a discussion is described. The 3-week unit was planned and implemented jointly by an ESL resource teacher, class teacher, and teacher librarian. The class was divided into three heterogeneous groups, two of which were observed for this study and…

  6. The Discussion of the Effect of Irvin D. Yalom Group Counseling Intervention for Maladaptive College Freshmen%欧文·亚隆团体咨询对适应不良大学新生的干预初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雯

    2016-01-01

    本文从存在主义视角来理解大学新生的适应问题,并探讨存在主义的欧文·亚隆团体干预大学新生适应不良问题的适用性和效果。%In this paper, the maladaptation of college freshmen has been discussed in the perspective of existentialism, as well as the effect of Irvin D. Yalom group counseling intervention for maladaptive college freshmen.

  7. Frontalunterricht oder interaktive Gruppenarbeit? Ein Vergleich des Lernerfolgs und der studentischen Evaluation für das Fach Biochemie [Didactic lecture or interactive group discussion? A comparison of the learning success and the student evaluation in biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadmon, Martina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Interactive, student-centered teaching methods have replaced traditional teacher-centered didactic formats in many modern medical curricula in the past few years. However, in the natural sciences such as biochemistry, interactive teaching methods are not well proven. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of the teaching format on the performance of undergraduate students in biochemistry and their evaluation of the respective format. Methods: A total of 421 second-year students were randomized into two groups: The control group was taught in a traditional lecture-like format, whereas the study group dealt with the same topic in an interactive group discussion. At the end of each lesson, students performed a multiple-choice test and completed a questionnaire. The same MCQ test was repeated 4–6 weeks after the last lesson. Results: Students who were taught in a lecture-like format performed significantly better in the first MCQ test immediately after the lesson than students taught in the interactive format. However, in the second MCQ test, there was no difference between the two groups. In the questionnaire, students rated the lecture-based course significantly better than the interactive group discussion. Conclusion: One reason why students prefer a didactic lecture to an interactive group discussion might be due to the subject biochemistry, which is strongly knowledge-based. Students perceived that the transfer of knowledge by a professional lecturer was more effective than the knowledge obtained in a student-centered discussion group. Other reasons might be the method of assessment and the overall design of the curriculum. [german] Zielsetzung: Interaktive, Lerner-orientierte Unterrichtsmethoden werden vielfach mit moderner und guter Lehre in Verbindung gebracht und ersetzen zunehmend konventionellen, Lehrer-zentrierten Frontalunterricht. In naturwissenschaftlichen Fächern, wie Biochemie, sind interaktive

  8. Seasonal communication about dengue fever in educational groups in primary healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Líliam Barbosa; Soares, Sônia Maria; Fernandes, Maria Teresinha de Oliveira; Aquino, Ana Luiza de

    2011-12-01

    To analyze how seasonal communication for dengue control and prevention is conveyed in educational peer groups of Family Health teams. An exploratory and descriptive qualitative study was performed with 25 coordinators of peer education groups, distributed among eight basic health units of Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil. Data collection occurred from March to June 2009, by non-participant observation and semi-structured interviews with coordinators. Content analysis and the principal theories in health communication were utilized in data interpretation. Three thematic units were identified: seasonal communication; subjects discussed and information sources about dengue; and information versus communication for action. Dengue prevention and control actions were principally discussed in groups during outbreaks, based on actions previously programmed by the Ministry of Health. The topics addressed focused on epidemiology, life cycle, modes of transmission, symptoms, prevention, domiciliary visits by zoonosis control units and vaccination for dengue. The predominant communication action is information conveyance by the coordinator, centered on a behavioralist and prescriptive discourse. Communication practices focused on dialogue is recommended, allowing the coordinator and group members freedom in regards to emergent issues in the group, so they learn to recognize and reflexively discuss them in context.

  9. A Research of the Major Administrative Decision-making Group Discussion and Decision System%重大行政决策的集体讨论决定制度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜; 方卫华

    2014-01-01

    重大行政决策集体讨论决定制度是指对于重大行政问题,必须充分讨论,集体决定,坚决反对个人说了算或少数人专断。重大行政决策是否科学化、民主化,直接影响到政府行政管理活动的效能。重大行政决策集体讨论决定是民主集中制的直接体现,能够避免在重大行政问题决策上的失误。通过分析和研究重大行政决策集体讨论决定制度的发展现状及其运行的规则和程序,发现中国重大行政决策缺乏统一的集体讨论决定程序,行政机关缺乏民主决策意识,社会公众缺乏民主参政意识及行政决策监督滞后等一系列局限性,指出惟有建立统一高效的重大行政决策集体讨论决定程序、提高行政机关的民主决策意识、提高社会公众的民主参政意识和加强对行政决策的监督才能更好的完善中国重大行政决策的集体讨论决定制度。%The major administrative decision-making group discussion and decision system means that major adminis-trative problems must be conducted through full discussion and collective decision .Meanwhile , individual or a minor-ity of people's arbitrariness must be firmly opposed .Whether the major administrative decision-making is scientific and democratic , directly affects the effectiveness of government administrative management activities .Because the major administrative decision-making group discussion directly embodies the democratic centralism , major administra-tive decision-making errors can be avoided .In this paper , we study and analyze the development of the system of the status major administrative decision-making group discussion and decision system operation rules , procedures and lack of the unified collective discussion and decision procedure , administrative departments lack of democratic conscious-ness, the social public lack of democratic politics consciousness , administrative decision-making supervision

  10. Discussion-Induced Attitude Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David G.

    1975-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that the average of group members' responses following group discussion will generally be more extreme in the same direction as the average of individual pregroup preferences. (Author/MLF)

  11. Discussion on the Integrated Supporting and Requirements Designing of Group Customers Business%集团客户业务一体化支撑需求设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小发; 李良; 黄强华; 吕美嫦

    2014-01-01

    随着移动通信网络的不断升级和移动互联网业务的不断发展壮大,集团客户业务越来越成为运营商发展的重要战略市场。基于集团客户业务的发展现状、产品体系、系统支撑现状情况,从集团客户业务的基本特点出发,对集团客户业务的产品形态进行研究分析,针对集团客户业务个性化需求的特点,从客户、产品、业务等表现形式进行详细分析,对运营商集团客户业务需求支撑、产品设计、业务发展等进行研究探讨,提出一体化支撑需求设计。%With the development of mobile communication network and expansion of mobile Internet business, group customers busi-ness is increasingly becoming an important strategic market of the operators. Based on the current development of group cus-tomers business, products system, the present situation of system supporting, it researches and analyzes the production form from the basic characteristics of group customers business. It analyzes the display of customer, production, service and so on from the personalized needs of group customers business. It researches and discusses the demand supporting, production de-signing and business development of group customers business and proposes the integrated supporting and requirements de-signing.

  12. A Discussion with Jacques Derrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Jacques

    1990-01-01

    Presents an edited transcript of a discussion held in April 1989 between Jacques Derrida and a group of students and professors concerning Derrida's "Afterword: Toward an Ethic of Discussion." Discusses Derrida's views on "deconstruction" as a term and a movement, the idea of arguments and persuasion, and specific power…

  13. 大学英语课堂小组活动在英语教学中的探讨%Discussion on Group Work of College English Classroom in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳志群

    2014-01-01

    The successful application of Group work depends on many aspects of English classroom, and it is one method used in the English classroom. On the basis of two task types (required and optional information exchange tasks ) University students and their interaction will be discussed. The fact shows that more interactional modification comes from the required exchange. At the same time, the topic of task plays an important role in group work, which benefits university students ’language acquisition and English teachers’leaching.%大学英语课堂小组活动顺利进行取决于课堂环境中的许多方面,也是英语课堂常常用到的方法。在信息轮流交换型和信息自由提供型两种任务类型的基础上,来探讨参加课堂小组活动的大学生以及他们的交互影响。实际表明,更多的交互修正产生来自于轮流交换型任务。课堂活动在大学生的语言习以及英语教师的教学水平提高方面都起着重要作用。

  14. Grupos de discussão virtual: uma proposta para o ensino em enfermagem Grupos de discusión virtual: una propuesta para la enseñanza en enfermería Virtual discussion groups: a proposal for nursing teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Dal Pai

    2007-09-01

    émicos, el profesor y la estudiante, bien como momentos de reflexión y discusión sobre los temas confrontados en la práctica de enfermería.This paper describes a teaching experience aimed at providing interactivity to the technique of field diary by using a virtual learning environment. The educational proposal derives from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS's Teaching Training Program of the Stricto Sensu Post-Graduation Program in Nursing, in which the author, a Master's degree candidate, oriented by her advisor, proposed forming virtual discussion groups in order to write the field diary for an undergraduate discipline in Nursing, with the aim of providing an opportunity for a joint discussion of academic experiences in the realm of practice. The instructors of the discipline in which the proposal was developed also participated in the activities. The virtual technology gave new dynamism to the technique of field diary, making possible an exchange of experiences among the students, the instructor and the author, as well as moments of reflection and discussion regarding the themes faced in the Nursing practice.

  15. Views on clinically suspect arthralgia: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsum, Elize C; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2016-05-01

    The rheumatology field is moving towards identifying individuals with an increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at a stage when arthritis is still absent but persons having clinically suspect arthralgia (CSA). Incorporating patients' views in rheumatologic care is pivotal; however, the views of persons with CSA on their condition are unknown. We aimed to help fill this gap by exploring illness perceptions of persons with CSA and their views on hypothetical prognoses for developing RA. Persons with CSA were invited to participate in a semi-structured focus group discussion. Illness perceptions according to the Common Sense Model (CSM) and four a priori formulated themes were explored in detail during the group discussion. The discussion was audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed in an interpretative phenomenological approach manner, on the basis of the dimensions of the CSM by three researchers independently. The views of four participants with CSA were explored during one focus group discussion. Four dimensions of the CSM were mainly observed: Identity, Consequences, Personal Control and Concern. None of the patients identified themselves as being a patient. They did experience pain and impairments in daily functioning and were concerned that their symptoms would progress. In the absence of physician-initiated treatment, some patients changed lifestyle in order to reduce pain and to promote health. Patients unanimously said that they could not interpret prognostic information on RA development expressed in hypothetical chances. Persons with CSA do not consider themselves patients. Prognostic information related to the development of RA based on risk percentages was considered as not useful by persons with CSA. Understanding of the illness perceptions of persons with CSA by health care professionals might improve medical management and facilitate shared decision-making.

  16. A Qualitative Study of the Experience of Parents Attending a Psychoanalytically Informed Parent-Toddler Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Maria; Kitson, Annabel; Midgley, Nick

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a qualitative study into the experience of seven parents attending a psychoanalytically informed parent-toddler group. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with each parent, and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of the interviews led us to three "superordinate…

  17. Thematic Analysis of the Effectiveness of an Inpatient Mindfulness Group for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiran, Hatice; Holt, Rachel R.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the effectiveness of group mindfulness for people with intellectual disabilities in an assessment and treatment unit. Six participants with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The interviews focused on identifying the benefits and difficulties of using mindfulness. The…

  18. Group Work Experiences: Domestic MBA Student Experiences and Outcomes when Working with International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Patricia D.

    2013-01-01

    This article forms part of an exploration into the results of a single-case, embedded study that was conducted to explore how domestic part-time graduate business students in the United States experience group work for summative assessment. Multiple information collection methods were utilised, including open-ended and semi-structured interviews,…

  19. New Viewpoint of Science Literacy Research:Discussion on Survey Method Targeted on Occupational Groups%科学素养研究的新视角:基于职业人群的测评方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可炜; 陈曦; 梁皑莹; 羊芳明; 邓乔丹

    2012-01-01

    Based on the theory research for science literacy so far and its survey actuality, the article discussed a new survey model targeted on occupational groups and proposed a 5 - dimension survey system after analyzed science literacy structure and some main limitations on public survey. Furthermore, the article employed Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process to bring forward a new method to determine the weights of the five dimensions, and developed a case survey targeted on traditional Chinese medicine professionals.%根据目前科学素养理论研究和测评现状,分析了公众“全民科学素养测评”存在的主要缺陷,探讨了从公众“全民科学素养测评”走向职业人群“分众科学素养测评”的新模式,分析了科学素养的结构并提出了五维度测评体系;同时,采用模糊层次分析法,提出了确定五维度权重的一种方法.在此基础上,对中医药从业人群的科学素养开展了案例测评,从而验证了职业人群测评的可行性.

  20. A qualitative study of dietary discussions as an emerging task for cancer clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Improvements in cancer detection and treatment create a need for care that prioritizes acute treatment and ongoing needs. There have been calls to include health promotion in cancer care, but little empirical consideration of the work involved in such an expansion of services. In this article, we adopt a constructionist position to explore clinicians’ perspectives on capacity for health promotion, specifically dietary counseling. Methods: Our data result from 33 semi-structured qualitative interviews with members of cancer care teams. All interviewees were affiliated with one of two contrasting medical systems located in Baltimore, MD, USA. Interviews focused on professional roles and responsibilities around health promotion for cancer survivors. We employed both purposive and snowball sampling. We conducted a thematic analysis informed by the sociology of professions literature of discussions of dietary change by provider type. Results: We discuss four emergent themes that relate to the work of providing dietary counseling: (1 prioritization of behavior change in survivorship care, (2 evidence base for dietary messaging, (3 available time and clinical priorities and (4 clinical expertise. Interviewees generally expressed support for the importance of diet for healthy cancer survivorship. However, while there was broad support for dietary change and health promotion, we found little evidence of an emerging consensus on how this work should be accomplished, nor an indication of any occupational group expanding their professional remit to prioritize health promotion tasks. Conclusions: Health promotion is the key to any efficient and effective model of cancer care. Careful attention to the impact of the task on key patient outcomes as well as system capacity for the provision of dietary counseling and its fit with a specific professional remit will be critical for successful integration of health promotion into routine cancer care.

  1. Conversational Markers of Constructive Discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Niculae, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    Group discussions are essential for organizing every aspect of modern life, from faculty meetings to senate debates, from grant review panels to papal conclaves. While costly in terms of time and organization effort, group discussions are commonly seen as a way of reaching better decisions compared to solutions that do not require coordination between the individuals (e.g. voting)---through discussion, the sum becomes greater than the parts. However, this assumption is not irrefutable: anecdotal evidence of wasteful discussions abounds, and in our own experiments we find that over 30% of discussions are unproductive. We propose a framework for analyzing conversational dynamics in order to determine whether a given task-oriented discussion is worth having or not. We exploit conversational patterns reflecting the flow of ideas and the balance between the participants, as well as their linguistic choices. We apply this framework to conversations naturally occurring in an online collaborative world exploration ga...

  2. Grupos de discussão na pesquisa com adolescentes e jovens: aportes teórico-metodológicos e análise de uma experiência com o método Discussion groups in the research with teenagers and youngsters: theoretical-methodological contributions and analysis of an experience with the method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wivian Weller

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhar com grupos juvenis de contextos interculturais e sociais distintos àquele do pesquisador exige cuidado e rigor no procedimento e na escolha dos métodos a serem utilizados para a coleta de dados, assim como uma preparação para o trabalho de campo. Mesmo assim, o pesquisador será confrontado com códigos de comunicação e estilos de vida que lhe são alheios. A decodificação desses sistemas exige uma espécie de imersão do pesquisador no meio pesquisado e um controle metodológico permanente do processo de interpretação, de forma a evitar vieses ou afirmações distorcidas sobre a realidade social de seus entrevistados. Nos últimos anos, o número de dissertações e teses sobre infância e juventude tem aumentado consideravelmente. No entanto, pela necessidade de entregarmos os trabalhos nos prazos estipulados ou por atribuirmos ao referencial teórico maior grau de importância, poucas vezes nos dedicamos a reconstruir a trajetória percorrida durante a fase de coleta e análise dos dados empíricos e a justificar as escolhas teórico-metodológicas realizadas. O presente artigo reconstrói o percurso de uma pesquisa de campo realizada com jovens em São Paulo e em Berlim, apresenta os instrumentos utilizados na coleta de dados e analisa o emprego dos grupos de discussão como um método de pesquisa que privilegia as interações e uma maior inserção do pesquisador no universo dos sujeitos, reduzindo, assim, os riscos de interpretações equivocadas sobre o meio pesquisado.Working with groups of youngsters from social and intercultural contexts distinct from those of the researcher requires care and rigor in the procedure and choice of methods to be used in data collection, just as in the preparation for the fieldwork. Even so, the researcher will be confronted with codes of communication and lifestyles that are alien to him/her. The decoding of these systems demands a kind of immersion of the researcher into the medium

  3. Beliefs and habits: staff experiences with key word signing in special schools and group residential homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Ellen; Maes, Bea; Zink, Inge

    2017-06-01

    Even though use of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) by staff has been extensively researched, few studies relate to unaided AAC strategies such as key word signing (KWS). We explored the KWS views of two groups: direct support staff in group residential homes and teachers from special education secondary schools. We examined transcripts from individual semi-structured interviews with five direct support staff and five teachers using thematic analysis. Participants discussed consistency of KWS use and reasons for implementing KWS. Compared to direct support staff, teachers described more use of KWS throughout the day with more individuals with intellectual disability. Teachers discussed use of KWS to facilitate students' present and future interactions, while direct support staff primarily discussed immediate effects. Participants experienced KWS implementation as a learning process and aimed to turn the use of manual signs into a routine habit. This required considerable self-monitoring, and the effort that this continuous self-feedback required, combined with environmental factors, could hinder KWS implementation. These preliminary findings suggest that preservice KWS training and on-site KWS assistance may need to be enhanced.

  4. Acquiring Knowledge from Asynchronous Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Yiong Hwee; Webster, Len

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a study which was designed to explore how online scaffolding can be incorporated to support knowledge acquisition in asynchronous discussion. A group of Singapore preservice teachers engaged in collaborative critiquing of videos before they embarked on their video projects to illustrate what constitutes good and bad video…

  5. Lecturers' experiences of facilitating guided group reflection with pre-registration BSc Nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Carthy, Jane; Cassidy, Irene; Tuohy, Dympna

    2013-01-01

    The development of reflective practitioners is integral to undergraduate nursing degree programmes. This study reports on lecturers' experiences of facilitating guided group reflection with pre-registration BSc Nursing students.The research purposively sampled lecturers (n=7) working in a department of nursing and midwifery at a third level institute in Ireland, all of whom were registered nurses. Using a qualitative research approach, data was collected through audio-taped semi-structured individual interviews. The data were thematically analysed using guidelines developed by Braun and Clarke (2006). Tripartite researcher discussion and further analysis of these initial individual analyses led to consensus regarding the three themes arising from the study. These were: Being a facilitator; Facilitating reflective learning and Creating structure. The discussion centred on: having knowledge and experience to effectively facilitate guided group reflection; the influence of the facilitator's personal philosophy on reflection and adult learning on group facilitation; and finally concerns regarding professional responsibility in response to students' reflective practice accounts.

  6. "Partners rather than just providers…": A qualitative study on health care professionals' views on implementation of multidisciplinary group meetings in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassianos, Angelos P; Ignatowicz, Agnieszka; Greenfield, Geva; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip; Pappas, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary group meetings are one of the key drivers of facilitating integrated care. Health care professionals attending such groups have a key role in the success of these discussions and hence, in the forming of multi-professional integrated care. The study aimed to explore the professionals' experiences and views of participating and implementing the groups in integrated care context. A qualitative study including 25 semi-structured interviews with professionals participating in the Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot analysed using thematic content analysis. Participants mentioned a number of benefits of participating in the meetings, including shared learning and shared decision-making between different services and specialties. Yet, they perceived barriers that diminish the efficiency of the groups, such as time constraints, group dynamics and technicalities. The participants felt that the quality of discussions and facilitation could be improved, as well as technical arrangements that would make them easier to participate. Most of the participants perceived the groups to be beneficial for providers mostly questioning the benefits for patient care. Findings provide an insight into how health professionals' views of their participation to the multidisciplinary group meetings can be more effectively translated into more tangible benefits to the patients. To benefit patient care, the multidisciplinary groups need to be more patient-oriented rather than provider-oriented, while overcoming professional boundaries for participating.

  7. Discussion of the design of satellite-laser measurement stations in the eastern Mediterranean under the geological aspect. Contribution to the earthquake prediction research by the Wegener Group and to NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluska, A.; Pavoni, N.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted for determining the location of stations for measuring crustal dynamics and predicting earthquakes is discussed. Procedural aspects, the extraregional kinematic tendencies, and regional tectonic deformation mechanisms are described.

  8. Assessment of personality-related levels of functioning: A pilot study of clinical assessment of the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning based on a semi-structured interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Simonsen, Sebastian; Nemery, Caroline;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The personality disorder categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV have been extensively criticized, and there is a growing consensus that personality pathology should be represented dimensionally rather than categorically. The aim of this pilot study...... was to test the Clinical Assessment of the Level of Personality Functioning Scale [CALF], a semi-structured clinical interview, designed to assess the Level of Personality Functioning Scale of the DSM-5 (Section III) by applying strategies similar to what characterizes assessments in clinical practice....... Methods: The inter-rater reliability of the assessment of the four domains and the total impairment in the Level of Personality Functioning Scale were measured in a patient sample that varied in terms of severity and type of pathology. Ratings were done independently by the interviewer and two experts who...

  9. Learning through online discussion: a framework evidenced in learners' interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne C. Bain

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Online learning, often supported through online discussion, is not only a popular means of supporting off-campus learners, but increasingly has a place within campus-based learning courses. Laurillard and others suggest that there are assumptions being made about learning through online discussion that have yet to be fully tested, and therefore there is a need to examine this area further. Tutors and learners may benefit from having a greater insight and understanding of how engaging in asynchronous online discussion presents opportunities for learning on an individual and a collective basis. This research study focused on learners' engagement with online discussion and their perceptions of how engaging in online discussion impacts on learning. This paper revisits learning through online discussion and proposes a framework, which emerges from the analysis of learners' experiences. A grounded theory approach was used in the collection and analysis of six learner case studies within a higher education setting, exploring learners' interactions in online discussion, and their perceptions of learning through online discussion. Insights into the learners' interactions were provided by the learners themselves through semi-structured interviews. The grounded approach to the analysis of the interviews enabled the learners' voices to be heard in terms of what they thought about learning through online discussion. The insight enabled through the depth of description from the learners and the examination of the online interactions led to the development of a framework for learning through online discussion. The framework raises the importance of articulation as a key process in learning whilst highlighting the opportunities for collaborative informed thinking by engaging with the ideas of others. The focus given to the learning process through the framework will be of interest to tutors and learners who use online asynchronous discussion environments for

  10. Exploring Sources of Emotional Distress among People Living with Scleroderma: A Focus Group Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie T Gumuchian

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood.To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions.Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis.Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a facing a new reality; (b the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d changing family roles; (e social interactions; and (f navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants' lives.Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease.

  11. Understanding coping strategies among people living with scleroderma: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumuchian, Stephanie T; Peláez, Sandra; Delisle, Vanessa C; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Jewett, Lisa R; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Fortune, Catherine; Hudson, Marie; Körner, Annett; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Bartlett, Susan J; Thombs, Brett D

    2017-08-17

    Systemic sclerosis or scleroderma is a chronic, rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Coping strategies used by scleroderma patients have not been studied in-depth. The objective of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of the coping strategies employed by people living with scleroderma. Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 22 people with scleroderma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis. Coping strategies discussed were analyzed through Lazarus and Folkman's theoretical model of coping, including: (1) problem-focused, (2) emotion-focused, and (3) meaning-focused coping. Participants reported using a combination of problem-focused (e.g., professional help; seeking disease-related information), emotion-focused (e.g., social support; adaptive distraction techniques), and meaning-focused coping strategies (e.g., benefit finding; goal reappraisal) to help them to cope with and manage their disease. However, many patients reported having difficulty in accessing support services. Scleroderma patients use similar coping strategies as patients with more common diseases, but they may not have access to the same level of support services. Accessible interventions, including self-management programs, aimed at improving problem- and emotion-focused coping are needed. Further, increased access to support groups may provide patients with opportunities to obtain social support and enhance coping.

  12. The effect of validating and invalidating communication on satisfaction, pain and affect in nurses suffering from low back pain during a semi-structured interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangronsveld, K L; Linton, S J

    2012-02-01

    When physicians interview patients with ambiguous or nonspecific symptoms, they often try to reassure them with the purpose of explaining that no dangerous illness or disease is causing the symptoms. Unfortunately the evidence suggests that patients with benign (back) pain instead feel misunderstood, frustrated and unsatisfied with the consultation. Validation is a communication method that focuses on understanding and empathy as a platform for problem solving and it may be applicable for interviews in medical settings. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of validation on patient satisfaction, pain and affect. To this end 28 nurses with (re)current back pain were recruited and randomly assigned to be interviewed in a validating or invalidating condition. Patient satisfaction, affect, pain, disability, pain catastrophizing, and fear of movement were assessed immediately after the interview. The results show that the participants in the validated group were more satisfied with the interview than participants in the invalidating condition. Moreover, they showed a significant decrease on all measures of negative affect as well as for pain. For example, there was a significant between group difference in frustration where frustration decreased in the validation group, while it increased in the invalidation condition. A validating communication style seems to be beneficial for enhancing patient satisfaction, as well as diminishing negative affect and pain intensity ratings. Our results suggest that validation might be a viable technique to use in clinical examinations of patients suffering pain. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  13. Laying hen performance in different production systems; why do they differ and how to close the gap? Results of discussions with groups of farmers in The Netherlands, Switzerland and France, benchmarking and model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.; Maurer, V.; Galea, F.; Bestman, M.W.P.; Amsler, Z.; Visscher, J.; Vermeij, I.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Free range and organic systems expose the laying hen more to unexpected events and adverse climatic conditions than barn and cage systems. In France, The Netherlands and Switzerland the requirements for a hen suitable to produce in free range and organic systems were discussed with farmers. The

  14. Discussion on Financial Sharing Center Construction of Construction Enterprise Groups%关于施工企业集团财务共享中心建设探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王竹南

    2017-01-01

    本文结合施工类企业集团(以下简称"企业集团")面临的共性问题阐述了建立财务共享中心可行性,以及财务共享中心建设,然后根据企业集团的实际情况提出财务人员转型,提升财务共享中心附加值的措施.%Combined with the common problems faced by construction enterprise group (hereinafter referred to as"enterprise group"), this paper expounds the feasibility of establishing financial sharing center and the construction of financial sharing center. Then, according to the actual situation of enterprise groups, the paper puts forward the measures of financial personnel transformation and the improvement of added value of the financial sharing center.

  15. Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Tali; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Little, Kristen; Prakash, Aishya; Patra, Inakhi; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF), 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema. Methodology/Principal Findings Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender), their family members (eight groups), community members (four groups) and program volunteers (four groups) who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector. Conclusions/Significance Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF. PMID:26849126

  16. Speed-Discussion: Engaging Students in Class Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Sarah; Noack, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Communication Criticism, Rhetorical Criticism, Family and Communication, Gender and Communication, Popular Communication, and theory-based courses. Objectives: This activity engages students in dynamic, supportive, social discussion groups; helps them to identify and review the central ideas from the reading; and creates a record of their…

  17. Impact of a Social Media Group Page on Undergraduate Medical Physiology Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoori, Tania Ahmed; Mahboob, Usman; Strivens, Janet; Willis, Ian

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the impact of associating classroom learning of medical physiology with a Facebook group page in an all-women medical college of a conservative small city in Pakistan. Qualitative interpretivist study using semi-structured interviews. Women Medical College Abbottabad, Pakistan, from March to December 2014. Aclosed Facebook study group was established at a local medical college in Pakistan. It was used to upload learning resources and initiate discussions, coordinated with classroom lectures of physiology. Thirteen semistructured interviews were conducted with volunteer students according to a standard protocol. Five major themes were identified. Facebook group is something new and exciting; it motivated self-study, research, collaborative learning and improved class attendance. Convenience of easily accessible resources allowed the students to concentrate on the lecture rather than note taking. It was easier to communicate with the instructor through Facebook than face to face. Lurkers were also learning. High achievers who had adapted to the current didactic system of teaching were less receptive of the collaborative learning and favored teaching geared towards exam preparation. Using social media for e-learning in undergraduate medical education can enhance the student learning experience, especially in resource-limited regions where Information and communication technology is not an integrated part of the teaching process.

  18. Cancer and the experience of meaning: a group psychotherapy program for people with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, M; Breitbart, W

    2000-01-01

    Cancer illness affects people in many ways, physical, financial, and existential. In this paper, we describe a proposed group intervention for individuals with advanced disease who want help finding a sense of meaning at this critical juncture in their lives. This intervention has a brief, semi-structured format, and is informed by the work of Viktor Frankl, empirical findings in the area of meaning and trauma, and the empirical findings of other group interventions for cancer patients. Individual sessions focus on different aspects of meaning, including responsibility to others, creativity, transcendence, and ascertaining one's values and priorities. Having goals on which to focus and feeling like part of a larger whole are critically important to the ability to find meaning and cope with terminal illness. Such goals may be generated by a number of sources, including connectedness with others, or a sense of the temporal continuity of one's own life despite the disruption posed by severe illness. Didactic discussions and experiential exercises help to facilitate exploration of these various elements in group members' lives. The finite structure of the intervention may also highlight these issues, as people who are faced with similar issues work together in a limited time frame in order to accomplish the goals they set out for themselves.

  19. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”

  20. A Brief Discussion on the Role of Group Norm in Ideological and Political Work%浅谈在思想政治工作中发挥群体规范的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘和祥; 陶秀军; 吴时国

    2011-01-01

    群体规范具有一种公认的社会力量,在功能上与思想政治工作具有很大的一致性。为了有效开展思想政治工作,需要开发和运用群体规范理论,积极发挥群体规范作用,以构建完善的群体制度约束人,以树立高尚的群体新风引导人,以宣传正确的群体舆论监督人,以创建优秀的群体文化凝聚人。%Group norm is a recognized social force,which has a great consistency with ideological and political work with respect to its function.In order to effectively carry out ideological and political work,we need to develop and apply group norm theory,build perfect group system constraint,foster a new noble group atmosphere,propaganda right public opinion and create excellent culture.

  1. Benefits of groups in managing systemic arterial hypertension: perceptions of patients and physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Pereira do Amaral; Charles Dalcanale Tesser; Pedro Müller

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the nature of the benefits of using groups within primary care services to manage hypertension, from the point of view of both patients and physicians. Methods: A qualitative descriptive study using semi-structured interviews with patients and doctors attending distinct consolidated groups, which have been purposely selected and carried out in physician-patient pairs until reaching data saturation. The interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Results and discu...

  2. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  3. Understanding childhood asthma in focus groups: perspectives from mothers of different ethnic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Sheila

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.

  4. Only connect--the role of PLHIV group networks in increasing the effectiveness of Ugandan HIV services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ian; Nakiyemba, Alice; Seeley, Janet; Bitira, David; Gitau-Mburu, D

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Uganda has experienced rapid growth in networked groups of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who provide support, engage in advocacy, treatment and care and raise the profile of HIV in the public domain. This qualitative study focused the benefits of joining a networked group, relationships between groups, impact of networked groups on the community and shaping private and public experience living with HIV. Data were collected from two Ugandan districts, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), observation and reviews of group records and archives. Respondents (n=46) were adults living with HIV, and members of rural and urban PLHIV groups. Narratives from PLHIV (n=27) were gathered, and records from PLHIV group service-registers (n=20) reviewed. Key Informants (n=15) were purposively selected for interview, based on participation in PLHIV groups, utilisation of network services and their positions as key stakeholders. FGDs were held with network support agents (NSAs), members of PLHIV groups, and their leaders. Following qualitative analysis, findings suggest that for respondents, PLHIV networks enhance the impact and effectiveness of individual groups: the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. For groups, being part of a wider network allows for diversity of service delivery, and well-defined roles for individuals to participate in community support and sensitisation, with a reduction in the experience of stigma. We conclude that networking PLHIV groups is an effective strategy for improving the quality and reach of community-based HIV services. Governments should be encouraged to support networks and include them in policy-making at the national level. Local and regional groups should explore further ways to collaborate and expand support to PLHIV in Uganda.

  5. 大学生特殊群体教育管理的路径探讨%Discussion on the path of a special group of college students education management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田菲菲

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy, further reform of higher education, college enrollment scale expands, the number of the special group of college students is rising. The reform, development and stability of the university are effected by it, the special group of college students has become widespread social problem. Therefore, to explore the method of special group of college students education management brook no delay, help them to establish self-confidence, self-reliance, self-improvement, self-discipline consciousness, promote their physical and mental health.%  随着我国经济腾飞,高等教育深入改革,高校招生规模也随之扩大,但其中大学生特殊群体人数也不断上升。高校改革、发展与稳定深受其影响,大学生特殊群体成为广受观注的社会性问题。因此,探索现有形势下大学生特殊群体教育管理的方法刻不容缓,帮助他们树立自信、自立、自强、自律意识,促进其身心健康发展。

  6. Highlights of the Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine M.; Gillespie, Ardyth H.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes the discussions and identified research priorities from a 1980 Workshop on Nutrition Education Research relating to areas of anthropology, communications, psychology, and social psychology. (DS)

  7. “Partners rather than just providers…”: A qualitative study on health care professionals’ views on implementation of multidisciplinary group meetings in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos P Kassianos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multidisciplinary group meetings are one of the key drivers of facilitating integrated care. Health care professionals attending such groups have a key role in the success of these discussions and hence, in the forming of multi-professional integrated care. The study aimed to explore the professionals’ experiences and views of participating and implementing the groups in integrated care context. Methods: A qualitative study including 25 semi-structured interviews with professionals participating in the Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot analysed using thematic content analysis. Results: Participants mentioned a number of benefits of participating in the meetings, including shared learning and shared decision-making between different services and specialties. Yet, they perceived barriers that diminish the efficiency of the groups, such as time constraints, group dynamics and technicalities. The participants felt that the quality of discussions and facilitation could be improved, as well as technical arrangements that would make them easier to participate. Most of the participants perceived the groups to be beneficial for providers mostly questioning the benefits for patient care. Conclusion: Findings provide an insight into how health professionals’ views of their participation to the multidisciplinary group meetings can be more effectively translated into more tangible benefits to the patients. To benefit patient care, the multidisciplinary groups need to be more patient-oriented rather than provider-oriented, while overcoming professional boundaries for participating.

  8. “Partners rather than just providers…”: A qualitative study on health care professionals’ views on implementation of multidisciplinary group meetings in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos P Kassianos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multidisciplinary group meetings are one of the key drivers of facilitating integrated care. Health care professionals attending such groups have a key role in the success of these discussions and hence, in the forming of multi-professional integrated care. The study aimed to explore the professionals’ experiences and views of participating and implementing the groups in integrated care context.Methods: A qualitative study including 25 semi-structured interviews with professionals participating in the Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot analysed using thematic content analysis.Results: Participants mentioned a number of benefits of participating in the meetings, including shared learning and shared decision-making between different services and specialties. Yet, they perceived barriers that diminish the efficiency of the groups, such as time constraints, group dynamics and technicalities. The participants felt that the quality of discussions and facilitation could be improved, as well as technical arrangements that would make them easier to participate. Most of the participants perceived the groups to be beneficial for providers mostly questioning the benefits for patient care.Conclusion: Findings provide an insight into how health professionals’ views of their participation to the multidisciplinary group meetings can be more effectively translated into more tangible benefits to the patients. To benefit patient care, the multidisciplinary groups need to be more patient-oriented rather than provider-oriented, while overcoming professional boundaries for participating.

  9. 半结构性问询在儿童复发性头痛诊断中的运用%Use of the semi-structured interview in the diagnosis of pediatric recurrent headaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施玉梅; 叶晓蕾

    2012-01-01

    Objective To studythe use of the semi-structured interview in the diagnosis of pediatric recurrent headaches. Methods 90 children with recurrent headaches participated in the semi-structured interviews. The clinical data of 90 children , including the information from the interviews, physical and laboratory examination were studied . Results ①Migraine was found in 63 of the 90 patients , nervous headache in 3 , hysteria in 2. Secondary headache was 2/ 90, intracranial tumor in 1, ametropia in 1 ;②Some patients with chronic sinusitis were suspected to have sinus headache. But they were not respond to antibiotics;③There was no relativity between the part of cerebro-vascular spasm or vasodilation in TCD and the part of headache; most EEGs were normal. Conclusions Recurrent headaches occur commonly in children and are diagnosed on a clinical basis rather than by any testing. Migraine is the common reason of childhood recurrent headaches. The use of the semi-structured interview in the diagnosis of pedi-atric recurrent headaches may obtain a more thorough evaluation of headaches.%目的 探讨半结构性问询在儿童复发性头痛诊断中的运用.方法 对2007年10月至2010年10月门诊及病房诊治的90例复发性头痛病人进行半结构性问询、随访、全面的体格检查及神经系统检查并辅以必要的辅助检查.结果 ①90例复发性头痛患者中88例(97.8%)为原发性头痛,63例偏头痛,其中3例合并紧张性头痛,22例为可能的偏头痛,2例癔病性头痛;继发性头痛2例(2%),分别为颅内肿瘤1例、屈光不正1例;②疑诊为窦性头痛的复发性头痛患者经抗生素及中成药治疗鼻窦炎后头痛无缓解;③实验室检查中经颅多普勒超声检查显示的血管痉挛或扩张的部位与头痛部位无相关性,EEG检查多无明显异常.结论 偏头痛是复发性头痛的常见原因;慢性鼻窦炎无急性发作不会导致窦性头痛.在复发性头痛诊断中应用结构性

  10. Brief Discussion on Financial Management Issues of State-owned Enterprise Groups%对国有企业集团财务管理问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴彩霞

    2015-01-01

    According to our State Council’s spirit and requirement on deepening the reform of state-owned enterprises. SASAC of Zhangzhou city reintegrates the local state-owned enterprises into several enterprise groups, which is of special significance to their development. This essay hereby mainly talks about several financial management issues of enterprise groups with reference to the practical situation in local Zhangzhou area from the perspective of financial management with a purpose to make a probe into building a scientific, reasonable and effective financial management mode in the enterprise group and thus ensuring the enterprise group’s positive financial operation by giving an effective play to the financial management.%根据国务院关于深化国有企业改革的精神和要求,漳州市国资委将本市国有企业整合成若干个企业集团,这对其发展有着特殊的意义。从财务管理角度结合漳州本地区的实际情况阐述集团的财务管理的若干问题,探索在集团内部建立起一套科学、合理、高效的财务管理模式,有效发挥财务管理的作用,保障集团财务的良性运作。

  11. Discussions and Suggestions on Dietary Survey of Key Population Group of Nuclear Facilities%核设施关键人群组膳食调查中若干问题的讨论与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭承军; 熊小伟; 魏国良; 王韶伟; 商照荣

    2015-01-01

    通过对核设施关键人群组膳食调查方法局限性与现存问题的梳理,认为关键人群组膳食调查方法单一、调查内容不统一、关键人群组界定和认识有待于完善,提出如下建议:年龄组划分为婴儿(≤1岁)、儿童(2~6岁)、少年(7~17岁)和成人组(>17岁);膳食调查中粮食类细化到谷类、薯类和豆类,蔬菜至少细分为叶类和非叶类蔬菜;海产品细化到鱼类、甲壳类、软体类和藻类。在缺乏关键人群组食物消费量时,建议采用厂址半径5 km范围内膳食调查数据变化范围值的95%作为摄入率代替可能关键人群组的食物消费量。%By analyzing the dietary survey methods of key population groups of nuclear facilities, the paper argues that the current methods are too simple, the survey content is not consistent, and that the identification of key groups still need to be improved. The following suggestions are raised:the age groups are divided into infant (≤1 years), child (2~6 years old), teenager (7~17 years old) and adult group ( > 17 years);staple food are divided into frumentum, tubers and beans; vegetables are divided into leaf vegetables and non-leaf vegetables;and sea food are divided into fish, crustacean, mollusks and algae. In case of the absence of key groups’ diet amount data, it is suggested that 95% of the resulted amount range within 5 km of the facility is used.

  12. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  13. Leading Classroom Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gloriana; DeJarnette, Anna F.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom discourse is a valuable teaching and learning tool. Discussions allow students to improve their communication and reasoning skills in mathematics and help teachers assess students' understanding of mathematical ideas. To get the greatest benefit from discussion, teachers must elicit student thinking, listen carefully to their ideas,…

  14. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  15. A Study on the Demotivation in Chinese Non-English Majors’Group Discussions in EFL Classrooms%大学英语课堂小组讨论动机削弱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洁榕

    2014-01-01

    Using a multi-method approach, this study attempts to explore Chinese’college students’demotivation in group dis⁃cussions. Through a principle component analysis, six demotivation factors were extracted: lack of success; teachers ’teaching style and competence;unsupportive environment;class control and management;negative attitude and frustrated experience. The results show the differences in demotivators between students on different language proficiency levels. This study also suggests spe⁃cific strategies to inspire students’initiative in group interactions.%本研究采用问卷调查和访谈相结合的方式探索大学英语课堂小组讨论动机削弱情况。通过主成分分析法,统计归纳出六种主要的动机削弱类型:缺少成就感、教师的教学风格与能力、不支持性的交流环境、课堂管理与控制、消极的态度和受挫的经历。进而对比了各动机削弱因素作用于不同语言水平学生的强度差异,反思其原因并提出激发学生参与小组互动的策略。

  16. 基于情感型消费群的ITMC营销沙盘价格策略探讨%A Discussion on Price Strategy of the ITMC Marketing Sandbox Based on Emotional Consumer Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康元华

    2015-01-01

    在ITMC市场营销沙盘的六类零售消费群体中,情感型消费群体的交易条件相对独立,这有利于企业掌握定价主动权。文章在分析情感型群体交易条件的基础上,探讨了针对这一消费群体的定价模型,明确了价格的计算方法,并将该定价策略延伸至理智型和习惯型消费群体,有助于沙盘经营者进行价格决策。%In the six types of retail consumer groups in ITMC marketing sandbox,the emotional group’s trading conditions are rela⁃tively independent,which is helpful for enterprises to grasp the initiative in pricing. On the basis of analyzing the emotional group’s trad⁃ing terms,the paper explores the pricing model and the method of calculating the price. And extend the price strategy to other consumer groups,such as the rational type and habit type to help sandbox operators with price decisions.

  17. Discussion about the Principle and Model of Group Work in AIDS Prevention and Control%论小组工作介入艾滋病防治的理念与模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌志

    2015-01-01

    Based on the principle of respect and confidentiality, mutual reciprocity, democratic participa-tion and empowerment, group work can effectively alleviate PLWA's and related population's emotional prob-lems, promote PLWA's and related population's knowledge and skills about AIDS prevention and control, promote mutual help and social support network among PLWA, and realize the social acceptance and integra-tion. Specifically, the group work can carry on the AIDS prevention and control through of these four models including of treatment mode, mutual mode, social goal mode and development mode.%在遵循尊重保密、互助互惠、民主参与和赋权的原则下,在艾滋病防治中引入小组工作,可以有效地缓解艾滋患者及其相关人群的情绪问题,提升艾滋患者及其相关人群的相关认知和技巧,促进艾滋患者之间的互帮互助和社会支持网络,并实现社会的接纳与融合. 具体来说,艾滋病防治中的小组工作可以采取治疗模式、互惠模式、社会目标模式以及发展性模式.

  18. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  19. Increasing Moral Reasoning Skills through Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Smith, Doug

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects that online asynchronous dilemma discussions have on moral reasoning scores of pharmacy students. In contrast to face-to-face group discussions, asynchronous threaded discussions afford all participants time to reflect and respond during discussions. Anonymity features may lessen inhibitions in responding critically…

  20. 档案管理中半结构化数据智能检索研究%Research on semi-structured data by intelligent retrieval in archives management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金保华; 张兴; 郭小娟

    2015-01-01

    档案数据形式多样、数据量巨大,特别是半结构化数据结构复杂,给档案管理工作造成巨大困难。针对这种情况提出了一种基于本体的智能档案信息检索系统。该系统的处理过程分为两个部分:第一部分是半结构化数据的处理,采用特征数据提取的方法对半结构化数据进行特征提取,进而重组成为结构化数据;第二部分是智能检索的实现,利用基于本体的逻辑推理实现语义层次的智能检索。实验结果表明,该智能检索系统较基于关键字的传统检索在查全率和查准率上都有了较大提高。%The from variely and large volume of archival data especially the complexity of semi-structured data caused great difficulties in management of archives.Considering this,an intelligent information retriev-al system based on ontology was proposed.This process of the system was composed of two parts:the first part was dealing with the semi-structured data.The method of feature data extraction was used to make fea-ture extraction to serni-structure data and then reformed them into structure data.The second part was the implemantation of the intelligence retrieval by using logical reasoning based on ontology to realize intelli-gent retrieval in semantic level.The experimental results showed that compared with the traditional key-word-based retrieval,the intelligent retrieval system greatly improved in the recall and accuracy.

  1. 基于群体智能的半结构化藏文文本聚类算法%A Semi-Structured Tibetan Text Clustering Algorithm Based on Swarm Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康健; 乔少杰; 格桑多吉; 韩楠; 洪西进; 尼玛扎西; 范小刚

    2014-01-01

    To apply swarm intelligence techniques to cluster semi-structured Tibetan Web texts, a semi-structured Tibetan text clustering algorithm based on swarm Intelligence ( SCAST) is proposed. Taking into a full consideration of accuracy and efficiency of Tibetan text clustering, a vector space model is used to express Tibetan texts, and the Tibetan texts and intelligent ants are randomly put in a two dimensional text vector space. Then, intelligent ants randomly select a Tibetan text, calculate the similarity between this text and others in the local area, and compute the probability of pick-up operation or drop-down operation to determine whether to pick up, move, or drop down the text. Finally, Tibetan texts are accurately clustered according to their similarities by iterative training of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results on real Tibetan Web text datasets show that the proposed algorithm is more accurate than the traditional κ-means clustering algorithm with average increase of 8 . 0%.%将群体智能技术应用于半结构化的藏文Web文本聚类,提出基于群体智能的半结构化藏文Web文本聚类算法( SCAST).充分考虑群体智能技术对藏文文本聚类准确性和时间效率的影响,SCAST算法首先运用向量空间模型表示藏文文本信息,将藏文文本和智能蚁群随机放置于一个文本向量空间中.然后智能蚂蚁随机选择藏文文本,计算藏文文本在当前局部区域内的相似性,获得拾起或者放下文本的概率,进而决定是否“拾起”,“移动”,“放下”藏文文本.最后通过多次迭代训练,将藏文文本按其相似性聚集在一起,得到最终聚类结果.大量真实藏文Web文本数据上的实验结果表明,相较于传统的κ-means聚类算法,基于群体智能的藏文文本聚类算法在聚类准确率上平均提高约8.0%.

  2. 广告设计在儿童消费群体中的效应分析%Discussions on the Advertising Design’ s Effect of Child-Consumer-Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冰清

    2013-01-01

      广告设计在儿童消费群体中的效应,是指广告设计在儿童消费群体中的作用和影响。就广告设计在儿童消费群体中产生的效应而言,有正效应也有负效应。扩大正效应,避免负效应,是儿童广告设计的出发点和落脚点。只有准确把握广告设计的效应,才能实现广告设计的目标和价值。广告设计要扩大正效应避免负效应,就应根据儿童健康的心理、正确的价值观和正确的消费行为形成的需要来设计广告。就应承担起社会责任和义务,加强内部自律和外部监管,按照社会主义核心价值体系的要求,遵守社会主义道德规范,遵守国家法律法规,弘扬先进文化,提高艺术设计水平,关心儿童健康成长,关心社会进步发展。%The advertising design ’ s effect of children consumer group is about the affect that advertising design brings in children group, for good or ill.Advertising design must emphasize advertisement effect .Only hold the advertisement effect accurately can we a-chieve the goals and values of advertising design .To grasp the advertisement effect properly , we must analyze children ’ s consumer psychology , comprehend the characteristic of their psychology , and value the significance of children ’ s consumer psychology .In addi-tion, advertising design must seize advertising psychology accurately , follow the rules of advertising design correctly , and use the men-tal effect of advertising elements felicitously .Since the bright and dark sides are coexisting in advertisements , we should use all the ways we can to enlarge the positivity effect and avoid the negative effect of advertisement in children consumer group .

  3. 后现代课程观视角下大学英语分组教学模式探析%Discussion of Group Instruction in College English Teaching---Based on Post-modern Perspective on Curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宇

    2013-01-01

    多尔的后现代课程观具有开放性、多元性和批判性的特点。在大学英语分组教学中,引入后现代课程观理论,有助于进一步明确大学英语课堂中教师与学生的角色定位,充分调动学生的积极性,提高学生的语言交际能力。%Doll’s post-modern perspective on curriculum theory has the features of openness ,diversity and crit-icalness.In the group instruction session of college English teaching ,introducing the post-modern curriculum theory helps to further clarify the role of university teachers and students in the English class ,fully mobilize the enthusiasm of the students,and improve the students’ communicative competence.

  4. Research on the Grouping Discussion-based Teaching Ap-proach for VB Programming Design%VB程序设计课程分组讨论式教学方式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧娟

    2014-01-01

    Visual Basic is an entry-level programming language easy to learn, generally as a computer public course for non-computer majors. In view of the difficulties which economic management non-computer majors are faced with in learning VB programming language, this paper put forward the grouping dis-cussion-based teaching approach, in order to help students better grasp the VB course.%Visual Basic是一门简单易学的入门级程序语言,一般作为非计算机专业的计算机公共课程。针对经管类等非计算机专业学生在学习VB程序语言中遇到的困难,提出了分组讨论式教学的方式,帮助学生更好地掌握VB这门课程。

  5. Preliminary Discussion on reducing the hidden birth dangers in Senile Birth Group based on the“Individual Two Children”Policy%降低“单独二孩”高龄群体生育隐患的初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖秋华; 潘华峰

    2015-01-01

    文章总结了高龄妇女生育存在母婴健康风险大、人工辅助生殖技术异化、家庭经济负担沉重、家庭教育困难等隐患,认为可从端正群众的生育观念、建立人工辅助生殖技术正确认识观、建立新型家庭福利制度、发挥中医药特色生育保健服务职能等方面构建高龄妇女优质生育保障服务体系,呼吁社会关注高龄生育群体,降低二次生育隐患,维护“单独二孩”政策受益群体的权益。%This paper summarizes that the elderly women exist hidden perils of childbearing ,such as the health risks between mother and child,the alienation in ART,the economic burden in family ,difficulties in family education and so on.It puts forward some ideas to construct the reproductive system with high quality in senile birth group,for examples,to correct the attitudes of the masses on giving birth to a child,to set up the correct understanding of ART,to set up the new family welfare system,and play the service function of Chinese medicine on the characteristics of reproductive health care.Senile birth group is calling for social attention to reduce the hidden dangers in the second birth.The main beneficiaries of the policy should be protected.

  6. Reply to Effect of concentration of organic matter on optical maturity parameters. Interlaboratory results of the organic matter concentration working group of the ICCP. Discussion by Vinay K. Sahay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Filho J.G.; Araujo, C.V.; Borrego, A.G.; Cook, A.; Flores, D.; Hackley, P.; Hower, J.C.; Kern, M.L.; Kommeren, K.; Kus, J.; Mastalerz, Maria; Mendonca, J.O.; Menezes, T.R.; Newman, J.; Ranasinghe, P.; Souza, I.V.A.F.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Ujiie, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This reply is motivated by Sahay's comments on the paper published by Mendon??a Filho et al. (2010) dealing with the effect of concentration of an organic matter on optical maturity parameters. Four points were raised by Sahay: suggestion to use of chemical parameters to assess the effect of isolation, indication that suppression of vitrinite reflectance in liptinite-rich rocks was insufficiently addressed, discussion on the way to deal with the existence of multiple vitrinite populations in a dispersed organic matter, and contradictory explanation of results involving the influence of isolation procedure on fluorescence properties but no effect on vitrinite reflectance. The four points were separately addressed being the two first ones out of the scope of the paper. The existence of multiple vitrinite populations is a well-recognized problem whose importance in the results could be addressed because the participants provided individual records of vitrinite reflectance. These results indicated that election of different populations was not a major problem in the results. The influence of isolation procedure on the fluorescence spectra of alginite while the vitrinite reflectance remains unaltered is not considered contradictory because both parameters are measured on different components which may have a different response to the acid treatment. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Sobre o tratamento dado às fronteiras profissionais na assistência aos jovens: uma análise empírica de discussões em grupo = Professional praxes in youth welfare services as border-work: an empirical analysis of group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bütow, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto contém resultados parciais de uma pesquisa qualitativa que examina os processos de legitimação das competências da Pedagogia Social exemplarmente na interface entre a assistência social a crianças e jovens (KJH e a assistência psiquiátrica a crianças e jovens (KJP no contexto alemão. A questão central é como a competência profissional da Pedagogia Social e seu conhecimento especializado se articulam, constituem e afirmam. Zonas de tensão e de cooperação são os pontos de referência escolhidos neste contexto e que tomamos como motivo para reconstituir processos e modos de tratamento das fonteiras profissionais. A categoria “tratamento de fronteira”, desenvolvida por Susanne Maurer e Fabian Kessl, nos serve como base metodológica. No texto, depois de uma breve inserção teórica, esboçamos, com base em dois exemplos de discussões em grupo, como se constitui a cooperação como processos de tratamento de fronteira. Por fim, esses resultados são discutidos no contexto da pesquisa sobre a profissão da Pedagogia Social

  8. 实行小组排班制,提高急诊科护理工作质量%Discussion on How to Improve the Quality of Emergency Nursing Group Scheduling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯春爱; 杨裕红

    2014-01-01

    目的:探索急诊科的排班模式,提高急诊科护理工作质量。方法根据急诊科的发展、变化,急诊科患者的需求,社会的需求不断增加,急诊科原来的排班模式已不能满足患者的需要,社会的需要。只有不断的改进排班模式,从两班制、到功能制、到小组制,每种排班各有自己的优缺点。比较各种排班方式的优缺点,参照三级医院急诊科质量管理评价指标进行评价。结果推行小组排班模式后,急诊科护理工作质量明显提高。结论优化人力资源的配备,急诊科实行小组排班制,满足患者的需要,合理的工作安排,也调动了护理人员的积极性,从而提高急诊科护理工作质量。%Objective To explore the emergency scheduling mode, improve the quality of emergency nursing.Methods According to the development of the emergency department,change and emergency department patients needs.social demand increases unceasingly.The emergency department of the original scheduling model has not meet the needs of patients.The needs of the society.Only by constantly improve the scheduling model. from the two shifts,the system function,system to the team, each scheduling each have their own advantages and disadvantages.Compare the advantages and disadvantages of various scheduling mode,refer to level 3 hospital emergency department quality management evaluation index to evaluate.Results After the implementation of group scheduling mode ,emergency department nursing quality improved obviously.Conclusion Optimizing human resource scheduling system is equipped with emergency department practice group, meet the needs of patients , reasonable working arrangement,also mobilized the enthusiasm of nursing staf ,so as to improve the quality of emergency nursing.

  9. PA Discussion Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    lower priority discussion ADD-TARDEC Network Centric Military Energy Control (NCMEC) Future discussion ADD-TARDEC M&S for Hybrid Electric Vehicles ...Approved for public release • OBJECTIVES: Reduce Thermal Burden on Vehicles Reduce Converter Operating Power • APPROACH: Develop compact...APU) that delivers 5 kWe (Threshold), 10 kWe (Objective) of vehicle electrical power demonstrated at TRL 5. • System designed to fit into an

  10. 对少数民族双语教育幼小衔接的思考%A Discussion on the Linking Between Kindergarten and Pri mary School in Bilingual Education for Ethnic Minority Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帕丽达·阿哈斯; 王善安

    2012-01-01

      搞好少数民族双语教育的幼小衔接有利于多元文化的发展,帮助儿童语言及学业成绩的提高。双语教育幼小衔接的目标可以分为直接目标与间接目标。在实施双语教育幼小衔接时应注意双语教育目标的小步化,双语教育内容生活化,双语教育组织统整化,双语教育实施活动化。%  The linking between kindergarten and primary school in bilingual education for ethnic minority groups is important for the multicultural development of Xinjiang and for the improvement of ethnic children 's language and education.The target of linking program consists of direct goal and indirect goal .In the practice of the linking project, the target of bilingual education should be reachable , the content of the bilingual educa-tion should be connected with their daily life , and the structure of the bilingual education should be systemic , and the teaching mode of the bilingual education should be activity -oriented.

  11. SHRIMP Geochronology of Volcanics of the Zhangjiakou and Yixian Formations, Northern Hebei Province, with a Discussion on the Age of the Xing'anling Group of the Great Hinggan Mountains and Volcanic Strata of the Southeastern Coastal Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Baogui; HE Zhengjun; SONG Biao; REN Jishun; XIAO Liwei

    2004-01-01

    A zircon U-Pb geochronological study on the volcanic rocks reveals that both of the Zhangjiakou and Yixian Formations, northern Hebei Province, are of the Early Cretaceous, with ages of 135-130 Ma and 129-120 Ma,respectively. It is pointed out that the ages of sedimentary basins and volcanism in the northern Hebei -western Liaoning area become younger from west to east, i. e. the volcanism of the Luanping Basin commenced at c. 135 Ma, the Luotuo Mount area of the Chengde Basin c. 130 Ma, and western Liaoning c. 128 Ma. With a correlation of geochronological stratigraphy and biostratigraphy, we deduce that the Xing'anling Group, which comprises the Great Hinggan Mountains volcanic rock belt in eastern China, is predominantly of the early-middle Early Cretaceous, while the Jiande and Shimaoshan Groups and their equivalents, which form the volcanic rock belt in the southeastern coast area of China, are of the mid-late Early Cretaceous, and both the Jehol and Jiande Biotas are of the Early Cretaceous, not Late Jurassic or Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. Combining the characteristics of the volcanic rocks and, in a large area, hiatus in the strata of the Late Jurassic or Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous between the formations mentioned above and the underlying sequences, we can make the conclusion that, in the Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous, the eastern China region was of high relief or plateau, where widespread post-orogenic volcanic series of the Early Cretaceous obviously became younger from inland in the west to continental margin in the east. This is not the result of an oceanward accretion of the subduction belt between the Paleo-Pacific ocean plate and the Asian continent, but rather reflects the extension feature, i.e. after the closure of the Paleo-Pacific ocean, the Paleo-Pacific ancient continent collided with the Asian continent and reached the peak of orogenesis, and then the compression waned and resulted in the retreating of the post

  12. 小组合作学习促进主体能动性--浅论合作式体育教学%Group Cooperative Learning,to Promote the Subject Initiative:Discussion on Cooperation Type Sports Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓荣萍

    2014-01-01

    随着教学改革的不断深入,人们越来越意识到学生主体性发展是学生综合素质的实质和核心,采用资料研究法、访问法和行动研究法,在体育教学中探索小组合作学习模式、构建成绩评价方法等,在小组合作学习活动中,学生交互扮演着不同角色,通过彼此相互关心满足了学生心理归属感的需要,更重视相互作用和自我主体价值的体现。%With the deepening of teaching reform,more and more peop le are aware that students’ subjectivity development is the essence and core of students’ comprehensive quality.The teacher adopts the research method, interview method and action research method,at the same time,more attention is paid to exploring the mode of cooperative learning in PE teaching as well as constructing the performance evaluation.In co-operative learning group activities,students interaction plays a different role.The needs of the students’ psychological sense of belonging get satis-fied through the care about each other,thus paying more attention to the embodiment of the interaction and self subject value.

  13. Discussion about magnesium phosphating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO42・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and conventional zinc phosphate coating are discussed.

  14. Promoting Lively Literature Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritter, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    When students create personal connections with literature during whole-class discussion, they make sense both of text and of their life experiences. In this article, the author shares tips that help students make text-to-self, text-to-world, and text-to-text connections. She offers classroom examples to illustrate how conversations that encourage…

  15. Discussion of Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁和毓

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge about environment issues was introduced. The influence of pollution on human beings as well as ecosystem was analyzed. And the management of environment protection and the roles that both the local government and central government should play were discussed. Finally, the legislation and supervision for environment protection were put forward.

  16. Reply to the discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRILLINGER David R

    2009-01-01

    @@ Alan Lee adds to the topic and work of the paper by providing highly insightful discussion and new results. I thank him. In particular he provides further reasons for working with the derived values, Win-Tie-Loss,rather that actual goal counts themselves.

  17. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  18. Young children's experiences of participating in group treatment for children exposed to intimate partner violence: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernebo, Karin; Almqvist, Kjerstin

    2016-01-01

    The risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) between caregivers is increased during early childhood. The adverse effects on the health and development of the youngest children may be severe. Effective and promising interventions for children who have experienced IPV have been developed and evaluated. However, there is a lack in knowledge about how the children themselves experience the interventions. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evaluation of group treatment designed to improve the psychological health of young children in the aftermath of family violence by elucidating the children's experiences of participating. Nine children, aged 4 to 6 years, were interviewed after participating in group programmes specifically designed for children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence. A semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions was used. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, to ensure a focus on the children's own views and experiences. Five master themes embracing the children's experiences were identified: joy - positive emotional experience of participation; security - feeling safe; relatedness - relationships within the group; to talk - externalised focus on the violence; and competence - new knowledge and skills. Theoretical and clinical implications and the benefit of including very young children's views and experiences in research are discussed.

  19. Family matters: examining a multi-family group intervention for women with BRCA mutations in the scope of genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Alvaro; Chiquelho, Raquel; Santos, Teresa Almeida; Sousa, Liliana

    2010-12-01

    The availability of family-centred services for women genetically at-risk for breast and ovarian cancer (BRCA) due to deleterious genetic mutations is still scarce, despite the distress that these women and their families may experience. This study describes a multi-family group intervention for women who tested positive for BRCA mutations and their families. Methods include a time-limited psycho-educational programme involving educational and support components and consisting of four semi-structured multi-family sessions. Three families (a total of nine people) attended the programme in genetic counselling for hereditary cancers at a Portuguese public hospital. A focus group interview was performed 1 month after the last session to assess both the practical and the psychosocial impacts and to collect suggestions from participants. The present paper focuses on the practical aspects of the intervention, its development and its evaluation. Participants reported that the programme is well-structured and that responds to the needs of patients and their families by improving coping skills and medical awareness in the adaptation to genetic illness. Results reinforce the need to integrate psychosocial and family-oriented interventions in genetic counselling, addressing the holistic experience of hereditary disease. Recommendations for enhancing the services available are provided. The multi-family discussion group, combining educative and supportive services with a family focus, can be successfully adapted in genetic counselling protocols.

  20. Discussion across Borders: Benefits for Collaborative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Janice; Bell, Frances

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of computer mediated communication in higher education online learning focuses on a report of two cycles of action research into the use of online discussion forums to enable groups of students from different countries to collaborate with each other in achieving learning outcomes specific to each group. (Author/LRW)

  1. Exploring Reflective Teaching through Informed Journal Keeping and Blog Group Discussion in the Teaching Practicum (Exploración de la enseñanza reflexiva en la práctica docente a través de la escritura informada de diarios y de discusiones grupales mediante "blogs")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insuasty, Edgar Alirio; Zambrano Castillo, Lilian Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study which examined how student teachers could be empowered as more reflective practitioners through journal keeping and blog group discussions. It was carried out with six student teachers who developed their practicum over six months. Data were collected through journals, blogs, metaphors, conferences and…

  2. Discussion on advanced manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiankui

    2007-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing consists of continuity of manufacturing,its broad sense,and the core of the manufacturing process.The technology of continuous manufacturing is discussed according to both historical and modern perspectives.The relationship between human development and manufacturing technology is also discussed.Manufacturing is a continuously evolving topic.It is not only the foundation and means of imagination,conception,the science,and the technology of material change,but also the expression of national economy,national defense,and the support industries.The broad sense of manufacturing theory,which extends the concept of manufacturing,is an important development in the 20th century.The sense is analyzed in connection with design,material forming theory,synthesis of manufacturing technology,manufacturing modes,life cycle of product,hardware and sottware,and support environment,etc.At the same time,the core action and the development of the theory and technology of process is also discussed.At the end of this paper,the development directions of mechanical manufacturing science and technology are mentioned.

  3. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  4. Social capital as norms and resources: Focus groups discussing alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    some forms of drinking (‘controlled drunkenness’) while restricting others (drinking alone, drinking ‘for the wrong reason’, losing control often). Furthermore, the idea behind this article is that social capital is both a background factor influencing participants’ relationship to alcohol...

  5. Assessing Social Presence in Online Discussion Groups: A Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Matthew; Ventura, Susie; Dando, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the emotional state of students' contributions need to be addressed in an online learning community. If feelings of fear, anger or isolation can lead to withdrawal or conflict then the potential for learning is reduced and a facilitator of an online course needs to manage these emotions at an early stage. Therefore, a…

  6. Forming a Turbomachinery Seals Working Group: An Overview and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.

    2007-01-01

    Purose: Identify technical challenges to improving turbomachinery seal leakage and wear performance, reliability and cost effectiveness. Develop a coordinated effort to resolve foundational issues for turbomachinery seal technologies. Identify and foster opportunities for collaboration. Advocate for funding.

  7. Developing the Great Eight Competencies with Leaderless Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Robert D.; Donahue, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The Great Eight competencies are work behaviors that promote employee effectiveness in 21st-century organizations. These competencies include enterprising and performing, adapting and coping, organizing and executing, creating and conceptualizing, analyzing and interpreting, interacting and presenting, supporting and cooperating, and leading and…

  8. Discussion as media and tool in PBL project-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Claus Monrad

    2013-01-01

    The Aalborg PBL Model encourages project-management as a way for students to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in their study-projects. This paper looks into how the development of conversation skills relates to project-management as well as other factors. Through analysis of interviews focusing...

  9. Repositories in an institutional context : Technical discussion Group 4

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Repositories are starting to take their place within an institution¹s infrastructure, sitting alongside portals, course management systems, virtual research environments and others. But in considering how a repository can best serve an institution it is important to consider how this technology will integrate with existing systems, so that it doesn¹t become a standalone white elephant that is a nuisance to use. This breakout will consider the technical ways in which repositories can be presented as a system that is easy to use and interact with, from the searcher¹s, depositor¹s and administrator¹s perspectives. It will look at potential interaction through other institutional environments and seek to identify ways in which repositories can become a more integral part of the technical landscape. Bring along your examples of how repositories are being technically embedded within institutions to help share experience and ideas.

  10. A Discussion of the Various Groups of Readers in the Fairytale Project, with a Detailed Description of the "Core-Groups" in Denmark and Turkey. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 10. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollerup, Cay; And Others

    Prepared as part of the interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project, this paper contains descriptions of the core group of readers (600 18-year-old students) and the special groups of readers (each composed of approximately 50 subjects) who participated in the investigation of the collective versus the individual nature of the reader response…

  11. A semi-structured interview for psychological autopsy in suicide cases Entrevista semi-estruturada para autópsia psicológica em casos de suicídio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Guevara Werlang

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability and the interrater reliability of a Semi-Structured Interview for psychological autopsy in cases of suicide. METHOD: The Semi-Structured Interview for Psychological Autopsy (SSIPA proposed in this paper consists of four modules which evaluate key-topics associated to suicide. In order to evaluate the instrument's applicability, a sample formed by 42 subjects related to 21 suicide cases was used. The interviews were tape-recorded first and then transcribed. The related material as well as the police inquiry data were presented to four judges. Evaluation of information has been performed with the help of a four-module formulary for decision making: precipitants and/or stressors, motivation, lethality, and intentionality. Data processing, whenever possible, has been accomplished using kappa statistics. When kappa statistic was not applicable, concordance percentage has been used. RESULTS: The SSIPA is applicable because it provides information containing a significant degree of agreement between evaluators, found in one hundred and twenty measurements of judgements made by four judges. There has been significant statistical agreement between the judges in three modules (precipitants and/or stressors, motivation, and intentionality of the model for decision, except in one step of each module, which did not interfere in the final agreement on the present evaluation. In the lethality evaluation module, there has been a 100% agreement between judges. The judgement made by the raters on the four modules have allowed to reach a final agreement regarding the death mode as suicide. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that it is possible to use a semi-structured instrument for psychological autopsy in cases of suicide, when the interviewees are relatives who accepted to provide information.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma entrevista semi-estruturada para autópsia psicológica de casos de suicídio e avaliar a

  12. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  13. Medical Physics Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèye, Paul; Avery, Steven; Baird, Richard; Soares, Christopher; Amols, Howard; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Drew

    2006-03-01

    The panel discussion will explore opportunities and vistas in medical physics research and practice, medical imaging, teaching medical physics to undergraduates, and medical physics curricula as a recruiting tool for physics departments. Panel members consist of representatives from NSBP (Paul Guèye and Steven Avery), NIH/NIBIB (Richard Baird), NIST (Christopher Soares), AAPM (Howard Amols), ASTRO (Prabhakar Tripuraneni), and Jefferson Lab (Stan Majewski and Drew Weisenberger). Medical Physicists are part of Departments of Radiation Oncology at hospitals and medical centers. The field of medical physics includes radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. It also ranges from basic researcher (at college institutions, industries, and laboratories) to applications in clinical environments.

  14. Conclusion et discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Romain; Wachtel, Nathan; Berger, Laurent; Levi, Giovanni; Boucheron, Patrick; Calvo, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    M. Romain BERTRANDNous voilà désormais rendus au terme probablement très provisoire concernant les débats et les discussions des travaux de Nathan WACHTEL lors de cette rencontre. Il nous reste une trentaine de minutes pour engager le débat avec les participants de la dernière séance et, le cas échéant, faire valoir des remarques générales sur telle ou telle session. Je souhaiterais inviter Nathan WACHTEL à initier cet échange s’il le souhaite. M. Nathan WACHTELComme je l’expliquais à Romain,...

  15. A method for studying decision-making by guideline development groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michie Susan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidisciplinary guideline development groups (GDGs have considerable influence on UK healthcare policy and practice, but previous research suggests that research evidence is a variable influence on GDG recommendations. The Evidence into Recommendations (EiR study has been set up to document social-psychological influences on GDG decision-making. In this paper we aim to evaluate the relevance of existing qualitative methodologies to the EiR study, and to develop a method best-suited to capturing influences on GDG decision-making. Methods A research team comprised of three postdoctoral research fellows and a multidisciplinary steering group assessed the utility of extant qualitative methodologies for coding verbatim GDG meeting transcripts and semi-structured interviews with GDG members. A unique configuration of techniques was developed to permit data reduction and analysis. Results Our method incorporates techniques from thematic analysis, grounded theory analysis, content analysis, and framework analysis. Thematic analysis of individual interviews conducted with group members at the start and end of the GDG process defines discrete problem areas to guide data extraction from GDG meeting transcripts. Data excerpts are coded both inductively and deductively, using concepts taken from theories of decision-making, social influence and group processes. These codes inform a framework analysis to describe and explain incidents within GDG meetings. We illustrate the application of the method by discussing some preliminary findings of a study of a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE acute physical health GDG. Conclusion This method is currently being applied to study the meetings of three of NICE GDGs. These cover topics in acute physical health, mental health and public health, and comprise a total of 45 full-day meetings. The method offers potential for application to other health care and decision

  16. Enhancing critical thinking with literary discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    رضا پیشقدم

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to investigate the effect of literary discussion on critical thinking. To this end, two classes (experimental and control groups were selected from College of Ferdowsi University. In both groups literature was used as supplementary homework. Students were supposed to read short stories and poems at home and present them in class. The students in the experimental group were discussing the materials in class and the students in the control group only memorized the texts and retold them. At the end of the term, the students were asked to take a questionnaire on critical thinking. The results demonstrated that there was a significant difference between means of two groups, implying that literary discussion can enhance critical thinking. Finally, results were discussed in the context of education in Iran and some suggestions were made.

  17. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-08-12

    Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine). It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policy-makers. Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group's involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include representatives of vulnerable communities which could

  18. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Ivanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine. It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policymakers. Methods Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. Results The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group’s involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Conclusion Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include

  19. Discussion Starters. Technical Note No. 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Ibrahim; Dilts, Russ

    Discussion starters, the result of collaboration between the Indonesian Directorate General of Nonformal Education, Youth, and Sports, and World Education, Inc., are simple learning tools used to generate discussion among community groups involved in nonformal education. Appropriate in and adaptable to a variety of settings, content areas, and…

  20. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasova, A.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is about how to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation to learn. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher gave the students ready knowledge, and pointed the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught to acquire knowledge. This requires the selection of effective forms of language and literature work with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this regard, special attention should be given lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, and the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used in the classroom in the Russian language

  1. “我群意识”与大唐帝国的崛起——兼论“我群意识”对西北地缘政治的影响%"The We-group Consciousness" and Rise of the Great Tang Empire -- A Co-discussion on Influence of "The We-group Consciou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文玉

    2011-01-01

    The key connotation of "we-group consciousness" is a common sense of belonging among people, that is, their sense of identity and collective consciousness to the nation and country. Therefore, a people with "we- group consciousness" will possess a strong%“我群意识”的核心内涵是人们相互之间的共属感,也就是对本民族或国家的认同感和群体意识,具备了“我群意识”的民族,就会产生强烈的民族自豪感和凝聚力。在唐代不仅汉人而且内迁的少数民族和周边的不少民族也都具有了这种意识,并且都以唐人而自居。“我群意识”所产生的强大凝聚力在大唐帝国的崛起和强盛的过程中,曾经发挥了重要的作用,是一股巨大的精神力量。在西北边疆实行与内地相同的正州府体制和羁縻体制的地区,“我群意识”的具备程度相差很大,直接影响到了唐朝在西北地区统治的稳定与否。

  2. Ethnomedical survey of Berta ethnic group Assosa Zone, Benishangul-Gumuz regional state, mid-west Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asres Kaleab

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional medicine (TM has been a major source of health care in Ethiopia as in most developing countries around the world. This survey examined the extent and factors determining the use of TM and medicinal plants by Berta community. One thousand and two hundred households (HHs and fourteen traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and six focused group discussions (FGDs were conducted. The prevalence of the use of TM in the two weeks recall period was 4.6%. The HH economic status was found to have a significant effect while the educational level and age of the patients have no effect either on the care seeking behavior or choice of care. Taking no action about a given health problem and using TM are common in females with low-income HHs. Forty plant species belonging to 23 families were reported, each with local names, methods of preparation and parts used. This study indicates that although the proportion of the population that uses TM may be small it is still an important component of the public health care in the study community as complementary and alternative medicine.

  3. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  4. Childhood Risk Factors in Substance Abuse Among a Group of Abuser 20-30 Year-Old Group in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Zahiredin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0. Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who were selected by DSM- IV based semi-structured diagnostic interviews for decrease memory biases in this retrospective cohart study. The patient’s parents also evaluated by DSM- IV based Semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The analysis showed significant relation between: parents control on the siblings, addiction in relatives of pt (except parents, addicted peers and friends, to be affected with the peers and friends and substance use disorder at the ages (20-30y/o. There wasn’t any association between: Disruptive childhood behaviors (under 11y/o, diagnosed medical illness (under 11y/o diagnosed Psychiatric illness (under 6 mo , family size, socio economic state and substance use disorder at the age(20-30y/0 . Finally some childhood and adolescence pathologic factors has association with Substance use disorder at the ages ( 20-30y/5 that these can be used for education all planning , prevention , design high risk group and remedical plans.

  5. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  6. AREVA group overview; Presentation du groupe AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-08

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  7. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  8. "We are the soul, pearl and beauty of Hindu Kush Mountains": exploring resilience and psychological wellbeing of Kalasha, an ethnic and religious minority group in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Fahad Riaz; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah; Golden, Karen; Bokharey, Iram Zehra

    2017-12-01

    The Kalasha are a marginalized ethnic and religious minority group in northern Pakistan. The Kalasha minority is known for their divergent polytheistic beliefs, and represents the outliers of the collectively monotheistic Muslim population of Pakistan. This study aimed to explore the psychological resilience beliefs and lived experiences of the Kalasha and to identify cultural protective factors and indigenous beliefs that help them maintain psychological wellbeing and resilience. Seven semi-structured interviews and two focus-group discussions were conducted. The total sample consisted of 6 women and 8 men, aged 20-58 years (Mage = 36.29, SD = 12.58). The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis qualitative method was chosen. Study findings identified that factors contributing to the wellbeing, happiness and resilience enhancement beliefs of Kalasha included five main themes, all influenced by their unique spirituality: contentment, pride in social identity, tolerance, gender collaboration and gratitude. The study also revealed the Kalasha's perception of their marginalization related to challenges and threats. The Kalasha emphasized bringing these resilience enhancement beliefs into practice, as a mean to buffer against challenges. In conclusion, this study revealed Kalasha's wellbeing and resilience enhancement factors, which they believed in and practiced as an element of their indigenous culture and religion.

  9. “We are the soul, pearl and beauty of Hindu Kush Mountains”: exploring resilience and psychological wellbeing of Kalasha, an ethnic and religious minority group in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Fahad Riaz; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah; Golden, Karen; Bokharey, Iram Zehra

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Kalasha are a marginalized ethnic and religious minority group in northern Pakistan. The Kalasha minority is known for their divergent polytheistic beliefs, and represents the outliers of the collectively monotheistic Muslim population of Pakistan. This study aimed to explore the psychological resilience beliefs and lived experiences of the Kalasha and to identify cultural protective factors and indigenous beliefs that help them maintain psychological wellbeing and resilience. Seven semi-structured interviews and two focus-group discussions were conducted. The total sample consisted of 6 women and 8 men, aged 20–58 years (M age = 36.29, SD = 12.58). The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis qualitative method was chosen. Study findings identified that factors contributing to the wellbeing, happiness and resilience enhancement beliefs of Kalasha included five main themes, all influenced by their unique spirituality: contentment, pride in social identity, tolerance, gender collaboration and gratitude. The study also revealed the Kalasha’s perception of their marginalization related to challenges and threats. The Kalasha emphasized bringing these resilience enhancement beliefs into practice, as a mean to buffer against challenges. In conclusion, this study revealed Kalasha’s wellbeing and resilience enhancement factors, which they believed in and practiced as an element of their indigenous culture and religion.

  10. Magnetic translation groups as group extension

    OpenAIRE

    Florek, Wojciech

    1998-01-01

    Extensions of a direct product T of two cyclic groups Z_n1 and Z_n2 by an Abelian (gauge) group G with the trivial action of T on G are considered. All possible (nonequivalent) factor systems are determined using the Mac Lane method. Some of resulting groups describe magnetic translation groups. As examples extensions with G=U(1) and G=Z_n are considered and discussed.

  11. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  12. Cleaners' experiences with group-based workplace physical training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Lasse; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how work-site health promotion intervention, by involving group-based physical coordination training, may increase participants’ social awareness of new ways to use the body. Purpose: We investigated cleaners’ experiences with a one-year health promotion intervention...... involving group-based physical coordination training (PCT) during working hours. Design: We conducted a qualitative evaluation using method triangulation; continuous unfocused participant observation during the whole intervention, semi-structured focus group interview, and individual written evaluations one...... for implementation seem to be important for sustained effects of health-promotion interventions in the workplace. Originality: The social character of the physical training facilitated a community of practice, which potentially supported the learning of new competencies, and how to improve the organization...

  13. Constraints to microbial food safety policy: opinions from stakeholder groups along the farm to fork continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, J M; Ramsingh, B; Wilkins, A; Travis, R G; Gavrus, D; Snelgrove, J W

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study was conducted to identify constraints to microbial food safety policy in Canada and the USA from the perspective of stakeholder groups along the farm to fork continuum. Thirty-seven stakeholders participated in interviews or a focus group where semi-structured questions were used to facilitate discussion about constraints to policy development and implementation. An emergent grounded theory approach was used to determine themes and concepts that arose from the data (versus fitting the data to a hypothesis or a priori classification). Despite the plurality of stakeholders and the range of content expertise, participant perceptions emerged into five common themes, although, there were often disagreements as to the positive or negative attributes of specific concepts. The five themes included challenges related to measurement and objectives of microbial food safety policy goals, challenges arising from lack of knowledge, or problems with communication of knowledge coupled with current practices, beliefs and traditions; the complexity of the food system and the plurality of stakeholders; the economics of producing safe food and the limited resources to address the problem; and, issues related to decision-making and policy, including ownership of the problem and inappropriate inputs to the decision-making process. Responsibilities for food safety and for food policy failure were attributed to all stakeholders along the farm to fork continuum. While challenges regarding the biology of food safety were identified as constraints, a broader range of policy inputs encompassing social, economic and political considerations were also highlighted as critical to the development and implementation of effective food safety policy. Strategies to address these other inputs may require new, transdisciplinary approaches as an adjunct to the traditional science-based risk assessment model.

  14. Interprofessional collaboration regarding patients' care plans in primary care: a focus group study into influential factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; Lenzen, Stephanie Anna; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia; Daniëls, Ramon; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna

    2016-05-28

    The number of people with multiple chronic conditions demanding primary care services is increasing. To deal with the complex health care demands of these people, professionals from different disciplines collaborate. This study aims to explore influential factors regarding interprofessional collaboration related to care plan development in primary care. A qualitative study, including four semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 4). In total, a heterogeneous group of experts (n = 16) and health care professionals (n = 15) participated. Participants discussed viewpoints, barriers, and facilitators regarding interprofessional collaboration related to care plan development. The data were analysed by means of inductive content analysis. The findings show a variety of factors influencing the interprofessional collaboration in developing a care plan. Factors can be divided into 5 key categories: (1) patient-related factors: active role, self-management, goals and wishes, membership of the team; (2) professional-related factors: individual competences, domain thinking, motivation; (3) interpersonal factors: language differences, knowing each other, trust and respect, and motivation; (4) organisational factors: structure, composition, time, shared vision, leadership and administrative support; and (5) external factors: education, culture, hierarchy, domain thinking, law and regulations, finance, technology and ICT. Improving interprofessional collaboration regarding care plan development calls for an integral approach including patient- and professional related factors, interpersonal, organisational, and external factors. Further, the leader of the team seems to play a key role in watching the patient perspective, organising and coordinating interprofessional collaborations, and guiding the team through developments. The results of this study can be used as input for developing tools and interventions targeted at executing and improving interprofessional

  15. Health seeking behavior and use of medicinal plants among the Hamer ethnic group, South Omo zone, southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Biniam; Fenta, Teferi Gedif; Bisrat, Daniel; Asres, Kaleab

    2016-10-06

    Health seeking behavior of people around the globe is affected by different socio-cultural and economic factors. In Ethiopia, people living in rural areas in particular, are noted for their use of medicinal plants as a major component of their health care option. This study was conducted to document ethnopharmacological information of the Hamer semi-pastoralists ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was carried out whereby information on demographic characteristics, prevalence of perceived illnesses, factors associated with preference of health care seeking options, medicinal plants used and hoarded as well as some healers' socio-economic characteristics were collected using two sets of semi-structured questionnaires - one for household (HH) heads and the other for traditional healers supplemented by focus group discussions (FGDs). Households were selected using a cluster sampling followed by systematic sampling techniques; whereas healers and FGD participants were purposively selected with the assistance of local leaders and elders from the community. The study revealed that the use of traditional medicine among the Hamer ethnic group is very high. Females preferred traditional medicine more than males. The main reasons for this preference include effectiveness, low cost and ease of availability. Malaria (gebeze) was the most frequently occurring illness in the area identified by all FGD participants. A total of 60 different medicinal plants were reported [34 by HH respondents, 14 by traditional healers and 12 by both]. Fifty-one medicinal plants were fully identified, 3 at generic level and 6 have not yet been identified. It can be concluded that traditional medical practices, particularly herbal aspect, is widely used by the Hamer ethnic group, although health seeking behavior of the community is affected by different socio-economic and cultural factors.

  16. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurk, Carla; Ford, Pauline; Sharma, Ratika; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Gartner, Coral

    2016-11-23

    Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  17. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Meurk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  18. mkt607 all week discussions latest 2015 [ all 16 discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

    mkt607 all week discussions latest 2015 [ all 16 discussions] Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/mkt607-all-week-discussions/   week 1   What are the components of a common marketing plan? Why is it important have a strategic marketing plan? How does the type of product or service affect the marketing strategy? Provide an example.       diss 2 What are the aspects of marketing management? How has the marketing management proc...

  19. 对用于活性炭表面含氧官能团分析的Boehm滴定法的几点讨论%Discussion on the Boehm titration method used in analysis of surface oxygen functional groups on activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛磊; 童仕唐; 王宇

    2011-01-01

    不同的研究者在采用Boehm滴定法测定活性炭表面含氧官能团的含量时在操作方法上存在差异.本文探讨了Boehm滴定法中CO2的去除,直接滴定与返滴定,振荡时间,溶液的浓度对滴定过程的影响,提出适宜的操作建议.%Boehm titration has been carried out in different ways by different researchers to analyze the surface oxygen functional groups.The methods of CO2 expulsion, direct titration and back titration, duration of shaking and concentration of titrant are discussed.The suitable operation suggestions are proposed.

  20. Science in Discussions: An Analysis of the Use of Science Content in Socioscientific Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a normative pragmatics analysis of students' use of science content in eight socioscientific group discussions about human gene therapy. The specific focus of the paper is on the argumentative role that invocations of science had in the dialectics of the discussions. The analysis suggests that science content occasionally…

  1. Analysis of influencing factors on the decisions of organ donation among young and adult donor families on the basis of semi-structured interview%基于半结构化访谈法分析未成年及成年器官捐献者家属决策影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢文照; 李翠英

    2016-01-01

    Objective To research the influence factors on the decisions of organ donation among young and adult donor families. Methods On the basis of semi-structured interview, 15 parents of young donors and 15 relatives of adult donors were interviewed for petition of organ donation.Data collection and analysis of the overall study were performed according to grounded theory methodology.Factors that influenced families′decisions were identified and classified.Results We found that the donor families had been affected by various factors throughout the process of deciding to donate.The findings led to the formulation of an empirically based model of interlinking categories that influence families′decision making process in organ donation.These factors were grouped into six main categories:personal factors, conditions of organ request, social factoes, interpersonal factors, ethical factors and traditional views.The funeral tradition influenced the young donor parents′consent to donation, but had less relation with family decision of adult donors.The number of young donor families who had the concept about maintaining the integrity of the bodies was relatively fewer than adult donor families.Conclusions Young donor families who were less influenced by traditional funeral beliefs were easier to consent to organ donation than adult donor families.The results of this study could help government to develop organ donation related policies and provide theoretical basis for organ donation.%目的分析公民逝世后未成年及成年器官捐献者家属决策影响因素。方法采用半结构化访谈法访谈15例未成年捐献者和15例成年捐献者直系亲属,使用扎根理论分析访谈记录,分析归纳器官捐献者家属决策影响因素。结果扎根理论分析访谈结果显示,主要有6大类因素影响器官捐献者家属捐献决定:个人因素、器官捐献条件(微环境因素)、社会环境、人际因

  2. Applyication of The Method of Semi -structured Interview In Theoretical Framework of Dialectical Normalization of Traditional Chinese Medicine%运用半结构式访谈法构建中医辨证规范理论框架的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘悦; 张哲; 张会永; 杜莹; 李爽; 齐文诚; 杨关林

    2011-01-01

    Objective:to build the oretical framework of dialectical normalization of TCM. Method: to adopt semi -structured interview to collect qualitative data, and data were analyzed by grounded theory. Results: the oretical framework of dialectical normalization of TCM was structured initially ,and it contains assortment,concept,content and research method of dialectical normalization. Conclusion :application of Semi -structured Interview on the oretical framework of dialectical normalization of TCM will provide a theoretical basis and practical architecture for clinical practice.%目的:构建中医辨证规范的理论框架.方法:采用半结构式访谈法收集定性资料,运用扎根理论分析.结果:本研究构建出的中医辨证规范理论框架由辨证规范的分类、辨证规范的概念、辨证规范的内容以及辨证规范的研究方法四部分组成.结论:应用半结构式访谈法构建中医辨证规范的理论框架,可为中医规范辩证提供理论基础和实践架构.

  3. Application and evaluation of a combination of socratice and learning through discussion techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ van Aswegen

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This article has its genesis in the inquirer’s interest in the need for internalizing critical thinking, creative thinking and reflective skills in adult learners. As part of a broader study the inquirer used a combination of two techniques over a period of nine months, namely: Socratic discussion/questioning and Learning Through Discussion Technique. The inquirer within this inquiry elected mainly qualitative methods, because they were seen as more adaptable to dealing with multiple realities and more sensitive and adaptable to the many shaping influences and value patterns that may be encountered (Lincoln & Guba, 1989. Purposive sampling was used and sample size (n =10 was determined by the willingness of potential participants to enlist in the chosen techniques. Feedback from participants was obtained: (1 verbally after each discussion session, and (2 in written format after completion of the course content. The final/ summative evaluation was obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire. This was deemed necessary, in that the participants were already studying for the end of the year examination. For the purpose of this condensed report the inquirer reflected only on the feedback obtained with the help of the questionnaire. The empirical study showed that in spite of various adaptation problems experienced, eight (8 of the ten (10 participants felt positive toward the applied techniques.

  4. Application and evaluation of a combination of socratice and learning through discussion techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aswegen, E J; Brink, H I; Steyn, P J

    2001-11-01

    This article has its genesis in the inquirer's interest in the need for internalizing critical thinking, creative thinking and reflective skills in adult learners. As part of a broader study the inquirer used a combination of two techniques over a period of nine months, namely: Socratic discussion/questioning and Learning Through Discussion Technique. The inquirer within this inquiry elected mainly qualitative methods, because they were seen as more adaptable to dealing with multiple realities and more sensitive and adaptable to the many shaping influences and value patterns that may be encountered (Lincoln & Guba, 1989). Purposive sampling was used and sample size (n = 10) was determined by the willingness of potential participants to enlist in the chosen techniques. Feedback from participants was obtained: (1) verbally after each discussion session, and (2) in written format after completion of the course content. The final/summative evaluation was obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire. This was deemed necessary, in that the participants were already studying for the end of the year examination. For the purpose of this condensed report the inquirer reflected only on the feedback obtained with the help of the questionnaire. The empirical study showed that in spite of various adaptation problems experienced, eight (8) of the ten (10) participants felt positive toward the applied techniques.

  5. Maps of student discussions about sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Mats; Bruun, Jesper; Linder, Cedric

    We use a combination of network analysis (NA), text-mining (TM) techniques, and thematic discourse analysis (TDA) to characterise and compare student discussions about sustainable development. Three student groups at three different times were analysed. The analysis entails an iterative design...

  6. Rethinking critical criminology - A panel discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Swaaningen (René); I. Taylor (Ian)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper takes the form of a report on the panel discussion held at the conclusion of the 1992 meetings of the European Group for the Study of Deviance and Social Control in Padua in September 1992. In the light of a perceived crisis of relevance for earlier, 1970s notions of critique

  7. Maps of student discussions about sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Mats; Bruun, Jesper; Linder, Cedric

    We use a combination of network analysis (NA), text-mining (TM) techniques, and thematic discourse analysis (TDA) to characterise and compare student discussions about sustainable development. Three student groups at three different times were analysed. The analysis entails an iterative design...

  8. Profinite graphs and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Ribes, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest...

  9. Factors influencing GPs’ choice between drugs in a therapeutic drug group. A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buusman, Allan; Andersen, Morten; Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To explore how GPs choose between drugs in a therapeutic drug group. Design. A qualitative study based on semi-structured ethnographic interviews. Setting and subjects. General practitioners from the counties of both Funen and West Zealand in Denmark. A total of 15 general practitioners...... as it was a recurring theme during all interviews. External factors outside the GP's control such as governmental regulation on prescribing and the pharmaceutical industry influenced most GPs. Internal factors related to the actual consultation included characteristics of the GP and the patient, drug characteristics...

  10. Psychiatric hospital nursing staff's experiences of participating in group-based clinical supervision:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Angel, Sanne; Traynor, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Group-based clinical supervision is commonly offered as a stress-reducing intervention in psychiatric settings, but nurses often feel ambivalent about participating. This study aimed at exploring psychiatric nurses' experiences of participating in groupbased supervision and identifying psychosocial...... reasons for their ambivalence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 psychiatric nurses at a Danish university hospital. The results indicated that participation in clinical supervision was difficult for the nurses because of an uncomfortable exposure to the professional community. The sense...... of exposure was caused by the particular interactional organisation during the sessions, which brought to light pre-existing but covert conflicts among the nurses....

  11. Interagency Advanced Power Group -- Steering group meeting minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-18

    This document contains the draft meeting minutes of the Steering Group of the Interagency Advanced Power Group. Included are the discussions resulting from the presentation of working group reports and the results of a discussion of IAPG policies and procedures. In the appendix are the reports of the following working groups: Electrical, Mechanical, Solar, and Systems.

  12. Socrates, discussion and moral education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Ron B.

    1995-01-01

    For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.

  13. Discussion of "interpretation and play".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Irma Brenman

    2011-01-01

    This discussion addresses the conflict in technique between play versus interpretation. It further considers how the nature of the interpretation may be affected by a consideration of what is being projected into the analyst.

  14. Barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity: The experiences of a group of South African adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchar, Lauren; Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie; Derman, Wayne

    2016-02-01

    Participation in regular physical activity promotes physical health and psychosocial well-being. Interventions are thus needed to promote physical activity, particularly among groups of individuals, such as persons with disability, who are marginalised from physical activity. This study explored the experiences of a group of South African adolescents with cerebral palsy. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 adolescents with cerebral palsy. The results provided insight into a range of factors that promote and hinder participation in physical activity among adolescents with cerebral palsy in resource-scarce environments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Discussing End-of-Life Decisions in a Clinical Ethics Committee: An Interview Study of Norwegian Doctors' Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahus, Marianne K; Førde, Reidun

    2016-09-01

    With disagreement, doubts, or ambiguous grounds in end-of-life decisions, doctors are advised to involve a clinical ethics committee (CEC). However, little has been published on doctors' experiences with discussing an end-of-life decision in a CEC. As part of the quality assurance of this work, we wanted to find out if clinicians have benefited from discussing end-of-life decisions in CECs and why. We will disseminate some Norwegian doctors' experiences when discussing end-of-life decisions in CECs, based on semi-structured interviews with fifteen Norwegian physicians who had brought an end-of-life decision case to a CEC. Almost half of the cases involved conflicts with the patients' relatives. In a majority of the cases, there was uncertainty about what would be the ethically preferable solution. Reasons for referring the case to the CEC were to get broader illumination of the case, to get perspective from people outside the team, to get advice, or to get moral backing on a decision already made. A great majority of the clinicians reported an overall positive experience with the CECs' discussions. In cases where there was conflict, the clinicians reported less satisfaction with the CECs' discussions. The study shows that most doctors who have used a CEC in an end-of-life decision find it useful to have ethical and/or legal aspects illuminated, and to have the dilemma scrutinized from a new perspective. A systematic discussion seems to be significant to the clinicians.

  16. Singular Renormalization Group Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Minoru, HIRAYAMA; Department of Physics, Toyama University

    1984-01-01

    The possible behaviour of the effective charge is discussed in Oehme and Zimmermann's scheme of the renormalization group equation. The effective charge in an example considered oscillates so violently in the ultraviolet limit that the bare charge becomes indefinable.

  17. Skilled Toy Train Discussions about Business Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Beuthel, Marie Rosa

    2013-01-01

    innovation session, we investigate how participants get to new concepts through analysing their skilled behaviours, movements, actions and negotiations. We observe that the final result of the workshop is indeed innovative and is co-constructed by all group members. We show why the toy train works: While......In this paper we show how industrialists in an innovation workshop employ tangible material – a toy train set – to innovate their business model. In multidisciplinary teams the process of co-creating new understandings is crucial for work to progress. Based on video data form this participatory...... encouraging group discussion of the ‘customer journey’, it keeps both hands and mind busy, it allows silent participation, and it expands the vocabulary of the discussion....

  18. The Current Discussion on Men and Masculinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past gender specific problems were mainly discussed in a female perspective. In the meantime there is a rising attentiveness in the living conditions of men and their coping strategies within critical life events. In this paper an appropriate frame of reference is outlined which can be used in those areas of social work where men are already discovered as a target group with special difficulties and needs.

  19. An Intergenerational Women's Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Janet

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Intergenerational Women's Group, formed to provide social support and an interchange of ideas between women of different generations. Provides a model for such a program that may be offered in geriatric medical clinics. Discusses the impact of intergenerational support for both the old and the young. (Author/BHK)

  20. Interaction in online interprofessional education case discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterston, Rosemary

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated online interaction within a curriculum unit at the University of Toronto, Canada that included an interprofessional case study discussion in a mixed-mode (face-to-face and online) format. Nine of the 81 teams that completed the four-day curriculum were selected for detailed review based on the attitudes students expressed on a survey about the value of collaborating online for enhancing their appreciation of other health care professions. Five of the teams selected were 'positive' and four were 'negative'. The responses to other survey items by members of these teams were then compared, as well as their message posting patterns and the content of their online discussions. Differences between the two sets were situated within a theoretical framework drawn from the contact theory, social interdependence theory, and the Community of Inquiry model. Institutional support in the form of facilitator involvement, individual predispositions to online and group learning, the group composition, the learning materials, task and assignment, and technical factors all affected the levels of participation online. Discourse and organizational techniques were identified that related to interactivity within the online discussions. These findings can help curriculum planners design interprofessional case studies that encourage the interactivity required for successful online discussions.